Science.gov

Sample records for regular continental-scale coverage

  1. Regular Deployment of Wireless Sensors to Achieve Connectivity and Information Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Wei; Li, Yong; Jiang, Yi; Yin, Xipeng

    2016-01-01

    Coverage and connectivity are two of the most critical research subjects in WSNs, while regular deterministic deployment is an important deployment strategy and results in some pattern-based lattice WSNs. Some studies of optimal regular deployment for generic values of rc/rs were shown recently. However, most of these deployments are subject to a disk sensing model, and cannot take advantage of data fusion. Meanwhile some other studies adapt detection techniques and data fusion to sensing coverage to enhance the deployment scheme. In this paper, we provide some results on optimal regular deployment patterns to achieve information coverage and connectivity as a variety of rc/rs, which are all based on data fusion by sensor collaboration, and propose a novel data fusion strategy for deployment patterns. At first the relation between variety of rc/rs and density of sensors needed to achieve information coverage and connectivity is derived in closed form for regular pattern-based lattice WSNs. Then a dual triangular pattern deployment based on our novel data fusion strategy is proposed, which can utilize collaborative data fusion more efficiently. The strip-based deployment is also extended to a new pattern to achieve information coverage and connectivity, and its characteristics are deduced in closed form. Some discussions and simulations are given to show the efficiency of all deployment patterns, including previous patterns and the proposed patterns, to help developers make more impactful WSN deployment decisions. PMID:27529246

  2. GEWEX Continental-scale International Project (GCIP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Try, Paul

    1993-01-01

    The Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) represents the World Climate Research Program activities on clouds, radiation, and land-surface processes. The goal of the program is to reproduce and predict, by means of suitable models, the variations of the global hydrological regime and its impact on atmospheric and oceanic dynamics. However, GEWEX is also concerned with variations in regional hydrological processes and water resources and their response to changes in the environment such as increasing greenhouse gases. In fact, GEWEX contains a major new international project called the GEWEX Continental-scale International Project (GCIP), which is designed to bridge the gap between the small scales represented by hydrological models and those scales that are practical for predicting the regional impacts of climate change. The development and use of coupled mesoscale-hydrological models for this purpose is a high priority in GCIP. The objectives of GCIP are presented.

  3. Tectonics of China: Continental scale cataclastic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, John J., Jr.

    Stratigraphic, structural, and earthquake evidence indicates that cataclastic flow, that is, flow by brittle mechanisms (e.g., fracture and slip), was dominant in China from late Paleozoic. This process has operated over a range of scales including the continental scale. China is made up of large brittle basement elements immersed in ductile zones which are analogous to porphyroclasts (large, often brittle fragments) surrounded by fluxion (foliation or flow) structures in cataclastic rocks, respectively. This basement fabric for China is seen on Landsat imagery and on tectonic maps and is comparable to cataclastic rock fabrics seen in fault zones, on outcrops, and in thin sections. Brittle basement elements are broken into two or more large rigid blocks, and the dimensions of elements and blocks are within 1 order of magnitude of each other. Ductile zones are made up of fragments which are many orders of magnitude smaller than the ductile zones. Rigid blocks and fragments are identified, and their dimensions are measured through earthquake, fault, and fracture patterns. Rigid basement blocks are surrounded by earthquakes. The sedimentary rocks over the basement faults at the block boundaries seem to be affected by fault movements because they are characterized by facies changes, thickness changes, high-angle faults, and forced folds. Ductile basement zones are earthquake prone, and deformation of the ductile basement affects the overlying sedimentary rocks, as is demonstrated by unconformities and by a wide variety of structures. Thrust faults, buckle folds, and strike slip faults are common in and adjacent to western ductile zones. Structures are most intensely developed where ductile zones abut brittle elements. Both brittle elements and ductile zones are rifted and cut by strike slip faults in eastern China. The mechanical fabric of China and the boundary conditions acting on China are now and always have been determined by its plate tectonic history. This

  4. Mission Design for Continental-Scale Carbon Cycle Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gervin, J. C.; Esper, J.; McClain, C. R.; Hall, F. G.; Middleton, E. M.; Gregg, W. W.; Mannino, A.; Knox, R. G.; Dabney, P. W.; Huemmrich, K. F.; Wood, H. J.; Roberto, M.

    2003-12-01

    constituents. A hyperspectral instrument design capable of observing in the ultraviolet, in addition to the visible and near infrared spectrum, is essential to investigate the variability, dynamics and biogeochemical cycles of the world's coastal and open ocean regions. For both terrestrial and ocean carbon cycle science objectives, a hyperspectral geostationary sensor should enable the development of new remote sensing measurements for important but as yet unobservable variables, and with the overall goal of linking both terrestrial and ocean carbon cycle processes to climate variability. The GSFC Carbon Team has been pursuing a geosynchronous hyperspectral instrument, which would revolutionize our knowledge of biological processes on land, in the ocean, and along the coast by providing multiple, diurnal coverage. Preliminary studies in Goddard's Instrument Synthesis and Analysis Laboratory indicate that we can meet many of our science requirements: full spectral coverage (360-1000 nm); narrow bandwidths (5-10 nm); adequate ground resolution (100-200 m); and continental-scale coverage 4-6 times per day; all the while achieving a signal to noise ratio of between 500 and 1000 to 1. An innovative and bold focal plane design and a large mirror (1.8 meter diameter) will be required.

  5. Comprehensive lake dynamics mapping at continental scales using Landsat 8

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inland lakes, important water resources, play a crucial role in the global water cycle and are sensitive to global warming and human activities. There clearly is a pressing need to understand temporal and spatial variations of lakes at global and continental scales. The recent operation of Landsat...

  6. Uncertainty in Analyzed Water and Energy Budgets at Continental Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Robertson, F. R.; Mocko, D.; Chen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Operational analyses and retrospective-analyses provide all the physical terms of mater and energy budgets, guided by the assimilation of atmospheric observations. However, there is significant reliance on the numerical models, and so, uncertainty in the budget terms is always present. Here, we use a recently developed data set consisting of a mix of 10 analyses (both operational and retrospective) to quantify the uncertainty of analyzed water and energy budget terms for GEWEX continental-scale regions, following the evaluation of Dr. John Roads using individual reanalyses data sets.

  7. NEON Data Products: Enabling Continental-Scale Ecological Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berukoff, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a NSF-funded major research and facilities initiative under development, designed to address how climate change, land use change, and invasive species affect ecological science on a continental scale. The standardization of measurement methodologies, engineering practice, and data organization across NEON's sixty sites fosters the creation of ecological data products. These data products are community-approved and Observatory-vetted, and cover the breadth of NEON collection activities, including measurements of physical variables such as air, water, and soil temperature and chemistry, observations and analyses of species and habitats, and airborne spectral and LiDAR remote sensing. Together, these low-level (fundamental measurement and observation data)and high-level (integrative, continental-scale assessments) will be useful for scientists, students, educators, policymakers, and the general public. Here, we discuss the development status of NEON's data product suites, describing how they are constructed and vetted, and provide an example of how one current effort will provide several foundational data products. Further, we discuss and solicit feedback for how stakeholder communities can contribute to their veracity and validation.

  8. Mammalian phylogenetic diversity-area relationships at a continental scale.

    PubMed

    Mazel, Florent; Renaud, Julien; Guilhaumon, François; Mouillot, David; Gravel, Dominique; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2015-10-01

    In analogy to the species-area relationship (SAR), one of the few laws in ecology, the phylogenetic diversity-area relationship (PDAR) describes the tendency of phylogenetic diversity (PD) to increase with area. Although investigating PDAR has the potential to unravel the underlying processes shaping assemblages across spatial scales and to predict PD loss through habitat reduction, it has been little investigated so far. Focusing on PD has noticeable advantages compared to species richness (SR), since PD also gives insights on processes such as speciation/extinction, assembly rules and ecosystem functioning. Here we investigate the universality and pervasiveness of the PDAR at continental scale using terrestrial mammals as study case. We define the relative robustness of PD (compared to SR) to habitat loss as the area between the standardized PDAR and standardized SAR (i.e., standardized by the diversity of the largest spatial window) divided by the area under the standardized SAR only. This metric quantifies the relative increase of PD robustness compared to SR robustness. We show that PD robustness is higher than SR robustness but that it varies among continents. We further use a null model approach to disentangle the relative effect of phylogenetic tree shape and nonrandom spatial distribution of evolutionary history on the PDAR. We find that, for most spatial scales and for all continents except Eurasia, PDARs are not different from expected by a model using only the observed SAR and the shape of the phylogenetic tree at continental scale. Interestingly, we detect a strong phylogenetic structure of the Eurasian PDAR that can be predicted by a model that specifically account for a finer biogeographical delineation of this continent. In conclusion, the relative robustness of PD to habitat loss compared to species richness is determined by the phylogenetic tree shape but also depends on the spatial structure of PD.

  9. Mammalian phylogenetic diversity-area relationships at a continental scale

    PubMed Central

    Mazel, Florent; Renaud, Julien; Guilhaumon, François; Mouillot, David; Gravel, Dominique; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    In analogy to the species-area relationship (SAR), one of the few laws in Ecology, the phylogenetic diversity-area relationship (PDAR) describes the tendency of phylogenetic diversity (PD) to increase with area. Although investigating PDAR has the potential to unravel the underlying processes shaping assemblages across spatial scales and to predict PD loss through habitat reduction, it has been little investigated so far. Focusing on PD has noticeable advantages compared to species richness (SR) since PD also gives insights on processes such as speciation/extinction, assembly rules and ecosystem functioning. Here we investigate the universality and pervasiveness of the PDAR at continental scale using terrestrial mammals as study case. We define the relative robustness of PD (compared to SR) to habitat loss as the area between the standardized PDAR and standardized SAR (i.e. standardized by the diversity of the largest spatial window) divided by the area under the standardized SAR only. This metric quantifies the relative increase of PD robustness compared to SR robustness. We show that PD robustness is higher than SR robustness but that it varies among continents. We further use a null model approach to disentangle the relative effect of phylogenetic tree shape and non random spatial distribution of evolutionary history on the PDAR. We find that for most spatial scales and for all continents except Eurasia, PDARs are not different from expected by a model using only the observed SAR and the shape of the phylogenetic tree at continental scale. Interestingly, we detect a strong phylogenetic structure of the Eurasian PDAR that can be predicted by a model that specifically account for a finer biogeographical delineation of this continent. In conclusion, the relative robustness of PD to habitat loss compared to species richness is determined by the phylogenetic tree shape but also depends on the spatial structure of PD. PMID:26649401

  10. Modelling overbank flood recharge at a continental scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doble, R.; Crosbie, R.; Peeters, L.; Joehnk, K.; Ticehurst, C.

    2014-04-01

    Accounting for groundwater recharge from overbank flooding is required to reduce uncertainty and error in river-loss terms and groundwater sustainable-yield calculations. However, continental- and global-scale models of surface water-groundwater interactions rarely include an explicit process to account for overbank flood recharge (OFR). This paper upscales previously derived analytical equations to a continental scale using national soil atlas data and satellite imagery of flood inundation, resulting in recharge maps for seven hydrologically distinct Australian catchments. Recharge for three of the catchments was validated against independent recharge estimates from bore hydrograph responses and one catchment was additionally validated against point-scale recharge modelling and catchment-scale change in groundwater storage. Flood recharge was predicted for four of the seven catchments modelled, but there was also unexplained recharge present from the satellite's flood inundation mapping data. At a catchment scale, recharge from overbank flooding was somewhat under-predicted using the analytical equations, but there was good confidence in the spatial patterns of flood recharge produced. Due to the scale of the input data, there were no significant relationships found when compared at a point scale. Satellite-derived flood inundation data and uncertainty in soil maps were the key limitations to the accuracy of the modelled recharge. Use of this method to model OFR was found to be appropriate at a catchment to continental scale, given appropriate data sources. The proportion of OFR was found to be at least 4% of total change in groundwater storage in one of the catchments for the period modelled, and at least 15% of the riparian recharge. Accounting for OFR is an important, but often overlooked, requirement for closing water balances in both the surface water and groundwater domains.

  11. Towards a seamless model of Quaternary sediments for continental-scale hydrogeology in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, M.; Schumacher, M. N.; Chen, J.; Sudicky, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    One of the challenges in modelling groundwater flow systems at the continental-scale is to integrate the geology, i.e. the physical properties of the media, into the grid of a numerical model. In Canada, the development of such a model has been hampered by both the scarcity of data in some remote areas where thick stratigraphic sequences occur (e.g. Hudson Bay Lowlands) and the fact that large subsurface datasets, such as sediment thickness maps, have yet to be compiled in file formats and at scales that would allow seamless coverage across provincial boundaries. Furthermore, thickness maps, where available, are generally not subdivided according to a stratigraphic framework. Here we present a preliminary digital map of Quaternary sediment types and their estimated thickness for Canada and parts of the United States designed specifically for continental-scale groundwater flow modelling. This preliminary map currently consists of a triangulated surface whose internal topological boundaries match sediment unit contacts from pre-existing map compilations of surficial materials at the provincial/state and national scales. Thickness data, mainly derived from available thickness maps, and estimated hydraulic conductivities are stored as values (min, average, max) on the nodes of the surface rather than as a range or a description in a text field or legend. This is a significant improvement from previous map compilations which greatly facilitates interoperability with numerical models. When completed, the map will consist of three surfaces: 1) a surface layer; 2) a subsurface layer representing the characteristics of the dominant subsurface unit; and, 3) locally, a deeper layer to account for important buried valley aquifers. To date, only the surface layer (0-5 m thickness) has been integrated in the numerical model but it has already led to improved depth to water table in drift covered areas over previous model runs which did not take into account the Quaternary

  12. Evaluation of two pollutant dispersion models over continental scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, D.; Walker, H.; Klepikova, N.; Kostrikov, A.; Zhuk, Y.

    Two long-range, emergency response models—one based on the particle-in-cell method of pollutant representation (ADPIC/U.S.) the other based on the superposition of Gaussian puffs released periodically in time (EXPRESS/Russia)—are evaluated using perfluorocarbon tracer data from the Across North America Tracer Experiment (ANATEX). The purpose of the study is to assess our current capabilities for simulating continental-scale dispersion processes and to use these assessments as a means to improve our modeling tools. The criteria for judging model performance are based on protocols devised by the Environmental Protection Agency and on other complementary tests. Most of these measures require the formation and analysis of surface concentration footprints (the surface manifestations of tracer clouds, which are sampled over 24-h intervals), whose dimensions, center-of-mass coordinates and integral characteristics provide a basis for comparing observed and calculated concentration distributions. Generally speaking, the plumes associated with the 20 releases of perfluorocarbon (10 each from sources at Glasgow, MT and St. Cloud, MN) in January 1987, are poorly resolved by the sampling network when the source-to-receptor distances are less than about 1000 km. Within this undersampled region, both models chronically overpredict the sampler concentrations. Given this tendency, the computed areas of the surface footprints and their integral concentrations are likewise excessive. When the actual plumes spread out sufficiently for reasonable resolution, the observed ( O) and calculated ( C) footprint areas are usually within a factor of two of one another, thereby suggesting that the models possess some skill in the prediction of long-range diffusion. Deviations in the O and C plume trajectories, as measured by the distances of separation between the plume centroids, are on the other of 125 km d -1 for both models. It appears that the inability of the models to simulate large

  13. A GEO Hyperspectral Mission For Continental-Scale Carbon Cycle Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gervin, Janette C.; Esper, Jaime; McClain, Charles R.; Hall, Forrest G.; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Gregg, Watson W.; Mannino, Antonio; Knox, Robert G.; Dabney, Philip W.; Huemmrich, K. Fred

    2004-01-01

    For both terrestrial and ocean carbon cycle science objectives, a hyperspectral geostationary sensor should enable the development of new remote sensing measurements for important but as yet unobservable variables, and with the overall goal of linking both terrestrial and ocean carbon cycle processes to climate variability. For terrestrial research, accurate estimates of carbon, water and energy (CWE) exchange between the terrestrial biosphere and atmosphere are needed to identify the geographical locations of carbon sources/sinks and to improve regional climate models and global climate change assessments. It is an enormous challenge to estimate CWE exchange from the infrequent temporal coverage provided by most polar-orbiting satellites, and without benefit of spectral indices that capture vegetation responses to stress conditions that down-regulate photosynthesis. Physiological status can be better assessed with spectral indices based on continuous, narrow (5 nm) bands, as can seasonal and annual terrestrial productivity. For coastal and ocean constituents, narrow-band observations in the ultraviolet and visible are essential to investigate the variability, dynamics and biogeochemical cycles of the world s coastal and open ocean regions, which will in turn help in measuring ocean productivity and predicting the variability of Ocean carbon uptake and its role in climate change scenarios. The GSFC Carbon Team has been pursuing a geostationary hyperspectral instrument, which would revolutionize our knowledge of biological processes on land, in the ocean, and along the coast by providing multiple, diurnal coverage. Preliminary studies in Goddard's Instrument Synthesis and Analysis Laboratory (ISAL) indicate that we can meet many of our science requirements: full spectral coverage (360-1000 nm); narrow bandwidths (5-10 nm); adequate ground resolution (100-200 m); and continental-scale coverage 4-6 times per day; all the while achieving a signal to noise ratio of

  14. Overcoming complexities for consistent, continental-scale flood mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Helen; Zaidman, Maxine; Davison, Charlotte

    2013-04-01

    The EU Floods Directive requires all member states to produce flood hazard maps by 2013. Although flood mapping practices are well developed in Europe, there are huge variations in the scale and resolution of the maps between individual countries. Since extreme flood events are rarely confined to a single country, this is problematic, particularly for the re/insurance industry whose exposures often extend beyond country boundaries. Here, we discuss the challenges of large-scale hydrological and hydraulic modelling, using our experience of developing a 12-country model and set of maps, to illustrate how consistent, high-resolution river flood maps across Europe can be produced. The main challenges addressed include: data acquisition; manipulating the vast quantities of high-resolution data; and computational resources. Our starting point was to develop robust flood-frequency models that are suitable for estimating peak flows for a range of design flood return periods. We used the index flood approach, based on a statistical analysis of historic river flow data pooled on the basis of catchment characteristics. Historical flow data were therefore sourced for each country and collated into a large pan-European database. After a lengthy validation these data were collated into 21 separate analysis zones or regions, grouping smaller river basins according to their physical and climatic characteristics. The very large continental scale basins were each modelled separately on account of their size (e.g. Danube, Elbe, Drava and Rhine). Our methodology allows the design flood hydrograph to be predicted at any point on the river network for a range of return periods. Using JFlow+, JBA's proprietary 2D hydraulic hydrodynamic model, the calculated out-of-bank flows for all watercourses with an upstream drainage area exceeding 50km2 were routed across two different Digital Terrain Models in order to map the extent and depth of floodplain inundation. This generated modelling for

  15. Laying the groundwork for NEON's continental-scale ecological research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dethloff, G.; Denslow, M.

    2013-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is designed to examine a suite of ecological issues. Field-collected data from 96 terrestrial and aquatic sites across the U.S. will be combined with remotely sensed data and existing continental-scale data sets. Field collections will include a range of physical and biological types, including soil, sediment, surface water, groundwater, precipitation, plants, animals, insects, and microbes as well as biological sub-samples such as leaf material, blood and tissue samples, and DNA extracts. Initial data analyses and identifications of approximately 175,000 samples per year will occur at numerous external laboratories when all sites are fully staffed in 2017. Additionally, NEON will archive biotic and abiotic specimens at collections facilities where they will be curated and available for additional analyses by the scientific community. The number of archived specimens is currently estimated to exceed 130,000 per year by 2017. We will detail how NEON is addressing the complexities and challenges around this set of analyses and specimens and how the resulting high-quality data can impact ecological understanding. The raw data returned from external laboratories that is quality checked and served by NEON will be the foundation for many NEON data products. For example, sequence-quality nucleic acids extracted from surface waters, benthic biofilms, and soil samples will be building blocks for data products on microbial diversity. The raw sequence data will also be available for uses such as evolutionary investigations, and the extracts will be archived so others can acquire them for additional research. Currently, NEON is establishing contracts for the analysis and archiving of field-collected samples through 2017. During this period, NEON will gather information on the progress and success of this large-scale effort in order to determine the most effective course to pursue with external facilities. Two areas that NEON

  16. Using R for Global Optimization of a Fully-distributed Hydrologic Model at Continental Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zambrano-Bigiarini, M.; Zajac, Z.; Salamon, P.

    2013-12-01

    Nowadays hydrologic model simulations are widely used to better understand hydrologic processes and to predict extreme events such as floods and droughts. In particular, the spatially distributed LISFLOOD model is currently used for flood forecasting at Pan-European scale, within the European Flood Awareness System (EFAS). Several model parameters can not be directly measured, and they need to be estimated through calibration, in order to constrain simulated discharges to their observed counterparts. In this work we describe how the free software 'R' has been used as a single environment to pre-process hydro-meteorological data, to carry out global optimization, and to post-process calibration results in Europe. Historical daily discharge records were pre-processed for 4062 stream gauges, with different amount and distribution of data in each one of them. The hydroTSM, raster and sp R packages were used to select ca. 700 stations with an adequate spatio-temporal coverage. Selected stations span a wide range of hydro-climatic characteristics, from arid and ET-dominated watersheds in the Iberian Peninsula to snow-dominated watersheds in Scandinavia. Nine parameters were selected to be calibrated based on previous expert knowledge. Customized R scripts were used to extract observed time series for each catchment and to prepare the input files required to fully set up the calibration thereof. The hydroPSO package was then used to carry out a single-objective global optimization on each selected catchment, by using the Standard Particle Swarm 2011 (SPSO-2011) algorithm. Among the many goodness-of-fit measures available in the hydroGOF package, the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency was used to drive the optimization. User-defined functions were developed for reading model outputs and passing them to the calibration engine. The long computational time required to finish the calibration at continental scale was partially alleviated by using 4 multi-core machines (with both GNU

  17. A Continental Scale Assessment of SMOS Derived Soil Moisture over the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, A. K.; Pan, M.; Wood, E. F.; Al Bitar, A.; Leroux, D.; Kerr, Y. H.

    2011-12-01

    AMSR-E retrievals from a more mature algorithm LSMEM (AMSR-E/LSMEM). Over the 154 SCAN stations, the SCAN and AMSR-E/LSMEM retrievals performed in an equivalent manner, and better than the SMOS retrievals. At the same time, large uncertainties remain in this performance evaluation due to the short length (1 year) of available SMOS data, which controlled the overall period of the analysis. The findings suggest that it is very important for SMOS to continue its validation at different scales and locations, and to use the results to improve the calibration of the SMOS retrieval algorithm. The proposed method and the analysis results provide new insights into the SMOS SM retrieval at continental scale. Reference: Crow, W. T., and Zhan, X. (2007), "Continental-scale evaluation of remotely-sensed soil moisture products," IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 4(3), 451-455.

  18. Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) and the Continental-scale International Project (GCIP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, Deborah

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of the objectives of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) and the Continental-scale International Project (GCIP) is presented in vugraph form. The objectives of GEWEX are as follows: determine the hydrological cycle by global measurements; model the global hydrological cycle; improve observations and data assimilation; and predict response to environmental change. The objectives of GCIP are as follows: determine the time/space variability of the hydrological cycle over a continental-scale region; develop macro-scale hydrologic models that are coupled to atmospheric models; develop information retrieval schemes; and support regional climate change impact assessment.

  19. Trace Gas/Aerosol Boundary Concentrations and their Impacts on Continental-scale AQMEII Modelling Domains

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over twenty modeling groups are participating in the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) in which a variety of mesoscale photochemical and aerosol air quality modeling systems are being applied to continental-scale domains in North America and Europe fo...

  20. Monitoring Drought at Continental Scales Using Thermal Remote Sensing of Evapotranspiration (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, M. C.; Hain, C.; Mecikalski, J. R.; Kustas, W. P.

    2009-12-01

    assessing standard meteorologically-based drought indicators, and may be more robust in regions with limited monitoring networks. In this study, monthly maps of ESI anomalies for 2000-2008 are compared to standard drought indices and to drought classifications in the U.S. Drought Monitor. The ESI shows better skill in ranking drought severity than do precipitation-based indices composited over comparable time intervals. The thermal remote sensing inputs to ALEXI detect drought conditions even under the dense forest cover along the East Coast of the United States, where microwave soil moisture retrievals typically lose sensitivity. On the other hand, microwave observations are not constrained by cloud cover and provide better temporal continuity, but typically at significantly lower spatial resolution. A merged TIR-microwave moisture anomaly product may have potential for optimizing both spatial and temporal coverage in continental-scale drought monitoring.

  1. Natural and Man-Made Chemicals in North American Soils--Continental-Scale Pilot Study Completed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Geological Survey of Canada recently completed a continental-scale pilot study for a proposed geochemical survey of North American soils. This survey will provide baseline soil chemistry data against which future changes in soil composition can be measured and that can be used by Federal, State/Provincial, and local agencies when making risk-assessment and land-use decisions.

  2. Integrating regional and continental scale comparisons of tree composition in Amazonian terra firme forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honorio Coronado, E. N.; Baker, T. R.; Phillips, O. L.; Pitman, N. C. A.; Pennington, R. T.; Vásquez Martínez, R.; Monteagudo, A.; Mogollón, H.; Dávila Cardozo, N.; Ríos, M.; García-Villacorta, R.; Valderrama, E.; Ahuite, M.; Huamantupa, I.; Neill, D. A.; Laurance, W. F.; Nascimento, H. E. M.; Soares de Almeida, S.; Killeen, T. J.; Arroyo, L.; Núñez, P.; Freitas Alvarado, L.

    2009-01-01

    We contrast regional and continental-scale comparisons of the floristic composition of terra firme forest in South Amazonia, using 55 plots across Amazonia and a subset of 30 plots from northern Peru and Ecuador. Firstly, we examine the floristic patterns using both genus- or species-level data and find that the species-level analysis more clearly distinguishes different plot clusters. Secondly, we compare the patterns and causes of floristic differences at regional and continental scales. At a continental scale, ordination analysis shows that species of Lecythidaceae and Sapotaceae are gradually replaced by species of Arecaceae and Myristicaceae from eastern to western Amazonia. These floristic gradients are correlated with gradients in soil fertility and to dry season length, similar to previous studies. At a regional scale, similar patterns are found within north-western Amazonia, where differences in soil fertility distinguish plots where species of Lecythidaceae, characteristic of poor soils, are gradually replaced by species of Myristicaceae on richer soils. The main coordinate of this regional-scale ordination correlates mainly with concentrations of available calcium and magnesium. Thirdly, we ask at a regional scale within north-western Amazonia, whether soil fertility or other distance dependent processes are more important for determining variation in floristic composition. A Mantel test indicates that both soils and geographical distance have a similar and significant role in determining floristic similarity across this region. Overall, these results suggest that regional-scale variation in floristic composition can rival continental scale differences within Amazonian terra firme forests, and that variation in floristic composition at both scales is dependent on a range of processes that include both habitat specialisation related to edaphic conditions and other distance-dependent processes. To fully account for regional scale variation in continental

  3. Continental-scale distributions of dust-associated bacteria and fungi.

    PubMed

    Barberán, Albert; Ladau, Joshua; Leff, Jonathan W; Pollard, Katherine S; Menninger, Holly L; Dunn, Robert R; Fierer, Noah

    2015-05-05

    It has been known for centuries that microorganisms are ubiquitous in the atmosphere, where they are capable of long-distance dispersal. Likewise, it is well-established that these airborne bacteria and fungi can have myriad effects on human health, as well as the health of plants and livestock. However, we have a limited understanding of how these airborne communities vary across different geographic regions or the factors that structure the geographic patterns of near-surface microbes across large spatial scales. We collected dust samples from the external surfaces of ∼1,200 households located across the United States to understand the continental-scale distributions of bacteria and fungi in the near-surface atmosphere. The microbial communities were highly variable in composition across the United States, but the geographic patterns could be explained by climatic and soil variables, with coastal regions of the United States sharing similar airborne microbial communities. Although people living in more urbanized areas were not found to be exposed to distinct outdoor air microbial communities compared with those living in more rural areas, our results do suggest that urbanization leads to homogenization of the airborne microbiota, with more urban communities exhibiting less continental-scale geographic variability than more rural areas. These results provide our first insight into the continental-scale distributions of airborne microbes, which is information that could be used to identify likely associations between microbial exposures in outdoor air and incidences of disease in crops, livestock, and humans.

  4. Modelling the continental-scale spread of Schmallenberg virus in Europe: Approaches and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Gubbins, Simon; Richardson, Jane; Baylis, Matthew; Wilson, Anthony J.; Abrahantes, José Cortiñas

    2014-01-01

    Summary Following its emergence in northern Europe in 2011 Schmallenberg virus (SBV), a vector-borne disease transmitted by the bites of Culicoides midges, has spread across much of the continent. Here we develop simple models to describe the spread of SBV at a continental scale and, more specifically, within and between NUTS2 regions in Europe. The model for the transmission of SBV between regions suggests that vector dispersal is the principle mechanism for transmission, even at the continental scale. The within-region model indicates that there is substantial heterogeneity amongst regions in the force of infection for cattle and sheep farms. Moreover, there is considerable under-ascertainment of SBV-affected holdings, though the level of under-ascertainment varies between regions. We contrast the relatively simple approach adopted in this study with the more complex continental-scale micro-simulation models which have been developed for pandemic influenza and discuss the strengths, weaknesses and data requirements of both approaches. PMID:24630403

  5. Continental-scale distributions of dust-associated bacteria and fungi

    PubMed Central

    Barberán, Albert; Ladau, Joshua; Pollard, Katherine S.; Menninger, Holly L.; Dunn, Robert R.; Fierer, Noah

    2015-01-01

    It has been known for centuries that microorganisms are ubiquitous in the atmosphere, where they are capable of long-distance dispersal. Likewise, it is well-established that these airborne bacteria and fungi can have myriad effects on human health, as well as the health of plants and livestock. However, we have a limited understanding of how these airborne communities vary across different geographic regions or the factors that structure the geographic patterns of near-surface microbes across large spatial scales. We collected dust samples from the external surfaces of ∼1,200 households located across the United States to understand the continental-scale distributions of bacteria and fungi in the near-surface atmosphere. The microbial communities were highly variable in composition across the United States, but the geographic patterns could be explained by climatic and soil variables, with coastal regions of the United States sharing similar airborne microbial communities. Although people living in more urbanized areas were not found to be exposed to distinct outdoor air microbial communities compared with those living in more rural areas, our results do suggest that urbanization leads to homogenization of the airborne microbiota, with more urban communities exhibiting less continental-scale geographic variability than more rural areas. These results provide our first insight into the continental-scale distributions of airborne microbes, which is information that could be used to identify likely associations between microbial exposures in outdoor air and incidences of disease in crops, livestock, and humans. PMID:25902536

  6. GEMAS: a new view of the lead isotopic soil landscape at the European continental scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimann, Clemens; Négrel, Philippe; Flem, Belinda; Fabian, Karl; Birke, Manfred; Ladenberger, Anna; Hoogewerff, Jurian

    2014-05-01

    Soil formation through weathering of bedrock and sediments is an extremely slow process, and soils must be considered an essential and non-renewable resource. Knowledge and extrapolation of threats to soils, e.g., changes in element concentrations and the reasons thereof are of primary importance for society as recently diffuse contamination has been identified as one of the major threats to soil quality. In this frame the addition of isotope tracing at the continental scale is an important supplementary constraint on the origin and behaviour of elements in soils. Lead has been mined and utilized by humans for several thousand years. The accumulated world production is estimated to be over 300 Mt. Detailed studies on environmental samples (e.g., peat bogs, ice cores, sediment cores) suggest a major Pb contamination of the northern hemisphere since ancient times. In spite of its importance the continental scale distribution of lead and lead isotopes combined has never been documented for any geochemical sample material. As the result of a combined effort of the European Geological Surveys, backed by the European metals industry, we present the first continental investigation of Pb concentration and Pb isotope ratios (206Pb,207Pb, 208Pb) landscape using agricultural soil samples (Ap-horizon, 0-20 cm) collected at an average density of 1 site/2500 km2 (2211 samples in total). Thus we here provide the first geochemical reference maps of Pb concentrations combined with Pb isotope ratios at the European scale against which the impact of contamination can be realistically judged. The maps localize the major concentration anomalies of Pb in soils and help to identify the processes that generate the observed distribution patterns. The European continental-scale patterns of Pb concentrations and Pb isotopes show a high variability dominated by geology and influenced by climate. Positive Pb concentration anomalies mark most of the known mineralized areas throughout Europe

  7. Comparing Geodetic Data Quality from PBO and non-PBO GPS Stations at Decadal and Continental Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puskas, C. M.; Herring, T.; Melbourne, T. I.; Murray, M. H.; Phillips, D. A.; Meertens, C. M.; Blewitt, G.; Walls, C. P.

    2014-12-01

    The UNAVCO GAGE GPS data Analysis Centers (ACs) and Analysis Center Coordinator (ACC) currently process more than 1800 GPS stations. Approximately 1100 of these stations are from the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) network, with 700+ non-PBO stations from COCONet, SCIGN, NGS CORS, and other regional networks. The 700+ stations provide improved coverage across North America plus additional reference frame constraints. The extra stations were incorporated into the standard daily processing stream during a massive reprocessing effort from 2012-2014. The combined, continental-scale data set of all GPS positions spans an 18-year time period from 1996-2014 and not only represents a significant opportunity to explore mm-scale geophysical phenomena, but also allows the examination and comparison of data quality parameters between stations and networks. The overall data quality of PBO and non-PBO stations is investigated using a variety of quality parameters. Signal-to-noise and multipath histories derived from TEQC preprocessing are used to assess instrument health. Quality parameters from daily processing are used for station health determination. Position time series are used for noise analysis to characterize site stability based on white and colored noise. Further anomalies can be identified by direct inspection of a station's time series, network velocity field, and strain rate. Non-geophysical factors such as monument instability, equipment failure, and incorrect metadata can also affect data quality. Non-PBO stations were built with a variety of monument designs, equipment, and installation practices, and do not generally have consistently recorded operational and maintenance histories in a central database, because stations were installed by various organizations. Our quality analysis will identify any significant differences between PBO and non-PBO stations, and the resulting overview will help inform time series analysis for geophysical investigations.

  8. Golden Eagle fatalities and the continental-scale consequences of local wind-energy generation.

    PubMed

    Katzner, Todd E; Nelson, David M; Braham, Melissa A; Doyle, Jacqueline M; Fernandez, Nadia B; Duerr, Adam E; Bloom, Peter H; Fitzpatrick, Matthew C; Miller, Tricia A; Culver, Renee C E; Braswell, Loan; DeWoody, J Andrew

    2017-04-01

    Renewable energy production is expanding rapidly despite mostly unknown environmental effects on wildlife and habitats. We used genetic and stable isotope data collected from Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) killed at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (APWRA) in California in demographic models to test hypotheses about the geographic extent and demographic consequences of fatalities caused by renewable energy facilities. Geospatial analyses of δ(2) H values obtained from feathers showed that ≥25% of these APWRA-killed eagles were recent immigrants to the population, most from long distances away (>100 km). Data from nuclear genes indicated this subset of immigrant eagles was genetically similar to birds identified as locals from the δ(2) H data. Demographic models implied that in the face of this mortality, the apparent stability of the local Golden Eagle population was maintained by continental-scale immigration. These analyses demonstrate that ecosystem management decisions concerning the effects of local-scale renewable energy can have continental-scale consequences.

  9. Golden Eagle fatalities and the continental-scale consequences of local wind-energy generation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katzner, Todd E.; Nelson, David M.; Braham, Melissa; Doyle, Jacqueline M.; Fernandez, Nadia B.; Duerr, Adam E.; Bloom, Peter H.; Fitzpatrick, Matthew C.; Miller, Tricia A.; Culver, Renee C. E.; Braswell, Loan; DeWoody, J. Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Renewable energy production is expanding rapidly despite mostly unknown environmental effects on wildlife and habitats. We used genetic and stable isotope data collected from Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) killed at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (APWRA) in California in demographic models to test hypotheses about the geographic extent and demographic consequences of fatalities caused by renewable energy facilities. Geospatial analyses of δ2H values obtained from feathers showed that ≥25% of these APWRA-killed eagles were recent immigrants to the population, most from long distances away (>100 km). Data from nuclear genes indicated this subset of immigrant eagles was genetically similar to birds identified as locals from the δ2H data. Demographic models implied that in the face of this mortality, the apparent stability of the local Golden Eagle population was maintained by continental-scale immigration. These analyses demonstrate that ecosystem management decisions concerning the effects of local-scale renewable energy can have continental-scale consequences.

  10. Continental-Scale Stable Isotope Measurements at NEON to Address Ecological Processes Across Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, H.; Goodman, K. J.; Hinckley, E. S.; West, J. B.; Williams, D. G.; Bowen, G. J.

    2013-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a national-scale research platform. The overarching goal of NEON is to enable understanding and forecasting of the impacts of climate change, land use change, and invasive species on aspects of continental-scale ecology (such as biodiversity, biogeochemistry, infectious diseases, ecohydrology, etc.). NEON focuses explicitly on questions that relate to grand challenges in environmental science, are relevant to large regions, and would otherwise be very difficult to address with traditional ecological approaches. The use of stable isotope approaches in ecological research has grown steadily during the last two decades. Stable isotopes at natural abundances in the environment trace and integrate the interaction between abiotic and biotic components across temporal and spatial scales. In this poster, we will present the NEON data products that incorporate stable isotope measurements in atmospheric, terrestrial, and aquatic ecosystems in North America. We further outline current questions in the natural sciences community and how these data products can be used to address continental-scale ecological questions, such as the ecological impacts of climate change, terrestrial-aquatic system linkages, land-atmosphere exchange, landscape ecohydrological processes, and linking biogeochemical cycles across systems. Specifically, we focus on the use of stable isotopes to evaluate water availability and residence times in terrestrial systems, as well as nutrient sources to terrestrial systems, and cycling across ecosystem boundaries.

  11. Preparing for the ingestion of SWOT data into continental-scale river models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Cédric; Andreadis, Konstantinos; Beighley, Edward; Famiglietti, James; Boone, Aaron; Yamazaki, Dai; Kim, Hyungjun; Gaborit, Etienne

    2016-04-01

    The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission is currently scheduled to launch at the end of this decade. SWOT should retrieve unprecedented measurements of water extent, elevation, and slope in the largest terrestrial water bodies. Such potential transformative information motivates the investigation of our ability to ingest the associated data into continental-scale models of terrestrial hydrology. In preparation for the expected SWOT observations, an inter-comparison of continental-scale river models is being designed. This comparison experiment focuses on four of the world's largest river basins: the Amazon, the Mississippi, the Niger, and the Saint-Lawrence. This ongoing project focuses on two main research questions: 1) How can we best prepare for the expected SWOT continental to global measurements before SWOT even flies?, and 2) What is the added value of including SWOT terrestrial measurements into global hydro models for enhancing our understanding of the terrestrial water cycle and the climate system? We present here the preliminary architecture of the inter-comparison in hope to motivate community feedback and involvement.

  12. Developing partnerships for implementing continental-scale citizen science programs at the local-level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, S. J.; Henderson, S.; Ward, D.

    2012-12-01

    Project BudBurst is a citizen science project focused on monitoring plant phenology that resides at the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON, Inc). A central question for Project BudBurst and other national outreach programs is: what are the most effective means of engaging and connecting with diverse communities throughout the country? How can continental scale programs like NEON's Project BudBurst engage audiences in such a way as to be relevant at both the local and continental scales? Staff with Project BudBurst pursued partnerships with several continental scale organizations: the National Wildlife Refuge System, the National Park Service, and botanic gardens to address these questions. The distributed nature of wildlife refuges, national parks, and botanic gardens around the country provided the opportunity to connect with participants locally while working with leadership at multiple scales. Project BudBurst staff talked with hundreds of staff and volunteers prior to setting a goal of obtaining and developing resources for several Refuge Partners, a pilot National Park partner, and an existing botanic garden partner during 2011. We were especially interested in learning best practices for future partnerships. The partnership efforts resulted in resource development for 12 Refuge partners, a pilot National Park partner, and 2 botanic garden partners. Early on, the importance of working with national level leaders to develop ownership of the partner program and input about resource needs became apparent. Once a framework for the partnership program was laid out, it became critical to work closely with staff and volunteers on the ground to ensure needs were met. In 2012 we began to develop an online assessment to allow our current and potential partners to provide feedback about whether or not the partnership program was meeting their needs and how the program could be improved. As the year progressed, the timeline for resource development became more

  13. Ecosystem services - from assessements of estimations to quantitative, validated, high-resolution, continental-scale mapping via airborne LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlinszky, András; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2016-04-01

    service potential" which is the ability of the local ecosystem to deliver various functions (water retention, carbon storage etc.), but can't quantify how much of these are actually used by humans or what the estimated monetary value is. Due to its ability to measure both terrain relief and vegetation structure in high resolution, airborne LIDAR supports direct quantification of the properties of an ecosystem that lead to it delivering a given service (such as biomass, water retention, micro-climate regulation or habitat diversity). In addition, its high resolution allows direct calibration with field measurements: routine harvesting-based ecological measurements, local biodiversity indicator surveys or microclimate recordings all take place at the human scale and can be directly linked to the local value of LIDAR-based indicators at meter resolution. Therefore, if some field measurements with standard ecological methods are performed on site, the accuracy of LIDAR-based ecosystem service indicators can be rigorously validated. With this conceptual and technical approach high resolution ecosystem service assessments can be made with well established credibility. These would consolidate the concept of ecosystem services and support both scientific research and evidence-based environmental policy at local and - as data coverage is continually increasing - continental scale.

  14. Continental-scale effects of nutrient pollution on stream ecosystem functioning.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Guy; Gessner, Mark O; Giller, Paul S; Gulis, Vladislav; Hladyz, Sally; Lecerf, Antoine; Malmqvist, Björn; McKie, Brendan G; Tiegs, Scott D; Cariss, Helen; Dobson, Mike; Elosegi, Arturo; Ferreira, Verónica; Graça, Manuel A S; Fleituch, Tadeusz; Lacoursière, Jean O; Nistorescu, Marius; Pozo, Jesús; Risnoveanu, Geta; Schindler, Markus; Vadineanu, Angheluta; Vought, Lena B-M; Chauvet, Eric

    2012-06-15

    Excessive nutrient loading is a major threat to aquatic ecosystems worldwide that leads to profound changes in aquatic biodiversity and biogeochemical processes. Systematic quantitative assessment of functional ecosystem measures for river networks is, however, lacking, especially at continental scales. Here, we narrow this gap by means of a pan-European field experiment on a fundamental ecosystem process--leaf-litter breakdown--in 100 streams across a greater than 1000-fold nutrient gradient. Dramatically slowed breakdown at both extremes of the gradient indicated strong nutrient limitation in unaffected systems, potential for strong stimulation in moderately altered systems, and inhibition in highly polluted streams. This large-scale response pattern emphasizes the need to complement established structural approaches (such as water chemistry, hydrogeomorphology, and biological diversity metrics) with functional measures (such as litter-breakdown rate, whole-system metabolism, and nutrient spiraling) for assessing ecosystem health.

  15. Integrating Phenological, Trait and Environmental Data For Continental Scale Analysis: A Community Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weltzin, J. F.; Walls, R.; Guralnick, R. P.; Rosemartin, A.; Deck, J.; Powers, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    There is a wealth of biodiversity and environmental data that can provide the basis for addressing global scale questions of societal concern. However, our ability to discover, access and integrate these data for use in broader analyses is hampered by the lack of standardized languages and systems. New tools (e.g. ontologies, data standards, integration tools, unique identifiers) are being developed that enable establishment of a framework for linked and open data. Relative to other domains, these tools are nascent in biodiversity and environmental sciences and will require effort to develop, though work can capitalize on lessons learned from previous efforts. Here we discuss needed next steps to provide consistently described and formatted ecological data for immediate application in ecological analysis, focusing on integrating phenology, trait and environmental data to understand local to continental-scale biophysical processes and inform natural resource management practices. As more sources of data become available at finer spatial and temporal resolution, e.g., from national standardized earth observing systems (e.g., NEON, LTER and LTAR Networks, USA NPN), these challenges will become more acute. Here we provide an overview of the standards and ontology development landscape specifically related to phenological and trait data, and identify requirements to overcome current challenges. Second, we outline a workflow for formatting and integrating existing datasets to address key scientific and resource management questions such as: "What traits determine differential phenological responses to changing environmental conditions?" or "What is the role of granularity of observation, and of spatiotemporal scale, in controlling phenological responses to different driving variables?" Third, we discuss methods to semantically annotate datasets to greatly decrease time needed to assemble heterogeneous data for use in ecological analyses on varying spatial scales. We

  16. Macroecology of Australian Tall Eucalypt Forests: Baseline Data from a Continental-Scale Permanent Plot Network.

    PubMed

    Wood, Sam W; Prior, Lynda D; Stephens, Helen C; Bowman, David M J S

    2015-01-01

    Tracking the response of forest ecosystems to climate change demands large (≥1 ha) monitoring plots that are repeatedly measured over long time frames and arranged across macro-ecological gradients. Continental scale networks of permanent forest plots have identified links between climate and carbon fluxes by monitoring trends in tree growth, mortality and recruitment. The relationship between tree growth and climate in Australia has been recently articulated through analysis of data from smaller forest plots, but conclusions were limited by (a) absence of data on recruitment and mortality, (b) exclusion of non-eucalypt species, and (c) lack of knowledge of stand age or disturbance histories. To remedy these gaps we established the Ausplots Forest Monitoring Network: a continental scale network of 48 1 ha permanent plots in highly productive tall eucalypt forests in the mature growth stage. These plots are distributed across cool temperate, Mediterranean, subtropical and tropical climates (mean annual precipitation 850 to 1900 mm per year; mean annual temperature 6 to 21°C). Aboveground carbon stocks (AGC) in these forests are dominated by eucalypts (90% of AGC) whilst non-eucalypts in the understorey dominated species diversity and tree abundance (84% of species; 60% of stems). Aboveground carbon stocks were negatively related to mean annual temperature, with forests at the warm end of the temperature range storing approximately half the amount of carbon as forests at the cool end of the temperature range. This may reflect thermal constraints on tree growth detected through other plot networks and physiological studies. Through common protocols and careful sampling design, the Ausplots Forest Monitoring Network will facilitate the integration of tall eucalypt forests into established global forest monitoring initiatives. In the context of projections of rapidly warming and drying climates in Australia, this plot network will enable detection of links between

  17. Macroecology of Australian Tall Eucalypt Forests: Baseline Data from a Continental-Scale Permanent Plot Network

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Sam W.; Prior, Lynda D.; Stephens, Helen C.; Bowman, David M. J. S.

    2015-01-01

    Tracking the response of forest ecosystems to climate change demands large (≥1 ha) monitoring plots that are repeatedly measured over long time frames and arranged across macro-ecological gradients. Continental scale networks of permanent forest plots have identified links between climate and carbon fluxes by monitoring trends in tree growth, mortality and recruitment. The relationship between tree growth and climate in Australia has been recently articulated through analysis of data from smaller forest plots, but conclusions were limited by (a) absence of data on recruitment and mortality, (b) exclusion of non-eucalypt species, and (c) lack of knowledge of stand age or disturbance histories. To remedy these gaps we established the Ausplots Forest Monitoring Network: a continental scale network of 48 1 ha permanent plots in highly productive tall eucalypt forests in the mature growth stage. These plots are distributed across cool temperate, Mediterranean, subtropical and tropical climates (mean annual precipitation 850 to 1900 mm per year; mean annual temperature 6 to 21°C). Aboveground carbon stocks (AGC) in these forests are dominated by eucalypts (90% of AGC) whilst non-eucalypts in the understorey dominated species diversity and tree abundance (84% of species; 60% of stems). Aboveground carbon stocks were negatively related to mean annual temperature, with forests at the warm end of the temperature range storing approximately half the amount of carbon as forests at the cool end of the temperature range. This may reflect thermal constraints on tree growth detected through other plot networks and physiological studies. Through common protocols and careful sampling design, the Ausplots Forest Monitoring Network will facilitate the integration of tall eucalypt forests into established global forest monitoring initiatives. In the context of projections of rapidly warming and drying climates in Australia, this plot network will enable detection of links between

  18. A continental scale trophic cascade from wolves through coyotes to foxes.

    PubMed

    Newsome, Thomas M; Ripple, William J

    2015-01-01

    Top-down processes, via the direct and indirect effects of interspecific competitive killing (no consumption of the kill) or intraguild predation (consumption of the kill), can potentially influence the spatial distribution of terrestrial predators, but few studies have demonstrated the phenomenon at a continental scale. For example, in North America, grey wolves Canis lupus are known to kill coyotes Canis latrans, and coyotes, in turn, may kill foxes Vulpes spp., but the spatial effects of these competitive interactions at large scales are unknown. Here, we analyse fur return data across eight jurisdictions in North America to test whether the presence or absence of wolves has caused a continent-wide shift in coyote and red fox Vulpes vulpes density. Our results support the existence of a continental scale cascade whereby coyotes outnumber red foxes in areas where wolves have been extirpated by humans, whereas red foxes outnumber coyotes in areas where wolves are present. However, for a distance of up to 200 km on the edge of wolf distribution, there is a transition zone where the effects of top-down control are weakened, possibly due to the rapid dispersal and reinvasion capabilities of coyotes into areas where wolves are sporadically distributed or at low densities. Our results have implications for understanding how the restoration of wolf populations across North America could potentially affect co-occurring predators and prey. We conclude that large carnivores may need to occupy large continuous areas to facilitate among-carnivore cascades and that studies of small areas may not be indicative of the effects of top-down mesopredator control.

  19. The Role of Continental-scale Landmass in Monsoonal and Global Precipitation Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Winston C.

    2008-01-01

    It was argued by Chao and Chen (20011) that land-sea thermal contrast on the continental scale is not a necessary condition for monsoons and that a monsoon is an ITCZ that have moved into the subtropics in its annual cycle of latitudinal movement. Chao and Chen supported their contention by GCM experiments in which they replaced landmass by ocean and were able to generate monsoons. However, land-sea thermal contrast does exist and must play a role in monsoonal rainfall distribution. Land-sea thermal contrast is one facet of continental-scale landmass. in this article the roles of land-sea thermal contrast in monsoonal rainfall distribution and in middle latitude storm tracks are examined through GCM experiments. Comparison of a set of two GCM experiments in which the sea surface temperature (SST) from observations is prescribed from observations with and without a six-month delay reveals the role of land-sea thermal contrast. These experiments confirm that land-sea thermal contrast is not a necessary condition for monsoons and that a monsoon should be viewed as an ITCZ displaced into the subtropics, instead of a continent-sized giant sea breeze. However, land-sea thermal contrast does have influence on the distribution of monsoonal rainfall. The temperature rise over south Asia as the season moves into summer helps the Asian monsoon to start early. However, this role is not the same as that of the land-sea thermal contrast as in the conventional explanation for the cause of monsoon. The heated Landmass in summer contributes to the displacement of 1TCZ into the subtropics Also, the heated landmass in summer, by drawing moisture toward itself, limits the range of the summer storm tracks in the middle latitude oceans. On the other band, in winter the landmass does not present a competition for rainfall and thus allow middle latitude storm tracks to expand over the ocean.

  20. Project BudBurst: Continental-scale citizen science for all seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, S.; Newman, S. J.; Ward, D.; Havens-Young, K.; Alaback, P.; Meymaris, K.

    2011-12-01

    Project BudBurst's (budburst.org) recent move to the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) has benefitted both programs. NEON has been able to use Project BudBurst as a testbed to learn best practices, network with experts in the field, and prototype potential tools for engaging people in continental-scale ecology as NEON develops its citizen science program. Participation in Project BudBurst has grown significantly since the move to NEON. Project BudBurst is a national citizen science initiative designed to engage the public in observations of phenological (plant life cycle) events that raise awareness of climate change, and create a cadre of informed citizen scientists. Citizen science programs such as Project BudBurst provide the opportunity for students and interested laypersons to actively participate in scientific research. Such programs are important not only from an educational perspective, but because they also enable scientists to broaden the geographic and temporal scale of their observations. The goals of Project BudBurst are to 1) increase awareness of phenology as an area of scientific study; 2) Increase awareness of the impacts of changing climates on plants at a continental-scale; and 3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. From its 2008 launch in February, this on-line educational and data-entry program, engaged participants of all ages and walks of life in recording the timing of the leafing and flowering of wild and cultivated species found across the continent. Thus far, thousands of participants from all 50 states have submitted data. This presentation will provide an overview of Project BudBurst and will report on the results of the 2010 field campaign and discuss plans to expand Project BudBurst in 2012 including the use of mobile phones applications for data collection and reporting from the field. Project BudBurst is co-managed by the National Ecological Observatory Network and the Chicago

  1. Testing a growth efficiency hypothesis with continental-scale phenological variations of common and cloned plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Liang; Schwartz, Mark D.

    2014-10-01

    Variation in the timing of plant phenology caused by phenotypic plasticity is a sensitive measure of how organisms respond to weather and climate variability. Although continental-scale gradients in climate and consequential patterns in plant phenology are well recognized, the contribution of underlying genotypic difference to the geography of phenology is less well understood. We hypothesize that different temperate plant genotypes require varying amount of heat energy for resuming annual growth and reproduction as a result of adaptation and other ecological and evolutionary processes along climatic gradients. In particular, at least for some species, the growing degree days (GDD) needed to trigger the same spring phenology events (e.g., budburst and flower bloom) may be less for individuals originated from colder climates than those from warmer climates. This variable intrinsic heat energy requirement in plants can be characterized by the term growth efficiency and is quantitatively reflected in the timing of phenophases—earlier timing indicates higher efficiency (i.e., less heat energy needed to trigger phenophase transitions) and vice versa compared to a standard reference (i.e., either a uniform climate or a uniform genotype). In this study, we tested our hypothesis by comparing variations of budburst and bloom timing of two widely documented plants from the USA National Phenology Network (i.e., red maple- Acer rubrum and forsythia- Forsythia spp.) with cloned indicator plants (lilac- Syringa x chinensis `Red Rothomagensis') at multiple eastern US sites. Our results indicate that across the accumulated temperature gradient, the two non-clonal plants showed significantly more gradual changes than the cloned plants, manifested by earlier phenology in colder climates and later phenology in warmer climates relative to the baseline clone phenological response. This finding provides initial evidence supporting the growth efficiency hypothesis, and suggests more

  2. Striving for consistency in a national assessment: The challengest of applying a reference-condition approach at a continental scale

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the biggest challenges when conducting a continental-scale assessment of streams is setting appropriate expectations for the assessed sites. The challenge occurs for 2 reasons: 1) tremendous natural environmental heterogeneity exists within a continental landscape and 2) r...

  3. Warming and Chilling: Assessing Aspects of Changing Plant Ecology with Continental-scale Phenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, M. D.; Hanes, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    Many recent ecological studies have concentrated on the direct impacts of climate warming, such as modifications to seasonal plant and animal life cycle events (phenology). There are many examples, with most indicating earlier onset of spring plant growth and delayed onset of autumn senescence. However, the implication of continued warming for plant species’ chilling requirements has received comparatively less attention. Temperate zone woody plants often require a certain level of cool season "chilling" (accumulated time at temperatures below a specific threshold) to break dormancy and prepare to respond to springtime warming. Thus, the potential impacts of insufficient chilling must be included in a comprehensive assessment of plant species' responses to climate warming. Vegetation phenological data, when collected for specific plant species at continental-scale, can be used to extract information relating to the combined impacts of reduced chilling and warming on plant species physiology. In a recent study, we demonstrated that common lilac first leaf and first bloom phenology (collected from multiple locations in the western United States and matched with air temperature records) can estimate the species' chilling requirement (in this case 1748 chilling hours, below a base temperature of 7.2°C) and highlight the changing impact of warming on the plant's phenological response in light of that requirement. Specifically, when chilling is above the requirement, lilac first leaf dates advance at a rate of -5.0 days per 100 hour chilling accumulation reduction, and lilac first bloom dates advance at a rate of -4.2 days per 100 hour chilling accumulation reduction. In contrast, when chilling is below the requirement, the lilac event dates advance at a much reduced rate of -1.6 days per 100 hour reduction for first leaf date and -2.2 days per 100 hour reduction for first bloom date. Overall, these encouraging results for common lilac suggest that similar continental-scale

  4. Lake nutrient stoichiometry is less predictable than nutrient concentrations at regional and sub-continental scales.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sarah M; Oliver, Samantha K; Lapierre, Jean Francois; Stanley, Emily H; Jones, John R; Wagner, Tyler; Soranno, Patricia A

    2017-03-31

    Production in many ecosystems is co-limited by multiple elements. While a known suite of drivers associated with nutrient sources, nutrient transport, and internal processing controls concentrations of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) in lakes, much less is known about whether the drivers of single nutrient concentrations can also explain spatial or temporal variation in lake N:P stoichiometry. Predicting stoichiometry might be more complex than predicting concentrations of individual elements because some drivers have similar relationships with N and P, leading to a weak relationship with their ratio. Further, the dominant controls on elemental concentrations likely vary across regions, resulting in context dependent relationships between drivers, lake nutrients and their ratios. Here, we examine whether known drivers of N and P concentrations can explain variation in N:P stoichiometry, and whether explaining variation in stoichiometry differs across regions. We examined drivers of N:P in ~2,700 lakes at a sub-continental scale and two large regions nested within the sub-continental study area that have contrasting ecological context, including differences in the dominant type of land cover (agriculture vs. forest). At the sub-continental scale, lake nutrient concentrations were correlated with nutrient loading and lake internal processing, but stoichiometry was only weakly correlated to drivers of lake nutrients. At the regional scale, drivers that explained variation in nutrients and stoichiometry differed between regions. In the Midwestern US region, dominated by agricultural land use, lake depth and the percentage of row crop agriculture were strong predictors of stoichiometry because only phosphorus was related to lake depth and only nitrogen was related to the percentage of row crop agriculture. In contrast, all drivers were related to N and P in similar ways in the Northeastern US region, leading to weak relationships between drivers and stoichiometry. Our

  5. Can Continental Scale Basins Be Used For Detecting Trends and Intensification of The Global Water Cycle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, J.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Maurer, E.; Rao, S.; Wood, E. F.; Zhu, C.; Ziegler, A.

    Evaluation of trends in the global water cycle and determining whether the global water cycle is intensifying are central to prediction and assessment of the effects of anthropogenic climate change. To address these questions, the water cycle compo- nents to be evaluated must first be identified, along with the time scale of evaluation. For instance, over the land areas of the globe, the water cycle components of interest are precipitation, evapotranspiration, runoff, and storage change - in soil moisture and groundwater, snowpack and glaciers, and surface water storage in lakes, reservoirs, and wetlands. Because storage changes balance, at least approximately, over long in- tegration times, the importance of the storage change terms depends strongly on the time scale of evaluation. Two important sources of variability must be considered in determining the detectability of change: natural variability, and measurement error. We attempt a preliminary determination of the magnitude of these sources of vari- ability for the dominant terms in the surface water balance over the land areas of the globe, at the continental scale. In so doing, we utilize long-term data sets for several large watersheds in the U.S., and some of the GEWEX Continental Scale Experiment CSE) basins globally. The basis of our estimates are long-term simulations of the sur- face water balance, over the continental U.S. at 1/8 degree resolution for a 50-year period, and globally for a shorter 14-year period and a much coarser 2 degree spatial resolution. We take as a basis for evaluation changes (i.e., trends) in water cycle com- ponents predicted by the NCAR/DOE Parallel Climate Model Version 3 (PCM) run B6.20 IPCC transient experiments. Generally, the results show that multiple decades to perhaps as long as a century of detailed observations will be necessary to detect changes of the magnitude predicted by PCM at the scale of continental watersheds. Based on these results, implications for in

  6. The Role of Continental-scale Landmass in Monsoons-A GCM Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Winston

    2008-01-01

    It was argued by Chao and Chen (2001) that land-sea thermal contrast on the continental scale is not a necessary condition for monsoons and that a monsoon is an ITCZ that have moved into the subtropics in its annual cycle of latitudinal movement. Chao and Chen supported their contention by GCM experiments in which they replaced landmass by ocean and were able to generate monsoons. However, land-sea thermal contrast does exist and must play a role in monsoonal rainfall distribution. Land-sea thermal contrast is one facet of continental-scale landmass. The other important characteristic of landmass is its topography. In this article the roles of landmass in monsoonal rainfall distribution and in middle latitude storm tracks are examined through GCM experiments. Comparison of a set of two GCM experiments in which the sea surface temperature (SST) from observations is prescribed from observations with and without a six-month delay reveals the role of Land-sea thermal contrast. Another set of experiments, which repeats the first set but with topography of all landmass reduced to zero, reveals the role of topography of landmass. These experiments confirm that land-sea thermal contrast is not a necessary condition for monsoons and that a monsoon should be viewed as an ITCZ displaced into the subtropics, instead of a continent-sized giant sea breeze. However, land-sea thermal contrast does have influence on the distribution of monsoonal rainfall. The temperature rise over south Asia as the season moves into summer helps the Asian monsoon to start early. However, this role is not the same as that of the land-sea thermal contrast as in the conventional explanation for the cause of monsoon. The heated landmass in summer contributes to the displacement of ITCZ into the subtropics. Also, the heated landmass in summer, by drawing moisture toward itself, limits the range of the summer storm tracks in the middle latitude oceans. On the ether hand, in winter the landmass does not

  7. Tools for Virtual Collaboration Designed for High Resolution Hydrologic Research with Continental-Scale Data Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, Christopher; Leonard, Lorne; Shi, Yuning; Bhatt, Gopal; Hanson, Paul; Gil, Yolanda; Yu, Xuan

    2015-04-01

    Using a series of recent examples and papers we explore some progress and potential for virtual (cyber-) collaboration inspired by access to high resolution, harmonized public-sector data at continental scales [1]. The first example describes 7 meso-scale catchments in Pennsylvania, USA where the watershed is forced by climate reanalysis and IPCC future climate scenarios (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). We show how existing public-sector data and community models are currently able to resolve fine-scale eco-hydrologic processes regarding wetland response to climate change [2]. The results reveal that regional climate change is only part of the story, with large variations in flood and drought response associated with differences in terrain, physiography, landuse and/or hydrogeology. The importance of community-driven virtual testbeds are demonstrated in the context of Critical Zone Observatories, where earth scientists from around the world are organizing hydro-geophysical data and model results to explore new processes that couple hydrologic models with land-atmosphere interaction, biogeochemical weathering, carbon-nitrogen cycle, landscape evolution and ecosystem services [3][4]. Critical Zone cyber-research demonstrates how data-driven model development requires a flexible computational structure where process modules are relatively easy to incorporate and where new data structures can be implemented [5]. From the perspective of "Big-Data" the paper points out that extrapolating results from virtual observatories to catchments at continental scales, will require centralized or cloud-based cyberinfrastructure as a necessary condition for effectively sharing petabytes of data and model results [6]. Finally we outline how innovative cyber-science is supporting earth-science learning, sharing and exploration through the use of on-line tools where hydrologists and limnologists are sharing data and models for simulating the coupled impacts of catchment

  8. Continental-scale quantification of landscape values using social media data.

    PubMed

    van Zanten, Boris T; Van Berkel, Derek B; Meentemeyer, Ross K; Smith, Jordan W; Tieskens, Koen F; Verburg, Peter H

    2016-11-15

    Individuals, communities, and societies ascribe a diverse array of values to landscapes. These values are shaped by the aesthetic, cultural, and recreational benefits and services provided by those landscapes. However, across the globe, processes such as urbanization, agricultural intensification, and abandonment are threatening landscape integrity, altering the personally meaningful connections people have toward specific places. Existing methods used to study landscape values, such as social surveys, are poorly suited to capture dynamic landscape-scale processes across large geographic extents. Social media data, by comparison, can be used to indirectly measure and identify valuable features of landscapes at a regional, continental, and perhaps even worldwide scale. We evaluate the usefulness of different social media platforms-Panoramio, Flickr, and Instagram-and quantify landscape values at a continental scale. We find Panoramio, Flickr, and Instagram data can be used to quantify landscape values, with features of Instagram being especially suitable due to its relatively large population of users and its functional ability of allowing users to attach personally meaningful comments and hashtags to their uploaded images. Although Panoramio, Flickr, and Instagram have different user profiles, our analysis revealed similar patterns of landscape values across Europe across the three platforms. We also found variables describing accessibility, population density, income, mountainous terrain, or proximity to water explained a significant portion of observed variation across data from the different platforms. Social media data can be used to extend our understanding of how and where individuals ascribe value to landscapes across diverse social, political, and ecological boundaries.

  9. An objective and parsimonious approach for classifying natural flow regimes at a continental scale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Archfield, Stacey A.; Kennen, Jonathan G.; Carlisle, Daren M.; Wolock, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Hydro-ecological stream classification-the process of grouping streams by similar hydrologic responses and, by extension, similar aquatic habitat-has been widely accepted and is considered by some to be one of the first steps towards developing ecological flow targets. A new classification of 1543 streamgauges in the contiguous USA is presented by use of a novel and parsimonious approach to understand similarity in ecological streamflow response. This novel classification approach uses seven fundamental daily streamflow statistics (FDSS) rather than winnowing down an uncorrelated subset from 200 or more ecologically relevant streamflow statistics (ERSS) commonly used in hydro-ecological classification studies. The results of this investigation demonstrate that the distributions of 33 tested ERSS are consistently different among the classification groups derived from the seven FDSS. It is further shown that classification based solely on the 33 ERSS generally does a poorer job in grouping similar streamgauges than the classification based on the seven FDSS. This new classification approach has the additional advantages of overcoming some of the subjectivity associated with the selection of the classification variables and provides a set of robust continental-scale classes of US streamgauges. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Organic chemicals jeopardize the health of freshwater ecosystems on the continental scale

    PubMed Central

    Malaj, Egina; von der Ohe, Peter C.; Grote, Matthias; Kühne, Ralph; Mondy, Cédric P.; Usseglio-Polatera, Philippe; Brack, Werner; Schäfer, Ralf B.

    2014-01-01

    Organic chemicals can contribute to local and regional losses of freshwater biodiversity and ecosystem services. However, their overall relevance regarding larger spatial scales remains unknown. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the first risk assessment of organic chemicals on the continental scale comprising 4,000 European monitoring sites. Organic chemicals were likely to exert acute lethal and chronic long-term effects on sensitive fish, invertebrate, or algae species in 14% and 42% of the sites, respectively. Of the 223 chemicals monitored, pesticides, tributyltin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and brominated flame retardants were the major contributors to the chemical risk. Their presence was related to agricultural and urban areas in the upstream catchment. The risk of potential acute lethal and chronic long-term effects increased with the number of ecotoxicologically relevant chemicals analyzed at each site. As most monitoring programs considered in this study only included a subset of these chemicals, our assessment likely underestimates the actual risk. Increasing chemical risk was associated with deterioration in the quality status of fish and invertebrate communities. Our results clearly indicate that chemical pollution is a large-scale environmental problem and requires far-reaching, holistic mitigation measures to preserve and restore ecosystem health. PMID:24979762

  11. Organic chemicals jeopardize the health of freshwater ecosystems on the continental scale.

    PubMed

    Malaj, Egina; von der Ohe, Peter C; Grote, Matthias; Kühne, Ralph; Mondy, Cédric P; Usseglio-Polatera, Philippe; Brack, Werner; Schäfer, Ralf B

    2014-07-01

    Organic chemicals can contribute to local and regional losses of freshwater biodiversity and ecosystem services. However, their overall relevance regarding larger spatial scales remains unknown. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the first risk assessment of organic chemicals on the continental scale comprising 4,000 European monitoring sites. Organic chemicals were likely to exert acute lethal and chronic long-term effects on sensitive fish, invertebrate, or algae species in 14% and 42% of the sites, respectively. Of the 223 chemicals monitored, pesticides, tributyltin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and brominated flame retardants were the major contributors to the chemical risk. Their presence was related to agricultural and urban areas in the upstream catchment. The risk of potential acute lethal and chronic long-term effects increased with the number of ecotoxicologically relevant chemicals analyzed at each site. As most monitoring programs considered in this study only included a subset of these chemicals, our assessment likely underestimates the actual risk. Increasing chemical risk was associated with deterioration in the quality status of fish and invertebrate communities. Our results clearly indicate that chemical pollution is a large-scale environmental problem and requires far-reaching, holistic mitigation measures to preserve and restore ecosystem health.

  12. Quantitative evidence for the effects of multiple drivers on continental-scale amphibian declines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Miller, David A. W.; Schmidt, Benedikt R.; Adams, Michael J.; Amburgey, Staci M.; Chambert, Thierry A; Cruickshank, Sam S.; Fisher, Robert N.; Green, David M.; Hossack, Blake R.; Johnson, Pieter T.J.; Joseph, Maxwell B.; Rittenhouse, Tracy A. G.; Ryan, Maureen E.; Waddle, J. Hardin; Walls, Susan C.; Bailey, Larissa L.; Fellers, Gary M.; Gorman, Thomas A.; Ray, Andrew M.; Pilliod, David S.; Price, Steven J.; Saenz, Daniel; Sadinski, Walt; Muths, Erin L.

    2016-01-01

    Since amphibian declines were first proposed as a global phenomenon over a quarter century ago, the conservation community has made little progress in halting or reversing these trends. The early search for a “smoking gun” was replaced with the expectation that declines are caused by multiple drivers. While field observations and experiments have identified factors leading to increased local extinction risk, evidence for effects of these drivers is lacking at large spatial scales. Here, we use observations of 389 time-series of 83 species and complexes from 61 study areas across North America to test the effects of 4 of the major hypothesized drivers of declines. While we find that local amphibian populations are being lost from metapopulations at an average rate of 3.79% per year, these declines are not related to any particular threat at the continental scale; likewise the effect of each stressor is variable at regional scales. This result - that exposure to threats varies spatially, and populations vary in their response - provides little generality in the development of conservation strategies. Greater emphasis on local solutions to this globally shared phenomenon is needed.

  13. Quantitative evidence for the effects of multiple drivers on continental-scale amphibian declines

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Miller, David A. W.; Schmidt, Benedikt R.; Adams, Michael J.; Amburgey, Staci M.; Chambert, Thierry; Cruickshank, Sam S.; Fisher, Robert N.; Green, David M.; Hossack, Blake R.; Johnson, Pieter T. J.; Joseph, Maxwell B.; Rittenhouse, Tracy A. G.; Ryan, Maureen E.; Waddle, J. Hardin; Walls, Susan C.; Bailey, Larissa L.; Fellers, Gary M.; Gorman, Thomas A.; Ray, Andrew M.; Pilliod, David S.; Price, Steven J.; Saenz, Daniel; Sadinski, Walt; Muths, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Since amphibian declines were first proposed as a global phenomenon over a quarter century ago, the conservation community has made little progress in halting or reversing these trends. The early search for a “smoking gun” was replaced with the expectation that declines are caused by multiple drivers. While field observations and experiments have identified factors leading to increased local extinction risk, evidence for effects of these drivers is lacking at large spatial scales. Here, we use observations of 389 time-series of 83 species and complexes from 61 study areas across North America to test the effects of 4 of the major hypothesized drivers of declines. While we find that local amphibian populations are being lost from metapopulations at an average rate of 3.79% per year, these declines are not related to any particular threat at the continental scale; likewise the effect of each stressor is variable at regional scales. This result - that exposure to threats varies spatially, and populations vary in their response - provides little generality in the development of conservation strategies. Greater emphasis on local solutions to this globally shared phenomenon is needed. PMID:27212145

  14. Observed Land Impacts on Clouds, Water Vapor, and Rainfall at Continental Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Menglin; King, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    How do the continents affect large-scale hydrological cycles? How important can one continent be to the climate system? To address these questions, 4-years of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) observations, and the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) global precipitation analysis, were used to assess the land impacts on clouds, rainfall, and water vapor at continental scales. At these scales, the observations illustrate that continents are integrated regions that enhance the seasonality of atmospheric and surface hydrological parameters. Specifically, the continents of Eurasia and North America enhance the seasonality of cloud optical thickness, cirrus fraction, rainfall, and water vapor. Over land, both liquid water and ice cloud effective radii are smaller than over oceans primarily because land has more aerosol particles. In addition, different continents have similar impacts on hydrological variables in terms of seasonality, but differ in magnitude. For example, in winter, North America and Eurasia increase cloud optical thickness to 17.5 and 16, respectively, while in summer, Eurasia has much smaller cloud optical thicknesses than North America. Such different land impacts are determined by each continent s geographical condition, land cover, and land use. These new understandings help further address the land-ocean contrasts on global climate, help validate global climate model simulated land-atmosphere interactions, and help interpret climate change over land.

  15. Estimating Root Mean Square Errors in Remotely Sensed Soil Moisture over Continental Scale Domains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draper, Clara S.; Reichle, Rolf; de Jeu, Richard; Naeimi, Vahid; Parinussa, Robert; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Root Mean Square Errors (RMSE) in the soil moisture anomaly time series obtained from the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E; using the Land Parameter Retrieval Model) are estimated over a continental scale domain centered on North America, using two methods: triple colocation (RMSETC ) and error propagation through the soil moisture retrieval models (RMSEEP ). In the absence of an established consensus for the climatology of soil moisture over large domains, presenting a RMSE in soil moisture units requires that it be specified relative to a selected reference data set. To avoid the complications that arise from the use of a reference, the RMSE is presented as a fraction of the time series standard deviation (fRMSE). For both sensors, the fRMSETC and fRMSEEP show similar spatial patterns of relatively highlow errors, and the mean fRMSE for each land cover class is consistent with expectations. Triple colocation is also shown to be surprisingly robust to representativity differences between the soil moisture data sets used, and it is believed to accurately estimate the fRMSE in the remotely sensed soil moisture anomaly time series. Comparing the ASCAT and AMSR-E fRMSETC shows that both data sets have very similar accuracy across a range of land cover classes, although the AMSR-E accuracy is more directly related to vegetation cover. In general, both data sets have good skill up to moderate vegetation conditions.

  16. Rapid continental-scale vegetation response to the Younger Dryas Cool Episode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peros, M.; Gajewski, K.; Viau, A.

    2006-12-01

    The Younger Dryas Cool Episode had rapid and widespread effects on flora and fauna throughout the Americas. Fossil pollen records document how plant communities responded to this event, although such data are generally only representative of changes at local- to regional-scales. We use a new approach to provide insight into vegetation responses to the Younger Dryas at a continental-scale, by focusing on data extracted for a single taxon (Populus poplar, cottonwood, aspen) from pollen diagrams throughout North America. We show that Populus underwent a rapid and continent-wide decline as the climate rapidly cooled and dried. At the termination of the Younger Dryas, Populus underwent another widespread decline, this time in response to competition from boreal and temperate taxa as the climate abruptly warmed. Late glacial-early Holocene pollen assemblages with high quantities of Populus pollen often lack modern analogues and thus confound quantitative paleoclimatic reconstructions; our results provide a context to interpret these assemblages. Furthermore, while Populus may continue to expand in the future in response to human disturbance and increasing temperatures, its sensitivity to competition may eventually put it at risk as global warming accelerates.

  17. USGS Geospatial Fabric and Geo Data Portal for Continental Scale Hydrology Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampson, K. M.; Newman, A. J.; Blodgett, D. L.; Viger, R.; Hay, L.; Clark, M. P.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation describes use of United States Geological Survey (USGS) data products and server-based resources for continental-scale hydrologic simulations. The USGS Modeling of Watershed Systems (MoWS) group provides a consistent national geospatial fabric built on NHDPlus. They have defined more than 100,000 hydrologic response units (HRUs) over the continental United States based on points of interest (POIs) and split into left and right bank based on the corresponding stream segment. Geophysical attributes are calculated for each HRU that can be used to define parameters in hydrologic and land-surface models. The Geo Data Portal (GDP) project at the USGS Center for Integrated Data Analytics (CIDA) provides access to downscaled climate datasets and processing services via web-interface and python modules for creating forcing datasets for any polygon (such as an HRU). These resources greatly reduce the labor required for creating model-ready data in-house, contributing to efficient and effective modeling applications. We will present an application of this USGS cyber-infrastructure for assessments of impacts of climate change on hydrology over the continental United States.

  18. The footprint of continental-scale ocean currents on the biogeography of seaweeds.

    PubMed

    Wernberg, Thomas; Thomsen, Mads S; Connell, Sean D; Russell, Bayden D; Waters, Jonathan M; Zuccarello, Giuseppe C; Kraft, Gerald T; Sanderson, Craig; West, John A; Gurgel, Carlos F D

    2013-01-01

    Explaining spatial patterns of biological organisation remains a central challenge for biogeographic studies. In marine systems, large-scale ocean currents can modify broad-scale biological patterns by simultaneously connecting environmental (e.g. temperature, salinity and nutrients) and biological (e.g. amounts and types of dispersed propagules) properties of adjacent and distant regions. For example, steep environmental gradients and highly variable, disrupted flow should lead to heterogeneity in regional communities and high species turnover. In this study, we investigated the possible imprint of the Leeuwin (LC) and East Australia (EAC) Currents on seaweed communities across ~7,000 km of coastline in temperate Australia. These currents flow poleward along the west and east coasts of Australia, respectively, but have markedly different characteristics. We tested the hypothesis that, regional seaweed communities show serial change in the direction of current flow and that, because the LC is characterised by a weaker temperature gradient and more un-interrupted along-shore flow compared to the EAC, then coasts influenced by the LC have less variable seaweed communities and lower species turnover across regions than the EAC. This hypothesis was supported. We suggest that this pattern is likely caused by a combination of seaweed temperature tolerances and current-driven dispersal. In conclusion, our findings support the idea that the characteristics of continental-scale currents can influence regional community organisation, and that the coupling of ocean currents and marine biological structure is a general feature that transcends taxa and spatial scales.

  19. Continental-Scale Validation of Modis-Based and LEDAPS Landsat ETM + Atmospheric Correction Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ju, Junchang; Roy, David P.; Vermote, Eric; Masek, Jeffrey; Kovalskyy, Valeriy

    2012-01-01

    The potential of Landsat data processing to provide systematic continental scale products has been demonstratedby several projects including the NASA Web-enabled Landsat Data (WELD) project. The recent freeavailability of Landsat data increases the need for robust and efficient atmospheric correction algorithms applicableto large volume Landsat data sets. This paper compares the accuracy of two Landsat atmospheric correctionmethods: a MODIS-based method and the Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive ProcessingSystem (LEDAPS) method. Both methods are based on the 6SV radiative transfer code but have different atmosphericcharacterization approaches. The MODIS-based method uses the MODIS Terra derived dynamicaerosol type, aerosol optical thickness, and water vapor to atmospherically correct ETM+ acquisitions ineach coincident orbit. The LEDAPS method uses aerosol characterizations derived independently from eachLandsat acquisition and assumes a fixed continental aerosol type and uses ancillary water vapor. Validationresults are presented comparing ETM+ atmospherically corrected data generated using these two methodswith AERONET corrected ETM+ data for 95 10 km10 km 30 m subsets, a total of nearly 8 million 30 mpixels, located across the conterminous United States. The results indicate that the MODIS-based methodhas better accuracy than the LEDAPS method for the ETM+ red and longer wavelength bands.

  20. Continental-scale Validation of MODIS-based and LEDAPS Landsat ETM+ Atmospheric Correction Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ju, Junchang; Roy, David P.; Vermote, Eric; Masek, Jeffrey; Kovalskyy, Valeriy

    2012-01-01

    The potential of Landsat data processing to provide systematic continental scale products has been demonstrated by several projects including the NASA Web-enabled Landsat Data (WELD) project. The recent free availability of Landsat data increases the need for robust and efficient atmospheric correction algorithms applicable to large volume Landsat data sets. This paper compares the accuracy of two Landsat atmospheric correction methods: a MODIS-based method and the Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS) method. Both methods are based on the 6SV radiative transfer code but have different atmospheric characterization approaches. The MODIS-based method uses the MODIS Terra derived dynamic aerosol type, aerosol optical thickness, and water vapor to atmospherically correct ETM+ acquisitions in each coincident orbit. The LEDAPS method uses aerosol characterizations derived independently from each Landsat acquisition and assumes a fixed continental aerosol type and uses ancillary water vapor. Validation results are presented comparing ETM+ atmospherically corrected data generated using these two methods with AERONET corrected ETM+ data for 95 10 km×10 km 30 m subsets, a total of nearly 8 million 30 m pixels, located across the conterminous United States. The results indicate that the MODIS-based method has better accuracy than the LEDAPS method for the ETM+ red and longer wavelength bands.

  1. Continental-scale water fluxes from continuous GPS observations of Earth surface loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsa, A. A.; Agnew, D. C.; Cayan, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    After more than a decade of observing annual oscillations of Earth's surface from seasonal snow and water loading, continuous GPS is now being used to model time-varying terrestrial water fluxes on the local and regional scale. Although the largest signal is typically due to the seasonal hydrological cycle, GPS can also measure subtle surface deformation caused by sustained wet and dry periods, and to estimate the spatial distribution of the underlying terrestrial water storage changes. The next frontier is expanding this analysis to the continental scale and paving the way for incorporating GPS models into the National Climate Assessment and into the observational infrastructure for national water resource management. This will require reconciling GPS observations with predictions from hydrological models and with remote sensing observations from a suite of satellite instruments (e.g. GRACE, SMAP, SWOT). The elastic Earth response which transforms surface loads into vertical and horizontal displacements is also responsible for the contamination of loading observations by tectonic and anthropogenic transients, and we discuss these and other challenges to this new application of GPS.

  2. Worldwide F(ST) estimates relative to five continental-scale populations.

    PubMed

    Steele, Christopher D; Court, Denise Syndercombe; Balding, David J

    2014-11-01

    We estimate the population genetics parameter FST (also referred to as the fixation index) from short tandem repeat (STR) allele frequencies, comparing many worldwide human subpopulations at approximately the national level with continental-scale populations. FST is commonly used to measure population differentiation, and is important in forensic DNA analysis to account for remote shared ancestry between a suspect and an alternative source of the DNA. We estimate FST comparing subpopulations with a hypothetical ancestral population, which is the approach most widely used in population genetics, and also compare a subpopulation with a sampled reference population, which is more appropriate for forensic applications. Both estimation methods are likelihood-based, in which FST is related to the variance of the multinomial-Dirichlet distribution for allele counts. Overall, we find low FST values, with posterior 97.5 percentiles < 3% when comparing a subpopulation with the most appropriate population, and even for inter-population comparisons we find FST < 5%. These are much smaller than single nucleotide polymorphism-based inter-continental FST estimates, and are also about half the magnitude of STR-based estimates from population genetics surveys that focus on distinct ethnic groups rather than a general population. Our findings support the use of FST up to 3% in forensic calculations, which corresponds to some current practice.

  3. Differences in the climatic debts of birds and butterflies at a continental scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devictor, Vincent; van Swaay, Chris; Brereton, Tom; Brotons, LluíS.; Chamberlain, Dan; Heliölä, Janne; Herrando, Sergi; Julliard, Romain; Kuussaari, Mikko; Lindström, Åke; Reif, Jiří; Roy, David B.; Schweiger, Oliver; Settele, Josef; Stefanescu, Constantí; van Strien, Arco; van Turnhout, Chris; Vermouzek, Zdeněk; Wallisdevries, Michiel; Wynhoff, Irma; Jiguet, Frédéric

    2012-02-01

    Climate changes have profound effects on the distribution of numerous plant and animal species. However, whether and how different taxonomic groups are able to track climate changes at large spatial scales is still unclear. Here, we measure and compare the climatic debt accumulated by bird and butterfly communities at a European scale over two decades (1990-2008). We quantified the yearly change in community composition in response to climate change for 9,490 bird and 2,130 butterfly communities distributed across Europe. We show that changes in community composition are rapid but different between birds and butterflies and equivalent to a 37 and 114km northward shift in bird and butterfly communities, respectively. We further found that, during the same period, the northward shift in temperature in Europe was even faster, so that the climatic debts of birds and butterflies correspond to a 212 and 135km lag behind climate. Our results indicate both that birds and butterflies do not keep up with temperature increase and the accumulation of different climatic debts for these groups at national and continental scales.

  4. Making continental-scale environmental programs relevant locally for educators with Project BudBurst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goehring, L.; Henderson, S.; Wasser, L.; Newman, S. J.; Ward, D.

    2012-12-01

    Project BudBurst is a national citizen science initiative designed to engage non professionals in observations of phenological (plant life cycle) events that raise awareness of climate change, and create a cadre of informed citizen scientists. Citizen science programs such as Project BudBurst provide excellent opportunities for educators and their students to actively participate in scientific research. Such programs are important not only from an educational perspective, but because they also enable scientists to broaden the geographic and temporal scale of their observations. The goals of Project BudBurst are to 1) increase awareness of phenology as an area of scientific study; 2) increase awareness of the impacts of changing climates on plants at a continental-scale; and 3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. From its 2008 launch, this on-line program has engaged participants of all ages and walks of life in recording the timing of the leafing and flowering of wild and cultivated species found across the continent, and in contemplating the meaning of such data in their local environments. Thus far, thousands of participants from all 50 states have submitted data. This presentation will provide an overview of Project BudBurst educational resources and share lessons learned from educators in implementing the program in formal and informal education settings. Lesson plans and tips from educators will be highlighted. Project BudBurst is co-managed by the National Ecological Observatory Network and the Chicago Botanic Garden.

  5. Continental-scale patterns of Cecropia reproductive phenology: evidence from herbarium specimens.

    PubMed

    Zalamea, Paul-Camilo; Munoz, François; Stevenson, Pablo R; Paine, C E Timothy; Sarmiento, Carolina; Sabatier, Daniel; Heuret, Patrick

    2011-08-22

    Plant phenology is concerned with the timing of recurring biological events. Though phenology has traditionally been studied using intensive surveys of a local flora, results from such surveys are difficult to generalize to broader spatial scales. In this study, contrastingly, we assembled a continental-scale dataset of herbarium specimens for the emblematic genus of Neotropical pioneer trees, Cecropia, and applied Fourier spectral and cospectral analyses to investigate the reproductive phenology of 35 species. We detected significant annual, sub-annual and continuous patterns, and discuss the variation in patterns within and among climatic regions. Although previous studies have suggested that pioneer species generally produce flowers continually throughout the year, we found that at least one third of Cecropia species are characterized by clear annual flowering behaviour. We further investigated the relationships between phenology and climate seasonality, showing strong associations between phenology and seasonal variations in precipitation and temperature. We also verified our results against field survey data gathered from the literature. Our findings indicate that herbarium material is a reliable resource for use in the investigation of large-scale patterns in plant phenology, offering a promising complement to local intensive field studies.

  6. Discovering exceptional diversifications at continental scales: the case of the endemic families of neotropical suboscine passerines.

    PubMed

    Claramunt, Santiago

    2010-07-01

    The study of continental adaptive radiations has lagged behind research on their island counterparts in part because the mere identification of adaptive radiations is more challenging at continental scales. Here, I demonstrate a new method based on simulations for discovering clades that show exceptionally high phenotypic diversity. The method does not require a phylogeny but accounts for differences in age and species richness among clades and incorporates effects of the phylogenetic structure of data. In addition, I developed a new multivariate measure of phenotypic diversity, which has the advantage over other measures of disparity in that it takes covariation into account. I applied these methods to a clade of endemic Neotropical suboscine passerines, within which the family Furnariidae has been considered an adaptive radiation. I found that the families Thamnophilidae, Furnariidae, and Dendrocolaptidae have experienced a higher rate of cladogenesis than have other clades. Although Thamnophilidae is exceptionally diverse in body size, only Furnariidae and Dendrocolaptidae are exceptionally diverse in shape. The combination of high rates of cladogenesis and high morphometric diversity in traits related to feeding and locomotion suggest that the clade Furnariidae-Dendrocolaptidae represent an authentic continental adaptive radiation.

  7. Gene expression clines reveal local adaptation and associated trade-offs at a continental scale

    PubMed Central

    Porcelli, Damiano; Westram, Anja M.; Pascual, Marta; Gaston, Kevin J.; Butlin, Roger K.; Snook, Rhonda R.

    2016-01-01

    Local adaptation, where fitness in one environment comes at a cost in another, should lead to spatial variation in trade-offs between life history traits and may be critical for population persistence. Recent studies have sought genomic signals of local adaptation, but often have been limited to laboratory populations representing two environmentally different locations of a species’ distribution. We measured gene expression, as a proxy for fitness, in males of Drosophila subobscura, occupying a 20° latitudinal and 11 °C thermal range. Uniquely, we sampled six populations and studied both common garden and semi-natural responses to identify signals of local adaptation. We found contrasting patterns of investment: transcripts with expression positively correlated to latitude were enriched for metabolic processes, expressed across all tissues whereas negatively correlated transcripts were enriched for reproductive processes, expressed primarily in testes. When using only the end populations, to compare our results to previous studies, we found that locally adaptive patterns were obscured. While phenotypic trade-offs between metabolic and reproductive functions across widespread species are well-known, our results identify underlying genetic and tissue responses at a continental scale that may be responsible for this. This may contribute to understanding population persistence under environmental change. PMID:27599812

  8. Numerical simulation of the geographical sources of water for Continental Scale Experiments (CSEs) Precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Sud, Yogesh; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Walker, Gregory K.

    2003-01-01

    There are several important research questions that the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) is actively pursuing, namely: What is the intensity of the water cycle and how does it change? And what is the sustainability of water resources? Much of the research to address these questions is directed at understanding the atmospheric water cycle. In this paper, we have used a new diagnostic tool, called Water Vapor Tracers (WVTs), to quantify the how much precipitation originated as continental or oceanic evaporation. This shows how long water can remain in the atmosphere and how far it can travel. The model-simulated data are analyzed over regions of interest to the GEWEX community, specifically, their Continental Scale Experiments (CSEs) that are in place in the United States, Europe, Asia, Brazil, Africa and Canada. The paper presents quantitative data on how much each continent and ocean on Earth supplies water for each CSE. Furthermore, the analysis also shows the seasonal variation of the water sources. For example, in the United States, summertime precipitation is dominated by continental (land surface) sources of water, while wintertime precipitation is dominated by the Pacific Ocean sources of water. We also analyze the residence time of water in the atmosphere. The new diagnostic shows a longer residence time for water (9.2 days) than more traditional estimates (7.5 days). We emphasize that the results are based on model simulations and they depend on the model s veracity. However, there are many potential uses for the new diagnostic tool in understanding weather processes and large and small scales.

  9. EarthScope: Earth Science Education and Outreach on a Continental Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semken, S. C.; Arrowsmith, R.; Fouch, M. J.; Garnero, E. J.; Taylor, W. L.

    2011-12-01

    EarthScope, funded by the National Science Foundation, enables the exploration of the structure and evolution of the North American continent by scientists accessing a range of seismological, geodetic, in situ fault-zone sampling, geochronology, and high resolution topography resources. Interdisciplinary EarthScope science produces transformative knowledge for studying Earth processes and structures, addressing hazards, and informing resource exploration and environmental management. In addition, these data and technologies offer superb opportunities to enhance formal and informal science education in the solid Earth and Earth system sciences. The EarthScope National Office (ESNO) at Arizona State University serves the broad and diverse community of EarthScope stakeholders, including EarthScope researchers, formal and informal educators in Earth science, and the general public. ESNO supports and promotes education and outreach (E&O) at a level comparable to that of its support for EarthScope science. This is accomplished through effective programs such as the EarthScope E&O website, Speaker Series, Interpretive Workshops for informal educators, newsletters, and the biannual EarthScope National Meeting. ESNO is adding further value to the programmatic E&O portfolio through new initiatives to: rapidly channel EarthScope science through social media; pilot and disseminate exemplary new Earth science content for K-12 science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) teacher professional development (in partnership with organizations such as American Geological Institute); use regional and local results from EarthScope research in promoting place-based teaching; and deliver continuing education for university researchers and educators. EarthScope E&O, infused with a place-based and educator-centered ethos, coordinates the compilation and presentation of the spectacular findings and scientific legacy of the continental-scale EarthScope program.

  10. Enabling Continental-Scale Analysis of Vegetation Foliar Traits through Consistent Sampling and Analysis Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroy, S. B.; Leisso, N.; Hinckley, E. S.; Meier, C. L.; Barnett, D.

    2013-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a continental-scale ecological observation platform designed to collect and disseminate data that contributes to understanding and forecasting the impacts of climate change, land use change, and invasive species on ecology. NEON will collect in-situ and airborne data over 60 sites across the US, including Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico. The NEON vegetation sampling protocol currently directs the collection of foliar samples from dominant species at each site; field spectra are collected from the samples that are further analyzed for bulk and isotopic carbon and nitrogen content. Through employment of consistent sampling and analysis strategies, NEON will provide a unique, rich, and varied data collection to support studies of foliar traits within species at specific sites and across/between regions. When combined with the NEON airborne hyperspectral and LiDAR imagery, these data will be key to support validation efforts of existing algorithms for deriving canopy scale nitrogen, carbon and other foliar traits, as well as supporting development of data products that are informed by - and include - the ground data specifically, thereby potentially reducing uncertainties in the observational data products. Presented here are prototype datasets collected at NEON Domain 1 (Harvard Forest, summer 2012) and Domain 17 (San Joaquin Experiment Range, summer 2013). Lessons-learned from the field campaigns are discussed, along with preliminary results from the Harvard Forest campaign, which combine the field and the laboratory data in support of current algorithm validation efforts. Extension of these protocols to future NEON Domain characterization activities is also presented.

  11. Organic compounds in biomass smoke from residential wood combustion: Emissions characterization at a continental scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fine, Philip M.; Cass, Glen R.; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    2002-11-01

    Wood smoke in the atmosphere often accounts for 20-30% of the ambient fine-particle concentrations. In communities where wood is burned for home heating, wood smoke can at times contribute the majority of the atmospheric fine-particle burden. Chemical mass balance receptor models that use organic compounds as tracers can be used to determine the contributions of different emission sources, including wood smoke, to atmospheric fine-particle samples. In order for organic chemical tracer techniques to be applied to communities across the United States, differences in wood smoke composition that arise from differences in the type of wood burned in various regions must be understood. A continental-scale accounting of particulate organic compound emissions from residential wood combustion has been constructed which helps to quantify the regional differences in wood smoke composition that exist between different parts of the United States. Data from a series of source tests conducted on 22 North American wood species have been used to assemble a national inventory of emissions for more than 250 individual organic compounds that are released from wood combustion in fireplaces and wood stoves in the United States. The emission rates of important wood smoke markers, such as levoglucosan, certain substituted syringols and guaiacols, and phytosterols vary greatly with wood type and combustor type. These differences at the level of individual wood type and combustion conditions translate into regional differences in the aggregate composition of ambient wood smoke. By weighting the source test results in proportion to the availability of firewood from specific tree species and the quantities of wood burned in each locale, it is possible to investigate systematic differences that exist between wood smokes from different regions of North America. The relative abundance of 10 major wood smoke components averaged over the emissions inventory in different regions of the United States

  12. Understanding Monthly Land Surface Relationships at the Continental Scale Using Remotely Sensed Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, R. D.; Mehra, V.; Kumar, P.; Bajcsy, P.; Tcheng, D.

    2006-12-01

    In the past few decades, remotely sensed Earth observation data has been gathered at rates now on the order of tens of terabytes per day. These collections of data are valuable reserves of "scientific ore." However, mining the ore for useful science has been challenging due to the sheer volume of data, esoteric formats, varying temporal scales, and varying spatial scales. Regardless, the wide geographic and temporal ranges allow investigations at scales inaccessible by other presently existing methods. We developed a technology called GeoLearn to facilitate data preparation and basic exploration so this data can be more readily available for scientific purposes. GeoLearn is used to prepare the data which we examine for relationships between several land surface variables across the entire continental USA during each month in the summer of 2004. We employ two approaches: k-means style clustering and regression tree approaches. Using k-means, we try to identify geographic regions of similarity using only remotely sensed characteristics. The resulting geographic regions often, but not always, correspond to EPA ecoregion boundaries. Using regressions trees, we try to predict a greenness index (EVI) based on other characteristics. In this case, the differing resolutions of the datasets became important. EVI is the most detailed variable we use. Since regression trees are capable of quite detailed approximations, the best naive model turns out to be based on the one or two most detailed explanatory variables. This results in a model which merely uses the explanatory variables as ID numbers rather than identifying any general relationships. We are able to develop alternative models which maintain flexibility without succumbing to the "ID number" problem as easily. These models allow us to identify what variables are most important for determining vegetation greenness at continental scales as well as how those relationships changed throughout the summer of 2004.

  13. Variation in Magnitude of Differential Stress Across an Exhumed Continental-scale Thrust Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lusk, A. D.; Platt, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    The Moine Thrust Zone (MTZ), located in NW Scotland, formed as a result of the closing of the Iapetus Ocean and docking of various terranes and arcs (Scandian Phase of the Caledonian Orogeny, ca. 445-420 Ma). The MTZ as defined here comprises three major foreland-propagating thrust faults, the latest of which is the Moine Thrust itself, which emplaced Proterozoic Moine Supergroup psammites westward onto Cambro-Ordovician shelf sequence rocks and Lewisian basement gneiss. Presently, the north-south striking Moine Thrust Zone is exposed for more than 200 km along strike, and Scandian deformation can be traced up to 40 km eastward from the Moine Thrust towards the hinterland. The thrust system is thought to have been exhumed while still active, resulting in the exposure of deep structural levels of the MTZ. As part of an ongoing project to study how the stress, rheology, and width of continental-scale faults vary with depth, we use the piezometer based on the grainsize of dynamically recrystallized quartz to determine the variation in magnitude of differential stress across the MTZ. We present a transect from the head of Loch Eriboll in the footwall, eastward to the base of Ben Hope in the hangingwall. Grainsize generally decreases westward and structurally downward to the Moine Thrust, where ultramylonites have grainsizes on the order of 10 μm. Higher stresses towards the foreland likely reflect lower temperatures of deformation in rocks that before thrusting were at higher structural levels, and may have triggered a switch to grainsize sensitive creep, thus resulting in localization of strain and narrowing of shear zone width.

  14. NEON: Developing a Platform for Regional to Continental Scale Biological Inquiry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, J.

    2004-05-01

    Climate variation, introductions of alien species, and patterns of land use are some of the important interacting drivers of biological change that are affecting our nation's ecosystems. Many of these drivers operate over large spatial and temporal scales, and our understanding of how these phenomena interact to drive biological change is limited by our inability to link traditionally local and short-term ecological approaches to larger and longer scales. Similarly, our ability to forecast such changes and respond to their consequences is constrained. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a proposed shared-use research and education platform intended to improve our capacity to understand and predict biological phenomena operating from regional to continental scales. NEON is envisioned as a system of field and laboratory-based facilities distributed across the United States, which will provide the physical infrastructure and human capabilities necessary to coordinate and integrate research and education campaigns on the following types of issues: (1) biodiversity, species composition, and ecosystem functioning; (2) ecological aspects of biogeochemical cycles; (3) ecological implications of climate change; (4) ecology and evolution of infectious disease; (5) invasive species; and (6) land use and habitat alteration. Themes such as data sharing, multidisciplinary collaboration, and the development of technologies for sensing, forecasting, and visualizing biological information are central to the NEON concept. Development of the NEON science plan and the design of the network itself are proceeding through a variety of workshops and community planning meetings. A national project office is expected to form toward the end of 2004 to lead the development and creation of NEON. Ultimately, the project office will reside within an independent national organization devoted to the coordinated operation of NEON for the scientific community.

  15. Continental-scale variation in chloride/bromide ratios of wet deposition.

    PubMed

    Short, M A; de Caritat, P; McPhail, D C

    2017-01-01

    Chlorine and bromine play crucial roles in atmospheric element cycles and are important environmental tracers in catchment investigations, so understanding their distribution at the Earth's near-surface is imperative for deciphering their behaviour. This study presents the first continental-scale analysis of Cl(-) and Br(-) concentrations of wet deposition, based on six and half years of weekly samples collected across North America. A recently developed imputation algorithm was applied to estimate the high proportion of censored Br(-) values, as well as the other eight analytes, based on the multivariate relationships of nine analytes. The results are consistent with previous studies that have found that the concentrations of these two ions in wet deposition, and the Cl(-)/Br(-) ratios of wet deposition decrease with distance inland. Close to the coast, Cl(-)/Br(-) ratios of wet deposition are similar to the ratio found in seawater (~288 by mass), rapidly decrease to approximately a third of the seawater ratio at ~200km inland, and then decrease at a much lesser rate to reach mass-ratios of 20 to 10 at ~1500km inland, following a logarithmic regression. The Niagara Falls and the Great Salt Lake are identified as localised sources of atmospheric solutes based on elevated Cl(-)/Br(-) ratios of wet deposition at proximal sites. Our observations provide further confidence in the findings presented in previous studies that have shown that Cl(-)/Br(-) ratios systematically decrease with increasing distance from the coast, despite the potential confounding impact of other processes, such as weather patterns, chemical behaviour and anthropogenic activity. Our results provide improved estimates of Cl(-)/Br(-) ratios of wet deposition source water in the absence of site-specific data.

  16. Interpretation of Continental Scale Gravity Signatures from GOCE at Smaller Scale Mineral Hosting outcrops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braitenberg, C. F.

    2014-12-01

    The GOCE gravity field is globally homogeneous at the resolution of about 50km or better allowing for the first time to analyze tectonic structures on the continental scale. Geologic correlation studies propose to continue the tectonic lineaments across continents to the pre-breakup position. Tectonic events that induce density changes, as metamorphic events and magmatic events, should then show up in the gravity field. Applying geodynamic plate reconstructions to the GOCE gravity field places today's observed field at the pre-breakup position (Braitenberg, 2014). The same reconstruction can be applied to the seismic velocity models, to allow a joint gravity-velocity analysis. The geophysical fields bear information to control the likeliness of the hypothesized continuation of lineations. Total absence of a signal, makes the cross-continental continuation of the lineament unprobable, as continental-wide lineaments are controlled by rheologic and compositional differences of crust and upper mantle. Special attention is given to Greenstone belts, which are associated to a class of important mineralizations. The outcrops are limited in extent, but are associated with a much broader gravity signature, which cannot be explained by the outcropping masses alone. The gravity requires a mass source residing at lower crustal level, giving evidence of the mantle-crust melting processes influencing the tectonic characteristic at surface. The study is carried out over the African and South American continents. Reference Braitenberg C. (2014). Exploration of tectonic structures with GOCE in Africa and across-continents. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, doi:10.1016/j.jag.2014.013

  17. New insights into the atmospheric mercury cycling in central Antarctica and implications on a continental scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angot, Hélène; Magand, Olivier; Helmig, Detlev; Ricaud, Philippe; Quennehen, Boris; Gallée, Hubert; Del Guasta, Massimo; Sprovieri, Francesca; Pirrone, Nicola; Savarino, Joël; Dommergue, Aurélien

    2016-07-01

    Under the framework of the GMOS project (Global Mercury Observation System) atmospheric mercury monitoring has been implemented at Concordia Station on the high-altitude Antarctic plateau (75°06' S, 123°20' E, 3220 m above sea level). We report here the first year-round measurements of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg(0)) in the atmosphere and in snowpack interstitial air on the East Antarctic ice sheet. This unique data set shows evidence of an intense oxidation of atmospheric Hg(0) in summer (24-hour daylight) due to the high oxidative capacity of the Antarctic plateau atmosphere in this period of the year. Summertime Hg(0) concentrations exhibited a pronounced daily cycle in ambient air with maximal concentrations around midday. Photochemical reactions and chemical exchange at the air-snow interface were prominent, highlighting the role of the snowpack on the atmospheric mercury cycle. Our observations reveal a 20 to 30 % decrease of atmospheric Hg(0) concentrations from May to mid-August (winter, 24 h darkness). This phenomenon has not been reported elsewhere and possibly results from the dry deposition of Hg(0) onto the snowpack. We also reveal the occurrence of multi-day to weeklong atmospheric Hg(0) depletion events in summer, not associated with depletions of ozone, and likely due to a stagnation of air masses above the plateau triggering an accumulation of oxidants within the shallow boundary layer. Our observations suggest that the inland atmospheric reservoir is depleted in Hg(0) in summer. Due to katabatic winds flowing out from the Antarctic plateau down the steep vertical drops along the coast and according to observations at coastal Antarctic stations, the striking reactivity observed on the plateau most likely influences the cycle of atmospheric mercury on a continental scale.

  18. Building a flood climatology and rethinking flood risk at continental scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreadis, Konstantinos; Schumann, Guy; Stampoulis, Dimitrios; Smith, Andrew; Neal, Jeffrey; Bates, Paul; Sampson, Christopher; Brakenridge, Robert; Kettner, Albert

    2016-04-01

    Floods are one of the costliest natural disasters and the ability to understand their characteristics and their interactions with population, land cover and climate changes is of paramount importance. In order to accurately reproduce flood characteristics such as water inundation and heights both in the river channels and floodplains, hydrodynamic models are required. Most of these models operate at very high resolutions and are computationally very expensive, making their application over large areas very difficult. However, a need exists for such models to be applied at regional to global scales so that the effects of climate change with regards to flood risk can be examined. We use the a modeling framework that includes the VIC hydrologic and the LISFLOOD-FP hydrodynamic model to simulate a 40-year history of flood characteristics at the continental scale, particularly Australia. In order to extend the simulated flood climatology to 50-100 years in a consistent manner, reanalysis datasets have to be used as meteorological forcings to the models. The objective of this study is the evaluation of multiple atmospheric reanalysis datasets (ERA, NCEP, MERRA, JRA) as inputs to the VIC/LISFLOOD-FP model. Comparisons of the simulated flood characteristics are made with both satellite observations of inundation and a benchmark simulation of LISFLOOD-FP being forced by observed flows. The implications of having a climatology of flood characteristics are discussed, and in particular We found the magnitude and timing of floodplain water storage to significantly differ from streamflow in terms of their distribution. Furthermore, floodplain volume gave a much sharper discrimination of high hazard and low hazard periods than discharge, and using the latter can lead to significant overestimation. These results demonstrate that global streamflow statistics or precipitation should not be used to infer flood hazard and risk, but instead a flood inundation climatology is necessary.

  19. PhenoCam: A continental-scale observatory for monitoring the phenology of terrestrial vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, A. D.; Friedl, M. A.; Frolking, S.; Pless, R.; PhenoCam Collaborators

    2011-12-01

    The term phenology refers to both the seasonal rhythms of plants and animals, and the study of these rhythms. Plant phenological processes, such as when leaves emerge in the spring and change color in the autumn, are highly responsive to year-to-year variation in weather as well as longer-term changes in climate, particularly as related to temperature and precipitation. Understanding and predicting the impacts of climate change on plants and ecosystems requires better data with which predictive models of phenology can be developed and tested. PhenoCam uses networked, digital cameras as multi-channel imaging sensors to track the seasonal dynamics of terrestrial vegetation across a range of ecosystem types. The original network, which began in 2006 as a project focusing on the northeast region, consists of a dozen cameras deployed at pre-existing long term research sites. At eight of these sites, cameras are co-located with eddy covariance instrumentation with which surface-atmosphere exchanges of carbon, water and energy are being measured. This provides opportunities for investigating relationships between phenology and ecosystem function and climate system feedbacks. We plan to expand PhenoCam from a regional network to a continental-scale observatory. We will deploy 20 additional cameras at FLUXNET sites across North America, spanning a wide range of vegetation types. We will further explore the feasibility of exploiting information related to phenology from an existing image archive of approximately 17,000 publicly available cameras located across the continent. We will use computer vision and machine learning approaches to develop new processing algorithms for this imagery, and will link these data products both to ground observations by USA-National Phenology Network "citizen scientists" and various satellite-based data streams, e.g. the MODIS phenology product. This project will develop predictions of how phenology may be affected by future climate change

  20. Biogeographical Patterns of Legume-Nodulating Burkholderia spp.: from African Fynbos to Continental Scales

    PubMed Central

    Chimphango, Samson B. M.; Stirton, Charles; Rafudeen, Suhail; Honnay, Olivier; Smets, Erik; Chen, Wen-Ming; Sprent, Janet; James, Euan K.; Muasya, A. Muthama

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rhizobia of the genus Burkholderia have large-scale distribution ranges and are usually associated with South African papilionoid and South American mimosoid legumes, yet little is known about their genetic structuring at either local or global geographic scales. To understand variation at different spatial scales, from individual legumes in the fynbos (South Africa) to a global context, we analyzed chromosomal (16S rRNA, recA) and symbiosis (nifH, nodA, nodC) gene sequences. We showed that the global diversity of nodulation genes is generally grouped according to the South African papilionoid or South American mimosoid subfamilies, whereas chromosomal sequence data were unrelated to biogeography. While nodulation genes are structured on a continental scale, a geographic or host-specific distribution pattern was not detected in the fynbos region. In host range experiments, symbiotic promiscuity of Burkholderia tuberum STM678T and B. phymatum STM815T was discovered in selected fynbos species. Finally, a greenhouse experiment was undertaken to assess the ability of mimosoid (Mimosa pudica) and papilionoid (Dipogon lignosus, Indigofera filifolia, Macroptilium atropurpureum, and Podalyria calyptrata) species to nodulate in South African (fynbos) and Malawian (savanna) soils. While the Burkholderia-philous fynbos legumes (D. lignosus, I. filifolia, and P. calyptrata) nodulated only in their native soils, the invasive neotropical species M. pudica did not develop nodules in the African soils. The fynbos soil, notably rich in Burkholderia, seems to retain nodulation genes compatible with the local papilionoid legume flora but is incapable of nodulating mimosoid legumes that have their center of diversity in South America. IMPORTANCE This study is the most comprehensive phylogenetic assessment of root-nodulating Burkholderia and investigated biogeographic and host-related patterns of the legume-rhizobial symbiosis in the South African fynbos biome, as well as at

  1. NEON: Contributing continental-scale long-term environmental data for the benefit of society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wee, B.; Aulenbach, S.

    2011-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a NSF funded national investment in physical and information infrastructure. Large-scale environmental changes pose challenges that straddle environmental, economic, and social boundaries. As we develop climate adaptation strategies at the Federal, state, local, and tribal levels, accessible and usable data are essential for implementing actions that are informed by the best available information. NEON's goal is to enable understanding and forecasting of the impacts of climate change, land use change and invasive species on continental-scale ecology by providing physical and information infrastructure. The NEON framework will take standardized, long-term, coordinated measurements of related environmental variables at each of its 62 sites across the nation. These observations, collected by automated instruments, field crews, and airborne instruments, will be processed into more than 700 data products that are provided freely over the web to support research, education, and environmental management. NEON is envisioned to be an integral component of an interoperable ecosystem of credible data and information sources. Other members of this information ecosystem include Federal, commercial, and non-profit entities. NEON is actively involved with the interoperability community via forums like the Foundation for Earth Science Information Partners and the USGS Community for Data Integration in a collective effort to identify the technical standards, best practices, and organizational principles that enable the emergence of such an information ecosystem. These forums have proven to be effective innovation engines for the experimentation of new techniques that evolve into emergent standards. These standards are, for the most part, discipline agnostic. It is becoming increasingly evident that we need to include socio-economic and public health data sources in interoperability initiatives, because the dynamics of coupled

  2. Hydrogen isotopes from source water to leaf lipid in a continental-scale sample network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Daniel; Kahmen, Ansgar

    2015-04-01

    Sedimentary plant waxes are useful paleoclimate proxies because they are preserved in depositional settings on geologic timescales and the isotopic composition of the hydrogen in these molecules reflects that of the source water available during biosynthesis. This application is based largely on empirical calibrations that have demonstrated continental-scale correlations between source water and lipid hydrogen isotope values. However, the importance of variable net isotopic fractionation between source water and lipid for different species and environmental conditions is increasingly recognized. Isotopic enrichment of leaf water during transpiration is key among these secondary factors, and is itself sensitive to changes in hydroclimate. Leaf water enrichment also occurs prior to photosynthetic water uptake, and is therefore independent from cellular-level biomarker synthesis. Mechanistic models can predict the mean leaf water hydrogen isotope composition from readily available meteorological variables. This permits global-scale isoscape maps of leaf water isotopic composition and enrichment above source water to be generated, but these models have not been widely validated at continental spatial scales. We have established a network of twenty-one sites across Europe where we are sampling for leaf-, xylem-, and soil-water isotopes (H and O) at approximately 5-week intervals over the summer growing season. We augment the sample set with weekly to monthly precipitation samples and early- and late-season plant wax lipid samples. Collaborators at each site are conducting the sampling, and most sites are members of the FLUXNET tower network that also record high-resolution meteorological data. We present information on the implementation of the network and preliminary results from the 2014 summer season. The complete dataset will be used to track the evolution of water isotopes from source to leaf water and from leaf water to lipid hydrogen across diverse environments

  3. A generalizable energetics-based model of avian migration to facilitate continental-scale waterbird conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lonsdorf, Eric V.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Jacobi, Sarah; Coppen, Jorge; Davis, Amélie Y.; Fox, Timothy J.; Heglund, Patricia; Johnson, Rex; Jones, Tim; Kenow, Kevin P.; Lyons, James E.; Luke, Kirsten E.; Still, Shannon; Tavernia, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Conserving migratory birds is made especially difficult because of movement among spatially disparate locations across the annual cycle. In light of challenges presented by the scale and ecology of migratory birds, successful conservation requires integrating objectives, management, and monitoring across scales, from local management units to ecoregional and flyway administrative boundaries. We present an integrated approach using a spatially explicit energetic-based mechanistic bird migration model useful to conservation decision-making across disparate scales and locations. This model moves a mallard-like bird (Anas platyrhynchos), through spring and fall migration as a function of caloric gains and losses across a continental scale energy landscape. We predicted with this model that fall migration, where birds moved from breeding to wintering habitat, took a mean of 27.5 days of flight with a mean seasonal survivorship of 90.5% (95% CI = 89.2%, 91.9%) whereas spring migration took a mean of 23.5 days of flight with mean seasonal survivorship of 93.6% (95% CI = 92.5%, 94.7%). Sensitivity analyses suggested that survival during migration was sensitive to flight speed, flight cost, the amount of energy the animal could carry and the spatial pattern of energy availability, but generally insensitive to total energy availability per se. Nevertheless, continental patterns in the bird-use days occurred principally in relation to wetland cover and agricultural habitat in the fall. Bird-use days were highest in both spring and fall in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley and along the coast and near-shore environments of South Carolina. Spatial sensitivity analyses suggested that locations nearer to migratory endpoints were less important to survivorship; for instance, removing energy from a 1,036 km2 stopover site at a time from the Atlantic Flyway suggested coastal areas between New Jersey and North Carolina, including Chesapeake Bay and the North Carolina piedmont, are

  4. A generalizable energetics-based model of avian migration to facilitate continental-scale waterbird conservation.

    PubMed

    Lonsdorf, Eric V; Thogmartin, Wayne E; Jacobi, Sarah; Aagaard, Kevin; Coppen, Jorge; Davis, Amélie; Fox, Timothy; Heglund, Patricia; Johnson, Rex; Jones, Malcolm T; Kenow, Kevin; Lyons, James E; Luke, Kirsten; Still, Shannon; Tavernia, Brian

    2016-06-01

    Conserving migratory birds is made especially difficult because of movement among spatially disparate locations across the annual cycle. In light of challenges presented by the scale and ecology of migratory birds, successful conservation requires integrating objectives, management, and monitoring across scales, from local management units to ecoregional and flyway administrative boundaries. We present an integrated approach using a spatially explicit energetic-based mechanistic bird migration model useful to conservation decision-making across disparate scales and locations. This model moves a Mallard-like bird (Anas platyrhynchos), through spring and fall migration as a function of caloric gains and losses across a continental-scale energy landscape. We predicted with this model that fall migration, where birds moved from breeding to wintering habitat, took a mean of 27.5 d of flight with a mean seasonal survivorship of 90.5% (95% Cl = 89.2%, 91.9%), whereas spring migration took a mean of 23.5 d of flight with mean seasonal survivorship of 93.6% (95% CI = 92.5%, 94.7%). Sensitivity analyses suggested that survival during migration was sensitive to flight speed, flight cost, the amount of energy the animal could carry, and the spatial pattern of energy availability, but generally insensitive to total energy availability per se. Nevertheless, continental patterns in the bird-use days occurred principally in relation to wetland cover and agricultural habitat in the fall. Bird-use days were highest in both spring and fall in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley and along the coast and near-shore environments of South Carolina. Spatial sensitivity analyses suggested that locations nearer to migratory endpoints were less important to survivorship; for instance, removing energy from a 1036 km2 stopover site at a time from the Atlantic Flyway suggested coastal areas between New Jersey and North Carolina, including the Chesapeake Bay and the North Carolina piedmont, are

  5. Continental scale variation in 17O-excess of meteoric waters in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuning; Levin, Naomi E.; Chesson, Lesley A.

    2015-09-01

    High-precision triple oxygen isotope analysis of waters is an emerging tool in hydrological and paleoclimate research. The existing research on 17O-excess in waters includes surveys of meteoric waters and region-specific studies of high-latitude snow and tropical storms. However, a better understanding of the variation in 17O-excess of waters across large geographic regions is needed to expand the utility of triple oxygen isotope measurements. Here we present 17O-excess data from tap waters across the continental U.S., which we used as a proxy for precipitation. The 17O-excess values of tap waters ranged from -6 to +43 per meg and averaged 17 ± 11 per meg which is lower than the average 17O-excess reported for global meteoric waters, but overlaps with reported 17O-excess values of rainfall from the tropics. We observed relatively high 17O-excess values (>25 per meg) of tap waters in the northwestern U.S. and some of the lowest 17O-excess values (<5 per meg) in the states bordering the Gulf of Mexico. The latitudinal variation of 17O-excess among tap waters likely reflects the different controls on 17O-excess in precipitation. For example, re-evaporation of precipitation and convective processes influence the isotopic composition of tap waters from the southern portions of the U.S., resulting in relatively low 17O-excess values. In contrast, these effects are reduced in tap waters from the northern portions of the U.S. where snow and cold-season rainfall are primarily responsible for the majority of annual precipitation. Exceptions to the latitudinal trend are prevalent in the central portions of the U.S., where mixing and convection are likely responsible for 17O-excess values that are lower than would be expected at their latitudes. The results of this study provide both a first look at the variation of 17O-excess in meteoric waters on a continental scale and a predictive map for 17O-excess of meteoric waters in the U.S.

  6. Development and Application of a Process-based River System Model at a Continental Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. S. H.; Dutta, D.; Vaze, J.; Hughes, J. D.; Yang, A.; Teng, J.

    2014-12-01

    Existing global and continental scale river models, mainly designed for integrating with global climate model, are of very course spatial resolutions and they lack many important hydrological processes, such as overbank flow, irrigation diversion, groundwater seepage/recharge, which operate at a much finer resolution. Thus, these models are not suitable for producing streamflow forecast at fine spatial resolution and water accounts at sub-catchment levels, which are important for water resources planning and management at regional and national scale. A large-scale river system model has been developed and implemented for water accounting in Australia as part of the Water Information Research and Development Alliance between Australia's Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) and CSIRO. The model, developed using node-link architecture, includes all major hydrological processes, anthropogenic water utilisation and storage routing that influence the streamflow in both regulated and unregulated river systems. It includes an irrigation model to compute water diversion for irrigation use and associated fluxes and stores and a storage-based floodplain inundation model to compute overbank flow from river to floodplain and associated floodplain fluxes and stores. An auto-calibration tool has been built within the modelling system to automatically calibrate the model in large river systems using Shuffled Complex Evolution optimiser and user-defined objective functions. The auto-calibration tool makes the model computationally efficient and practical for large basin applications. The model has been implemented in several large basins in Australia including the Murray-Darling Basin, covering more than 2 million km2. The results of calibration and validation of the model shows highly satisfactory performance. The model has been operalisationalised in BoM for producing various fluxes and stores for national water accounting. This paper introduces this newly developed river system model

  7. Global review of open access risk assessment software packages valid for global or continental scale analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniell, James; Simpson, Alanna; Gunasekara, Rashmin; Baca, Abigail; Schaefer, Andreas; Ishizawa, Oscar; Murnane, Rick; Tijssen, Annegien; Deparday, Vivien; Forni, Marc; Himmelfarb, Anne; Leder, Jan

    2015-04-01

    -defined exposure and vulnerability. Without this function, many tools can only be used regionally and not at global or continental scale. It is becoming increasingly easy to use multiple packages for a single region and/or hazard to characterize the uncertainty in the risk, or use as checks for the sensitivities in the analysis. There is a potential for valuable synergy between existing software. A number of open source software packages could be combined to generate a multi-risk model with multiple views of a hazard. This extensive review has simply attempted to provide a platform for dialogue between all open source and open access software packages and to hopefully inspire collaboration between developers, given the great work done by all open access and open source developers.

  8. Non-climatic factors and long-term, continental-scale changes in seasonally frozen ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiklomanov, Nikolay I.

    2012-03-01

    ). In their recent paper entitled 'An observational 71-year history of seasonally frozen ground changes in Eurasian high latitudes', Frauenfeld and Zhang (2011) provided detailed analysis of soil temperature data to assess 1930-2000 trends in seasonal freezing depth. The data were obtained from 387 Soviet non-permafrost meteorological stations. The authors performed systematic, quality-controlled, integrative analysis over the entire former Soviet Union domain. The long-term changes in depth of seasonal freezing were discussed in relation to such forcing variables as air temperature, degree days of freezing/thawing, snow depth and summer precipitation as well as modes of the North Atlantic Oscillation. The spatially average approach adopted for the study provides a generalized continental-scale trend. The study greatly improves, expands and extends previous 1956-90 analysis of the ground thermal regime over the Eurasian high latitudes (Frauenfeld et al 2004). Although the work of Frauenfeld and Zhang (2011) is the most comprehensive assessment of the continental-scale long-term trends in seasonal freezing available to date, more detailed analysis is needed to determine the effect of climate change on seasonally frozen ground. It should be noted that, in addition to the variables considered for analysis, other non-climatic factors affect the depth of freezing propagation. Unlike the surface, which is influenced by the climate directly, the ground even at shallow depth receives a climatic signal that is substantially modified by edaphic processes, contributing to highly localized thermal sensitivities of the ground to climatic forcing. Subsurface properties, soil moisture, and snow and vegetation covers influence the depth of freezing. Topography also plays an important role in establishing the ground thermal regime. It is an important determinant of the amount of heat received by the ground surface, affects the distribution of snow and vegetation, and influences the

  9. The Impact of Detailed Snow Physics on the Simulation of Snow Cover and Subsurface Thermodynamics at Continental Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stieglitz, Marc; Ducharne, Agnes; Koster, Randy; Suarez, Max; Busalacchi, Antonio J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The three-layer snow model is coupled to the global catchment-based Land Surface Model (LSM) of the NASA Seasonal to Interannual Prediction Project (NSIPP) project, and the combined models are used to simulate the growth and ablation of snow cover over the North American continent for the period 1987-1988. The various snow processes included in the three-layer model, such as snow melting and re-freezing, dynamic changes in snow density, and snow insulating properties, are shown (through a comparison with the corresponding simulation using a much simpler snow model) to lead to an improved simulation of ground thermodynamics on the continental scale.

  10. Multivariate analysis of the geochemistry and mineralogy of soils along two continental-scale transects in North America.

    PubMed

    Drew, Lawrence J; Grunsky, Eric C; Sutphin, David M; Woodruff, Laurel G

    2010-12-01

    Soils collected in 2004 along two North American continental-scale transects were subjected to geochemical and mineralogical analyses. In previous interpretations of these analyses, data were expressed in weight percent and parts per million, and thus were subject to the effect of the constant-sum phenomenon. In a new approach to the data, this effect was removed by using centered log-ratio transformations to 'open' the mineralogical and geochemical arrays. Multivariate analyses, including principal component and linear discriminant analyses, of the centered log-ratio data reveal the effects of soil-forming processes, including soil parent material, weathering, and soil age, at the continental-scale of the data arrays that were not readily apparent in the more conventionally presented data. Linear discriminant analysis of the data arrays indicates that the majority of the soil samples collected along the transects can be more successfully classified with Level 1 ecological regional-scale classification by the soil geochemistry than soil mineralogy. A primary objective of this study is to discover and describe, in a parsimonious way, geochemical processes that are both independent and inter-dependent and manifested through compositional data including estimates of the elements and corresponding mineralogy.

  11. Multivariate analysis of the geochemistry and mineralogy of soils along two continental-scale transects in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drew, L.J.; Grunsky, E.C.; Sutphin, D.M.; Woodruff, L.G.

    2010-01-01

    Soils collected in 2004 along two North American continental-scale transects were subjected to geochemical and mineralogical analyses. In previous interpretations of these analyses, data were expressed in weight percent and parts per million, and thus were subject to the effect of the constant-sum phenomenon. In a new approach to the data, this effect was removed by using centered log-ratio transformations to 'open' the mineralogical and geochemical arrays. Multivariate analyses, including principal component and linear discriminant analyses, of the centered log-ratio data reveal the effects of soil-forming processes, including soil parent material, weathering, and soil age, at the continental-scale of the data arrays that were not readily apparent in the more conventionally presented data. Linear discriminant analysis of the data arrays indicates that the majority of the soil samples collected along the transects can be more successfully classified with Level 1 ecological regional-scale classification by the soil geochemistry than soil mineralogy. A primary objective of this study is to discover and describe, in a parsimonious way, geochemical processes that are both independent and inter-dependent and manifested through compositional data including estimates of the elements and corresponding mineralogy. ?? 2010.

  12. Distinct Biogeographic Patterns for Archaea, Bacteria, and Fungi along the Vegetation Gradient at the Continental Scale in Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Bin; Dai, Zhongmin; Wang, Haizhen; Dsouza, Melissa; Liu, Xingmei; He, Yan; Wu, Jianjun; Rodrigues, Jorge L M; Gilbert, Jack A; Brookes, Philip C; Xu, Jianming

    2017-01-01

    The natural forest ecosystem in Eastern China, from tropical forest to boreal forest, has declined due to cropland development during the last 300 years, yet little is known about the historical biogeographic patterns and driving processes for the major domains of microorganisms along this continental-scale natural vegetation gradient. We predicted the biogeographic patterns of soil archaeal, bacterial, and fungal communities across 110 natural forest sites along a transect across four vegetation zones in Eastern China. The distance decay relationships demonstrated the distinct biogeographic patterns of archaeal, bacterial, and fungal communities. While historical processes mainly influenced bacterial community variations, spatially autocorrelated environmental variables mainly influenced the fungal community. Archaea did not display a distance decay pattern along the vegetation gradient. Bacterial community diversity and structure were correlated with the ratio of acid oxalate-soluble Fe to free Fe oxides (Feo/Fed ratio). Fungal community diversity and structure were influenced by dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and free aluminum (Ald), respectively. The role of these environmental variables was confirmed by the correlations between dominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and edaphic variables. However, most of the dominant OTUs were not correlated with the major driving variables for the entire communities. These results demonstrate that soil archaea, bacteria, and fungi have different biogeographic patterns and driving processes along this continental-scale natural vegetation gradient, implying different community assembly mechanisms and ecological functions for archaea, bacteria, and fungi in soil ecosystems. IMPORTANCE Understanding biogeographic patterns is a precursor to improving our knowledge of the function of microbiomes and to predicting ecosystem responses to environmental change. Using natural forest soil samples from 110 locations, this study is

  13. Distinct Biogeographic Patterns for Archaea, Bacteria, and Fungi along the Vegetation Gradient at the Continental Scale in Eastern China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Bin; Dai, Zhongmin; Wang, Haizhen; Dsouza, Melissa; Liu, Xingmei; He, Yan; Wu, Jianjun; Gilbert, Jack A.; Brookes, Philip C.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The natural forest ecosystem in Eastern China, from tropical forest to boreal forest, has declined due to cropland development during the last 300 years, yet little is known about the historical biogeographic patterns and driving processes for the major domains of microorganisms along this continental-scale natural vegetation gradient. We predicted the biogeographic patterns of soil archaeal, bacterial, and fungal communities across 110 natural forest sites along a transect across four vegetation zones in Eastern China. The distance decay relationships demonstrated the distinct biogeographic patterns of archaeal, bacterial, and fungal communities. While historical processes mainly influenced bacterial community variations, spatially autocorrelated environmental variables mainly influenced the fungal community. Archaea did not display a distance decay pattern along the vegetation gradient. Bacterial community diversity and structure were correlated with the ratio of acid oxalate-soluble Fe to free Fe oxides (Feo/Fed ratio). Fungal community diversity and structure were influenced by dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and free aluminum (Ald), respectively. The role of these environmental variables was confirmed by the correlations between dominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and edaphic variables. However, most of the dominant OTUs were not correlated with the major driving variables for the entire communities. These results demonstrate that soil archaea, bacteria, and fungi have different biogeographic patterns and driving processes along this continental-scale natural vegetation gradient, implying different community assembly mechanisms and ecological functions for archaea, bacteria, and fungi in soil ecosystems. IMPORTANCE Understanding biogeographic patterns is a precursor to improving our knowledge of the function of microbiomes and to predicting ecosystem responses to environmental change. Using natural forest soil samples from 110 locations, this

  14. Founder effects and stochastic dispersal at the continental scale of the fungal pathogen of bananas Mycosphaerella fijiensis.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Gonzalo-Galileo; Zapater, Marie-Françoise; Abadie, Catherine; Carlier, Jean

    2004-02-01

    The worldwide destructive epidemic of the fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis on banana started recently, spreading from South-East Asia. The founder effects detected in the global population structure of M. fijiensis reflected rare migration events among continents through movements of infected plant material. The main objective of this work was to infer gene flow and dispersal processes of M. fijiensis at the continental scale from population structure analysis in recently invaded regions. Samples of isolates were collected from banana plantations in 13 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean and in Africa. The isolates were analysed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and microsatellite molecular markers. The results indicate that a high level of genetic diversity was maintained at the plantation and the plant scales. The loci were at gametic equilibrium in most of the samples analysed, supporting the hypothesis of the existence of random-mating populations of M. fijiensis, even at the plant scale. A low level of gene diversity was observed in some populations from the Africa and Latin America-Caribbean regions. Nearly half the populations analysed showed a significant deviation from mutation-drift equilibrium with gene diversity excess. Finally, a high level of genetic differentiation was detected between populations from Africa (FST = 0.19) and from the Latin America-Caribbean region (FST = 0.30). These results show that founder effects accompanied the recent invasion of M. fijiensis in both regions, suggesting stochastic spread of the disease at the continental scale. This spread might be caused by either the limited dispersal of ascospores or by movements of infected plant material.

  15. Long-term aerosol study on continental scale through EARLINET vertical profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mona, Lucia; Pappalardo, Gelsomina; Linne, Holger; Wandinger, Ulla

    2015-04-01

    Lidar techniques offer the opportunity for investigating the aerosol vertical profiles, which is an important information for climatological, meteorological and air quality issues. EARLINET (European Aerosol Research Lidar Network) has been providing aerosol optical properties vertical profiles over Europe since May 2000. Long-term aerosol observations performed within EARLINET allows a climatological study of aerosol properties over Europe. All EARLINET stations perform almost simultaneously measurements three times per week following a scheduling established in 2000. Besides these climatological measurements, additional measurements are performed in order to monitor special events (as volcanic eruptions and desert dust intrusion), for satellite data evaluation and integrated studies and during intensive measurements campaigns. Aerosol optical properties vertical profiles are freely available at www.earlinet.org and through ACRIS data center http://www.actris.net/. This data are currently published on the CERA database with an associated doi number. Based mainly on Raman technique, EARLINET stations typically provide direct measurement of extinction profiles, and therefore of the aerosol optical depth (AOD), a key parameter for understanding the aerosol role on radiation budget. The free troposphere contribution to AOD and altitude of lofted layers are provided thanks to the vertical profiling capability of lidar technique. The representativeness of EARLINET regular scheduling for climatological studies is investigating through the comparison with AERONET and MODIS measurements. We find that the regular measurements schedule is typically sufficient for climatological studies. In addition lidar punctual measurements are representative for a larger area (1°x1°) in a climatological sense. Long term analysis of EARLINET profiles shows that the AOD in generally decreasing over Europe in agreement with both passive-sensors and in situ measurements. Mean vertical

  16. Continental-scale ICESat canopy height modelling sensitivity and random forest simulations in Australia and Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkinson, C.; Mahoney, C.; Held, A. A.; Hall, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS), previously onboard the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) uniquely offers near global waveform LiDAR coverage, however, data quality are subject to system, temporal, and spatial issues. These subtleties are investigated here with respect to canopy height comparisons with 3 airborne LiDAR sites in Australia. Optimal GLAS results were obtained from high energy laser transmissions from laser 3 during leaf-on conditions; GLAS data best corresponded with 95th percentile heights from an all return airborne LiDAR point cloud. In addition, best GLAS results were obtained over relatively open canopies, where prominent ground returns can be retrieved. Optimized GLAS data within Australian forests were employed as canopy height observations, and related to 6 predictor variables (landcover, cover fraction, elevation, slope, soils, and species) by random forest (RF) models. Fifty seven RF models were trained, varying by binomial combinations of predictor data, from 2 to 6 inputs. Trained models were separately utilized to predict Australia wide canopy heights; RF canopy height outputs were validated against spatially concurrent airborne LiDAR 95th percentile canopy heights from an all return point cloud for 10 sites, encompassing multiple ecosystems. The best RF output was obtained from predictor data inputs: landcover, cover fraction, elevation soils, and species, yielding a RMSE=7.98 m, and R2=0.97. Results indicate inherent issues (noted in existing literature) in GLAS observations that propagate through RF algorithms, manifested as canopy height underestimations for taller vegetation (>45 m). To extend this research to the Canadian boreal forest context, research is also targeting canopy height model development in the Northwest Territories, allowing investigations of time-variant phenology and landcover sensitivity due to wetland extent and growth, snow cover and other land cover changes common within boreal

  17. NEON: the first continental-scale ecological observatory with airborne remote sensing of vegetation canopy biochemistry and structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Brian R.; Kampe, Thomas U.; Kuester, Michele A.; Keller, Michael

    2009-08-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON), being funded by the National Science Foundation, is a continental-scale research platform for discovering, understanding and forecasting the impacts of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species on ecology. Local site-based flux tower and field measurements will be coordinated with high resolution, regional airborne remote sensing observations. The NEON Airborne Observation Platform (AOP) consists of an aircraft platform carrying remote sensing instrumentation designed to achieve sub-meter to meter scale ground resolution to bridge scales from organism and stand scales to the scale of satellite based remote sensing. Data from the AOP will be openly available to the science community and will provide quantitative information on land use change, and changes in ecological structure and chemistry including the presence and effects of invasive species. Remote sensing instrumentation consists of an imaging spectrometer measuring surface reflectance over the continuous wavelength range from 400 to 2500 nm with 10 nm resolution, a scanning, small footprint waveform LiDAR for 3-D canopy structure measurements and a high resolution airborne digital camera. The AOP science objectives, key mission requirements, the conceptual design and development status are presented.

  18. NEON: the first continental-scale ecological observatory with airborne remote sensing of vegetation canopy biochemistry and structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampe, Thomas U.; Johnson, Brian R.; Kuester, Michele; Keller, Michael

    2010-03-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is an ecological observation platform for discovering, understanding and forecasting the impacts of climate change, land use change, and invasive species on continental-scale ecology. NEON will operate for 30 years and gather long-term data on ecological response changes and on feedbacks with the geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. Local ecological measurements at sites distributed within 20 ecoclimatic domains across the contiguous United States, Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico will be coordinated with high resolution, regional airborne remote sensing observations. The Airborne Observation Platform (AOP) is an aircraft platform carrying remote sensing instrumentation designed to achieve sub-meter to meter scale ground resolution, bridging scales from organisms and individual stands to satellite-based remote sensing. AOP instrumentation consists of a VIS/SWIR imaging spectrometer, a scanning small-footprint waveform LiDAR for 3-D canopy structure measurements and a high resolution airborne digital camera. AOP data will be openly available to scientists and will provide quantitative information on land use change and changes in ecological structure and chemistry including the presence and effects of invasive species. AOP science objectives, key mission requirements, and development status are presented including an overview of near-term risk-reduction and prototyping activities.

  19. Recent Developments and Applications of the WRF-Hydro Modeling System for Continental Scale Water Cycle Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gochis, D. J.; Yu, W.; Dugger, A. L.; McCreight, J. L.; Yates, D. N.; Clark, M. P.; Wood, A. W.; Sampson, K. M.; Rasmussen, R.

    2014-12-01

    The translation of weather and climate forcing through complex landscapes to drive terrestrial hydrologic processes is a true multi-scale problem. Model architectures that attempt to capture these processes and feedbacks in a physically realistic way must be able to bridge spatial scales from meters to kilometers. To represent these processes across continental domains modeling systems must fully embrace high performance computing. Also, because there are both scientific and computational trade-offs in modeling many terrestrial hydrologic and land-atmosphere exchange processes, it is often highly advantageous to support multiple physics options in order to test competing hypotheses and apply scale-appropriate parameterizations for different prediction problems. In this talk we provide an update of new developments to the WRF-Hydro system in meeting these needs from both a process representation and high performance computing perspective. A key feature of these developments centers on new multi-scale modeling capabilities recently added to WRF-Hydro. We will discuss prediction and computational performance metrics for several recent large river basin and continental scale applications of the WRF-Hydro system over the coterminous U.S. and over Mexico in modes both coupled and uncoupled to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. We will also provide updates on new developments to the WRF-Hydro system in the areas of water management applications and hydrologic data assimilation.

  20. DNA barcode reference library for Iberian butterflies enables a continental-scale preview of potential cryptic diversity.

    PubMed

    Dincă, Vlad; Montagud, Sergio; Talavera, Gerard; Hernández-Roldán, Juan; Munguira, Miguel L; García-Barros, Enrique; Hebert, Paul D N; Vila, Roger

    2015-07-24

    How common are cryptic species--those overlooked because of their morphological similarity? Despite its wide-ranging implications for biology and conservation, the answer remains open to debate. Butterflies constitute the best-studied invertebrates, playing a similar role as birds do in providing models for vertebrate biology. An accurate assessment of cryptic diversity in this emblematic group requires meticulous case-by-case assessments, but a preview to highlight cases of particular interest will help to direct future studies. We present a survey of mitochondrial genetic diversity for the butterfly fauna of the Iberian Peninsula with unprecedented resolution (3502 DNA barcodes for all 228 species), creating a reliable system for DNA-based identification and for the detection of overlooked diversity. After compiling available data for European butterflies (5782 sequences, 299 species), we applied the Generalized Mixed Yule-Coalescent model to explore potential cryptic diversity at a continental scale. The results indicate that 27.7% of these species include from two to four evolutionary significant units (ESUs), suggesting that cryptic biodiversity may be higher than expected for one of the best-studied invertebrate groups and regions. The ESUs represent important units for conservation, models for studies of evolutionary and speciation processes, and sentinels for future research to unveil hidden diversity.

  1. Global energy and water cycle experiment (GEWEX) continental-scale international project (GCIP); reference data sets CD-ROM

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rea, Alan; Cederstrand, Joel R.

    1994-01-01

    The data sets on this compact disc are a compilation of several geographic reference data sets of interest to the global-change research community. The data sets were chosen with input from the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Continental-Scale International Project (GCIP) Data Committee and the GCIP Hydrometeorology and Atmospheric Subpanels. The data sets include: locations and periods of record for stream gages, reservoir gages, and meteorological stations; a 500-meter-resolution digital elevation model; grid-node locations for the Eta numerical weather-prediction model; and digital map data sets of geology, land use, streams, large reservoirs, average annual runoff, average annual precipitation, average annual temperature, average annual heating and cooling degree days, hydrologic units, and state and county boundaries. Also included are digital index maps for LANDSAT scenes, and for the U.S. Geological Survey 1:250,000, 1:100,000, and 1:24,000-scale map series. Most of the data sets cover the conterminous United States; the digital elevation model also includes part of southern Canada. The stream and reservoir gage and meteorological station files cover all states having area within the Mississippi River Basin plus that part of the Mississippi River Basin lying within Canada. Several data-base retrievals were processed by state, therefore many sites outside the Mississippi River Basin are included.

  2. Long-term trends of continental-scale PCB patterns studied using a global atmosphere-ocean general circulation model.

    PubMed

    Stemmler, Irene; Lammel, Gerhard

    2012-07-01

    Continental-scale distribution and inter-continental transport of four polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (28, 101, 153, 180) from 1950 to 2010 were studied using the global multicompartment chemistry transport model MPI-MCTM. Following identical primary emissions for all PCB congeners into air, most of the burden is stored in terrestrial (soil and vegetation) compartments. Thereby, PCB-28, PCB-101 and PCB-153 show a shift of the soil burden maxima from source to remote regions. This shift is downwind with regard to the westerlies for Eurasia and upwind for North America and more prominent for the lighter PCBs than for PCB-153 or PCB-180. In meridional direction, all congeners' distributions underwent a northward migration in Eurasia and North America since the 1950s. Inter-continental transport from Eurasian sources accounts largely for contamination of Alaska and British Columbia and determines the migration of the PCB distribution in soil in North America. Trans-Pacific transport occurs mainly in the gas phase in boreal winter (December-January-February) at 3-4 km altitude and is on a multi-year time scale strongly linked to the atmospheric pressure systems over the Pacific. Inter-continental transport of the lighter, more volatile PCBs is more efficient than for the heavier PCBs.

  3. Understanding the ecological drivers of avian influenza virus infection in wildfowl: a continental-scale study across Africa

    PubMed Central

    Gaidet, N.; Caron, A.; Cappelle, J.; Cumming, G. S.; Balança, G.; Hammoumi, S.; Cattoli, G.; Abolnik, C.; Servan de Almeida, R.; Gil, P.; Fereidouni, S. R.; Grosbois, V.; Tran, A.; Mundava, J.; Fofana, B.; Ould El Mamy, A. B.; Ndlovu, M.; Mondain-Monval, J. Y.; Triplet, P.; Hagemeijer, W.; Karesh, W. B.; Newman, S. H.; Dodman, T.

    2012-01-01

    Despite considerable effort for surveillance of wild birds for avian influenza viruses (AIVs), empirical investigations of ecological drivers of AIV prevalence in wild birds are still scarce. Here we used a continental-scale dataset, collected in tropical wetlands of 15 African countries, to test the relative roles of a range of ecological factors on patterns of AIV prevalence in wildfowl. Seasonal and geographical variations in prevalence were positively related to the local density of the wildfowl community and to the wintering period of Eurasian migratory birds in Africa. The predominant influence of wildfowl density with no influence of climatic conditions suggests, in contrast to temperate regions, a predominant role for inter-individual transmission rather than transmission via long-lived virus persisting in the environment. Higher prevalences were found in Anas species than in non-Anas species even when we account for differences in their foraging behaviour (primarily dabbling or not) or their geographical origin (Eurasian or Afro-tropical), suggesting the existence of intrinsic differences between wildfowl taxonomic groups in receptivity to infection. Birds were found infected as often in oropharyngeal as in cloacal samples, but rarely for both types of sample concurrently, indicating that both respiratory and digestive tracts may be important for AIV replication. PMID:21920984

  4. DNA barcode reference library for Iberian butterflies enables a continental-scale preview of potential cryptic diversity

    PubMed Central

    Dincă, Vlad; Montagud, Sergio; Talavera, Gerard; Hernández-Roldán, Juan; Munguira, Miguel L.; García-Barros, Enrique; Hebert, Paul D. N.; Vila, Roger

    2015-01-01

    How common are cryptic species - those overlooked because of their morphological similarity? Despite its wide-ranging implications for biology and conservation, the answer remains open to debate. Butterflies constitute the best-studied invertebrates, playing a similar role as birds do in providing models for vertebrate biology. An accurate assessment of cryptic diversity in this emblematic group requires meticulous case-by-case assessments, but a preview to highlight cases of particular interest will help to direct future studies. We present a survey of mitochondrial genetic diversity for the butterfly fauna of the Iberian Peninsula with unprecedented resolution (3502 DNA barcodes for all 228 species), creating a reliable system for DNA-based identification and for the detection of overlooked diversity. After compiling available data for European butterflies (5782 sequences, 299 species), we applied the Generalized Mixed Yule-Coalescent model to explore potential cryptic diversity at a continental scale. The results indicate that 27.7% of these species include from two to four evolutionary significant units (ESUs), suggesting that cryptic biodiversity may be higher than expected for one of the best-studied invertebrate groups and regions. The ESUs represent important units for conservation, models for studies of evolutionary and speciation processes, and sentinels for future research to unveil hidden diversity. PMID:26205828

  5. Continental-scale variation in seaweed host-associated bacterial communities is a function of host condition, not geography.

    PubMed

    Marzinelli, Ezequiel M; Campbell, Alexandra H; Zozaya Valdes, Enrique; Vergés, Adriana; Nielsen, Shaun; Wernberg, Thomas; de Bettignies, Thibaut; Bennett, Scott; Caporaso, J Gregory; Thomas, Torsten; Steinberg, Peter D

    2015-10-01

    Interactions between hosts and associated microbial communities can fundamentally shape the development and ecology of 'holobionts', from humans to marine habitat-forming organisms such as seaweeds. In marine systems, planktonic microbial community structure is mainly driven by geography and related environmental factors, but the large-scale drivers of host-associated microbial communities are largely unknown. Using 16S-rRNA gene sequencing, we characterized 260 seaweed-associated bacterial and archaeal communities on the kelp Ecklonia radiata from three biogeographical provinces spanning 10° of latitude and 35° of longitude across the Australian continent. These phylogenetically and taxonomically diverse communities were more strongly and consistently associated with host condition than geographical location or environmental variables, and a 'core' microbial community characteristic of healthy kelps appears to be lost when hosts become stressed. Microbial communities on stressed individuals were more similar to each other among locations than those on healthy hosts. In contrast to biogeographical patterns of planktonic marine microbial communities, host traits emerge as critical determinants of associated microbial community structure of these holobionts, even at a continental scale.

  6. Extended-range high-resolution dynamical downscaling over a continental-scale spatial domain with atmospheric and surface nudging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husain, S. Z.; Separovic, L.; Yu, W.; Fernig, D.

    2014-12-01

    Extended-range high-resolution mesoscale simulations with limited-area atmospheric models when applied to downscale regional analysis fields over large spatial domains can provide valuable information for many applications including the weather-dependent renewable energy industry. Long-term simulations over a continental-scale spatial domain, however, require mechanisms to control the large-scale deviations in the high-resolution simulated fields from the coarse-resolution driving fields. As enforcement of the lateral boundary conditions is insufficient to restrict such deviations, large scales in the simulated high-resolution meteorological fields are therefore spectrally nudged toward the driving fields. Different spectral nudging approaches, including the appropriate nudging length scales as well as the vertical profiles and temporal relaxations for nudging, have been investigated to propose an optimal nudging strategy. Impacts of time-varying nudging and generation of hourly analysis estimates are explored to circumvent problems arising from the coarse temporal resolution of the regional analysis fields. Although controlling the evolution of the atmospheric large scales generally improves the outputs of high-resolution mesoscale simulations within the surface layer, the prognostically evolving surface fields can nevertheless deviate from their expected values leading to significant inaccuracies in the predicted surface layer meteorology. A forcing strategy based on grid nudging of the different surface fields, including surface temperature, soil moisture, and snow conditions, toward their expected values obtained from a high-resolution offline surface scheme is therefore proposed to limit any considerable deviation. Finally, wind speed and temperature at wind turbine hub height predicted by different spectrally nudged extended-range simulations are compared against observations to demonstrate possible improvements achievable using higher spatiotemporal

  7. An effective indicator of continental scale cold air outbreaks in northern winter: the intensity variation of the meridional mass circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, R.; Yu, Y.; Cai, M.

    2015-12-01

    This study reports that the intensity variation of the meridional mass circulation can be an effective leading indicator of cold air outbreaks (CAOs) over midlatitudes in northern winter. It is found that continental-scale coldness by cold air outbreaks (CAOs) tend to preferentially occur within a week after stronger mass circulation events defined as the peak time when the net mass transport across 60°N in the upper warm or the lower cold air branch exceeds ~88×109 kg s-1. During weaker mass circulation events when the net mass transport across 60°N is below ~71.6×109 kg s-1, most areas of the mid-latitudes are generally in mild condition except the northern part of Western Europe. Composite pattern of circulation anomalies during stronger mass circulation events greatly resemble that of the winter-mean, with the two main routes of anomalous cold air outbreaks being along the climatological routes of polar cold air, namely, via East Asia and North America. The Siberian High shifts westward during stronger mass circulation events, opening up a third route of cold air outbreaks through Eastern Europe. The relationship of CAOs with Arctic Oscillation (AO) is less robust because temporal changes of AO are resulted from a small imbalance between the poleward and equatorward branches of the mass circulation. Only when the poleward branch leads the equatorward branch (44% of all cases), CAOs tend to take place within a week after a negative phase of AO. The daily ERA-Interim reanalysis data set for the 32 winters in 1979-2011 were used in this study.

  8. Evaluation of forest interception estimation in the continental scale Australian Water Resources Assessment - Landscape (AWRA-L) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Jim; Macfarlane, Craig; McJannet, Dave; Ellis, Tim; Grigg, Andrew; van Dijk, Albert

    2013-08-01

    The AWRA-L model is a core component of the joint Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) and CSIRO Australian Water Resources Assessment (AWRA) system which integrates hydrological models and a variety of observations and satellite products to produce a National Water Accounting system for Australia. AWRA-L is a continental scale sub-model which provides surface water balance component estimates for all landscape types, including forests ranging from sparse woody vegetation in dry climates to dense tropical rainforest in wet climates. This paper describes the AWRA-L interception sub-routine, which is based on the widely used Gash model, and considers how its predictions compare with measurements of interception in tropical rainforests in north Queensland and sparse jarrah forests in Western Australia. The results demonstrate the importance of having accurate estimates of the three parameters which dominate the interception loss (as a fraction of rainfall), i.e. canopy water holding capacity, S, the average wet canopy evaporation rate, E, and the average rainfall rate, R. The current ‘default’ values of these parameters used in AWRA-L lead to significant errors in interception, which will also be reflected in the AWRA stream flow estimates. Analysis of how E and R values vary across the Australian continent have led to recommendations for how the interception calculations made by the AWRA-L model can be improved using values of E and R calculated from forest height and latitude. Revisions of the canopy storage parameters based on regressions derived from measured values at the rainforest and jarrah sites are also evaluated. Overall, the adoption of both updated canopy storage and E/R ratios outlined in this paper does provide a measurable improvement to the performance of the AWRA-L interception model. The approach developed in this study also has direct relevance to other applications of interception models for water balance modelling at large spatial scales.

  9. Major- and trace-element concentrations in soils from two continental-scale transects of the United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, David B.; Cannon, William F.; Woodruff, Laurel G.; Garrett, Robert G.; Klassen, Rodney; Kilburn, James E.; Horton, John D.; King, Harley D.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; Morrison, Jean M.

    2005-01-01

    This report contains major- and trace-element concentration data for soil samples collected from 265 sites along two continental-scale transects in North America. One of the transects extends from northern Manitoba to the United States-Mexico border near El Paso, Tex. and consists of 105 sites. The other transect approximately follows the 38th parallel from the Pacific coast of the United States near San Francisco, Calif., to the Atlantic coast along the Maryland shore and consists of 160 sites. Sampling sites were defined by first dividing each transect into approximately 40-km segments. For each segment, a 1-km-wide latitudinal strip was randomly selected; within each strip, a potential sample site was selected from the most representative landscape within the most common soil type. At one in four sites, duplicate samples were collected 10 meters apart to estimate local spatial variability. At each site, up to four separate soil samples were collected as follows: (1) material from 0-5 cm depth; (2) O horizon, if present; (3) a composite of the A horizon; and (4) C horizon. Each sample collected was analyzed for total major- and trace-element composition by the following methods: (1) inductively coupled plasmamass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICPAES) for aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, calcium, cerium, cesium, chromium, cobalt, copper, gallium, indium, iron, lanthanum, lead, lithium, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, niobium, phosphorus, potassium, rubidium, scandium, silver, sodium, strontium, sulfur, tellurium, thallium, thorium, tin, titanium, tungsten, uranium, vanadium, yttrium, and zinc; (2) cold vapor- atomic absorption spectrometry for mercury; (3) hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry for antimony and selenium; (4) coulometric titration for carbonate carbon; and (5) combustion for total carbon and total sulfur.

  10. Measurement of inter- and intra-annual variability of landscape fire activity at a continental scale: the Australian case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Grant J.; Prior, Lynda D.; Jolly, W. Matt; Cochrane, Mark A.; Murphy, Brett P.; Bowman, David M. J. S.

    2016-03-01

    shaping continental-scale pyrogeography.

  11. Feeling the Pulse of the Stratosphere: An Emerging Opportunity for Predicting Continental-Scale Cold Air Outbreaks One Month in Advance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, M.

    2015-12-01

    Extreme weather events such as cold air outbreaks (CAOs) pose great threats to human life and socioeconomic well-being of the modern society. In the past, our capability to predict their occurrences is constrained by the 2-week predictability limit for weather. We demonstrate here for the first time that a rapid increase of air mass transported into the polar stratosphere, referred to as "the pulse of the stratosphere (PULSE)", can be predicted with a useful skill 4-6 weeks in advance by operational forecast models. We further show that the probability of the occurrence of continental-scale CAOs in mid-latitudes increases substantially above the normal condition within a short time period from one week before to 1-2 weeks after the peak day of a PULSE event. In particular, we reveal that the three massive CAOs over North America in January and February of 2014 were preceded by three episodes of extreme mass transport into the polar stratosphere with peak intensities reaching a trillion tons per day, twice of that on an average winter day. Therefore, our capability to predict the PULSEs with operational forecast models, in conjunction with its linkage to continental-scale CAOs, opens up a new opportunity for 30-day forecasts of continental-scale CAOs, such as those occurring over North America in the 2013-14 winter. A real time forecast experiment inaugurated in the winter of 2014-15 has confirmed the feasibility of forecasting CAOs one month in advance.

  12. Continental-scale patterns in soil geochemistry and mineralogy: results from two transects across the United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodruff, L.G.; Cannon, W.F.; Eberl, D.D.; Smith, D.B.; Kilburn, J.E.; Horton, J.D.; Garrett, R.G.; Klassen, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) initiated a pilot study that involved collection of more than 1500 soil samples from 221 sites along two continental transects across Canada and the United States. The pilot study was designed to test and refine protocols for a soil geochemical survey of North America. The two transects crossed a wide array of soil parent materials, soil ages, climatic conditions, landforms, land covers and land uses. Sample sites were selected randomly at approximately 40-km intervals from a population defined as all soils of the continent. At each site, soils representing 0 to 5 cm depth, and the O, A, and C horizons, if present, were collected and analyzed for their near-total content of over 40 major and trace elements. Soils from 0–5 cm depth were also collected for analysis of organic compounds. Results from the transects confirm that soil samples collected at a 40-km spacing reveal coherent, continental- to subcontinental-scale geochemical and mineralogical patterns that can be correlated to aspects of underlying soil parent material, soil age and climate influence. The geochemical data also demonstrate that at the continental-scale the dominance of any of these major factors that control soil geochemistry can change across the landscape. Along both transects, soil mineralogy and geochemistry change abruptly with changes in soil parent materials. However, the chemical influence of a soil’s parent material can be obscured by changing climatic conditions. For the transects, increasing precipitation from west to east and increasing temperature from north to south affect both soil mineralogy and geochemistry because of climate effects on soil weathering and leaching, and plant productivity. Regional anomalous metal concentrations can be linked to natural variations in soil parent materials, such as high Ni and Cr in soils developed on ultramafic rocks in California or high P in soils formed on

  13. Analysis of confidence in continental-scale groundwater recharge estimates for Africa using a distributed water balance model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, Jonathan; Mansour, Majdi; Bonsor, Helen; Pachocka, Magdalena; Wang, Lei; MacDonald, Alan; Macdonald, David; Bloomfield, John

    2014-05-01

    There is a growing need for improved access to reliable water in Africa as population and food production increases. Currently approximately 300 million people do not have access to a secure source of safe drinking water. To meet these current and future demands, groundwater will need to be increasingly abstracted; groundwater is more reliable than surface water sources due to its relatively long response time to meteorological stresses and therefore is likely to be a more secure water resource in a more variable climate. Recent studies also quantified the volumes of groundwater potentially available which suggest that, if exploited, groundwater could help to meet the demand for fresh water. However, there is still considerable uncertainty as to how these resources may respond in the future due to changes in groundwater recharge and abstraction. Understanding and quantifying groundwater recharge is vital as it forms a primary indicator of the sustainability of underlying groundwater resources. Computational hydrological models provide a means to do this, but the complexity of recharge processes in Africa mean that these simulations are often highly uncertain. This study aims to evaluate our confidence in simulating groundwater recharge over Africa based on a sensitivity analysis using a distributed hydrological model developed by the British Geological Survey, ZOODRM. The model includes land surface, canopy, river, soil and groundwater components. Each component is able to exchange water and as such, forms a distributed water balance of Africa. The components have been parameterised using available spatial datasets of African vegetation, land-use, soil and hydrogeology while the remaining parameters have been estimated by calibrating the model to available river flow data. Continental-scale gridded precipitation and potential evapotranspiration datasets, based on remotely sensed and ground observations, have been used to force the model. Following calibration, the

  14. Feeling the Pulse of the Stratosphere: An Emerging Opportunity for Predicting Continental-Scale Cold Air Outbreaks One Month in Advance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Ming

    2016-04-01

    Extreme weather events such as cold air outbreaks (CAOs) pose great threats to human life and socioeconomic well-being of the modern society. In the past, our capability to predict their occurrences is constrained by the 2-week predictability limit for weather. We demonstrate here for the first time that a rapid increase of air mass transported into the polar stratosphere, referred to as "the pulse of the stratosphere (PULSE)", can often be predicted with a useful skill 4-6 weeks in advance by operational forecast models. We further show that the probability of the occurrence of continental-scale CAOs in mid-latitudes increases substantially above the normal condition within a short time period from one week before to 1-2 weeks after the peak day of a PULSE event. In particular, we reveal that the three massive CAOs over North America in January and February of 2014 were preceded by three episodes of extreme mass transport into the polar stratosphere with peak intensities reaching a trillion tons per day, twice of that on an average winter day. Therefore, our capability to predict the PULSEs with operational forecast models, in conjunction with its linkage to continental-scale CAOs, opens up a new opportunity for 30-day forecasts of continental-scale CAOs, such as those occurring over North America in the 2013-14 winter. A real time forecast experiment inaugurated in the winter of 2014-15 has given support to the idea that it is feasible to forecast CAOs one month in advance.

  15. On the connection between continental-scale land surface processes and the tropical climate in a coupled ocean-atmosphere-land system

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Hsi-Yen; Mechoso, C. R.; Xue, Yongkang; Xiao, Heng; Neelin, David; Ji, Xuan

    2013-11-15

    The impact of global tropical climate to perturbations in land surface processes (LSP) are evaluated using perturbations given by different LSP representations of continental-scale in a global climate model that includes atmosphere-ocean interactions. One representation is a simple land scheme, which specifies climatological albedos and soil moisture availability. The other representation is the more comprehensive Simplified Simple Biosphere Model, which allows for interactive soil moisture and vegetation biophysical processes. The results demonstrate that LSP processes such as interactive soil moisture and vegetation biophysical processes have strong impacts on the seasonal mean states and seasonal cycles of global precipitation, clouds, and surface air temperature. The impact is especially significant over the tropical Pacific. To explore the mechanisms for such impact, different LSP representations are confined to selected continental-scale regions where strong interactions of climate-vegetation biophysical processes are present. We find that the largest impact is mainly from LSP perturbations over the tropical African continent. The impact is through anomalous convective heating in tropical Africa due to changes in the surface heat fluxes, which in turn affect basinwide teleconnections in the Pacific through equatorial wave dynamics. The modifications in the equatorial Pacific climate are further enhanced by strong air-sea coupling between surface wind stress and upwelling, as well as effect of ocean memory. Our results further suggest that correct representations of land surface processes, land use change and the associated changes in the deep convection over tropical Africa are crucial to reducing the uncertainty when performing future climate projections under different climate change scenarios.

  16. On the connection between continental-scale land surface processes and the tropical climate in a coupled ocean-atmosphere-land system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, H.; Mechoso, C. R.; Xue, Y.; Xiao, H.; Neelin, J.; Ji, X.

    2013-12-01

    An evaluation is presented of the impact on tropical climate of continental-scale perturbations given by different representations of land surface processes (LSP) in a general circulation model that includes atmosphere-ocean interactions. One representation is a simple land scheme, which specifies climatological albedos and soil moisture availability. The other representation is the more comprehensive Simplified Simple Biosphere Model, which allows for interactive soil moisture and vegetation biophysical processes. The results demonstrate that such perturbations have strong impacts on the seasonal mean states and seasonal cycles of global precipitation, clouds, and surface air temperature. The impact is especially significant over the tropical Pacific Ocean. To explore the mechanisms for such impact, model experiments are performed with different LSP representations confined to selected continental-scale regions where strong interactions of climate-vegetation biophysical processes are present. The largest impact found over the tropical Pacific is mainly from perturbations in the tropical African continent where convective heating anomalies associated with perturbed surface heat fluxes trigger global teleconnections through equatorial wave dynamics. In the equatorial Pacific, the remote impacts of the convection anomalies are further enhanced by strong air-sea coupling between surface wind stress and upwelling, as well as by the effects of ocean memory. LSP perturbations over South America and Asia-Australia have much weaker global impacts. The results further suggest that correct representations of LSP, land use change, and associated changes in the deep convection over tropical Africa are crucial to reducing the uncertainty of future climate projections with global climate models under various climate change scenarios. This work is performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA

  17. Sideline Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Sara J.; Cardone, Dennis A.; Munyak, John; Underwood, Philipp J.; Gould, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Sidelines coverage presents unique challenges in the evaluation of injured athletes. Health care providers may be confronted with the question of when to obtain radiographs following an injury. Given that most sidelines coverage occurs outside the elite level, radiographs are not readily available at the time of injury, and the decision of when to send a player for radiographs must be made based on physical examination. Clinical tools have been developed to aid in identifying injuries that are likely to result in radiographically important fractures or dislocations. Evidence Acquisition: A search for the keywords x-ray and decision rule along with the anatomic locations shoulder, elbow, wrist, knee, and ankle was performed using the PubMed database. No limits were set regarding year of publication. We selected meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, and survey results. Our selection focused on the largest, most well-studied published reports. We also attempted to include studies that reported the application of the rules to the field of sports medicine. Study Design: Retrospective literature review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: The Ottawa Foot and Ankle Rules have been validated and implemented and are appropriate for use in both pediatric and adult populations. The Ottawa Knee Rules have been widely studied, validated, and accepted for evaluation of knee injuries. There are promising studies of decision rules for clinically important fractures of the wrist, but these studies have not been validated. The elbow has been evaluated with good outcomes via the elbow extension test, which has been validated in both single and multicenter studies. Currently, there are no reliable clinical decision tools for traumatic sports injuries to the shoulder to aid in the decision of when to obtain radiographs. Conclusion: Clinical decision tools have been developed to aid in the diagnosis and management of injuries commonly sustained during sporting events

  18. Assessment of droughts at a continental scale under different climate change scenarios. Case study: La Plata Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sordo-Ward, Alvaro; Iglesias, Ana; Garrote, Luis; Bejarano, Maria Dolores; Asenjo, Victor; Bianucci, Paola

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we characterized and diagnosed the droughts across La Plata Basin for the reference (1961 - 2005) and future (2007 - 2040, 2041 - 2070 and 2071 - 2099) scenarios. La Plata Basin is located in the Centre-South of South America and comprises 3.174.229 km2 and five countries. Despite the significant impact of droughts on agriculture, cattle, water supply, natural water courses and wetlands, droughts are still difficult to predict in the region, both in time and space. We used the Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) to characterize droughts based on Potential Evapotranspiration (PET) and Precipitation (P) at a monthly scale. PET and P were obtained for all 10 x 10 km-size cells within the basin by using the regional climatic model Eta, under the boundary conditions of the HadGEM2-ES model and the CO2 emissions scenario RCP 4.5. Cell to cell information was integrated into a sub-basin level in order to show and analyze the results. For each sub-basin, climate scenario, and temporal scale of SPEI (1, 3, 6 and 12 months), we identified the beginning of each drought, calculated its duration, magnitude, maximum and mean intensities, and the duration between drought events. Additionally, for each SPEI temporal scale and sub-basin, we described the spatial coverage of droughts for the temporal series of all climate scenarios. Spatially, we found a decrease of PET from North to South. Temporally, results showed a future increase of PET for the Paraguay river basin and upper Parana river basin but similar to present values for the remaining basin. Results showed that P will be similar in the future for the Paraguay river basin and upper Parana river basin, but will increase within the remaining basin. During the 2007 - 2040 scenario, we expect that the northern sub-basins suffer from several droughts while the southern ones have wetter climate with few short drought events. As we analyzed more distant future scenarios the wet climate

  19. Continental-scale assessment of long-term trends in wet deposition trajectories: Role of anthropogenic and hydro-climatic drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Gall, H. E.; Niyogi, D.; Rao, S.

    2012-12-01

    The global trend of increased urbanization, and associated increased intensity of energy and material consumption and waste emissions, has contributed to shifts in the trajectories of aquatic, terrestrial, and atmospheric environments. Here, we focus on continental-scale spatiotemporal patterns in two atmospheric constituents (nitrate and sulfate), whose global biogeochemical cycles have been dramatically altered by emissions from mobile and fixed sources in urbanized and industrialized regions. The observed patterns in wet deposition fluxes of nitrate and sulfate are controlled by (1) natural hydro-climatic forcing, and (2) anthropogenic forcing (emissions and regulatory control), both of which are characterized by stochasticity and non-stationarity. We examine long-term wet deposition records in the U.S., Europe, and East Asia to evaluate how anthropogenic and natural forcing factors jointly contributed to the shifting temporal patterns of wet deposition fluxes at continental scales. These data offer clear evidence for successful implementation of regulatory controls and widespread adoption of technologies contributed to improving water quality and mitigation of adverse ecological impacts. We developed a stochastic model to project the future trajectories of wet deposition fluxes in emerging countries with fast growing urban areas. The model generates ellipses within which projected wet deposition flux trajectories are inscribed, similar to the trends in observational data. The shape of the ellipses provides information regarding the relative dominance of anthropogenic (e.g., industrial and urban emissions) versus hydro-climatic drivers (e.g., rainfall patterns, aridity index). Our analysis facilitates projections of the trajectory shift as a result of urbanization and other land-use changes, climate change, and regulatory enforcement. We use these observed data and the model to project likely trajectories for rapidly developing countries (BRIC), with a

  20. Monitoring intervention coverage in the context of universal health coverage.

    PubMed

    Boerma, Ties; AbouZahr, Carla; Evans, David; Evans, Tim

    2014-09-01

    Monitoring universal health coverage (UHC) focuses on information on health intervention coverage and financial protection. This paper addresses monitoring intervention coverage, related to the full spectrum of UHC, including health promotion and disease prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, and palliation. A comprehensive core set of indicators most relevant to the country situation should be monitored on a regular basis as part of health progress and systems performance assessment for all countries. UHC monitoring should be embedded in a broad results framework for the country health system, but focus on indicators related to the coverage of interventions that most directly reflect the results of UHC investments and strategies in each country. A set of tracer coverage indicators can be selected, divided into two groups-promotion/prevention, and treatment/care-as illustrated in this paper. Disaggregation of the indicators by the main equity stratifiers is critical to monitor progress in all population groups. Targets need to be set in accordance with baselines, historical rate of progress, and measurement considerations. Critical measurement gaps also exist, especially for treatment indicators, covering issues such as mental health, injuries, chronic conditions, surgical interventions, rehabilitation, and palliation. Consequently, further research and proxy indicators need to be used in the interim. Ideally, indicators should include a quality of intervention dimension. For some interventions, use of a single indicator is feasible, such as management of hypertension; but in many areas additional indicators are needed to capture quality of service provision. The monitoring of UHC has significant implications for health information systems. Major data gaps will need to be filled. At a minimum, countries will need to administer regular household health surveys with biological and clinical data collection. Countries will also need to improve the production of

  1. Modeling sugarcane yield with a process-based model from site to continental scale: uncertainties arising from model structure and parameter values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valade, A.; Ciais, P.; Vuichard, N.; Viovy, N.; Caubel, A.; Huth, N.; Marin, F.; Martiné, J.-F.

    2014-06-01

    Agro-land surface models (agro-LSM) have been developed from the integration of specific crop processes into large-scale generic land surface models that allow calculating the spatial distribution and variability of energy, water and carbon fluxes within the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. When developing agro-LSM models, particular attention must be given to the effects of crop phenology and management on the turbulent fluxes exchanged with the atmosphere, and the underlying water and carbon pools. A part of the uncertainty of agro-LSM models is related to their usually large number of parameters. In this study, we quantify the parameter-values uncertainty in the simulation of sugarcane biomass production with the agro-LSM ORCHIDEE-STICS, using a multi-regional approach with data from sites in Australia, La Réunion and Brazil. In ORCHIDEE-STICS, two models are chained: STICS, an agronomy model that calculates phenology and management, and ORCHIDEE, a land surface model that calculates biomass and other ecosystem variables forced by STICS phenology. First, the parameters that dominate the uncertainty of simulated biomass at harvest date are determined through a screening of 67 different parameters of both STICS and ORCHIDEE on a multi-site basis. Secondly, the uncertainty of harvested biomass attributable to those most sensitive parameters is quantified and specifically attributed to either STICS (phenology, management) or to ORCHIDEE (other ecosystem variables including biomass) through distinct Monte Carlo runs. The uncertainty on parameter values is constrained using observations by calibrating the model independently at seven sites. In a third step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out by varying the most sensitive parameters to investigate their effects at continental scale. A Monte Carlo sampling method associated with the calculation of partial ranked correlation coefficients is used to quantify the sensitivity of harvested biomass to input

  2. Modeling sugar cane yield with a process-based model from site to continental scale: uncertainties arising from model structure and parameter values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valade, A.; Ciais, P.; Vuichard, N.; Viovy, N.; Huth, N.; Marin, F.; Martiné, J.-F.

    2014-01-01

    Agro-Land Surface Models (agro-LSM) have been developed from the integration of specific crop processes into large-scale generic land surface models that allow calculating the spatial distribution and variability of energy, water and carbon fluxes within the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. When developing agro-LSM models, a particular attention must be given to the effects of crop phenology and management on the turbulent fluxes exchanged with the atmosphere, and the underlying water and carbon pools. A part of the uncertainty of Agro-LSM models is related to their usually large number of parameters. In this study, we quantify the parameter-values uncertainty in the simulation of sugar cane biomass production with the agro-LSM ORCHIDEE-STICS, using a multi-regional approach with data from sites in Australia, La Réunion and Brazil. In ORCHIDEE-STICS, two models are chained: STICS, an agronomy model that calculates phenology and management, and ORCHIDEE, a land surface model that calculates biomass and other ecosystem variables forced by STICS' phenology. First, the parameters that dominate the uncertainty of simulated biomass at harvest date are determined through a screening of 67 different parameters of both STICS and ORCHIDEE on a multi-site basis. Secondly, the uncertainty of harvested biomass attributable to those most sensitive parameters is quantified and specifically attributed to either STICS (phenology, management) or to ORCHIDEE (other ecosystem variables including biomass) through distinct Monte-Carlo runs. The uncertainty on parameter values is constrained using observations by calibrating the model independently at seven sites. In a third step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out by varying the most sensitive parameters to investigate their effects at continental scale. A Monte-Carlo sampling method associated with the calculation of Partial Ranked Correlation Coefficients is used to quantify the sensitivity of harvested biomass to input

  3. Enhancing continental-scale understanding of agriculture: Integrating the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) with existing research networks to address global change.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, G.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade, there has been a resurgence of interest in the sustainability of the world's food system and its contributions to feeding the world's population as well as to ensuring environmental sustainability of the planet. The elements of this grand challenge are by now well known. Analysis of agricultural sustainability is made more challenging by the fact that the local responses to these global drivers of change are extremely variable in space and time due to the biophysical and geopolitical heterogeneity across the United States, and the world. Utilizing research networks allows the scientific community to leverage existing knowledge, models and data to develop a framework for understanding the interplay between global change drivers, regional, and continental sustainability of US agriculture. For example, well-established instrumented and calibrated research networks will allow for the examination of the potential tradeoffs between: 1) crop production, 2) land use and carbon emissions and sequestration, 3) groundwater depletion, and 4) nitrogen dynamics. NEON represents a major investment in scientific infrastructure in support of ecological research at a continental scale and is intended to address multiple ecological grand challenges. NEON will collect data from automated sensors and sample organisms and ecological variables in 20 eco-climatic domains. We will provide examples of how NEON's full potential can be realized when these data are combined with long term experimental results and other sensor networks [e.g., Ameriflux, Fluxnet, the Long-term Ecological Research Program (LTER), the Long-term Agroecosystem Research Network (LTAR)], Critical Zone Observatory (CZO).

  4. Drug Plan Coverage Rules

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medication Therapy Management programs Drug plan coverage rules , current page Using your drug plan for the first time Filling a prescription without your new plan card Costs for Medicare drug coverage Joining a health or ...

  5. Toward regional- to continental-scale estimates of vegetation canopy height: An empirical approach based on data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Wayne S.

    This dissertation investigates the feasibility of exploiting interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data acquired during the 2000 Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) for the purpose of obtaining regional- to continental-scale estimates of vegetation canopy height. The specific objectives were to (1) assess the quality of SRTM C- and X-band data in the context of canopy height retrieval with an emphasis on vertical accuracy and horizontal resolution, (2) determine the extent to which SRTM C-band data could be used to develop empirical models for canopy height prediction, and (3) develop a robust SRTM-based approach for generating a year-2000 baseline map of canopy height for the conterminous U.S. The assessment of SRTM data quality revealed the presence of a vegetation signal sufficient to support canopy height retrieval. In the vertical dimension, signal quality was found to be most affected by error attributed to residual phase noise, and a novel strategy for error mitigation was developed. In the horizontal dimension, the resolution of the SRTM C- and X-band data was estimated at approximately 45 meters. Pilot studies conducted in Georgia and California demonstrated that empirical estimates of canopy height could be obtained from the SRTM C-band vegetation signal in conjunction with the National Elevation Dataset assuming the availability of sufficient field reference data and an appropriate level of error mitigation. The studies also revealed the importance of stand-level characteristics, including stand size and shape in the context of phase noise reduction and stand structure where regression model development is concerned. Supported by an unprecedented confluence of national geospatial data layers as well as an extensive national reference data network, a proof-of-concept study was designed to evaluate a novel, empirical approach for broad-scale SRTM-based canopy height mapping. The study produced the first-ever InSAR-based map of canopy height

  6. New soil composition data for Europe and Australia: demonstrating comparability, identifying continental-scale processes and learning lessons for global geochemical mapping.

    PubMed

    Reimann, Clemens; de Caritat, Patrice

    2012-02-01

    New geochemical data from two continental-scale soil surveys in Europe and Australia are compared. Internal project standards were exchanged to assess comparability of analytical results. The total concentration of 26 oxides/elements (Al2O3, As, Ba, CaO, Ce, Co, Cr, Fe2O3, Ga, K2O, MgO, MnO, Na2O, Nb, Ni, P2O5, Pb, Rb, SiO2, Sr, Th, TiO2, V, Y, Zn, and Zr), Loss On Ignition (LOI) and pH are demonstrated to be comparable. Additionally, directly comparable data for 14 elements in an aqua regia extraction (Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Ce, Co, Cs, Cu, Fe, La, Li, Mn, Mo, and Pb) are provided for both continents. Median soil compositions are close, though generally Australian soils are depleted in all elements with the exception of SiO2 and Zr. This is interpreted to reflect the generally longer and, in places, more intense weathering in Australia. Calculation of the Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) gives a median value of 72% for Australia compared to 60% for Europe. Element concentrations vary over 3 (and up to 5) orders of magnitude. Several elements (total As and Ni; aqua regia As, Co, Bi, Li, Pb) have a lower element concentration by a factor of 2-3 in the soils of northern Europe compared to southern Europe. The break in concentration coincides with the maximum extent of the last glaciation. The younger soils of northern Europe are more similar to the Australian soils than the older soils from southern Europe. In Australia, the central region with especially high SiO2 concentrations is commonly depleted in many elements. The new data define the natural background variation for two continents on both hemispheres based on real data. Judging from the experience of these two continental surveys, it can be concluded that analytical quality is the key requirement for the success of global geochemical mapping.

  7. Coverage-adjusted entropy estimation.

    PubMed

    Vu, Vincent Q; Yu, Bin; Kass, Robert E

    2007-09-20

    Data on 'neural coding' have frequently been analyzed using information-theoretic measures. These formulations involve the fundamental and generally difficult statistical problem of estimating entropy. We review briefly several methods that have been advanced to estimate entropy and highlight a method, the coverage-adjusted entropy estimator (CAE), due to Chao and Shen that appeared recently in the environmental statistics literature. This method begins with the elementary Horvitz-Thompson estimator, developed for sampling from a finite population, and adjusts for the potential new species that have not yet been observed in the sample-these become the new patterns or 'words' in a spike train that have not yet been observed. The adjustment is due to I. J. Good, and is called the Good-Turing coverage estimate. We provide a new empirical regularization derivation of the coverage-adjusted probability estimator, which shrinks the maximum likelihood estimate. We prove that the CAE is consistent and first-order optimal, with rate O(P)(1/log n), in the class of distributions with finite entropy variance and that, within the class of distributions with finite qth moment of the log-likelihood, the Good-Turing coverage estimate and the total probability of unobserved words converge at rate O(P)(1/(log n)(q)). We then provide a simulation study of the estimator with standard distributions and examples from neuronal data, where observations are dependent. The results show that, with a minor modification, the CAE performs much better than the MLE and is better than the best upper bound estimator, due to Paninski, when the number of possible words m is unknown or infinite.

  8. Medicare Prescription Drug Coverage

    MedlinePlus

    ... people also have to pay an additional monthly cost. Private companies provide Medicare prescription drug coverage. You choose the drug plan you like best. Whether or not you should sign up depends on how good your current coverage is. You need to sign up as ...

  9. Women's Health Insurance Coverage

    MedlinePlus

    ... to be updated by the end of 2016. Abortion services are explicitly prohibited from being included as ... 25 states have laws banning coverage of most abortions from the plans available through the state Marketplaces, ...

  10. Dimensional Regularization is Generic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujikawa, Kazuo

    The absence of the quadratic divergence in the Higgs sector of the Standard Model in the dimensional regularization is usually regarded to be an exceptional property of a specific regularization. To understand what is going on in the dimensional regularization, we illustrate how to reproduce the results of the dimensional regularization for the λϕ4 theory in the more conventional regularization such as the higher derivative regularization; the basic postulate involved is that the quadratically divergent induced mass, which is independent of the scale change of the physical mass, is kinematical and unphysical. This is consistent with the derivation of the Callan-Symanzik equation, which is a comparison of two theories with slightly different masses, for the λϕ4 theory without encountering the quadratic divergence. In this sense the dimensional regularization may be said to be generic in a bottom-up approach starting with a successful low energy theory. We also define a modified version of the mass independent renormalization for a scalar field which leads to the homogeneous renormalization group equation. Implications of the present analysis on the Standard Model at high energies and the presence or absence of SUSY at LHC energies are briey discussed.

  11. Immunisation coverage, 2012.

    PubMed

    Hull, Brynley P; Dey, Aditi; Menzies, Rob I; Brotherton, Julia M; McIntyre, Peter B

    2014-09-30

    This, the 6th annual immunisation coverage report, documents trends during 2012 for a range of standard measures derived from Australian Childhood Immunisation Register (ACIR) data, and National Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination Program Register data. These include coverage at standard age milestones and for individual vaccines included on the National Immunisation Program (NIP) and coverage in adolescents and adults. The proportion of Australian children 'fully vaccinated' at 12, 24 and 60 months of age was 91.7%, 92.5% and 91.2%, respectively. For vaccines available on the NIP but not assessed during 2012 for 'fully vaccinated' status or for eligibility for incentive payments (rotavirus and pneumococcal at 12 months and meningococcal C and varicella at 24 months) coverage varied. Although pneumococcal vaccine had similar coverage at 12 months to other vaccines, coverage was lower for rotavirus at 12 months (83.6%) and varicella at 24 months (84.4%). Although 'fully vaccinated' coverage at 12 months of age was lower among Indigenous children than non-Indigenous children in all jurisdictions, the extent of the difference varied, reaching a 15 percentage point differential in South Australia but only a 0.4 percentage point differential in the Northern Territory. Overall, Indigenous coverage at 24 months of age exceeded that at 12 months of age nationally and for all jurisdictions, but as receipt of varicella vaccine at 18 months is excluded from calculations, this represents delayed immunisation, with some contribution from immunisation incentives. The 'fully vaccinated' coverage estimates for vaccinations due by 60 months of age for Indigenous children exceeded 90% at 91% in 2012. Unlike in 2011, at 60 months of age, there was no dramatic variation in coverage between Indigenous and non-Indigenous children for individual jurisdictions. As previously documented, vaccines recommended for Indigenous children only, hepatitis A and pneumococcal vaccine, had

  12. Mapping the Abundance and Distribution of Adélie Penguins Using Landsat-7: First Steps towards an Integrated Multi-Sensor Pipeline for Tracking Populations at the Continental Scale

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Heather J.; Schwaller, Mathew R.

    2014-01-01

    The last several years have seen an increased interest in the use of remote sensing to identify the location of penguin colonies in Antarctica, and the estimation of the abundance of breeding pairs contained therein. High-resolution (sub-meter) commercial satellite imagery (e.g., Worldview-1, Quickbird) is capable of colony detection and abundance estimation for both large and small colonies, and has already been used in a continental-scale survey of Adélie penguins. Medium-resolution Landsat imagery has been used successfully to detect the presence of breeding penguins, but has not been used previously for abundance estimation nor evaluated in terms of its minimum colony size detection threshold. We report on the first comprehensive analysis of the performance of these two methods for both detection and abundance estimation, identify the sensor-specific failure modes that can lead to both false positives and false negatives, and compare the abundance estimates of each method over multiple spatial scales. We find that errors of omission using Landsat imagery are low for colonies larger than ∼10,000 breeding pairs. Both high-resolution and Landsat imagery can be used to obtain unbiased estimates of abundance, and while Landsat-derived abundance estimates have high variance for individual breeding colonies relative to estimates derived from high-resolution imagery, this difference declines as the spatial domain of interest is increased. At the continental scale, abundance estimates using the two methods are roughly equivalent. Our comparison of these two methods represents a bridge between the more developed high-resolution imagery, which can be expensive to obtain, and the medium-resolution Landsat-7 record, which is freely available; this comparison of methodologies represents an essential step towards integration of these disparate sources of data for regional assessments of Adélie population abundance and distribution. PMID:25412466

  13. Mapping the abundance and distribution of Adélie penguins using Landsat-7: first steps towards an integrated multi-sensor pipeline for tracking populations at the continental scale.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Heather J; Schwaller, Mathew R

    2014-01-01

    The last several years have seen an increased interest in the use of remote sensing to identify the location of penguin colonies in Antarctica, and the estimation of the abundance of breeding pairs contained therein. High-resolution (sub-meter) commercial satellite imagery (e.g., Worldview-1, Quickbird) is capable of colony detection and abundance estimation for both large and small colonies, and has already been used in a continental-scale survey of Adélie penguins. Medium-resolution Landsat imagery has been used successfully to detect the presence of breeding penguins, but has not been used previously for abundance estimation nor evaluated in terms of its minimum colony size detection threshold. We report on the first comprehensive analysis of the performance of these two methods for both detection and abundance estimation, identify the sensor-specific failure modes that can lead to both false positives and false negatives, and compare the abundance estimates of each method over multiple spatial scales. We find that errors of omission using Landsat imagery are low for colonies larger than ∼10,000 breeding pairs. Both high-resolution and Landsat imagery can be used to obtain unbiased estimates of abundance, and while Landsat-derived abundance estimates have high variance for individual breeding colonies relative to estimates derived from high-resolution imagery, this difference declines as the spatial domain of interest is increased. At the continental scale, abundance estimates using the two methods are roughly equivalent. Our comparison of these two methods represents a bridge between the more developed high-resolution imagery, which can be expensive to obtain, and the medium-resolution Landsat-7 record, which is freely available; this comparison of methodologies represents an essential step towards integration of these disparate sources of data for regional assessments of Adélie population abundance and distribution.

  14. The search for coverage

    SciTech Connect

    Laseter, W.S.

    1993-06-01

    Anyone involved with the purchase or management of corporate liability insurance is familiar with the onerous pollution exclusions'' that accompany virtually all liability and property policies issued in recent years. As a result of these provisions, many businesses mistakenly presume their insurance program provides no coverage for environmental losses. Most companies, however, already own substantial sums of environmental coverage in the form of old comprehensive general liability (CGL) and first party, all risks'' property insurance policies issued before the introduction of pollution exclusions in the early 1970s. Unfortunately, due to records destruction policies, office moves, changes in ownership and other opportunities to lose files, most businesses have a difficult time reconstructing their past coverage.

  15. The Coverage Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshinobu, Stan; Jones, Matthew G.

    2012-01-01

    A significant issue mathematics instructors face is how to cover all the material. Mathematics teachers of all levels have some external and internal pressures to "get through" all the required material. The authors define "the coverage issue" to be the set of difficulties that arise in attempting to cover a lengthy list of topics. Principal among…

  16. Coverage That Counts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Nancy

    1990-01-01

    As the shrinking pool of applicants forces colleges to adapt new approaches to recruiting, media campaigns are emerging as an effective way to send key messages to target audiences. Media relations can lend credibility (news coverage is considered more credible than advertising); save money; reach targeted areas; and communicate key themes. (MLW)

  17. Immunization Coverage: Role of Sociodemographic Variables

    PubMed Central

    Velhal, G. D.

    2013-01-01

    Children are considered fully immunized if they receive one dose of BCG, three doses of DPT and polio vaccine each, and one measles vaccine. In India, only 44% of children aged 12–23 months are fully vaccinated and about 5% have not received any vaccination at all. Even if national immunization coverage levels are sufficiently high to block disease transmission, pockets of susceptibility may act as potential reservoirs of infection. This study was done to assess the immunization coverage in an urban slum area and determine various sociodemographic variables affecting the same. A total of 210 children were selected from study population using WHO's 30 cluster sampling method. Coverage of BCG was found to be the highest (97.1%) while that of measles was the lowest. The main reason for noncompliance was given as child's illness at the time of scheduled vaccination followed by lack of knowledge regarding importance of immunization. Low education status of mother, high birth order, and place of delivery were found to be positively associated with low vaccination coverage. Regular IEC activities (group talks, role plays, posters, pamphlets, and competitions) should be conducted in the community to ensure that immunization will become a “felt need” of the mothers in the community. PMID:24386572

  18. Mapping AIS coverage for trusted surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapinski, Anna-Liesa S.; Isenor, Anthony W.

    2010-10-01

    Automatic Identification System (AIS) is an unattended vessel reporting system developed for collision avoidance. Shipboard AIS equipment automatically broadcasts vessel positional data at regular intervals. The real-time position and identity data from a vessel is received by other vessels in the area thereby assisting with local navigation. As well, AIS broadcasts are beneficial to those concerned with coastal and harbour security. Land-based AIS receiving stations can also collect the AIS broadcasts. However, reception at the land station is dependent upon the ship's position relative to the receiving station. For AIS to be used as a trusted surveillance system, the characteristics of the AIS coverage area in the vicinity of the station (or stations) should be understood. This paper presents some results of a method being investigated at DRDC Atlantic, Canada) to map the AIS coverage characteristics of a dynamic AIS reception network. The method is shown to clearly distinguish AIS reception edges from those edges caused by vessel traffic patterns. The method can also be used to identify temporal changes in the coverage area, an important characteristic for local maritime security surveillance activities. Future research using the coverage estimate technique is also proposed to support surveillance activities.

  19. Regular phantom black holes.

    PubMed

    Bronnikov, K A; Fabris, J C

    2006-06-30

    We study self-gravitating, static, spherically symmetric phantom scalar fields with arbitrary potentials (favored by cosmological observations) and single out 16 classes of possible regular configurations with flat, de Sitter, and anti-de Sitter asymptotics. Among them are traversable wormholes, bouncing Kantowski-Sachs (KS) cosmologies, and asymptotically flat black holes (BHs). A regular BH has a Schwarzschild-like causal structure, but the singularity is replaced by a de Sitter infinity, giving a hypothetic BH explorer a chance to survive. It also looks possible that our Universe has originated in a phantom-dominated collapse in another universe, with KS expansion and isotropization after crossing the horizon. Explicit examples of regular solutions are built and discussed. Possible generalizations include k-essence type scalar fields (with a potential) and scalar-tensor gravity.

  20. Regularized Structural Equation Modeling.

    PubMed

    Jacobucci, Ross; Grimm, Kevin J; McArdle, John J

    A new method is proposed that extends the use of regularization in both lasso and ridge regression to structural equation models. The method is termed regularized structural equation modeling (RegSEM). RegSEM penalizes specific parameters in structural equation models, with the goal of creating easier to understand and simpler models. Although regularization has gained wide adoption in regression, very little has transferred to models with latent variables. By adding penalties to specific parameters in a structural equation model, researchers have a high level of flexibility in reducing model complexity, overcoming poor fitting models, and the creation of models that are more likely to generalize to new samples. The proposed method was evaluated through a simulation study, two illustrative examples involving a measurement model, and one empirical example involving the structural part of the model to demonstrate RegSEM's utility.

  1. Manifold Regularized Reinforcement Learning.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongliang; Liu, Derong; Wang, Ding

    2017-01-27

    This paper introduces a novel manifold regularized reinforcement learning scheme for continuous Markov decision processes. Smooth feature representations for value function approximation can be automatically learned using the unsupervised manifold regularization method. The learned features are data-driven, and can be adapted to the geometry of the state space. Furthermore, the scheme provides a direct basis representation extension for novel samples during policy learning and control. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated on two benchmark control tasks, i.e., the inverted pendulum and the energy storage problem. Simulation results illustrate the concepts of the proposed scheme and show that it can obtain excellent performance.

  2. Synchronization of Regular Automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caucal, Didier

    Functional graph grammars are finite devices which generate the class of regular automata. We recall the notion of synchronization by grammars, and for any given grammar we consider the class of languages recognized by automata generated by all its synchronized grammars. The synchronization is an automaton-related notion: all grammars generating the same automaton synchronize the same languages. When the synchronizing automaton is unambiguous, the class of its synchronized languages forms an effective boolean algebra lying between the classes of regular languages and unambiguous context-free languages. We additionally provide sufficient conditions for such classes to be closed under concatenation and its iteration.

  3. Geometry of spinor regularization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hestenes, D.; Lounesto, P.

    1983-01-01

    The Kustaanheimo theory of spinor regularization is given a new formulation in terms of geometric algebra. The Kustaanheimo-Stiefel matrix and its subsidiary condition are put in a spinor form directly related to the geometry of the orbit in physical space. A physically significant alternative to the KS subsidiary condition is discussed. Derivations are carried out without using coordinates.

  4. 44 CFR 61.6 - Maximum amounts of coverage available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum amounts of coverage available. 61.6 Section 61.6 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... Per unit. (b) In the insuring of a residential condominium building in a regular program...

  5. 44 CFR 61.6 - Maximum amounts of coverage available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum amounts of coverage available. 61.6 Section 61.6 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... Per unit. (b) In the insuring of a residential condominium building in a regular program...

  6. The Coverage of the Holocaust in High School History Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindquist, David

    2009-01-01

    The Holocaust is now a regular part of high school history curricula throughout the United States and, as a result, coverage of the Holocaust has become a standard feature of high school textbooks. As with any major event, it is important for textbooks to provide a rigorously accurate and valid historical account. In dealing with the Holocaust,…

  7. Coverage Metrics for Model Checking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penix, John; Visser, Willem; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    When using model checking to verify programs in practice, it is not usually possible to achieve complete coverage of the system. In this position paper we describe ongoing research within the Automated Software Engineering group at NASA Ames on the use of test coverage metrics to measure partial coverage and provide heuristic guidance for program model checking. We are specifically interested in applying and developing coverage metrics for concurrent programs that might be used to support certification of next generation avionics software.

  8. Krein regularization of QED

    SciTech Connect

    Forghan, B. Takook, M.V.; Zarei, A.

    2012-09-15

    In this paper, the electron self-energy, photon self-energy and vertex functions are explicitly calculated in Krein space quantization including quantum metric fluctuation. The results are automatically regularized or finite. The magnetic anomaly and Lamb shift are also calculated in the one loop approximation in this method. Finally, the obtained results are compared to conventional QED results. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Krein regularization yields finite values for photon and electron self-energies and vertex function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The magnetic anomaly is calculated and is exactly the same as the conventional result. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Lamb shift is calculated and is approximately the same as in Hilbert space.

  9. Regularizing portfolio optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Still, Susanne; Kondor, Imre

    2010-07-01

    The optimization of large portfolios displays an inherent instability due to estimation error. This poses a fundamental problem, because solutions that are not stable under sample fluctuations may look optimal for a given sample, but are, in effect, very far from optimal with respect to the average risk. In this paper, we approach the problem from the point of view of statistical learning theory. The occurrence of the instability is intimately related to over-fitting, which can be avoided using known regularization methods. We show how regularized portfolio optimization with the expected shortfall as a risk measure is related to support vector regression. The budget constraint dictates a modification. We present the resulting optimization problem and discuss the solution. The L2 norm of the weight vector is used as a regularizer, which corresponds to a diversification 'pressure'. This means that diversification, besides counteracting downward fluctuations in some assets by upward fluctuations in others, is also crucial because it improves the stability of the solution. The approach we provide here allows for the simultaneous treatment of optimization and diversification in one framework that enables the investor to trade off between the two, depending on the size of the available dataset.

  10. Increasing immunization coverage.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Lawrence D; Curry, Edward S; Harlor, Allen D; Laughlin, James J; Leeds, Andrea J; Lessin, Herschel R; Rodgers, Chadwick T; Granado-Villar, Deise C; Brown, Jeffrey M; Cotton, William H; Gaines, Beverly Marie Madry; Gambon, Thresia B; Gitterman, Benjamin A; Gorski, Peter A; Kraft, Colleen A; Marino, Ronald Vincent; Paz-Soldan, Gonzalo J; Zind, Barbara

    2010-06-01

    In 1977, the American Academy of Pediatrics issued a statement calling for universal immunization of all children for whom vaccines are not contraindicated. In 1995, the policy statement "Implementation of the Immunization Policy" was published by the American Academy of Pediatrics, followed in 2003 with publication of the first version of this statement, "Increasing Immunization Coverage." Since 2003, there have continued to be improvements in immunization coverage, with progress toward meeting the goals set forth in Healthy People 2010. Data from the 2007 National Immunization Survey showed that 90% of children 19 to 35 months of age have received recommended doses of each of the following vaccines: inactivated poliovirus (IPV), measles-mumps-rubella (MMR), varicella-zoster virus (VZB), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). For diphtheria and tetanus and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine, 84.5% have received the recommended 4 doses by 35 months of age. Nevertheless, the Healthy People 2010 goal of at least 80% coverage for the full series (at least 4 doses of DTaP, 3 doses of IPV, 1 dose of MMR, 3 doses of Hib, 3 doses of HBV, and 1 dose of varicella-zoster virus vaccine) has not yet been met, and immunization coverage of adolescents continues to lag behind the goals set forth in Healthy People 2010. Despite these encouraging data, a vast number of new challenges that threaten continued success toward the goal of universal immunization coverage have emerged. These challenges include an increase in new vaccines and new vaccine combinations as well as a significant number of vaccines currently under development; a dramatic increase in the acquisition cost of vaccines, coupled with a lack of adequate payment to practitioners to buy and administer vaccines; unanticipated manufacturing and delivery problems that have caused significant shortages of various vaccine products; and the rise of a public antivaccination movement that uses the

  11. After-hours coverage

    PubMed Central

    Bordman, Risa; Wheler, David; Drummond, Neil; White, David; Crighton, Eric

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence and content of existing or developing policies and guidelines of medical associations and colleges regarding after-hours care by family physicians and general practitioners, especially legal requirements. DESIGN Telephone survey in fall 2002, updated in fall 2004. SETTING Canada. PARTICIPANTS All national and provincial medical associations, Colleges of Family Physicians, Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons, local government offices for the north, and the Canadian Medical Protective Association (CMPA). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE Response to the question: “Does your agency have a policy in place regarding after-hours health care coverage by FPs/GPs, or are there active discussions regarding such a policy?” RESULTS The College of Physicians and Surgeons of British Columbia was the first to institute a policy, in 1995, requiring physicians to make “specific arrangements” for after-hours care of their patients. The College of Physicians and Surgeons of Alberta adopted a similar policy in 1996 along with a guideline to aid implementation. In 2002, the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Nova Scotia approved a guideline on the Availability of Physicians After Hours. The Saskatchewan Medical Association and the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Saskatchewan formulated a joint policy on medical practice coverage that was released in 2003. Many agencies actively discussed the topic. Provincial and national Colleges of Family Physicians did not have any policies in place. The CMPA does not generate guidelines but released in an information letter in May 2000 a section entitled “Reducing your risk when you’re not available.” CONCLUSION There is increasing interest Canada-wide in setting policy for after-hours care. While provincial Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons have traditionally led the way, a trend toward more collaboration between associations was identified. The effect of policy implementation on physicians

  12. Antenna Beam Coverage Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estabrook, Polly; Motamedi, Masoud

    1990-01-01

    The strawman Personal Access Satellite System (PASS) design calls for the use of a CONUS beam for transmission between the supplier and the satellite and for fixed beams for transmission between the basic personal terminal and the satellite. The satellite uses a 3 m main reflector for transmission at 20 GHz and a 2 m main reflector for reception at 30 GHz. There are several types of spot beams under consideration for the PASS system besides fixed beams. The beam pattern of a CONUS coverage switched beam is shown along with that of a scanning beam. A switched beam refers to one in which the signal from the satellite is connected alternatively to various feed horns. Scanning beams are taken to mean beams whose footprints are moved between contiguous regions in the beam's coverage area. The advantages and disadvantages of switched and/or scanning beams relative to fixed beams. The consequences of using switched/scanning in lieu of fixed beams in the PASS design and attempts are made to evaluate the listed advantages and disadvantages. Two uses of switched/scanning beams are examined. To illustrate the implications of switched beams use on PASS system design, operation at two beam scan rates is explored.

  13. Strongly Regular Graphs,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-10-01

    The theory of strongly regular graphs was introduced by Bose r7 1 in 1963, in connection with partial geometries and 2 class association schemes. One...non adjacent vertices is constant and equal to ~. We shall denote by ~(p) (reap.r(p)) the set of vertices adjacent (resp.non adjacent) to a vertex p...is the complement of .2’ if the set of vertices of ~ is the set of vertices of .2’ and if two vertices in .2’ are adjacent if and only if they were

  14. Regularized versus non-regularized statistical reconstruction techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisova, N. V.

    2011-08-01

    An important feature of positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) is the stochastic property of real clinical data. Statistical algorithms such as ordered subset-expectation maximization (OSEM) and maximum a posteriori (MAP) are a direct consequence of the stochastic nature of the data. The principal difference between these two algorithms is that OSEM is a non-regularized approach, while the MAP is a regularized algorithm. From the theoretical point of view, reconstruction problems belong to the class of ill-posed problems and should be considered using regularization. Regularization introduces an additional unknown regularization parameter into the reconstruction procedure as compared with non-regularized algorithms. However, a comparison of non-regularized OSEM and regularized MAP algorithms with fixed regularization parameters has shown very minor difference between reconstructions. This problem is analyzed in the present paper. To improve the reconstruction quality, a method of local regularization is proposed based on the spatially adaptive regularization parameter. The MAP algorithm with local regularization was tested in reconstruction of the Hoffman brain phantom.

  15. Flexible sparse regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Dirk A.; Resmerita, Elena

    2017-01-01

    The seminal paper of Daubechies, Defrise, DeMol made clear that {{\\ell }}p spaces with p\\in [1,2) and p-powers of the corresponding norms are appropriate settings for dealing with reconstruction of sparse solutions of ill-posed problems by regularization. It seems that the case p = 1 provides the best results in most of the situations compared to the cases p\\in (1,2). An extensive literature gives great credit also to using {{\\ell }}p spaces with p\\in (0,1) together with the corresponding quasi-norms, although one has to tackle challenging numerical problems raised by the non-convexity of the quasi-norms. In any of these settings, either superlinear, linear or sublinear, the question of how to choose the exponent p has been not only a numerical issue, but also a philosophical one. In this work we introduce a more flexible way of sparse regularization by varying exponents. We introduce the corresponding functional analytic framework, that leaves the setting of normed spaces but works with so-called F-norms. One curious result is that there are F-norms which generate the ℓ 1 space, but they are strictly convex, while the ℓ 1-norm is just convex.

  16. Tracking wheat rust on a continental scale.

    PubMed

    Kolmer, James A

    2005-08-01

    The rusts of wheat are important fungal plant pathogens that can be disseminated thousands of kilometers across continents and oceans by wind. Rusts are obligate parasites that interact with resistance genes in wheat in a gene-for-gene manner. New races of rust develop by mutation and selection for virulence against rust resistance genes in wheat. In recent years, new races of wheat leaf rust, wheat stripe rust, and wheat stem rust have been introduced into wheat production areas in different continents. These introductions have complicated efforts to develop wheat cultivars with durable rust resistance and have reduced the number of effective rust-resistance genes that are available for use. The migration patterns of wheat rusts are characterized by identifying their virulence against important rust resistance genes in wheat and by the use of molecular markers.

  17. Mainstreaming the Regular Classroom Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Michael

    The paper presents activities, suggested by regular classroom teachers, to help prepare the regular classroom student for mainstreaming. The author points out that regular classroom children need a vehicle in which curiosity, concern, interest, fear, attitudes and feelings can be fully explored, where prejudices can be dispelled, and where the…

  18. Immunisation coverage annual report, 2009.

    PubMed

    Hull, Brynley; Dey, Aditi; Mahajan, Deepika; Menzies, Rob; McIntyre, Peter B

    2011-06-01

    This, the third annual immunisation coverage report, documents trends during 2009 for a range of standard measures derived from Australian Childhood Immunisation Register data, including overall coverage at standard age milestones and for individual vaccines included on the National Immunisation Program (NIP). Coverage by Indigenous status and mapping by smaller geographic areas as well as trends in timeliness is also summarised according to standard templates. With respect to overall coverage, the Immunise Australia Program targets have been reached for children at 12 and 24 months of age but not for children at 5 years of age. Coverage at 24 months of age exceeds that at 12 months of age, but as receipt of varicella vaccine at 18 months is excluded from calculations of 'fully immunised' this probably represents delayed immunisation, with some contribution from immunisation incentives. Similarly, the decrease in coverage estimates for immunisations due at 4 years of age from March 2008 is primarily due to changing the assessment age from 6 years to 5 years of age from December 2007. With respect to individual vaccines, a number of those available on the NIP are not currently assessed for 'fully immunised' status or for eligibility for incentive payments. These include pneumococcal conjugate and meningococcal C conjugate vaccines, for which coverage is comparable with vaccines that are assessed for 'fully immunised' status, and rotavirus and varicella vaccines for which coverage is lower. Coverage is also suboptimal for vaccines recommended for Indigenous children only (i.e. hepatitis A and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine) as previously reported for other vaccines for both children and adults. Delayed receipt of vaccines is an important issue for vaccines recommended for Indigenous children and has not improved among non-Indigenous children despite improvements in coverage at the 24-month milestone. Although Indigenous children in Australia have coverage levels

  19. Ensemble manifold regularization.

    PubMed

    Geng, Bo; Tao, Dacheng; Xu, Chao; Yang, Linjun; Hua, Xian-Sheng

    2012-06-01

    We propose an automatic approximation of the intrinsic manifold for general semi-supervised learning (SSL) problems. Unfortunately, it is not trivial to define an optimization function to obtain optimal hyperparameters. Usually, cross validation is applied, but it does not necessarily scale up. Other problems derive from the suboptimality incurred by discrete grid search and the overfitting. Therefore, we develop an ensemble manifold regularization (EMR) framework to approximate the intrinsic manifold by combining several initial guesses. Algorithmically, we designed EMR carefully so it 1) learns both the composite manifold and the semi-supervised learner jointly, 2) is fully automatic for learning the intrinsic manifold hyperparameters implicitly, 3) is conditionally optimal for intrinsic manifold approximation under a mild and reasonable assumption, and 4) is scalable for a large number of candidate manifold hyperparameters, from both time and space perspectives. Furthermore, we prove the convergence property of EMR to the deterministic matrix at rate root-n. Extensive experiments over both synthetic and real data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

  20. Effective coverage: a metric for monitoring Universal Health Coverage.

    PubMed

    Ng, Marie; Fullman, Nancy; Dieleman, Joseph L; Flaxman, Abraham D; Murray, Christopher J L; Lim, Stephen S

    2014-09-01

    A major challenge in monitoring universal health coverage (UHC) is identifying an indicator that can adequately capture the multiple components underlying the UHC initiative. Effective coverage, which unites individual and intervention characteristics into a single metric, offers a direct and flexible means to measure health system performance at different levels. We view effective coverage as a relevant and actionable metric for tracking progress towards achieving UHC. In this paper, we review the concept of effective coverage and delineate the three components of the metric - need, use, and quality - using several examples. Further, we explain how the metric can be used for monitoring interventions at both local and global levels. We also discuss the ways that current health information systems can support generating estimates of effective coverage. We conclude by recognizing some of the challenges associated with producing estimates of effective coverage. Despite these challenges, effective coverage is a powerful metric that can provide a more nuanced understanding of whether, and how well, a health system is delivering services to its populations.

  1. On regular rotating black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, R.; Fayos, F.

    2017-01-01

    Different proposals for regular rotating black hole spacetimes have appeared recently in the literature. However, a rigorous analysis and proof of the regularity of this kind of spacetimes is still lacking. In this note we analyze rotating Kerr-like black hole spacetimes and find the necessary and sufficient conditions for the regularity of all their second order scalar invariants polynomial in the Riemann tensor. We also show that the regularity is linked to a violation of the weak energy conditions around the core of the rotating black hole.

  2. Linear regularity and [phi]-regularity of nonconvex sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Kung Fu; Zang, Rui

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, we discuss some sufficient conditions for the linear regularity and bounded linear regularity (and their variations) of finitely many closed (not necessarily convex) sets in a normed vector space. The accompanying necessary conditions are also given in the setting of Asplund spaces.

  3. Vaccination coverage rates for 1986.

    PubMed

    1987-10-01

    This article sets forth data on vaccination coverage rates in children under 1 year of age in the individual countries of Latin America and the Caribbean in 1986. In the Region of the Americas as a whole, the 1986 coverage rate was 80% for oral poliovaccine, 54% for DPT, 55% for measles, and 63% for BCG. Vaccination coverage rates increased over 1985 levels for all but measles, which showed a 5% decline due to decreases in Brazil and Mexico. In the Caribbean subregion, the majority of country coverage rates for DPT and oral poliovirus vaccine are equal to or above 80%, while measles coverage rates are generally below 50%. In Central America, vaccine coverage rates with all antigens except BCG showed significant increases between 1985 and 1986. In Central America, coverage ranged from above 80% for oral poliovirus vaccine and DPT in Belize, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua, to below 40% in Guatemala. In general, countries in the region are improving vaccination performance as a result of establishment of vaccination days or campaigns and acceleration of the Expanded Program on Immunization. However, much work remains to be done if the goal of 100% immunization of children and women of childbearing age by 1990 is to be met.

  4. Your Medicare Coverage: Durable Medical Equipment (DME) Coverage

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Medicare.gov for covered items Durable medical equipment (DME) coverage How often is it covered? Medicare ... B (Medical Insurance) covers medically necessary durable medical equipment (DME) that your doctor prescribes for use in ...

  5. El Nino, from 1870 to 2014, and other Atmospheric Circulation Forcing by Extreme Apparitions of the Eight Annual, Continental Scale, Aerosol Plumes in the Satellite Era which Point to a Possible Cause for the Current Californian Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potts, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    Eight continental scale aerosol plumes exist each year as the enclosed image shows. Apparitions of seven plumes only exist for a few months in the same season each year whilst the East Asian Plume is visible all year. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) of all the plumes varies enormously interannually with two studies showing the surface radiative forcing of the South East Asian Plume (SEAP) as -150W/m2 and -286W/m2/AOD. I show that the SEAP, created by volcanic aerosols (natural) and biomass burning and gas flares in the oil industry (anthropogenic), is the sole cause of all El Nino events, the greatest interannual perturbation of the atmospheric circulation system. The SEAP creates an El Nino by absorbing solar radiation at the top of the plume which heats the upper atmosphere and cools the surface. This creates a temperature inversion compared to periods without the plume and reduces convection. With reduced convection in SE Asia, the Maritime Continent, the Trade Winds blowing across the Pacific are forced to relax as their exit into the Hadley and Walker Cells is constrained and the reduced Trade Wind speed causes the Sea Surface Temperature (SST) to rise in the central tropical Pacific Ocean as there is a strong negative correlation between wind speed and SST. The warmer SST in the central Pacific creates convection in the region which further reduces the Trade Wind speed and causes the Walker Cell to reverse - a classic El Nino. Having established the ability of such extreme aerosol plumes to create El Nino events I will then show how the South American, West African, Middle East and SEAP plumes create drought in the Amazon, Spain, Darfur and Australia as well as causing the extremely warm autumn and winter in Europe in 2006-07. All these effects are created by the plumes reducing convection in the region of the plume which forces the regional Hadley Cells into anomalous positions thereby creating persistent high pressure cells in the mid latitudes. This

  6. Annual immunisation coverage report, 2010.

    PubMed

    Hull, Brynley; Dey, Aditi; Menzies, Rob; McIntyre, Peter

    2013-03-31

    This, the fourth annual immunisation coverage report, documents trends during 2010 for a range of standard measures derived from Australian Childhood Immunisation Register (ACIR) data. These include coverage at standard age milestones and for individual vaccines included on the National Immunisation Program (NIP). For the first time, coverage from other sources for adolescents and the elderly are included. The proportion of children 'fully vaccinated' at 12, 24 and 60 months of age was 91.6%, 92.1% and 89.1% respectively. For vaccines available on the NIP but not currently assessed for 'fully immunised' status or for eligibility for incentive payments (rotavirus and pneumococcal at 12 months and meningococcal C and varicella at 24 months) coverage varied. Although pneumococcal vaccine had similar coverage at 12 months to other vaccines, coverage was lower for rotavirus at 12 months (84.7%) and varicella at 24 months (83.0%). Overall coverage at 24 months of age exceeded that at 12 months of age nationally and for most jurisdictions, but as receipt of varicella vaccine at 18 months is excluded from calculations, this represents delayed immunisation, with some contribution from immunisation incentives. The 'fully immunised' coverage estimates for immunisations due by 60 months increased substantially in 2009, reaching almost 90% in 2010, probably related to completed immunisation by 60 months of age being introduced in 2009 as a requirement for GP incentive payments. As previously documented, vaccines recommended for Indigenous children only (hepatitis A and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine) had suboptimal coverage at around 57%. Delayed receipt of vaccines by Indigenous children at the 60-month milestone age improved from 56% to 62% but the disparity in on-time vaccination between Indigenous and non-Indigenous children at earlier age milestones did not improve. Coverage data for human papillomavirus (HPV)from the national HPV register are consistent with high

  7. Regularly timed events amid chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakely, Jonathan N.; Cooper, Roy M.; Corron, Ned J.

    2015-11-01

    We show rigorously that the solutions of a class of chaotic oscillators are characterized by regularly timed events in which the derivative of the solution is instantaneously zero. The perfect regularity of these events is in stark contrast with the well-known unpredictability of chaos. We explore some consequences of these regularly timed events through experiments using chaotic electronic circuits. First, we show that a feedback loop can be implemented to phase lock the regularly timed events to a periodic external signal. In this arrangement the external signal regulates the timing of the chaotic signal but does not strictly lock its phase. That is, phase slips of the chaotic oscillation persist without disturbing timing of the regular events. Second, we couple the regularly timed events of one chaotic oscillator to those of another. A state of synchronization is observed where the oscillators exhibit synchronized regular events while their chaotic amplitudes and phases evolve independently. Finally, we add additional coupling to synchronize the amplitudes, as well, however in the opposite direction illustrating the independence of the amplitudes from the regularly timed events.

  8. Trajectory optimization using regularized variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewallen, J. M.; Szebehely, V.; Tapley, B. D.

    1969-01-01

    Regularized equations for a particular optimal trajectory are compared with unregularized equations with respect to computational characteristics, using perturbation type numerical optimization. In the case of the three dimensional, low thrust, Earth-Jupiter rendezvous, the regularized equations yield a significant reduction in computer time.

  9. Immunisation coverage annual report, 2008.

    PubMed

    Hull, Brynley P; Mahajan, Deepika; Dey, Aditi; Menzies, Rob I; McIntyre, Peter B

    2010-09-01

    This, the 2nd annual immunisation coverage report, documents trends during 2008 for a range of standard measures derived from Australian Childhood Immunisation Register data, including overall coverage at standard age milestones and for individual vaccines included on the National Immunisation Program (NIP). Coverage by indigenous status and mapping by smaller geographic areas as well as trends in timeliness are also summarised according to standard templates. With respect to overall coverage, Immunise Australia Program targets have been reached for children at 12 and 24 months of age but not for children at 5 years of age. Coverage at 24 months of age exceeds that at 12 months of age, but as receipt of varicella vaccine at 18 months is excluded from calculations of 'fully immunised' this probably represents delayed immunisation, with some contribution from immunisation incentives. Similarly, the decrease in coverage estimates for immunisations due at 4 years of age from March 2008, is primarily due to changing the assessment age from 6 years to 5 years of age from December 2007. A number of individual vaccines on the NIP are not currently assessed for 'fully immunised' status or for eligibility for incentive payments. These include pneumococcal conjugate and meningococcal C conjugate vaccines for which coverage is comparable to vaccines which are assessed for 'fully immunised' status, and rotavirus and varicella vaccines for which coverage is lower. Coverage is also suboptimal for vaccines recommended for Indigenous children only (i.e. hepatitis A and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine) as previously reported for other vaccines for both children and adults. Delayed receipt of vaccines is an important issue for vaccines recommended for Indigenous children and has not improved among non-Indigenous children despite improvements in coverage at the 24-month milestone. Although Indigenous children in Australia have coverage levels that are similar to non

  10. Medicare coverage for oncology services.

    PubMed

    Bagley, G P; McVearry, K

    1998-05-15

    Medicare's mission is to assure health care security for our beneficiaries. Title XVIII of the Social Security Act (the Act) provides the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) with the authority to fulfill this mission. Although Medicare is considered a defined benefit program, the Act vested Medicare with the discretionary authority to make specific policy decisions when necessary. HCFA's discretionary authority, which is found at section 1862(a)(1)(A) of the Act, enables HCFA to provide coverage for services that are reasonable and necessary for the treatment and diagnosis of illness or injury or to improve the functioning of a malformed body member. To determine whether a service is reasonable and necessary, HCFA relies on authoritative evidence. This evidence includes, but is not limited to, approvals from appropriate federal agencies, such as the Food and Drug Administration, and systematic evaluations of scientific literature via technology assessments. HCFA also may decide that a service warrants a unique type of coverage policy, which is referred to as coverage with conditions. This form of coverage is a middle ground between strict noncoverage and general coverage for a medical service that appears promising, but still is evolving. All these policy specifications effect Medicare coverage of oncology services. This means that reasonable and necessary diagnostic and therapeutic cancer-related services that are not otherwise prohibited by Medicare's statute, regulations, and manual instructions are covered and paid for by the program. Prior to the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (BBA '97), Medicare provided coverage for some beneficiaries to undergo mammography and Papanicolaou smear screening. As a result of BBA '97, Congress has mandated expanding coverage for these services as well as adding coverage for pelvic examinations, prostate cancer screening, colorectal screening, and antiemetic drugs used as part of an anticancer chemotherapy regimen. Other

  11. Global Routine Vaccination Coverage, 2015.

    PubMed

    Casey, Rebecca M; Dumolard, Laure; Danovaro-Holliday, M Carolina; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Diallo, Mamadou S; Hampton, Lee M; Wallace, Aaron S

    2016-11-18

    In 1974, the World Health Organization (WHO) established the Expanded Program on Immunization* to provide protection against six vaccine-preventable diseases through routine infant immunization (1). Based on 2015 WHO and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) estimates, global coverage with the third dose of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP3), the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) and the third dose of polio vaccine (Pol3) has remained stable (84%-86%) since 2010. From 2014 to 2015, estimated global coverage with the second MCV dose (MCV2) increased from 39% to 43% by the end of the second year of life and from 58% to 61% when older age groups were included. Global coverage was higher in 2015 than 2010 for newer or underused vaccines, including rotavirus vaccine, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), rubella vaccine, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, and 3 doses of hepatitis B (HepB3) vaccine. Coverage estimates varied widely by WHO Region, country, and district; in addition, for the vaccines evaluated (MCV, DTP3, Pol3, HepB3, Hib3), wide disparities were found in coverage by country income classification. Improvements in equity of access are necessary to reach and sustain higher coverage and increase protection from vaccine-preventable diseases for all persons.

  12. Rotating regular black hole solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdujabbarov, Ahmadjon

    2016-07-01

    Based on the Newman-Janis algorithm, the Ayón-Beato-García spacetime metric [Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5056 (1998)] of the regular spherically symmetric, static, and charged black hole has been converted into rotational form. It is shown that the derived solution for rotating a regular black hole is regular and the critical value of the electric charge for which two horizons merge into one sufficiently decreases in the presence of the nonvanishing rotation parameter a of the black hole.

  13. NONCONVEX REGULARIZATION FOR SHAPE PRESERVATION

    SciTech Connect

    CHARTRAND, RICK

    2007-01-16

    The authors show that using a nonconvex penalty term to regularize image reconstruction can substantially improve the preservation of object shapes. The commonly-used total-variation regularization, {integral}|{del}u|, penalizes the length of the object edges. They show that {integral}|{del}u|{sup p}, 0 < p < 1, only penalizes edges of dimension at least 2-p, and thus finite-length edges not at all. We give numerical examples showing the resulting improvement in shape preservation.

  14. Condition Number Regularized Covariance Estimation.

    PubMed

    Won, Joong-Ho; Lim, Johan; Kim, Seung-Jean; Rajaratnam, Bala

    2013-06-01

    Estimation of high-dimensional covariance matrices is known to be a difficult problem, has many applications, and is of current interest to the larger statistics community. In many applications including so-called the "large p small n" setting, the estimate of the covariance matrix is required to be not only invertible, but also well-conditioned. Although many regularization schemes attempt to do this, none of them address the ill-conditioning problem directly. In this paper, we propose a maximum likelihood approach, with the direct goal of obtaining a well-conditioned estimator. No sparsity assumption on either the covariance matrix or its inverse are are imposed, thus making our procedure more widely applicable. We demonstrate that the proposed regularization scheme is computationally efficient, yields a type of Steinian shrinkage estimator, and has a natural Bayesian interpretation. We investigate the theoretical properties of the regularized covariance estimator comprehensively, including its regularization path, and proceed to develop an approach that adaptively determines the level of regularization that is required. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of the regularized estimator in decision-theoretic comparisons and in the financial portfolio optimization setting. The proposed approach has desirable properties, and can serve as a competitive procedure, especially when the sample size is small and when a well-conditioned estimator is required.

  15. Geometric continuum regularization of quantum field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Halpern, M.B. . Dept. of Physics)

    1989-11-08

    An overview of the continuum regularization program is given. The program is traced from its roots in stochastic quantization, with emphasis on the examples of regularized gauge theory, the regularized general nonlinear sigma model and regularized quantum gravity. In its coordinate-invariant form, the regularization is seen as entirely geometric: only the supermetric on field deformations is regularized, and the prescription provides universal nonperturbative invariant continuum regularization across all quantum field theory. 54 refs.

  16. Open, Modular Services for Large, Multi-Dimensional Raster Coverages: The OGC Web Coverage Service (WCS) Standards Suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, P.

    2009-04-01

    Recent progress in hardware and software technology opens up vistas where flexible services on large, multi-dimensional coverage data become a commodity. Interactive data browsing like with Virtual Globes, selective download, and ad-hoc analysis services are about to become available routinely, as several sites already demonstrate. However, for easy access and true machine-machine communication, Semantic Web concepts as being investigated for vector and meta data, need to be extended to raster data and other coverage types. Even more will it then be important to rely on open standards for data and service interoperability. The Open GeoSpatial Consortium (OGC), following a modular approach to specifying geo service interfaces, has issued the Web Coverage Service (WCS) Implementation Standard for accessing coverages or parts thereof. In contrast to the Web Map Service (WMS), which delivers imagery, WCS preserves data semantics and, thus, allows further processing. Together with the Web Catalog Service (CS-W) and the Web Feature Service (WFS) WCS completes the classical triad of meta, vector, and raster data. As such, they represent the core data services on which other services build. The current version of WCS is 1.1 with Corrigendum 2, also referred to as WCS 1.1.2. The WCS Standards Working Group (WCS.SWG) is continuing development of WCS in various directions. One work item is to extend WCS, which currently is confined to regularly gridded data, with support for further coverage types, such as those specified in ISO 19123. Two recently released extensions to WCS are WCS-T ("T" standing for "transactional") which adds upload capabilities to coverage servers and WCPS (Web Coverage Processing Service) which offers a coverage processing language, thereby bridging the gap to the generic WPS (Web Processing Service). All this is embedded into OGC's current initiative to achieve modular topical specification suites through so-called "extensions" which add focused

  17. Immunisation coverage annual report, 2011.

    PubMed

    Hull, Brynley P; Dey, Aditi; Menzies, Rob I; Brotherton, Julia M; McIntyre, Peter B

    2013-12-31

    This, the 5th annual immunisation coverage report, documents trends during 2011 for a range of standard measures derived from Australian Childhood Immunisation Register data, and National Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination Program Register data. The proportion of children 'fully vaccinated' at 12, 24 and 60 months of age was 91.4%, 92.2% and 89.5% respectively. Although pneumococcal vaccine had similar coverage at 12 months to other vaccines, coverage was lower for rotavirus at 12 months (83.8%) and varicella at 24 months (83.9%). By late 2011, the percentage of children who received the 1st dose of DTPa vaccine dose at less than 8 weeks of age was greater than 50% in 3 jurisdictions, the Australian Capital Territory, Victoria, and Queensland and at 70% for New South Wales and Tasmania. Although coverage at 12 months of age was lower among Indigenous children than non-Indigenous children in all jurisdictions, the extent of the difference varied. Overall, coverage at 24 months of age exceeded that at 12 months of age nationally. At 60 months of age, there was dramatic variation between individual jurisdictions, ranging from coverage 8% lower in Indigenous children in South Australia to 6% higher in the Northern Territory. As previously documented, vaccines recommended for Indigenous children only (hepatitis A and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine) had suboptimal coverage at 60% and 68%, respectively. On-time receipt (before 49 months of age) of vaccines by Indigenous children at the 60-month milestone age improved between 2010 (18%) and 2011 (19%) but the disparity in on-time vaccination between Indigenous and non-Indigenous children increased at all 3 age milestones. The percentage of vaccine objectors in 2011 (1.7%) has increased from 2007 when it was 1.1%. Coverage data for the 3rd dose of HPV from the national HPV register in the school catch up program was 71% but was substantially lower for the catch-up program for women outside school (39

  18. 24 CFR 203.205 - Plan coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plan coverage. 203.205 Section 203... Protection Plans (plan) § 203.205 Plan coverage. (a) Plan coverage must take effect at closing or settlement following the initial sale of the property to the homeowner. (b) During the first year of coverage, a...

  19. 24 CFR 203.205 - Plan coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Plan coverage. 203.205 Section 203... Protection Plans (plan) § 203.205 Plan coverage. (a) Plan coverage must take effect at closing or settlement following the initial sale of the property to the homeowner. (b) During the first year of coverage, a...

  20. 24 CFR 203.205 - Plan coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Plan coverage. 203.205 Section 203... Protection Plans (plan) § 203.205 Plan coverage. (a) Plan coverage must take effect at closing or settlement following the initial sale of the property to the homeowner. (b) During the first year of coverage, a...

  1. Serving Collections of Non-gridded Data as Coverages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domenico, B.; Weber, J.; Nativi, S.

    2009-05-01

    A particularly interesting outcome of Phase 1 of the OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) GALEON (Geo- interface for Air Land Environment Oceans NetCDF) Interoperability Experiment is that a relatively simple scenario proves to be remarkably useful in a number of settings. From a user perspective, this fundamental use case consists of the following interaction for requesting data: specify 3D bounding box centered on an area of interest, specify time frame of interest (e.g., a periods of severe storms, request observed and/or forecast atmospheric parameter values in the specified space time bounding box. In GALEON 1, the WCS (Web Coverage Service) specification worked well for serving gridded data from forecast model output and some satellite imagery -- encoded as netCDF conforming to CF (Climate and Forecast) conventions. But there is a wealth of data that falls outside the realm of the regularly gridded coverages type that WCS supports at this time. Station observations and radar scans are just two of the many common examples of non-gridded collections that can't be served by the current WCS specification. This situation begs the question of what protocol should be used to deliver collections of non-gridded data. The OGC WFS (Web Feature Service) is specifically set up for access to traditional "features" that included non-gridded forms of data. The SOS (Sensor Observation Service) on the other hand is geared toward serving streams of observational data from a wide variety of sensors. But neither WFS nor SOS has a straightforward mechanism that enables the basic request for collections of data within a space-time bounding box. In contrast to the current restricted WCS coverage definition, the ISO concept of a coverage (defined in ISO 19123) is very general and includes both continuous and discrete coverages. So, at this abstract level, collections of data of the sort discussed here fit into the general concept of a coverage. Likewise, the OGC O&M (Observations and

  2. Measuring coverage in MNCH: challenges and opportunities in the selection of coverage indicators for global monitoring.

    PubMed

    Requejo, Jennifer Harris; Newby, Holly; Bryce, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Global monitoring of intervention coverage is a cornerstone of international efforts to improve reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health. In this review, we examine the process and implications of selecting a core set of coverage indicators for global monitoring, using as examples the processes used by the Countdown to 2015 for Maternal, Newborn and Child Survival and the Commission on Accountability for Women's and Children's Health. We describe how the generation of data for global monitoring involves five iterative steps: development of standard indicator definitions and measurement approaches to ensure comparability across countries; collection of high-quality data at the country level; compilation of country data at the global level; organization of global databases; and rounds of data quality checking. Regular and rigorous technical review processes that involve high-level decision makers and experts familiar with indicator measurement are needed to maximize uptake and to ensure that indicators used for global monitoring are selected on the basis of available evidence of intervention effectiveness, feasibility of measurement, and data availability as well as programmatic relevance. Experience from recent initiatives illustrates the challenges of striking this balance as well as strategies for reducing the tensions inherent in the indicator selection process. We conclude that more attention and continued investment need to be directed to global monitoring, to support both the process of global database development and the selection of sets of coverage indicators to promote accountability. The stakes are high, because these indicators can drive policy and program development at the country and global level, and ultimately impact the health of women and children and the communities where they live.

  3. Crime News Coverage in Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graber, Doris A.

    According to one sociological model, news is a product of socially determined notions of who and what is important and the organizational structures that result for routinizing news collection; events that deviate from these notions are ignored. This report describes a study of crime news coverage in the media that used this model to examine the…

  4. Is Crime News Coverage Excessive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graber, Doris A.

    1979-01-01

    Reports on the frequency and manner in which various crime and noncrime news topics were presented in selected newspapers and television newscasts in 1976. Examines news flow data to determine whether news output was inflexible, and whether crime news coverage distorted the amount of real-life crime. (PD)

  5. Immunisation coverage annual report, 2014.

    PubMed

    Hull, Brynley P; Hendry, Alexandra J; Dey, Aditi; Beard, Frank H; Brotherton, Julia M; McIntyre, Peter B

    2017-03-31

    This 8th annual immunisation coverage report shows data for 2014 derived from the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register and the National Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Program Register. This report includes coverage data for 'fully immunised' and by individual vaccines at standard age milestones and timeliness of receipt at earlier ages according to Indigenous status. Overall, 'fully immunised' coverage has been mostly stable at the 12- and 24-month age milestones since late 2003, but at 60 months of age, it has increased by more than 10 percentage points since 2009. As in previous years, coverage for 'fully immunised' at 12 months of age among Indigenous children was 3.7% lower than for non-Indigenous children overall, varying from 6.9 percentage points in Western Australia to 0.3 of a percentage point in the Australian Capital Territory. In 2014, 73.4% of Australian females aged 15 years had 3 documented doses of human papillomavirus vaccine (jurisdictional range 67.7% to 77.4%), and 82.7% had at least 1 dose, compared with 71.4% and 81.5%, respectively, in 2013. The disparity in on-time vaccination between Indigenous and non-Indigenous children in 2014 diminished progressively from 20.2% for vaccines due by 12 months to 11.5% for those due by 24 months and 3.0% at 60 months of age.

  6. Dimensional regularization in configuration space

    SciTech Connect

    Bollini, C.G. |; Giambiagi, J.J.

    1996-05-01

    Dimensional regularization is introduced in configuration space by Fourier transforming in {nu} dimensions the perturbative momentum space Green functions. For this transformation, the Bochner theorem is used; no extra parameters, such as those of Feynman or Bogoliubov and Shirkov, are needed for convolutions. The regularized causal functions in {ital x} space have {nu}-dependent moderated singularities at the origin. They can be multiplied together and Fourier transformed (Bochner) without divergence problems. The usual ultraviolet divergences appear as poles of the resultant analytic functions of {nu}. Several examples are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  7. Percent area coverage through image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Chung M.; Hong, Sung M.; Liu, De-Ling

    2016-09-01

    The notion of percent area coverage (PAC) has been used to characterize surface cleanliness levels in the spacecraft contamination control community. Due to the lack of detailed particle data, PAC has been conventionally calculated by multiplying the particle surface density in predetermined particle size bins by a set of coefficients per MIL-STD-1246C. In deriving the set of coefficients, the surface particle size distribution is assumed to follow a log-normal relation between particle density and particle size, while the cross-sectional area function is given as a combination of regular geometric shapes. For particles with irregular shapes, the cross-sectional area function cannot describe the true particle area and, therefore, may introduce error in the PAC calculation. Other errors may also be introduced by using the lognormal surface particle size distribution function that highly depends on the environmental cleanliness and cleaning process. In this paper, we present PAC measurements from silicon witness wafers that collected fallouts from a fabric material after vibration testing. PAC calculations were performed through analysis of microscope images and compare them to values derived through the MIL-STD-1246C method. Our results showed that the MIL-STD-1246C method does provide a reasonable upper bound to the PAC values determined through image analysis, in particular for PAC values below 0.1.

  8. The Effects of Child-Only Insurance Coverage and Family Coverage on Health Care Access and Use: Recent Findings among Low-Income Children in California

    PubMed Central

    Guendelman, Sylvia; Wier, Megan; Angulo, Veronica; Oman, Doug

    2006-01-01

    Objective To compare the extent with which child-only and family coverage (child and parent insured) ensure health care access and use for low income children in California and discuss the policy implications of extending the State Children's Health Insurance Program (California's Healthy Families) to uninsured parents of child enrollees. Data Sources/Setting We used secondary data from the 2001 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS), a representative telephone survey. Study Design We conducted a cross-sectional study of 5,521 public health insurance–eligible children and adolescents and their parents to examine the effects of insurance (family coverage, child-only coverage, and no coverage) on measures of health care access and utilization including emergency room visits and hospitalizations. Data Collection We linked the CHIS adult, child, and adolescent datasets, including the adolescent insurance supplement. Findings Among the sampled children, 13 percent were uninsured as were 22 percent of their parents. Children without insurance coverage were more likely than children with child-only coverage to lack a usual source of care and to have decreased use of health care. Children with child-only coverage fared worse than those with family coverage on almost every access indicator, but service utilization was comparable. Conclusions While extending public benefits to parents of children eligible for Healthy Families may not improve child health care utilization beyond the gains that would be obtained by exclusively insuring the children, family coverage would likely improve access to a regular source of care and private sector providers, and reduce perceived discrimination and breaks in coverage. These advantages should be considered by states that are weighing the benefits of expanding health insurance to parents. PMID:16430604

  9. Regularized Generalized Structured Component Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Heungsun

    2009-01-01

    Generalized structured component analysis (GSCA) has been proposed as a component-based approach to structural equation modeling. In practice, GSCA may suffer from multi-collinearity, i.e., high correlations among exogenous variables. GSCA has yet no remedy for this problem. Thus, a regularized extension of GSCA is proposed that integrates a ridge…

  10. Giftedness in the Regular Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Anne

    This paper presents a rationale for serving gifted students in the regular classroom and offers guidelines for recognizing students who are gifted in the seven types of intelligence proposed by Howard Gardner. Stressed is the importance of creating in the classroom a community of learners that allows all children to actively explore ideas and…

  11. 76 FR 3629 - Regular Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... A. Approval of Minutes December 9, 2010. B. New Business Review of Insurance Premium Rates. FCSIC... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board Regular Meeting SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given...

  12. Regularization of Localized Degradation Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-12-28

    order to assess the regularization properties of non-classical micropolar Cosserat continua which feature non-symmetric stress and strain tensors because...of the presence of couple-stresses and micro-curvatures. It was shown that micropolar media may only exhibit localized failure in the form of tensile

  13. Resource Guide for Regular Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampert, George J.

    The resource guide for regular teachers provides policies and procedures of the Flour Bluff (Texas) school district regarding special education of handicapped students. Individual sections provide guidelines for the following areas: the referral process; individual assessment; participation on student evaluation and placement committee; special…

  14. Medical coverage of gymnastics competitions.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Suzanne S; Burton, Monique S

    2009-01-01

    Medical coverage of gymnastics competitions can be a challenging task for the sports medicine physician and other medical personnel because of the complexity and aerial nature of the sport. A broad understanding of the six gymnastics disciplines, along with the type of competitions, injury epidemiology, and the common acute gymnastics injuries will help sports medicine professionals in planning and delivering optimal care to the injured or ill gymnast.

  15. Temporal regularity in speech perception: Is regularity beneficial or deleterious?

    PubMed

    Geiser, Eveline; Shattuck-Hufnagel, Stefanie

    2012-04-01

    Speech rhythm has been proposed to be of crucial importance for correct speech perception and language learning. This study investigated the influence of speech rhythm in second language processing. German pseudo-sentences were presented to participants in two conditions: 'naturally regular speech rhythm' and an 'emphasized regular rhythm'. Nine expert English speakers with 3.5±1.6 years of German training repeated each sentence after hearing it once over headphones. Responses were transcribed using the International Phonetic Alphabet and analyzed for the number of correct, false and missing consonants as well as for consonant additions. The over-all number of correct reproductions of consonants did not differ between the two experimental conditions. However, speech rhythmicization significantly affected the serial position curve of correctly reproduced syllables. The results of this pilot study are consistent with the view that speech rhythm is important for speech perception.

  16. Reducing errors in the GRACE gravity solutions using regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Save, Himanshu; Bettadpur, Srinivas; Tapley, Byron D.

    2012-09-01

    The nature of the gravity field inverse problem amplifies the noise in the GRACE data, which creeps into the mid and high degree and order harmonic coefficients of the Earth's monthly gravity fields provided by GRACE. Due to the use of imperfect background models and data noise, these errors are manifested as north-south striping in the monthly global maps of equivalent water heights. In order to reduce these errors, this study investigates the use of the L-curve method with Tikhonov regularization. L-curve is a popular aid for determining a suitable value of the regularization parameter when solving linear discrete ill-posed problems using Tikhonov regularization. However, the computational effort required to determine the L-curve is prohibitively high for a large-scale problem like GRACE. This study implements a parameter-choice method, using Lanczos bidiagonalization which is a computationally inexpensive approximation to L-curve. Lanczos bidiagonalization is implemented with orthogonal transformation in a parallel computing environment and projects a large estimation problem on a problem of the size of about 2 orders of magnitude smaller for computing the regularization parameter. Errors in the GRACE solution time series have certain characteristics that vary depending on the ground track coverage of the solutions. These errors increase with increasing degree and order. In addition, certain resonant and near-resonant harmonic coefficients have higher errors as compared with the other coefficients. Using the knowledge of these characteristics, this study designs a regularization matrix that provides a constraint on the geopotential coefficients as a function of its degree and order. This regularization matrix is then used to compute the appropriate regularization parameter for each monthly solution. A 7-year time-series of the candidate regularized solutions (Mar 2003-Feb 2010) show markedly reduced error stripes compared with the unconstrained GRACE release 4

  17. Coverage Evaluation of Academic Libraries Survey (ALS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marston, Christopher C.

    1999-01-01

    Evaluates universe coverage, data coverage, and response rates of the Academic Libraries Survey. Includes examination of survey design and data collection, perceptions of regional survey coordinators, and reporting by public versus private institutions. (Author)

  18. Bundled automobile insurance coverage and accidents.

    PubMed

    Li, Chu-Shiu; Liu, Chwen-Chi; Peng, Sheng-Chang

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the characteristics of automobile accidents by taking into account two types of automobile insurance coverage: comprehensive vehicle physical damage insurance and voluntary third-party liability insurance. By using a unique data set in the Taiwanese automobile insurance market, we explore the bundled automobile insurance coverage and the occurrence of claims. It is shown that vehicle physical damage insurance is the major automobile coverage and affects the decision to purchase voluntary liability insurance coverage as a complement. Moreover, policyholders with high vehicle physical damage insurance coverage have a significantly higher probability of filing vehicle damage claims, and if they additionally purchase low voluntary liability insurance coverage, their accident claims probability is higher than those who purchase high voluntary liability insurance coverage. Our empirical results reveal that additional automobile insurance coverage information can capture more driver characteristics and driving behaviors to provide useful information for insurers' underwriting policies and to help analyze the occurrence of automobile accidents.

  19. Closing the Prescription Drug Coverage Gap

    MedlinePlus

    ... coverage gap discount work for brand-name drugs? Companies that make brand-name prescription drugs must sign ... Coverage Gap Discount Program. This program requires the companies to offer discounts on brand-name drugs to ...

  20. On different facets of regularization theory.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhe; Haykin, Simon

    2002-12-01

    This review provides a comprehensive understanding of regularization theory from different perspectives, emphasizing smoothness and simplicity principles. Using the tools of operator theory and Fourier analysis, it is shown that the solution of the classical Tikhonov regularization problem can be derived from the regularized functional defined by a linear differential (integral) operator in the spatial (Fourier) domain. State-of-the-art research relevant to the regularization theory is reviewed, covering Occam's razor, minimum length description, Bayesian theory, pruning algorithms, informational (entropy) theory, statistical learning theory, and equivalent regularization. The universal principle of regularization in terms of Kolmogorov complexity is discussed. Finally, some prospective studies on regularization theory and beyond are suggested.

  1. Physical model of dimensional regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schonfeld, Jonathan F.

    2016-12-01

    We explicitly construct fractals of dimension 4{-}ɛ on which dimensional regularization approximates scalar-field-only quantum-field theory amplitudes. The construction does not require fractals to be Lorentz-invariant in any sense, and we argue that there probably is no Lorentz-invariant fractal of dimension greater than 2. We derive dimensional regularization's power-law screening first for fractals obtained by removing voids from 3-dimensional Euclidean space. The derivation applies techniques from elementary dielectric theory. Surprisingly, fractal geometry by itself does not guarantee the appropriate power-law behavior; boundary conditions at fractal voids also play an important role. We then extend the derivation to 4-dimensional Minkowski space. We comment on generalization to non-scalar fields, and speculate about implications for quantum gravity.

  2. Regular Motions of Resonant Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraz-Mello, S.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Se revisan resultados analiticos relativos a soluciones regulares del problema asteroidal eliptico promediados en la vecindad de una resonancia con jupiten Mencionamos Ia ley de estructura para libradores de alta excentricidad, la estabilidad de los centros de liberaci6n, las perturbaciones forzadas por la excentricidad de jupiter y las 6rbitas de corotaci6n. ABSTRAC This paper reviews analytical results concerning the regular solutions of the elliptic asteroidal problem averaged in the neighbourhood of a resonance with jupiter. We mention the law of structure for high-eccentricity librators, the stability of the libration centers, the perturbations forced by the eccentricity ofjupiter and the corotation orbits. Key words: ASThROIDS

  3. Energy functions for regularization algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delingette, H.; Hebert, M.; Ikeuchi, K.

    1991-01-01

    Regularization techniques are widely used for inverse problem solving in computer vision such as surface reconstruction, edge detection, or optical flow estimation. Energy functions used for regularization algorithms measure how smooth a curve or surface is, and to render acceptable solutions these energies must verify certain properties such as invariance with Euclidean transformations or invariance with parameterization. The notion of smoothness energy is extended here to the notion of a differential stabilizer, and it is shown that to void the systematic underestimation of undercurvature for planar curve fitting, it is necessary that circles be the curves of maximum smoothness. A set of stabilizers is proposed that meet this condition as well as invariance with rotation and parameterization.

  4. 15 CFR 14.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 14.31 Section 14... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 14.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  5. 20 CFR 435.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 435.31 Section 435.31... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 435.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients must, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with...

  6. 20 CFR 435.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 435.31 Section 435.31... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 435.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients must, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with...

  7. 22 CFR 145.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 145.31 Section 145.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER... Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for...

  8. 49 CFR 19.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 19.31 Section 19.31... Requirements Property Standards § 19.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided...

  9. 28 CFR 70.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 70.31 Section 70.31...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 70.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients must, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  10. 38 CFR 49.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 49.31... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 49.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  11. 24 CFR 35.1140 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 35.1140 Section... § 35.1140 Insurance coverage. For the requirements concerning the obligation of a PHA to obtain reasonable insurance coverage with respect to the hazards associated with evaluation and hazard...

  12. 2 CFR 215.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 215.31 Section 215.31... A-110) Post Award Requirements Property Standards § 215.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired...

  13. 45 CFR 74.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 74.31 Section 74.31 Public..., AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  14. 45 CFR 74.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 74.31 Section 74.31 Public..., AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  15. 24 CFR 84.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 84.31 Section 84.31 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for...

  16. 32 CFR 32.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 32.31 Section 32.31 National... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 32.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  17. 14 CFR 1260.131 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 1260.131 Section 1260... Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations Property Standards § 1260.131 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property...

  18. 45 CFR 2543.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 2543.31 Section 2543.31 Public... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 2543.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with...

  19. 24 CFR 84.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 84.31 Section 84.31 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for...

  20. 10 CFR 600.131 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 600.131 Section 600.131 Energy... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.131 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with DOE funds...

  1. 22 CFR 145.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 145.31 Section 145.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER... Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for...

  2. 22 CFR 226.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 226.31 Section 226.31...-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Property Standards § 226.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  3. 22 CFR 226.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 226.31 Section 226.31...-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Property Standards § 226.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  4. 2 CFR 200.310 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 200.310 Section 200.310... REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS Post Federal Award Requirements Property Standards § 200.310 Insurance coverage. The non-Federal entity must, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real...

  5. 34 CFR 74.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 74.31 Section 74.31 Education... Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided to property...

  6. 22 CFR 518.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Insurance coverage. 518.31 Section 518.31... Requirements Property Standards § 518.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided...

  7. 49 CFR 19.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 19.31 Section 19.31... Requirements Property Standards § 19.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided...

  8. 36 CFR 1210.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Insurance coverage. 1210.31 Section 1210.31 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL....31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage...

  9. 32 CFR 32.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 32.31 Section 32.31 National... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 32.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  10. 10 CFR 600.131 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 600.131 Section 600.131 Energy... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.131 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with DOE funds...

  11. 22 CFR 518.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Insurance coverage. 518.31 Section 518.31... Requirements Property Standards § 518.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided...

  12. 32 CFR 32.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 32.31 Section 32.31 National... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 32.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  13. 15 CFR 14.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 14.31 Section 14... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 14.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  14. 38 CFR 49.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 49.31... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 49.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  15. 20 CFR 435.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 435.31 Section 435.31... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 435.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients must, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with...

  16. 38 CFR 49.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 49.31... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 49.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  17. 34 CFR 74.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 74.31 Section 74.31 Education... Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided to property...

  18. 49 CFR 19.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 19.31 Section 19.31... Requirements Property Standards § 19.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided...

  19. 22 CFR 145.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 145.31 Section 145.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER... Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for...

  20. 15 CFR 14.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 14.31 Section 14... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 14.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  1. 24 CFR 35.1140 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 35.1140 Section... § 35.1140 Insurance coverage. For the requirements concerning the obligation of a PHA to obtain reasonable insurance coverage with respect to the hazards associated with evaluation and hazard...

  2. 2 CFR 215.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 215.31 Section 215.31... A-110) Post Award Requirements Property Standards § 215.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired...

  3. 24 CFR 35.1140 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 35.1140 Section... § 35.1140 Insurance coverage. For the requirements concerning the obligation of a PHA to obtain reasonable insurance coverage with respect to the hazards associated with evaluation and hazard...

  4. 10 CFR 600.131 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 600.131 Section 600.131 Energy... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.131 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with DOE funds...

  5. 36 CFR 1210.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 1210.31 Section 1210.31 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL....31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage...

  6. 40 CFR 30.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 30.31 Section 30.31... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 30.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  7. 45 CFR 74.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 74.31 Section 74.31 Public..., AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  8. 40 CFR 30.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 30.31 Section 30.31... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 30.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  9. 40 CFR 30.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 30.31 Section 30.31... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 30.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  10. 45 CFR 2543.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 2543.31 Section 2543.31 Public... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 2543.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with...

  11. 36 CFR 1210.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 1210.31 Section 1210.31 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL....31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage...

  12. 14 CFR 1260.131 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 1260.131 Section 1260... Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations Property Standards § 1260.131 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property...

  13. 28 CFR 70.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 70.31 Section 70.31...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 70.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients must, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  14. 45 CFR 2543.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 2543.31 Section 2543.31 Public... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 2543.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with...

  15. 22 CFR 518.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 518.31 Section 518.31... Requirements Property Standards § 518.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided...

  16. 28 CFR 70.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 70.31 Section 70.31...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 70.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients must, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  17. 22 CFR 226.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 226.31 Section 226.31...-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Property Standards § 226.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  18. 24 CFR 84.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 84.31 Section 84.31 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for...

  19. 29 CFR 801.3 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 General § 801.3 Coverage. (a) The coverage of the Act extends to “any... coverage to be coextensive with the full scope of the Congressional power to regulate commerce. See, for example, Godwin v. Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission, 540 F. 2d 1013, 1015 (9th Cir....

  20. 29 CFR 801.3 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 General § 801.3 Coverage. (a) The coverage of the Act extends to “any... coverage to be coextensive with the full scope of the Congressional power to regulate commerce. See, for example, Godwin v. Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission, 540 F. 2d 1013, 1015 (9th Cir....

  1. 29 CFR 801.3 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 General § 801.3 Coverage. (a) The coverage of the Act extends to “any... coverage to be coextensive with the full scope of the Congressional power to regulate commerce. See, for example, Godwin v. Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission, 540 F. 2d 1013, 1015 (9th Cir....

  2. 29 CFR 801.3 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 General § 801.3 Coverage. (a) The coverage of the Act extends to “any... coverage to be coextensive with the full scope of the Congressional power to regulate commerce. See, for example, Godwin v. Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission, 540 F. 2d 1013, 1015 (9th Cir....

  3. 5 CFR 300.603 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 300.603 Section 300.603 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT (GENERAL) Time-In-Grade Restrictions § 300.603 Coverage. (a) Coverage. This subpart applies to advancement to a...

  4. 5 CFR 300.603 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 300.603 Section 300.603 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT (GENERAL) Time-In-Grade Restrictions § 300.603 Coverage. (a) Coverage. This subpart applies to advancement to a...

  5. 32 CFR 32.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 32.31 Section 32.31 National... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 32.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  6. 36 CFR 1210.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 1210.31 Section 1210.31 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL....31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage...

  7. 40 CFR 30.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 30.31 Section 30.31... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 30.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  8. 15 CFR 14.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 14.31 Section 14... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 14.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  9. 10 CFR 600.131 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 600.131 Section 600.131 Energy... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.131 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with DOE funds...

  10. 45 CFR 74.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 74.31 Section 74.31 Public..., AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  11. 24 CFR 84.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 84.31 Section 84.31 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for...

  12. 40 CFR 30.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 30.31 Section 30.31... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 30.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  13. 34 CFR 74.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 74.31 Section 74.31 Education... Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided to property...

  14. 22 CFR 518.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Insurance coverage. 518.31 Section 518.31... Requirements Property Standards § 518.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided...

  15. 22 CFR 226.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 226.31 Section 226.31...-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Property Standards § 226.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  16. 34 CFR 74.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 74.31 Section 74.31 Education... Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided to property...

  17. 24 CFR 35.1140 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 35.1140 Section... § 35.1140 Insurance coverage. For the requirements concerning the obligation of a PHA to obtain reasonable insurance coverage with respect to the hazards associated with evaluation and hazard...

  18. 49 CFR 19.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 19.31 Section 19.31... Requirements Property Standards § 19.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided...

  19. 45 CFR 2543.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 2543.31 Section 2543.31 Public... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 2543.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with...

  20. 45 CFR 74.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 74.31 Section 74.31 Public..., AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  1. 22 CFR 145.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 145.31 Section 145.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER... Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for...

  2. 10 CFR 600.131 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 600.131 Section 600.131 Energy... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.131 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with DOE funds...

  3. 45 CFR 2543.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 2543.31 Section 2543.31 Public... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 2543.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with...

  4. 15 CFR 14.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 14.31 Section 14... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 14.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  5. 22 CFR 518.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Insurance coverage. 518.31 Section 518.31... Requirements Property Standards § 518.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided...

  6. 32 CFR 32.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 32.31 Section 32.31 National... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 32.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  7. 28 CFR 70.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 70.31 Section 70.31...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 70.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients must, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  8. 20 CFR 435.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 435.31 Section 435.31... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 435.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients must, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with...

  9. 24 CFR 84.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 84.31 Section 84.31 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for...

  10. 24 CFR 35.1140 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 35.1140 Section... § 35.1140 Insurance coverage. For the requirements concerning the obligation of a PHA to obtain reasonable insurance coverage with respect to the hazards associated with evaluation and hazard...

  11. 2 CFR 215.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 215.31 Section 215.31... A-110) Post Award Requirements Property Standards § 215.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired...

  12. 14 CFR 1260.131 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 1260.131 Section 1260... Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations Property Standards § 1260.131 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property...

  13. 28 CFR 70.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 70.31 Section 70.31...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 70.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients must, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  14. 36 CFR 1210.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 1210.31 Section 1210.31 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL....31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage...

  15. 38 CFR 49.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 49.31... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 49.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  16. 20 CFR 435.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 435.31 Section 435.31... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 435.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients must, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with...

  17. 38 CFR 49.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 49.31... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 49.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  18. 49 CFR 19.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 19.31 Section 19.31... Requirements Property Standards § 19.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided...

  19. 22 CFR 226.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 226.31 Section 226.31...-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Property Standards § 226.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  20. 22 CFR 145.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 145.31 Section 145.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER... Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for...

  1. 14 CFR 1260.131 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Insurance coverage. 1260.131 Section 1260... Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations Property Standards § 1260.131 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property...

  2. 2 CFR 215.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 215.31 Section 215.31 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved UNIFORM... Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for...

  3. 40 CFR 51.356 - Vehicle coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vehicle coverage. 51.356 Section 51.356....356 Vehicle coverage. The performance standard for enhanced I/M programs assumes coverage of all 1968 and later model year light duty vehicles and light duty trucks up to 8,500 pounds GVWR, and...

  4. 40 CFR 51.356 - Vehicle coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vehicle coverage. 51.356 Section 51.356....356 Vehicle coverage. The performance standard for enhanced I/M programs assumes coverage of all 1968 and later model year light duty vehicles and light duty trucks up to 8,500 pounds GVWR, and...

  5. 40 CFR 51.356 - Vehicle coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vehicle coverage. 51.356 Section 51.356....356 Vehicle coverage. The performance standard for enhanced I/M programs assumes coverage of all 1968 and later model year light duty vehicles and light duty trucks up to 8,500 pounds GVWR, and...

  6. 40 CFR 51.356 - Vehicle coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vehicle coverage. 51.356 Section 51.356....356 Vehicle coverage. The performance standard for enhanced I/M programs assumes coverage of all 1968 and later model year light duty vehicles and light duty trucks up to 8,500 pounds GVWR, and...

  7. Medical male circumcision coverage in Rakai, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiangrong; Kigozi, Godfrey; Ssekasanvu, Joseph; Nalugoda, Fred; Nakigozi, Gertrude; Chang, Larry W; Latkin, Carl; Serwadda, David; Wawer, Maria J; Gray, Ronald H

    2017-03-13

    We assessed medical male circumcision (MMC) scale-up in Rakai, Uganda using population-based surveys during 2007-2014. MMC coverage increased from 28.5 to 52.0%. Coverage was initially lower in 15-19-year-olds but increased in 2014, was higher in married men and in trading communities, and lowest in the sexually inactive. Coverage did not vary by self-perceived risk of HIV or HIV serostatus. Increasing generalized coverage suggested that MMC became normative, but coverage falls short of WHO/Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS) 80% targets, indicating the need for demand generation.

  8. Insurance coverage for employment-related claims

    SciTech Connect

    Scheuermann, J.E.

    1993-12-31

    This article analyzes the principal coverage issues arising under CGL policies for employment-related claims. Section I discusses the bases of the duty to defend and the duty to idemnify in the key CGL policy provisions at issue, including the bodily injury and personal injury coverages. Section II examines the three provisions in CGL policies typically raised as defenses to coverage for employment-related claims and two public policy considerations that may affect claims for coverage. The duty to defend is given closer crutiny in section III. Finally, in section IV the effects of settlement on coverage are discussed. 106 refs.

  9. 42 CFR 422.68 - Effective dates of coverage and change of coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... continuity of health benefits coverage. (e) Special election period for individual age 65. For an election of... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Eligibility, Election, and Enrollment § 422.68 Effective dates of coverage and change of coverage. (a) Initial coverage election...

  10. Knowledge and regularity in planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, John A.; Langley, Pat; Matwin, Stan

    1992-01-01

    The field of planning has focused on several methods of using domain-specific knowledge. The three most common methods, use of search control, use of macro-operators, and analogy, are part of a continuum of techniques differing in the amount of reused plan information. This paper describes TALUS, a planner that exploits this continuum, and is used for comparing the relative utility of these methods. We present results showing how search control, macro-operators, and analogy are affected by domain regularity and the amount of stored knowledge.

  11. Influenza vaccination coverage among adults in Korea: 2008-2009 to 2011-2012 seasons.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hye Jung; Cho, Sung-Il

    2014-11-25

    The aim of this study was to examine seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccination coverage in adults from the 2008-2009 season to the 2011-2012 season, including pandemic and post-pandemic seasons in Korea. We collected data of self-reported vaccine use from the Korean Community Health Survey. We also collected information on socioeconomic status and health behaviors in subpopulations. We tested for linear trends among the data to investigate vaccine coverage before and after the pandemic; and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of obtaining the influenza vaccination. The results revealed a steady increase in vaccination coverage in every subgroup during four consecutive seasons. The highest rate of vaccine coverage (43.6%) occurred two years after the pandemic. Factors associated with vaccine receipt were: older age; lower education level; lower income; and health behaviors such as regular walking and receiving a health check-up. Smoking and drinking alcohol were inversely associated with vaccination. Having a chronic health condition was also a strong predictor of vaccine receipt. Though vaccination coverage rates were high in high-risk groups; disparities in coverage rates were substantial; particularly in young adults. Interventions are needed to minimize the coverage gaps among subgroups and to improve overall vaccination rates.

  12. 22 CFR 120.39 - Regular employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Regular employee. 120.39 Section 120.39 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.39 Regular employee. (a) A regular employee means for purposes of this subchapter: (1) An...

  13. 22 CFR 120.39 - Regular employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Regular employee. 120.39 Section 120.39 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.39 Regular employee. (a) A regular employee means for purposes of this subchapter: (1) An...

  14. 22 CFR 120.39 - Regular employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Regular employee. 120.39 Section 120.39 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.39 Regular employee. (a) A regular employee means for purposes of this subchapter: (1) An...

  15. Regular Pentagons and the Fibonacci Sequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Doug

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates how to draw a regular pentagon. Shows the sequence of a succession of regular pentagons formed by extending the sides. Calculates the general formula of the Lucas and Fibonacci sequences. Presents a regular icosahedron as an example of the golden ratio. (YP)

  16. Regularized degenerate multi-solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, Francisco; Fring, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    We report complex {P}{T} -symmetric multi-soliton solutions to the Korteweg de-Vries equation that asymptotically contain one-soliton solutions, with each of them possessing the same amount of finite real energy. We demonstrate how these solutions originate from degenerate energy solutions of the Schrödinger equation. Technically this is achieved by the application of Darboux-Crum transformations involving Jordan states with suitable regularizing shifts. Alternatively they may be constructed from a limiting process within the context Hirota's direct method or on a nonlinear superposition obtained from multiple Bäcklund transformations. The proposed procedure is completely generic and also applicable to other types of nonlinear integrable systems.

  17. Natural frequency of regular basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjandra, Sugih S.; Pudjaprasetya, S. R.

    2014-03-01

    Similar to the vibration of a guitar string or an elastic membrane, water waves in an enclosed basin undergo standing oscillatory waves, also known as seiches. The resonant (eigen) periods of seiches are determined by water depth and geometry of the basin. For regular basins, explicit formulas are available. Resonance occurs when the dominant frequency of external force matches the eigen frequency of the basin. In this paper, we implement the conservative finite volume scheme to 2D shallow water equation to simulate resonance in closed basins. Further, we would like to use this scheme and utilizing energy spectra of the recorded signal to extract resonant periods of arbitrary basins. But here we first test the procedure for getting resonant periods of a square closed basin. The numerical resonant periods that we obtain are comparable with those from analytical formulas.

  18. Soft tissue coverage in abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Donald P; Butler, Charles E

    2013-10-01

    Abdominal wall defects requiring soft tissue coverage can be either partial-thickness defects or full-thickness composite defects. Soft tissue flap reconstruction offers significant advantages in defects that cannot be closed primarily. Flap reconstruction is performed in a single-stage procedure obviating chronic wound management. If the defect size exceeds the availability of local soft tissue for coverage, regional pedicled flaps can be delivered into the abdominal wall while maintaining blood supply from their donor site. Microsurgical free tissue transfer increases the capacity to provide soft tissue coverage for abdominal wall defects that are not amenable to either local or regional flap coverage.

  19. Computational Methods for Analyzing Health News Coverage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarlane, Delano J.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers that investigate the media's coverage of health have historically relied on keyword searches to retrieve relevant health news coverage, and manual content analysis methods to categorize and score health news text. These methods are problematic. Manual content analysis methods are labor intensive, time consuming, and inherently…

  20. 14 CFR 205.5 - Minimum coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... or death of persons, including nonemployee cargo attendants, other than passengers, and for damage to... accident liability insurance coverage for bodily injury to or death of aircraft passengers, with minimum... death of aircraft passengers, with a minimum coverage of $75,000 for any one passenger and a total...

  1. 14 CFR 205.5 - Minimum coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... or death of persons, including nonemployee cargo attendants, other than passengers, and for damage to... accident liability insurance coverage for bodily injury to or death of aircraft passengers, with minimum... death of aircraft passengers, with a minimum coverage of $75,000 for any one passenger and a total...

  2. 14 CFR 205.5 - Minimum coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... or death of persons, including nonemployee cargo attendants, other than passengers, and for damage to... accident liability insurance coverage for bodily injury to or death of aircraft passengers, with minimum... death of aircraft passengers, with a minimum coverage of $75,000 for any one passenger and a total...

  3. 14 CFR 205.5 - Minimum coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... or death of persons, including nonemployee cargo attendants, other than passengers, and for damage to... accident liability insurance coverage for bodily injury to or death of aircraft passengers, with minimum... death of aircraft passengers, with a minimum coverage of $75,000 for any one passenger and a total...

  4. 14 CFR 205.5 - Minimum coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... or death of persons, including nonemployee cargo attendants, other than passengers, and for damage to... accident liability insurance coverage for bodily injury to or death of aircraft passengers, with minimum... death of aircraft passengers, with a minimum coverage of $75,000 for any one passenger and a total...

  5. 12 CFR 205.3 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 205.3 Section 205.3 Banks and Banking... this paragraph (c)(7) remain subject to § 205.10(e) regarding compulsory use and sections 915 and 916... (REGULATION E) § 205.3 Coverage. (a) General. This part applies to any electronic fund transfer...

  6. 12 CFR 205.3 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 205.3 Section 205.3 Banks and Banking... this paragraph (c)(7) remain subject to § 205.10(e) regarding compulsory use and sections 915 and 916... (REGULATION E) § 205.3 Coverage. (a) General. This part applies to any electronic fund transfer...

  7. 12 CFR 205.3 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 205.3 Section 205.3 Banks and Banking... this paragraph (c)(7) remain subject to § 205.10(e) regarding compulsory use and sections 915 and 916... (REGULATION E) § 205.3 Coverage. (a) General. This part applies to any electronic fund transfer...

  8. 12 CFR 205.3 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 205.3 Section 205.3 Banks and Banking... this paragraph (c)(7) remain subject to § 205.10(e) regarding compulsory use and sections 915 and 916... (REGULATION E) § 205.3 Coverage. (a) General. This part applies to any electronic fund transfer...

  9. 12 CFR 205.3 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 205.3 Section 205.3 Banks and Banking... this paragraph (c)(7) remain subject to § 205.10(e) regarding compulsory use and sections 915 and 916... (REGULATION E) § 205.3 Coverage. (a) General. This part applies to any electronic fund transfer...

  10. 5 CFR 9701.202 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 9701.202 Section 9701.202... MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Classification General § 9701.202 Coverage. (a) This subpart applies to eligible DHS... covered by a prevailing rate system established under 5 U.S.C. chapter 53, subchapter IV; (3) Employees...

  11. 5 CFR 9701.402 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 9701.402 Section 9701.402 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF... MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Performance Management § 9701.402 Coverage. (a) This subpart applies to eligible...

  12. 24 CFR 320.11 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 320.11 Section...-BACKED SECURITIES Pass-Through Type Securities § 320.11 Insurance coverage. The issuer shall maintain, for the benefit of the Association, insurance, errors and omissions, fidelity bond and other...

  13. 43 CFR 12.931 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 12.931 Section 12.931 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND... Requirements § 12.931 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent...

  14. 24 CFR 1006.330 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 1006.330... DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Program Requirements § 1006.330 Insurance coverage. (a) In general. As a condition to receiving NHHBG funds, the DHHL must require adequate...

  15. 7 CFR 3019.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 3019.31 Section 3019.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER... Standards § 3019.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent...

  16. 24 CFR 1006.330 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 1006.330... DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Program Requirements § 1006.330 Insurance coverage. (a) In general. As a condition to receiving NHHBG funds, the DHHL must require adequate...

  17. 24 CFR 320.11 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 320.11 Section...-BACKED SECURITIES Pass-Through Type Securities § 320.11 Insurance coverage. The issuer shall maintain, for the benefit of the Association, insurance, errors and omissions, fidelity bond and other...

  18. 7 CFR 3019.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 3019.31 Section 3019.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER... Standards § 3019.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent...

  19. 29 CFR 95.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 95.31 Section 95.31 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON... § 95.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance...

  20. 29 CFR 95.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 95.31 Section 95.31 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON... § 95.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance...

  1. 24 CFR 1006.330 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 1006.330... DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Program Requirements § 1006.330 Insurance coverage. (a) In general. As a condition to receiving NHHBG funds, the DHHL must require adequate...

  2. 7 CFR 3019.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 3019.31 Section 3019.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER... Standards § 3019.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent...

  3. 24 CFR 320.11 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 320.11 Section...-BACKED SECURITIES Pass-Through Type Securities § 320.11 Insurance coverage. The issuer shall maintain, for the benefit of the Association, insurance, errors and omissions, fidelity bond and other...

  4. 43 CFR 12.931 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Insurance coverage. 12.931 Section 12.931 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND... Requirements § 12.931 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent...

  5. 43 CFR 12.931 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 12.931 Section 12.931 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND... Requirements § 12.931 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent...

  6. 29 CFR 95.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Insurance coverage. 95.31 Section 95.31 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON... § 95.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance...

  7. 5 CFR 550.181 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 550.181 Section 550.181 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.181 Coverage. (a) Each employee meeting the...

  8. 5 CFR 550.181 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 550.181 Section 550.181 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.181 Coverage. (a) Each employee meeting the...

  9. 5 CFR 550.181 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 550.181 Section 550.181 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.181 Coverage. (a) Each employee meeting the...

  10. 5 CFR 550.181 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 550.181 Section 550.181 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.181 Coverage. (a) Each employee meeting the...

  11. 5 CFR 550.181 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 550.181 Section 550.181 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.181 Coverage. (a) Each employee meeting the...

  12. Abstract Journals: A Survey of Patent Coverage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmer, Brenda M.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a survey of 33 British, French, German, and U.S. abstract journals that examined their coverage of patent specifications. The standards for the identification of patent documents developed by the World Intellectual Property Organization are discussed, and an appendix provides a listing of the patent coverage by the country of each…

  13. 5 CFR 315.903 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 315.903 Section 315.903 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Probation on Initial Appointment to a Supervisory or Managerial Position § 315.903 Coverage....

  14. 5 CFR 315.903 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 315.903 Section 315.903 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Probation on Initial Appointment to a Supervisory or Managerial Position § 315.903 Coverage....

  15. 5 CFR 315.903 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 315.903 Section 315.903 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Probation on Initial Appointment to a Supervisory or Managerial Position § 315.903 Coverage....

  16. 77 FR 16453 - Student Health Insurance Coverage

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Parts 144, 147, and 158 CMS-9981-F RIN 0938-AQ95 Student Health Insurance Coverage... establishes requirements for student health insurance coverage under the Public Health Service (PHS) Act...

  17. 76 FR 7767 - Student Health Insurance Coverage

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Parts 144 and 147 RIN 0950-AA20 Student Health Insurance Coverage AGENCY: Centers... proposed regulation that would establish rules for student health insurance coverage under the...

  18. 5 CFR 430.302 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 430.302 Section 430.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Managing Senior Executive Performance § 430.302 Coverage. (a) This subpart applies to all senior...

  19. 5 CFR 430.302 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 430.302 Section 430.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Managing Senior Executive Performance § 430.302 Coverage. (a) This subpart applies to all senior...

  20. 32 CFR 2001.71 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coverage. 2001.71 Section 2001.71 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL... Training § 2001.71 Coverage. (a) General. Each department or agency shall establish and maintain a...

  1. 32 CFR 2001.71 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coverage. 2001.71 Section 2001.71 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL... Training § 2001.71 Coverage. (a) General. Each department or agency shall establish and maintain a...

  2. 32 CFR 2001.71 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coverage. 2001.71 Section 2001.71 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL... Training § 2001.71 Coverage. (a) General. Each department or agency shall establish and maintain a...

  3. HEALTH INSURANCE COVERAGE FOR WORKERS ON LAYOFF.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KOLODRUBETZ, WALTER W.

    ESTIMATES OF GROUP HEALTH INSURANCE COVERAGE BY INDUSTRY INDICATE THAT EXTENDED PROTECTION DURING LAYOFF IS GUARANTEED TO NO MORE THAN A TENTH OF THE APPROXIMATELY 50 MILLION WORKERS COVERED BY GROUP HEALTH INSURANCE PLANS. THIS COVERAGE HAS LARGELY DEVELOPED DURING THE PAST 15 YEARS. FRAGMENTARY DATA SUGGEST THAT INCREASED COST ATTRIBUTABLE TO…

  4. 24 CFR 1006.330 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 1006.330... DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Program Requirements § 1006.330 Insurance coverage. (a) In general. As a condition to receiving NHHBG funds, the DHHL must require adequate...

  5. 24 CFR 1006.330 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 1006.330... DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Program Requirements § 1006.330 Insurance coverage. (a) In general. As a condition to receiving NHHBG funds, the DHHL must require adequate...

  6. 29 CFR 95.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Insurance coverage. 95.31 Section 95.31 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON... § 95.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance...

  7. 24 CFR 320.11 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 320.11 Section...-BACKED SECURITIES Pass-Through Type Securities § 320.11 Insurance coverage. The issuer shall maintain, for the benefit of the Association, insurance, errors and omissions, fidelity bond and other...

  8. 7 CFR 3019.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 3019.31 Section 3019.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER... Standards § 3019.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent...

  9. 7 CFR 3019.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 3019.31 Section 3019.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER... Standards § 3019.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent...

  10. 43 CFR 12.931 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 12.931 Section 12.931 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND... Requirements § 12.931 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent...

  11. 29 CFR 95.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 95.31 Section 95.31 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON... § 95.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance...

  12. 43 CFR 12.931 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 12.931 Section 12.931 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND... Requirements § 12.931 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent...

  13. 24 CFR 320.11 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 320.11 Section...-BACKED SECURITIES Pass-Through Type Securities § 320.11 Insurance coverage. The issuer shall maintain, for the benefit of the Association, insurance, errors and omissions, fidelity bond and other...

  14. 5 CFR 315.903 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 315.903 Section 315.903 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Probation on Initial Appointment to a Supervisory or Managerial Position § 315.903 Coverage....

  15. 5 CFR 315.903 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 315.903 Section 315.903 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Probation on Initial Appointment to a Supervisory or Managerial Position § 315.903 Coverage....

  16. 5 CFR 831.1612 - Elections of Retirement Coverage, exclusions from retirement coverage, and proportional annuity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Elections of Retirement Coverage, exclusions from retirement coverage, and proportional annuity computations. 831.1612 Section 831.1612...) RETIREMENT Customs and Border Protection Officers § 831.1612 Elections of Retirement Coverage,...

  17. 5 CFR 831.1612 - Elections of Retirement Coverage, exclusions from retirement coverage, and proportional annuity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Elections of Retirement Coverage, exclusions from retirement coverage, and proportional annuity computations. 831.1612 Section 831.1612...) RETIREMENT Customs and Border Protection Officers § 831.1612 Elections of Retirement Coverage,...

  18. 5 CFR 831.1612 - Elections of Retirement Coverage, exclusions from retirement coverage, and proportional annuity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Elections of Retirement Coverage, exclusions from retirement coverage, and proportional annuity computations. 831.1612 Section 831.1612...) RETIREMENT Customs and Border Protection Officers § 831.1612 Elections of Retirement Coverage,...

  19. A multiplicative regularization for force reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aucejo, M.; De Smet, O.

    2017-02-01

    Additive regularizations, such as Tikhonov-like approaches, are certainly the most popular methods for reconstructing forces acting on a structure. These approaches require, however, the knowledge of a regularization parameter, that can be numerically computed using specific procedures. Unfortunately, these procedures are generally computationally intensive. For this particular reason, it could be of primary interest to propose a method able to proceed without defining any regularization parameter beforehand. In this paper, a multiplicative regularization is introduced for this purpose. By construction, the regularized solution has to be calculated in an iterative manner. In doing so, the amount of regularization is automatically adjusted throughout the resolution process. Validations using synthetic and experimental data highlight the ability of the proposed approach in providing consistent reconstructions.

  20. Total variation regularization with bounded linear variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makovetskii, Artyom; Voronin, Sergei; Kober, Vitaly

    2016-09-01

    One of the most known techniques for signal denoising is based on total variation regularization (TV regularization). A better understanding of TV regularization is necessary to provide a stronger mathematical justification for using TV minimization in signal processing. In this work, we deal with an intermediate case between one- and two-dimensional cases; that is, a discrete function to be processed is two-dimensional radially symmetric piecewise constant. For this case, the exact solution to the problem can be obtained as follows: first, calculate the average values over rings of the noisy function; second, calculate the shift values and their directions using closed formulae depending on a regularization parameter and structure of rings. Despite the TV regularization is effective for noise removal; it often destroys fine details and thin structures of images. In order to overcome this drawback, we use the TV regularization for signal denoising subject to linear signal variations are bounded.

  1. Testing times: regularities in the historical sciences.

    PubMed

    Jeffares, Ben

    2008-12-01

    The historical sciences, such as geology, evolutionary biology, and archaeology, appear to have no means to test hypotheses. However, on closer examination, reasoning in the historical sciences relies upon regularities, regularities that can be tested. I outline the role of regularities in the historical sciences, and in the process, blur the distinction between the historical sciences and the experimental sciences: all sciences deploy theories about the world in their investigations.

  2. Regularity effect in prospective memory during aging

    PubMed Central

    Blondelle, Geoffrey; Hainselin, Mathieu; Gounden, Yannick; Heurley, Laurent; Voisin, Hélène; Megalakaki, Olga; Bressous, Estelle; Quaglino, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    Background Regularity effect can affect performance in prospective memory (PM), but little is known on the cognitive processes linked to this effect. Moreover, its impacts with regard to aging remain unknown. To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine regularity effect in PM in a lifespan perspective, with a sample of young, intermediate, and older adults. Objective and design Our study examined the regularity effect in PM in three groups of participants: 28 young adults (18–30), 16 intermediate adults (40–55), and 25 older adults (65–80). The task, adapted from the Virtual Week, was designed to manipulate the regularity of the various activities of daily life that were to be recalled (regular repeated activities vs. irregular non-repeated activities). We examine the role of several cognitive functions including certain dimensions of executive functions (planning, inhibition, shifting, and binding), short-term memory, and retrospective episodic memory to identify those involved in PM, according to regularity and age. Results A mixed-design ANOVA showed a main effect of task regularity and an interaction between age and regularity: an age-related difference in PM performances was found for irregular activities (older < young), but not for regular activities. All participants recalled more regular activities than irregular ones with no age effect. It appeared that recalling of regular activities only involved planning for both intermediate and older adults, while recalling of irregular ones were linked to planning, inhibition, short-term memory, binding, and retrospective episodic memory. Conclusion Taken together, our data suggest that planning capacities seem to play a major role in remembering to perform intended actions with advancing age. Furthermore, the age-PM-paradox may be attenuated when the experimental design is adapted by implementing a familiar context through the use of activities of daily living. The clinical implications of regularity

  3. Emerging challenges in implementing universal health coverage in Asia.

    PubMed

    Bredenkamp, Caryn; Evans, Timothy; Lagrada, Leizel; Langenbrunner, John; Nachuk, Stefan; Palu, Toomas

    2015-11-01

    As countries in Asia converge on the goal of universal health coverage (UHC), some common challenges are emerging. One is how to ensure coverage of the informal sector so as to make UHC truly universal; a second is how to design a benefit package that is responsive and appropriate to current health challenges, yet fiscally sustainable; and a third is how to ensure "supply-side readiness", i.e. the availability and quality of services, which is a necessary condition for translating coverage into improvements in health outcomes. Using examples from the Asia region, this paper discusses these three challenges and how they are being addressed. On the first challenge, two promising approaches emerge: using general revenues to fully cover the informal sector, or employing a combination of tax subsidies, non-financial incentives and contributory requirements. The former can produce fast results, but places pressure on government budgets and may induce informality, while the latter will require a strong administrative mandate and systems to track the ability-to-pay. With respect to benefit packages, we find considerable variation in the nature and rigor of processes underlying the selection and updating of the services included. Also, in general, packages do not yet focus sufficiently on non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and related preventive outpatient care. Finally, there are large variations and inequities in the supply-side readiness, in terms of availability of infrastructure, equipment, essential drugs and staffing, to deliver on the promises of UHC. Health worker competencies are also a constraint. While the UHC challenges are common, experience in overcoming these challenges is varied and many of the successes appear to be highly context-specific. This implies that researchers and policymakers need to rigorously, and regularly, assess different approaches, and share these findings across countries in Asia - and across the world.

  4. Analyzing the test process using structural coverage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, James; Basili, Victor R.

    1985-01-01

    A large, commercially developed FORTRAN program was modified to produce structural coverage metrics. The modified program was executed on a set of functionally generated acceptance tests and a large sample of operational usage cases. The resulting structural coverage metrics are combined with fault and error data to evaluate structural coverage. It was shown that in the software environment the functionally generated tests seem to be a good approximation of operational use. The relative proportions of the exercised statement subclasses change as the structural coverage of the program increases. A method was also proposed for evaluating if two sets of input data exercise a program in a similar manner. Evidence was provided that implies that in this environment, faults revealed in a procedure are independent of the number of times the procedure is executed and that it may be reasonable to use procedure coverage in software models that use statement coverage. Finally, the evidence suggests that it may be possible to use structural coverage to aid in the management of the acceptance test processed.

  5. Continuum regularization of quantum field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bern, Z.

    1986-04-01

    Possible nonperturbative continuum regularization schemes for quantum field theory are discussed which are based upon the Langevin equation of Parisi and Wu. Breit, Gupta and Zaks made the first proposal for new gauge invariant nonperturbative regularization. The scheme is based on smearing in the ''fifth-time'' of the Langevin equation. An analysis of their stochastic regularization scheme for the case of scalar electrodynamics with the standard covariant gauge fixing is given. Their scheme is shown to preserve the masslessness of the photon and the tensor structure of the photon vacuum polarization at the one-loop level. Although stochastic regularization is viable in one-loop electrodynamics, two difficulties arise which, in general, ruins the scheme. One problem is that the superficial quadratic divergences force a bottomless action for the noise. Another difficulty is that stochastic regularization by fifth-time smearing is incompatible with Zwanziger's gauge fixing, which is the only known nonperturbaive covariant gauge fixing for nonabelian gauge theories. Finally, a successful covariant derivative scheme is discussed which avoids the difficulties encountered with the earlier stochastic regularization by fifth-time smearing. For QCD the regularized formulation is manifestly Lorentz invariant, gauge invariant, ghost free and finite to all orders. A vanishing gluon mass is explicitly verified at one loop. The method is designed to respect relevant symmetries, and is expected to provide suitable regularization for any theory of interest. Hopefully, the scheme will lend itself to nonperturbative analysis. 44 refs., 16 figs.

  6. Numerical Regularization of Ill-Posed Problems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-09

    Unione Matematica Italiana. 4. The parameter choice problem in linear regularization: a mathematical introduction, in "Ill-Posed Problems: Theory and...vector b which is generally unavailable (see [21], [22]). Kdckler [33] has shon however that in the case of Tikhonov regularization for matrices it may

  7. Transport Code for Regular Triangular Geometry

    SciTech Connect

    1993-06-09

    DIAMANT2 solves the two-dimensional static multigroup neutron transport equation in planar regular triangular geometry. Both regular and adjoint, inhomogeneous and homogeneous problems subject to vacuum, reflective or input specified boundary flux conditions are solved. Anisotropy is allowed for the scattering source. Volume and surface sources are allowed for inhomogeneous problems.

  8. Regular Decompositions for H(div) Spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kolev, Tzanio; Vassilevski, Panayot

    2012-01-01

    We study regular decompositions for H(div) spaces. In particular, we show that such regular decompositions are closely related to a previously studied “inf-sup” condition for parameter-dependent Stokes problems, for which we provide an alternative, more direct, proof.

  9. 12 CFR 725.3 - Regular membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Regular membership. 725.3 Section 725.3 Banks... UNION ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.3 Regular membership. (a) A natural person credit... stock subscription;1 and 1 A credit union which submits its application for membership prior to...

  10. 12 CFR 725.3 - Regular membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Regular membership. 725.3 Section 725.3 Banks... UNION ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.3 Regular membership. (a) A natural person credit... stock subscription;1 and 1 A credit union which submits its application for membership prior to...

  11. 12 CFR 725.3 - Regular membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Regular membership. 725.3 Section 725.3 Banks... UNION ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.3 Regular membership. (a) A natural person credit... stock subscription;1 and 1 A credit union which submits its application for membership prior to...

  12. 12 CFR 725.3 - Regular membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Regular membership. 725.3 Section 725.3 Banks... UNION ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.3 Regular membership. (a) A natural person credit... stock subscription;1 and 1 A credit union which submits its application for membership prior to...

  13. 12 CFR 725.3 - Regular membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regular membership. 725.3 Section 725.3 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.3 Regular membership. (a) A natural person...

  14. Measuring populations to improve vaccination coverage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharti, Nita; Djibo, Ali; Tatem, Andrew J.; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Ferrari, Matthew J.

    2016-10-01

    In low-income settings, vaccination campaigns supplement routine immunization but often fail to achieve coverage goals due to uncertainty about target population size and distribution. Accurate, updated estimates of target populations are rare but critical; short-term fluctuations can greatly impact population size and susceptibility. We use satellite imagery to quantify population fluctuations and the coverage achieved by a measles outbreak response vaccination campaign in urban Niger and compare campaign estimates to measurements from a post-campaign survey. Vaccine coverage was overestimated because the campaign underestimated resident numbers and seasonal migration further increased the target population. We combine satellite-derived measurements of fluctuations in population distribution with high-resolution measles case reports to develop a dynamic model that illustrates the potential improvement in vaccination campaign coverage if planners account for predictable population fluctuations. Satellite imagery can improve retrospective estimates of vaccination campaign impact and future campaign planning by synchronizing interventions with predictable population fluxes.

  15. Measuring populations to improve vaccination coverage

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Nita; Djibo, Ali; Tatem, Andrew J.; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Ferrari, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    In low-income settings, vaccination campaigns supplement routine immunization but often fail to achieve coverage goals due to uncertainty about target population size and distribution. Accurate, updated estimates of target populations are rare but critical; short-term fluctuations can greatly impact population size and susceptibility. We use satellite imagery to quantify population fluctuations and the coverage achieved by a measles outbreak response vaccination campaign in urban Niger and compare campaign estimates to measurements from a post-campaign survey. Vaccine coverage was overestimated because the campaign underestimated resident numbers and seasonal migration further increased the target population. We combine satellite-derived measurements of fluctuations in population distribution with high-resolution measles case reports to develop a dynamic model that illustrates the potential improvement in vaccination campaign coverage if planners account for predictable population fluctuations. Satellite imagery can improve retrospective estimates of vaccination campaign impact and future campaign planning by synchronizing interventions with predictable population fluxes. PMID:27703191

  16. 5 CFR 550.1402 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Compensatory Time Off for Travel § 550.1402 Coverage. This subpart applies to an employee as defined in 5 U.S.C... employee whose pay is fixed and adjusted from time to time in accordance with prevailing rates...

  17. 5 CFR 550.1402 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Compensatory Time Off for Travel § 550.1402 Coverage. This subpart applies to an employee as defined in 5 U.S.C... employee whose pay is fixed and adjusted from time to time in accordance with prevailing rates...

  18. 5 CFR 550.1402 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Compensatory Time Off for Travel § 550.1402 Coverage. This subpart applies to an employee as defined in 5 U.S.C... employee whose pay is fixed and adjusted from time to time in accordance with prevailing rates...

  19. 5 CFR 550.1402 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Compensatory Time Off for Travel § 550.1402 Coverage. This subpart applies to an employee as defined in 5 U.S.C... employee whose pay is fixed and adjusted from time to time in accordance with prevailing rates...

  20. 5 CFR 550.1402 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Compensatory Time Off for Travel § 550.1402 Coverage. This subpart applies to an employee as defined in 5 U.S.C... employee whose pay is fixed and adjusted from time to time in accordance with prevailing rates...

  1. Universal prescription drug coverage in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Boothe, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Canada’s universal public healthcare system is unique among developed countries insofar as it does not include universal coverage of prescription drugs. Universal, public coverage of prescription drugs has been recommended by major national commissions in Canada dating back to the 1960s. It has not, however, been implemented. In this article, we extend research on the failure of early proposals for universal drug coverage in Canada to explain failures of calls for reform over the past 20 years. We describe the confluence of barriers to reform stemming from Canadian policy institutions, ideas held by federal policy-makers, and electoral incentives for necessary reforms. Though universal “pharmacare” is once again on the policy agenda in Canada, arguably at higher levels of policy discourse than ever before, the frequently recommended option of universal, public coverage of prescription drugs remains unlikely to be implemented without political leadership necessary to overcome these policy barriers. PMID:27744279

  2. 24 CFR 200.17 - Mortgage coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application, Commitment, and Endorsement... Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Eligible Mortgage § 200.17 Mortgage coverage. The mortgage shall cover the entire property included in the project....

  3. 24 CFR 200.17 - Mortgage coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application, Commitment, and Endorsement... Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Eligible Mortgage § 200.17 Mortgage coverage. The mortgage shall cover the entire property included in the project....

  4. Hispanic-Asian Immigrant Inequality in Perceived Medical Need and Access to Regular Physician Care.

    PubMed

    Howe Hasanali, Stephanie; De Jong, Gordon F; Roempke Graefe, Deborah

    2016-02-01

    In the face of continuing large immigrant streams, Hispanic and Asian immigrants' human and social capital inequalities will heighten U.S. race/ethnic health and health care disparities. Using data from the 2004 and 2008 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation, this study assessed Hispanic-Asian immigrant disparity in access to health care, measured by perceived medical need and regular access to a physician. Logistic regression results indicated that Hispanics had lower perceived met medical need and were less likely to see a doctor regularly. These disparities were significantly attenuated by education and health insurance. Assimilation-related characteristics were significantly associated with a regular doctor visit and were not fully mediated by socioeconomic variables. Findings indicate the importance of education above and beyond insurance coverage for access to health care and suggest the potential for public health efforts to improve preventive care among immigrants.

  5. Hispanic-Asian Immigrant Inequality in Perceived Medical Need and Access to Regular Physician Care

    PubMed Central

    De Jong, Gordon F.; Graefe, Deborah Roempke

    2014-01-01

    In the face of continuing large immigrant streams, Hispanic and Asian immigrants’ human and social capital inequalities will heighten U.S. race/ethnic health and health care disparities. Using data from the 2004 and 2008 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation, this study assessed Hispanic-Asian immigrant disparity in access to health care, measured by perceived medical need and regular access to a physician. Logistic regression results indicated that Hispanics had lower perceived met medical need and were less likely to see a doctor regularly. These disparities were significantly attenuated by education and health insurance. Assimilation-related characteristics were significantly associated with a regular doctor visit and were not fully mediated by socioeconomic variables. Findings indicate the importance of education above and beyond insurance coverage for access to health care and suggest the potential for public health efforts to improve preventive care among immigrants. PMID:25420782

  6. Regularization techniques in realistic Laplacian computation.

    PubMed

    Bortel, Radoslav; Sovka, Pavel

    2007-11-01

    This paper explores regularization options for the ill-posed spline coefficient equations in the realistic Laplacian computation. We investigate the use of the Tikhonov regularization, truncated singular value decomposition, and the so-called lambda-correction with the regularization parameter chosen by the L-curve, generalized cross-validation, quasi-optimality, and the discrepancy principle criteria. The provided range of regularization techniques is much wider than in the previous works. The improvement of the realistic Laplacian is investigated by simulations on the three-shell spherical head model. The conclusion is that the best performance is provided by the combination of the Tikhonov regularization and the generalized cross-validation criterion-a combination that has never been suggested for this task before.

  7. A linear functional strategy for regularized ranking.

    PubMed

    Kriukova, Galyna; Panasiuk, Oleksandra; Pereverzyev, Sergei V; Tkachenko, Pavlo

    2016-01-01

    Regularization schemes are frequently used for performing ranking tasks. This topic has been intensively studied in recent years. However, to be effective a regularization scheme should be equipped with a suitable strategy for choosing a regularization parameter. In the present study we discuss an approach, which is based on the idea of a linear combination of regularized rankers corresponding to different values of the regularization parameter. The coefficients of the linear combination are estimated by means of the so-called linear functional strategy. We provide a theoretical justification of the proposed approach and illustrate them by numerical experiments. Some of them are related with ranking the risk of nocturnal hypoglycemia of diabetes patients.

  8. 45 CFR 800.107 - Levels of coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... to offer an MSP pursuant to a contract with OPM. (b) Bronze or platinum metal levels of coverage... coverage or the platinum level of coverage, or both, on any Exchange or SHOP in any State. (c)...

  9. 45 CFR 800.107 - Levels of coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... to offer an MSP pursuant to a contract with OPM. (b) Bronze or platinum metal levels of coverage... coverage or the platinum level of coverage, or both, on any Exchange or SHOP in any State. (c)...

  10. 78 FR 217 - Shared Responsibility for Employers Regarding Health Coverage

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... Shared Responsibility for Employers Regarding Health Coverage; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol... Health Coverage AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... employers regarding employee health coverage. These proposed regulations would affect only employers...

  11. Quantitative regularities in floodplain formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevidimova, O.

    2009-04-01

    Quantitative regularities in floodplain formation Modern methods of the theory of complex systems allow to build mathematical models of complex systems where self-organizing processes are largely determined by nonlinear effects and feedback. However, there exist some factors that exert significant influence on the dynamics of geomorphosystems, but hardly can be adequately expressed in the language of mathematical models. Conceptual modeling allows us to overcome this difficulty. It is based on the methods of synergetic, which, together with the theory of dynamic systems and classical geomorphology, enable to display the dynamics of geomorphological systems. The most adequate for mathematical modeling of complex systems is the concept of model dynamics based on equilibrium. This concept is based on dynamic equilibrium, the tendency to which is observed in the evolution of all geomorphosystems. As an objective law, it is revealed in the evolution of fluvial relief in general, and in river channel processes in particular, demonstrating the ability of these systems to self-organization. Channel process is expressed in the formation of river reaches, rifts, meanders and floodplain. As floodplain is a periodically flooded surface during high waters, it naturally connects river channel with slopes, being one of boundary expressions of the water stream activity. Floodplain dynamics is inseparable from the channel dynamics. It is formed at simultaneous horizontal and vertical displacement of the river channel, that is at Y=Y(x, y), where х, y - horizontal and vertical coordinates, Y - floodplain height. When dу/dt=0 (for not lowering river channel), the river, being displaced in a horizontal plane, leaves behind a low surface, which flooding during high waters (total duration of flooding) changes from the maximum during the initial moment of time t0 to zero in the moment tn. In a similar manner changed is the total amount of accumulated material on the floodplain surface

  12. Attack Coverage in High-Level Men’s Volleyball: Organization on the Edge of Chaos?

    PubMed Central

    Laporta, Lorenzo; Nikolaidis, Pantelis; Thomas, Luke; Afonso, José

    2015-01-01

    Change is pervasive, but emerging patterns are occasionally detectable through analysis of systemic behaviors. Match analysis uses these patterns in order to reduce the degree of improvisation and to optimize the training process. However, it is possible that certain game phases elude systematic patterning. In this vein, our aim was to analyze the case of attack coverage in men’s volleyball, as we suspected it would elude systematic patterning and has received negligible attention in scientific research. We analyzed the occurrence of attack coverage in 4544 plays of the 2011 Volleyball World League. A Chi-square test with residual adjusted values was applied to explore significant associations between variables. A Monte Carlo correction was applied, as some cells had n<5. Effect sizes were determined using Cramer’s V. Overall, attack coverage occurred in 3.89% of ball possessions, and 23 distinct structures emerged. These structures lacked significant associations with the game complex, setting zone, and effect of attack coverage. Conversely, attack coverage structures showed significant associations with the attack zone and tempo, with very strong effect sizes (V=0.472 and V=0.521, respectively). As certain attack zones are deeply associated with attack tempo, it is apparent that quicker attack plays affect attack coverage structuring, promoting the formation of less complex structures. Ultimately, attack coverage structures seem to depend on momentary constraints, thereby rendering rigid systematization impracticable. Still, we contended that a principle-based approach might be suitable. This invites researchers to rethink how to interpret game regularities. PMID:26557208

  13. Functional MRI using regularized parallel imaging acquisition.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fa-Hsuan; Huang, Teng-Yi; Chen, Nan-Kuei; Wang, Fu-Nien; Stufflebeam, Steven M; Belliveau, John W; Wald, Lawrence L; Kwong, Kenneth K

    2005-08-01

    Parallel MRI techniques reconstruct full-FOV images from undersampled k-space data by using the uncorrelated information from RF array coil elements. One disadvantage of parallel MRI is that the image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is degraded because of the reduced data samples and the spatially correlated nature of multiple RF receivers. Regularization has been proposed to mitigate the SNR loss originating due to the latter reason. Since it is necessary to utilize static prior to regularization, the dynamic contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in parallel MRI will be affected. In this paper we investigate the CNR of regularized sensitivity encoding (SENSE) acquisitions. We propose to implement regularized parallel MRI acquisitions in functional MRI (fMRI) experiments by incorporating the prior from combined segmented echo-planar imaging (EPI) acquisition into SENSE reconstructions. We investigated the impact of regularization on the CNR by performing parametric simulations at various BOLD contrasts, acceleration rates, and sizes of the active brain areas. As quantified by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the simulations suggest that the detection power of SENSE fMRI can be improved by regularized reconstructions, compared to unregularized reconstructions. Human motor and visual fMRI data acquired at different field strengths and array coils also demonstrate that regularized SENSE improves the detection of functionally active brain regions.

  14. Functional MRI Using Regularized Parallel Imaging Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Fa-Hsuan; Huang, Teng-Yi; Chen, Nan-Kuei; Wang, Fu-Nien; Stufflebeam, Steven M.; Belliveau, John W.; Wald, Lawrence L.; Kwong, Kenneth K.

    2013-01-01

    Parallel MRI techniques reconstruct full-FOV images from undersampled k-space data by using the uncorrelated information from RF array coil elements. One disadvantage of parallel MRI is that the image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is degraded because of the reduced data samples and the spatially correlated nature of multiple RF receivers. Regularization has been proposed to mitigate the SNR loss originating due to the latter reason. Since it is necessary to utilize static prior to regularization, the dynamic contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in parallel MRI will be affected. In this paper we investigate the CNR of regularized sensitivity encoding (SENSE) acquisitions. We propose to implement regularized parallel MRI acquisitions in functional MRI (fMRI) experiments by incorporating the prior from combined segmented echo-planar imaging (EPI) acquisition into SENSE reconstructions. We investigated the impact of regularization on the CNR by performing parametric simulations at various BOLD contrasts, acceleration rates, and sizes of the active brain areas. As quantified by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the simulations suggest that the detection power of SENSE fMRI can be improved by regularized reconstructions, compared to unregularized reconstructions. Human motor and visual fMRI data acquired at different field strengths and array coils also demonstrate that regularized SENSE improves the detection of functionally active brain regions. PMID:16032694

  15. Completeness and regularity of generalized fuzzy graphs.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Sovan; Sarkar, Biswajit; Shin, Dongmin; Pal, Madhumangal

    2016-01-01

    Fuzzy graphs are the backbone of many real systems like networks, image, scheduling, etc. But, due to some restriction on edges, fuzzy graphs are limited to represent for some systems. Generalized fuzzy graphs are appropriate to avoid such restrictions. In this study generalized fuzzy graphs are introduced. In this study, matrix representation of generalized fuzzy graphs is described. Completeness and regularity are two important parameters of graph theory. Here, regular and complete generalized fuzzy graphs are introduced. Some properties of them are discussed. After that, effective regular graphs are exemplified.

  16. Partitioning of regular computation on multiprocessor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Fung Fung

    1988-01-01

    Problem partitioning of regular computation over two dimensional meshes on multiprocessor systems is examined. The regular computation model considered involves repetitive evaluation of values at each mesh point with local communication. The computational workload and the communication pattern are the same at each mesh point. The regular computation model arises in numerical solutions of partial differential equations and simulations of cellular automata. Given a communication pattern, a systematic way to generate a family of partitions is presented. The influence of various partitioning schemes on performance is compared on the basis of computation to communication ratio.

  17. Partitioning of regular computation on multiprocessor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Fung F.

    1990-01-01

    Problem partitioning of regular computation over two dimensional meshes on multiprocessor systems is examined. The regular computation model considered involves repetitive evaluation of values at each mesh point with local communication. The computational workload and the communication pattern are the same at each mesh point. The regular computation model arises in numerical solutions of partial differential equations and simulations of cellular automata. Given a communication pattern, a systematic way to generate a family of partitions is presented. The influence of various partitioning schemes on performance is compared on the basis of computation to communication ratio.

  18. Partitioning of regular computation on multiprocessor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, F. . Computer Systems Lab.)

    1990-07-01

    Problem partitioning of regular computation over two-dimensional meshes on multiprocessor systems is examined. The regular computation model considered involves repetitive evaluation of values at each mesh point with local communication. The computational workload and the communication pattern are the same at each mesh point. The regular computation model arises in numerical solutions of partial differential equations and simulations of cellular automata. Given a communication pattern, a systematic way to generate a family of partitions is presented. The influence of various partitioning schemes on performance is compared on the basis of computation to communication ratio.

  19. Continental-scale pollution of estuaries with antibiotic resistance genes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yong-Guan; Zhao, Yi; Li, Bing; Huang, Chu-Long; Zhang, Si-Yu; Yu, Shen; Chen, Yong-Shan; Zhang, Tong; Gillings, Michael R; Su, Jian-Qiang

    2017-01-30

    Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have moved from the environmental resistome into human commensals and pathogens, driven by human selection with antimicrobial agents. These genes have increased in abundance in humans and domestic animals, to become common components of waste streams. Estuarine habitats lie between terrestrial/freshwater and marine ecosystems, acting as natural filtering points for pollutants. Here, we have profiled ARGs in sediments from 18 estuaries over 4,000 km of coastal China using high-throughput quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and investigated their relationship with bacterial communities, antibiotic residues and socio-economic factors. ARGs in estuarine sediments were diverse and abundant, with over 200 different resistance genes being detected, 18 of which were found in all 90 sediment samples. The strong correlations of identified resistance genes with known mobile elements, network analyses and partial redundancy analysis all led to the conclusion that human activity is responsible for the abundance and dissemination of these ARGs. Such widespread pollution with xenogenetic elements has environmental, agricultural and medical consequences.

  20. Integrating remotely sensed surface water extent into continental scale hydrology.

    PubMed

    Revilla-Romero, Beatriz; Wanders, Niko; Burek, Peter; Salamon, Peter; de Roo, Ad

    2016-12-01

    In hydrological forecasting, data assimilation techniques are employed to improve estimates of initial conditions to update incorrect model states with observational data. However, the limited availability of continuous and up-to-date ground streamflow data is one of the main constraints for large-scale flood forecasting models. This is the first study that assess the impact of assimilating daily remotely sensed surface water extent at a 0.1° × 0.1° spatial resolution derived from the Global Flood Detection System (GFDS) into a global rainfall-runoff including large ungauged areas at the continental spatial scale in Africa and South America. Surface water extent is observed using a range of passive microwave remote sensors. The methodology uses the brightness temperature as water bodies have a lower emissivity. In a time series, the satellite signal is expected to vary with changes in water surface, and anomalies can be correlated with flood events. The Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) is a Monte-Carlo implementation of data assimilation and used here by applying random sampling perturbations to the precipitation inputs to account for uncertainty obtaining ensemble streamflow simulations from the LISFLOOD model. Results of the updated streamflow simulation are compared to baseline simulations, without assimilation of the satellite-derived surface water extent. Validation is done in over 100 in situ river gauges using daily streamflow observations in the African and South American continent over a one year period. Some of the more commonly used metrics in hydrology were calculated: KGE', NSE, PBIAS%, R(2), RMSE, and VE. Results show that, for example, NSE score improved on 61 out of 101 stations obtaining significant improvements in both the timing and volume of the flow peaks. Whereas the validation at gauges located in lowland jungle obtained poorest performance mainly due to the closed forest influence on the satellite signal retrieval. The conclusion is that remotely sensed surface water extent holds potential for improving rainfall-runoff streamflow simulations, potentially leading to a better forecast of the peak flow.

  1. Integrating remotely sensed surface water extent into continental scale hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revilla-Romero, Beatriz; Wanders, Niko; Burek, Peter; Salamon, Peter; de Roo, Ad

    2016-12-01

    In hydrological forecasting, data assimilation techniques are employed to improve estimates of initial conditions to update incorrect model states with observational data. However, the limited availability of continuous and up-to-date ground streamflow data is one of the main constraints for large-scale flood forecasting models. This is the first study that assess the impact of assimilating daily remotely sensed surface water extent at a 0.1° × 0.1° spatial resolution derived from the Global Flood Detection System (GFDS) into a global rainfall-runoff including large ungauged areas at the continental spatial scale in Africa and South America. Surface water extent is observed using a range of passive microwave remote sensors. The methodology uses the brightness temperature as water bodies have a lower emissivity. In a time series, the satellite signal is expected to vary with changes in water surface, and anomalies can be correlated with flood events. The Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) is a Monte-Carlo implementation of data assimilation and used here by applying random sampling perturbations to the precipitation inputs to account for uncertainty obtaining ensemble streamflow simulations from the LISFLOOD model. Results of the updated streamflow simulation are compared to baseline simulations, without assimilation of the satellite-derived surface water extent. Validation is done in over 100 in situ river gauges using daily streamflow observations in the African and South American continent over a one year period. Some of the more commonly used metrics in hydrology were calculated: KGE', NSE, PBIAS%, R2, RMSE, and VE. Results show that, for example, NSE score improved on 61 out of 101 stations obtaining significant improvements in both the timing and volume of the flow peaks. Whereas the validation at gauges located in lowland jungle obtained poorest performance mainly due to the closed forest influence on the satellite signal retrieval. The conclusion is that remotely sensed surface water extent holds potential for improving rainfall-runoff streamflow simulations, potentially leading to a better forecast of the peak flow.

  2. Data-Driven Scale Extrapolation: Application on Continental Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, L.

    2014-12-01

    Large-scale hydrological models and land surface models are so far the only tools for assessing current and future water resources. Those models estimate discharge with large uncertainties, due to the complex interaction between climate and hydrology, the limited availability and quality of data, as well as model uncertainties. A new purely data-driven scale-extrapolation method to estimate discharge for a large region solely from selected small sub-basins, which are typically 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller than the large region, has been developed. When tested in the Baltic Sea drainage basin, the method was able to provide accurate discharge estimation for the gauged area with sub-basins that cover 5% of the gauged area. There exist multiple sets of sub-basins whose climate and hydrology resemble those of the gauged area equally well. Those multiple sets estimate annual discharge for the gauged area consistently well with 6 % average error. The scale-extrapolation method is completely data-driven; therefore it does not force any modelling error into the prediction. The scale-extrapolation method is now further tested at continent scale in Europe and North America to exam its potential for climate change studies.

  3. Limited phylogeographic structure for five bathyal ophiuroids at continental scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hara, Timothy D.; England, Phillip R.; Gunasekera, Rasanthi M.; Naughton, Kate M.

    2014-02-01

    There have been comparatively few large-scale studies on spatial genetic structure of bathyal seafloor fauna, despite the importance of these data to the successful management of the world's oceans. We use a comparative analysis of mitochondrial DNA from five bathyal (200-3500 m) species of brittle-stars (Ophiuroidea) to assess phylogeographic structure along an extensive (8000 km) longitudinal gradient at temperate latitudes (28-56°S) from south-west Australia (113°E) to seamounts east of New Zealand (175°W). We found no evidence of a genetic discontinuity between Australia and New Zealand, either across the temperate Tasman Sea or across the Southern Ocean between the South Tasman Rise and the Macquarie Ridge. However, there were latitudinal phylogeographical breaks between tropical, temperate and polar regions; longitudinal breaks across the eastern Indian Ocean; and a bathymetric break at approximately 1700 m. Although there was limited regional structure in the frequency of haplotype distributions within the major clades, and no clade appeared to be strictly panmictic, the regional structure in general was not concordant with a simple isolation-by-distance model. Demographic structure varied with three clades having a simplified haplotype network, low effective population sizes and no evidence of significant population expansion, and two clades having a high diversity of haplotypes, relatively high effective population sizes and signs of recent population expansion. These results are discussed with respect to putative dispersal strategies. We hypothesise that the 'brooding' species produce both brooded young and pelagic larvae, allowing for both the maintenance of local populations and long-distance dispersal.

  4. Modeling fluvial erosion on regional to continental scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Alan D.; Dietrich, William E.; Seidl, Michele A.

    1994-01-01

    The fluvial system is a major concern in modeling landform evolution in response to tectonic deformation. Three stream bed types (bedrock, coarse-bed alluvial, and fine-bed alluvial) differ in factors controlling their occurrence and evolution and in appropriate modeling approaches. Spatial and temporal transitions among bed types occur in response to changes in sediment characteristics and tectonic deformation. Erosion in bedrock channels depends upon the ability to scour or pluck bed material; this detachment capacity is often a power function of drainage area and gradient. Exposure of bedrock in channel beds, due to rapid downcutting or resistant rock, slows the response of headwater catchments to downstream baselevel changes. Sediment routing through alluvial channels must account for supply from slope erosion, transport rates, abrasion, and sorting. In regional landform modeling, implicit rate laws must be developed for sediment production from erosion of sub-grid-scale slopes and small channels.

  5. Polar constellations design for discontinuous coverage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarno, Salvatore; Graziano, Maria Daniela; D'Errico, Marco

    2016-10-01

    A novel constellation design method is developed for discontinuous coverage of the globe and polar caps. It integrates and extends the applicability of the coverage regions and mitigates the limitations of the existing techniques based on streets-of-coverage (SOC) theory. In particular, the visibility conditions of the targets are mapped in the (Ω, u)-domain to identify the number of satellites per plane and the distance between successive orbits, whereas the planes are arranged around the equator exploiting satellites both in ascending and descending phase. The proposed approach is applied to design potential space segments in polar LEO supporting the existing maritime surveillance services over the globe and on the future polar routes. Results show they require a smaller total number of satellites with respect to the SOC-based configurations for revisit times less than one hour and wide range of swaths. In details, it is observed a reduction between 6% and 22% for global coverage and between 24% and 33% for the coverage of polar caps.

  6. [Serum ferritin in donors with regular plateletpheresis].

    PubMed

    Ma, Chun-Hui; Guo, Ru-Hua; Wu, Wei-Jian; Yan, Jun-Xiong; Yu, Jin-Lin; Zhu, Ye-Hua; He, Qi-Tong; Luo, Yi-Hong; Huang, Lu; Ye, Rui-Yun

    2011-04-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the impact of regular donating platelets on serum ferritin (SF) of donors. A total of 93 male blood donors including 24 initial plateletpheresis donors and 69 regular plateletpheresis donors were selected randomly. Their SF level was measured by ELISA. The results showed that the SF level of initial plateletpheresis donors and regular plateletpheresis donors were 91.08 ± 23.38 µg/L and 57.16 ± 35.48 µg/L respectively, and all were in normal levels, but there was significant difference between the 2 groups (p < 0.05). The SF level decreased when the donation frequency increased, there were no significant differences between the groups with different donation frequency. Correlation with lifetime donations of platelets was not found. It is concluded that regular plateletpheresis donors may have lower SF level.

  7. Epigenetic adaptation to regular exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Ling, Charlotte; Rönn, Tina

    2014-07-01

    Regular exercise has numerous health benefits, for example, it reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. It has also been shown that the risk of type 2 diabetes can be halved in high-risk groups through nonpharmacological lifestyle interventions involving exercise and diet. Nevertheless, the number of people living a sedentary life is dramatically increasing worldwide. Researchers have searched for molecular mechanisms explaining the health benefits of regular exercise for decades and it is well established that exercise alters the gene expression pattern in multiple tissues. However, until recently it was unknown that regular exercise can modify the genome-wide DNA methylation pattern in humans. This review will focus on recent progress in the field of regular exercise and epigenetics.

  8. The Volume of the Regular Octahedron

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trigg, Charles W.

    1974-01-01

    Five methods are given for computing the area of a regular octahedron. It is suggested that students first construct an octahedron as this will aid in space visualization. Six further extensions are left for the reader to try. (LS)

  9. Regularization of B-Spline Objects.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guoliang; Bajaj, Chandrajit

    2011-01-01

    By a d-dimensional B-spline object (denoted as ), we mean a B-spline curve (d = 1), a B-spline surface (d = 2) or a B-spline volume (d = 3). By regularization of a B-spline object we mean the process of relocating the control points of such that they approximate an isometric map of its definition domain in certain directions and is shape preserving. In this paper we develop an efficient regularization method for , d = 1, 2, 3 based on solving weak form L(2)-gradient flows constructed from the minimization of certain regularizing energy functionals. These flows are integrated via the finite element method using B-spline basis functions. Our experimental results demonstrate that our new regularization method is very effective.

  10. Wavelet Characterizations of Multi-Directional Regularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slimane, Mourad Ben

    2011-05-01

    The study of d dimensional traces of functions of m several variables leads to directional behaviors. The purpose of this paper is two-fold. Firstly, we extend the notion of one direction pointwise Hölder regularity introduced by Jaffard to multi-directions. Secondly, we characterize multi-directional pointwise regularity by Triebel anisotropic wavelet coefficients (resp. leaders), and also by Calderón anisotropic continuous wavelet transform.

  11. Probabilistic regularization in inverse optical imaging.

    PubMed

    De Micheli, E; Viano, G A

    2000-11-01

    The problem of object restoration in the case of spatially incoherent illumination is considered. A regularized solution to the inverse problem is obtained through a probabilistic approach, and a numerical algorithm based on the statistical analysis of the noisy data is presented. Particular emphasis is placed on the question of the positivity constraint, which is incorporated into the probabilistically regularized solution by means of a quadratic programming technique. Numerical examples illustrating the main steps of the algorithm are also given.

  12. Editorial: Biotechnology Journal's diverse coverage of biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Wink, Michael

    2014-03-01

    This issue of Biotechnology Journal is a regular issue edited by Prof. Michael Wink. The issue covers all the major focus areas of the journal, including medical biotechnology, synthetic biology, and novel biotechnological methods.

  13. 42 CFR 422.68 - Effective dates of coverage and change of coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Effective dates of coverage and change of coverage. 422.68 Section 422.68 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Eligibility, Election,...

  14. 5 CFR 842.1009 - Elections of retirement coverage, exclusions from retirement coverage, and proportional annuity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Elections of retirement coverage, exclusions from retirement coverage, and proportional annuity computations. 842.1009 Section 842.1009... EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Customs and Border Protection Officers § 842.1009 Elections...

  15. 5 CFR 842.1009 - Elections of retirement coverage, exclusions from retirement coverage, and proportional annuity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Elections of retirement coverage, exclusions from retirement coverage, and proportional annuity computations. 842.1009 Section 842.1009... EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Customs and Border Protection Officers § 842.1009 Elections...

  16. 5 CFR 842.1009 - Elections of retirement coverage, exclusions from retirement coverage, and proportional annuity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Elections of retirement coverage, exclusions from retirement coverage, and proportional annuity computations. 842.1009 Section 842.1009... EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Customs and Border Protection Officers § 842.1009 Elections...

  17. Perplexity analysis of obesity news coverage.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Delano J; Elhadad, Noémie; Kukafka, Rita

    2009-11-14

    An important task performed during the analysis of health news coverage is the identification of news articles that are related to a specific health topic (e.g. obesity). This is often done using a combination of keyword searching and manual encoding of news content. Statistical language models and their evaluation metric, perplexity, may help to automate this task. A perplexity study of obesity news was performed to evaluate perplexity as a measure of the similarity of news corpora to obesity news content. The results of this study showed that perplexity increased as news coverage became more general relative to obesity news (obesity news approximately 187, general health news approximately 278, general news approximately 378, general news across multiple publishers approximately 382). This indicates that language model perplexity can measure the similarity news content to obesity news coverage, and could be used as the basis for an automated health news classifier.

  18. Learning Time-Varying Coverage Functions

    PubMed Central

    Du, Nan; Liang, Yingyu; Balcan, Maria-Florina; Song, Le

    2015-01-01

    Coverage functions are an important class of discrete functions that capture the law of diminishing returns arising naturally from applications in social network analysis, machine learning, and algorithmic game theory. In this paper, we propose a new problem of learning time-varying coverage functions, and develop a novel parametrization of these functions using random features. Based on the connection between time-varying coverage functions and counting processes, we also propose an efficient parameter learning algorithm based on likelihood maximization, and provide a sample complexity analysis. We applied our algorithm to the influence function estimation problem in information diffusion in social networks, and show that with few assumptions about the diffusion processes, our algorithm is able to estimate influence significantly more accurately than existing approaches on both synthetic and real world data. PMID:25960624

  19. Usual Source of Care in Preventive Service Use: A Regular Doctor versus a Regular Site

    PubMed Central

    Xu, K Tom

    2002-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of having a regular doctor and having a regular site on five preventive services, controlling for the endogeneity of having a usual source of care. Data Source The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey 1996 conducted by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the National Center for Health Statistics. Study Design Mammograms, pap smears, blood pressure checkups, cholesterol level checkups, and flu shots were examined. A modified behavioral model framework was presented, which controlled for the endogeneity of having a usual source of care. Based on this framework, a two-equation empirical model was established to predict the probabilities of having a regular doctor and having a regular site, and use of each type of preventive service. Principal Findings Having a regular doctor was found to have a greater impact than having a regular site on discretional preventive services, such as blood pressure and cholesterol level checkups. No statistically significant differences were found between the effects a having a regular doctor and having a regular site on the use of flu shots, pap smears, and mammograms. Among the five preventive services, having a usual source of care had the greatest impact on cholesterol level checkups and pap smears. Conclusions Promoting a stable physician–patient relationship can improve patients’ timely receipt of clinical prevention. For certain preventive services, having a regular doctor is more effective than having a regular site. PMID:12546284

  20. Aspects of coverage in medical DNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Wendl, Michael C; Wilson, Richard K

    2008-01-01

    Background DNA sequencing is now emerging as an important component in biomedical studies of diseases like cancer. Short-read, highly parallel sequencing instruments are expected to be used heavily for such projects, but many design specifications have yet to be conclusively established. Perhaps the most fundamental of these is the redundancy required to detect sequence variations, which bears directly upon genomic coverage and the consequent resolving power for discerning somatic mutations. Results We address the medical sequencing coverage problem via an extension of the standard mathematical theory of haploid coverage. The expected diploid multi-fold coverage, as well as its generalization for aneuploidy are derived and these expressions can be readily evaluated for any project. The resulting theory is used as a scaling law to calibrate performance to that of standard BAC sequencing at 8× to 10× redundancy, i.e. for expected coverages that exceed 99% of the unique sequence. A differential strategy is formalized for tumor/normal studies wherein tumor samples are sequenced more deeply than normal ones. In particular, both tumor alleles should be detected at least twice, while both normal alleles are detected at least once. Our theory predicts these requirements can be met for tumor and normal redundancies of approximately 26× and 21×, respectively. We explain why these values do not differ by a factor of 2, as might intuitively be expected. Future technology developments should prompt even deeper sequencing of tumors, but the 21× value for normal samples is essentially a constant. Conclusion Given the assumptions of standard coverage theory, our model gives pragmatic estimates for required redundancy. The differential strategy should be an efficient means of identifying potential somatic mutations for further study. PMID:18485222

  1. The nature of newspaper coverage of homicide

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, C; Sorenson, S

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Previous research has shown that some homicides are more likely than others to receive newspaper coverage (for example, homicides by strangers). The present investigation examined whether, once the decision has been made to report on a homicide, the nature of the coverage (that is, how much visibility is given to a story, what information is included, and how a story is written) differs according to two key variables, victim ethnicity, and victim-suspect relationship. Setting: Los Angeles, California (USA). Methods: Homicide articles from the 1990–94 issues of the Los Angeles Times were stratified according to the predictors of interest (victim ethnicity and victim-suspect relationship) and a sample was drawn. Data that characterized two primary aspects of newspaper coverage, prominence and story framing (including background information, story focus, use of opinions, story tone, and "hook" or leading introductory lines) were abstracted from the articles. Descriptive statistics and cross tabulations were generated. Multivariate analyses were conducted to examine the predictive value of victim ethnicity and victim-suspect relationship on the nature of the newspaper coverage. Results: Newspaper coverage of homicide was generally factual, episodic, and unemotional in tone. Victim-suspect relationship, but not victim ethnicity, was related to how a story was covered, particularly the story frame. Homicides by intimates were covered consistently differently from other types of homicides; these stories were less likely to be opinion dominated, be emotional, and begin with a "hook". Conclusion: Victim-suspect relationship was related to the nature of coverage of homicides in a large, metropolitan newspaper. Given the agenda setting and issue framing functions of the news media, these findings have implications for the manner in which the public and policy makers perceive homicides and, consequently, for the support afforded to various types of solutions for

  2. Rodeo medicine: considerations in event coverage.

    PubMed

    Young, Eliot J; Markey, Keith L

    2010-01-01

    Rodeo is an increasingly popular but dangerous sport, with injury rates higher than any other sport. While there are several organizations that oversee many of the rodeo competitions in the U.S., most events are non-sanctioned. Several factors contribute to the risk for injury, and medical coverage is usually volunteer-based. This article describes the common events that occur in most rodeo competitions, highlights the injuries most often documented in rodeo injury reporting, and suggests guidelines for preparation of medical coverage of a typical rodeo event.

  3. Extreme sports: injuries and medical coverage.

    PubMed

    Young, Craig C

    2002-10-01

    Extreme sports (including in-line skating, snowboarding, mountain bicycling, extreme skiing, rock climbing, indoor tackle football, kickboxing, skateboarding, and ultra-endurance racing) are growing in popularity. Often these sports are designed to expose athletes to greater thrills and risks than are found in traditional sporting activities. Despite this increased risk of injury, athletes competing in these sports often have little or no formal medical coverage. This article reviews what is known about this emerging area of sports medicine to assist physicians in preparing for medical coverage of these athletes and their competitions.

  4. Controlling the coverage area of a microcell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arowojolu, A. A.; Turkmani, A. M. D.

    A theoretical computer-based study has been undertaken to investigate potential mechanisms for controlling the coverage area of a typical urban microcell. These mechanisms, effected at the base station, include antenna height variation, the use of a directional antenna and antenna downtilt. A signal strength prediction algorithm which is based on geometrical optics and the geometrical theory of diffraction and which makes use of the three-dimensional radiation patterns of antennas has been employed in the study. Results obtained in the form of signal strength profiles demonstrate the effectiveness, in particular, of beam tilting for controlling the microcell coverage area.

  5. 20 CFR 404.1412 - Compensation quarters of coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Compensation quarters of coverage. 404.1412... the Railroad Retirement Program § 404.1412 Compensation quarters of coverage. As used in this subpart, a compensation quarter of coverage is any quarter of coverage computed with respect to...

  6. 20 CFR 404.1412 - Compensation quarters of coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compensation quarters of coverage. 404.1412... the Railroad Retirement Program § 404.1412 Compensation quarters of coverage. As used in this subpart, a compensation quarter of coverage is any quarter of coverage computed with respect to...

  7. 7 CFR 1737.31 - Area Coverage Survey (ACS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Area Coverage Survey (ACS). 1737.31 Section 1737.31... Studies-Area Coverage Survey and Loan Design § 1737.31 Area Coverage Survey (ACS). (a) The Area Coverage Survey (ACS) is a market forecast of service requirements of subscribers in a proposed service area....

  8. 7 CFR 1737.31 - Area Coverage Survey (ACS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Area Coverage Survey (ACS). 1737.31 Section 1737.31... Studies-Area Coverage Survey and Loan Design § 1737.31 Area Coverage Survey (ACS). (a) The Area Coverage Survey (ACS) is a market forecast of service requirements of subscribers in a proposed service area....

  9. 7 CFR 1737.31 - Area Coverage Survey (ACS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Area Coverage Survey (ACS). 1737.31 Section 1737.31... Studies-Area Coverage Survey and Loan Design § 1737.31 Area Coverage Survey (ACS). (a) The Area Coverage Survey (ACS) is a market forecast of service requirements of subscribers in a proposed service area....

  10. 7 CFR 1737.31 - Area Coverage Survey (ACS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Area Coverage Survey (ACS). 1737.31 Section 1737.31... Studies-Area Coverage Survey and Loan Design § 1737.31 Area Coverage Survey (ACS). (a) The Area Coverage Survey (ACS) is a market forecast of service requirements of subscribers in a proposed service area....

  11. 42 CFR 457.1010 - Purchase of family coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purchase of family coverage. 457.1010 Section 457... Waivers: General Provisions § 457.1010 Purchase of family coverage. A State may purchase family coverage... family coverage is cost-effective under the standards described in § 457.1015; (b) The State does...

  12. 42 CFR 440.330 - Benchmark health benefits coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Benchmark health benefits coverage. 440.330 Section 440.330 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Benchmark-Equivalent Coverage § 440.330 Benchmark health benefits coverage. Benchmark coverage is...

  13. 42 CFR 440.330 - Benchmark health benefits coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Benchmark health benefits coverage. 440.330 Section 440.330 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Benchmark-Equivalent Coverage § 440.330 Benchmark health benefits coverage. Benchmark coverage is...

  14. 42 CFR 440.330 - Benchmark health benefits coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Benchmark health benefits coverage. 440.330 Section 440.330 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Benchmark-Equivalent Coverage § 440.330 Benchmark health benefits coverage. Benchmark coverage is...

  15. 42 CFR 440.330 - Benchmark health benefits coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Benchmark health benefits coverage. 440.330 Section 440.330 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Benchmark-Equivalent Coverage § 440.330 Benchmark health benefits coverage. Benchmark coverage is...

  16. 42 CFR 440.330 - Benchmark health benefits coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Benchmark health benefits coverage. 440.330 Section 440.330 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Benchmark-Equivalent Coverage § 440.330 Benchmark health benefits coverage. Benchmark coverage is...

  17. 46 CFR 154.1155 - Hand hose line: Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hand hose line: Coverage. 154.1155 Section 154.1155... Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1155 Hand hose line: Coverage. The coverage for the area for a hand hose line under § 154.1150 must not exceed the length of the hand hose line except the coverage for...

  18. 46 CFR 154.1155 - Hand hose line: Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hand hose line: Coverage. 154.1155 Section 154.1155... Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1155 Hand hose line: Coverage. The coverage for the area for a hand hose line under § 154.1150 must not exceed the length of the hand hose line except the coverage for...

  19. 46 CFR 154.1155 - Hand hose line: Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hand hose line: Coverage. 154.1155 Section 154.1155... Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1155 Hand hose line: Coverage. The coverage for the area for a hand hose line under § 154.1150 must not exceed the length of the hand hose line except the coverage for...

  20. 46 CFR 154.1155 - Hand hose line: Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hand hose line: Coverage. 154.1155 Section 154.1155... Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1155 Hand hose line: Coverage. The coverage for the area for a hand hose line under § 154.1150 must not exceed the length of the hand hose line except the coverage for...

  1. 46 CFR 154.1155 - Hand hose line: Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hand hose line: Coverage. 154.1155 Section 154.1155... Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1155 Hand hose line: Coverage. The coverage for the area for a hand hose line under § 154.1150 must not exceed the length of the hand hose line except the coverage for...

  2. 42 CFR 435.139 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 435.139 Section 435... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Mandatory Coverage Mandatory Coverage of Certain Aliens § 435.139 Coverage for certain aliens. The agency must provide services necessary for the treatment of an emergency...

  3. 42 CFR 435.139 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 435.139 Section 435... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Mandatory Coverage Mandatory Coverage of Certain Aliens § 435.139 Coverage for certain aliens. The agency must provide services necessary for the treatment of an emergency...

  4. 42 CFR 457.1010 - Purchase of family coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase of family coverage. 457.1010 Section 457... Waivers: General Provisions § 457.1010 Purchase of family coverage. A State may purchase family coverage... family coverage is cost-effective under the standards described in § 457.1015; (b) The State does...

  5. Coverage of pilot parenteral vaccination campaign against canine rabies in N'Djaména, Chad.

    PubMed Central

    Kayali, U.; Mindekem, R.; Yémadji, N.; Vounatsou, P.; Kaninga, Y.; Ndoutamia, A. G.; Zinsstag, J.

    2003-01-01

    Canine rabies, and thus human exposure to rabies, can be controlled through mass vaccination of the animal reservoir if dog owners are willing to cooperate. Inaccessible, ownerless dogs, however, reduce the vaccination coverage achieved in parenteral campaigns. This study aimed to estimate the vaccination coverage in dogs in three study zones of N'Djaména, Chad, after a pilot free parenteral mass vaccination campaign against rabies. We used a capture-mark-recapture approach for population estimates, with a Bayesian, Markov chain, Monte Carlo method to estimate the total number of owned dogs, and the ratio of ownerless to owned dogs to calculate vaccination coverage. When we took into account ownerless dogs, the vaccination coverage in the dog populations was 87% (95% confidence interval (CI), 84-89%) in study zone I, 71% (95% CI, 64-76%) in zone II, and 64% (95% CI, 58-71%) in zone III. The proportions of ownerless dogs to owned dogs were 1.1% (95% CI, 0-3.1%), 7.6% (95% CI, 0.7-16.5%), and 10.6% (95% CI, 1.6-19.1%) in the three study zones, respectively. Vaccination coverage in the three populations of owned dogs was 88% (95% CI, 84-92%) in zone I, 76% (95% CI, 71-81%) in zone II, and 70% (95% CI, 66-76%) in zone III. Participation of dog owners in the free campaign was high, and the number of inaccessible ownerless dogs was low. High levels of vaccination coverage could be achieved with parenteral mass vaccination. Regular parenteral vaccination campaigns to cover all of N'Djaména should be considered as an ethical way of preventing human rabies when post-exposure treatment is of limited availability and high in cost. PMID:14758434

  6. 21 CFR 26.4 - Product coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Product coverage. 26.4 Section 26.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND...

  7. 41 CFR 302-17.2 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coverage. 302-17.2 Section 302-17.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION.... The effective date of an employee's transfer is the date the employee reports for duty at the...

  8. Spatial Coverage Planning for Exploration Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaines, Daniel; Estlin, Tara; Chouinard, Caroline

    2007-01-01

    A report discusses an algorithm for an onboard planning and execution technology to support the exploration and characterization of geological features by autonomous rovers. A rover that is capable of deciding which observations are more important relieves the engineering team from much of the burden of attempting to make accurate predictions of what the available rover resources will be in the future. Instead, the science and engineering teams can uplink a set of observation requests that may potentially oversubscribe resources and let the rover use observation priorities and its current assessment of available resources to make decisions about which observations to perform and when to perform them. The algorithm gives the rover the ability to model spatial coverage quality based on data from different scientific instruments, to assess the impact of terrain on coverage quality, to incorporate user-defined priorities among subregions of the terrain to be covered, and to update coverage quality rankings of observations when terrain knowledge changes. When the rover is exploring large geographical features such as craters, channels, or boundaries between two different regions, an important factor in assessing the quality of a mission plan is how the set of chosen observations spatially cover the area of interest. The algorithm allows the rover to evaluate which observation to perform and to what extent the candidate observation will increase the spatial coverage of the plan.

  9. 29 CFR 1603.101 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEE RIGHTS ACT OF 1991 Administrative Process § 1603.101 Coverage. Section 304 of the Government Employee Rights Act of 1991 applies to employment, which includes application for employment, of... official as an immediate advisor with respect to the exercise of the constitutional or legal powers of...

  10. 5 CFR 792.103 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 792.103 Section 792.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' HEALTH AND COUNSELING PROGRAMS Regulatory Requirements for Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Programs...

  11. 5 CFR 752.201 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ACTIONS (Eff. until 2-2-10) Regulatory Requirements for Suspension for 14 Days or Less § 752.201 Coverage..., or C of the excepted service and still occupies that position; (5) An employee of the Department of Veterans Affairs appointed under section 7401(3) of title 38, United States Code; and (6) An employee...

  12. 40 CFR 141.3 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS General § 141.3 Coverage. This part shall apply to each public water system, unless the public water system meets all of the following conditions: (a) Consists only...

  13. 40 CFR 141.3 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS General § 141.3 Coverage. This part shall apply to each public water system, unless the public water system meets all of the following conditions: (a) Consists only...

  14. 40 CFR 141.3 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS General § 141.3 Coverage. This part shall apply to each public water system, unless the public water system meets all of the following conditions: (a) Consists only...

  15. 40 CFR 141.3 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS General § 141.3 Coverage. This part shall apply to each public water system, unless the public water system meets all of the following conditions: (a) Consists only...

  16. 7 CFR 1806.3 - Coverage requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS... REGULATIONS INSURANCE Real Property Insurance § 1806.3 Coverage requirements. The County Supervisor should... the loan. If insurance is for less than the depreciated replacement value of all essential...

  17. 5 CFR 792.103 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 792.103 Section 792.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' HEALTH AND COUNSELING PROGRAMS Regulatory Requirements for Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Programs...

  18. 21 CFR 26.33 - Product coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Product coverage. 26.33 Section 26.33 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT...

  19. 21 CFR 26.33 - Product coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Product coverage. 26.33 Section 26.33 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT...

  20. 21 CFR 26.33 - Product coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Product coverage. 26.33 Section 26.33 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT...

  1. 21 CFR 26.33 - Product coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Product coverage. 26.33 Section 26.33 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT...

  2. 21 CFR 26.4 - Product coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN... Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.4 Product coverage. (a) The provisions of... products for human use, and active pharmaceutical ingredients (as referred to in the United States),...

  3. 5 CFR 730.103 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... this part affects individuals serving in positions described in 18 U.S.C. 207(c)(2)(A)(i), (iii), (iv...) NOTIFICATION OF POST-EMPLOYMENT RESTRICTIONS § 730.103 Coverage. (a) The following individuals are subject to the post-employment conflict-of-interest restrictions in 18 U.S.C. 207(c), as amended by section...

  4. 5 CFR 730.103 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... this part affects individuals serving in positions described in 18 U.S.C. 207(c)(2)(A)(i), (iii), (iv...) NOTIFICATION OF POST-EMPLOYMENT RESTRICTIONS § 730.103 Coverage. (a) The following individuals are subject to the post-employment conflict-of-interest restrictions in 18 U.S.C. 207(c), as amended by section...

  5. 5 CFR 9701.302 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 9701.302 Section 9701.302 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  6. 5 CFR 9701.202 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 9701.202 Section 9701.202 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  7. 5 CFR 9701.505 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 9701.505 Section 9701.505 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  8. 5 CFR 9701.402 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 9701.402 Section 9701.402 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  9. 7 CFR 1735.11 - Area coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Area coverage. 1735.11 Section 1735.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... effect this requirement. See 7 CFR 1737.11(a), Preapplication Determinations: Area to be Served....

  10. 34 CFR 74.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 74.31 Section 74.31 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATION OF GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award...

  11. 5 CFR 9701.604 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 9701.604 Section 9701.604...; (3) An action that terminates a temporary or term promotion and returns the employee to the position...), this subpart applies to DHS employees, except as excluded by paragraph (d) of this section....

  12. 5 CFR 9701.505 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 9701.505 Section 9701.505... to eligible DHS employees, subject to a determination by the Secretary or designee under § 9701.102(b), except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section. DHS employees who would otherwise be covered by 5...

  13. 5 CFR 9701.302 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 9701.302 Section 9701.302... eligible DHS employees in the categories listed in paragraph (b) of this section, subject to a... covered by a prevailing rate system established under 5 U.S.C. chapter 53, subchapter IV; (3) Employees...

  14. 5 CFR 9701.505 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 9701.505 Section 9701.505... to eligible DHS employees, subject to a determination by the Secretary or designee under § 9701.102(b), except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section. DHS employees who would otherwise be covered by 5...

  15. 5 CFR 890.1203 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 890.1203 Section 890.1203 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Benefits for United States Hostages in Iraq and Kuwait and United...

  16. Children Losing Health Coverage. Special Report. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Rachel

    Although the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP), in operation for 5 years, has made rapid progress in reducing the number of children in the United States without health insurance coverage, pending reductions in federal funding, the expected reversion of SCHIP funds back to the U.S. Treasury, and growing state budget crises will…

  17. 27 CFR 24.68 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 24.68... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Claims § 24.68 Insurance... recompensed for such tax by any valid claim of insurance or otherwise. (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72...

  18. 27 CFR 24.68 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 24.68... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Claims § 24.68 Insurance... recompensed for such tax by any valid claim of insurance or otherwise. (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72...

  19. 27 CFR 24.68 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 24.68... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Claims § 24.68 Insurance... recompensed for such tax by any valid claim of insurance or otherwise. (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72...

  20. 5 CFR 300.702 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT (GENERAL) Statutory Bar to Appointment of Persons Who Fail To Register Under Selective Service Law § 300.702 Coverage. Appointments in the competitive service, the excepted service, the Senior Executive Service, or any other...