Science.gov

Sample records for regular continental-scale coverage

  1. Hydrological Modeling of Continental-Scale Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Eric F.; Lettenmaier, Dennis; Liang, Xu; Nijssen, Bart; Wetzel, Suzanne W.

    Hydrological models at continental scales are traditionally used for water resources planning. However, continental-scale hydrological models may be useful in assessing the impacts from future climate change on catchment hydrology and water resources or from human activity on hydrology and biogeochemical cycles at large scales. Development of regional-scale terrestrial hydrological models will further our understanding of the Earth's water cycle. Continental scales allow for better understanding of the geographic distribution of land-atmospheric moisture fluxes, improved water management at continental scales, better quantification of the impact of human activity and climate change on the water cycle, and improved simulation of weather and climate.

  2. Regular Deployment of Wireless Sensors to Achieve Connectivity and Information Coverage.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei; Li, Yong; Jiang, Yi; Yin, Xipeng

    2016-01-01

    Coverage and connectivity are two of the most critical research subjects in WSNs, while regular deterministic deployment is an important deployment strategy and results in some pattern-based lattice WSNs. Some studies of optimal regular deployment for generic values of rc/rs were shown recently. However, most of these deployments are subject to a disk sensing model, and cannot take advantage of data fusion. Meanwhile some other studies adapt detection techniques and data fusion to sensing coverage to enhance the deployment scheme. In this paper, we provide some results on optimal regular deployment patterns to achieve information coverage and connectivity as a variety of rc/rs, which are all based on data fusion by sensor collaboration, and propose a novel data fusion strategy for deployment patterns. At first the relation between variety of rc/rs and density of sensors needed to achieve information coverage and connectivity is derived in closed form for regular pattern-based lattice WSNs. Then a dual triangular pattern deployment based on our novel data fusion strategy is proposed, which can utilize collaborative data fusion more efficiently. The strip-based deployment is also extended to a new pattern to achieve information coverage and connectivity, and its characteristics are deduced in closed form. Some discussions and simulations are given to show the efficiency of all deployment patterns, including previous patterns and the proposed patterns, to help developers make more impactful WSN deployment decisions. PMID:27529246

  3. Regular Deployment of Wireless Sensors to Achieve Connectivity and Information Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Wei; Li, Yong; Jiang, Yi; Yin, Xipeng

    2016-01-01

    Coverage and connectivity are two of the most critical research subjects in WSNs, while regular deterministic deployment is an important deployment strategy and results in some pattern-based lattice WSNs. Some studies of optimal regular deployment for generic values of rc/rs were shown recently. However, most of these deployments are subject to a disk sensing model, and cannot take advantage of data fusion. Meanwhile some other studies adapt detection techniques and data fusion to sensing coverage to enhance the deployment scheme. In this paper, we provide some results on optimal regular deployment patterns to achieve information coverage and connectivity as a variety of rc/rs, which are all based on data fusion by sensor collaboration, and propose a novel data fusion strategy for deployment patterns. At first the relation between variety of rc/rs and density of sensors needed to achieve information coverage and connectivity is derived in closed form for regular pattern-based lattice WSNs. Then a dual triangular pattern deployment based on our novel data fusion strategy is proposed, which can utilize collaborative data fusion more efficiently. The strip-based deployment is also extended to a new pattern to achieve information coverage and connectivity, and its characteristics are deduced in closed form. Some discussions and simulations are given to show the efficiency of all deployment patterns, including previous patterns and the proposed patterns, to help developers make more impactful WSN deployment decisions. PMID:27529246

  4. Landscape modelling at Regional to Continental scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkby, M. J.

    Most work on simulating landscape evolution has been focused at scales of about 1 Ha, there are still limitations, particularly in understanding the links between hillslope process rates and climate, soils and channel initiation. However, the need for integration with GCM outputs and with Continental Geosystems now imposes an urgent need for scaling up to Regional and Continental scales. This is reinforced by a need to incorporate estimates of soil erosion and desertification rates into national and supra-national policy. Relevant time-scales range from decadal to geological. Approaches at these regional to continental scales are critical to a fuller collaboration between geomorphologists and others interested in Continental Geosystems. Two approaches to the problem of scaling up are presented here for discussion. The first (MEDRUSH) is to embed representative hillslope flow strips into sub-catchments within a larger catchment of up to 5,000 km2. The second is to link one-dimensional models of SVAT type within DEMs at up to global scales (CSEP/SEDWEB). The MEDRUSH model is being developed as part of the EU Desertification Programme (MEDALUS project), primarily for semi-natural vegetation in southern Europe over time spans of up to 100 years. Catchments of up to 2500 km2 are divided into 50-200 sub-catchments on the basis of flow paths derived from DEMs with a horizontal resolution of 50 m or better. Within each sub-catchment a representative flow strip is selected and Hydrology, Sediment Transport and Vegetation change are simulated in detail for the flow strip, using a 1 hour time step. Changes within each flow strip are transferred back to the appropriate sub-catchment and flows of water and sediment are then routed through the channel network, generating changes in flood plain morphology.

  5. Comprehensive lake dynamics mapping at continental scales using Landsat 8

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inland lakes, important water resources, play a crucial role in the global water cycle and are sensitive to global warming and human activities. There clearly is a pressing need to understand temporal and spatial variations of lakes at global and continental scales. The recent operation of Landsat...

  6. Uncertainty in Analyzed Water and Energy Budgets at Continental Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Robertson, F. R.; Mocko, D.; Chen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Operational analyses and retrospective-analyses provide all the physical terms of mater and energy budgets, guided by the assimilation of atmospheric observations. However, there is significant reliance on the numerical models, and so, uncertainty in the budget terms is always present. Here, we use a recently developed data set consisting of a mix of 10 analyses (both operational and retrospective) to quantify the uncertainty of analyzed water and energy budget terms for GEWEX continental-scale regions, following the evaluation of Dr. John Roads using individual reanalyses data sets.

  7. Species richness at continental scales is dominated by ecological limits.

    PubMed

    Rabosky, Daniel L; Hurlbert, Allen H

    2015-05-01

    Explaining variation in species richness among provinces and other large geographic regions remains one of the most challenging problems at the intersection of ecology and evolution. Here we argue that empirical evidence supports a model whereby ecological factors associated with resource availability regulate species richness at continental scales. Any large-scale predictive model for biological diversity must explain three robust patterns in the natural world. First, species richness for evolutionary biotas is highly correlated with resource-associated surrogate variables, including area, temperature, and productivity. Second, species richness across epochal timescales is largely stationary in time. Third, the dynamics of diversity exhibit clear and predictable responses to mass extinctions, key innovations, and other perturbations. Collectively, these patterns are readily explained by a model in which species richness is regulated by diversity-dependent feedback mechanisms. We argue that many purported tests of the ecological limits hypothesis, including branching patterns in molecular phylogenies, are inherently weak and distract from these three core patterns. We have much to learn about the complex hierarchy of processes by which local ecological interactions lead to diversity dependence at the continental scale, but the empirical evidence overwhelmingly suggests that they do.

  8. Mammalian phylogenetic diversity-area relationships at a continental scale

    PubMed Central

    Mazel, Florent; Renaud, Julien; Guilhaumon, François; Mouillot, David; Gravel, Dominique; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    In analogy to the species-area relationship (SAR), one of the few laws in Ecology, the phylogenetic diversity-area relationship (PDAR) describes the tendency of phylogenetic diversity (PD) to increase with area. Although investigating PDAR has the potential to unravel the underlying processes shaping assemblages across spatial scales and to predict PD loss through habitat reduction, it has been little investigated so far. Focusing on PD has noticeable advantages compared to species richness (SR) since PD also gives insights on processes such as speciation/extinction, assembly rules and ecosystem functioning. Here we investigate the universality and pervasiveness of the PDAR at continental scale using terrestrial mammals as study case. We define the relative robustness of PD (compared to SR) to habitat loss as the area between the standardized PDAR and standardized SAR (i.e. standardized by the diversity of the largest spatial window) divided by the area under the standardized SAR only. This metric quantifies the relative increase of PD robustness compared to SR robustness. We show that PD robustness is higher than SR robustness but that it varies among continents. We further use a null model approach to disentangle the relative effect of phylogenetic tree shape and non random spatial distribution of evolutionary history on the PDAR. We find that for most spatial scales and for all continents except Eurasia, PDARs are not different from expected by a model using only the observed SAR and the shape of the phylogenetic tree at continental scale. Interestingly, we detect a strong phylogenetic structure of the Eurasian PDAR that can be predicted by a model that specifically account for a finer biogeographical delineation of this continent. In conclusion, the relative robustness of PD to habitat loss compared to species richness is determined by the phylogenetic tree shape but also depends on the spatial structure of PD. PMID:26649401

  9. Numerical simulation of a continental-scale Saharan dust event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Yaping; Fink, Andreas H.; Klose, Martina

    2010-07-01

    Using an integrated dust-storm modeling system, we simulate the severe Saharan dust episode between 1 and 10 March 2004. The simulations are compared with surface synoptic data and satellite images and are found to agree well with the observations. The synoptic systems that generated the dust storms and the evolution of the dust patterns are analyzed. It is revealed that a cyclogenesis over central Sahara, accompanied by an anticyclone over the Atlantic and a monsoon trough in the tropics, was responsible for the widespread continental-scale dust storms in North Africa. Dust first appeared in west Sahara, then in east Sahara and much of the dust emitted from east Sahara was transported to the monsoon trough, resulting in high concentrations of suspended dust over the Sahel (column dust load up to 10 g m-2). The main dust source regions were (1) Mauritania, (2) Chad and Niger, and (3) Libya, Egypt, and Sudan. The region between 10°N and 17°N was one of net dust deposition. We estimate that 715.8 megatons (Mt) of dust was emitted from North Africa during the episode, 608.2 Mt of which was deposited to the continent, and the net dust emission was 107.6 Mt. Of the 107.6 Mt, with respect to the model domain, 7.3 Mt was deposited to the ocean, 79.8 Mt was transported across the domain boundaries, and 20.5 Mt was suspended in the atmosphere.

  10. Classifying the water table at regional to continental scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleeson, Tom; Marklund, Lars; Smith, Leslie; Manning, Andrew H.

    2011-03-01

    Water tables at regional to continental scales can be classified into two distinct types: recharge-controlled water tables that are largely disconnected from topography and topography-controlled water tables that are closely tied to topography. We use geomatic synthesis of hydrologic, geologic and topographic data sets to quantify and map water-table type over the contiguous United States using a dimensionless criterion introduced by Haitjema and Mitchell-Bruker (2005), called the water-table ratio, which differentiates water-table type. Our analysis indicates that specific regions of the United States have broadly contiguous and characteristic water-table types. Water-table ratio relates to water-table depth and the potential for regional groundwater flow. In regions with recharge-controlled water tables, for example the Southwest or Rocky Mountains, USA, water-tables depths are generally greater and more variable and regional groundwater flow is generally more important as a percentage of the watershed budget. Water-table depths are generally shallow and less variable, and regional groundwater flow is limited in areas with topography-controlled water tables such as the Northeast USA. The water-table ratio is a simple but powerful criterion for evaluating regional groundwater systems over broad areas.

  11. Continental-Scale Convection-Permitting Regional Climate Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prein, A. F.; Rasmussen, R.; Clark, M. P.; Ikeda, K.; Liu, C.

    2015-12-01

    Convection-permitting regional climate models (CPCMs) have proven to be useful for down scaling large-scale climate information to regional and local scales. They add value to the representation of impact relevant parameters such as near surface temperature, precipitation, and the representation of extremes by improving local scale processes such as soil atmosphere interactions, snowpack dynamics, or the representation of deep convection. Due to their high computational costs most CPCM simulations have been restricted to small domains on the order of a few 100 km. On such small domains CPCMs might not reach their full potential because they are restricted by the lateral boundary forcing and may not be able to spin up properly. In this study we investigate the ability of a continental scale CPCM to simulate climate conditions in the Contiguous United States within the period October 2000 to December 2010. We downscale ERA-Interim reanalysis data to a horizontal grid spacing of 4 km with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model that allows an explicit treatment of deep convection. The model performance is analyzed in different synoptic-scale weather regimes, which enables a process-oriented evaluation. The significance of model biases in simulated precipitation and temperature is investigated by including observational uncertainties in the analysis. Significant biases are further investigated and possible error sources are discussed. The goal of this study is to provide a benchmark on the state-of-the-art convection-permitting regional climate modeling and to give guidance for future model development.

  12. Worldwide Estimates Relative to Five Continental-Scale Populations

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Christopher D; Court, Denise Syndercombe; Balding, David J

    2014-01-01

    We estimate the population genetics parameter (also referred to as the fixation index) from short tandem repeat (STR) allele frequencies, comparing many worldwide human subpopulations at approximately the national level with continental-scale populations. is commonly used to measure population differentiation, and is important in forensic DNA analysis to account for remote shared ancestry between a suspect and an alternative source of the DNA. We estimate comparing subpopulations with a hypothetical ancestral population, which is the approach most widely used in population genetics, and also compare a subpopulation with a sampled reference population, which is more appropriate for forensic applications. Both estimation methods are likelihood-based, in which is related to the variance of the multinomial-Dirichlet distribution for allele counts. Overall, we find low values, with posterior 97.5 percentiles when comparing a subpopulation with the most appropriate population, and even for inter-population comparisons we find . These are much smaller than single nucleotide polymorphism-based inter-continental estimates, and are also about half the magnitude of STR-based estimates from population genetics surveys that focus on distinct ethnic groups rather than a general population. Our findings support the use of up to 3% in forensic calculations, which corresponds to some current practice. PMID:26460400

  13. Building a Continental Scale Land Cover Monitoring Framework for Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thankappan, Medhavy; Lymburner, Leo; Tan, Peter; McIntyre, Alexis; Curnow, Steven; Lewis, Adam

    2012-04-01

    validation of land cover products. Among the upcoming missions, the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) Sentinel-2 satellites are seen as an important source of optical data for updating land cover information in Australia. This paper outlines the DLCD development, key applications that inform nationally significant issues, further work on updating the DLCD that would enable transition to a national land cover monitoring framework, challenges and approaches to delivering land cover information at higher spatial resolutions on a continental scale, and the potential value of data from the Sentinel-2 mission in supporting land cover monitoring in Australia and globally.

  14. European Continental Scale Hydrological Model, Limitations and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouholahnejad, E.; Abbaspour, K.

    2014-12-01

    The pressures on water resources due to increasing levels of societal demand, increasing conflict of interest and uncertainties with regard to freshwater availability create challenges for water managers and policymakers in many parts of Europe. At the same time, climate change adds a new level of pressure and uncertainty with regard to freshwater supplies. On the other hand, the small-scale sectoral structure of water management is now reaching its limits. The integrated management of water in basins requires a new level of consideration where water bodies are to be viewed in the context of the whole river system and managed as a unit within their basins. In this research we present the limitations and challenges of modelling the hydrology of the continent Europe. The challenges include: data availability at continental scale and the use of globally available data, streamgauge data quality and their misleading impacts on model calibration, calibration of large-scale distributed model, uncertainty quantification, and computation time. We describe how to avoid over parameterization in calibration process and introduce a parallel processing scheme to overcome high computation time. We used Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) program as an integrated hydrology and crop growth simulator to model water resources of the Europe continent. Different components of water resources are simulated and crop yield and water quality are considered at the Hydrological Response Unit (HRU) level. The water resources are quantified at subbasin level with monthly time intervals for the period of 1970-2006. The use of a large-scale, high-resolution water resources models enables consistent and comprehensive examination of integrated system behavior through physically-based, data-driven simulation and provides the overall picture of water resources temporal and spatial distribution across the continent. The calibrated model and results provide information support to the European Water

  15. A GEO Hyperspectral Mission For Continental-Scale Carbon Cycle Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gervin, Janette C.; Esper, Jaime; McClain, Charles R.; Hall, Forrest G.; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Gregg, Watson W.; Mannino, Antonio; Knox, Robert G.; Dabney, Philip W.; Huemmrich, K. Fred

    2004-01-01

    For both terrestrial and ocean carbon cycle science objectives, a hyperspectral geostationary sensor should enable the development of new remote sensing measurements for important but as yet unobservable variables, and with the overall goal of linking both terrestrial and ocean carbon cycle processes to climate variability. For terrestrial research, accurate estimates of carbon, water and energy (CWE) exchange between the terrestrial biosphere and atmosphere are needed to identify the geographical locations of carbon sources/sinks and to improve regional climate models and global climate change assessments. It is an enormous challenge to estimate CWE exchange from the infrequent temporal coverage provided by most polar-orbiting satellites, and without benefit of spectral indices that capture vegetation responses to stress conditions that down-regulate photosynthesis. Physiological status can be better assessed with spectral indices based on continuous, narrow (5 nm) bands, as can seasonal and annual terrestrial productivity. For coastal and ocean constituents, narrow-band observations in the ultraviolet and visible are essential to investigate the variability, dynamics and biogeochemical cycles of the world s coastal and open ocean regions, which will in turn help in measuring ocean productivity and predicting the variability of Ocean carbon uptake and its role in climate change scenarios. The GSFC Carbon Team has been pursuing a geostationary hyperspectral instrument, which would revolutionize our knowledge of biological processes on land, in the ocean, and along the coast by providing multiple, diurnal coverage. Preliminary studies in Goddard's Instrument Synthesis and Analysis Laboratory (ISAL) indicate that we can meet many of our science requirements: full spectral coverage (360-1000 nm); narrow bandwidths (5-10 nm); adequate ground resolution (100-200 m); and continental-scale coverage 4-6 times per day; all the while achieving a signal to noise ratio of

  16. Overcoming complexities for consistent, continental-scale flood mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Helen; Zaidman, Maxine; Davison, Charlotte

    2013-04-01

    The EU Floods Directive requires all member states to produce flood hazard maps by 2013. Although flood mapping practices are well developed in Europe, there are huge variations in the scale and resolution of the maps between individual countries. Since extreme flood events are rarely confined to a single country, this is problematic, particularly for the re/insurance industry whose exposures often extend beyond country boundaries. Here, we discuss the challenges of large-scale hydrological and hydraulic modelling, using our experience of developing a 12-country model and set of maps, to illustrate how consistent, high-resolution river flood maps across Europe can be produced. The main challenges addressed include: data acquisition; manipulating the vast quantities of high-resolution data; and computational resources. Our starting point was to develop robust flood-frequency models that are suitable for estimating peak flows for a range of design flood return periods. We used the index flood approach, based on a statistical analysis of historic river flow data pooled on the basis of catchment characteristics. Historical flow data were therefore sourced for each country and collated into a large pan-European database. After a lengthy validation these data were collated into 21 separate analysis zones or regions, grouping smaller river basins according to their physical and climatic characteristics. The very large continental scale basins were each modelled separately on account of their size (e.g. Danube, Elbe, Drava and Rhine). Our methodology allows the design flood hydrograph to be predicted at any point on the river network for a range of return periods. Using JFlow+, JBA's proprietary 2D hydraulic hydrodynamic model, the calculated out-of-bank flows for all watercourses with an upstream drainage area exceeding 50km2 were routed across two different Digital Terrain Models in order to map the extent and depth of floodplain inundation. This generated modelling for

  17. Laying the groundwork for NEON's continental-scale ecological research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dethloff, G.; Denslow, M.

    2013-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is designed to examine a suite of ecological issues. Field-collected data from 96 terrestrial and aquatic sites across the U.S. will be combined with remotely sensed data and existing continental-scale data sets. Field collections will include a range of physical and biological types, including soil, sediment, surface water, groundwater, precipitation, plants, animals, insects, and microbes as well as biological sub-samples such as leaf material, blood and tissue samples, and DNA extracts. Initial data analyses and identifications of approximately 175,000 samples per year will occur at numerous external laboratories when all sites are fully staffed in 2017. Additionally, NEON will archive biotic and abiotic specimens at collections facilities where they will be curated and available for additional analyses by the scientific community. The number of archived specimens is currently estimated to exceed 130,000 per year by 2017. We will detail how NEON is addressing the complexities and challenges around this set of analyses and specimens and how the resulting high-quality data can impact ecological understanding. The raw data returned from external laboratories that is quality checked and served by NEON will be the foundation for many NEON data products. For example, sequence-quality nucleic acids extracted from surface waters, benthic biofilms, and soil samples will be building blocks for data products on microbial diversity. The raw sequence data will also be available for uses such as evolutionary investigations, and the extracts will be archived so others can acquire them for additional research. Currently, NEON is establishing contracts for the analysis and archiving of field-collected samples through 2017. During this period, NEON will gather information on the progress and success of this large-scale effort in order to determine the most effective course to pursue with external facilities. Two areas that NEON

  18. Mapping daily evapotranspiration at field to continental scales using geostationary and polar orbiting satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, M. C.; Kustas, W. P.; Norman, J. M.; Hain, C. R.; Mecikalski, J. R.; Schultz, L.; González-Dugo, M. P.; Cammalleri, C.; D'Urso, G.; Pimstein, A.; Gao, F.

    2011-01-01

    Thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing of land-surface temperature (LST) provides valuable information about the sub-surface moisture status required for estimating evapotranspiration (ET) and detecting the onset and severity of drought. While empirical indices measuring anomalies in LST and vegetation amount (e.g., as quantified by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; NDVI) have demonstrated utility in monitoring ET and drought conditions over large areas, they may provide ambiguous results when other factors (e.g., air temperature, advection) are affecting plant functioning. A more physically based interpretation of LST and NDVI and their relationship to sub-surface moisture conditions can be obtained with a surface energy balance model driven by TIR remote sensing. The Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) model is a multi-sensor TIR approach to ET mapping, coupling a two-source (soil + canopy) land-surface model with an atmospheric boundary layer model in time-differencing mode to routinely and robustly map daily fluxes at continental scales and 5 to 10-km resolution using thermal band imagery and insolation estimates from geostationary satellites. A related algorithm (DisALEXI) spatially disaggregates ALEXI fluxes down to finer spatial scales using moderate resolution TIR imagery from polar orbiting satellites. An overview of this modeling approach is presented, along with strategies for fusing information from multiple satellite platforms and wavebands to map daily ET down to resolutions on the order of 10 m. The ALEXI/DisALEXI model has potential for global applications by integrating data from multiple geostationary meteorological satellite systems, such as the US Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites, the European Meteosat satellites, the Chinese Fen-yung 2B series, and the Japanese Geostationary Meteorological Satellites. Work is underway to further evaluate multi-scale ALEXI implementations over the US, Europe, Africa and other

  19. Using R for Global Optimization of a Fully-distributed Hydrologic Model at Continental Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zambrano-Bigiarini, M.; Zajac, Z.; Salamon, P.

    2013-12-01

    Nowadays hydrologic model simulations are widely used to better understand hydrologic processes and to predict extreme events such as floods and droughts. In particular, the spatially distributed LISFLOOD model is currently used for flood forecasting at Pan-European scale, within the European Flood Awareness System (EFAS). Several model parameters can not be directly measured, and they need to be estimated through calibration, in order to constrain simulated discharges to their observed counterparts. In this work we describe how the free software 'R' has been used as a single environment to pre-process hydro-meteorological data, to carry out global optimization, and to post-process calibration results in Europe. Historical daily discharge records were pre-processed for 4062 stream gauges, with different amount and distribution of data in each one of them. The hydroTSM, raster and sp R packages were used to select ca. 700 stations with an adequate spatio-temporal coverage. Selected stations span a wide range of hydro-climatic characteristics, from arid and ET-dominated watersheds in the Iberian Peninsula to snow-dominated watersheds in Scandinavia. Nine parameters were selected to be calibrated based on previous expert knowledge. Customized R scripts were used to extract observed time series for each catchment and to prepare the input files required to fully set up the calibration thereof. The hydroPSO package was then used to carry out a single-objective global optimization on each selected catchment, by using the Standard Particle Swarm 2011 (SPSO-2011) algorithm. Among the many goodness-of-fit measures available in the hydroGOF package, the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency was used to drive the optimization. User-defined functions were developed for reading model outputs and passing them to the calibration engine. The long computational time required to finish the calibration at continental scale was partially alleviated by using 4 multi-core machines (with both GNU

  20. Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) and the Continental-scale International Project (GCIP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, Deborah

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of the objectives of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) and the Continental-scale International Project (GCIP) is presented in vugraph form. The objectives of GEWEX are as follows: determine the hydrological cycle by global measurements; model the global hydrological cycle; improve observations and data assimilation; and predict response to environmental change. The objectives of GCIP are as follows: determine the time/space variability of the hydrological cycle over a continental-scale region; develop macro-scale hydrologic models that are coupled to atmospheric models; develop information retrieval schemes; and support regional climate change impact assessment.

  1. Trace Gas/Aerosol Boundary Concentrations and their Impacts on Continental-scale AQMEII Modelling Domains

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over twenty modeling groups are participating in the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) in which a variety of mesoscale photochemical and aerosol air quality modeling systems are being applied to continental-scale domains in North America and Europe fo...

  2. Monitoring Drought at Continental Scales Using Thermal Remote Sensing of Evapotranspiration (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, M. C.; Hain, C.; Mecikalski, J. R.; Kustas, W. P.

    2009-12-01

    assessing standard meteorologically-based drought indicators, and may be more robust in regions with limited monitoring networks. In this study, monthly maps of ESI anomalies for 2000-2008 are compared to standard drought indices and to drought classifications in the U.S. Drought Monitor. The ESI shows better skill in ranking drought severity than do precipitation-based indices composited over comparable time intervals. The thermal remote sensing inputs to ALEXI detect drought conditions even under the dense forest cover along the East Coast of the United States, where microwave soil moisture retrievals typically lose sensitivity. On the other hand, microwave observations are not constrained by cloud cover and provide better temporal continuity, but typically at significantly lower spatial resolution. A merged TIR-microwave moisture anomaly product may have potential for optimizing both spatial and temporal coverage in continental-scale drought monitoring.

  3. Natural and Man-Made Chemicals in North American Soils--Continental-Scale Pilot Study Completed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Geological Survey of Canada recently completed a continental-scale pilot study for a proposed geochemical survey of North American soils. This survey will provide baseline soil chemistry data against which future changes in soil composition can be measured and that can be used by Federal, State/Provincial, and local agencies when making risk-assessment and land-use decisions.

  4. Continental-scale distributions of dust-associated bacteria and fungi.

    PubMed

    Barberán, Albert; Ladau, Joshua; Leff, Jonathan W; Pollard, Katherine S; Menninger, Holly L; Dunn, Robert R; Fierer, Noah

    2015-05-01

    It has been known for centuries that microorganisms are ubiquitous in the atmosphere, where they are capable of long-distance dispersal. Likewise, it is well-established that these airborne bacteria and fungi can have myriad effects on human health, as well as the health of plants and livestock. However, we have a limited understanding of how these airborne communities vary across different geographic regions or the factors that structure the geographic patterns of near-surface microbes across large spatial scales. We collected dust samples from the external surfaces of ∼1,200 households located across the United States to understand the continental-scale distributions of bacteria and fungi in the near-surface atmosphere. The microbial communities were highly variable in composition across the United States, but the geographic patterns could be explained by climatic and soil variables, with coastal regions of the United States sharing similar airborne microbial communities. Although people living in more urbanized areas were not found to be exposed to distinct outdoor air microbial communities compared with those living in more rural areas, our results do suggest that urbanization leads to homogenization of the airborne microbiota, with more urban communities exhibiting less continental-scale geographic variability than more rural areas. These results provide our first insight into the continental-scale distributions of airborne microbes, which is information that could be used to identify likely associations between microbial exposures in outdoor air and incidences of disease in crops, livestock, and humans. PMID:25902536

  5. Continental-scale distributions of dust-associated bacteria and fungi

    PubMed Central

    Barberán, Albert; Ladau, Joshua; Pollard, Katherine S.; Menninger, Holly L.; Dunn, Robert R.; Fierer, Noah

    2015-01-01

    It has been known for centuries that microorganisms are ubiquitous in the atmosphere, where they are capable of long-distance dispersal. Likewise, it is well-established that these airborne bacteria and fungi can have myriad effects on human health, as well as the health of plants and livestock. However, we have a limited understanding of how these airborne communities vary across different geographic regions or the factors that structure the geographic patterns of near-surface microbes across large spatial scales. We collected dust samples from the external surfaces of ∼1,200 households located across the United States to understand the continental-scale distributions of bacteria and fungi in the near-surface atmosphere. The microbial communities were highly variable in composition across the United States, but the geographic patterns could be explained by climatic and soil variables, with coastal regions of the United States sharing similar airborne microbial communities. Although people living in more urbanized areas were not found to be exposed to distinct outdoor air microbial communities compared with those living in more rural areas, our results do suggest that urbanization leads to homogenization of the airborne microbiota, with more urban communities exhibiting less continental-scale geographic variability than more rural areas. These results provide our first insight into the continental-scale distributions of airborne microbes, which is information that could be used to identify likely associations between microbial exposures in outdoor air and incidences of disease in crops, livestock, and humans. PMID:25902536

  6. Comparing Geodetic Data Quality from PBO and non-PBO GPS Stations at Decadal and Continental Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puskas, C. M.; Herring, T.; Melbourne, T. I.; Murray, M. H.; Phillips, D. A.; Meertens, C. M.; Blewitt, G.; Walls, C. P.

    2014-12-01

    The UNAVCO GAGE GPS data Analysis Centers (ACs) and Analysis Center Coordinator (ACC) currently process more than 1800 GPS stations. Approximately 1100 of these stations are from the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) network, with 700+ non-PBO stations from COCONet, SCIGN, NGS CORS, and other regional networks. The 700+ stations provide improved coverage across North America plus additional reference frame constraints. The extra stations were incorporated into the standard daily processing stream during a massive reprocessing effort from 2012-2014. The combined, continental-scale data set of all GPS positions spans an 18-year time period from 1996-2014 and not only represents a significant opportunity to explore mm-scale geophysical phenomena, but also allows the examination and comparison of data quality parameters between stations and networks. The overall data quality of PBO and non-PBO stations is investigated using a variety of quality parameters. Signal-to-noise and multipath histories derived from TEQC preprocessing are used to assess instrument health. Quality parameters from daily processing are used for station health determination. Position time series are used for noise analysis to characterize site stability based on white and colored noise. Further anomalies can be identified by direct inspection of a station's time series, network velocity field, and strain rate. Non-geophysical factors such as monument instability, equipment failure, and incorrect metadata can also affect data quality. Non-PBO stations were built with a variety of monument designs, equipment, and installation practices, and do not generally have consistently recorded operational and maintenance histories in a central database, because stations were installed by various organizations. Our quality analysis will identify any significant differences between PBO and non-PBO stations, and the resulting overview will help inform time series analysis for geophysical investigations.

  7. Continental-Scale Stable Isotope Measurements at NEON to Address Ecological Processes Across Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, H.; Goodman, K. J.; Hinckley, E. S.; West, J. B.; Williams, D. G.; Bowen, G. J.

    2013-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a national-scale research platform. The overarching goal of NEON is to enable understanding and forecasting of the impacts of climate change, land use change, and invasive species on aspects of continental-scale ecology (such as biodiversity, biogeochemistry, infectious diseases, ecohydrology, etc.). NEON focuses explicitly on questions that relate to grand challenges in environmental science, are relevant to large regions, and would otherwise be very difficult to address with traditional ecological approaches. The use of stable isotope approaches in ecological research has grown steadily during the last two decades. Stable isotopes at natural abundances in the environment trace and integrate the interaction between abiotic and biotic components across temporal and spatial scales. In this poster, we will present the NEON data products that incorporate stable isotope measurements in atmospheric, terrestrial, and aquatic ecosystems in North America. We further outline current questions in the natural sciences community and how these data products can be used to address continental-scale ecological questions, such as the ecological impacts of climate change, terrestrial-aquatic system linkages, land-atmosphere exchange, landscape ecohydrological processes, and linking biogeochemical cycles across systems. Specifically, we focus on the use of stable isotopes to evaluate water availability and residence times in terrestrial systems, as well as nutrient sources to terrestrial systems, and cycling across ecosystem boundaries.

  8. Golden Eagle fatalities and the continental-scale consequences of local wind-energy generation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katzner, Todd Eli; Nelson, David M.; Braham, Melissa; Doyle, Jacqueline M.; Fernandez, Nadia B.; Duerr, Adam E.; Bloom, Peter H.; Fitzpatrick, Matthew C.; Miller, Tricia A.; Culver, Renee C. E.; Braswell, Loan; DeWoody, J. Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Renewable energy production is expanding rapidly despite mostly unknown environmental effects on wildlife and habitats. We used genetic and stable isotope data collected from Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) killed at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (APWRA) in California in demographic models to test hypotheses about the geographic extent and demographic consequences of fatalities caused by renewable energy facilities. Geospatial analyses of δ2H values obtained from feathers showed that ≥25% of these APWRA-killed eagles were recent immigrants to the population, most from long distances away (>100 km). Data from nuclear genes indicated this subset of immigrant eagles was genetically similar to birds identified as locals from the δ2H data. Demographic models implied that in the face of this mortality, the apparent stability of the local Golden Eagle population was maintained by continental-scale immigration. These analyses demonstrate that ecosystem management decisions concerning the effects of local-scale renewable energy can have continental-scale consequences.

  9. Preparing for the ingestion of SWOT data into continental-scale river models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Cédric; Andreadis, Konstantinos; Beighley, Edward; Famiglietti, James; Boone, Aaron; Yamazaki, Dai; Kim, Hyungjun; Gaborit, Etienne

    2016-04-01

    The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission is currently scheduled to launch at the end of this decade. SWOT should retrieve unprecedented measurements of water extent, elevation, and slope in the largest terrestrial water bodies. Such potential transformative information motivates the investigation of our ability to ingest the associated data into continental-scale models of terrestrial hydrology. In preparation for the expected SWOT observations, an inter-comparison of continental-scale river models is being designed. This comparison experiment focuses on four of the world's largest river basins: the Amazon, the Mississippi, the Niger, and the Saint-Lawrence. This ongoing project focuses on two main research questions: 1) How can we best prepare for the expected SWOT continental to global measurements before SWOT even flies?, and 2) What is the added value of including SWOT terrestrial measurements into global hydro models for enhancing our understanding of the terrestrial water cycle and the climate system? We present here the preliminary architecture of the inter-comparison in hope to motivate community feedback and involvement.

  10. Developing partnerships for implementing continental-scale citizen science programs at the local-level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, S. J.; Henderson, S.; Ward, D.

    2012-12-01

    Project BudBurst is a citizen science project focused on monitoring plant phenology that resides at the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON, Inc). A central question for Project BudBurst and other national outreach programs is: what are the most effective means of engaging and connecting with diverse communities throughout the country? How can continental scale programs like NEON's Project BudBurst engage audiences in such a way as to be relevant at both the local and continental scales? Staff with Project BudBurst pursued partnerships with several continental scale organizations: the National Wildlife Refuge System, the National Park Service, and botanic gardens to address these questions. The distributed nature of wildlife refuges, national parks, and botanic gardens around the country provided the opportunity to connect with participants locally while working with leadership at multiple scales. Project BudBurst staff talked with hundreds of staff and volunteers prior to setting a goal of obtaining and developing resources for several Refuge Partners, a pilot National Park partner, and an existing botanic garden partner during 2011. We were especially interested in learning best practices for future partnerships. The partnership efforts resulted in resource development for 12 Refuge partners, a pilot National Park partner, and 2 botanic garden partners. Early on, the importance of working with national level leaders to develop ownership of the partner program and input about resource needs became apparent. Once a framework for the partnership program was laid out, it became critical to work closely with staff and volunteers on the ground to ensure needs were met. In 2012 we began to develop an online assessment to allow our current and potential partners to provide feedback about whether or not the partnership program was meeting their needs and how the program could be improved. As the year progressed, the timeline for resource development became more

  11. Ecosystem services - from assessements of estimations to quantitative, validated, high-resolution, continental-scale mapping via airborne LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlinszky, András; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2016-04-01

    service potential" which is the ability of the local ecosystem to deliver various functions (water retention, carbon storage etc.), but can't quantify how much of these are actually used by humans or what the estimated monetary value is. Due to its ability to measure both terrain relief and vegetation structure in high resolution, airborne LIDAR supports direct quantification of the properties of an ecosystem that lead to it delivering a given service (such as biomass, water retention, micro-climate regulation or habitat diversity). In addition, its high resolution allows direct calibration with field measurements: routine harvesting-based ecological measurements, local biodiversity indicator surveys or microclimate recordings all take place at the human scale and can be directly linked to the local value of LIDAR-based indicators at meter resolution. Therefore, if some field measurements with standard ecological methods are performed on site, the accuracy of LIDAR-based ecosystem service indicators can be rigorously validated. With this conceptual and technical approach high resolution ecosystem service assessments can be made with well established credibility. These would consolidate the concept of ecosystem services and support both scientific research and evidence-based environmental policy at local and - as data coverage is continually increasing - continental scale.

  12. Growth of Continental-Scale Metro-Agro-Plexes, Regional Ozone Pollution, and World Food Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chameides, W. L.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Yienger, J.; Levy, H., II

    1994-04-01

    Three regions of the northern mid-latitudes, the continental-scale metro-agro-plexes, presently dominate global industrial and agricultural productivity. Although these regions cover only 23 percent of the Earth's continents, they account for most of the world's commercial energy consumption, fertilizer use, food-crop production, and food exports. They also account for more than half of the world's atmospheric nitrogen oxide (NO_x) emissions and, as a result, are prone to ground-level ozone (O_3) pollution during the summer months. On the basis of a global simulation of atmospheric reactive nitrogen compounds, it is estimated that about 10 to 35 percent of the world's grain production may occur in parts of these regions where ozone pollution may reduce crop yields. Exposure to yield-reducing ozone pollution may triple by 2025 if rising anthropogenic NO_x emissions are not abated.

  13. Continental scale Antarctic deposition of sulphur and black carbon from anthropogenic and volcanic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, H.-F.; Shirsat, S. V.; Oppenheimer, C.; Jarvis, M. J.; Podzun, R.; Jacob, D.

    2010-03-01

    While Antarctica is often described as a pristine environment, there is an increasing awareness of the potential threats from local pollution sources including tourist ships and emissions associated with scientific activities. However, to date there has been no systematic attempt to model the impacts of such pollutants at the continental scale. Indeed, until very recently there was not even a sulphur emission budget available for Antarctica. Here we present the first comprehensive study of atmospheric pollution in Antarctica using a limited area chemistry climate model, and a monthly emissions inventory for sulphur from maintenance of research stations, ground and air traffic, shipping and the active Erebus volcano. We find that ship emissions, both sulphurous and black carbon, dominate anthropogenic pollution near the ground. Their prevalence is likely to rise dramatically if recent trends in tourism continue.

  14. Continental-scale effects of nutrient pollution on stream ecosystem functioning.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Guy; Gessner, Mark O; Giller, Paul S; Gulis, Vladislav; Hladyz, Sally; Lecerf, Antoine; Malmqvist, Björn; McKie, Brendan G; Tiegs, Scott D; Cariss, Helen; Dobson, Mike; Elosegi, Arturo; Ferreira, Verónica; Graça, Manuel A S; Fleituch, Tadeusz; Lacoursière, Jean O; Nistorescu, Marius; Pozo, Jesús; Risnoveanu, Geta; Schindler, Markus; Vadineanu, Angheluta; Vought, Lena B-M; Chauvet, Eric

    2012-06-15

    Excessive nutrient loading is a major threat to aquatic ecosystems worldwide that leads to profound changes in aquatic biodiversity and biogeochemical processes. Systematic quantitative assessment of functional ecosystem measures for river networks is, however, lacking, especially at continental scales. Here, we narrow this gap by means of a pan-European field experiment on a fundamental ecosystem process--leaf-litter breakdown--in 100 streams across a greater than 1000-fold nutrient gradient. Dramatically slowed breakdown at both extremes of the gradient indicated strong nutrient limitation in unaffected systems, potential for strong stimulation in moderately altered systems, and inhibition in highly polluted streams. This large-scale response pattern emphasizes the need to complement established structural approaches (such as water chemistry, hydrogeomorphology, and biological diversity metrics) with functional measures (such as litter-breakdown rate, whole-system metabolism, and nutrient spiraling) for assessing ecosystem health.

  15. Macroecology of Australian Tall Eucalypt Forests: Baseline Data from a Continental-Scale Permanent Plot Network.

    PubMed

    Wood, Sam W; Prior, Lynda D; Stephens, Helen C; Bowman, David M J S

    2015-01-01

    Tracking the response of forest ecosystems to climate change demands large (≥1 ha) monitoring plots that are repeatedly measured over long time frames and arranged across macro-ecological gradients. Continental scale networks of permanent forest plots have identified links between climate and carbon fluxes by monitoring trends in tree growth, mortality and recruitment. The relationship between tree growth and climate in Australia has been recently articulated through analysis of data from smaller forest plots, but conclusions were limited by (a) absence of data on recruitment and mortality, (b) exclusion of non-eucalypt species, and (c) lack of knowledge of stand age or disturbance histories. To remedy these gaps we established the Ausplots Forest Monitoring Network: a continental scale network of 48 1 ha permanent plots in highly productive tall eucalypt forests in the mature growth stage. These plots are distributed across cool temperate, Mediterranean, subtropical and tropical climates (mean annual precipitation 850 to 1900 mm per year; mean annual temperature 6 to 21°C). Aboveground carbon stocks (AGC) in these forests are dominated by eucalypts (90% of AGC) whilst non-eucalypts in the understorey dominated species diversity and tree abundance (84% of species; 60% of stems). Aboveground carbon stocks were negatively related to mean annual temperature, with forests at the warm end of the temperature range storing approximately half the amount of carbon as forests at the cool end of the temperature range. This may reflect thermal constraints on tree growth detected through other plot networks and physiological studies. Through common protocols and careful sampling design, the Ausplots Forest Monitoring Network will facilitate the integration of tall eucalypt forests into established global forest monitoring initiatives. In the context of projections of rapidly warming and drying climates in Australia, this plot network will enable detection of links between

  16. Testing a growth efficiency hypothesis with continental-scale phenological variations of common and cloned plants.

    PubMed

    Liang, Liang; Schwartz, Mark D

    2014-10-01

    Variation in the timing of plant phenology caused by phenotypic plasticity is a sensitive measure of how organisms respond to weather and climate variability. Although continental-scale gradients in climate and consequential patterns in plant phenology are well recognized, the contribution of underlying genotypic difference to the geography of phenology is less well understood. We hypothesize that different temperate plant genotypes require varying amount of heat energy for resuming annual growth and reproduction as a result of adaptation and other ecological and evolutionary processes along climatic gradients. In particular, at least for some species, the growing degree days (GDD) needed to trigger the same spring phenology events (e.g., budburst and flower bloom) may be less for individuals originated from colder climates than those from warmer climates. This variable intrinsic heat energy requirement in plants can be characterized by the term growth efficiency and is quantitatively reflected in the timing of phenophases-earlier timing indicates higher efficiency (i.e., less heat energy needed to trigger phenophase transitions) and vice versa compared to a standard reference (i.e., either a uniform climate or a uniform genotype). In this study, we tested our hypothesis by comparing variations of budburst and bloom timing of two widely documented plants from the USA National Phenology Network (i.e., red maple-Acer rubrum and forsythia-Forsythia spp.) with cloned indicator plants (lilac-Syringa x chinensis 'Red Rothomagensis') at multiple eastern US sites. Our results indicate that across the accumulated temperature gradient, the two non-clonal plants showed significantly more gradual changes than the cloned plants, manifested by earlier phenology in colder climates and later phenology in warmer climates relative to the baseline clone phenological response. This finding provides initial evidence supporting the growth efficiency hypothesis, and suggests more work is

  17. Integrating Phenological, Trait and Environmental Data For Continental Scale Analysis: A Community Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weltzin, J. F.; Walls, R.; Guralnick, R. P.; Rosemartin, A.; Deck, J.; Powers, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    There is a wealth of biodiversity and environmental data that can provide the basis for addressing global scale questions of societal concern. However, our ability to discover, access and integrate these data for use in broader analyses is hampered by the lack of standardized languages and systems. New tools (e.g. ontologies, data standards, integration tools, unique identifiers) are being developed that enable establishment of a framework for linked and open data. Relative to other domains, these tools are nascent in biodiversity and environmental sciences and will require effort to develop, though work can capitalize on lessons learned from previous efforts. Here we discuss needed next steps to provide consistently described and formatted ecological data for immediate application in ecological analysis, focusing on integrating phenology, trait and environmental data to understand local to continental-scale biophysical processes and inform natural resource management practices. As more sources of data become available at finer spatial and temporal resolution, e.g., from national standardized earth observing systems (e.g., NEON, LTER and LTAR Networks, USA NPN), these challenges will become more acute. Here we provide an overview of the standards and ontology development landscape specifically related to phenological and trait data, and identify requirements to overcome current challenges. Second, we outline a workflow for formatting and integrating existing datasets to address key scientific and resource management questions such as: "What traits determine differential phenological responses to changing environmental conditions?" or "What is the role of granularity of observation, and of spatiotemporal scale, in controlling phenological responses to different driving variables?" Third, we discuss methods to semantically annotate datasets to greatly decrease time needed to assemble heterogeneous data for use in ecological analyses on varying spatial scales. We

  18. A continental scale trophic cascade from wolves through coyotes to foxes.

    PubMed

    Newsome, Thomas M; Ripple, William J

    2015-01-01

    Top-down processes, via the direct and indirect effects of interspecific competitive killing (no consumption of the kill) or intraguild predation (consumption of the kill), can potentially influence the spatial distribution of terrestrial predators, but few studies have demonstrated the phenomenon at a continental scale. For example, in North America, grey wolves Canis lupus are known to kill coyotes Canis latrans, and coyotes, in turn, may kill foxes Vulpes spp., but the spatial effects of these competitive interactions at large scales are unknown. Here, we analyse fur return data across eight jurisdictions in North America to test whether the presence or absence of wolves has caused a continent-wide shift in coyote and red fox Vulpes vulpes density. Our results support the existence of a continental scale cascade whereby coyotes outnumber red foxes in areas where wolves have been extirpated by humans, whereas red foxes outnumber coyotes in areas where wolves are present. However, for a distance of up to 200 km on the edge of wolf distribution, there is a transition zone where the effects of top-down control are weakened, possibly due to the rapid dispersal and reinvasion capabilities of coyotes into areas where wolves are sporadically distributed or at low densities. Our results have implications for understanding how the restoration of wolf populations across North America could potentially affect co-occurring predators and prey. We conclude that large carnivores may need to occupy large continuous areas to facilitate among-carnivore cascades and that studies of small areas may not be indicative of the effects of top-down mesopredator control.

  19. Project BudBurst: Continental-scale citizen science for all seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, S.; Newman, S. J.; Ward, D.; Havens-Young, K.; Alaback, P.; Meymaris, K.

    2011-12-01

    Project BudBurst's (budburst.org) recent move to the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) has benefitted both programs. NEON has been able to use Project BudBurst as a testbed to learn best practices, network with experts in the field, and prototype potential tools for engaging people in continental-scale ecology as NEON develops its citizen science program. Participation in Project BudBurst has grown significantly since the move to NEON. Project BudBurst is a national citizen science initiative designed to engage the public in observations of phenological (plant life cycle) events that raise awareness of climate change, and create a cadre of informed citizen scientists. Citizen science programs such as Project BudBurst provide the opportunity for students and interested laypersons to actively participate in scientific research. Such programs are important not only from an educational perspective, but because they also enable scientists to broaden the geographic and temporal scale of their observations. The goals of Project BudBurst are to 1) increase awareness of phenology as an area of scientific study; 2) Increase awareness of the impacts of changing climates on plants at a continental-scale; and 3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. From its 2008 launch in February, this on-line educational and data-entry program, engaged participants of all ages and walks of life in recording the timing of the leafing and flowering of wild and cultivated species found across the continent. Thus far, thousands of participants from all 50 states have submitted data. This presentation will provide an overview of Project BudBurst and will report on the results of the 2010 field campaign and discuss plans to expand Project BudBurst in 2012 including the use of mobile phones applications for data collection and reporting from the field. Project BudBurst is co-managed by the National Ecological Observatory Network and the Chicago

  20. Toward a Continental-Scale Mesonet: USDA National Resources Conservation Service SCAN and SNOTEL System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffer, G.; Marks, D.

    2004-12-01

    Since 1978 snow deposition and SWE in the inter-mountain western US have been monitored by the NRCS SNOTEL (SNOwpack TELemetry) system. This revolutionary network utilizes Meteorburst technology to telemeter data back to a central location in near real-time. With a pilot program starting in 1991, NRCS introduced SCAN (Soil Climate and Analysis Network) adding a focus on soil moisture and climate in regions outside the intermountain west. In the mid-1990's SNOTEL sites began to be augmented to match the full climate instrumentation (air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, wind, and soil moisture and temperature in addition to precipitation, snow depth and SWE) of the SCAN system. At present there are nearly 700 SNOTEL sites in 12 states in the western US and Alaska, and over 100 SCAN sites in 40 states, Puerto Rico, and several foreign countries. Though SNOTEL was originally a western snow-monitoring network, differences between SCAN and SNOTEL have largely disappeared. The combined SNOTEL/SCAN system provides a continental-scale mesonet to support river basin to continental scale hydro-climatic analysis. The system is flexible and based on off-the-shelf data recording technology, allowing instrumentation, sampling and averaging intervals to be specified by site conditions, issues, or scientific questions. Because of the NRCS data management structure, all sites have active telemetery and provide near real-time access to data through the internet. An ongoing research program is directed to improved instrumentation for measuring precipitation, snow depth and SWE, and soil moisture and temperature. Future directions include expansion of the network to be more comprehensive, and to develop focused monitoring efforts to more effectively observe elevational and regional gradients, and to capture high intensity hydro-climatic events such as potential flooding from convective storms and rain-on-snow.

  1. Macroecology of Australian Tall Eucalypt Forests: Baseline Data from a Continental-Scale Permanent Plot Network

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Sam W.; Prior, Lynda D.; Stephens, Helen C.; Bowman, David M. J. S.

    2015-01-01

    Tracking the response of forest ecosystems to climate change demands large (≥1 ha) monitoring plots that are repeatedly measured over long time frames and arranged across macro-ecological gradients. Continental scale networks of permanent forest plots have identified links between climate and carbon fluxes by monitoring trends in tree growth, mortality and recruitment. The relationship between tree growth and climate in Australia has been recently articulated through analysis of data from smaller forest plots, but conclusions were limited by (a) absence of data on recruitment and mortality, (b) exclusion of non-eucalypt species, and (c) lack of knowledge of stand age or disturbance histories. To remedy these gaps we established the Ausplots Forest Monitoring Network: a continental scale network of 48 1 ha permanent plots in highly productive tall eucalypt forests in the mature growth stage. These plots are distributed across cool temperate, Mediterranean, subtropical and tropical climates (mean annual precipitation 850 to 1900 mm per year; mean annual temperature 6 to 21°C). Aboveground carbon stocks (AGC) in these forests are dominated by eucalypts (90% of AGC) whilst non-eucalypts in the understorey dominated species diversity and tree abundance (84% of species; 60% of stems). Aboveground carbon stocks were negatively related to mean annual temperature, with forests at the warm end of the temperature range storing approximately half the amount of carbon as forests at the cool end of the temperature range. This may reflect thermal constraints on tree growth detected through other plot networks and physiological studies. Through common protocols and careful sampling design, the Ausplots Forest Monitoring Network will facilitate the integration of tall eucalypt forests into established global forest monitoring initiatives. In the context of projections of rapidly warming and drying climates in Australia, this plot network will enable detection of links between

  2. A continental scale trophic cascade from wolves through coyotes to foxes.

    PubMed

    Newsome, Thomas M; Ripple, William J

    2015-01-01

    Top-down processes, via the direct and indirect effects of interspecific competitive killing (no consumption of the kill) or intraguild predation (consumption of the kill), can potentially influence the spatial distribution of terrestrial predators, but few studies have demonstrated the phenomenon at a continental scale. For example, in North America, grey wolves Canis lupus are known to kill coyotes Canis latrans, and coyotes, in turn, may kill foxes Vulpes spp., but the spatial effects of these competitive interactions at large scales are unknown. Here, we analyse fur return data across eight jurisdictions in North America to test whether the presence or absence of wolves has caused a continent-wide shift in coyote and red fox Vulpes vulpes density. Our results support the existence of a continental scale cascade whereby coyotes outnumber red foxes in areas where wolves have been extirpated by humans, whereas red foxes outnumber coyotes in areas where wolves are present. However, for a distance of up to 200 km on the edge of wolf distribution, there is a transition zone where the effects of top-down control are weakened, possibly due to the rapid dispersal and reinvasion capabilities of coyotes into areas where wolves are sporadically distributed or at low densities. Our results have implications for understanding how the restoration of wolf populations across North America could potentially affect co-occurring predators and prey. We conclude that large carnivores may need to occupy large continuous areas to facilitate among-carnivore cascades and that studies of small areas may not be indicative of the effects of top-down mesopredator control. PMID:24930631

  3. Macroecology of Australian Tall Eucalypt Forests: Baseline Data from a Continental-Scale Permanent Plot Network.

    PubMed

    Wood, Sam W; Prior, Lynda D; Stephens, Helen C; Bowman, David M J S

    2015-01-01

    Tracking the response of forest ecosystems to climate change demands large (≥1 ha) monitoring plots that are repeatedly measured over long time frames and arranged across macro-ecological gradients. Continental scale networks of permanent forest plots have identified links between climate and carbon fluxes by monitoring trends in tree growth, mortality and recruitment. The relationship between tree growth and climate in Australia has been recently articulated through analysis of data from smaller forest plots, but conclusions were limited by (a) absence of data on recruitment and mortality, (b) exclusion of non-eucalypt species, and (c) lack of knowledge of stand age or disturbance histories. To remedy these gaps we established the Ausplots Forest Monitoring Network: a continental scale network of 48 1 ha permanent plots in highly productive tall eucalypt forests in the mature growth stage. These plots are distributed across cool temperate, Mediterranean, subtropical and tropical climates (mean annual precipitation 850 to 1900 mm per year; mean annual temperature 6 to 21°C). Aboveground carbon stocks (AGC) in these forests are dominated by eucalypts (90% of AGC) whilst non-eucalypts in the understorey dominated species diversity and tree abundance (84% of species; 60% of stems). Aboveground carbon stocks were negatively related to mean annual temperature, with forests at the warm end of the temperature range storing approximately half the amount of carbon as forests at the cool end of the temperature range. This may reflect thermal constraints on tree growth detected through other plot networks and physiological studies. Through common protocols and careful sampling design, the Ausplots Forest Monitoring Network will facilitate the integration of tall eucalypt forests into established global forest monitoring initiatives. In the context of projections of rapidly warming and drying climates in Australia, this plot network will enable detection of links between

  4. Striving for consistency in a national assessment: The challengest of applying a reference-condition approach at a continental scale

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the biggest challenges when conducting a continental-scale assessment of streams is setting appropriate expectations for the assessed sites. The challenge occurs for 2 reasons: 1) tremendous natural environmental heterogeneity exists within a continental landscape and 2) r...

  5. Tools for Virtual Collaboration Designed for High Resolution Hydrologic Research with Continental-Scale Data Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, Christopher; Leonard, Lorne; Shi, Yuning; Bhatt, Gopal; Hanson, Paul; Gil, Yolanda; Yu, Xuan

    2015-04-01

    Using a series of recent examples and papers we explore some progress and potential for virtual (cyber-) collaboration inspired by access to high resolution, harmonized public-sector data at continental scales [1]. The first example describes 7 meso-scale catchments in Pennsylvania, USA where the watershed is forced by climate reanalysis and IPCC future climate scenarios (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). We show how existing public-sector data and community models are currently able to resolve fine-scale eco-hydrologic processes regarding wetland response to climate change [2]. The results reveal that regional climate change is only part of the story, with large variations in flood and drought response associated with differences in terrain, physiography, landuse and/or hydrogeology. The importance of community-driven virtual testbeds are demonstrated in the context of Critical Zone Observatories, where earth scientists from around the world are organizing hydro-geophysical data and model results to explore new processes that couple hydrologic models with land-atmosphere interaction, biogeochemical weathering, carbon-nitrogen cycle, landscape evolution and ecosystem services [3][4]. Critical Zone cyber-research demonstrates how data-driven model development requires a flexible computational structure where process modules are relatively easy to incorporate and where new data structures can be implemented [5]. From the perspective of "Big-Data" the paper points out that extrapolating results from virtual observatories to catchments at continental scales, will require centralized or cloud-based cyberinfrastructure as a necessary condition for effectively sharing petabytes of data and model results [6]. Finally we outline how innovative cyber-science is supporting earth-science learning, sharing and exploration through the use of on-line tools where hydrologists and limnologists are sharing data and models for simulating the coupled impacts of catchment

  6. The Role of Continental-scale Landmass in Monsoons-A GCM Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Winston

    2008-01-01

    It was argued by Chao and Chen (2001) that land-sea thermal contrast on the continental scale is not a necessary condition for monsoons and that a monsoon is an ITCZ that have moved into the subtropics in its annual cycle of latitudinal movement. Chao and Chen supported their contention by GCM experiments in which they replaced landmass by ocean and were able to generate monsoons. However, land-sea thermal contrast does exist and must play a role in monsoonal rainfall distribution. Land-sea thermal contrast is one facet of continental-scale landmass. The other important characteristic of landmass is its topography. In this article the roles of landmass in monsoonal rainfall distribution and in middle latitude storm tracks are examined through GCM experiments. Comparison of a set of two GCM experiments in which the sea surface temperature (SST) from observations is prescribed from observations with and without a six-month delay reveals the role of Land-sea thermal contrast. Another set of experiments, which repeats the first set but with topography of all landmass reduced to zero, reveals the role of topography of landmass. These experiments confirm that land-sea thermal contrast is not a necessary condition for monsoons and that a monsoon should be viewed as an ITCZ displaced into the subtropics, instead of a continent-sized giant sea breeze. However, land-sea thermal contrast does have influence on the distribution of monsoonal rainfall. The temperature rise over south Asia as the season moves into summer helps the Asian monsoon to start early. However, this role is not the same as that of the land-sea thermal contrast as in the conventional explanation for the cause of monsoon. The heated landmass in summer contributes to the displacement of ITCZ into the subtropics. Also, the heated landmass in summer, by drawing moisture toward itself, limits the range of the summer storm tracks in the middle latitude oceans. On the ether hand, in winter the landmass does not

  7. Quantitative evidence for the effects of multiple drivers on continental-scale amphibian declines.

    PubMed

    Grant, Evan H Campbell; Miller, David A W; Schmidt, Benedikt R; Adams, Michael J; Amburgey, Staci M; Chambert, Thierry; Cruickshank, Sam S; Fisher, Robert N; Green, David M; Hossack, Blake R; Johnson, Pieter T J; Joseph, Maxwell B; Rittenhouse, Tracy A G; Ryan, Maureen E; Waddle, J Hardin; Walls, Susan C; Bailey, Larissa L; Fellers, Gary M; Gorman, Thomas A; Ray, Andrew M; Pilliod, David S; Price, Steven J; Saenz, Daniel; Sadinski, Walt; Muths, Erin

    2016-05-23

    Since amphibian declines were first proposed as a global phenomenon over a quarter century ago, the conservation community has made little progress in halting or reversing these trends. The early search for a "smoking gun" was replaced with the expectation that declines are caused by multiple drivers. While field observations and experiments have identified factors leading to increased local extinction risk, evidence for effects of these drivers is lacking at large spatial scales. Here, we use observations of 389 time-series of 83 species and complexes from 61 study areas across North America to test the effects of 4 of the major hypothesized drivers of declines. While we find that local amphibian populations are being lost from metapopulations at an average rate of 3.79% per year, these declines are not related to any particular threat at the continental scale; likewise the effect of each stressor is variable at regional scales. This result - that exposure to threats varies spatially, and populations vary in their response - provides little generality in the development of conservation strategies. Greater emphasis on local solutions to this globally shared phenomenon is needed.

  8. Quantitative evidence for the effects of multiple drivers on continental-scale amphibian declines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Miller, David A. W.; Schmidt, Benedikt R.; Adams, Michael J.; Amburgey, Staci M.; Chambert, Thierry A; Cruickshank, Sam S.; Fisher, Robert N.; Green, David M.; Hossack, Blake R.; Johnson, Pieter T.J.; Joseph, Maxwell B.; Rittenhouse, Tracy A. G.; Ryan, Maureen E.; Waddle, J. Hardin; Walls, Susan C.; Bailey, Larissa L.; Fellers, Gary M.; Gorman, Thomas A.; Ray, Andrew M.; Pilliod, David S.; Price, Steven J.; Saenz, Daniel; Sadinski, Walt; Muths, Erin L.

    2016-01-01

    Since amphibian declines were first proposed as a global phenomenon over a quarter century ago, the conservation community has made little progress in halting or reversing these trends. The early search for a “smoking gun” was replaced with the expectation that declines are caused by multiple drivers. While field observations and experiments have identified factors leading to increased local extinction risk, evidence for effects of these drivers is lacking at large spatial scales. Here, we use observations of 389 time-series of 83 species and complexes from 61 study areas across North America to test the effects of 4 of the major hypothesized drivers of declines. While we find that local amphibian populations are being lost from metapopulations at an average rate of 3.79% per year, these declines are not related to any particular threat at the continental scale; likewise the effect of each stressor is variable at regional scales. This result - that exposure to threats varies spatially, and populations vary in their response - provides little generality in the development of conservation strategies. Greater emphasis on local solutions to this globally shared phenomenon is needed.

  9. The footprint of continental-scale ocean currents on the biogeography of seaweeds.

    PubMed

    Wernberg, Thomas; Thomsen, Mads S; Connell, Sean D; Russell, Bayden D; Waters, Jonathan M; Zuccarello, Giuseppe C; Kraft, Gerald T; Sanderson, Craig; West, John A; Gurgel, Carlos F D

    2013-01-01

    Explaining spatial patterns of biological organisation remains a central challenge for biogeographic studies. In marine systems, large-scale ocean currents can modify broad-scale biological patterns by simultaneously connecting environmental (e.g. temperature, salinity and nutrients) and biological (e.g. amounts and types of dispersed propagules) properties of adjacent and distant regions. For example, steep environmental gradients and highly variable, disrupted flow should lead to heterogeneity in regional communities and high species turnover. In this study, we investigated the possible imprint of the Leeuwin (LC) and East Australia (EAC) Currents on seaweed communities across ~7,000 km of coastline in temperate Australia. These currents flow poleward along the west and east coasts of Australia, respectively, but have markedly different characteristics. We tested the hypothesis that, regional seaweed communities show serial change in the direction of current flow and that, because the LC is characterised by a weaker temperature gradient and more un-interrupted along-shore flow compared to the EAC, then coasts influenced by the LC have less variable seaweed communities and lower species turnover across regions than the EAC. This hypothesis was supported. We suggest that this pattern is likely caused by a combination of seaweed temperature tolerances and current-driven dispersal. In conclusion, our findings support the idea that the characteristics of continental-scale currents can influence regional community organisation, and that the coupling of ocean currents and marine biological structure is a general feature that transcends taxa and spatial scales.

  10. The local environment determines the assembly of root endophytic fungi at a continental scale.

    PubMed

    Glynou, Kyriaki; Ali, Tahir; Buch, Ann-Katrin; Haghi Kia, Sevda; Ploch, Sebastian; Xia, Xiaojuan; Çelik, Ali; Thines, Marco; Maciá-Vicente, Jose G

    2016-09-01

    Root endophytic fungi are found in a great variety of plants and ecosystems, but the ecological drivers of their biogeographic distribution are poorly understood. Here, we investigate the occurrence of root endophytes in the non-mycorrhizal plant genus Microthlaspi, and the effect of environmental factors and geographic distance in structuring their communities at a continental scale. We sampled 52 plant populations across the northern Mediterranean and central Europe and used a cultivation approach to study their endophytic communities. Cultivation of roots yielded 2601 isolates, which were grouped into 296 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) by internal transcribed spacer sequencing of 1998 representative colonies. Climatic and spatial factors were the best descriptors of the structure of endophytic communities, outweighing soil characteristics, host genotype and geographical distance. OTU richness was negatively affected by precipitation, and the composition of communities followed latitudinal gradients of precipitation and temperature. Only six widespread OTUs belonging to the orders Pleosporales, Hypocreales and Helotiales represented about 50% of all isolates. Assessments of their individual distribution revealed particular ecological preferences or a cosmopolitan occurrence. Our findings support a strong influence of the local environment in determining root endophytic communities, and show a different niche occupancy by individual endophytes. PMID:26530450

  11. Organic chemicals jeopardize the health of freshwater ecosystems on the continental scale.

    PubMed

    Malaj, Egina; von der Ohe, Peter C; Grote, Matthias; Kühne, Ralph; Mondy, Cédric P; Usseglio-Polatera, Philippe; Brack, Werner; Schäfer, Ralf B

    2014-07-01

    Organic chemicals can contribute to local and regional losses of freshwater biodiversity and ecosystem services. However, their overall relevance regarding larger spatial scales remains unknown. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the first risk assessment of organic chemicals on the continental scale comprising 4,000 European monitoring sites. Organic chemicals were likely to exert acute lethal and chronic long-term effects on sensitive fish, invertebrate, or algae species in 14% and 42% of the sites, respectively. Of the 223 chemicals monitored, pesticides, tributyltin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and brominated flame retardants were the major contributors to the chemical risk. Their presence was related to agricultural and urban areas in the upstream catchment. The risk of potential acute lethal and chronic long-term effects increased with the number of ecotoxicologically relevant chemicals analyzed at each site. As most monitoring programs considered in this study only included a subset of these chemicals, our assessment likely underestimates the actual risk. Increasing chemical risk was associated with deterioration in the quality status of fish and invertebrate communities. Our results clearly indicate that chemical pollution is a large-scale environmental problem and requires far-reaching, holistic mitigation measures to preserve and restore ecosystem health.

  12. Observed Land Impacts on Clouds, Water Vapor, and Rainfall at Continental Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Menglin; King, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    How do the continents affect large-scale hydrological cycles? How important can one continent be to the climate system? To address these questions, 4-years of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) observations, and the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) global precipitation analysis, were used to assess the land impacts on clouds, rainfall, and water vapor at continental scales. At these scales, the observations illustrate that continents are integrated regions that enhance the seasonality of atmospheric and surface hydrological parameters. Specifically, the continents of Eurasia and North America enhance the seasonality of cloud optical thickness, cirrus fraction, rainfall, and water vapor. Over land, both liquid water and ice cloud effective radii are smaller than over oceans primarily because land has more aerosol particles. In addition, different continents have similar impacts on hydrological variables in terms of seasonality, but differ in magnitude. For example, in winter, North America and Eurasia increase cloud optical thickness to 17.5 and 16, respectively, while in summer, Eurasia has much smaller cloud optical thicknesses than North America. Such different land impacts are determined by each continent s geographical condition, land cover, and land use. These new understandings help further address the land-ocean contrasts on global climate, help validate global climate model simulated land-atmosphere interactions, and help interpret climate change over land.

  13. The local environment determines the assembly of root endophytic fungi at a continental scale.

    PubMed

    Glynou, Kyriaki; Ali, Tahir; Buch, Ann-Katrin; Haghi Kia, Sevda; Ploch, Sebastian; Xia, Xiaojuan; Çelik, Ali; Thines, Marco; Maciá-Vicente, Jose G

    2016-09-01

    Root endophytic fungi are found in a great variety of plants and ecosystems, but the ecological drivers of their biogeographic distribution are poorly understood. Here, we investigate the occurrence of root endophytes in the non-mycorrhizal plant genus Microthlaspi, and the effect of environmental factors and geographic distance in structuring their communities at a continental scale. We sampled 52 plant populations across the northern Mediterranean and central Europe and used a cultivation approach to study their endophytic communities. Cultivation of roots yielded 2601 isolates, which were grouped into 296 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) by internal transcribed spacer sequencing of 1998 representative colonies. Climatic and spatial factors were the best descriptors of the structure of endophytic communities, outweighing soil characteristics, host genotype and geographical distance. OTU richness was negatively affected by precipitation, and the composition of communities followed latitudinal gradients of precipitation and temperature. Only six widespread OTUs belonging to the orders Pleosporales, Hypocreales and Helotiales represented about 50% of all isolates. Assessments of their individual distribution revealed particular ecological preferences or a cosmopolitan occurrence. Our findings support a strong influence of the local environment in determining root endophytic communities, and show a different niche occupancy by individual endophytes.

  14. Estimating Root Mean Square Errors in Remotely Sensed Soil Moisture over Continental Scale Domains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draper, Clara S.; Reichle, Rolf; de Jeu, Richard; Naeimi, Vahid; Parinussa, Robert; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Root Mean Square Errors (RMSE) in the soil moisture anomaly time series obtained from the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E; using the Land Parameter Retrieval Model) are estimated over a continental scale domain centered on North America, using two methods: triple colocation (RMSETC ) and error propagation through the soil moisture retrieval models (RMSEEP ). In the absence of an established consensus for the climatology of soil moisture over large domains, presenting a RMSE in soil moisture units requires that it be specified relative to a selected reference data set. To avoid the complications that arise from the use of a reference, the RMSE is presented as a fraction of the time series standard deviation (fRMSE). For both sensors, the fRMSETC and fRMSEEP show similar spatial patterns of relatively highlow errors, and the mean fRMSE for each land cover class is consistent with expectations. Triple colocation is also shown to be surprisingly robust to representativity differences between the soil moisture data sets used, and it is believed to accurately estimate the fRMSE in the remotely sensed soil moisture anomaly time series. Comparing the ASCAT and AMSR-E fRMSETC shows that both data sets have very similar accuracy across a range of land cover classes, although the AMSR-E accuracy is more directly related to vegetation cover. In general, both data sets have good skill up to moderate vegetation conditions.

  15. Quantitative evidence for the effects of multiple drivers on continental-scale amphibian declines.

    PubMed

    Grant, Evan H Campbell; Miller, David A W; Schmidt, Benedikt R; Adams, Michael J; Amburgey, Staci M; Chambert, Thierry; Cruickshank, Sam S; Fisher, Robert N; Green, David M; Hossack, Blake R; Johnson, Pieter T J; Joseph, Maxwell B; Rittenhouse, Tracy A G; Ryan, Maureen E; Waddle, J Hardin; Walls, Susan C; Bailey, Larissa L; Fellers, Gary M; Gorman, Thomas A; Ray, Andrew M; Pilliod, David S; Price, Steven J; Saenz, Daniel; Sadinski, Walt; Muths, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Since amphibian declines were first proposed as a global phenomenon over a quarter century ago, the conservation community has made little progress in halting or reversing these trends. The early search for a "smoking gun" was replaced with the expectation that declines are caused by multiple drivers. While field observations and experiments have identified factors leading to increased local extinction risk, evidence for effects of these drivers is lacking at large spatial scales. Here, we use observations of 389 time-series of 83 species and complexes from 61 study areas across North America to test the effects of 4 of the major hypothesized drivers of declines. While we find that local amphibian populations are being lost from metapopulations at an average rate of 3.79% per year, these declines are not related to any particular threat at the continental scale; likewise the effect of each stressor is variable at regional scales. This result - that exposure to threats varies spatially, and populations vary in their response - provides little generality in the development of conservation strategies. Greater emphasis on local solutions to this globally shared phenomenon is needed. PMID:27212145

  16. Organic chemicals jeopardize the health of freshwater ecosystems on the continental scale

    PubMed Central

    Malaj, Egina; von der Ohe, Peter C.; Grote, Matthias; Kühne, Ralph; Mondy, Cédric P.; Usseglio-Polatera, Philippe; Brack, Werner; Schäfer, Ralf B.

    2014-01-01

    Organic chemicals can contribute to local and regional losses of freshwater biodiversity and ecosystem services. However, their overall relevance regarding larger spatial scales remains unknown. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the first risk assessment of organic chemicals on the continental scale comprising 4,000 European monitoring sites. Organic chemicals were likely to exert acute lethal and chronic long-term effects on sensitive fish, invertebrate, or algae species in 14% and 42% of the sites, respectively. Of the 223 chemicals monitored, pesticides, tributyltin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and brominated flame retardants were the major contributors to the chemical risk. Their presence was related to agricultural and urban areas in the upstream catchment. The risk of potential acute lethal and chronic long-term effects increased with the number of ecotoxicologically relevant chemicals analyzed at each site. As most monitoring programs considered in this study only included a subset of these chemicals, our assessment likely underestimates the actual risk. Increasing chemical risk was associated with deterioration in the quality status of fish and invertebrate communities. Our results clearly indicate that chemical pollution is a large-scale environmental problem and requires far-reaching, holistic mitigation measures to preserve and restore ecosystem health. PMID:24979762

  17. Organic chemicals jeopardize the health of freshwater ecosystems on the continental scale.

    PubMed

    Malaj, Egina; von der Ohe, Peter C; Grote, Matthias; Kühne, Ralph; Mondy, Cédric P; Usseglio-Polatera, Philippe; Brack, Werner; Schäfer, Ralf B

    2014-07-01

    Organic chemicals can contribute to local and regional losses of freshwater biodiversity and ecosystem services. However, their overall relevance regarding larger spatial scales remains unknown. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the first risk assessment of organic chemicals on the continental scale comprising 4,000 European monitoring sites. Organic chemicals were likely to exert acute lethal and chronic long-term effects on sensitive fish, invertebrate, or algae species in 14% and 42% of the sites, respectively. Of the 223 chemicals monitored, pesticides, tributyltin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and brominated flame retardants were the major contributors to the chemical risk. Their presence was related to agricultural and urban areas in the upstream catchment. The risk of potential acute lethal and chronic long-term effects increased with the number of ecotoxicologically relevant chemicals analyzed at each site. As most monitoring programs considered in this study only included a subset of these chemicals, our assessment likely underestimates the actual risk. Increasing chemical risk was associated with deterioration in the quality status of fish and invertebrate communities. Our results clearly indicate that chemical pollution is a large-scale environmental problem and requires far-reaching, holistic mitigation measures to preserve and restore ecosystem health. PMID:24979762

  18. A new harmonised soil map of Africa at the continental scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewitte, Olivier; Jones, Arwyn; Spaargaren, Otto; Breuning-Madsen, Henrik; Brossard, Michel; Dampha, Almami; Deckers, Jozef; Gallali, Tahar; Hallett, Stephen; Jones, Robert; Kilasara, Method; Le Roux, Pieter; Michéli, Erika; Montanarella, Luca; Thiombiano, Lamourdia; Van Ranst, Eric; Yemefack, Martin; Zougmore, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Problem and statement: In the context of major global environmental challenges such as food security, climate change, fresh water scarcity and biodiversity loss, the protection and the sustainable management of soil resources in Africa are of paramount importance. To raise the awareness of the general public, stakeholders, policy makers and the science community to the importance of soil in Africa, the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission has produced the Soil Atlas of Africa. Aim: To that end, a new harmonised soil map at the continental scale has been produced. Method: The steps of the construction of the new area-class map are presented, the basic information being derived from the Harmonized World Soil Database (HWSD). We show how the original data were updated and modified according to the World Reference Base for Soil Resources classification system. The corrections concerned boundary issues, areas with no information, soil patterns, river and drainage networks, and dynamic features such as sand dunes, water bodies and coastlines. Results and discussion: In comparison to the initial map derived from HWSD, the new map represents a correction of 13% of the soil data for the continent. The soil map and associated database also have the potential to enhance global studies on climate change, food production and land degradation for example. The explanation of the decisions that were made to produce the map will be useful to others who are attempting to harmonise legacy soil data sources to provide a usable information base. The map is available for downloading.

  19. The Footprint of Continental-Scale Ocean Currents on the Biogeography of Seaweeds

    PubMed Central

    Wernberg, Thomas; Thomsen, Mads S.; Connell, Sean D.; Russell, Bayden D.; Waters, Jonathan M.; Zuccarello, Giuseppe C.; Kraft, Gerald T.; Sanderson, Craig; West, John A.; Gurgel, Carlos F. D.

    2013-01-01

    Explaining spatial patterns of biological organisation remains a central challenge for biogeographic studies. In marine systems, large-scale ocean currents can modify broad-scale biological patterns by simultaneously connecting environmental (e.g. temperature, salinity and nutrients) and biological (e.g. amounts and types of dispersed propagules) properties of adjacent and distant regions. For example, steep environmental gradients and highly variable, disrupted flow should lead to heterogeneity in regional communities and high species turnover. In this study, we investigated the possible imprint of the Leeuwin (LC) and East Australia (EAC) Currents on seaweed communities across ~7,000 km of coastline in temperate Australia. These currents flow poleward along the west and east coasts of Australia, respectively, but have markedly different characteristics. We tested the hypothesis that, regional seaweed communities show serial change in the direction of current flow and that, because the LC is characterised by a weaker temperature gradient and more un-interrupted along-shore flow compared to the EAC, then coasts influenced by the LC have less variable seaweed communities and lower species turnover across regions than the EAC. This hypothesis was supported. We suggest that this pattern is likely caused by a combination of seaweed temperature tolerances and current-driven dispersal. In conclusion, our findings support the idea that the characteristics of continental-scale currents can influence regional community organisation, and that the coupling of ocean currents and marine biological structure is a general feature that transcends taxa and spatial scales. PMID:24260352

  20. An objective and parsimonious approach for classifying natural flow regimes at a continental scale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Archfield, Stacey A.; Kennen, Jonathan G.; Carlisle, Daren M.; Wolock, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Hydro-ecological stream classification-the process of grouping streams by similar hydrologic responses and, by extension, similar aquatic habitat-has been widely accepted and is considered by some to be one of the first steps towards developing ecological flow targets. A new classification of 1543 streamgauges in the contiguous USA is presented by use of a novel and parsimonious approach to understand similarity in ecological streamflow response. This novel classification approach uses seven fundamental daily streamflow statistics (FDSS) rather than winnowing down an uncorrelated subset from 200 or more ecologically relevant streamflow statistics (ERSS) commonly used in hydro-ecological classification studies. The results of this investigation demonstrate that the distributions of 33 tested ERSS are consistently different among the classification groups derived from the seven FDSS. It is further shown that classification based solely on the 33 ERSS generally does a poorer job in grouping similar streamgauges than the classification based on the seven FDSS. This new classification approach has the additional advantages of overcoming some of the subjectivity associated with the selection of the classification variables and provides a set of robust continental-scale classes of US streamgauges. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. Making continental-scale environmental programs relevant locally for educators with Project BudBurst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goehring, L.; Henderson, S.; Wasser, L.; Newman, S. J.; Ward, D.

    2012-12-01

    Project BudBurst is a national citizen science initiative designed to engage non professionals in observations of phenological (plant life cycle) events that raise awareness of climate change, and create a cadre of informed citizen scientists. Citizen science programs such as Project BudBurst provide excellent opportunities for educators and their students to actively participate in scientific research. Such programs are important not only from an educational perspective, but because they also enable scientists to broaden the geographic and temporal scale of their observations. The goals of Project BudBurst are to 1) increase awareness of phenology as an area of scientific study; 2) increase awareness of the impacts of changing climates on plants at a continental-scale; and 3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. From its 2008 launch, this on-line program has engaged participants of all ages and walks of life in recording the timing of the leafing and flowering of wild and cultivated species found across the continent, and in contemplating the meaning of such data in their local environments. Thus far, thousands of participants from all 50 states have submitted data. This presentation will provide an overview of Project BudBurst educational resources and share lessons learned from educators in implementing the program in formal and informal education settings. Lesson plans and tips from educators will be highlighted. Project BudBurst is co-managed by the National Ecological Observatory Network and the Chicago Botanic Garden.

  2. Quantitative evidence for the effects of multiple drivers on continental-scale amphibian declines

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Miller, David A. W.; Schmidt, Benedikt R.; Adams, Michael J.; Amburgey, Staci M.; Chambert, Thierry; Cruickshank, Sam S.; Fisher, Robert N.; Green, David M.; Hossack, Blake R.; Johnson, Pieter T. J.; Joseph, Maxwell B.; Rittenhouse, Tracy A. G.; Ryan, Maureen E.; Waddle, J. Hardin; Walls, Susan C.; Bailey, Larissa L.; Fellers, Gary M.; Gorman, Thomas A.; Ray, Andrew M.; Pilliod, David S.; Price, Steven J.; Saenz, Daniel; Sadinski, Walt; Muths, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Since amphibian declines were first proposed as a global phenomenon over a quarter century ago, the conservation community has made little progress in halting or reversing these trends. The early search for a “smoking gun” was replaced with the expectation that declines are caused by multiple drivers. While field observations and experiments have identified factors leading to increased local extinction risk, evidence for effects of these drivers is lacking at large spatial scales. Here, we use observations of 389 time-series of 83 species and complexes from 61 study areas across North America to test the effects of 4 of the major hypothesized drivers of declines. While we find that local amphibian populations are being lost from metapopulations at an average rate of 3.79% per year, these declines are not related to any particular threat at the continental scale; likewise the effect of each stressor is variable at regional scales. This result - that exposure to threats varies spatially, and populations vary in their response - provides little generality in the development of conservation strategies. Greater emphasis on local solutions to this globally shared phenomenon is needed. PMID:27212145

  3. Continental-scale water fluxes from continuous GPS observations of Earth surface loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsa, A. A.; Agnew, D. C.; Cayan, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    After more than a decade of observing annual oscillations of Earth's surface from seasonal snow and water loading, continuous GPS is now being used to model time-varying terrestrial water fluxes on the local and regional scale. Although the largest signal is typically due to the seasonal hydrological cycle, GPS can also measure subtle surface deformation caused by sustained wet and dry periods, and to estimate the spatial distribution of the underlying terrestrial water storage changes. The next frontier is expanding this analysis to the continental scale and paving the way for incorporating GPS models into the National Climate Assessment and into the observational infrastructure for national water resource management. This will require reconciling GPS observations with predictions from hydrological models and with remote sensing observations from a suite of satellite instruments (e.g. GRACE, SMAP, SWOT). The elastic Earth response which transforms surface loads into vertical and horizontal displacements is also responsible for the contamination of loading observations by tectonic and anthropogenic transients, and we discuss these and other challenges to this new application of GPS.

  4. Continental-Scale Validation of Modis-Based and LEDAPS Landsat ETM + Atmospheric Correction Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ju, Junchang; Roy, David P.; Vermote, Eric; Masek, Jeffrey; Kovalskyy, Valeriy

    2012-01-01

    The potential of Landsat data processing to provide systematic continental scale products has been demonstratedby several projects including the NASA Web-enabled Landsat Data (WELD) project. The recent freeavailability of Landsat data increases the need for robust and efficient atmospheric correction algorithms applicableto large volume Landsat data sets. This paper compares the accuracy of two Landsat atmospheric correctionmethods: a MODIS-based method and the Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive ProcessingSystem (LEDAPS) method. Both methods are based on the 6SV radiative transfer code but have different atmosphericcharacterization approaches. The MODIS-based method uses the MODIS Terra derived dynamicaerosol type, aerosol optical thickness, and water vapor to atmospherically correct ETM+ acquisitions ineach coincident orbit. The LEDAPS method uses aerosol characterizations derived independently from eachLandsat acquisition and assumes a fixed continental aerosol type and uses ancillary water vapor. Validationresults are presented comparing ETM+ atmospherically corrected data generated using these two methodswith AERONET corrected ETM+ data for 95 10 km10 km 30 m subsets, a total of nearly 8 million 30 mpixels, located across the conterminous United States. The results indicate that the MODIS-based methodhas better accuracy than the LEDAPS method for the ETM+ red and longer wavelength bands.

  5. Continental-scale Validation of MODIS-based and LEDAPS Landsat ETM+ Atmospheric Correction Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ju, Junchang; Roy, David P.; Vermote, Eric; Masek, Jeffrey; Kovalskyy, Valeriy

    2012-01-01

    The potential of Landsat data processing to provide systematic continental scale products has been demonstrated by several projects including the NASA Web-enabled Landsat Data (WELD) project. The recent free availability of Landsat data increases the need for robust and efficient atmospheric correction algorithms applicable to large volume Landsat data sets. This paper compares the accuracy of two Landsat atmospheric correction methods: a MODIS-based method and the Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS) method. Both methods are based on the 6SV radiative transfer code but have different atmospheric characterization approaches. The MODIS-based method uses the MODIS Terra derived dynamic aerosol type, aerosol optical thickness, and water vapor to atmospherically correct ETM+ acquisitions in each coincident orbit. The LEDAPS method uses aerosol characterizations derived independently from each Landsat acquisition and assumes a fixed continental aerosol type and uses ancillary water vapor. Validation results are presented comparing ETM+ atmospherically corrected data generated using these two methods with AERONET corrected ETM+ data for 95 10 km×10 km 30 m subsets, a total of nearly 8 million 30 m pixels, located across the conterminous United States. The results indicate that the MODIS-based method has better accuracy than the LEDAPS method for the ETM+ red and longer wavelength bands.

  6. Gene expression clines reveal local adaptation and associated trade-offs at a continental scale.

    PubMed

    Porcelli, Damiano; Westram, Anja M; Pascual, Marta; Gaston, Kevin J; Butlin, Roger K; Snook, Rhonda R

    2016-01-01

    Local adaptation, where fitness in one environment comes at a cost in another, should lead to spatial variation in trade-offs between life history traits and may be critical for population persistence. Recent studies have sought genomic signals of local adaptation, but often have been limited to laboratory populations representing two environmentally different locations of a species' distribution. We measured gene expression, as a proxy for fitness, in males of Drosophila subobscura, occupying a 20° latitudinal and 11 °C thermal range. Uniquely, we sampled six populations and studied both common garden and semi-natural responses to identify signals of local adaptation. We found contrasting patterns of investment: transcripts with expression positively correlated to latitude were enriched for metabolic processes, expressed across all tissues whereas negatively correlated transcripts were enriched for reproductive processes, expressed primarily in testes. When using only the end populations, to compare our results to previous studies, we found that locally adaptive patterns were obscured. While phenotypic trade-offs between metabolic and reproductive functions across widespread species are well-known, our results identify underlying genetic and tissue responses at a continental scale that may be responsible for this. This may contribute to understanding population persistence under environmental change. PMID:27599812

  7. Continental-scale patterns of Cecropia reproductive phenology: evidence from herbarium specimens

    PubMed Central

    Zalamea, Paul-Camilo; Munoz, François; Stevenson, Pablo R.; Paine, C. E. Timothy; Sarmiento, Carolina; Sabatier, Daniel; Heuret, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Plant phenology is concerned with the timing of recurring biological events. Though phenology has traditionally been studied using intensive surveys of a local flora, results from such surveys are difficult to generalize to broader spatial scales. In this study, contrastingly, we assembled a continental-scale dataset of herbarium specimens for the emblematic genus of Neotropical pioneer trees, Cecropia, and applied Fourier spectral and cospectral analyses to investigate the reproductive phenology of 35 species. We detected significant annual, sub-annual and continuous patterns, and discuss the variation in patterns within and among climatic regions. Although previous studies have suggested that pioneer species generally produce flowers continually throughout the year, we found that at least one third of Cecropia species are characterized by clear annual flowering behaviour. We further investigated the relationships between phenology and climate seasonality, showing strong associations between phenology and seasonal variations in precipitation and temperature. We also verified our results against field survey data gathered from the literature. Our findings indicate that herbarium material is a reliable resource for use in the investigation of large-scale patterns in plant phenology, offering a promising complement to local intensive field studies. PMID:21227965

  8. Gene expression clines reveal local adaptation and associated trade-offs at a continental scale

    PubMed Central

    Porcelli, Damiano; Westram, Anja M.; Pascual, Marta; Gaston, Kevin J.; Butlin, Roger K.; Snook, Rhonda R.

    2016-01-01

    Local adaptation, where fitness in one environment comes at a cost in another, should lead to spatial variation in trade-offs between life history traits and may be critical for population persistence. Recent studies have sought genomic signals of local adaptation, but often have been limited to laboratory populations representing two environmentally different locations of a species’ distribution. We measured gene expression, as a proxy for fitness, in males of Drosophila subobscura, occupying a 20° latitudinal and 11 °C thermal range. Uniquely, we sampled six populations and studied both common garden and semi-natural responses to identify signals of local adaptation. We found contrasting patterns of investment: transcripts with expression positively correlated to latitude were enriched for metabolic processes, expressed across all tissues whereas negatively correlated transcripts were enriched for reproductive processes, expressed primarily in testes. When using only the end populations, to compare our results to previous studies, we found that locally adaptive patterns were obscured. While phenotypic trade-offs between metabolic and reproductive functions across widespread species are well-known, our results identify underlying genetic and tissue responses at a continental scale that may be responsible for this. This may contribute to understanding population persistence under environmental change. PMID:27599812

  9. Non-climatic factors and long-term, continental-scale changes in seasonally frozen ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiklomanov, Nikolay I.

    2012-03-01

    ). In their recent paper entitled 'An observational 71-year history of seasonally frozen ground changes in Eurasian high latitudes', Frauenfeld and Zhang (2011) provided detailed analysis of soil temperature data to assess 1930-2000 trends in seasonal freezing depth. The data were obtained from 387 Soviet non-permafrost meteorological stations. The authors performed systematic, quality-controlled, integrative analysis over the entire former Soviet Union domain. The long-term changes in depth of seasonal freezing were discussed in relation to such forcing variables as air temperature, degree days of freezing/thawing, snow depth and summer precipitation as well as modes of the North Atlantic Oscillation. The spatially average approach adopted for the study provides a generalized continental-scale trend. The study greatly improves, expands and extends previous 1956-90 analysis of the ground thermal regime over the Eurasian high latitudes (Frauenfeld et al 2004). Although the work of Frauenfeld and Zhang (2011) is the most comprehensive assessment of the continental-scale long-term trends in seasonal freezing available to date, more detailed analysis is needed to determine the effect of climate change on seasonally frozen ground. It should be noted that, in addition to the variables considered for analysis, other non-climatic factors affect the depth of freezing propagation. Unlike the surface, which is influenced by the climate directly, the ground even at shallow depth receives a climatic signal that is substantially modified by edaphic processes, contributing to highly localized thermal sensitivities of the ground to climatic forcing. Subsurface properties, soil moisture, and snow and vegetation covers influence the depth of freezing. Topography also plays an important role in establishing the ground thermal regime. It is an important determinant of the amount of heat received by the ground surface, affects the distribution of snow and vegetation, and influences the

  10. Continental-Scale Temperature Reconstructions from the PAGES 2k Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, D. S.

    2012-12-01

    We present a major new synthesis of seven regional temperature reconstructions to elucidate the global pattern of variations and their association with climate-forcing mechanisms over the past two millennia. To coordinate the integration of new and existing data of all proxy types, the Past Global Changes (PAGES) project developed the 2k Network. It comprises nine working groups representing eight continental-scale regions and the oceans. The PAGES 2k Consortium, authoring this paper, presently includes 79 representatives from 25 countries. For this synthesis, each of the PAGES 2k working groups identified the proxy climate records for reconstructing past temperature and associated uncertainty using the data and methodologies that they deemed most appropriate for their region. The datasets are from 973 sites where tree rings, pollen, corals, lake and marine sediment, glacier ice, speleothems, and historical documents record changes in biologically and physically mediated processes that are sensitive to temperature change, among other climatic factors. The proxy records used for this synthesis are available through the NOAA World Data Center for Paleoclimatology. On long time scales, the temperature reconstructions display similarities among regions, and a large part of this common behavior can be explained by known climate forcings. Reconstructed temperatures in all regions show an overall long-term cooling trend until around 1900 C.E., followed by strong warming during the 20th century. On the multi-decadal time scale, we assessed the variability among the temperature reconstructions using principal component (PC) analysis of the standardized decadal mean temperatures over the period of overlap among the reconstructions (1200 to 1980 C.E.). PC1 explains 35% of the total variability and is strongly correlated with temperature reconstructions from the four Northern Hemisphere regions, and with the sum of external forcings including solar, volcanic, and greenhouse

  11. NEON: Developing a Platform for Regional to Continental Scale Biological Inquiry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, J.

    2004-05-01

    Climate variation, introductions of alien species, and patterns of land use are some of the important interacting drivers of biological change that are affecting our nation's ecosystems. Many of these drivers operate over large spatial and temporal scales, and our understanding of how these phenomena interact to drive biological change is limited by our inability to link traditionally local and short-term ecological approaches to larger and longer scales. Similarly, our ability to forecast such changes and respond to their consequences is constrained. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a proposed shared-use research and education platform intended to improve our capacity to understand and predict biological phenomena operating from regional to continental scales. NEON is envisioned as a system of field and laboratory-based facilities distributed across the United States, which will provide the physical infrastructure and human capabilities necessary to coordinate and integrate research and education campaigns on the following types of issues: (1) biodiversity, species composition, and ecosystem functioning; (2) ecological aspects of biogeochemical cycles; (3) ecological implications of climate change; (4) ecology and evolution of infectious disease; (5) invasive species; and (6) land use and habitat alteration. Themes such as data sharing, multidisciplinary collaboration, and the development of technologies for sensing, forecasting, and visualizing biological information are central to the NEON concept. Development of the NEON science plan and the design of the network itself are proceeding through a variety of workshops and community planning meetings. A national project office is expected to form toward the end of 2004 to lead the development and creation of NEON. Ultimately, the project office will reside within an independent national organization devoted to the coordinated operation of NEON for the scientific community.

  12. Building a flood climatology and rethinking flood risk at continental scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreadis, Konstantinos; Schumann, Guy; Stampoulis, Dimitrios; Smith, Andrew; Neal, Jeffrey; Bates, Paul; Sampson, Christopher; Brakenridge, Robert; Kettner, Albert

    2016-04-01

    Floods are one of the costliest natural disasters and the ability to understand their characteristics and their interactions with population, land cover and climate changes is of paramount importance. In order to accurately reproduce flood characteristics such as water inundation and heights both in the river channels and floodplains, hydrodynamic models are required. Most of these models operate at very high resolutions and are computationally very expensive, making their application over large areas very difficult. However, a need exists for such models to be applied at regional to global scales so that the effects of climate change with regards to flood risk can be examined. We use the a modeling framework that includes the VIC hydrologic and the LISFLOOD-FP hydrodynamic model to simulate a 40-year history of flood characteristics at the continental scale, particularly Australia. In order to extend the simulated flood climatology to 50-100 years in a consistent manner, reanalysis datasets have to be used as meteorological forcings to the models. The objective of this study is the evaluation of multiple atmospheric reanalysis datasets (ERA, NCEP, MERRA, JRA) as inputs to the VIC/LISFLOOD-FP model. Comparisons of the simulated flood characteristics are made with both satellite observations of inundation and a benchmark simulation of LISFLOOD-FP being forced by observed flows. The implications of having a climatology of flood characteristics are discussed, and in particular We found the magnitude and timing of floodplain water storage to significantly differ from streamflow in terms of their distribution. Furthermore, floodplain volume gave a much sharper discrimination of high hazard and low hazard periods than discharge, and using the latter can lead to significant overestimation. These results demonstrate that global streamflow statistics or precipitation should not be used to infer flood hazard and risk, but instead a flood inundation climatology is necessary.

  13. Extended-Range High-Resolution Dynamical Downscaling over a Continental-Scale Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husain, S. Z.; Separovic, L.; Yu, W.; Fernig, D.

    2014-12-01

    High-resolution mesoscale simulations, when applied for downscaling meteorological fields over large spatial domains and for extended time periods, can provide valuable information for many practical application scenarios including the weather-dependent renewable energy industry. In the present study, a strategy has been proposed to dynamically downscale coarse-resolution meteorological fields from Environment Canada's regional analyses for a period of multiple years over the entire Canadian territory. The study demonstrates that a continuous mesoscale simulation over the entire domain is the most suitable approach in this regard. Large-scale deviations in the different meteorological fields pose the biggest challenge for extended-range simulations over continental scale domains, and the enforcement of the lateral boundary conditions is not sufficient to restrict such deviations. A scheme has therefore been developed to spectrally nudge the simulated high-resolution meteorological fields at the different model vertical levels towards those embedded in the coarse-resolution driving fields derived from the regional analyses. A series of experiments were carried out to determine the optimal nudging strategy including the appropriate nudging length scales, nudging vertical profile and temporal relaxation. A forcing strategy based on grid nudging of the different surface fields, including surface temperature, soil-moisture, and snow conditions, towards their expected values obtained from a high-resolution offline surface scheme was also devised to limit any considerable deviation in the evolving surface fields due to extended-range temporal integrations. The study shows that ensuring large-scale atmospheric similarities helps to deliver near-surface statistical scores for temperature, dew point temperature and horizontal wind speed that are better or comparable to the operational regional forecasts issued by Environment Canada. Furthermore, the meteorological fields

  14. Organic compounds in biomass smoke from residential wood combustion: Emissions characterization at a continental scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fine, Philip M.; Cass, Glen R.; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    2002-11-01

    Wood smoke in the atmosphere often accounts for 20-30% of the ambient fine-particle concentrations. In communities where wood is burned for home heating, wood smoke can at times contribute the majority of the atmospheric fine-particle burden. Chemical mass balance receptor models that use organic compounds as tracers can be used to determine the contributions of different emission sources, including wood smoke, to atmospheric fine-particle samples. In order for organic chemical tracer techniques to be applied to communities across the United States, differences in wood smoke composition that arise from differences in the type of wood burned in various regions must be understood. A continental-scale accounting of particulate organic compound emissions from residential wood combustion has been constructed which helps to quantify the regional differences in wood smoke composition that exist between different parts of the United States. Data from a series of source tests conducted on 22 North American wood species have been used to assemble a national inventory of emissions for more than 250 individual organic compounds that are released from wood combustion in fireplaces and wood stoves in the United States. The emission rates of important wood smoke markers, such as levoglucosan, certain substituted syringols and guaiacols, and phytosterols vary greatly with wood type and combustor type. These differences at the level of individual wood type and combustion conditions translate into regional differences in the aggregate composition of ambient wood smoke. By weighting the source test results in proportion to the availability of firewood from specific tree species and the quantities of wood burned in each locale, it is possible to investigate systematic differences that exist between wood smokes from different regions of North America. The relative abundance of 10 major wood smoke components averaged over the emissions inventory in different regions of the United States

  15. New insights into the atmospheric mercury cycling in central Antarctica and implications on a continental scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angot, Hélène; Magand, Olivier; Helmig, Detlev; Ricaud, Philippe; Quennehen, Boris; Gallée, Hubert; Del Guasta, Massimo; Sprovieri, Francesca; Pirrone, Nicola; Savarino, Joël; Dommergue, Aurélien

    2016-07-01

    Under the framework of the GMOS project (Global Mercury Observation System) atmospheric mercury monitoring has been implemented at Concordia Station on the high-altitude Antarctic plateau (75°06' S, 123°20' E, 3220 m above sea level). We report here the first year-round measurements of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg(0)) in the atmosphere and in snowpack interstitial air on the East Antarctic ice sheet. This unique data set shows evidence of an intense oxidation of atmospheric Hg(0) in summer (24-hour daylight) due to the high oxidative capacity of the Antarctic plateau atmosphere in this period of the year. Summertime Hg(0) concentrations exhibited a pronounced daily cycle in ambient air with maximal concentrations around midday. Photochemical reactions and chemical exchange at the air-snow interface were prominent, highlighting the role of the snowpack on the atmospheric mercury cycle. Our observations reveal a 20 to 30 % decrease of atmospheric Hg(0) concentrations from May to mid-August (winter, 24 h darkness). This phenomenon has not been reported elsewhere and possibly results from the dry deposition of Hg(0) onto the snowpack. We also reveal the occurrence of multi-day to weeklong atmospheric Hg(0) depletion events in summer, not associated with depletions of ozone, and likely due to a stagnation of air masses above the plateau triggering an accumulation of oxidants within the shallow boundary layer. Our observations suggest that the inland atmospheric reservoir is depleted in Hg(0) in summer. Due to katabatic winds flowing out from the Antarctic plateau down the steep vertical drops along the coast and according to observations at coastal Antarctic stations, the striking reactivity observed on the plateau most likely influences the cycle of atmospheric mercury on a continental scale.

  16. Understanding Monthly Land Surface Relationships at the Continental Scale Using Remotely Sensed Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, R. D.; Mehra, V.; Kumar, P.; Bajcsy, P.; Tcheng, D.

    2006-12-01

    In the past few decades, remotely sensed Earth observation data has been gathered at rates now on the order of tens of terabytes per day. These collections of data are valuable reserves of "scientific ore." However, mining the ore for useful science has been challenging due to the sheer volume of data, esoteric formats, varying temporal scales, and varying spatial scales. Regardless, the wide geographic and temporal ranges allow investigations at scales inaccessible by other presently existing methods. We developed a technology called GeoLearn to facilitate data preparation and basic exploration so this data can be more readily available for scientific purposes. GeoLearn is used to prepare the data which we examine for relationships between several land surface variables across the entire continental USA during each month in the summer of 2004. We employ two approaches: k-means style clustering and regression tree approaches. Using k-means, we try to identify geographic regions of similarity using only remotely sensed characteristics. The resulting geographic regions often, but not always, correspond to EPA ecoregion boundaries. Using regressions trees, we try to predict a greenness index (EVI) based on other characteristics. In this case, the differing resolutions of the datasets became important. EVI is the most detailed variable we use. Since regression trees are capable of quite detailed approximations, the best naive model turns out to be based on the one or two most detailed explanatory variables. This results in a model which merely uses the explanatory variables as ID numbers rather than identifying any general relationships. We are able to develop alternative models which maintain flexibility without succumbing to the "ID number" problem as easily. These models allow us to identify what variables are most important for determining vegetation greenness at continental scales as well as how those relationships changed throughout the summer of 2004.

  17. A high-resolution approach to estimating ecosystem respiration at continental scales using operational satellite data.

    PubMed

    Jägermeyr, Jonas; Gerten, Dieter; Lucht, Wolfgang; Hostert, Patrick; Migliavacca, Mirco; Nemani, Ramakrishna

    2014-04-01

    A better understanding of the local variability in land-atmosphere carbon fluxes is crucial to improving the accuracy of global carbon budgets. Operational satellite data backed by ground measurements at Fluxnet sites proved valuable in monitoring local variability of gross primary production at highly resolved spatio-temporal resolutions. Yet, we lack similar operational estimates of ecosystem respiration (Re) to calculate net carbon fluxes. If successful, carbon fluxes from such a remote sensing approach would form an independent and sought after measure to complement widely used dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs). Here, we establish an operational semi-empirical Re model, based only on data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) with a resolution of 1 km and 8 days. Fluxnet measurements between 2000 and 2009 from 100 sites across North America and Europe are used for parameterization and validation. Our analysis shows that Re is closely tied to temperature and plant productivity. By separating temporal and intersite variation, we find that MODIS land surface temperature (LST) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI) are sufficient to explain observed Re across most major biomes with a negligible bias [R² = 0.62, RMSE = 1.32 (g C m(-2) d(-1)), MBE = 0.05 (g C m(-2) d(-1))]. A comparison of such satellite-derived Re with those simulated by the DGVM LPJmL reveals similar spatial patterns. However, LPJmL shows higher temperature sensitivities and consistently simulates higher Re values, in high-latitude and subtropical regions. These differences remain difficult to explain and they are likely associated either with LPJmL parameterization or with systematic errors in the Fluxnet sampling technique. While uncertainties remain with Re estimates, the model formulated in this study provides an operational, cross-validated and unbiased approach to scale Fluxnet Re to the continental scale and advances knowledge of spatio-temporal Re variability

  18. A new satellite-based methodology for continental-scale disturbance detection.

    PubMed

    Mildrexler, David J; Zhao, Maosheng; Heinsch, Faith Ann; Running, Steven W

    2007-01-01

    The timing, location, and magnitude of major disturbance events are currently major uncertainties in the global carbon cycle. Accurate information on the location, spatial extent, and duration of disturbance at the continental scale is needed to evaluate the ecosystem impacts of land cover changes due to wildfire, insect epidemics, flooding, climate change, and human-triggered land use. This paper describes an algorithm developed to serve as an automated, economical, systematic disturbance detection index for global application using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)/Aqua Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Terra/MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) data from 2003 to 2004. The algorithm is based on the consistent radiometric relationship between LST and EVI computed on a pixel-by-pixel basis. We used annual maximum composite LST data to detect fundamental changes in land-surface energy partitioning, while avoiding the high natural variability associated with tracking LST at daily, weekly, or seasonal time frames. Verification of potential disturbance events from our algorithm was carried out by demonstration of close association with independently confirmed, well-documented historical wildfire events throughout the study domain. We also examined the response of the disturbance index to irrigation by comparing a heavily irrigated poplar tree farm to the adjacent semiarid vegetation. Anomalous disturbance results were further examined by association with precipitation variability across areas of the study domain known for large interannual vegetation variability. The results illustrate that our algorithm is capable of detecting the location and spatial extent of wildfire with precision, is sensitive to the incremental process of recovery of disturbed landscapes, and shows strong sensitivity to irrigation. Disturbance detection in areas with high interannual variability of precipitation will benefit from a multiyear data set to better separate

  19. EarthScope: Earth Science Education and Outreach on a Continental Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semken, S. C.; Arrowsmith, R.; Fouch, M. J.; Garnero, E. J.; Taylor, W. L.

    2011-12-01

    EarthScope, funded by the National Science Foundation, enables the exploration of the structure and evolution of the North American continent by scientists accessing a range of seismological, geodetic, in situ fault-zone sampling, geochronology, and high resolution topography resources. Interdisciplinary EarthScope science produces transformative knowledge for studying Earth processes and structures, addressing hazards, and informing resource exploration and environmental management. In addition, these data and technologies offer superb opportunities to enhance formal and informal science education in the solid Earth and Earth system sciences. The EarthScope National Office (ESNO) at Arizona State University serves the broad and diverse community of EarthScope stakeholders, including EarthScope researchers, formal and informal educators in Earth science, and the general public. ESNO supports and promotes education and outreach (E&O) at a level comparable to that of its support for EarthScope science. This is accomplished through effective programs such as the EarthScope E&O website, Speaker Series, Interpretive Workshops for informal educators, newsletters, and the biannual EarthScope National Meeting. ESNO is adding further value to the programmatic E&O portfolio through new initiatives to: rapidly channel EarthScope science through social media; pilot and disseminate exemplary new Earth science content for K-12 science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) teacher professional development (in partnership with organizations such as American Geological Institute); use regional and local results from EarthScope research in promoting place-based teaching; and deliver continuing education for university researchers and educators. EarthScope E&O, infused with a place-based and educator-centered ethos, coordinates the compilation and presentation of the spectacular findings and scientific legacy of the continental-scale EarthScope program.

  20. Numerical simulation of the geographical sources of water for Continental Scale Experiments (CSEs) Precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Sud, Yogesh; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Walker, Gregory K.

    2003-01-01

    There are several important research questions that the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) is actively pursuing, namely: What is the intensity of the water cycle and how does it change? And what is the sustainability of water resources? Much of the research to address these questions is directed at understanding the atmospheric water cycle. In this paper, we have used a new diagnostic tool, called Water Vapor Tracers (WVTs), to quantify the how much precipitation originated as continental or oceanic evaporation. This shows how long water can remain in the atmosphere and how far it can travel. The model-simulated data are analyzed over regions of interest to the GEWEX community, specifically, their Continental Scale Experiments (CSEs) that are in place in the United States, Europe, Asia, Brazil, Africa and Canada. The paper presents quantitative data on how much each continent and ocean on Earth supplies water for each CSE. Furthermore, the analysis also shows the seasonal variation of the water sources. For example, in the United States, summertime precipitation is dominated by continental (land surface) sources of water, while wintertime precipitation is dominated by the Pacific Ocean sources of water. We also analyze the residence time of water in the atmosphere. The new diagnostic shows a longer residence time for water (9.2 days) than more traditional estimates (7.5 days). We emphasize that the results are based on model simulations and they depend on the model s veracity. However, there are many potential uses for the new diagnostic tool in understanding weather processes and large and small scales.

  1. A generalizable energetics-based model of avian migration to facilitate continental-scale waterbird conservation.

    PubMed

    Lonsdorf, Eric V; Thogmartin, Wayne E; Jacobi, Sarah; Aagaard, Kevin; Coppen, Jorge; Davis, Amélie; Fox, Timothy; Heglund, Patricia; Johnson, Rex; Jones, Malcolm T; Kenow, Kevin; Lyons, James E; Luke, Kirsten; Still, Shannon; Tavernia, Brian

    2016-06-01

    Conserving migratory birds is made especially difficult because of movement among spatially disparate locations across the annual cycle. In light of challenges presented by the scale and ecology of migratory birds, successful conservation requires integrating objectives, management, and monitoring across scales, from local management units to ecoregional and flyway administrative boundaries. We present an integrated approach using a spatially explicit energetic-based mechanistic bird migration model useful to conservation decision-making across disparate scales and locations. This model moves a Mallard-like bird (Anas platyrhynchos), through spring and fall migration as a function of caloric gains and losses across a continental-scale energy landscape. We predicted with this model that fall migration, where birds moved from breeding to wintering habitat, took a mean of 27.5 d of flight with a mean seasonal survivorship of 90.5% (95% Cl = 89.2%, 91.9%), whereas spring migration took a mean of 23.5 d of flight with mean seasonal survivorship of 93.6% (95% CI = 92.5%, 94.7%). Sensitivity analyses suggested that survival during migration was sensitive to flight speed, flight cost, the amount of energy the animal could carry, and the spatial pattern of energy availability, but generally insensitive to total energy availability per se. Nevertheless, continental patterns in the bird-use days occurred principally in relation to wetland cover and agricultural habitat in the fall. Bird-use days were highest in both spring and fall in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley and along the coast and near-shore environments of South Carolina. Spatial sensitivity analyses suggested that locations nearer to migratory endpoints were less important to survivorship; for instance, removing energy from a 1036 km2 stopover site at a time from the Atlantic Flyway suggested coastal areas between New Jersey and North Carolina, including the Chesapeake Bay and the North Carolina piedmont, are

  2. A spatially consistent seamless predictions of continental-scale hydrologic fluxes and states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rohini; Mai, Juliane; Rakovec, Oldrich; Zink, Matthias; Cuntz, Matthias; Thober, Stephan; Attinger, Sabine; Schroen, Martin; Schaefer, David; Samaniego, Luis

    2016-04-01

    One of the major challenges in the contemporary hydrology is to establish a continental-scale hydrologic model that can provide spatially consistent, seamless prediction of hydrologic fluxes and states to better characterise extreme events like floods and droughts. This requires, among other things, 1) a robust parameterization technique that allows the model to seamlessly operate across a range of spatial resolutions and 2) an efficient parameter estimation technique to derive a representative set of spatially consistent model parameters that avoid inconsistencies in simulated hydrologic fields (e.g., soil moisture). In this study, we demostrate the applicability of a mesoscale hydrologic model parameterized using a multiscale regionalization technique to derive daily gridded fields of hydrologic fluxes/states over the Pan-EU domain since 1950. A multi-basin parameter estimation (MBE) strategy that utilizes observed streamflows from a set of hydrologically diverse basins is introduced to infer a representative set of regional calibration parameters which is applicable over the entire domain. We tested three sampling schemes to select a set of calibration basins incremented sequentially from 2 to 20 basins, based on the 1) random selection procedure, 2) gradient along the hydro-climatic regimes, and 3) diversity in hydro-climatic and basin physiographical properties (e.g., terrain, soil, land cover properties). Results of the MBE approach are contrasted against the benchmark at-site calibration strategy across 400 EU basins varying from approximately 100 to 500,000 km2. At-site calibrated parameters performed best for site-specific streamflow predictions, but their transferability to other sites resulted in poor performance. Moreover, the at-site calibration strategy generated a patchy, spatially inconsistent distribution of parameter fields that further induced large discontinuities in simulated hydrologic fields of soil moisture among other sates/fluxes. These

  3. A generalizable energetics-based model of avian migration to facilitate continental-scale waterbird conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lonsdorf, Eric V.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Jacobi, Sarah; Coppen, Jorge; Davis, Amélie Y.; Fox, Timothy J.; Heglund, Patricia; Johnson, Rex; Jones, Tim; Kenow, Kevin P.; Lyons, James E.; Luke, Kirsten E.; Still, Shannon; Tavernia, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Conserving migratory birds is made especially difficult because of movement among spatially disparate locations across the annual cycle. In light of challenges presented by the scale and ecology of migratory birds, successful conservation requires integrating objectives, management, and monitoring across scales, from local management units to ecoregional and flyway administrative boundaries. We present an integrated approach using a spatially explicit energetic-based mechanistic bird migration model useful to conservation decision-making across disparate scales and locations. This model moves a mallard-like bird (Anas platyrhynchos), through spring and fall migration as a function of caloric gains and losses across a continental scale energy landscape. We predicted with this model that fall migration, where birds moved from breeding to wintering habitat, took a mean of 27.5 days of flight with a mean seasonal survivorship of 90.5% (95% CI = 89.2%, 91.9%) whereas spring migration took a mean of 23.5 days of flight with mean seasonal survivorship of 93.6% (95% CI = 92.5%, 94.7%). Sensitivity analyses suggested that survival during migration was sensitive to flight speed, flight cost, the amount of energy the animal could carry and the spatial pattern of energy availability, but generally insensitive to total energy availability per se. Nevertheless, continental patterns in the bird-use days occurred principally in relation to wetland cover and agricultural habitat in the fall. Bird-use days were highest in both spring and fall in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley and along the coast and near-shore environments of South Carolina. Spatial sensitivity analyses suggested that locations nearer to migratory endpoints were less important to survivorship; for instance, removing energy from a 1,036 km2 stopover site at a time from the Atlantic Flyway suggested coastal areas between New Jersey and North Carolina, including Chesapeake Bay and the North Carolina piedmont, are

  4. Continental scale variation in 17O-excess of meteoric waters in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuning; Levin, Naomi E.; Chesson, Lesley A.

    2015-09-01

    High-precision triple oxygen isotope analysis of waters is an emerging tool in hydrological and paleoclimate research. The existing research on 17O-excess in waters includes surveys of meteoric waters and region-specific studies of high-latitude snow and tropical storms. However, a better understanding of the variation in 17O-excess of waters across large geographic regions is needed to expand the utility of triple oxygen isotope measurements. Here we present 17O-excess data from tap waters across the continental U.S., which we used as a proxy for precipitation. The 17O-excess values of tap waters ranged from -6 to +43 per meg and averaged 17 ± 11 per meg which is lower than the average 17O-excess reported for global meteoric waters, but overlaps with reported 17O-excess values of rainfall from the tropics. We observed relatively high 17O-excess values (>25 per meg) of tap waters in the northwestern U.S. and some of the lowest 17O-excess values (<5 per meg) in the states bordering the Gulf of Mexico. The latitudinal variation of 17O-excess among tap waters likely reflects the different controls on 17O-excess in precipitation. For example, re-evaporation of precipitation and convective processes influence the isotopic composition of tap waters from the southern portions of the U.S., resulting in relatively low 17O-excess values. In contrast, these effects are reduced in tap waters from the northern portions of the U.S. where snow and cold-season rainfall are primarily responsible for the majority of annual precipitation. Exceptions to the latitudinal trend are prevalent in the central portions of the U.S., where mixing and convection are likely responsible for 17O-excess values that are lower than would be expected at their latitudes. The results of this study provide both a first look at the variation of 17O-excess in meteoric waters on a continental scale and a predictive map for 17O-excess of meteoric waters in the U.S.

  5. A generalizable energetics-based model of avian migration to facilitate continental-scale waterbird conservation.

    PubMed

    Lonsdorf, Eric V; Thogmartin, Wayne E; Jacobi, Sarah; Aagaard, Kevin; Coppen, Jorge; Davis, Amélie; Fox, Timothy; Heglund, Patricia; Johnson, Rex; Jones, Malcolm T; Kenow, Kevin; Lyons, James E; Luke, Kirsten; Still, Shannon; Tavernia, Brian

    2016-06-01

    Conserving migratory birds is made especially difficult because of movement among spatially disparate locations across the annual cycle. In light of challenges presented by the scale and ecology of migratory birds, successful conservation requires integrating objectives, management, and monitoring across scales, from local management units to ecoregional and flyway administrative boundaries. We present an integrated approach using a spatially explicit energetic-based mechanistic bird migration model useful to conservation decision-making across disparate scales and locations. This model moves a Mallard-like bird (Anas platyrhynchos), through spring and fall migration as a function of caloric gains and losses across a continental-scale energy landscape. We predicted with this model that fall migration, where birds moved from breeding to wintering habitat, took a mean of 27.5 d of flight with a mean seasonal survivorship of 90.5% (95% Cl = 89.2%, 91.9%), whereas spring migration took a mean of 23.5 d of flight with mean seasonal survivorship of 93.6% (95% CI = 92.5%, 94.7%). Sensitivity analyses suggested that survival during migration was sensitive to flight speed, flight cost, the amount of energy the animal could carry, and the spatial pattern of energy availability, but generally insensitive to total energy availability per se. Nevertheless, continental patterns in the bird-use days occurred principally in relation to wetland cover and agricultural habitat in the fall. Bird-use days were highest in both spring and fall in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley and along the coast and near-shore environments of South Carolina. Spatial sensitivity analyses suggested that locations nearer to migratory endpoints were less important to survivorship; for instance, removing energy from a 1036 km2 stopover site at a time from the Atlantic Flyway suggested coastal areas between New Jersey and North Carolina, including the Chesapeake Bay and the North Carolina piedmont, are

  6. NEON: Contributing continental-scale long-term environmental data for the benefit of society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wee, B.; Aulenbach, S.

    2011-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a NSF funded national investment in physical and information infrastructure. Large-scale environmental changes pose challenges that straddle environmental, economic, and social boundaries. As we develop climate adaptation strategies at the Federal, state, local, and tribal levels, accessible and usable data are essential for implementing actions that are informed by the best available information. NEON's goal is to enable understanding and forecasting of the impacts of climate change, land use change and invasive species on continental-scale ecology by providing physical and information infrastructure. The NEON framework will take standardized, long-term, coordinated measurements of related environmental variables at each of its 62 sites across the nation. These observations, collected by automated instruments, field crews, and airborne instruments, will be processed into more than 700 data products that are provided freely over the web to support research, education, and environmental management. NEON is envisioned to be an integral component of an interoperable ecosystem of credible data and information sources. Other members of this information ecosystem include Federal, commercial, and non-profit entities. NEON is actively involved with the interoperability community via forums like the Foundation for Earth Science Information Partners and the USGS Community for Data Integration in a collective effort to identify the technical standards, best practices, and organizational principles that enable the emergence of such an information ecosystem. These forums have proven to be effective innovation engines for the experimentation of new techniques that evolve into emergent standards. These standards are, for the most part, discipline agnostic. It is becoming increasingly evident that we need to include socio-economic and public health data sources in interoperability initiatives, because the dynamics of coupled

  7. PhenoCam: A continental-scale observatory for monitoring the phenology of terrestrial vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, A. D.; Friedl, M. A.; Frolking, S.; Pless, R.; PhenoCam Collaborators

    2011-12-01

    The term phenology refers to both the seasonal rhythms of plants and animals, and the study of these rhythms. Plant phenological processes, such as when leaves emerge in the spring and change color in the autumn, are highly responsive to year-to-year variation in weather as well as longer-term changes in climate, particularly as related to temperature and precipitation. Understanding and predicting the impacts of climate change on plants and ecosystems requires better data with which predictive models of phenology can be developed and tested. PhenoCam uses networked, digital cameras as multi-channel imaging sensors to track the seasonal dynamics of terrestrial vegetation across a range of ecosystem types. The original network, which began in 2006 as a project focusing on the northeast region, consists of a dozen cameras deployed at pre-existing long term research sites. At eight of these sites, cameras are co-located with eddy covariance instrumentation with which surface-atmosphere exchanges of carbon, water and energy are being measured. This provides opportunities for investigating relationships between phenology and ecosystem function and climate system feedbacks. We plan to expand PhenoCam from a regional network to a continental-scale observatory. We will deploy 20 additional cameras at FLUXNET sites across North America, spanning a wide range of vegetation types. We will further explore the feasibility of exploiting information related to phenology from an existing image archive of approximately 17,000 publicly available cameras located across the continent. We will use computer vision and machine learning approaches to develop new processing algorithms for this imagery, and will link these data products both to ground observations by USA-National Phenology Network "citizen scientists" and various satellite-based data streams, e.g. the MODIS phenology product. This project will develop predictions of how phenology may be affected by future climate change

  8. Continental Scale research of the coupled carbon and water cycles in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleugh, Helen; van Gorsel, Eva; Held, Alex; Huete, Alfredo; Karan, Mirko; Liddell, Michael; Phinn, Stuart; Prentice, Colin

    2013-04-01

    Cover provides a national expert network and data delivery service for provision of Australian biophysical remote sensing time-series data, continental-scale map products, and select high-resolution datasets over TERN OzFlux and Supersites. Integration of data streams and modeling is carried out through the TERN eMAST Facility. This presentation will give an overview of the infrastructure related to research in biogeochemistry through TERN. We will show how the deployment of large-scale infrastructure, observations, the curation of data and assimilation and integration of data into modelling is enhancing our process understanding of carbon uptake and water use in a large range of ecosystems.

  9. Hydrogen isotopes from source water to leaf lipid in a continental-scale sample network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Daniel; Kahmen, Ansgar

    2015-04-01

    Sedimentary plant waxes are useful paleoclimate proxies because they are preserved in depositional settings on geologic timescales and the isotopic composition of the hydrogen in these molecules reflects that of the source water available during biosynthesis. This application is based largely on empirical calibrations that have demonstrated continental-scale correlations between source water and lipid hydrogen isotope values. However, the importance of variable net isotopic fractionation between source water and lipid for different species and environmental conditions is increasingly recognized. Isotopic enrichment of leaf water during transpiration is key among these secondary factors, and is itself sensitive to changes in hydroclimate. Leaf water enrichment also occurs prior to photosynthetic water uptake, and is therefore independent from cellular-level biomarker synthesis. Mechanistic models can predict the mean leaf water hydrogen isotope composition from readily available meteorological variables. This permits global-scale isoscape maps of leaf water isotopic composition and enrichment above source water to be generated, but these models have not been widely validated at continental spatial scales. We have established a network of twenty-one sites across Europe where we are sampling for leaf-, xylem-, and soil-water isotopes (H and O) at approximately 5-week intervals over the summer growing season. We augment the sample set with weekly to monthly precipitation samples and early- and late-season plant wax lipid samples. Collaborators at each site are conducting the sampling, and most sites are members of the FLUXNET tower network that also record high-resolution meteorological data. We present information on the implementation of the network and preliminary results from the 2014 summer season. The complete dataset will be used to track the evolution of water isotopes from source to leaf water and from leaf water to lipid hydrogen across diverse environments

  10. Detection of Intensification in Global- and Continental-Scale Hydrological Cycles: Temporal Scale of Evaluation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Alan D.; Sheffield, Justin; Maurer, Edwin P.; Nijssen, Bart; Wood, Eric F.; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.

    2003-02-01

    Diagnostic studies of offline, global-scale Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model simulations of terrestrial water budgets and simulations of the climate of the twenty-first century using the parallel climate model (PCM) are used to estimate the time required to detect plausible changes in precipitation (P), evaporation (E), and discharge (Q) if the global water cycle intensifies in response to global warming. Given the annual variability in these continental hydrological cycle components, several decades to perhaps more than a century of observations are needed to detect water cycle changes on the order of magnitude predicted by many global climate model studies simulating global warming scenarios. Global increases in precipitation, evaporation, and runoff of 0.6, 0.4, and 0.2 mm yr1 require approximately 30-45, 25-35, and 50-60 yr, respectively, to detect with high confidence. These conservative detection time estimates are based on statistical error criteria ( = 0.05, = 0.10) that are associated with high statistical confidence, 1 (accept hypothesis of intensification when true, i.e., intensification is occurring), and high statistical power, 1 (reject hypothesis of intensification when false, i.e., intensification is not occurring). If one is willing to accept a higher degree of risk in making a statistical error, the detection time estimates can be reduced substantially. Owing in part to greater variability, detection time of changes in continental P, E, and Q are longer than those for the globe. Similar calculations performed for three Global Energy and Water Experiment (GEWEX) basins reveal that minimum detection time for some of these basins may be longer than that for the corresponding continent as a whole, thereby calling into question the appropriateness of using continental-scale basins alone for rapid detection of changes in continental water cycles. A case is made for implementing networks of small-scale indicator basins, which collectively mimic

  11. Non-climatic factors and long-term, continental-scale changes in seasonally frozen ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiklomanov, Nikolay I.

    2012-03-01

    ). In their recent paper entitled 'An observational 71-year history of seasonally frozen ground changes in Eurasian high latitudes', Frauenfeld and Zhang (2011) provided detailed analysis of soil temperature data to assess 1930-2000 trends in seasonal freezing depth. The data were obtained from 387 Soviet non-permafrost meteorological stations. The authors performed systematic, quality-controlled, integrative analysis over the entire former Soviet Union domain. The long-term changes in depth of seasonal freezing were discussed in relation to such forcing variables as air temperature, degree days of freezing/thawing, snow depth and summer precipitation as well as modes of the North Atlantic Oscillation. The spatially average approach adopted for the study provides a generalized continental-scale trend. The study greatly improves, expands and extends previous 1956-90 analysis of the ground thermal regime over the Eurasian high latitudes (Frauenfeld et al 2004). Although the work of Frauenfeld and Zhang (2011) is the most comprehensive assessment of the continental-scale long-term trends in seasonal freezing available to date, more detailed analysis is needed to determine the effect of climate change on seasonally frozen ground. It should be noted that, in addition to the variables considered for analysis, other non-climatic factors affect the depth of freezing propagation. Unlike the surface, which is influenced by the climate directly, the ground even at shallow depth receives a climatic signal that is substantially modified by edaphic processes, contributing to highly localized thermal sensitivities of the ground to climatic forcing. Subsurface properties, soil moisture, and snow and vegetation covers influence the depth of freezing. Topography also plays an important role in establishing the ground thermal regime. It is an important determinant of the amount of heat received by the ground surface, affects the distribution of snow and vegetation, and influences the

  12. The Impact of Detailed Snow Physics on the Simulation of Snow Cover and Subsurface Thermodynamics at Continental Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stieglitz, Marc; Ducharne, Agnes; Koster, Randy; Suarez, Max; Busalacchi, Antonio J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The three-layer snow model is coupled to the global catchment-based Land Surface Model (LSM) of the NASA Seasonal to Interannual Prediction Project (NSIPP) project, and the combined models are used to simulate the growth and ablation of snow cover over the North American continent for the period 1987-1988. The various snow processes included in the three-layer model, such as snow melting and re-freezing, dynamic changes in snow density, and snow insulating properties, are shown (through a comparison with the corresponding simulation using a much simpler snow model) to lead to an improved simulation of ground thermodynamics on the continental scale.

  13. Geographic patterns of co-occurrence network topological features for soil microbiota at continental scale in eastern China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Bin; Wang, Haizhen; Dsouza, Melissa; Lou, Jun; He, Yan; Dai, Zhongmin; Brookes, Philip C; Xu, Jianming; Gilbert, Jack A

    2016-08-01

    Soil microbiota play a critical role in soil biogeochemical processes and have a profound effect on soil functions. Recent studies have revealed microbial co-occurrence patterns in soil microbial communities, yet the geographic pattern of topological features in soil microbial co-occurrence networks at the continental scale are largely unknown. Here, we investigated the shifts of topological features in co-occurrence networks inferred from soil microbiota along a continental scale in eastern China. Integrating archaeal, bacterial and fungal community datasets, we inferred a meta-community co-occurrence network and analyzed node-level and network-level topological shifts associated with five climatic regions. Both node-level and network-level topological features revealed geographic patterns wherein microorganisms in the northern regions had closer relationships but had a lower interaction influence than those in the southern regions. We further identified topological differences associated with taxonomic groups and demonstrated that co-occurrence patterns were random for archaea and non-random for bacteria and fungi. Given that microbial interactions may contribute to soil functions more than species diversity, this geographic shift of topological features provides new insight into studying microbial biogeographic patterns, their organization and impacts on soil-associated function.

  14. Geographic patterns of co-occurrence network topological features for soil microbiota at continental scale in eastern China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Bin; Wang, Haizhen; Dsouza, Melissa; Lou, Jun; He, Yan; Dai, Zhongmin; Brookes, Philip C; Xu, Jianming; Gilbert, Jack A

    2016-08-01

    Soil microbiota play a critical role in soil biogeochemical processes and have a profound effect on soil functions. Recent studies have revealed microbial co-occurrence patterns in soil microbial communities, yet the geographic pattern of topological features in soil microbial co-occurrence networks at the continental scale are largely unknown. Here, we investigated the shifts of topological features in co-occurrence networks inferred from soil microbiota along a continental scale in eastern China. Integrating archaeal, bacterial and fungal community datasets, we inferred a meta-community co-occurrence network and analyzed node-level and network-level topological shifts associated with five climatic regions. Both node-level and network-level topological features revealed geographic patterns wherein microorganisms in the northern regions had closer relationships but had a lower interaction influence than those in the southern regions. We further identified topological differences associated with taxonomic groups and demonstrated that co-occurrence patterns were random for archaea and non-random for bacteria and fungi. Given that microbial interactions may contribute to soil functions more than species diversity, this geographic shift of topological features provides new insight into studying microbial biogeographic patterns, their organization and impacts on soil-associated function. PMID:26771927

  15. Geographic patterns of co-occurrence network topological features for soil microbiota at continental scale in eastern China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Bin; Wang, Haizhen; Dsouza, Melissa; Lou, Jun; He, Yan; Dai, Zhongmin; Brookes, Philip C; Xu, Jianming; Gilbert, Jack A

    2016-01-01

    Soil microbiota play a critical role in soil biogeochemical processes and have a profound effect on soil functions. Recent studies have revealed microbial co-occurrence patterns in soil microbial communities, yet the geographic pattern of topological features in soil microbial co-occurrence networks at the continental scale are largely unknown. Here, we investigated the shifts of topological features in co-occurrence networks inferred from soil microbiota along a continental scale in eastern China. Integrating archaeal, bacterial and fungal community datasets, we inferred a meta-community co-occurrence network and analyzed node-level and network-level topological shifts associated with five climatic regions. Both node-level and network-level topological features revealed geographic patterns wherein microorganisms in the northern regions had closer relationships but had a lower interaction influence than those in the southern regions. We further identified topological differences associated with taxonomic groups and demonstrated that co-occurrence patterns were random for archaea and non-random for bacteria and fungi. Given that microbial interactions may contribute to soil functions more than species diversity, this geographic shift of topological features provides new insight into studying microbial biogeographic patterns, their organization and impacts on soil-associated function. PMID:26771927

  16. Multivariate analysis of the geochemistry and mineralogy of soils along two continental-scale transects in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drew, L.J.; Grunsky, E.C.; Sutphin, D.M.; Woodruff, L.G.

    2010-01-01

    Soils collected in 2004 along two North American continental-scale transects were subjected to geochemical and mineralogical analyses. In previous interpretations of these analyses, data were expressed in weight percent and parts per million, and thus were subject to the effect of the constant-sum phenomenon. In a new approach to the data, this effect was removed by using centered log-ratio transformations to 'open' the mineralogical and geochemical arrays. Multivariate analyses, including principal component and linear discriminant analyses, of the centered log-ratio data reveal the effects of soil-forming processes, including soil parent material, weathering, and soil age, at the continental-scale of the data arrays that were not readily apparent in the more conventionally presented data. Linear discriminant analysis of the data arrays indicates that the majority of the soil samples collected along the transects can be more successfully classified with Level 1 ecological regional-scale classification by the soil geochemistry than soil mineralogy. A primary objective of this study is to discover and describe, in a parsimonious way, geochemical processes that are both independent and inter-dependent and manifested through compositional data including estimates of the elements and corresponding mineralogy. ?? 2010.

  17. Ductile duplexing at a bend of a continental-scale strike-slip shear zone: example from NE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsini, Michel; Vauchez, Alain; Caby, Renaud

    1996-04-01

    During the Pan-African orogeny, the Borborema Province in NE Brazil developed a continental-scale shear-zone system that comprises NE- and EW-trending ductile strike-slip shear zones. Remote sensing and structural mapping has revealed a pattern of arcuate anastomosing strike-slip shear zones separating sigmoidal lenses of less deformed material, located at the western end of the EW-trending Patos shear zone, which is one of the largest shear zones of the Province. This structure of imbricate shear zones was initiated under high-temperature deformation conditions. It is interpreted as a ductile strike-slip duplex and may represent a kinematic pattern for strain accommodation in response to a bend of a ductile mega-shear zone.

  18. Founder effects and stochastic dispersal at the continental scale of the fungal pathogen of bananas Mycosphaerella fijiensis.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Gonzalo-Galileo; Zapater, Marie-Françoise; Abadie, Catherine; Carlier, Jean

    2004-02-01

    The worldwide destructive epidemic of the fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis on banana started recently, spreading from South-East Asia. The founder effects detected in the global population structure of M. fijiensis reflected rare migration events among continents through movements of infected plant material. The main objective of this work was to infer gene flow and dispersal processes of M. fijiensis at the continental scale from population structure analysis in recently invaded regions. Samples of isolates were collected from banana plantations in 13 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean and in Africa. The isolates were analysed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and microsatellite molecular markers. The results indicate that a high level of genetic diversity was maintained at the plantation and the plant scales. The loci were at gametic equilibrium in most of the samples analysed, supporting the hypothesis of the existence of random-mating populations of M. fijiensis, even at the plant scale. A low level of gene diversity was observed in some populations from the Africa and Latin America-Caribbean regions. Nearly half the populations analysed showed a significant deviation from mutation-drift equilibrium with gene diversity excess. Finally, a high level of genetic differentiation was detected between populations from Africa (FST = 0.19) and from the Latin America-Caribbean region (FST = 0.30). These results show that founder effects accompanied the recent invasion of M. fijiensis in both regions, suggesting stochastic spread of the disease at the continental scale. This spread might be caused by either the limited dispersal of ascospores or by movements of infected plant material.

  19. Understanding the ecological drivers of avian influenza virus infection in wildfowl: a continental-scale study across Africa

    PubMed Central

    Gaidet, N.; Caron, A.; Cappelle, J.; Cumming, G. S.; Balança, G.; Hammoumi, S.; Cattoli, G.; Abolnik, C.; Servan de Almeida, R.; Gil, P.; Fereidouni, S. R.; Grosbois, V.; Tran, A.; Mundava, J.; Fofana, B.; Ould El Mamy, A. B.; Ndlovu, M.; Mondain-Monval, J. Y.; Triplet, P.; Hagemeijer, W.; Karesh, W. B.; Newman, S. H.; Dodman, T.

    2012-01-01

    Despite considerable effort for surveillance of wild birds for avian influenza viruses (AIVs), empirical investigations of ecological drivers of AIV prevalence in wild birds are still scarce. Here we used a continental-scale dataset, collected in tropical wetlands of 15 African countries, to test the relative roles of a range of ecological factors on patterns of AIV prevalence in wildfowl. Seasonal and geographical variations in prevalence were positively related to the local density of the wildfowl community and to the wintering period of Eurasian migratory birds in Africa. The predominant influence of wildfowl density with no influence of climatic conditions suggests, in contrast to temperate regions, a predominant role for inter-individual transmission rather than transmission via long-lived virus persisting in the environment. Higher prevalences were found in Anas species than in non-Anas species even when we account for differences in their foraging behaviour (primarily dabbling or not) or their geographical origin (Eurasian or Afro-tropical), suggesting the existence of intrinsic differences between wildfowl taxonomic groups in receptivity to infection. Birds were found infected as often in oropharyngeal as in cloacal samples, but rarely for both types of sample concurrently, indicating that both respiratory and digestive tracts may be important for AIV replication. PMID:21920984

  20. Continental-scale variation in seaweed host-associated bacterial communities is a function of host condition, not geography.

    PubMed

    Marzinelli, Ezequiel M; Campbell, Alexandra H; Zozaya Valdes, Enrique; Vergés, Adriana; Nielsen, Shaun; Wernberg, Thomas; de Bettignies, Thibaut; Bennett, Scott; Caporaso, J Gregory; Thomas, Torsten; Steinberg, Peter D

    2015-10-01

    Interactions between hosts and associated microbial communities can fundamentally shape the development and ecology of 'holobionts', from humans to marine habitat-forming organisms such as seaweeds. In marine systems, planktonic microbial community structure is mainly driven by geography and related environmental factors, but the large-scale drivers of host-associated microbial communities are largely unknown. Using 16S-rRNA gene sequencing, we characterized 260 seaweed-associated bacterial and archaeal communities on the kelp Ecklonia radiata from three biogeographical provinces spanning 10° of latitude and 35° of longitude across the Australian continent. These phylogenetically and taxonomically diverse communities were more strongly and consistently associated with host condition than geographical location or environmental variables, and a 'core' microbial community characteristic of healthy kelps appears to be lost when hosts become stressed. Microbial communities on stressed individuals were more similar to each other among locations than those on healthy hosts. In contrast to biogeographical patterns of planktonic marine microbial communities, host traits emerge as critical determinants of associated microbial community structure of these holobionts, even at a continental scale.

  1. Long-term trends of continental-scale PCB patterns studied using a global atmosphere-ocean general circulation model.

    PubMed

    Stemmler, Irene; Lammel, Gerhard

    2012-07-01

    Continental-scale distribution and inter-continental transport of four polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (28, 101, 153, 180) from 1950 to 2010 were studied using the global multicompartment chemistry transport model MPI-MCTM. Following identical primary emissions for all PCB congeners into air, most of the burden is stored in terrestrial (soil and vegetation) compartments. Thereby, PCB-28, PCB-101 and PCB-153 show a shift of the soil burden maxima from source to remote regions. This shift is downwind with regard to the westerlies for Eurasia and upwind for North America and more prominent for the lighter PCBs than for PCB-153 or PCB-180. In meridional direction, all congeners' distributions underwent a northward migration in Eurasia and North America since the 1950s. Inter-continental transport from Eurasian sources accounts largely for contamination of Alaska and British Columbia and determines the migration of the PCB distribution in soil in North America. Trans-Pacific transport occurs mainly in the gas phase in boreal winter (December-January-February) at 3-4 km altitude and is on a multi-year time scale strongly linked to the atmospheric pressure systems over the Pacific. Inter-continental transport of the lighter, more volatile PCBs is more efficient than for the heavier PCBs.

  2. Continental-scale variation in seaweed host-associated bacterial communities is a function of host condition, not geography.

    PubMed

    Marzinelli, Ezequiel M; Campbell, Alexandra H; Zozaya Valdes, Enrique; Vergés, Adriana; Nielsen, Shaun; Wernberg, Thomas; de Bettignies, Thibaut; Bennett, Scott; Caporaso, J Gregory; Thomas, Torsten; Steinberg, Peter D

    2015-10-01

    Interactions between hosts and associated microbial communities can fundamentally shape the development and ecology of 'holobionts', from humans to marine habitat-forming organisms such as seaweeds. In marine systems, planktonic microbial community structure is mainly driven by geography and related environmental factors, but the large-scale drivers of host-associated microbial communities are largely unknown. Using 16S-rRNA gene sequencing, we characterized 260 seaweed-associated bacterial and archaeal communities on the kelp Ecklonia radiata from three biogeographical provinces spanning 10° of latitude and 35° of longitude across the Australian continent. These phylogenetically and taxonomically diverse communities were more strongly and consistently associated with host condition than geographical location or environmental variables, and a 'core' microbial community characteristic of healthy kelps appears to be lost when hosts become stressed. Microbial communities on stressed individuals were more similar to each other among locations than those on healthy hosts. In contrast to biogeographical patterns of planktonic marine microbial communities, host traits emerge as critical determinants of associated microbial community structure of these holobionts, even at a continental scale. PMID:26148974

  3. Building continental-scale 3D subsurface layers in the Digital Crust project: constrained interpolation and uncertainty estimation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yulaeva, E.; Fan, Y.; Moosdorf, N.; Richard, S. M.; Bristol, S.; Peters, S. E.; Zaslavsky, I.; Ingebritsen, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Digital Crust EarthCube building block creates a framework for integrating disparate 3D/4D information from multiple sources into a comprehensive model of the structure and composition of the Earth's upper crust, and to demonstrate the utility of this model in several research scenarios. One of such scenarios is estimation of various crustal properties related to fluid dynamics (e.g. permeability and porosity) at each node of any arbitrary unstructured 3D grid to support continental-scale numerical models of fluid flow and transport. Starting from Macrostrat, an existing 4D database of 33,903 chronostratigraphic units, and employing GeoDeepDive, a software system for extracting structured information from unstructured documents, we construct 3D gridded fields of sediment/rock porosity, permeability and geochemistry for large sedimentary basins of North America, which will be used to improve our understanding of large-scale fluid flow, chemical weathering rates, and geochemical fluxes into the ocean. In this talk, we discuss the methods, data gaps (particularly in geologically complex terrain), and various physical and geological constraints on interpolation and uncertainty estimation.

  4. DNA barcode reference library for Iberian butterflies enables a continental-scale preview of potential cryptic diversity.

    PubMed

    Dincă, Vlad; Montagud, Sergio; Talavera, Gerard; Hernández-Roldán, Juan; Munguira, Miguel L; García-Barros, Enrique; Hebert, Paul D N; Vila, Roger

    2015-07-24

    How common are cryptic species--those overlooked because of their morphological similarity? Despite its wide-ranging implications for biology and conservation, the answer remains open to debate. Butterflies constitute the best-studied invertebrates, playing a similar role as birds do in providing models for vertebrate biology. An accurate assessment of cryptic diversity in this emblematic group requires meticulous case-by-case assessments, but a preview to highlight cases of particular interest will help to direct future studies. We present a survey of mitochondrial genetic diversity for the butterfly fauna of the Iberian Peninsula with unprecedented resolution (3502 DNA barcodes for all 228 species), creating a reliable system for DNA-based identification and for the detection of overlooked diversity. After compiling available data for European butterflies (5782 sequences, 299 species), we applied the Generalized Mixed Yule-Coalescent model to explore potential cryptic diversity at a continental scale. The results indicate that 27.7% of these species include from two to four evolutionary significant units (ESUs), suggesting that cryptic biodiversity may be higher than expected for one of the best-studied invertebrate groups and regions. The ESUs represent important units for conservation, models for studies of evolutionary and speciation processes, and sentinels for future research to unveil hidden diversity.

  5. DNA barcode reference library for Iberian butterflies enables a continental-scale preview of potential cryptic diversity

    PubMed Central

    Dincă, Vlad; Montagud, Sergio; Talavera, Gerard; Hernández-Roldán, Juan; Munguira, Miguel L.; García-Barros, Enrique; Hebert, Paul D. N.; Vila, Roger

    2015-01-01

    How common are cryptic species - those overlooked because of their morphological similarity? Despite its wide-ranging implications for biology and conservation, the answer remains open to debate. Butterflies constitute the best-studied invertebrates, playing a similar role as birds do in providing models for vertebrate biology. An accurate assessment of cryptic diversity in this emblematic group requires meticulous case-by-case assessments, but a preview to highlight cases of particular interest will help to direct future studies. We present a survey of mitochondrial genetic diversity for the butterfly fauna of the Iberian Peninsula with unprecedented resolution (3502 DNA barcodes for all 228 species), creating a reliable system for DNA-based identification and for the detection of overlooked diversity. After compiling available data for European butterflies (5782 sequences, 299 species), we applied the Generalized Mixed Yule-Coalescent model to explore potential cryptic diversity at a continental scale. The results indicate that 27.7% of these species include from two to four evolutionary significant units (ESUs), suggesting that cryptic biodiversity may be higher than expected for one of the best-studied invertebrate groups and regions. The ESUs represent important units for conservation, models for studies of evolutionary and speciation processes, and sentinels for future research to unveil hidden diversity. PMID:26205828

  6. Recent Developments and Applications of the WRF-Hydro Modeling System for Continental Scale Water Cycle Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gochis, D. J.; Yu, W.; Dugger, A. L.; McCreight, J. L.; Yates, D. N.; Clark, M. P.; Wood, A. W.; Sampson, K. M.; Rasmussen, R.

    2014-12-01

    The translation of weather and climate forcing through complex landscapes to drive terrestrial hydrologic processes is a true multi-scale problem. Model architectures that attempt to capture these processes and feedbacks in a physically realistic way must be able to bridge spatial scales from meters to kilometers. To represent these processes across continental domains modeling systems must fully embrace high performance computing. Also, because there are both scientific and computational trade-offs in modeling many terrestrial hydrologic and land-atmosphere exchange processes, it is often highly advantageous to support multiple physics options in order to test competing hypotheses and apply scale-appropriate parameterizations for different prediction problems. In this talk we provide an update of new developments to the WRF-Hydro system in meeting these needs from both a process representation and high performance computing perspective. A key feature of these developments centers on new multi-scale modeling capabilities recently added to WRF-Hydro. We will discuss prediction and computational performance metrics for several recent large river basin and continental scale applications of the WRF-Hydro system over the coterminous U.S. and over Mexico in modes both coupled and uncoupled to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. We will also provide updates on new developments to the WRF-Hydro system in the areas of water management applications and hydrologic data assimilation.

  7. DNA barcode reference library for Iberian butterflies enables a continental-scale preview of potential cryptic diversity.

    PubMed

    Dincă, Vlad; Montagud, Sergio; Talavera, Gerard; Hernández-Roldán, Juan; Munguira, Miguel L; García-Barros, Enrique; Hebert, Paul D N; Vila, Roger

    2015-01-01

    How common are cryptic species--those overlooked because of their morphological similarity? Despite its wide-ranging implications for biology and conservation, the answer remains open to debate. Butterflies constitute the best-studied invertebrates, playing a similar role as birds do in providing models for vertebrate biology. An accurate assessment of cryptic diversity in this emblematic group requires meticulous case-by-case assessments, but a preview to highlight cases of particular interest will help to direct future studies. We present a survey of mitochondrial genetic diversity for the butterfly fauna of the Iberian Peninsula with unprecedented resolution (3502 DNA barcodes for all 228 species), creating a reliable system for DNA-based identification and for the detection of overlooked diversity. After compiling available data for European butterflies (5782 sequences, 299 species), we applied the Generalized Mixed Yule-Coalescent model to explore potential cryptic diversity at a continental scale. The results indicate that 27.7% of these species include from two to four evolutionary significant units (ESUs), suggesting that cryptic biodiversity may be higher than expected for one of the best-studied invertebrate groups and regions. The ESUs represent important units for conservation, models for studies of evolutionary and speciation processes, and sentinels for future research to unveil hidden diversity. PMID:26205828

  8. Global energy and water cycle experiment (GEWEX) continental-scale international project (GCIP); reference data sets CD-ROM

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rea, Alan; Cederstrand, Joel R.

    1994-01-01

    The data sets on this compact disc are a compilation of several geographic reference data sets of interest to the global-change research community. The data sets were chosen with input from the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Continental-Scale International Project (GCIP) Data Committee and the GCIP Hydrometeorology and Atmospheric Subpanels. The data sets include: locations and periods of record for stream gages, reservoir gages, and meteorological stations; a 500-meter-resolution digital elevation model; grid-node locations for the Eta numerical weather-prediction model; and digital map data sets of geology, land use, streams, large reservoirs, average annual runoff, average annual precipitation, average annual temperature, average annual heating and cooling degree days, hydrologic units, and state and county boundaries. Also included are digital index maps for LANDSAT scenes, and for the U.S. Geological Survey 1:250,000, 1:100,000, and 1:24,000-scale map series. Most of the data sets cover the conterminous United States; the digital elevation model also includes part of southern Canada. The stream and reservoir gage and meteorological station files cover all states having area within the Mississippi River Basin plus that part of the Mississippi River Basin lying within Canada. Several data-base retrievals were processed by state, therefore many sites outside the Mississippi River Basin are included.

  9. Measurement of inter- and intra-annual variability of landscape fire activity at a continental scale: the Australian case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Grant J.; Prior, Lynda D.; Jolly, W. Matt; Cochrane, Mark A.; Murphy, Brett P.; Bowman, David M. J. S.

    2016-03-01

    shaping continental-scale pyrogeography.

  10. Major- and trace-element concentrations in soils from two continental-scale transects of the United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, David B.; Cannon, William F.; Woodruff, Laurel G.; Garrett, Robert G.; Klassen, Rodney; Kilburn, James E.; Horton, John D.; King, Harley D.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; Morrison, Jean M.

    2005-01-01

    This report contains major- and trace-element concentration data for soil samples collected from 265 sites along two continental-scale transects in North America. One of the transects extends from northern Manitoba to the United States-Mexico border near El Paso, Tex. and consists of 105 sites. The other transect approximately follows the 38th parallel from the Pacific coast of the United States near San Francisco, Calif., to the Atlantic coast along the Maryland shore and consists of 160 sites. Sampling sites were defined by first dividing each transect into approximately 40-km segments. For each segment, a 1-km-wide latitudinal strip was randomly selected; within each strip, a potential sample site was selected from the most representative landscape within the most common soil type. At one in four sites, duplicate samples were collected 10 meters apart to estimate local spatial variability. At each site, up to four separate soil samples were collected as follows: (1) material from 0-5 cm depth; (2) O horizon, if present; (3) a composite of the A horizon; and (4) C horizon. Each sample collected was analyzed for total major- and trace-element composition by the following methods: (1) inductively coupled plasmamass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICPAES) for aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, calcium, cerium, cesium, chromium, cobalt, copper, gallium, indium, iron, lanthanum, lead, lithium, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, niobium, phosphorus, potassium, rubidium, scandium, silver, sodium, strontium, sulfur, tellurium, thallium, thorium, tin, titanium, tungsten, uranium, vanadium, yttrium, and zinc; (2) cold vapor- atomic absorption spectrometry for mercury; (3) hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry for antimony and selenium; (4) coulometric titration for carbonate carbon; and (5) combustion for total carbon and total sulfur.

  11. A numerical model of continental-scale topographic evolution integrating thin sheet tectonics, river transport, and orographic precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Castellanos, Daniel; Jimenez-Munt, Ivone

    2014-05-01

    How much does the erosion and sedimentation at the crust's surface influence on the patterns and distribution of tectonic deformation? This question has been mostly addressed from a numerical modelling perspective, at scales ranging from local to orogenic. Here we present a model that aims at constraining this phenomenon at the continental scale. With this purpose, we couple a thin-sheet viscous model of continental deformation with a stream-power surface transport model. The model also incorporates flexural isostatic compensation that permits the formation of large sedimentary foreland basins and a precipitation model that reproduces basic climatic effects such as continentality and orographic rainfall and rain shadow. We quantify the feedbacks between these 4 processes in a synthetic scenario inspired by the India-Asia collision. The model reproduces first-order characteristics of the growth of the Tibetan Plateau as a result of the Indian indentation. A large intramountain basin (comparable to the Tarim Basin) develops when predefining a hard inherited area in the undeformed foreland (Asia). The amount of sediment trapped in it is very sensitive to climatic parameters, particularly to evaporation, because it crucially determines its endorheic/exorheic drainage. We identify some degree of feedback between the deep and the surface processes occurs, leading locally to a <20% increase in deformation rates if orographic precipitation is account for (relative to a reference model with evenly-distributed precipitation). These enhanced thickening of the crust takes place particularly in areas of concentrated precipitation and steep slope, i.e., at the upwind flank of the growing plateau. This effect is particularly enhanced at the corners of the indenter (syntaxes). We hypothesize that this may provide clues for better understanding the mechanisms underlying the intriguing tectonic aneurisms documented in the syntaxes of the Himalayas.

  12. Multi-criteria assessment of tensions in resource use at continental scale: a proof of concept with Australian rangelands.

    PubMed

    Hill, Michael J; Lesslie, Robert; Donohue, Randall; Houlder, Paul; Holloway, Jane; Smith, Jodie; Ritman, Kim

    2006-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to help to inform policy development for the Australian rangelands, and provide a proof of concept for application of a multi-criteria analysis approach to assessment of competing resource use at continental scale. The study aimed to identify and locate key natural resource and agricultural production assets in the rangelands, define a number of measures of potentially threatening processes, and use a multi-criteria approach to identify areas where threatening processes, agricultural production problems, or valuable natural resources coincided. The analysis used 35 readily available, continental spatial data layers at 5-km pixel resolution ranked from 1 (low) to 5 (high) under three themed groupings: natural resource base, production base, and threatening processes. These measures were aggregated into composite indicators to define attributes such as environmental sensitivity and total grazing pressure. The composites were then compared in a two-way analysis to explore particular interactions between threatening processes such as pastoralism and mining, and the condition of production and natural resource assets. These interactions were defined as "tensions" for purposes of this analysis. Example "tensions" included the association of high grazing intensity with areas of high environmental sensitivity, indicating a risk of land degradation under adverse climatic conditions. A summary of patterns of tension was obtained by extracting area proportions of high-tension classes for selected Natural Heritage Trust Regions, which are a basis for Australian Government funding of improved environmental management. The study provides a basis for further examination of trade-offs in the use of natural assets, opportunities for improved productivity and sustainability, and social and economic implications.

  13. Analysis of confidence in continental-scale groundwater recharge estimates for Africa using a distributed water balance model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, Jonathan; Mansour, Majdi; Bonsor, Helen; Pachocka, Magdalena; Wang, Lei; MacDonald, Alan; Macdonald, David; Bloomfield, John

    2014-05-01

    There is a growing need for improved access to reliable water in Africa as population and food production increases. Currently approximately 300 million people do not have access to a secure source of safe drinking water. To meet these current and future demands, groundwater will need to be increasingly abstracted; groundwater is more reliable than surface water sources due to its relatively long response time to meteorological stresses and therefore is likely to be a more secure water resource in a more variable climate. Recent studies also quantified the volumes of groundwater potentially available which suggest that, if exploited, groundwater could help to meet the demand for fresh water. However, there is still considerable uncertainty as to how these resources may respond in the future due to changes in groundwater recharge and abstraction. Understanding and quantifying groundwater recharge is vital as it forms a primary indicator of the sustainability of underlying groundwater resources. Computational hydrological models provide a means to do this, but the complexity of recharge processes in Africa mean that these simulations are often highly uncertain. This study aims to evaluate our confidence in simulating groundwater recharge over Africa based on a sensitivity analysis using a distributed hydrological model developed by the British Geological Survey, ZOODRM. The model includes land surface, canopy, river, soil and groundwater components. Each component is able to exchange water and as such, forms a distributed water balance of Africa. The components have been parameterised using available spatial datasets of African vegetation, land-use, soil and hydrogeology while the remaining parameters have been estimated by calibrating the model to available river flow data. Continental-scale gridded precipitation and potential evapotranspiration datasets, based on remotely sensed and ground observations, have been used to force the model. Following calibration, the

  14. Continental-scale patterns in soil geochemistry and mineralogy: results from two transects across the United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodruff, L.G.; Cannon, W.F.; Eberl, D.D.; Smith, D.B.; Kilburn, J.E.; Horton, J.D.; Garrett, R.G.; Klassen, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) initiated a pilot study that involved collection of more than 1500 soil samples from 221 sites along two continental transects across Canada and the United States. The pilot study was designed to test and refine protocols for a soil geochemical survey of North America. The two transects crossed a wide array of soil parent materials, soil ages, climatic conditions, landforms, land covers and land uses. Sample sites were selected randomly at approximately 40-km intervals from a population defined as all soils of the continent. At each site, soils representing 0 to 5 cm depth, and the O, A, and C horizons, if present, were collected and analyzed for their near-total content of over 40 major and trace elements. Soils from 0–5 cm depth were also collected for analysis of organic compounds. Results from the transects confirm that soil samples collected at a 40-km spacing reveal coherent, continental- to subcontinental-scale geochemical and mineralogical patterns that can be correlated to aspects of underlying soil parent material, soil age and climate influence. The geochemical data also demonstrate that at the continental-scale the dominance of any of these major factors that control soil geochemistry can change across the landscape. Along both transects, soil mineralogy and geochemistry change abruptly with changes in soil parent materials. However, the chemical influence of a soil’s parent material can be obscured by changing climatic conditions. For the transects, increasing precipitation from west to east and increasing temperature from north to south affect both soil mineralogy and geochemistry because of climate effects on soil weathering and leaching, and plant productivity. Regional anomalous metal concentrations can be linked to natural variations in soil parent materials, such as high Ni and Cr in soils developed on ultramafic rocks in California or high P in soils formed on

  15. Immunization Coverage

    MedlinePlus

    ... underused vaccines is increasing. Immunization currently averts an estimated 2 to 3 million deaths every year. An ... avoided, however, if global vaccination coverage improves. An estimated 19.4 million infants worldwide are still missing ...

  16. Feeling the Pulse of the Stratosphere: An Emerging Opportunity for Predicting Continental-Scale Cold Air Outbreaks One Month in Advance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Ming

    2016-04-01

    Extreme weather events such as cold air outbreaks (CAOs) pose great threats to human life and socioeconomic well-being of the modern society. In the past, our capability to predict their occurrences is constrained by the 2-week predictability limit for weather. We demonstrate here for the first time that a rapid increase of air mass transported into the polar stratosphere, referred to as "the pulse of the stratosphere (PULSE)", can often be predicted with a useful skill 4-6 weeks in advance by operational forecast models. We further show that the probability of the occurrence of continental-scale CAOs in mid-latitudes increases substantially above the normal condition within a short time period from one week before to 1‑2 weeks after the peak day of a PULSE event. In particular, we reveal that the three massive CAOs over North America in January and February of 2014 were preceded by three episodes of extreme mass transport into the polar stratosphere with peak intensities reaching a trillion tons per day, twice of that on an average winter day. Therefore, our capability to predict the PULSEs with operational forecast models, in conjunction with its linkage to continental-scale CAOs, opens up a new opportunity for 30‑day forecasts of continental-scale CAOs, such as those occurring over North America in the 2013-14 winter. A real time forecast experiment inaugurated in the winter of 2014-15 has given support to the idea that it is feasible to forecast CAOs one month in advance.

  17. Continental-scale enrichment of atmospheric 14CO2 from the nuclear power industry: potential impact on the estimation of fossil fuel-derived CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graven, H. D.; Gruber, N.

    2011-12-01

    The 14C-free fossil carbon added to atmospheric CO2 by combustion dilutes the atmospheric 14C/C ratio (Δ14C), potentially providing a means to verify fossil CO2 emissions calculated using economic inventories. However, sources of 14C from nuclear power generation and spent fuel reprocessing can counteract this dilution and may bias 14C/C-based estimates of fossil fuel-derived CO2 if these nuclear influences are not correctly accounted for. Previous studies have examined nuclear influences on local scales, but the potential for continental-scale influences on Δ14C has not yet been explored. We estimate annual 14C emissions from each nuclear site in the world and conduct an Eulerian transport modeling study to investigate the continental-scale, steady-state gradients of Δ14C caused by nuclear activities and fossil fuel combustion. Over large regions of Europe, North America and East Asia, nuclear enrichment may offset at least 20% of the fossil fuel dilution in Δ14C, corresponding to potential biases of more than -0.25 ppm in the CO2 attributed to fossil fuel emissions, larger than the bias from plant and soil respiration in some areas. Model grid cells including high 14C-release reactors or fuel reprocessing sites showed much larger nuclear enrichment, despite the coarse model resolution of 1.8°×1.8°. The recent growth of nuclear 14C emissions increased the potential nuclear bias over 1985-2005, suggesting that changing nuclear activities may complicate the use of Δ14C observations to identify trends in fossil fuel emissions. The magnitude of the potential nuclear bias is largely independent of the choice of reference station in the context of continental-scale Eulerian transport and inversion studies, but could potentially be reduced by an appropriate choice of reference station in the context of local-scale assessments.

  18. On the connection between continental-scale land surface processes and the tropical climate in a coupled ocean-atmosphere-land system

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Hsi-Yen; Mechoso, C. R.; Xue, Yongkang; Xiao, Heng; Neelin, David; Ji, Xuan

    2013-11-15

    The impact of global tropical climate to perturbations in land surface processes (LSP) are evaluated using perturbations given by different LSP representations of continental-scale in a global climate model that includes atmosphere-ocean interactions. One representation is a simple land scheme, which specifies climatological albedos and soil moisture availability. The other representation is the more comprehensive Simplified Simple Biosphere Model, which allows for interactive soil moisture and vegetation biophysical processes. The results demonstrate that LSP processes such as interactive soil moisture and vegetation biophysical processes have strong impacts on the seasonal mean states and seasonal cycles of global precipitation, clouds, and surface air temperature. The impact is especially significant over the tropical Pacific. To explore the mechanisms for such impact, different LSP representations are confined to selected continental-scale regions where strong interactions of climate-vegetation biophysical processes are present. We find that the largest impact is mainly from LSP perturbations over the tropical African continent. The impact is through anomalous convective heating in tropical Africa due to changes in the surface heat fluxes, which in turn affect basinwide teleconnections in the Pacific through equatorial wave dynamics. The modifications in the equatorial Pacific climate are further enhanced by strong air-sea coupling between surface wind stress and upwelling, as well as effect of ocean memory. Our results further suggest that correct representations of land surface processes, land use change and the associated changes in the deep convection over tropical Africa are crucial to reducing the uncertainty when performing future climate projections under different climate change scenarios.

  19. On the connection between continental-scale land surface processes and the tropical climate in a coupled ocean-atmosphere-land system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, H.; Mechoso, C. R.; Xue, Y.; Xiao, H.; Neelin, J.; Ji, X.

    2013-12-01

    An evaluation is presented of the impact on tropical climate of continental-scale perturbations given by different representations of land surface processes (LSP) in a general circulation model that includes atmosphere-ocean interactions. One representation is a simple land scheme, which specifies climatological albedos and soil moisture availability. The other representation is the more comprehensive Simplified Simple Biosphere Model, which allows for interactive soil moisture and vegetation biophysical processes. The results demonstrate that such perturbations have strong impacts on the seasonal mean states and seasonal cycles of global precipitation, clouds, and surface air temperature. The impact is especially significant over the tropical Pacific Ocean. To explore the mechanisms for such impact, model experiments are performed with different LSP representations confined to selected continental-scale regions where strong interactions of climate-vegetation biophysical processes are present. The largest impact found over the tropical Pacific is mainly from perturbations in the tropical African continent where convective heating anomalies associated with perturbed surface heat fluxes trigger global teleconnections through equatorial wave dynamics. In the equatorial Pacific, the remote impacts of the convection anomalies are further enhanced by strong air-sea coupling between surface wind stress and upwelling, as well as by the effects of ocean memory. LSP perturbations over South America and Asia-Australia have much weaker global impacts. The results further suggest that correct representations of LSP, land use change, and associated changes in the deep convection over tropical Africa are crucial to reducing the uncertainty of future climate projections with global climate models under various climate change scenarios. This work is performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA

  20. Assessment of droughts at a continental scale under different climate change scenarios. Case study: La Plata Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sordo-Ward, Alvaro; Iglesias, Ana; Garrote, Luis; Bejarano, Maria Dolores; Asenjo, Victor; Bianucci, Paola

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we characterized and diagnosed the droughts across La Plata Basin for the reference (1961 - 2005) and future (2007 - 2040, 2041 - 2070 and 2071 - 2099) scenarios. La Plata Basin is located in the Centre-South of South America and comprises 3.174.229 km2 and five countries. Despite the significant impact of droughts on agriculture, cattle, water supply, natural water courses and wetlands, droughts are still difficult to predict in the region, both in time and space. We used the Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) to characterize droughts based on Potential Evapotranspiration (PET) and Precipitation (P) at a monthly scale. PET and P were obtained for all 10 x 10 km-size cells within the basin by using the regional climatic model Eta, under the boundary conditions of the HadGEM2-ES model and the CO2 emissions scenario RCP 4.5. Cell to cell information was integrated into a sub-basin level in order to show and analyze the results. For each sub-basin, climate scenario, and temporal scale of SPEI (1, 3, 6 and 12 months), we identified the beginning of each drought, calculated its duration, magnitude, maximum and mean intensities, and the duration between drought events. Additionally, for each SPEI temporal scale and sub-basin, we described the spatial coverage of droughts for the temporal series of all climate scenarios. Spatially, we found a decrease of PET from North to South. Temporally, results showed a future increase of PET for the Paraguay river basin and upper Parana river basin but similar to present values for the remaining basin. Results showed that P will be similar in the future for the Paraguay river basin and upper Parana river basin, but will increase within the remaining basin. During the 2007 - 2040 scenario, we expect that the northern sub-basins suffer from several droughts while the southern ones have wetter climate with few short drought events. As we analyzed more distant future scenarios the wet climate

  1. Continental-scale patterns in modern wood cellulose δ18O: Implications for interpreting paleo-wood cellulose δ18O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, S. L.; Johnson, A. H.; Dranoff, M. M.; Taylor, K. D.

    2008-06-01

    The isotopic composition of ancient wood may be a useful archive of some climatic or geochemical conditions of the past, but presently there are many uncertainties that constrain such interpretations. We sampled naturally growing, predominantly native trees in forested regions of North America and the Caribbean to evaluate the strength of the relationships among cellulose δ18O (δ18Ocel), relative humidity (RH), precipitation δ18O (δ18Oppt), and mean annual temperature (MAT) at the continental scale, and the general range of variability in δ18Ocel associated with site hydrologic conditions and species differences. We found up to 4‰ differences among different species growing at the same site, that conifer cellulose at a site is more enriched than angiosperm cellulose by 1.5‰ (p < 0.001), and that differences in landscape position, reflecting differing access to the water table, produced differences of <1‰ in δ18Ocel. At the continental scale, δ18Ocel was strongly influenced by modeled δ18Oppt (R2 = 0.80, p < 0.001). Average summer minimum RH (RHmin) combined with δ18Oppt explained more of the variability (R2 = 0.93, p < 0.001) in δ18Ocel across North American and Caribbean forests. MAT and δ18Ocel were also strongly correlated across North America (R = 0.91 and 0.95, p < 0.001, for angiosperms and conifers, respectively). The difference between δ18Oppt and δ18Ocel is not constant (varying from 35-44‰) and is inversely correlated with δ18Oppt. The relationships among δ18Oppt, RHmin, δ18Ocel, and MAT established for North America and the Caribbean applied reasonably well when δ18Ocel was used to estimate MAT and δ18Oppt in Asia, Europe, and South America, but there were important exceptions. The most accurate predictions of MAT and δ18Oppt from δ18Ocel require RHmin. Predictions of δ18Oppt and MAT made from δ18Ocel alone produced errors of up to 8‰ and 16 °C, respectively.

  2. Continental-scale assessment of long-term trends in wet deposition trajectories: Role of anthropogenic and hydro-climatic drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Gall, H. E.; Niyogi, D.; Rao, S.

    2012-12-01

    The global trend of increased urbanization, and associated increased intensity of energy and material consumption and waste emissions, has contributed to shifts in the trajectories of aquatic, terrestrial, and atmospheric environments. Here, we focus on continental-scale spatiotemporal patterns in two atmospheric constituents (nitrate and sulfate), whose global biogeochemical cycles have been dramatically altered by emissions from mobile and fixed sources in urbanized and industrialized regions. The observed patterns in wet deposition fluxes of nitrate and sulfate are controlled by (1) natural hydro-climatic forcing, and (2) anthropogenic forcing (emissions and regulatory control), both of which are characterized by stochasticity and non-stationarity. We examine long-term wet deposition records in the U.S., Europe, and East Asia to evaluate how anthropogenic and natural forcing factors jointly contributed to the shifting temporal patterns of wet deposition fluxes at continental scales. These data offer clear evidence for successful implementation of regulatory controls and widespread adoption of technologies contributed to improving water quality and mitigation of adverse ecological impacts. We developed a stochastic model to project the future trajectories of wet deposition fluxes in emerging countries with fast growing urban areas. The model generates ellipses within which projected wet deposition flux trajectories are inscribed, similar to the trends in observational data. The shape of the ellipses provides information regarding the relative dominance of anthropogenic (e.g., industrial and urban emissions) versus hydro-climatic drivers (e.g., rainfall patterns, aridity index). Our analysis facilitates projections of the trajectory shift as a result of urbanization and other land-use changes, climate change, and regulatory enforcement. We use these observed data and the model to project likely trajectories for rapidly developing countries (BRIC), with a

  3. The geochemical and temporal evolution of the continental lithosphere and its relationship to continental-scale faulting: The Karakoram Fault, eastern Karakoram, NW Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Richard J.; Searle, Michael P.; Parrish, Randall R.

    2013-03-01

    New laser ablation multicollector-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and isotope dilution-thermal ionization mass spectrometry U-Pb ages, coupled with Sm-Nd isotope and geochemical analysis, define the temporal and geochemical evolution of the continental lithosphere in the eastern Karakoram, India, NW Himalaya. Our analysis demonstrates that magmatism occurred between ~108 and 69 Ma and ~22 and 13 Ma. The new age data, coupled with geochemical examination of the granitoids, confirm a parallel evolution with the western Karakoram in Pakistan and supports a model of regional continental crustal thickening and related metamorphism. Middle to Late Cretaceous magmatism immediately adjacent to the Karakoram fault suggests that crustal melting and associated metamorphism are unrelated to shearing along the fault. Miocene leucogranite magmatism occurred almost exactly concomitant with the emplacement of the Baltoro batholith in Pakistan. These trans-Karakoram leucogranites also display similar geochemical evolution trends. Our new data clearly link the leucogranites along the fault to the regional Baltoro batholith and related metamorphic complexes to the west. This supports previous work suggesting that magmatism and metamorphism were not syn-kinematic with continental-scale faulting. The data demonstrate that the Karakoram fault could not have accommodated lateral offset in this region prior to ~16 Ma, limiting the long-term averaged slip rate to a maximum of ~10 mm/yr.

  4. Strain transfer at continental scale from a transcurrent shear zone to a transpressional fold belt: The Patos-Seridó system, northeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsini, Michel; Vauchez, Alain; Archanjo, Carlos; de Sá, Emanuel F. J.

    1991-06-01

    During the Brasiliano-pan-African orogeny, a complex continental-scale pattern of east-west transcurrent shear zones and northeast-trending fold belts formed in the northern and central Borborema province of northeastern Brazil. The east-west shear zones have been usually regarded as slightly younger features, but the study of the most spectacular case of intersection between these two structures, the Patos shear zone and the Seridó transpressional belt, leads to a different tectonic model. Satellite imagery and structural, petro-logical, and geophysical data support the interpretation that these structures (1) are in structural continuity and (2) formed simultaneously under amphibolite facies metamorphic conditions that led to partial melting. This suggests a model of strain transfer at the scale of the orogen: at the eastern end of the Patos east-west dextral shear zone, the strain that accommodated the relative motion of the northern block was transferred to the northeast-trending Seridó belt, where it resulted in folding, strike-slip faulting, and stretching parallel to the strike of the belt.

  5. Continental-scale enrichment of atmospheric 14CO2 from the nuclear power industry: potential impact on the estimation of fossil fuel-derived CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graven, H. D.; Gruber, N.

    2011-05-01

    Since aged carbon in fossil fuel contains no 14C, 14C/C ratios (Δ14C) measured in atmospheric CO2 can be used to estimate CO2 added by combustion and, potentially, provide verification of fossil CO2 emissions calculated using economic inventories. Sources of 14C from nuclear power generation and spent fuel reprocessing can counteract dilution by fossil CO2. Therefore, these nuclear sources can bias observation-based estimates of fossil fuel-derived CO2 if they are not correctly accounted for or included as a source of uncertainty. We estimate annual 14C emissions from each nuclear site in the world and conduct an Eulerian transport modeling study to investigate the continental-scale, steady-state gradients of Δ14C caused by nuclear activities and fossil fuel combustion. Over Europe, North America and East Asia, nuclear enrichment may offset 0-260 % of the fossil fuel dilution in Δ14C, corresponding to potential biases of 0 to -8 ppm in the CO2 attributed to fossil fuel emissions, larger than the bias from respiration in some areas. Growth of 14C emissions increased the potential nuclear bias over 1985-2005. The magnitude of this potential bias is largely independent of the choice of reference station in the context of Eulerian transport and inversion studies, but could potentially be reduced by an appropriate choice of reference station in the context of local-scale assessments.

  6. Monitoring Intervention Coverage in the Context of Universal Health Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Boerma, Ties; AbouZahr, Carla; Evans, David; Evans, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring universal health coverage (UHC) focuses on information on health intervention coverage and financial protection. This paper addresses monitoring intervention coverage, related to the full spectrum of UHC, including health promotion and disease prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, and palliation. A comprehensive core set of indicators most relevant to the country situation should be monitored on a regular basis as part of health progress and systems performance assessment for all countries. UHC monitoring should be embedded in a broad results framework for the country health system, but focus on indicators related to the coverage of interventions that most directly reflect the results of UHC investments and strategies in each country. A set of tracer coverage indicators can be selected, divided into two groups—promotion/prevention, and treatment/care—as illustrated in this paper. Disaggregation of the indicators by the main equity stratifiers is critical to monitor progress in all population groups. Targets need to be set in accordance with baselines, historical rate of progress, and measurement considerations. Critical measurement gaps also exist, especially for treatment indicators, covering issues such as mental health, injuries, chronic conditions, surgical interventions, rehabilitation, and palliation. Consequently, further research and proxy indicators need to be used in the interim. Ideally, indicators should include a quality of intervention dimension. For some interventions, use of a single indicator is feasible, such as management of hypertension; but in many areas additional indicators are needed to capture quality of service provision. The monitoring of UHC has significant implications for health information systems. Major data gaps will need to be filled. At a minimum, countries will need to administer regular household health surveys with biological and clinical data collection. Countries will also need to improve the production of

  7. Monitoring intervention coverage in the context of universal health coverage.

    PubMed

    Boerma, Ties; AbouZahr, Carla; Evans, David; Evans, Tim

    2014-09-01

    Monitoring universal health coverage (UHC) focuses on information on health intervention coverage and financial protection. This paper addresses monitoring intervention coverage, related to the full spectrum of UHC, including health promotion and disease prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, and palliation. A comprehensive core set of indicators most relevant to the country situation should be monitored on a regular basis as part of health progress and systems performance assessment for all countries. UHC monitoring should be embedded in a broad results framework for the country health system, but focus on indicators related to the coverage of interventions that most directly reflect the results of UHC investments and strategies in each country. A set of tracer coverage indicators can be selected, divided into two groups-promotion/prevention, and treatment/care-as illustrated in this paper. Disaggregation of the indicators by the main equity stratifiers is critical to monitor progress in all population groups. Targets need to be set in accordance with baselines, historical rate of progress, and measurement considerations. Critical measurement gaps also exist, especially for treatment indicators, covering issues such as mental health, injuries, chronic conditions, surgical interventions, rehabilitation, and palliation. Consequently, further research and proxy indicators need to be used in the interim. Ideally, indicators should include a quality of intervention dimension. For some interventions, use of a single indicator is feasible, such as management of hypertension; but in many areas additional indicators are needed to capture quality of service provision. The monitoring of UHC has significant implications for health information systems. Major data gaps will need to be filled. At a minimum, countries will need to administer regular household health surveys with biological and clinical data collection. Countries will also need to improve the production of

  8. Modeling sugarcane yield with a process-based model from site to continental scale: uncertainties arising from model structure and parameter values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valade, A.; Ciais, P.; Vuichard, N.; Viovy, N.; Caubel, A.; Huth, N.; Marin, F.; Martiné, J.-F.

    2014-06-01

    Agro-land surface models (agro-LSM) have been developed from the integration of specific crop processes into large-scale generic land surface models that allow calculating the spatial distribution and variability of energy, water and carbon fluxes within the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. When developing agro-LSM models, particular attention must be given to the effects of crop phenology and management on the turbulent fluxes exchanged with the atmosphere, and the underlying water and carbon pools. A part of the uncertainty of agro-LSM models is related to their usually large number of parameters. In this study, we quantify the parameter-values uncertainty in the simulation of sugarcane biomass production with the agro-LSM ORCHIDEE-STICS, using a multi-regional approach with data from sites in Australia, La Réunion and Brazil. In ORCHIDEE-STICS, two models are chained: STICS, an agronomy model that calculates phenology and management, and ORCHIDEE, a land surface model that calculates biomass and other ecosystem variables forced by STICS phenology. First, the parameters that dominate the uncertainty of simulated biomass at harvest date are determined through a screening of 67 different parameters of both STICS and ORCHIDEE on a multi-site basis. Secondly, the uncertainty of harvested biomass attributable to those most sensitive parameters is quantified and specifically attributed to either STICS (phenology, management) or to ORCHIDEE (other ecosystem variables including biomass) through distinct Monte Carlo runs. The uncertainty on parameter values is constrained using observations by calibrating the model independently at seven sites. In a third step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out by varying the most sensitive parameters to investigate their effects at continental scale. A Monte Carlo sampling method associated with the calculation of partial ranked correlation coefficients is used to quantify the sensitivity of harvested biomass to input

  9. Modeling sugar cane yield with a process-based model from site to continental scale: uncertainties arising from model structure and parameter values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valade, A.; Ciais, P.; Vuichard, N.; Viovy, N.; Huth, N.; Marin, F.; Martiné, J.-F.

    2014-01-01

    Agro-Land Surface Models (agro-LSM) have been developed from the integration of specific crop processes into large-scale generic land surface models that allow calculating the spatial distribution and variability of energy, water and carbon fluxes within the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. When developing agro-LSM models, a particular attention must be given to the effects of crop phenology and management on the turbulent fluxes exchanged with the atmosphere, and the underlying water and carbon pools. A part of the uncertainty of Agro-LSM models is related to their usually large number of parameters. In this study, we quantify the parameter-values uncertainty in the simulation of sugar cane biomass production with the agro-LSM ORCHIDEE-STICS, using a multi-regional approach with data from sites in Australia, La Réunion and Brazil. In ORCHIDEE-STICS, two models are chained: STICS, an agronomy model that calculates phenology and management, and ORCHIDEE, a land surface model that calculates biomass and other ecosystem variables forced by STICS' phenology. First, the parameters that dominate the uncertainty of simulated biomass at harvest date are determined through a screening of 67 different parameters of both STICS and ORCHIDEE on a multi-site basis. Secondly, the uncertainty of harvested biomass attributable to those most sensitive parameters is quantified and specifically attributed to either STICS (phenology, management) or to ORCHIDEE (other ecosystem variables including biomass) through distinct Monte-Carlo runs. The uncertainty on parameter values is constrained using observations by calibrating the model independently at seven sites. In a third step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out by varying the most sensitive parameters to investigate their effects at continental scale. A Monte-Carlo sampling method associated with the calculation of Partial Ranked Correlation Coefficients is used to quantify the sensitivity of harvested biomass to input

  10. Sensitivity of aerosol properties to new particle formation mechanism and to primary emissions in a continental-scale chemical transport model

    SciTech Connect

    Chang,L.S.; Schwartz, S.E.; McGraw, R.; Lewis, E.R.

    2009-04-02

    Four theoretical formulations of new particle formation (NPF) and one empirical formulation are used to examine the sensitivity of observable aerosol properties to NPF formulation and to properties of emitted particles in a continental-scale model for the United States over a 1-month simulation (July 2004). For each formulation the dominant source of Aitken mode particles is NPF with only a minor contribution from primary emissions, whereas for the accumulation mode both emissions and transfer of particles from the Aitken mode are important. The dominant sink of Aitken mode number is coagulation, whereas the dominant sink of accumulation mode number is wet deposition (including cloud processing), with a minor contribution from coagulation. The aerosol mass concentration, which is primarily in the accumulation mode, is relatively insensitive to NPF formulation despite order-of-magnitude differences in the Aitken mode number concentration among the different parameterizations. The dominant sensitivity of accumulation mode number concentration is to the number of emitted particles (for constant mass emission rate). Comparison of modeled aerosol properties with aircraft measurements shows, as expected, better agreement in aerosol mass concentration than in aerosol number concentration for all NPF formulations considered. These comparisons yield instances of rather accurate simulations in the planetary boundary layer, with poor model performance in the free troposphere attributed mainly to lack of representation of biomass burning and/or to long-range transport of particles from outside the model domain. Agreement between model results and measurements is improved by using smaller grid cells (12 km versus 60 km).

  11. Using Gridded Snow Covered Area and Snow-Water Equivalence Spatial Data Sets to Improve Snow-Pack Depletion Simulation in a Continental Scale Hydrologic Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risley, J. C.; Tracey, J. A.; Markstrom, S. L.; Hay, L.

    2014-12-01

    Snow cover areal depletion curves were used in a continuous daily hydrologic model to simulate seasonal spring snowmelt during the period between maximum snowpack accumulation and total melt. The curves are defined as the ratio of snow-water equivalence (SWE) divided by the seasonal maximum snow-water equivalence (Ai) (Y axis) versus the percent snow cover area (SCA) (X axis). The slope of the curve can vary depending on local watershed conditions. Windy sparsely vegetated high elevation watersheds, for example, can have a steeper slope than lower elevation forested watersheds. To improve the accuracy of simulated runoff at ungaged watersheds, individual snow cover areal depletion curves were created for over 100,000 hydrologic response units (HRU) in the continental scale U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Hydrologic Model (NHM). NHM includes the same components of the USGS Precipitation-Runoff-Modeling System (PRMS), except it uses consistent land surface characterization and model parameterization across the U.S. continent. Weighted-mean daily time series of 1-kilometer gridded SWE, from Snow Data Assimilation System (SNODAS), and 500-meter gridded SCA, from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), for 2003-2014 were computed for each HRU using the USGS Geo Data Portal. Using a screening process, pairs of SWE/Ai and SCA from the snowmelt period of each year were selected. SCA values derived from imagery that did not have any cloud cover and were >0 and <100 percent were selected. Unrealistically low and high SCA values that were paired with high and low SWE/Ai ratios, respectively, were removed. Second order polynomial equations were then fit to the remaining pairs of SWE/Ai and SCA to create a unique curve for each HRU. Simulations comparing these new curves with an existing single default curve in NHM will be made to determine if there are significant improvements in runoff.

  12. Enhancing continental-scale understanding of agriculture: Integrating the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) with existing research networks to address global change.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, G.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade, there has been a resurgence of interest in the sustainability of the world's food system and its contributions to feeding the world's population as well as to ensuring environmental sustainability of the planet. The elements of this grand challenge are by now well known. Analysis of agricultural sustainability is made more challenging by the fact that the local responses to these global drivers of change are extremely variable in space and time due to the biophysical and geopolitical heterogeneity across the United States, and the world. Utilizing research networks allows the scientific community to leverage existing knowledge, models and data to develop a framework for understanding the interplay between global change drivers, regional, and continental sustainability of US agriculture. For example, well-established instrumented and calibrated research networks will allow for the examination of the potential tradeoffs between: 1) crop production, 2) land use and carbon emissions and sequestration, 3) groundwater depletion, and 4) nitrogen dynamics. NEON represents a major investment in scientific infrastructure in support of ecological research at a continental scale and is intended to address multiple ecological grand challenges. NEON will collect data from automated sensors and sample organisms and ecological variables in 20 eco-climatic domains. We will provide examples of how NEON's full potential can be realized when these data are combined with long term experimental results and other sensor networks [e.g., Ameriflux, Fluxnet, the Long-term Ecological Research Program (LTER), the Long-term Agroecosystem Research Network (LTAR)], Critical Zone Observatory (CZO).

  13. Orbital and Millennial-scale Variability Reflected on Continental-scale Vegetation Changes in the Southern Subtropics between MIS 6 and 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrego, D. H.; Sanchez Goni, M.; Daniau, A.; Martinez, P.

    2011-12-01

    While our understanding of the effects of orbital and millennial-scale variability on the vegetation has grown during the past decades, empirical data from some climatically important periods and regions are still lacking. Scarce data exist for instance for deep-time glacial-interglacial cycles that could provide suitable analogs for current climate-change. Recent global-scale reconstructions of vegetation responses to rapid events during the last glacial cycle have been useful, however, these global compilations clearly show that some regions, namely the southern tropics and subtropics, remain understudied. Here we present results from one of the few available continental-scale vegetation records from southwestern Africa spanning the last glacial-interglacial cycle. We have conducted multiproxy analyses of marine core MD96 2098 (25°36'S, 12°38'E), retrieved from the Lüderitz slope off the coast of Namibia. Preservation of pollen and other terrestrial microfossils is facilitated at this site by the Benguela upwelling system and the proximity to the Orange River mouth. Chronological control has been derived from radiocarbon dates and marine isotope stratigraphy. We have used pollen analyses, benthic foraminifer d18O (1), X-ray Fluorescence, geochemistry (2), foraminifer assemblages and microcharcoal quantification (3) to reconstruct the terrestrial vegetation and climatic history of the southwestern part of Africa and offshore between 190 and 30 ka. We find that MIS 6 and 4 are characterized by expanding Semidesert and Fynbos vegetation, while expanding grasslands characterized MIS 5. The termination of MIS 5 is also punctuated by an expansion of humid forests. At millennial timescales, variations in grasslands are generally coupled with stadials and interstadials. The expansion of semidesert is associated with decreased continental humidity caused by the strengthening of the Benguela upwelling during MIS 6 and 4. The expansion of grasslands during the

  14. Air traffic coverage

    SciTech Connect

    George, L.L.

    1988-09-16

    The Federal Aviation Administration plans to consolidate several hundred air traffic control centers and TRACONs into area control facilities while maintaining air traffic coverage. This paper defines air traffic coverage, a performance measure of the air traffic control system. Air traffic coverage measures performance without controversy regarding delay and collision probabilities and costs. Coverage measures help evaluate alternative facility architectures and help schedule consolidation. Coverage measures also help evaluate protocols for handling one facility's air traffic to another facility in case of facility failure. Coverage measures help evaluate radar, communications and other air traffic control systems and procedures. 4 refs., 2 figs.,

  15. Constellation Coverage Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Martin W. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    The design of satellite constellations requires an understanding of the dynamic global coverage provided by the constellations. Even for a small constellation with a simple circular orbit propagator, the combinatorial nature of the analysis frequently renders the problem intractable. Particularly for the initial design phase where the orbital parameters are still fluid and undetermined, the coverage information is crucial to evaluate the performance of the constellation design. We have developed a fast and simple algorithm for determining the global constellation coverage dynamically using image processing techniques. This approach provides a fast, powerful and simple method for the analysis of global constellation coverage.

  16. [Coverage of health services].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Narváez, G

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the concepts and criteria related to health coverage are discussed in the context of the organization of national health systems. The main international agreements based on WHO/PAHO proposals are also described. The relationship between primary health care and health coverage is analyzed and the evolution of the programs for the extension of health coverage in Mexico are discussed, with emphasis on the problems of overlap and definition of the universe in the several institutions of the health sector. Finally, the author reviews the problems to measure coverage in order to guarantee social and operative efficiency of the Mexican health system. PMID:1411776

  17. Dimensional regularization is generic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujikawa, Kazuo

    2016-09-01

    The absence of the quadratic divergence in the Higgs sector of the Standard Model in the dimensional regularization is usually regarded to be an exceptional property of a specific regularization. To understand what is going on in the dimensional regularization, we illustrate how to reproduce the results of the dimensional regularization for the λϕ4 theory in the more conventional regularization such as the higher derivative regularization; the basic postulate involved is that the quadratically divergent induced mass, which is independent of the scale change of the physical mass, is kinematical and unphysical. This is consistent with the derivation of the Callan-Symanzik equation, which is a comparison of two theories with slightly different masses, for the λϕ4 theory without encountering the quadratic divergence. In this sense the dimensional regularization may be said to be generic in a bottom-up approach starting with a successful low energy theory. We also define a modified version of the mass independent renormalization for a scalar field which leads to the homogeneous renormalization group equation. Implications of the present analysis on the Standard Model at high energies and the presence or absence of SUSY at LHC energies are briefly discussed.

  18. Medicare Prescription Drug Coverage

    MedlinePlus

    ... people also have to pay an additional monthly cost. Private companies provide Medicare prescription drug coverage. You choose the drug plan you like best. Whether or not you should sign up depends on how good your current coverage is. You need to sign up as ...

  19. Regular gravitational lagrangians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragon, Norbert

    1992-02-01

    The Einstein action with vanishing cosmological constant is for appropriate field content the unique local action which is regular at the fixed point of affine coordinate transformations. Imposing this regularity requirement one excludes also Wess-Zumino counterterms which trade gravitational anomalies for Lorentz anomalies. One has to expect dilatational and SL (D) anomalies. If these anomalies are absent and if the regularity of the quantum vertex functional can be controlled then Einstein gravity is renormalizable. On leave of absence from Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Hannover, W-3000 Hannover 1, FRG.

  20. Drug Plan Coverage Rules

    MedlinePlus

    ... works with other insurance Find health & drug plans Drug plan coverage rules Note Call your Medicare drug ... shingles vaccine) when medically necessary to prevent illness. Drugs you get in hospital outpatient settings In most ...

  1. Regular phantom black holes.

    PubMed

    Bronnikov, K A; Fabris, J C

    2006-06-30

    We study self-gravitating, static, spherically symmetric phantom scalar fields with arbitrary potentials (favored by cosmological observations) and single out 16 classes of possible regular configurations with flat, de Sitter, and anti-de Sitter asymptotics. Among them are traversable wormholes, bouncing Kantowski-Sachs (KS) cosmologies, and asymptotically flat black holes (BHs). A regular BH has a Schwarzschild-like causal structure, but the singularity is replaced by a de Sitter infinity, giving a hypothetic BH explorer a chance to survive. It also looks possible that our Universe has originated in a phantom-dominated collapse in another universe, with KS expansion and isotropization after crossing the horizon. Explicit examples of regular solutions are built and discussed. Possible generalizations include k-essence type scalar fields (with a potential) and scalar-tensor gravity.

  2. Mapping the abundance and distribution of Adélie penguins using Landsat-7: first steps towards an integrated multi-sensor pipeline for tracking populations at the continental scale.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Heather J; Schwaller, Mathew R

    2014-01-01

    The last several years have seen an increased interest in the use of remote sensing to identify the location of penguin colonies in Antarctica, and the estimation of the abundance of breeding pairs contained therein. High-resolution (sub-meter) commercial satellite imagery (e.g., Worldview-1, Quickbird) is capable of colony detection and abundance estimation for both large and small colonies, and has already been used in a continental-scale survey of Adélie penguins. Medium-resolution Landsat imagery has been used successfully to detect the presence of breeding penguins, but has not been used previously for abundance estimation nor evaluated in terms of its minimum colony size detection threshold. We report on the first comprehensive analysis of the performance of these two methods for both detection and abundance estimation, identify the sensor-specific failure modes that can lead to both false positives and false negatives, and compare the abundance estimates of each method over multiple spatial scales. We find that errors of omission using Landsat imagery are low for colonies larger than ∼10,000 breeding pairs. Both high-resolution and Landsat imagery can be used to obtain unbiased estimates of abundance, and while Landsat-derived abundance estimates have high variance for individual breeding colonies relative to estimates derived from high-resolution imagery, this difference declines as the spatial domain of interest is increased. At the continental scale, abundance estimates using the two methods are roughly equivalent. Our comparison of these two methods represents a bridge between the more developed high-resolution imagery, which can be expensive to obtain, and the medium-resolution Landsat-7 record, which is freely available; this comparison of methodologies represents an essential step towards integration of these disparate sources of data for regional assessments of Adélie population abundance and distribution.

  3. Mapping the Abundance and Distribution of Adélie Penguins Using Landsat-7: First Steps towards an Integrated Multi-Sensor Pipeline for Tracking Populations at the Continental Scale

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Heather J.; Schwaller, Mathew R.

    2014-01-01

    The last several years have seen an increased interest in the use of remote sensing to identify the location of penguin colonies in Antarctica, and the estimation of the abundance of breeding pairs contained therein. High-resolution (sub-meter) commercial satellite imagery (e.g., Worldview-1, Quickbird) is capable of colony detection and abundance estimation for both large and small colonies, and has already been used in a continental-scale survey of Adélie penguins. Medium-resolution Landsat imagery has been used successfully to detect the presence of breeding penguins, but has not been used previously for abundance estimation nor evaluated in terms of its minimum colony size detection threshold. We report on the first comprehensive analysis of the performance of these two methods for both detection and abundance estimation, identify the sensor-specific failure modes that can lead to both false positives and false negatives, and compare the abundance estimates of each method over multiple spatial scales. We find that errors of omission using Landsat imagery are low for colonies larger than ∼10,000 breeding pairs. Both high-resolution and Landsat imagery can be used to obtain unbiased estimates of abundance, and while Landsat-derived abundance estimates have high variance for individual breeding colonies relative to estimates derived from high-resolution imagery, this difference declines as the spatial domain of interest is increased. At the continental scale, abundance estimates using the two methods are roughly equivalent. Our comparison of these two methods represents a bridge between the more developed high-resolution imagery, which can be expensive to obtain, and the medium-resolution Landsat-7 record, which is freely available; this comparison of methodologies represents an essential step towards integration of these disparate sources of data for regional assessments of Adélie population abundance and distribution. PMID:25412466

  4. Mapping the abundance and distribution of Adélie penguins using Landsat-7: first steps towards an integrated multi-sensor pipeline for tracking populations at the continental scale.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Heather J; Schwaller, Mathew R

    2014-01-01

    The last several years have seen an increased interest in the use of remote sensing to identify the location of penguin colonies in Antarctica, and the estimation of the abundance of breeding pairs contained therein. High-resolution (sub-meter) commercial satellite imagery (e.g., Worldview-1, Quickbird) is capable of colony detection and abundance estimation for both large and small colonies, and has already been used in a continental-scale survey of Adélie penguins. Medium-resolution Landsat imagery has been used successfully to detect the presence of breeding penguins, but has not been used previously for abundance estimation nor evaluated in terms of its minimum colony size detection threshold. We report on the first comprehensive analysis of the performance of these two methods for both detection and abundance estimation, identify the sensor-specific failure modes that can lead to both false positives and false negatives, and compare the abundance estimates of each method over multiple spatial scales. We find that errors of omission using Landsat imagery are low for colonies larger than ∼10,000 breeding pairs. Both high-resolution and Landsat imagery can be used to obtain unbiased estimates of abundance, and while Landsat-derived abundance estimates have high variance for individual breeding colonies relative to estimates derived from high-resolution imagery, this difference declines as the spatial domain of interest is increased. At the continental scale, abundance estimates using the two methods are roughly equivalent. Our comparison of these two methods represents a bridge between the more developed high-resolution imagery, which can be expensive to obtain, and the medium-resolution Landsat-7 record, which is freely available; this comparison of methodologies represents an essential step towards integration of these disparate sources of data for regional assessments of Adélie population abundance and distribution. PMID:25412466

  5. Seeking a Regularity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokol, William

    This autoinstructional unit deals with the phenomena of regularity in chemical behavior. The prerequisites suggested are two other autoinstructional lessons (Experiments 1 and 2) identified in the Del Mod System as SE 018 020 and SE 018 023. The equipment needed is listed and 45 minutes is the suggested time allotment. The Student Guide includes…

  6. Immunisation coverage, 2012.

    PubMed

    Hull, Brynley P; Dey, Aditi; Menzies, Rob I; Brotherton, Julia M; McIntyre, Peter B

    2014-09-30

    This, the 6th annual immunisation coverage report, documents trends during 2012 for a range of standard measures derived from Australian Childhood Immunisation Register (ACIR) data, and National Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination Program Register data. These include coverage at standard age milestones and for individual vaccines included on the National Immunisation Program (NIP) and coverage in adolescents and adults. The proportion of Australian children 'fully vaccinated' at 12, 24 and 60 months of age was 91.7%, 92.5% and 91.2%, respectively. For vaccines available on the NIP but not assessed during 2012 for 'fully vaccinated' status or for eligibility for incentive payments (rotavirus and pneumococcal at 12 months and meningococcal C and varicella at 24 months) coverage varied. Although pneumococcal vaccine had similar coverage at 12 months to other vaccines, coverage was lower for rotavirus at 12 months (83.6%) and varicella at 24 months (84.4%). Although 'fully vaccinated' coverage at 12 months of age was lower among Indigenous children than non-Indigenous children in all jurisdictions, the extent of the difference varied, reaching a 15 percentage point differential in South Australia but only a 0.4 percentage point differential in the Northern Territory. Overall, Indigenous coverage at 24 months of age exceeded that at 12 months of age nationally and for all jurisdictions, but as receipt of varicella vaccine at 18 months is excluded from calculations, this represents delayed immunisation, with some contribution from immunisation incentives. The 'fully vaccinated' coverage estimates for vaccinations due by 60 months of age for Indigenous children exceeded 90% at 91% in 2012. Unlike in 2011, at 60 months of age, there was no dramatic variation in coverage between Indigenous and non-Indigenous children for individual jurisdictions. As previously documented, vaccines recommended for Indigenous children only, hepatitis A and pneumococcal vaccine, had

  7. The search for coverage

    SciTech Connect

    Laseter, W.S.

    1993-06-01

    Anyone involved with the purchase or management of corporate liability insurance is familiar with the onerous pollution exclusions'' that accompany virtually all liability and property policies issued in recent years. As a result of these provisions, many businesses mistakenly presume their insurance program provides no coverage for environmental losses. Most companies, however, already own substantial sums of environmental coverage in the form of old comprehensive general liability (CGL) and first party, all risks'' property insurance policies issued before the introduction of pollution exclusions in the early 1970s. Unfortunately, due to records destruction policies, office moves, changes in ownership and other opportunities to lose files, most businesses have a difficult time reconstructing their past coverage.

  8. Regularizing portfolio optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Still, Susanne; Kondor, Imre

    2010-07-01

    The optimization of large portfolios displays an inherent instability due to estimation error. This poses a fundamental problem, because solutions that are not stable under sample fluctuations may look optimal for a given sample, but are, in effect, very far from optimal with respect to the average risk. In this paper, we approach the problem from the point of view of statistical learning theory. The occurrence of the instability is intimately related to over-fitting, which can be avoided using known regularization methods. We show how regularized portfolio optimization with the expected shortfall as a risk measure is related to support vector regression. The budget constraint dictates a modification. We present the resulting optimization problem and discuss the solution. The L2 norm of the weight vector is used as a regularizer, which corresponds to a diversification 'pressure'. This means that diversification, besides counteracting downward fluctuations in some assets by upward fluctuations in others, is also crucial because it improves the stability of the solution. The approach we provide here allows for the simultaneous treatment of optimization and diversification in one framework that enables the investor to trade off between the two, depending on the size of the available dataset.

  9. Immunization coverage: role of sociodemographic variables.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Bhuwan; Mahajan, Hemant; Velhal, G D

    2013-01-01

    Children are considered fully immunized if they receive one dose of BCG, three doses of DPT and polio vaccine each, and one measles vaccine. In India, only 44% of children aged 12-23 months are fully vaccinated and about 5% have not received any vaccination at all. Even if national immunization coverage levels are sufficiently high to block disease transmission, pockets of susceptibility may act as potential reservoirs of infection. This study was done to assess the immunization coverage in an urban slum area and determine various sociodemographic variables affecting the same. A total of 210 children were selected from study population using WHO's 30 cluster sampling method. Coverage of BCG was found to be the highest (97.1%) while that of measles was the lowest. The main reason for noncompliance was given as child's illness at the time of scheduled vaccination followed by lack of knowledge regarding importance of immunization. Low education status of mother, high birth order, and place of delivery were found to be positively associated with low vaccination coverage. Regular IEC activities (group talks, role plays, posters, pamphlets, and competitions) should be conducted in the community to ensure that immunization will become a "felt need" of the mothers in the community.

  10. The Coverage Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshinobu, Stan; Jones, Matthew G.

    2012-01-01

    A significant issue mathematics instructors face is how to cover all the material. Mathematics teachers of all levels have some external and internal pressures to "get through" all the required material. The authors define "the coverage issue" to be the set of difficulties that arise in attempting to cover a lengthy list of topics. Principal among…

  11. Regularized versus non-regularized statistical reconstruction techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisova, N. V.

    2011-08-01

    An important feature of positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) is the stochastic property of real clinical data. Statistical algorithms such as ordered subset-expectation maximization (OSEM) and maximum a posteriori (MAP) are a direct consequence of the stochastic nature of the data. The principal difference between these two algorithms is that OSEM is a non-regularized approach, while the MAP is a regularized algorithm. From the theoretical point of view, reconstruction problems belong to the class of ill-posed problems and should be considered using regularization. Regularization introduces an additional unknown regularization parameter into the reconstruction procedure as compared with non-regularized algorithms. However, a comparison of non-regularized OSEM and regularized MAP algorithms with fixed regularization parameters has shown very minor difference between reconstructions. This problem is analyzed in the present paper. To improve the reconstruction quality, a method of local regularization is proposed based on the spatially adaptive regularization parameter. The MAP algorithm with local regularization was tested in reconstruction of the Hoffman brain phantom.

  12. Mainstreaming the Regular Classroom Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Michael

    The paper presents activities, suggested by regular classroom teachers, to help prepare the regular classroom student for mainstreaming. The author points out that regular classroom children need a vehicle in which curiosity, concern, interest, fear, attitudes and feelings can be fully explored, where prejudices can be dispelled, and where the…

  13. Coverage Metrics for Model Checking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penix, John; Visser, Willem; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    When using model checking to verify programs in practice, it is not usually possible to achieve complete coverage of the system. In this position paper we describe ongoing research within the Automated Software Engineering group at NASA Ames on the use of test coverage metrics to measure partial coverage and provide heuristic guidance for program model checking. We are specifically interested in applying and developing coverage metrics for concurrent programs that might be used to support certification of next generation avionics software.

  14. A GPS coverage model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skidmore, Trent A.

    1994-01-01

    The results of several case studies using the Global Positioning System coverage model developed at Ohio University are summarized. Presented are results pertaining to outage area, outage dynamics, and availability. Input parameters to the model include the satellite orbit data, service area of interest, geometry requirements, and horizon and antenna mask angles. It is shown for precision-landing Category 1 requirements that the planned GPS 21 Primary Satellite Constellation produces significant outage area and unavailability. It is also shown that a decrease in the user equivalent range error dramatically decreases outage area and improves the service availability.

  15. Antenna Beam Coverage Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estabrook, Polly; Motamedi, Masoud

    1990-01-01

    The strawman Personal Access Satellite System (PASS) design calls for the use of a CONUS beam for transmission between the supplier and the satellite and for fixed beams for transmission between the basic personal terminal and the satellite. The satellite uses a 3 m main reflector for transmission at 20 GHz and a 2 m main reflector for reception at 30 GHz. There are several types of spot beams under consideration for the PASS system besides fixed beams. The beam pattern of a CONUS coverage switched beam is shown along with that of a scanning beam. A switched beam refers to one in which the signal from the satellite is connected alternatively to various feed horns. Scanning beams are taken to mean beams whose footprints are moved between contiguous regions in the beam's coverage area. The advantages and disadvantages of switched and/or scanning beams relative to fixed beams. The consequences of using switched/scanning in lieu of fixed beams in the PASS design and attempts are made to evaluate the listed advantages and disadvantages. Two uses of switched/scanning beams are examined. To illustrate the implications of switched beams use on PASS system design, operation at two beam scan rates is explored.

  16. Regularized Generalized Canonical Correlation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenenhaus, Arthur; Tenenhaus, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Regularized generalized canonical correlation analysis (RGCCA) is a generalization of regularized canonical correlation analysis to three or more sets of variables. It constitutes a general framework for many multi-block data analysis methods. It combines the power of multi-block data analysis methods (maximization of well identified criteria) and…

  17. Regularization in radio tomographic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundaram, Ramakrishnan; Martin, Richard; Anderson, Christopher

    2013-05-01

    This paper demonstrates methods to select and apply regularization to the linear least-squares model formulation of the radio tomographic imaging (RTI) problem. Typically, the RTI inverse problem of image reconstruction is ill-conditioned due to the extremely small singular values of the weight matrix which relates the link signal strengths to the voxel locations of the obstruction. Regularization is included to offset the non-invertible nature of the weight matrix by adding a regularization term such as the matrix approximation of derivatives in each dimension based on the difference operator. This operation yields a smooth least-squares solution for the measured data by suppressing the high energy or noise terms in the derivative of the image. Traditionally, a scalar weighting factor of the regularization matrix is identified by trial and error (adhoc) to yield the best fit of the solution to the data without either excessive smoothing or ringing oscillations at the boundaries of the obstruction. This paper proposes new scalar and vector regularization methods that are automatically computed based on the weight matrix. Evidence of the effectiveness of these methods compared to the preset scalar regularization method is presented for stationary and moving obstructions in an RTI wireless sensor network. The variation of the mean square reconstruction error as a function of the scalar regularization is calculated for known obstructions in the network. The vector regularization procedure based on selective updates to the singular values of the weight matrix attains the lowest mean square error.

  18. Regularly timed events amid chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakely, Jonathan N.; Cooper, Roy M.; Corron, Ned J.

    2015-11-01

    We show rigorously that the solutions of a class of chaotic oscillators are characterized by regularly timed events in which the derivative of the solution is instantaneously zero. The perfect regularity of these events is in stark contrast with the well-known unpredictability of chaos. We explore some consequences of these regularly timed events through experiments using chaotic electronic circuits. First, we show that a feedback loop can be implemented to phase lock the regularly timed events to a periodic external signal. In this arrangement the external signal regulates the timing of the chaotic signal but does not strictly lock its phase. That is, phase slips of the chaotic oscillation persist without disturbing timing of the regular events. Second, we couple the regularly timed events of one chaotic oscillator to those of another. A state of synchronization is observed where the oscillators exhibit synchronized regular events while their chaotic amplitudes and phases evolve independently. Finally, we add additional coupling to synchronize the amplitudes, as well, however in the opposite direction illustrating the independence of the amplitudes from the regularly timed events.

  19. Nonconvex Regularization in Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuia, Devis; Flamary, Remi; Barlaud, Michel

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we study the effect of different regularizers and their implications in high dimensional image classification and sparse linear unmixing. Although kernelization or sparse methods are globally accepted solutions for processing data in high dimensions, we present here a study on the impact of the form of regularization used and its parametrization. We consider regularization via traditional squared (2) and sparsity-promoting (1) norms, as well as more unconventional nonconvex regularizers (p and Log Sum Penalty). We compare their properties and advantages on several classification and linear unmixing tasks and provide advices on the choice of the best regularizer for the problem at hand. Finally, we also provide a fully functional toolbox for the community.

  20. Immunization coverage and social differentiation in urban Senegal.

    PubMed

    Fassin, D; Jeannee, E

    1989-04-01

    We studied sociocultural factors associated with immunization coverage among a random sample of 500 mothers in the underprivileged suburbs of Dakar, Senegal. Factors associated with immunization of children under age 5 were maternal educational level and socioeconomic conditions (especially husband's regular salary); maternal age on arrival in town was more influential than total number of resident years in town; no effect of ethnicity was evident.

  1. Newspaper Coverage of Racial Injustices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martindale, Carolyn

    Noting that the press was criticized during the 1960s for failing to convey to white readers the problems and injustices experienced by black Americans, a study analyzed the nature and amount of civil rights coverage in five newspapers from 1963 through 1980. News coverage concerning blacks was examined in 66 issues from four major newspapers in…

  2. El Nino, from 1870 to 2014, and other Atmospheric Circulation Forcing by Extreme Apparitions of the Eight Annual, Continental Scale, Aerosol Plumes in the Satellite Era which Point to a Possible Cause for the Current Californian Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potts, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    Eight continental scale aerosol plumes exist each year as the enclosed image shows. Apparitions of seven plumes only exist for a few months in the same season each year whilst the East Asian Plume is visible all year. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) of all the plumes varies enormously interannually with two studies showing the surface radiative forcing of the South East Asian Plume (SEAP) as -150W/m2 and -286W/m2/AOD. I show that the SEAP, created by volcanic aerosols (natural) and biomass burning and gas flares in the oil industry (anthropogenic), is the sole cause of all El Nino events, the greatest interannual perturbation of the atmospheric circulation system. The SEAP creates an El Nino by absorbing solar radiation at the top of the plume which heats the upper atmosphere and cools the surface. This creates a temperature inversion compared to periods without the plume and reduces convection. With reduced convection in SE Asia, the Maritime Continent, the Trade Winds blowing across the Pacific are forced to relax as their exit into the Hadley and Walker Cells is constrained and the reduced Trade Wind speed causes the Sea Surface Temperature (SST) to rise in the central tropical Pacific Ocean as there is a strong negative correlation between wind speed and SST. The warmer SST in the central Pacific creates convection in the region which further reduces the Trade Wind speed and causes the Walker Cell to reverse - a classic El Nino. Having established the ability of such extreme aerosol plumes to create El Nino events I will then show how the South American, West African, Middle East and SEAP plumes create drought in the Amazon, Spain, Darfur and Australia as well as causing the extremely warm autumn and winter in Europe in 2006-07. All these effects are created by the plumes reducing convection in the region of the plume which forces the regional Hadley Cells into anomalous positions thereby creating persistent high pressure cells in the mid latitudes. This

  3. Rotating regular black hole solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdujabbarov, Ahmadjon

    2016-07-01

    Based on the Newman-Janis algorithm, the Ayón-Beato-García spacetime metric [Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5056 (1998)] of the regular spherically symmetric, static, and charged black hole has been converted into rotational form. It is shown that the derived solution for rotating a regular black hole is regular and the critical value of the electric charge for which two horizons merge into one sufficiently decreases in the presence of the nonvanishing rotation parameter a of the black hole.

  4. 29 CFR 779.234 - Establishments whose only regular employees are the owner or members of his immediate family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Establishments whose only regular employees are the owner... Employment to Which the Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.234 Establishments whose only regular employees are the owner or members of his...

  5. 29 CFR 779.234 - Establishments whose only regular employees are the owner or members of his immediate family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Establishments whose only regular employees are the owner... Employment to Which the Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.234 Establishments whose only regular employees are the owner or members of his...

  6. Global routine vaccination coverage, 2014.

    PubMed

    Subaiya, Saleena; Dumolard, Laure; Lydon, Patrick; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Eggers, Rudolf; Conklin, Laura

    2015-11-13

    The year 2014 marked the 40th anniversary of the World Health Organization’s (WHO) Expanded Program on Immunization, which was established to ensure equitable access to routine immunization services (1). Since 1974, global coverage with the four core vaccines (Bacille Calmette- Guérin vaccine [BCG; for protection against tuberculosis], diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis [DTP] vaccine, poliovirus vaccine, and measles vaccine) has increased from <5% to ≥85%, and additional vaccines have been added to the recommended schedule. Coverage with the 3rd dose of DTP vaccine (DTP3) by age 12 months is an indicator of immunization program performance because it reflects completion of the basic infant immunization schedule; coverage with other vaccines, including the 3rd dose of poliovirus vaccine (polio3); the 1st dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) is also assessed. Estimated global DTP3 coverage has remained at 84%–86% since 2009, with estimated 2014 coverage at 86%. Estimated global coverage for the 2nd routine dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV2) was 38% by age 24 months and 56% when older age groups were included, similar to levels reported in 2013 (36% and 55%, respectively). To reach and sustain high immunization coverage in all countries, adequate vaccine stock management and additional opportunities for immunization, such as through routine visits in the second year of life, are integral components to strengthening immunization programs and reducing morbidity and mortality from vaccine preventable diseases. PMID:26562454

  7. NONCONVEX REGULARIZATION FOR SHAPE PRESERVATION

    SciTech Connect

    CHARTRAND, RICK

    2007-01-16

    The authors show that using a nonconvex penalty term to regularize image reconstruction can substantially improve the preservation of object shapes. The commonly-used total-variation regularization, {integral}|{del}u|, penalizes the length of the object edges. They show that {integral}|{del}u|{sup p}, 0 < p < 1, only penalizes edges of dimension at least 2-p, and thus finite-length edges not at all. We give numerical examples showing the resulting improvement in shape preservation.

  8. Condition Number Regularized Covariance Estimation*

    PubMed Central

    Won, Joong-Ho; Lim, Johan; Kim, Seung-Jean; Rajaratnam, Bala

    2012-01-01

    Estimation of high-dimensional covariance matrices is known to be a difficult problem, has many applications, and is of current interest to the larger statistics community. In many applications including so-called the “large p small n” setting, the estimate of the covariance matrix is required to be not only invertible, but also well-conditioned. Although many regularization schemes attempt to do this, none of them address the ill-conditioning problem directly. In this paper, we propose a maximum likelihood approach, with the direct goal of obtaining a well-conditioned estimator. No sparsity assumption on either the covariance matrix or its inverse are are imposed, thus making our procedure more widely applicable. We demonstrate that the proposed regularization scheme is computationally efficient, yields a type of Steinian shrinkage estimator, and has a natural Bayesian interpretation. We investigate the theoretical properties of the regularized covariance estimator comprehensively, including its regularization path, and proceed to develop an approach that adaptively determines the level of regularization that is required. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of the regularized estimator in decision-theoretic comparisons and in the financial portfolio optimization setting. The proposed approach has desirable properties, and can serve as a competitive procedure, especially when the sample size is small and when a well-conditioned estimator is required. PMID:23730197

  9. Geometric continuum regularization of quantum field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Halpern, M.B. . Dept. of Physics)

    1989-11-08

    An overview of the continuum regularization program is given. The program is traced from its roots in stochastic quantization, with emphasis on the examples of regularized gauge theory, the regularized general nonlinear sigma model and regularized quantum gravity. In its coordinate-invariant form, the regularization is seen as entirely geometric: only the supermetric on field deformations is regularized, and the prescription provides universal nonperturbative invariant continuum regularization across all quantum field theory. 54 refs.

  10. Annual immunisation coverage report, 2010.

    PubMed

    Hull, Brynley; Dey, Aditi; Menzies, Rob; McIntyre, Peter

    2013-03-31

    This, the fourth annual immunisation coverage report, documents trends during 2010 for a range of standard measures derived from Australian Childhood Immunisation Register (ACIR) data. These include coverage at standard age milestones and for individual vaccines included on the National Immunisation Program (NIP). For the first time, coverage from other sources for adolescents and the elderly are included. The proportion of children 'fully vaccinated' at 12, 24 and 60 months of age was 91.6%, 92.1% and 89.1% respectively. For vaccines available on the NIP but not currently assessed for 'fully immunised' status or for eligibility for incentive payments (rotavirus and pneumococcal at 12 months and meningococcal C and varicella at 24 months) coverage varied. Although pneumococcal vaccine had similar coverage at 12 months to other vaccines, coverage was lower for rotavirus at 12 months (84.7%) and varicella at 24 months (83.0%). Overall coverage at 24 months of age exceeded that at 12 months of age nationally and for most jurisdictions, but as receipt of varicella vaccine at 18 months is excluded from calculations, this represents delayed immunisation, with some contribution from immunisation incentives. The 'fully immunised' coverage estimates for immunisations due by 60 months increased substantially in 2009, reaching almost 90% in 2010, probably related to completed immunisation by 60 months of age being introduced in 2009 as a requirement for GP incentive payments. As previously documented, vaccines recommended for Indigenous children only (hepatitis A and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine) had suboptimal coverage at around 57%. Delayed receipt of vaccines by Indigenous children at the 60-month milestone age improved from 56% to 62% but the disparity in on-time vaccination between Indigenous and non-Indigenous children at earlier age milestones did not improve. Coverage data for human papillomavirus (HPV)from the national HPV register are consistent with high

  11. 7 CFR 1437.5 - Coverage period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage period. 1437.5 Section 1437.5 Agriculture... Provisions § 1437.5 Coverage period. (a) The coverage period is the time during which coverage is available against loss of production of the eligible crop as a result of natural disaster. (b) The coverage...

  12. Regular chemisorption of hydrogen on achiral single-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanova, D. A.; Bulyarskii, S. V.

    2016-07-01

    Regular chemisorption of hydrogen on achiral single-walled carbon nanotubes has been investigated with the use of AM1 quantum-chemical semiempirical method. It has been found that regular hydrogen chemisorption deforms nanotubes, in some cases leading to stable prismatic modifications. The dependence of the adsorption energy on the density of hydrogen coverage has been found. A procedure for determining the adsorption energy by the spectra of thermally stimulated desorption has been proposed.

  13. Global routine vaccination coverage, 2013.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jennifer B; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Eggers, Rudolf; Brown, David W; Sodha, Samir V

    2014-11-21

    In 1974, the World Health Organization (WHO) established the Expanded Program on Immunization to ensure that all children have access to routinely recommended vaccines. Since then, global coverage with the four core vaccines (Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine [for protection against tuberculosis], diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine [DTP], polio vaccine, and measles vaccine) has increased from <5% to ≥84%, and additional vaccines have been added to the recommended schedule. Coverage with the third dose of DTP vaccine (DTP3) by age 12 months is a key indicator of immunization program performance. Estimated global DTP3 coverage has remained at 83%-84% since 2009, with estimated 2013 coverage at 84%. Global coverage estimates for the second routine dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV2) are reported for the first time in 2013; global coverage was 35% by the end of the second year of life and 53% when including older age groups. Improvements in equity of access and use of immunization services will help ensure that all children are protected from vaccine-preventable diseases. PMID:25412062

  14. Boundary Regularity in Variational Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Jan; Mingione, Giuseppe

    2010-11-01

    We prove that, if {u : Ω subset mathbb{R}^n to mathbb{R}^N} is a solution to the Dirichlet variational problem mathop minlimitswint_{Ω} F(x, w, Dw) dx quad {subject to} quad w equiv u_0 onpartial Ω, involving a regular boundary datum ( u 0, ∂Ω) and a regular integrand F( x, w, Dw) strongly convex in Dw and satisfying suitable growth conditions, then {{mathcal H}^{n-1}} -almost every boundary point is regular for u in the sense that Du is Hölder continuous in a relative neighborhood of the point. The existence of even one such regular boundary point was previously not known except for some very special cases treated by J ost & M eier (Math Ann 262:549-561, 1983). Our results are consequences of new up-to-the-boundary higher differentiability results that we establish for minima of the functionals in question. The methods also allow us to improve the known boundary regularity results for solutions to non-linear elliptic systems, and, in some cases, to improve the known interior singular sets estimates for minimizers. Moreover, our approach allows for a treatment of systems and functionals with “rough” coefficients belonging to suitable Sobolev spaces of fractional order.

  15. A Survey of Oral Cancer Screening Insurance Coverage in New York City.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Daniel; Goh, Charlene; Zavras, Athanasios

    2016-03-01

    Clinical studies show that fewer than 25% of people who visit a dentist regularly are screened for oral cancer, and that the majority of oral cancers present at an advanced stage, when cure rates are already abysmal. This study explores the current status of oral cancer screening coverage among a variety of insurance providers in New York City. The study focuses on determining the coverage and frequency of the cluster of salient CDT (dental) codes surrounding oral cancer screenings. PMID:27209714

  16. Dimensional regularization in configuration space

    SciTech Connect

    Bollini, C.G. |; Giambiagi, J.J.

    1996-05-01

    Dimensional regularization is introduced in configuration space by Fourier transforming in {nu} dimensions the perturbative momentum space Green functions. For this transformation, the Bochner theorem is used; no extra parameters, such as those of Feynman or Bogoliubov and Shirkov, are needed for convolutions. The regularized causal functions in {ital x} space have {nu}-dependent moderated singularities at the origin. They can be multiplied together and Fourier transformed (Bochner) without divergence problems. The usual ultraviolet divergences appear as poles of the resultant analytic functions of {nu}. Several examples are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  17. Regularization Analysis of SAR Superresolution

    SciTech Connect

    DELAURENTIS,JOHN M.; DICKEY,FRED M.

    2002-04-01

    Superresolution concepts offer the potential of resolution beyond the classical limit. This great promise has not generally been realized. In this study we investigate the potential application of superresolution concepts to synthetic aperture radar. The analytical basis for superresolution theory is discussed. In a previous report the application of the concept to synthetic aperture radar was investigated as an operator inversion problem. Generally, the operator inversion problem is ill posed. This work treats the problem from the standpoint of regularization. Both the operator inversion approach and the regularization approach show that the ability to superresolve SAR imagery is severely limited by system noise.

  18. Regularized estimation of Euler pole parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aktuğ, Bahadir; Yildirim, Ömer

    2013-07-01

    Euler vectors provide a unified framework to quantify the relative or absolute motions of tectonic plates through various geodetic and geophysical observations. With the advent of space geodesy, Euler parameters of several relatively small plates have been determined through the velocities derived from the space geodesy observations. However, the available data are usually insufficient in number and quality to estimate both the Euler vector components and the Euler pole parameters reliably. Since Euler vectors are defined globally in an Earth-centered Cartesian frame, estimation with the limited geographic coverage of the local/regional geodetic networks usually results in highly correlated vector components. In the case of estimating the Euler pole parameters directly, the situation is even worse, and the position of the Euler pole is nearly collinear with the magnitude of the rotation rate. In this study, a new method, which consists of an analytical derivation of the covariance matrix of the Euler vector in an ideal network configuration, is introduced and a regularized estimation method specifically tailored for estimating the Euler vector is presented. The results show that the proposed method outperforms the least squares estimation in terms of the mean squared error.

  19. Regularized Generalized Structured Component Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Heungsun

    2009-01-01

    Generalized structured component analysis (GSCA) has been proposed as a component-based approach to structural equation modeling. In practice, GSCA may suffer from multi-collinearity, i.e., high correlations among exogenous variables. GSCA has yet no remedy for this problem. Thus, a regularized extension of GSCA is proposed that integrates a ridge…

  20. [Effectiveness of an intervention in schools to increase vaccination coverage in children aged 6].

    PubMed

    Domenech Bonilla, M Encarna; Biosca Páimes, Mireia; Bobadilla Machín, Innocència M; Galindo Agorreta, Rosario; Guillén Mesalles, Mònica V

    2011-01-01

    The management of the vaccination program is part of nursing competences. The main goal of this program is to vaccinate the whole population. There are some age groups in which vaccination coverage is represented by very low rates. Several methods can be used in order to increase such coverage and each professional shall use them according to the work environment. This article presents a simple and effective intervention applicable in any rural area--and probably in any environment--through schools, where all children regularly go. This program has been very useful for us to increase the vaccination coverage of children aged 6.

  1. Extending Medicare immunosuppressive medication coverage.

    PubMed

    Beaubrun, Anne Christine

    2012-02-01

    African Americans and the poor are at a high risk of suffering from kidney disease and are at an extreme disadvantage when it comes to obtaining the resources needed to maintain a functioning kidney post-transplant. Medicare currently covers 80% of the cost of immunosuppressive therapy for up to three years following a Medicare-covered transplant for patients whose Medicare entitlement was based solely on their end-stage renal disease diagnosis. Adequate insurance coverage has the potential to prevent graft failure and retransplantation resulting from cost-related immunosuppressive medication nonadherence. Given the multifactorial nature of medication nonadherence, extending insurance coverage in an attempt to reduce graft failures should be coupled with intensive interventions to prevent the socioeconomic and various other factors associated with medication nonadherence. Lifetime Medicare coverage for all kidney-transplant recipients, coupled with medication adherence promotion, has the potential to minimize poor outcomes associated with graft failure, especially among minorities and the impoverished.

  2. Regular languages, regular grammars and automata in splicing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamad Jan, Nurhidaya; Fong, Wan Heng; Sarmin, Nor Haniza

    2013-04-01

    Splicing system is known as a mathematical model that initiates the connection between the study of DNA molecules and formal language theory. In splicing systems, languages called splicing languages refer to the set of double-stranded DNA molecules that may arise from an initial set of DNA molecules in the presence of restriction enzymes and ligase. In this paper, some splicing languages resulted from their respective splicing systems are shown. Since all splicing languages are regular, languages which result from the splicing systems can be further investigated using grammars and automata in the field of formal language theory. The splicing language can be written in the form of regular languages generated by grammar. Besides that, splicing systems can be accepted by automata. In this research, two restriction enzymes are used in splicing systems namely BfuCI and NcoI.

  3. 24 CFR 203.205 - Plan coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plan coverage. 203.205 Section 203... Protection Plans (plan) § 203.205 Plan coverage. (a) Plan coverage must take effect at closing or settlement following the initial sale of the property to the homeowner. (b) During the first year of coverage, a...

  4. 40 CFR 51.356 - Vehicle coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vehicle coverage. 51.356 Section 51.356....356 Vehicle coverage. The performance standard for enhanced I/M programs assumes coverage of all 1968... trucks. Other levels of coverage may be approved if the necessary emission reductions are...

  5. 5 CFR 847.415 - OASDI coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false OASDI coverage. 847.415 Section 847.415...) ELECTIONS OF RETIREMENT COVERAGE BY CURRENT AND FORMER EMPLOYEES OF NONAPPROPRIATED FUND INSTRUMENTALITIES Elections of Coverage Under the Retroactive Provisions Elections of Csrs Or Fers Coverage Based on A...

  6. 5 CFR 837.301 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 837.301 Section 837.301...) REEMPLOYMENT OF ANNUITANTS Coverage and Contributions § 837.301 Coverage. (a) When annuity terminates on, or is suspended during, reemployment. Retirement coverage under either CSRS or FERS is governed by subpart B...

  7. 5 CFR 837.301 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 837.301 Section 837.301...) REEMPLOYMENT OF ANNUITANTS Coverage and Contributions § 837.301 Coverage. (a) When annuity terminates on, or is suspended during, reemployment. Retirement coverage under either CSRS or FERS is governed by subpart B...

  8. 14 CFR 205.5 - Minimum coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum coverage. 205.5 Section 205.5... REGULATIONS AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT LIABILITY INSURANCE § 205.5 Minimum coverage. (a) Insurance contracts and self... maintain the following coverage: (1) Third-party aircraft accident liability coverage for bodily injury...

  9. 5 CFR 837.301 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 837.301 Section 837.301...) REEMPLOYMENT OF ANNUITANTS Coverage and Contributions § 837.301 Coverage. (a) When annuity terminates on, or is suspended during, reemployment. Retirement coverage under either CSRS or FERS is governed by subpart B...

  10. 5 CFR 837.301 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 837.301 Section 837.301...) REEMPLOYMENT OF ANNUITANTS Coverage and Contributions § 837.301 Coverage. (a) When annuity terminates on, or is suspended during, reemployment. Retirement coverage under either CSRS or FERS is governed by subpart B...

  11. 5 CFR 847.415 - OASDI coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false OASDI coverage. 847.415 Section 847.415...) ELECTIONS OF RETIREMENT COVERAGE BY CURRENT AND FORMER EMPLOYEES OF NONAPPROPRIATED FUND INSTRUMENTALITIES Elections of Coverage Under the Retroactive Provisions Elections of Csrs Or Fers Coverage Based on A...

  12. 14 CFR 205.5 - Minimum coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum coverage. 205.5 Section 205.5... REGULATIONS AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT LIABILITY INSURANCE § 205.5 Minimum coverage. (a) Insurance contracts and self... maintain the following coverage: (1) Third-party aircraft accident liability coverage for bodily injury...

  13. 42 CFR 457.470 - Prohibited coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prohibited coverage. 457.470 Section 457.470 Public... Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.470 Prohibited coverage. A State is not required to provide health benefits coverage under the plan for an item or service for which payment is prohibited under title...

  14. 5 CFR 837.301 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 837.301 Section 837.301...) REEMPLOYMENT OF ANNUITANTS Coverage and Contributions § 837.301 Coverage. (a) When annuity terminates on, or is suspended during, reemployment. Retirement coverage under either CSRS or FERS is governed by subpart B...

  15. 42 CFR 457.470 - Prohibited coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prohibited coverage. 457.470 Section 457.470 Public... Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.470 Prohibited coverage. A State is not required to provide health benefits coverage under the plan for an item or service for which payment is prohibited under title...

  16. 42 CFR 457.470 - Prohibited coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibited coverage. 457.470 Section 457.470 Public... Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.470 Prohibited coverage. A State is not required to provide health benefits coverage under the plan for an item or service for which payment is prohibited under title...

  17. 24 CFR 203.205 - Plan coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Plan coverage. 203.205 Section 203... Protection Plans (plan) § 203.205 Plan coverage. (a) Plan coverage must take effect at closing or settlement following the initial sale of the property to the homeowner. (b) During the first year of coverage, a...

  18. 24 CFR 203.205 - Plan coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Plan coverage. 203.205 Section 203... Protection Plans (plan) § 203.205 Plan coverage. (a) Plan coverage must take effect at closing or settlement following the initial sale of the property to the homeowner. (b) During the first year of coverage, a...

  19. 32 CFR 199.8 - Double coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Double coverage. 199.8 Section 199.8 National... CIVILIAN HEALTH AND MEDICAL PROGRAM OF THE UNIFORMED SERVICES (CHAMPUS) § 199.8 Double coverage. (a... insurance plans do not exceed the total charges. (b) Double coverage plan. A double coverage plan is one...

  20. 32 CFR 199.8 - Double coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Double coverage. 199.8 Section 199.8 National... CIVILIAN HEALTH AND MEDICAL PROGRAM OF THE UNIFORMED SERVICES (CHAMPUS) § 199.8 Double coverage. (a... insurance plans do not exceed the total charges. (b) Double coverage plan. A double coverage plan is one...

  1. Immunisation coverage annual report, 2011.

    PubMed

    Hull, Brynley P; Dey, Aditi; Menzies, Rob I; Brotherton, Julia M; McIntyre, Peter B

    2013-12-31

    This, the 5th annual immunisation coverage report, documents trends during 2011 for a range of standard measures derived from Australian Childhood Immunisation Register data, and National Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination Program Register data. The proportion of children 'fully vaccinated' at 12, 24 and 60 months of age was 91.4%, 92.2% and 89.5% respectively. Although pneumococcal vaccine had similar coverage at 12 months to other vaccines, coverage was lower for rotavirus at 12 months (83.8%) and varicella at 24 months (83.9%). By late 2011, the percentage of children who received the 1st dose of DTPa vaccine dose at less than 8 weeks of age was greater than 50% in 3 jurisdictions, the Australian Capital Territory, Victoria, and Queensland and at 70% for New South Wales and Tasmania. Although coverage at 12 months of age was lower among Indigenous children than non-Indigenous children in all jurisdictions, the extent of the difference varied. Overall, coverage at 24 months of age exceeded that at 12 months of age nationally. At 60 months of age, there was dramatic variation between individual jurisdictions, ranging from coverage 8% lower in Indigenous children in South Australia to 6% higher in the Northern Territory. As previously documented, vaccines recommended for Indigenous children only (hepatitis A and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine) had suboptimal coverage at 60% and 68%, respectively. On-time receipt (before 49 months of age) of vaccines by Indigenous children at the 60-month milestone age improved between 2010 (18%) and 2011 (19%) but the disparity in on-time vaccination between Indigenous and non-Indigenous children increased at all 3 age milestones. The percentage of vaccine objectors in 2011 (1.7%) has increased from 2007 when it was 1.1%. Coverage data for the 3rd dose of HPV from the national HPV register in the school catch up program was 71% but was substantially lower for the catch-up program for women outside school (39

  2. Distributional Stress Regularity: A Corpus Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temperley, David

    2009-01-01

    The regularity of stress patterns in a language depends on "distributional stress regularity", which arises from the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables, and "durational stress regularity", which arises from the timing of syllables. Here we focus on distributional regularity, which depends on three factors. "Lexical stress patterning"…

  3. Reducing errors in the GRACE gravity solutions using regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Save, Himanshu; Bettadpur, Srinivas; Tapley, Byron D.

    2012-09-01

    The nature of the gravity field inverse problem amplifies the noise in the GRACE data, which creeps into the mid and high degree and order harmonic coefficients of the Earth's monthly gravity fields provided by GRACE. Due to the use of imperfect background models and data noise, these errors are manifested as north-south striping in the monthly global maps of equivalent water heights. In order to reduce these errors, this study investigates the use of the L-curve method with Tikhonov regularization. L-curve is a popular aid for determining a suitable value of the regularization parameter when solving linear discrete ill-posed problems using Tikhonov regularization. However, the computational effort required to determine the L-curve is prohibitively high for a large-scale problem like GRACE. This study implements a parameter-choice method, using Lanczos bidiagonalization which is a computationally inexpensive approximation to L-curve. Lanczos bidiagonalization is implemented with orthogonal transformation in a parallel computing environment and projects a large estimation problem on a problem of the size of about 2 orders of magnitude smaller for computing the regularization parameter. Errors in the GRACE solution time series have certain characteristics that vary depending on the ground track coverage of the solutions. These errors increase with increasing degree and order. In addition, certain resonant and near-resonant harmonic coefficients have higher errors as compared with the other coefficients. Using the knowledge of these characteristics, this study designs a regularization matrix that provides a constraint on the geopotential coefficients as a function of its degree and order. This regularization matrix is then used to compute the appropriate regularization parameter for each monthly solution. A 7-year time-series of the candidate regularized solutions (Mar 2003-Feb 2010) show markedly reduced error stripes compared with the unconstrained GRACE release 4

  4. Regular Motions of Resonant Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraz-Mello, S.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Se revisan resultados analiticos relativos a soluciones regulares del problema asteroidal eliptico promediados en la vecindad de una resonancia con jupiten Mencionamos Ia ley de estructura para libradores de alta excentricidad, la estabilidad de los centros de liberaci6n, las perturbaciones forzadas por la excentricidad de jupiter y las 6rbitas de corotaci6n. ABSTRAC This paper reviews analytical results concerning the regular solutions of the elliptic asteroidal problem averaged in the neighbourhood of a resonance with jupiter. We mention the law of structure for high-eccentricity librators, the stability of the libration centers, the perturbations forced by the eccentricity ofjupiter and the corotation orbits. Key words: ASThROIDS

  5. Energy functions for regularization algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delingette, H.; Hebert, M.; Ikeuchi, K.

    1991-01-01

    Regularization techniques are widely used for inverse problem solving in computer vision such as surface reconstruction, edge detection, or optical flow estimation. Energy functions used for regularization algorithms measure how smooth a curve or surface is, and to render acceptable solutions these energies must verify certain properties such as invariance with Euclidean transformations or invariance with parameterization. The notion of smoothness energy is extended here to the notion of a differential stabilizer, and it is shown that to void the systematic underestimation of undercurvature for planar curve fitting, it is necessary that circles be the curves of maximum smoothness. A set of stabilizers is proposed that meet this condition as well as invariance with rotation and parameterization.

  6. Statistical regularities reduce perceived numerosity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiaying; Yu, Ru Qi

    2016-01-01

    Numerical information can be perceived at multiple levels (e.g., one bird, or a flock of birds). The level of input has typically been defined by explicit grouping cues, such as contours or connecting lines. Here we examine how regularities of object co-occurrences shape numerosity perception in the absence of explicit grouping cues. Participants estimated the number of colored circles in an array. We found that estimates were lower in arrays containing colors that consistently appeared next to each other across the experiment, even though participants were not explicitly aware of the color pairs (Experiments 1a and 1b). To provide support for grouping, we introduced color duplicates and found that estimates were lower in arrays with two identical colors (Experiment 2). The underestimation could not be explained by increased attention to individual objects (Experiment 3). These results suggest that statistical regularities reduce perceived numerosity consistent with a grouping mechanism. PMID:26451701

  7. Deep learning regularized Fisher mappings.

    PubMed

    Wong, W K; Sun, Mingming

    2011-10-01

    For classification tasks, it is always desirable to extract features that are most effective for preserving class separability. In this brief, we propose a new feature extraction method called regularized deep Fisher mapping (RDFM), which learns an explicit mapping from the sample space to the feature space using a deep neural network to enhance the separability of features according to the Fisher criterion. Compared to kernel methods, the deep neural network is a deep and nonlocal learning architecture, and therefore exhibits more powerful ability to learn the nature of highly variable datasets from fewer samples. To eliminate the side effects of overfitting brought about by the large capacity of powerful learners, regularizers are applied in the learning procedure of RDFM. RDFM is evaluated in various types of datasets, and the results reveal that it is necessary to apply unsupervised regularization in the fine-tuning phase of deep learning. Thus, for very flexible models, the optimal Fisher feature extractor may be a balance between discriminative ability and descriptive ability.

  8. New Two-Body Regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Toshio

    2007-01-01

    We present a new scheme to regularize a three-dimensional two-body problem under perturbations. It is a combination of Sundman's time transformation and Levi-Civita's spatial coordinate transformation applied to the two-dimensional components of the position and velocity vectors in the osculating orbital plane. We adopt a coordinate triad specifying the plane as a function of the orbital angular momentum vector only. Since the magnitude of the orbital angular momentum is explicitly computed from the in-the-plane components of the position and velocity vectors, only two components of the orbital angular momentum vector are to be determined. In addition to these, we select the total energy of the two-body system and the physical time as additional components of the new variables. The equations of motion of the new variables have no singularity even when the mutual distance is extremely small, and therefore, the new variables are suitable to deal with close encounters. As a result, the number of dependent variables in the new scheme becomes eight, which is significantly smaller than the existing schemes to avoid close encounters: two less than the Kustaanheimo-Stiefel and the Bürdet-Ferrandiz regularizations, and five less than the Sperling-Bürdet/Bürdet-Heggie regularization.

  9. Knowledge and regularity in planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, John A.; Langley, Pat; Matwin, Stan

    1992-01-01

    The field of planning has focused on several methods of using domain-specific knowledge. The three most common methods, use of search control, use of macro-operators, and analogy, are part of a continuum of techniques differing in the amount of reused plan information. This paper describes TALUS, a planner that exploits this continuum, and is used for comparing the relative utility of these methods. We present results showing how search control, macro-operators, and analogy are affected by domain regularity and the amount of stored knowledge.

  10. Toward universal coverage in Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, Linda J; Holahan, John; Weil, Alan; Clemans-Cope, Lisa; Buettgens, Matthew; Blavin, Fredric; Zuckerman, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents several options designed to help the Commonwealth of Massachusetts move to universal health insurance coverage. The alternatives all build upon a common base that includes an expansion of the Medicaid program, income-related tax credits, a purchasing pool, and government-sponsored reinsurance. These measures in themselves would not yield universal coverage, nor would an employer mandate by itself. We show that an individual mandate, and an employer mandate combined with an individual mandate, both would yield universal coverage with a relatively small increase in government costs relative to state gross domestic product and current health spending. The cost of an employer mandate--with a "pay or play" design--is sensitive to the payroll tax rate and base, the number and kind of exemptions, and whether workers whose employers "pay" receive discounts when they purchase health insurance. The development of these alternatives and their analyses contributed to the eventual health care compromise that emerged in Massachusetts in April 2006. PMID:17004641

  11. Bundled automobile insurance coverage and accidents.

    PubMed

    Li, Chu-Shiu; Liu, Chwen-Chi; Peng, Sheng-Chang

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the characteristics of automobile accidents by taking into account two types of automobile insurance coverage: comprehensive vehicle physical damage insurance and voluntary third-party liability insurance. By using a unique data set in the Taiwanese automobile insurance market, we explore the bundled automobile insurance coverage and the occurrence of claims. It is shown that vehicle physical damage insurance is the major automobile coverage and affects the decision to purchase voluntary liability insurance coverage as a complement. Moreover, policyholders with high vehicle physical damage insurance coverage have a significantly higher probability of filing vehicle damage claims, and if they additionally purchase low voluntary liability insurance coverage, their accident claims probability is higher than those who purchase high voluntary liability insurance coverage. Our empirical results reveal that additional automobile insurance coverage information can capture more driver characteristics and driving behaviors to provide useful information for insurers' underwriting policies and to help analyze the occurrence of automobile accidents.

  12. Tessellating the Sphere with Regular Polygons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto-Johnson, Hortensia; Bechthold, Dawn

    2004-01-01

    Tessellations in the Euclidean plane and regular polygons that tessellate the sphere are reviewed. The regular polygons that can possibly tesellate the sphere are spherical triangles, squares and pentagons.

  13. 5 CFR 300.603 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 300.603 Section 300.603 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT (GENERAL) Time-In-Grade Restrictions § 300.603 Coverage. (a) Coverage. This subpart applies to advancement to a...

  14. 5 CFR 300.603 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 300.603 Section 300.603 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT (GENERAL) Time-In-Grade Restrictions § 300.603 Coverage. (a) Coverage. This subpart applies to advancement to a...

  15. 5 CFR 351.202 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 351.202 Section 351.202... Provisions § 351.202 Coverage. (a) Employees covered. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section... administrative body to be covered hereunder. Coverage includes administrative law judges except as modified...

  16. 5 CFR 430.202 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 430.202 Section 430.202... Performance Appraisal for General Schedule, Prevailing Rate, and Certain Other Employees § 430.202 Coverage..., coverage includes, but is not limited to, senior-level and scientific and professional employees paid...

  17. 5 CFR 530.303 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 530.303 Section 530.303...) Special Rate Schedules for Recruitment and Retention General Provisions § 530.303 Coverage. (a) Under 5 U... coverage criteria specifically state otherwise. OPM will establish special rate schedules...

  18. 29 CFR 1975.4 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coverage. 1975.4 Section 1975.4 Labor Regulations Relating...) COVERAGE OF EMPLOYERS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 § 1975.4 Coverage. (a) General. Any employer employing one or more employees would be an “employer engaged in...

  19. 5 CFR 430.202 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 430.202 Section 430.202... Performance Appraisal for General Schedule, Prevailing Rate, and Certain Other Employees § 430.202 Coverage..., coverage includes, but is not limited to, senior-level and scientific and professional employees paid...

  20. 5 CFR 530.303 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 530.303 Section 530.303...) Special Rate Schedules for Recruitment and Retention General Provisions § 530.303 Coverage. (a) Under 5 U... coverage criteria specifically state otherwise. OPM will establish special rate schedules...

  1. 5 CFR 530.303 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 530.303 Section 530.303...) Special Rate Schedules for Recruitment and Retention General Provisions § 530.303 Coverage. (a) Under 5 U... coverage criteria specifically state otherwise. OPM will establish special rate schedules...

  2. 5 CFR 530.303 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 530.303 Section 530.303...) Special Rate Schedules for Recruitment and Retention General Provisions § 530.303 Coverage. (a) Under 5 U... coverage criteria specifically state otherwise. OPM will establish special rate schedules...

  3. 5 CFR 890.804 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 890.804 Section 890.804... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Benefits for Former Spouses § 890.804 Coverage. (a) Type of enrollment. A former spouse who meets the requirements of § 890.803 may elect coverage for self only or for self...

  4. 5 CFR 890.1106 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...(5) and who meets any applicable requirements of 5 CFR 890.302 of this part. (2) For a former spouse... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 890.1106 Section 890.1106... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Temporary Continuation of Coverage § 890.1106 Coverage. (a) Type...

  5. 5 CFR 351.202 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 351.202 Section 351.202... Provisions § 351.202 Coverage. (a) Employees covered. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section... administrative body to be covered hereunder. Coverage includes administrative law judges except as modified...

  6. 5 CFR 880.303 - FEHBP coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false FEHBP coverage. 880.303 Section 880.303... FEHBP coverage. (a) If the missing annuitant had a family enrollment, the enrollment will be transferred... she disappeared, subject to the temporary extension of coverage for conversion. (c) If the...

  7. 5 CFR 9901.503 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 9901.503 Section 9901.503... (NSPS) Staffing and Employment General § 9901.503 Coverage. (a) At his or her sole and exclusive... in DoD organizational and functional units are eligible for coverage under this subpart:...

  8. 42 CFR 423.566 - Coverage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coverage determinations. 423.566 Section 423.566... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Grievances, Coverage Determinations, Redeterminations, and Reconsiderations § 423.566 Coverage determinations. (a) Responsibilities...

  9. 5 CFR 890.1106 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...(5) and who meets any applicable requirements of 5 CFR 890.302 of this part. (2) For a former spouse... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 890.1106 Section 890.1106... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Temporary Continuation of Coverage § 890.1106 Coverage. (a) Type...

  10. 7 CFR 1806.3 - Coverage requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage requirements. 1806.3 Section 1806.3... REGULATIONS INSURANCE Real Property Insurance § 1806.3 Coverage requirements. The County Supervisor should..., the County Supervisor will see that the coverage is obtained on one or more of the most...

  11. 5 CFR 9701.505 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 9701.505 Section 9701.505... MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Labor-Management Relations § 9701.505 Coverage. (a) Employees covered. This subpart applies....S.C. chapter 71 are eligible for coverage under this subpart. In addition, this subpart applies...

  12. 5 CFR 430.202 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 430.202 Section 430.202... Performance Appraisal for General Schedule, Prevailing Rate, and Certain Other Employees § 430.202 Coverage..., coverage includes, but is not limited to, senior-level and scientific and professional employees paid...

  13. 42 CFR 423.566 - Coverage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coverage determinations. 423.566 Section 423.566... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Grievances, Coverage Determinations, Redeterminations, and Reconsiderations § 423.566 Coverage determinations. (a) Responsibilities...

  14. 5 CFR 351.202 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 351.202 Section 351.202... Provisions § 351.202 Coverage. (a) Employees covered. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section... administrative body to be covered hereunder. Coverage includes administrative law judges except as modified...

  15. 5 CFR 351.202 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 351.202 Section 351.202... Provisions § 351.202 Coverage. (a) Employees covered. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section... administrative body to be covered hereunder. Coverage includes administrative law judges except as modified...

  16. 5 CFR 890.1203 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 890.1203 Section 890.1203... Hostages Captured in Lebanon § 890.1203 Coverage. (a) An individual is covered under this subpart when the U.S. Department of State determines that the individual is eligible for coverage under section...

  17. 5 CFR 430.202 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 430.202 Section 430.202... Performance Appraisal for General Schedule, Prevailing Rate, and Certain Other Employees § 430.202 Coverage..., coverage includes, but is not limited to, senior-level and scientific and professional employees paid...

  18. 5 CFR 880.303 - FEHBP coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false FEHBP coverage. 880.303 Section 880.303... FEHBP coverage. (a) If the missing annuitant had a family enrollment, the enrollment will be transferred... she disappeared, subject to the temporary extension of coverage for conversion. (c) If the...

  19. 5 CFR 890.1106 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...(5) and who meets any applicable requirements of 5 CFR 890.302 of this part. (2) For a former spouse... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 890.1106 Section 890.1106... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Temporary Continuation of Coverage § 890.1106 Coverage. (a) Type...

  20. 5 CFR 530.303 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 530.303 Section 530.303...) Special Rate Schedules for Recruitment and Retention General Provisions § 530.303 Coverage. (a) Under 5 U... coverage criteria specifically state otherwise. OPM will establish special rate schedules...

  1. 5 CFR 890.1106 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...(5) and who meets any applicable requirements of 5 CFR 890.302 of this part. (2) For a former spouse... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 890.1106 Section 890.1106... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Temporary Continuation of Coverage § 890.1106 Coverage. (a) Type...

  2. 5 CFR 317.301 - Conversion coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conversion coverage. 317.301 Section 317... THE SENIOR EXECUTIVE SERVICE Conversion to the Senior Executive Service § 317.301 Conversion coverage... statutory action extending coverage under 5 U.S.C. 3132(a)(1) to that agency. Except as otherwise...

  3. 5 CFR 430.202 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 430.202 Section 430.202... Performance Appraisal for General Schedule, Prevailing Rate, and Certain Other Employees § 430.202 Coverage..., coverage includes, but is not limited to, senior-level and scientific and professional employees paid...

  4. 5 CFR 351.202 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 351.202 Section 351.202... Provisions § 351.202 Coverage. (a) Employees covered. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section... administrative body to be covered hereunder. Coverage includes administrative law judges except as modified...

  5. 5 CFR 300.603 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 300.603 Section 300.603 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT (GENERAL) Time-In-Grade Restrictions § 300.603 Coverage. (a) Coverage. This subpart applies to advancement to a...

  6. 5 CFR 300.603 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 300.603 Section 300.603 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT (GENERAL) Time-In-Grade Restrictions § 300.603 Coverage. (a) Coverage. This subpart applies to advancement to a...

  7. 5 CFR 300.603 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 300.603 Section 300.603 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT (GENERAL) Time-In-Grade Restrictions § 300.603 Coverage. (a) Coverage. This subpart applies to advancement to a...

  8. 40 CFR 51.356 - Vehicle coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vehicle coverage. 51.356 Section 51.356....356 Vehicle coverage. The performance standard for enhanced I/M programs assumes coverage of all 1968 and later model year light duty vehicles and light duty trucks up to 8,500 pounds GVWR, and...

  9. 40 CFR 51.356 - Vehicle coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle coverage. 51.356 Section 51.356....356 Vehicle coverage. The performance standard for enhanced I/M programs assumes coverage of all 1968 and later model year light duty vehicles and light duty trucks up to 8,500 pounds GVWR, and...

  10. 45 CFR 2543.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 2543.31 Section 2543.31 Public... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 2543.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with...

  11. 36 CFR 1210.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 1210.31 Section 1210.31 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL....31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage...

  12. 10 CFR 600.131 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 600.131 Section 600.131 Energy... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.131 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with DOE funds...

  13. 24 CFR 84.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 84.31 Section 84.31 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for...

  14. 2 CFR 215.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 215.31 Section 215.31... A-110) Post Award Requirements Property Standards § 215.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired...

  15. 34 CFR 74.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 74.31 Section 74.31 Education... Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided to property...

  16. 15 CFR 14.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 14.31 Section 14... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 14.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  17. 10 CFR 600.131 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 600.131 Section 600.131 Energy... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.131 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with DOE funds...

  18. 45 CFR 2543.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 2543.31 Section 2543.31 Public... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 2543.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with...

  19. 32 CFR 32.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 32.31 Section 32.31 National... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 32.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  20. 40 CFR 30.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 30.31 Section 30.31... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 30.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  1. 49 CFR 19.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 19.31 Section 19.31... Requirements Property Standards § 19.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided...

  2. 22 CFR 518.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Insurance coverage. 518.31 Section 518.31... Requirements Property Standards § 518.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided...

  3. 34 CFR 74.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 74.31 Section 74.31 Education... Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided to property...

  4. 32 CFR 32.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 32.31 Section 32.31 National... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 32.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  5. 36 CFR 1210.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 1210.31 Section 1210.31 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL....31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage...

  6. 24 CFR 35.1140 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 35.1140 Section... § 35.1140 Insurance coverage. For the requirements concerning the obligation of a PHA to obtain reasonable insurance coverage with respect to the hazards associated with evaluation and hazard...

  7. 24 CFR 84.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 84.31 Section 84.31 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for...

  8. 22 CFR 145.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 145.31 Section 145.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER... Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for...

  9. 28 CFR 70.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 70.31 Section 70.31...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 70.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients must, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  10. 22 CFR 226.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 226.31 Section 226.31...-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Property Standards § 226.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  11. 20 CFR 435.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 435.31 Section 435.31... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 435.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients must, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with...

  12. 38 CFR 49.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 49.31... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 49.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  13. 28 CFR 70.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 70.31 Section 70.31...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 70.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients must, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  14. 20 CFR 435.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 435.31 Section 435.31... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 435.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients must, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with...

  15. 2 CFR 215.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 215.31 Section 215.31 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved UNIFORM... Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for...

  16. 45 CFR 74.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 74.31 Section 74.31 Public..., AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  17. 22 CFR 226.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 226.31 Section 226.31...-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Property Standards § 226.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  18. 24 CFR 35.1140 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 35.1140 Section... § 35.1140 Insurance coverage. For the requirements concerning the obligation of a PHA to obtain reasonable insurance coverage with respect to the hazards associated with evaluation and hazard...

  19. 22 CFR 145.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 145.31 Section 145.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER... Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for...

  20. 15 CFR 14.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 14.31 Section 14... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 14.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  1. 40 CFR 30.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 30.31 Section 30.31... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 30.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  2. 22 CFR 518.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Insurance coverage. 518.31 Section 518.31... Requirements Property Standards § 518.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided...

  3. 49 CFR 19.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 19.31 Section 19.31... Requirements Property Standards § 19.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided...

  4. 45 CFR 74.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 74.31 Section 74.31 Public..., AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  5. 38 CFR 49.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 49.31... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 49.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  6. 45 CFR 74.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 74.31 Section 74.31 Public..., AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  7. 2 CFR 215.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 215.31 Section 215.31... A-110) Post Award Requirements Property Standards § 215.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired...

  8. 32 CFR 32.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 32.31 Section 32.31 National... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 32.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  9. 22 CFR 518.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Insurance coverage. 518.31 Section 518.31... Requirements Property Standards § 518.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided...

  10. 36 CFR 1210.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 1210.31 Section 1210.31 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL....31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage...

  11. 28 CFR 70.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 70.31 Section 70.31...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 70.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients must, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  12. 24 CFR 35.1140 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 35.1140 Section... § 35.1140 Insurance coverage. For the requirements concerning the obligation of a PHA to obtain reasonable insurance coverage with respect to the hazards associated with evaluation and hazard...

  13. 10 CFR 600.131 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 600.131 Section 600.131 Energy... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.131 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with DOE funds...

  14. 22 CFR 518.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 518.31 Section 518.31... Requirements Property Standards § 518.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided...

  15. 40 CFR 30.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 30.31 Section 30.31... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 30.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  16. 34 CFR 74.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 74.31 Section 74.31 Education... Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided to property...

  17. 38 CFR 49.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 49.31... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 49.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  18. 45 CFR 2543.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 2543.31 Section 2543.31 Public... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 2543.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with...

  19. 22 CFR 518.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Insurance coverage. 518.31 Section 518.31... Requirements Property Standards § 518.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided...

  20. 2 CFR 200.310 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 200.310 Section 200.310... REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS Post Federal Award Requirements Property Standards § 200.310 Insurance coverage. The non-Federal entity must, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real...

  1. 49 CFR 19.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 19.31 Section 19.31... Requirements Property Standards § 19.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided...

  2. 49 CFR 19.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 19.31 Section 19.31... Requirements Property Standards § 19.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided...

  3. 20 CFR 435.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 435.31 Section 435.31... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 435.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients must, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with...

  4. 34 CFR 74.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 74.31 Section 74.31 Education... Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided to property...

  5. 20 CFR 435.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 435.31 Section 435.31... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 435.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients must, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with...

  6. 10 CFR 600.131 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 600.131 Section 600.131 Energy... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.131 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with DOE funds...

  7. 28 CFR 70.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 70.31 Section 70.31...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 70.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients must, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  8. 38 CFR 49.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 49.31... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 49.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  9. 36 CFR 1210.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 1210.31 Section 1210.31 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL....31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage...

  10. 40 CFR 30.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 30.31 Section 30.31... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 30.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  11. 45 CFR 2543.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 2543.31 Section 2543.31 Public... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 2543.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with...

  12. 45 CFR 74.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 74.31 Section 74.31 Public..., AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  13. 15 CFR 14.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 14.31 Section 14... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 14.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  14. 22 CFR 145.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 145.31 Section 145.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER... Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for...

  15. 45 CFR 2543.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 2543.31 Section 2543.31 Public... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 2543.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with...

  16. 36 CFR 1210.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Insurance coverage. 1210.31 Section 1210.31 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL....31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage...

  17. 15 CFR 14.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 14.31 Section 14... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 14.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  18. 28 CFR 70.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 70.31 Section 70.31...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 70.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients must, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  19. 10 CFR 600.131 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 600.131 Section 600.131 Energy... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.131 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with DOE funds...

  20. 38 CFR 49.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 49.31... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 49.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  1. 22 CFR 226.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 226.31 Section 226.31...-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Property Standards § 226.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  2. 22 CFR 145.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 145.31 Section 145.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER... Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for...

  3. 22 CFR 145.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 145.31 Section 145.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER... Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for...

  4. 20 CFR 435.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 435.31 Section 435.31... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 435.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients must, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with...

  5. 22 CFR 226.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 226.31 Section 226.31...-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Property Standards § 226.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  6. 24 CFR 35.1140 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 35.1140 Section... § 35.1140 Insurance coverage. For the requirements concerning the obligation of a PHA to obtain reasonable insurance coverage with respect to the hazards associated with evaluation and hazard...

  7. 2 CFR 215.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 215.31 Section 215.31... A-110) Post Award Requirements Property Standards § 215.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired...

  8. 40 CFR 30.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 30.31 Section 30.31... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 30.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  9. 22 CFR 226.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 226.31 Section 226.31...-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Property Standards § 226.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  10. 49 CFR 19.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 19.31 Section 19.31... Requirements Property Standards § 19.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided...

  11. 32 CFR 32.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 32.31 Section 32.31 National... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 32.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  12. 32 CFR 32.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 32.31 Section 32.31 National... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 32.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  13. 15 CFR 14.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 14.31 Section 14... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 14.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  14. 24 CFR 35.1140 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 35.1140 Section... § 35.1140 Insurance coverage. For the requirements concerning the obligation of a PHA to obtain reasonable insurance coverage with respect to the hazards associated with evaluation and hazard...

  15. 34 CFR 74.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 74.31 Section 74.31 Education... Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided to property...

  16. 45 CFR 74.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 74.31 Section 74.31 Public..., AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  17. Children on the move and vaccination coverage in a low-income, urban Latino population.

    PubMed Central

    Findley, S E; Irigoyen, M; Schulman, A

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of childhood moves and foreign birth on vaccination coverage among Latino children in New York City. METHODS: Vaccination coverage was assessed in a survey of 314 children younger than 5 years at 2 immunization clinics. RESULTS: Forty-seven percent of the study children had moved abroad. After adjustment for health insurance, regular source of care, and country of birth, child moves had no independent effect on vaccination coverage. Foreign-born children had diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus, oral polio vaccine, and measles-mumps-rubella vaccination coverage rates similar to those of US-born children, but they were underimmunized in regard to Haemophilus influenzae type b and hepatitis B. CONCLUSIONS: Foreign birth, but not childhood moves, is a barrier to vaccinations among low-income, urban Latino children. PMID:10553396

  18. Regular Pentagons and the Fibonacci Sequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Doug

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates how to draw a regular pentagon. Shows the sequence of a succession of regular pentagons formed by extending the sides. Calculates the general formula of the Lucas and Fibonacci sequences. Presents a regular icosahedron as an example of the golden ratio. (YP)

  19. Some Cosine Relations and the Regular Heptagon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osler, Thomas J.; Heng, Phongthong

    2007-01-01

    The ancient Greek mathematicians sought to construct, by use of straight edge and compass only, all regular polygons. They had no difficulty with regular polygons having 3, 4, 5 and 6 sides, but the 7-sided heptagon eluded all their attempts. In this article, the authors discuss some cosine relations and the regular heptagon. (Contains 1 figure.)

  20. Natural frequency of regular basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjandra, Sugih S.; Pudjaprasetya, S. R.

    2014-03-01

    Similar to the vibration of a guitar string or an elastic membrane, water waves in an enclosed basin undergo standing oscillatory waves, also known as seiches. The resonant (eigen) periods of seiches are determined by water depth and geometry of the basin. For regular basins, explicit formulas are available. Resonance occurs when the dominant frequency of external force matches the eigen frequency of the basin. In this paper, we implement the conservative finite volume scheme to 2D shallow water equation to simulate resonance in closed basins. Further, we would like to use this scheme and utilizing energy spectra of the recorded signal to extract resonant periods of arbitrary basins. But here we first test the procedure for getting resonant periods of a square closed basin. The numerical resonant periods that we obtain are comparable with those from analytical formulas.

  1. Regularized degenerate multi-solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, Francisco; Fring, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    We report complex PT-symmetric multi-soliton solutions to the Korteweg de-Vries equation that asymptotically contain one-soliton solutions, with each of them possessing the same amount of finite real energy. We demonstrate how these solutions originate from degenerate energy solutions of the Schrödinger equation. Technically this is achieved by the application of Darboux-Crum transformations involving Jordan states with suitable regularizing shifts. Alternatively they may be constructed from a limiting process within the context Hirota's direct method or on a nonlinear superposition obtained from multiple Bäcklund transformations. The proposed procedure is completely generic and also applicable to other types of nonlinear integrable systems.

  2. Regularized degenerate multi-solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, Francisco; Fring, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    We report complex {P}{T} -symmetric multi-soliton solutions to the Korteweg de-Vries equation that asymptotically contain one-soliton solutions, with each of them possessing the same amount of finite real energy. We demonstrate how these solutions originate from degenerate energy solutions of the Schrödinger equation. Technically this is achieved by the application of Darboux-Crum transformations involving Jordan states with suitable regularizing shifts. Alternatively they may be constructed from a limiting process within the context Hirota's direct method or on a nonlinear superposition obtained from multiple Bäcklund transformations. The proposed procedure is completely generic and also applicable to other types of nonlinear integrable systems.

  3. Bayesian regularization of neural networks.

    PubMed

    Burden, Frank; Winkler, Dave

    2008-01-01

    Bayesian regularized artificial neural networks (BRANNs) are more robust than standard back-propagation nets and can reduce or eliminate the need for lengthy cross-validation. Bayesian regularization is a mathematical process that converts a nonlinear regression into a "well-posed" statistical problem in the manner of a ridge regression. The advantage of BRANNs is that the models are robust and the validation process, which scales as O(N2) in normal regression methods, such as back propagation, is unnecessary. These networks provide solutions to a number of problems that arise in QSAR modeling, such as choice of model, robustness of model, choice of validation set, size of validation effort, and optimization of network architecture. They are difficult to overtrain, since evidence procedures provide an objective Bayesian criterion for stopping training. They are also difficult to overfit, because the BRANN calculates and trains on a number of effective network parameters or weights, effectively turning off those that are not relevant. This effective number is usually considerably smaller than the number of weights in a standard fully connected back-propagation neural net. Automatic relevance determination (ARD) of the input variables can be used with BRANNs, and this allows the network to "estimate" the importance of each input. The ARD method ensures that irrelevant or highly correlated indices used in the modeling are neglected as well as showing which are the most important variables for modeling the activity data. This chapter outlines the equations that define the BRANN method plus a flowchart for producing a BRANN-QSAR model. Some results of the use of BRANNs on a number of data sets are illustrated and compared with other linear and nonlinear models.

  4. Insurance coverage for employment-related claims

    SciTech Connect

    Scheuermann, J.E.

    1993-12-31

    This article analyzes the principal coverage issues arising under CGL policies for employment-related claims. Section I discusses the bases of the duty to defend and the duty to idemnify in the key CGL policy provisions at issue, including the bodily injury and personal injury coverages. Section II examines the three provisions in CGL policies typically raised as defenses to coverage for employment-related claims and two public policy considerations that may affect claims for coverage. The duty to defend is given closer crutiny in section III. Finally, in section IV the effects of settlement on coverage are discussed. 106 refs.

  5. Influenza vaccination coverage among adults in Korea: 2008-2009 to 2011-2012 seasons.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hye Jung; Cho, Sung-Il

    2014-11-25

    The aim of this study was to examine seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccination coverage in adults from the 2008-2009 season to the 2011-2012 season, including pandemic and post-pandemic seasons in Korea. We collected data of self-reported vaccine use from the Korean Community Health Survey. We also collected information on socioeconomic status and health behaviors in subpopulations. We tested for linear trends among the data to investigate vaccine coverage before and after the pandemic; and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of obtaining the influenza vaccination. The results revealed a steady increase in vaccination coverage in every subgroup during four consecutive seasons. The highest rate of vaccine coverage (43.6%) occurred two years after the pandemic. Factors associated with vaccine receipt were: older age; lower education level; lower income; and health behaviors such as regular walking and receiving a health check-up. Smoking and drinking alcohol were inversely associated with vaccination. Having a chronic health condition was also a strong predictor of vaccine receipt. Though vaccination coverage rates were high in high-risk groups; disparities in coverage rates were substantial; particularly in young adults. Interventions are needed to minimize the coverage gaps among subgroups and to improve overall vaccination rates.

  6. Attack Coverage in High-Level Men's Volleyball: Organization on the Edge of Chaos?

    PubMed

    Laporta, Lorenzo; Nikolaidis, Pantelis; Thomas, Luke; Afonso, José

    2015-09-29

    Change is pervasive, but emerging patterns are occasionally detectable through analysis of systemic behaviors. Match analysis uses these patterns in order to reduce the degree of improvisation and to optimize the training process. However, it is possible that certain game phases elude systematic patterning. In this vein, our aim was to analyze the case of attack coverage in men's volleyball, as we suspected it would elude systematic patterning and has received negligible attention in scientific research. We analyzed the occurrence of attack coverage in 4544 plays of the 2011 Volleyball World League. A Chi-square test with residual adjusted values was applied to explore significant associations between variables. A Monte Carlo correction was applied, as some cells had n<5. Effect sizes were determined using Cramer's V. Overall, attack coverage occurred in 3.89% of ball possessions, and 23 distinct structures emerged. These structures lacked significant associations with the game complex, setting zone, and effect of attack coverage. Conversely, attack coverage structures showed significant associations with the attack zone and tempo, with very strong effect sizes (V=0.472 and V=0.521, respectively). As certain attack zones are deeply associated with attack tempo, it is apparent that quicker attack plays affect attack coverage structuring, promoting the formation of less complex structures. Ultimately, attack coverage structures seem to depend on momentary constraints, thereby rendering rigid systematization impracticable. Still, we contended that a principle-based approach might be suitable. This invites researchers to rethink how to interpret game regularities. PMID:26557208

  7. Stochastic regularization operators on unstructured meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordi, Claudio; Doetsch, Joseph; Günther, Thomas; Schmelzbach, Cedric; Robertsson, Johan

    2016-04-01

    Most geophysical inverse problems require the solution of underdetermined systems of equations. In order to solve such inverse problems, appropriate regularization is required. Ideally, this regularization includes information on the expected model variability and spatial correlation. Based on geostatistical covariance functions, which can be adapted to the specific situation, stochastic regularization can be used to add auxiliary constraints to the given inverse problem. Stochastic regularization operators have been successfully applied to geophysical inverse problems formulated on regular grids. Here, we demonstrate the calculation of stochastic regularization operators for unstructured meshes. Unstructured meshes are advantageous with regards to incorporating arbitrary topography, undulating geological interfaces and complex acquisition geometries into the inversion. However, compared to regular grids, unstructured meshes have variable cell sizes, complicating the calculation of stochastic operators. The stochastic operators proposed here are based on a 2D exponential correlation function, allowing to predefine spatial correlation lengths. The regularization thus acts over an imposed correlation length rather than only taking into account neighbouring cells as in regular smoothing constraints. Correlation over a spatial length partly removes the effects of variable cell sizes of unstructured meshes on the regularization. Synthetic models having large-scale interfaces as well as small-scale stochastic variations are used to analyse the performance and behaviour of the stochastic regularization operators. The resulting inverted models obtained with stochastic regularization are compare against the results of standard regularization approaches (damping and smoothing). Besides using stochastic operators for regularization, we plan to incorporate the footprint of the stochastic operator in further applications such as the calculation of the cross-gradient functions

  8. Learning regularized LDA by clustering.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yanwei; Wang, Shuang; Yuan, Yuan

    2014-12-01

    As a supervised dimensionality reduction technique, linear discriminant analysis has a serious overfitting problem when the number of training samples per class is small. The main reason is that the between- and within-class scatter matrices computed from the limited number of training samples deviate greatly from the underlying ones. To overcome the problem without increasing the number of training samples, we propose making use of the structure of the given training data to regularize the between- and within-class scatter matrices by between- and within-cluster scatter matrices, respectively, and simultaneously. The within- and between-cluster matrices are computed from unsupervised clustered data. The within-cluster scatter matrix contributes to encoding the possible variations in intraclasses and the between-cluster scatter matrix is useful for separating extra classes. The contributions are inversely proportional to the number of training samples per class. The advantages of the proposed method become more remarkable as the number of training samples per class decreases. Experimental results on the AR and Feret face databases demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. Ideal regularization for learning kernels from labels.

    PubMed

    Pan, Binbin; Lai, Jianhuang; Shen, Lixin

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a new form of regularization that is able to utilize the label information of a data set for learning kernels. The proposed regularization, referred to as ideal regularization, is a linear function of the kernel matrix to be learned. The ideal regularization allows us to develop efficient algorithms to exploit labels. Three applications of the ideal regularization are considered. Firstly, we use the ideal regularization to incorporate the labels into a standard kernel, making the resulting kernel more appropriate for learning tasks. Next, we employ the ideal regularization to learn a data-dependent kernel matrix from an initial kernel matrix (which contains prior similarity information, geometric structures, and labels of the data). Finally, we incorporate the ideal regularization to some state-of-the-art kernel learning problems. With this regularization, these learning problems can be formulated as simpler ones which permit more efficient solvers. Empirical results show that the ideal regularization exploits the labels effectively and efficiently.

  10. Whitecap coverage from aerial photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, R. W.

    1970-01-01

    A program for determining the feasibility of deriving sea surface wind speeds by remotely sensing ocean surface radiances in the nonglitter regions is discussed. With a knowledge of the duration and geographical extent of the wind field, information about the conventional sea state may be derived. The use of optical techniques for determining sea state has obvious limitations. For example, such means can be used only in daylight and only when a clear path of sight is available between the sensor and the surface. However, sensors and vehicles capable of providing the data needed for such techniques are planned for the near future; therefore, a secondary or backup capability can be provided with little added effort. The information currently being sought regarding white water coverage is also of direct interest to those working with passive microwave systems, the study of energy transfer between winds and ocean currents, the aerial estimation of wind speeds, and many others.

  11. Sideline coverage of youth football.

    PubMed

    Rizzone, Katie; Diamond, Alex; Gregory, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Youth football is a popular sport in the United States and has been for some time. There are currently more than 3 million participants in youth football leagues according to USA Football. While the number of participants and overall injuries may be higher in other sports, football has a higher rate of injuries. Most youth sporting events do not have medical personnel on the sidelines in event of an injury or emergency. Therefore it is necessary for youth sports coaches to undergo basic medical training in order to effectively act in these situations. In addition, an argument could be made that appropriate medical personnel should be on the sideline for collision sports at all levels, from youth to professional. This article will discuss issues pertinent to sideline coverage of youth football, including coaching education, sideline personnel, emergency action plans, age and size divisions, tackle versus flag football, and injury prevention.

  12. 45 CFR 148.124 - Certification and disclosure of coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... days of creditable coverage before a significant break in coverage as defined in § 146.113(b)(2)(iii... (for example, family coverage or individual-plus-spouse coverage). (B) Certificates provided on...

  13. Regular attractors and nonautonomous perturbations of them

    SciTech Connect

    Vishik, Marko I; Zelik, Sergey V; Chepyzhov, Vladimir V

    2013-01-31

    We study regular global attractors of dissipative dynamical semigroups with discrete or continuous time and we investigate attractors for nonautonomous perturbations of such semigroups. The main theorem states that the regularity of global attractors is preserved under small nonautonomous perturbations. Moreover, nonautonomous regular global attractors remain exponential and robust. We apply these general results to model nonautonomous reaction-diffusion systems in a bounded domain of R{sup 3} with time-dependent external forces. Bibliography: 22 titles.

  14. 29 CFR 779.234 - Establishments whose only regular employees are the owner or members of his immediate family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or members of his immediate family. 779.234 Section 779.234 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor... Employment to Which the Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business... family. Section 3(s) provides that any “establishment which has as its only regular employees the...

  15. State-Space Regularization: Geometric Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Chavent, G.; Kunisch, K.

    1998-05-15

    Regularization of nonlinear ill-posed inverse problems is analyzed for a class of problems that is characterized by mappings which are the composition of a well-posed nonlinear and an ill-posed linear mapping. Regularization is carried out in the range of the nonlinear mapping. In applications this corresponds to the state-space variable of a partial differential equation or to preconditioning of data. The geometric theory of projection onto quasi-convex sets is used to analyze the stabilizing properties of this regularization technique and to describe its asymptotic behavior as the regularization parameter tends to zero.

  16. Regular Decompositions for H(div) Spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kolev, Tzanio; Vassilevski, Panayot

    2012-01-01

    We study regular decompositions for H(div) spaces. In particular, we show that such regular decompositions are closely related to a previously studied “inf-sup” condition for parameter-dependent Stokes problems, for which we provide an alternative, more direct, proof.

  17. 12 CFR 725.3 - Regular membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... advances without approval of the NCUA Board for a period of six months after becoming a member. This subsection shall not apply to any credit union which becomes a Regular member of the Facility within six... member of the Facility at any time within six months prior to becoming a Regular member of the Facility....

  18. Continuum regularization of quantum field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bern, Z.

    1986-04-01

    Possible nonperturbative continuum regularization schemes for quantum field theory are discussed which are based upon the Langevin equation of Parisi and Wu. Breit, Gupta and Zaks made the first proposal for new gauge invariant nonperturbative regularization. The scheme is based on smearing in the ''fifth-time'' of the Langevin equation. An analysis of their stochastic regularization scheme for the case of scalar electrodynamics with the standard covariant gauge fixing is given. Their scheme is shown to preserve the masslessness of the photon and the tensor structure of the photon vacuum polarization at the one-loop level. Although stochastic regularization is viable in one-loop electrodynamics, two difficulties arise which, in general, ruins the scheme. One problem is that the superficial quadratic divergences force a bottomless action for the noise. Another difficulty is that stochastic regularization by fifth-time smearing is incompatible with Zwanziger's gauge fixing, which is the only known nonperturbaive covariant gauge fixing for nonabelian gauge theories. Finally, a successful covariant derivative scheme is discussed which avoids the difficulties encountered with the earlier stochastic regularization by fifth-time smearing. For QCD the regularized formulation is manifestly Lorentz invariant, gauge invariant, ghost free and finite to all orders. A vanishing gluon mass is explicitly verified at one loop. The method is designed to respect relevant symmetries, and is expected to provide suitable regularization for any theory of interest. Hopefully, the scheme will lend itself to nonperturbative analysis. 44 refs., 16 figs.

  19. Transport Code for Regular Triangular Geometry

    1993-06-09

    DIAMANT2 solves the two-dimensional static multigroup neutron transport equation in planar regular triangular geometry. Both regular and adjoint, inhomogeneous and homogeneous problems subject to vacuum, reflective or input specified boundary flux conditions are solved. Anisotropy is allowed for the scattering source. Volume and surface sources are allowed for inhomogeneous problems.

  20. On regularizations of the Dirac delta distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, Bamdad; Nigam, Nilima; Stockie, John M.

    2016-01-01

    In this article we consider regularizations of the Dirac delta distribution with applications to prototypical elliptic and hyperbolic partial differential equations (PDEs). We study the convergence of a sequence of distributions SH to a singular term S as a parameter H (associated with the support size of SH) shrinks to zero. We characterize this convergence in both the weak-* topology of distributions and a weighted Sobolev norm. These notions motivate a framework for constructing regularizations of the delta distribution that includes a large class of existing methods in the literature. This framework allows different regularizations to be compared. The convergence of solutions of PDEs with these regularized source terms is then studied in various topologies such as pointwise convergence on a deleted neighborhood and weighted Sobolev norms. We also examine the lack of symmetry in tensor product regularizations and effects of dissipative error in hyperbolic problems.

  1. Increasing cellular coverage within integrated terrestrial/satellite mobile networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, Jonathan P.

    1995-01-01

    When applying the hierarchical cellular concept, the satellite acts as giant umbrella cell covering a region with some terrestrial cells. If a mobile terminal traversing the region arrives to the border-line or limits of a regular cellular ground service, network transition occurs and the satellite system continues the mobile coverage. To adequately assess the boundaries of service of a mobile satellite system an a cellular network within an integrated environment, this paper provides an optimized scheme to predict when a network transition may be necessary. Under the assumption of a classified propagation phenomenon and Lognormal shadowing, the study applies an analytical approach to estimate the location of a mobile terminal based on a reception of the signal strength emitted by a base station.

  2. Computational Methods for Analyzing Health News Coverage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarlane, Delano J.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers that investigate the media's coverage of health have historically relied on keyword searches to retrieve relevant health news coverage, and manual content analysis methods to categorize and score health news text. These methods are problematic. Manual content analysis methods are labor intensive, time consuming, and inherently…

  3. 43 CFR 3933.51 - Bond coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bond coverage. 3933.51 Section 3933.51 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Assignments and Subleases § 3933.51 Bond coverage. Before the BLM will approve an assignment, the...

  4. 7 CFR 1735.11 - Area coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... effect this requirement. See 7 CFR 1737.11(a), Preapplication Determinations: Area to be Served. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Area coverage. 1735.11 Section 1735.11 Agriculture... Policies § 1735.11 Area coverage. Borrowers must make adequate telephone service available to the...

  5. 7 CFR 1710.103 - Area coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Area coverage. 1710.103 Section 1710.103 Agriculture... Basic Policies § 1710.103 Area coverage. (a) Borrowers shall make a diligent effort to extend electric service to all unserved persons within their service area who: (1) Desire electric service; and (2)...

  6. 7 CFR 1710.103 - Area coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Area coverage. 1710.103 Section 1710.103 Agriculture... Basic Policies § 1710.103 Area coverage. (a) Borrowers shall make a diligent effort to extend electric service to all unserved persons within their service area who: (1) Desire electric service; and (2)...

  7. 7 CFR 1735.11 - Area coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... effect this requirement. See 7 CFR 1737.11(a), Preapplication Determinations: Area to be Served. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Area coverage. 1735.11 Section 1735.11 Agriculture... Policies § 1735.11 Area coverage. Borrowers must make adequate telephone service available to the...

  8. 5 CFR 430.302 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 430.302 Section 430.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Managing Senior Executive Performance § 430.302 Coverage. (a) This subpart applies to all senior...

  9. 5 CFR 752.201 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 752.201 Section 752.201 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) ADVERSE ACTIONS Regulatory Requirements for Suspension for 14 Days or Less § 752.201 Coverage. (a) Adverse...

  10. 5 CFR 430.302 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 430.302 Section 430.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Managing Senior Executive Performance § 430.302 Coverage. (a) This subpart applies to all senior...

  11. 5 CFR 9701.704 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... an administrative grievance procedure, whichever is applicable. (c) The appeal rights in 5 CFR 315... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 9701.704 Section 9701.704... MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Appeals § 9701.704 Coverage. (a) Subject to a determination by the Secretary or...

  12. 5 CFR 610.101 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 610.101 Section 610.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Weekly and Daily Scheduling of Work § 610.101 Coverage. This subpart applies to each employee to whom subpart A of part...

  13. 5 CFR 339.101 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 339.101 Section 339.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS MEDICAL QUALIFICATION DETERMINATIONS General § 339.101 Coverage. This part applies to all applicants for and employees in...

  14. 5 CFR 300.402 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 300.402 Section 300.402 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT (GENERAL) Use of Commercial Recruiting Firms and Nonprofit Employment Services § 300.402 Coverage. This part applies...

  15. 5 CFR 339.101 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 339.101 Section 339.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS MEDICAL QUALIFICATION DETERMINATIONS General § 339.101 Coverage. This part applies to all applicants for and employees in...

  16. 5 CFR 359.901 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CFR 752.601(c)(2). ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 359.901 Section 359.901... Appointees and Reemployed Annuitants § 359.901 Coverage. (a) This subpart covers the removal from the SES...

  17. 45 CFR 73.735-1001 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coverage. 73.735-1001 Section 73.735-1001 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Provisions Relating to Experts, Consultants and Advisory Committee Members § 73.735-1001 Coverage. (a) For purposes...

  18. 22 CFR 513.610 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Coverage. 513.610 Section 513.610 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS GOVERNMENT DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) AND... Coverage. (a) This subpart applies to any grantee of the Board. (b) This subpart applies to any...

  19. 7 CFR 1710.103 - Area coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Area coverage. 1710.103 Section 1710.103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Basic Policies § 1710.103 Area coverage. (a) Borrowers shall make a diligent effort to extend...

  20. 5 CFR 534.601 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 534.601 Section 534.601 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Administrative Appeals Judge Positions § 534.601 Coverage. (a) This subpart implements 5 U.S.C. 5372b and...

  1. 5 CFR 730.103 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 730.103 Section 730.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) NOTIFICATION OF POST-EMPLOYMENT RESTRICTIONS § 730.103 Coverage. (a) The following individuals are subject...

  2. 5 CFR 610.101 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 610.101 Section 610.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Weekly and Daily Scheduling of Work § 610.101 Coverage. This subpart applies to each employee to whom subpart A of part...

  3. 5 CFR 730.103 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 730.103 Section 730.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) NOTIFICATION OF POST-EMPLOYMENT RESTRICTIONS § 730.103 Coverage. (a) The following individuals are subject...

  4. 49 CFR 209.303 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coverage. 209.303 Section 209.303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Disqualification Procedures § 209.303 Coverage....

  5. 41 CFR 302-17.2 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Coverage. 302-17.2 Section 302-17.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES MISCELLANEOUS ALLOWANCES 17-RELOCATION INCOME TAX (RIT) ALLOWANCE § 302-17.2 Coverage....

  6. 5 CFR 550.702 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 550.702 Section 550.702 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Severance Pay § 550.702 Coverage. Except as provided in 5 U.S.C. 5595(a)(2) (i) through (viii), this...

  7. 5 CFR 300.502 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 300.502 Section 300.502 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT (GENERAL) Use of Private Sector Temporaries § 300.502 Coverage. (a) These regulations apply to the competitive service...

  8. 49 CFR 209.303 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage. 209.303 Section 209.303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Disqualification Procedures § 209.303 Coverage....

  9. 5 CFR 752.201 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 752.201 Section 752.201 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) ADVERSE ACTIONS Regulatory Requirements for Suspension for 14 Days or Less § 752.201 Coverage. (a) Adverse...

  10. 5 CFR 550.802 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 550.802 Section 550.802 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Back Pay § 550.802 Coverage. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, this...

  11. 7 CFR 1710.103 - Area coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Area coverage. 1710.103 Section 1710.103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Basic Policies § 1710.103 Area coverage. (a) Borrowers shall make a diligent effort to extend...

  12. 5 CFR 534.601 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 534.601 Section 534.601 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Administrative Appeals Judge Positions § 534.601 Coverage. (a) This subpart implements 5 U.S.C. 5372b and...

  13. 5 CFR 304.101 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 304.101 Section 304.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EXPERT AND CONSULTANT APPOINTMENTS § 304.101 Coverage. These regulations apply to the appointment of experts and consultants...

  14. 5 CFR 610.304 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 610.304 Section 610.304 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Administrative Dismissals of Daily, Hourly, and Piecework Employees § 610.304 Coverage. This subpart applies to...

  15. 38 CFR 8a.4 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coverage. 8a.4 Section 8a.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS VETERANS MORTGAGE LIFE INSURANCE § 8a.4 Coverage. (a) The amount of VMLI in force on his or her life at any one time shall...

  16. 29 CFR 1603.101 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coverage. 1603.101 Section 1603.101 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION PROCEDURES FOR PREVIOUSLY EXEMPT... GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEE RIGHTS ACT OF 1991 Administrative Process § 1603.101 Coverage. Section 304 of...

  17. 5 CFR 532.103 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 532.103 Section 532.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS General Provisions § 532.103 Coverage. The provisions of this part shall apply to prevailing rate employees...

  18. 5 CFR 9701.704 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... an administrative grievance procedure, whichever is applicable. (c) The appeal rights in 5 CFR 315... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 9701.704 Section 9701.704... MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Appeals § 9701.704 Coverage. (a) Subject to a determination by the Secretary or...

  19. 5 CFR 630.701 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 630.701 Section 630.701 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Shore Leave § 630.701 Coverage. This subpart applies to an employee as defined in section 6301 of title 5,...

  20. 5 CFR 630.602 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 630.602 Section 630.602 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Home Leave § 630.602 Coverage. An employee who meets the requirements of section 6304(b) of title 5, United...

  1. 5 CFR 752.201 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 752.201 Section 752.201 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) ADVERSE ACTIONS Regulatory Requirements for Suspension for 14 Days or Less § 752.201 Coverage. (a) Adverse...

  2. 5 CFR 610.304 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 610.304 Section 610.304 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Administrative Dismissals of Daily, Hourly, and Piecework Employees § 610.304 Coverage. This subpart applies to...

  3. 5 CFR 550.1001 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 550.1001 Section 550.1001 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Adjustment of Work Schedules for Religious Observances § 550.1001 Coverage. This subpart applies to...

  4. 45 CFR 73.735-1001 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coverage. 73.735-1001 Section 73.735-1001 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Provisions Relating to Experts, Consultants and Advisory Committee Members § 73.735-1001 Coverage. (a) For purposes...

  5. 24 CFR 200.17 - Mortgage coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mortgage coverage. 200.17 Section 200.17 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Eligible Mortgage § 200.17 Mortgage coverage. The...

  6. 5 CFR 1320.4 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 1320.4 Section 1320.4 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES CONTROLLING PAPERWORK BURDENS ON THE PUBLIC § 1320.4 Coverage. (a) The requirements of this part apply to all agencies as defined in §...

  7. 29 CFR 9.3 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Coverage. 9.3 Section 9.3 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor NONDISPLACEMENT OF QUALIFIED WORKERS UNDER SERVICE CONTRACTS General § 9.3 Coverage. This part applies to all service contracts and their solicitations, except those excluded by § 9.4 of this...

  8. 7 CFR 1735.11 - Area coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... effect this requirement. See 7 CFR 1737.11(a), Preapplication Determinations: Area to be Served. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Area coverage. 1735.11 Section 1735.11 Agriculture... Policies § 1735.11 Area coverage. Borrowers must make adequate telephone service available to the...

  9. 5 CFR 550.802 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 550.802 Section 550.802 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Back Pay § 550.802 Coverage. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, this...

  10. 49 CFR 209.303 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coverage. 209.303 Section 209.303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Disqualification Procedures § 209.303 Coverage....

  11. 5 CFR 9701.704 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... an administrative grievance procedure, whichever is applicable. (c) The appeal rights in 5 CFR 315... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 9701.704 Section 9701.704... MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Appeals § 9701.704 Coverage. (a) Subject to a determination by the Secretary or...

  12. 5 CFR 880.304 - FEGLI coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false FEGLI coverage. 880.304 Section 880.304 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED... FEGLI coverage. (a) FEGLI premiums will not be collected during periods when an annuitant is a...

  13. 24 CFR 51.4 - Program coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Program coverage. 51.4 Section 51.4 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ENVIRONMENTAL CRITERIA AND STANDARDS General Provisions § 51.4 Program coverage. Environmental standards...

  14. 5 CFR 304.101 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 304.101 Section 304.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EXPERT AND CONSULTANT APPOINTMENTS § 304.101 Coverage. These regulations apply to the appointment of experts and consultants...

  15. 5 CFR 752.201 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 752.201 Section 752.201 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) ADVERSE ACTIONS Regulatory Requirements for Suspension for 14 Days or Less § 752.201 Coverage. (a) Adverse...

  16. 5 CFR 890.601 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 890.601 Section 890.601 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL... Coverage. An annuitant (a retired employee or survivor under part 891 of this chapter) who is enrolled,...

  17. 5 CFR 352.502 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 352.502 Section 352.502 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS....502 Coverage. This subpart applies to any of the following serving in a position in the...

  18. 5 CFR 550.1001 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 550.1001 Section 550.1001 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Adjustment of Work Schedules for Religious Observances § 550.1001 Coverage. This subpart applies to...

  19. 5 CFR 412.101 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 412.101 Section 412.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS SUPERVISORY, MANAGEMENT, AND EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT General Provisions § 412.101 Coverage. This part applies to all incumbents of,...

  20. 5 CFR 412.101 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 412.101 Section 412.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS SUPERVISORY, MANAGEMENT, AND EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT General Provisions § 412.101 Coverage. This part applies to all incumbents of,...

  1. 5 CFR 430.302 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 430.302 Section 430.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Managing Senior Executive Performance § 430.302 Coverage. (a) This subpart applies to all senior...

  2. 38 CFR 8a.4 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coverage. 8a.4 Section 8a.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS VETERANS MORTGAGE LIFE INSURANCE § 8a.4 Coverage. (a) The amount of VMLI in force on his or her life at any one time shall...

  3. 25 CFR 700.505 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Coverage. 700.505 Section 700.505 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.505 Coverage. The regulations contained in this part apply to all...

  4. 5 CFR 752.601 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 752.601 Section 752.601 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) ADVERSE... Coverage. (a) Adverse actions covered. This subpart applies to suspensions for more than 14 days...

  5. 5 CFR 304.101 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 304.101 Section 304.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EXPERT AND CONSULTANT APPOINTMENTS § 304.101 Coverage. These regulations apply to the appointment of experts and consultants...

  6. 5 CFR 534.601 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 534.601 Section 534.601 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Administrative Appeals Judge Positions § 534.601 Coverage. (a) This subpart implements 5 U.S.C. 5372b and...

  7. 5 CFR 550.702 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 550.702 Section 550.702 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Severance Pay § 550.702 Coverage. Except as provided in 5 U.S.C. 5595(a)(2) (i) through (viii), this...

  8. 5 CFR 630.802 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 630.802 Section 630.802 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Funeral Leave § 630.802 Coverage. This subpart applies to: (a) An employee as defined in section 2105 of title...

  9. 5 CFR 630.802 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 630.802 Section 630.802 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Funeral Leave § 630.802 Coverage. This subpart applies to: (a) An employee as defined in section 2105 of title...

  10. 5 CFR 591.302 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 591.302 Section 591.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Allowance Based on Duty at Remote Worksites § 591.302 Coverage. (a) Agencies. This subpart applies...

  11. 5 CFR 532.103 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 532.103 Section 532.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS General Provisions § 532.103 Coverage. The provisions of this part shall apply to prevailing rate employees...

  12. 5 CFR 304.101 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 304.101 Section 304.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EXPERT AND CONSULTANT APPOINTMENTS § 304.101 Coverage. These regulations apply to the appointment of experts and consultants...

  13. 29 CFR 9.3 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coverage. 9.3 Section 9.3 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor NONDISPLACEMENT OF QUALIFIED WORKERS UNDER SERVICE CONTRACTS General § 9.3 Coverage. This part applies to all service contracts and their solicitations, except those excluded by § 9.4 of this...

  14. 5 CFR 752.601 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 752.601 Section 752.601 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) ADVERSE... Coverage. (a) Adverse actions covered. This subpart applies to suspensions for more than 14 days...

  15. 49 CFR 209.303 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coverage. 209.303 Section 209.303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Disqualification Procedures § 209.303 Coverage....

  16. 5 CFR 550.181 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 550.181 Section 550.181 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.181 Coverage. (a) Each employee meeting the...

  17. 5 CFR 1320.4 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 1320.4 Section 1320.4 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES CONTROLLING PAPERWORK BURDENS ON THE PUBLIC § 1320.4 Coverage. (a) The requirements of this part apply to all agencies as defined in §...

  18. 7 CFR 1735.11 - Area coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... effect this requirement. See 7 CFR 1737.11(a), Preapplication Determinations: Area to be Served. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Area coverage. 1735.11 Section 1735.11 Agriculture... Policies § 1735.11 Area coverage. Borrowers must make adequate telephone service available to the...

  19. 5 CFR 591.302 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 591.302 Section 591.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Allowance Based on Duty at Remote Worksites § 591.302 Coverage. (a) Agencies. This subpart applies...

  20. 5 CFR 550.181 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 550.181 Section 550.181 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.181 Coverage. (a) Each employee meeting the...

  1. 25 CFR 700.505 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Coverage. 700.505 Section 700.505 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.505 Coverage. The regulations contained in this part apply to all...

  2. 5 CFR 591.302 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 591.302 Section 591.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Allowance Based on Duty at Remote Worksites § 591.302 Coverage. (a) Agencies. This subpart applies...

  3. 5 CFR 300.502 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 300.502 Section 300.502 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT (GENERAL) Use of Private Sector Temporaries § 300.502 Coverage. (a) These regulations apply to the competitive service...

  4. 38 CFR 8a.4 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coverage. 8a.4 Section 8a.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS VETERANS MORTGAGE LIFE INSURANCE § 8a.4 Coverage. (a) The amount of VMLI in force on his or her life at any one time shall...

  5. 5 CFR 300.502 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 300.502 Section 300.502 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT (GENERAL) Use of Private Sector Temporaries § 300.502 Coverage. (a) These regulations apply to the competitive service...

  6. 5 CFR 630.602 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 630.602 Section 630.602 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Home Leave § 630.602 Coverage. An employee who meets the requirements of section 6304(b) of title 5, United...

  7. 49 CFR 209.303 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coverage. 209.303 Section 209.303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Disqualification Procedures § 209.303 Coverage....

  8. 5 CFR 610.304 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 610.304 Section 610.304 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Administrative Dismissals of Daily, Hourly, and Piecework Employees § 610.304 Coverage. This subpart applies to...

  9. 22 CFR 513.610 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Coverage. 513.610 Section 513.610 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS GOVERNMENT DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) AND... Coverage. (a) This subpart applies to any grantee of the Board. (b) This subpart applies to any...

  10. 22 CFR 513.610 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Coverage. 513.610 Section 513.610 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS GOVERNMENT DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) AND... Coverage. (a) This subpart applies to any grantee of the Board. (b) This subpart applies to any...

  11. 45 CFR 73.735-1001 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coverage. 73.735-1001 Section 73.735-1001 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Provisions Relating to Experts, Consultants and Advisory Committee Members § 73.735-1001 Coverage. (a) For purposes...

  12. 5 CFR 610.101 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 610.101 Section 610.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Weekly and Daily Scheduling of Work § 610.101 Coverage. This subpart applies to each employee to whom subpart A of part...

  13. 5 CFR 610.304 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 610.304 Section 610.304 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Administrative Dismissals of Daily, Hourly, and Piecework Employees § 610.304 Coverage. This subpart applies to...

  14. 7 CFR 1735.11 - Area coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... effect this requirement. See 7 CFR 1737.11(a), Preapplication Determinations: Area to be Served. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Area coverage. 1735.11 Section 1735.11 Agriculture... Policies § 1735.11 Area coverage. Borrowers must make adequate telephone service available to the...

  15. 5 CFR 531.202 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... U.S.C. 5305 and 5 CFR part 530, subpart C. ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 531.202 Section 531.202... Determining Rate of Basic Pay General Provisions § 531.202 Coverage. This subpart covers employees who...

  16. 5 CFR 251.102 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 251.102 Section 251.102 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS AGENCY RELATIONSHIPS WITH ORGANIZATIONS REPRESENTING FEDERAL EMPLOYEES AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONS General Provisions § 251.102 Coverage....

  17. 25 CFR 700.505 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Coverage. 700.505 Section 700.505 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.505 Coverage. The regulations contained in this part apply to all...

  18. 5 CFR 610.304 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 610.304 Section 610.304 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Administrative Dismissals of Daily, Hourly, and Piecework Employees § 610.304 Coverage. This subpart applies to...

  19. 43 CFR 3933.51 - Bond coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bond coverage. 3933.51 Section 3933.51 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... and Subleases § 3933.51 Bond coverage. Before the BLM will approve an assignment, the assignee...

  20. 5 CFR 300.502 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 300.502 Section 300.502 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT (GENERAL) Use of Private Sector Temporaries § 300.502 Coverage. (a) These regulations apply to the competitive service...

  1. 5 CFR 610.101 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 610.101 Section 610.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Weekly and Daily Scheduling of Work § 610.101 Coverage. This subpart applies to each employee to whom subpart A of part...

  2. 5 CFR 532.103 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 532.103 Section 532.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS General Provisions § 532.103 Coverage. The provisions of this part shall apply to prevailing rate employees...

  3. 5 CFR 630.602 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 630.602 Section 630.602 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Home Leave § 630.602 Coverage. An employee who meets the requirements of section 6304(b) of title 5, United...

  4. 5 CFR 532.103 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 532.103 Section 532.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS General Provisions § 532.103 Coverage. The provisions of this part shall apply to prevailing rate employees...

  5. 5 CFR 352.502 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 352.502 Section 352.502 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS....502 Coverage. This subpart applies to any of the following serving in a position in the...

  6. 5 CFR 630.802 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 630.802 Section 630.802 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Funeral Leave § 630.802 Coverage. This subpart applies to: (a) An employee as defined in section 2105 of title...

  7. 5 CFR 630.802 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 630.802 Section 630.802 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Funeral Leave § 630.802 Coverage. This subpart applies to: (a) An employee as defined in section 2105 of title...

  8. 5 CFR 730.103 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 730.103 Section 730.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) NOTIFICATION OF POST-EMPLOYMENT RESTRICTIONS § 730.103 Coverage. (a) The following individuals are subject...

  9. 5 CFR 550.802 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 550.802 Section 550.802 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Back Pay § 550.802 Coverage. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, this...

  10. 5 CFR 430.302 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 430.302 Section 430.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Managing Senior Executive Performance § 430.302 Coverage. (a) This subpart applies to all senior...

  11. 5 CFR 251.102 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 251.102 Section 251.102 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS AGENCY RELATIONSHIPS WITH ORGANIZATIONS REPRESENTING FEDERAL EMPLOYEES AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONS General Provisions § 251.102 Coverage....

  12. 5 CFR 531.202 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... U.S.C. 5305 and 5 CFR part 530, subpart C. ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 531.202 Section 531.202... Determining Rate of Basic Pay General Provisions § 531.202 Coverage. This subpart covers employees who...

  13. 5 CFR 591.302 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 591.302 Section 591.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Allowance Based on Duty at Remote Worksites § 591.302 Coverage. (a) Agencies. This subpart applies...

  14. 5 CFR 550.702 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 550.702 Section 550.702 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Severance Pay § 550.702 Coverage. Except as provided in 5 U.S.C. 5595(a)(2) (i) through (viii), this...

  15. 5 CFR 630.602 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 630.602 Section 630.602 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Home Leave § 630.602 Coverage. An employee who meets the requirements of section 6304(b) of title 5, United...

  16. 45 CFR 73.735-1001 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coverage. 73.735-1001 Section 73.735-1001 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Provisions Relating to Experts, Consultants and Advisory Committee Members § 73.735-1001 Coverage. (a) For purposes...

  17. 5 CFR 430.302 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 430.302 Section 430.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Managing Senior Executive Performance § 430.302 Coverage. (a) This subpart applies to all senior...

  18. 45 CFR 73.735-1001 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage. 73.735-1001 Section 73.735-1001 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Provisions Relating to Experts, Consultants and Advisory Committee Members § 73.735-1001 Coverage. (a) For purposes...

  19. 5 CFR 412.101 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 412.101 Section 412.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS SUPERVISORY, MANAGEMENT, AND EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT General Provisions § 412.101 Coverage. This part applies to all incumbents of,...

  20. 5 CFR 352.502 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 352.502 Section 352.502 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS....502 Coverage. This subpart applies to any of the following serving in a position in the...

  1. 5 CFR 412.101 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 412.101 Section 412.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS SUPERVISORY, MANAGEMENT, AND EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT General Provisions § 412.101 Coverage. This part applies to all incumbents of,...

  2. 24 CFR 51.302 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Coverage. 51.302 Section 51.302 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development... Clear Zones and Accident Potential Zones at Military Airfields § 51.302 Coverage. (a) These...

  3. 5 CFR 534.601 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 534.601 Section 534.601 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Administrative Appeals Judge Positions § 534.601 Coverage. (a) This subpart implements 5 U.S.C. 5372b and...

  4. 5 CFR 1320.4 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 1320.4 Section 1320.4 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES CONTROLLING PAPERWORK BURDENS ON THE PUBLIC § 1320.4 Coverage. (a) The requirements of this part apply to all agencies as defined in §...

  5. 5 CFR 304.101 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 304.101 Section 304.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EXPERT AND CONSULTANT APPOINTMENTS § 304.101 Coverage. These regulations apply to the appointment of experts and consultants...

  6. 5 CFR 300.502 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 300.502 Section 300.502 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT (GENERAL) Use of Private Sector Temporaries § 300.502 Coverage. (a) These regulations apply to the competitive service...

  7. 5 CFR 880.304 - FEGLI coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false FEGLI coverage. 880.304 Section 880.304 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED... FEGLI coverage. (a) FEGLI premiums will not be collected during periods when an annuitant is a...

  8. 5 CFR 550.702 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 550.702 Section 550.702 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Severance Pay § 550.702 Coverage. Except as provided in 5 U.S.C. 5595(a)(2) (i) through (viii), this...

  9. 5 CFR 339.101 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 339.101 Section 339.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS MEDICAL QUALIFICATION DETERMINATIONS General § 339.101 Coverage. This part applies to all applicants for and employees in...

  10. 7 CFR 1710.103 - Area coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Area coverage. 1710.103 Section 1710.103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Basic Policies § 1710.103 Area coverage. (a) Borrowers shall make a diligent effort to extend...

  11. 5 CFR 300.402 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 300.402 Section 300.402 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT (GENERAL) Use of Commercial Recruiting Firms and Nonprofit Employment Services § 300.402 Coverage. This part applies...

  12. 41 CFR 302-17.2 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coverage. 302-17.2 Section 302-17.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES MISCELLANEOUS ALLOWANCES 17-RELOCATION INCOME TAX (RIT) ALLOWANCE § 302-17.2 Coverage....

  13. 5 CFR 251.102 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 251.102 Section 251.102 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS AGENCY RELATIONSHIPS WITH ORGANIZATIONS REPRESENTING FEDERAL EMPLOYEES AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONS General Provisions § 251.102 Coverage....

  14. 25 CFR 700.505 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coverage. 700.505 Section 700.505 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.505 Coverage. The regulations contained in this part apply to all...

  15. 5 CFR 630.802 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 630.802 Section 630.802 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Funeral Leave § 630.802 Coverage. This subpart applies to: (a) An employee as defined in section 2105 of title...

  16. 38 CFR 8a.4 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coverage. 8a.4 Section 8a.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS VETERANS MORTGAGE LIFE INSURANCE § 8a.4 Coverage. (a) The amount of VMLI in force on his or her life at any one time shall...

  17. 45 CFR 1225.4 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coverage. 1225.4 Section 1225.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VOLUNTEER DISCRIMINATION COMPLAINT PROCEDURE General Provisions § 1225.4 Coverage. (a) These procedures apply to all...

  18. 5 CFR 930.201 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the examination scoring process in 5 CFR 337.101(a); (2) Assure that decisions concerning the... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 930.201 Section 930.201... Coverage. (a) This subpart applies to individuals appointed under 5 U.S.C. 3105 for proceedings required...

  19. 41 CFR 302-17.2 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coverage. 302-17.2 Section 302-17.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES MISCELLANEOUS ALLOWANCES 17-RELOCATION INCOME TAX (RIT) ALLOWANCE § 302-17.2 Coverage....

  20. 5 CFR 534.601 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 534.601 Section 534.601 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Administrative Appeals Judge Positions § 534.601 Coverage. (a) This subpart implements 5 U.S.C. 5372b and...