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Sample records for regularly spaced stimulation

  1. Dimensional regularization in configuration space

    SciTech Connect

    Bollini, C.G. |; Giambiagi, J.J.

    1996-05-01

    Dimensional regularization is introduced in configuration space by Fourier transforming in {nu} dimensions the perturbative momentum space Green functions. For this transformation, the Bochner theorem is used; no extra parameters, such as those of Feynman or Bogoliubov and Shirkov, are needed for convolutions. The regularized causal functions in {ital x} space have {nu}-dependent moderated singularities at the origin. They can be multiplied together and Fourier transformed (Bochner) without divergence problems. The usual ultraviolet divergences appear as poles of the resultant analytic functions of {nu}. Several examples are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  2. Regular Decompositions for H(div) Spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kolev, Tzanio; Vassilevski, Panayot

    2012-01-01

    We study regular decompositions for H(div) spaces. In particular, we show that such regular decompositions are closely related to a previously studied “inf-sup” condition for parameter-dependent Stokes problems, for which we provide an alternative, more direct, proof.

  3. Prox-regular functions in Hilbert spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Frédéric; Thibault, Lionel

    2005-03-01

    This paper studies the prox-regularity concept for functions in the general context of Hilbert space. In particular, a subdifferential characterization is established as well as several other properties. It is also shown that the Moreau envelopes of such functions are continuously differentiable.

  4. Semisupervised Support Vector Machines With Tangent Space Intrinsic Manifold Regularization.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shiliang; Xie, Xijiong

    2016-09-01

    Semisupervised learning has been an active research topic in machine learning and data mining. One main reason is that labeling examples is expensive and time-consuming, while there are large numbers of unlabeled examples available in many practical problems. So far, Laplacian regularization has been widely used in semisupervised learning. In this paper, we propose a new regularization method called tangent space intrinsic manifold regularization. It is intrinsic to data manifold and favors linear functions on the manifold. Fundamental elements involved in the formulation of the regularization are local tangent space representations, which are estimated by local principal component analysis, and the connections that relate adjacent tangent spaces. Simultaneously, we explore its application to semisupervised classification and propose two new learning algorithms called tangent space intrinsic manifold regularized support vector machines (TiSVMs) and tangent space intrinsic manifold regularized twin SVMs (TiTSVMs). They effectively integrate the tangent space intrinsic manifold regularization consideration. The optimization of TiSVMs can be solved by a standard quadratic programming, while the optimization of TiTSVMs can be solved by a pair of standard quadratic programmings. The experimental results of semisupervised classification problems show the effectiveness of the proposed semisupervised learning algorithms.

  5. On almost regularity and π-normality of topological spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad Thabit, Sadeq Ali; Kamarulhaili, Hailiza

    2012-05-01

    π-Normality is a weaker version of normality. It was introduced by Kalantan in 2008. π-Normality lies between normality and almost normality (resp. quasi-normality). The importance of this topological property is that it behaves slightly different from normality and almost normality (quasi-normality). π-Normality is neither a productive nor a hereditary property in general. In this paper, some properties of almost regular spaces are presented. In particular, a few results on almost regular spaces are improved. Some relationships between almost regularity and π-normality are presented. π-Generalized closed sets are used to obtain a characterization and preservation theorems of π-normal spaces. Also, we investigate that an almost regular Lindelöf space (resp. with σ-locally finite base) is not necessarily π-normal by giving two counterexamples. An almost normality of the Rational Sequence topology is proved.

  6. Maximal regularity for perturbed integral equations on periodic Lebesgue spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizama, Carlos; Poblete, Verónica

    2008-12-01

    We characterize the maximal regularity of periodic solutions for an additive perturbed integral equation with infinite delay in the vector-valued Lebesgue spaces. Our method is based on operator-valued Fourier multipliers. We also study resonances, characterizing the existence of solutions in terms of a compatibility condition on the forcing term.

  7. Kilohertz Frequency Deep Brain Stimulation Is Ineffective at Regularizing the Firing of Model Thalamic Neurons.

    PubMed

    Couto, João; Grill, Warren M

    2016-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established therapy for movement disorders, including tremor, dystonia, and Parkinson's disease, but the mechanisms of action are not well understood. Symptom suppression by DBS typically requires stimulation frequencies ≥100 Hz, but when the frequency is increased above ~2 kHz, the effectiveness in tremor suppression declines (Benabid et al., 1991). We sought to test the hypothesis that the decline in efficacy at high frequencies is associated with desynchronization of the activity generated within a population of stimulated neurons. Regularization of neuronal firing is strongly correlated with tremor suppression by DBS, and desynchronization would disrupt the regularization of neuronal activity. We implemented computational models of CNS axons with either deterministic or stochastic membrane dynamics, and quantified the response of populations of model nerve fibers to extracellular stimulation at different frequencies and amplitudes. As stimulation frequency was increased from 2 to 80 Hz the regularity of neuronal firing increased (as assessed with direct estimates of entropy), in accord with the clinical effects on tremor of increasing stimulation frequency (Kuncel et al., 2006). Further, at frequencies between 80 and 500 Hz, increasing the stimulation amplitude (i.e., the proportion of neurons activated by the stimulus) increased the regularity of neuronal activity across the population, in accord with the clinical effects on tremor of stimulation amplitude (Kuncel et al., 2007). However, at stimulation frequencies above 1 kHz the regularity of neuronal firing declined due to irregular patterns of action potential generation and conduction block. The reductions in neuronal regularity that occurred at high frequencies paralleled the previously reported decline in tremor reduction and may be responsible for the loss of efficacy of DBS at very high frequencies. This analysis provides further support for the hypothesis that

  8. Kilohertz Frequency Deep Brain Stimulation Is Ineffective at Regularizing the Firing of Model Thalamic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Couto, João; Grill, Warren M.

    2016-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established therapy for movement disorders, including tremor, dystonia, and Parkinson's disease, but the mechanisms of action are not well understood. Symptom suppression by DBS typically requires stimulation frequencies ≥100 Hz, but when the frequency is increased above ~2 kHz, the effectiveness in tremor suppression declines (Benabid et al., 1991). We sought to test the hypothesis that the decline in efficacy at high frequencies is associated with desynchronization of the activity generated within a population of stimulated neurons. Regularization of neuronal firing is strongly correlated with tremor suppression by DBS, and desynchronization would disrupt the regularization of neuronal activity. We implemented computational models of CNS axons with either deterministic or stochastic membrane dynamics, and quantified the response of populations of model nerve fibers to extracellular stimulation at different frequencies and amplitudes. As stimulation frequency was increased from 2 to 80 Hz the regularity of neuronal firing increased (as assessed with direct estimates of entropy), in accord with the clinical effects on tremor of increasing stimulation frequency (Kuncel et al., 2006). Further, at frequencies between 80 and 500 Hz, increasing the stimulation amplitude (i.e., the proportion of neurons activated by the stimulus) increased the regularity of neuronal activity across the population, in accord with the clinical effects on tremor of stimulation amplitude (Kuncel et al., 2007). However, at stimulation frequencies above 1 kHz the regularity of neuronal firing declined due to irregular patterns of action potential generation and conduction block. The reductions in neuronal regularity that occurred at high frequencies paralleled the previously reported decline in tremor reduction and may be responsible for the loss of efficacy of DBS at very high frequencies. This analysis provides further support for the hypothesis that

  9. Low thrust space vehicle trajectory optimization using regularized variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwenzfeger, K. J.

    1974-01-01

    Optimizing the trajectory of a low thrust space vehicle usually means solving a nonlinear two point boundary value problem. In general, accuracy requirements necessitate extensive computation times. In celestial mechanics, regularizing transformations of the equations of motion are used to eliminate computational and analytical problems that occur during close approaches to gravitational force centers. It was shown in previous investigations that regularization in the formulation of the trajectory optimization problem may reduce the computation time. In this study, a set of regularized equations describing the optimal trajectory of a continuously thrusting space vehicle is derived. The computational characteristics of the set are investigated and compared to the classical Newtonian unregularized set of equations. The comparison is made for low thrust, minimum time, escape trajectories and numerical calculations of Keplerian orbits. The comparison indicates that in the cases investigated for bad initial guesses of the known boundary values a remarkable reduction in the computation time was achieved. Furthermore, the investigated set of regularized equations shows high numerical stability even for long duration flights and is less sensitive to errors in the guesses of the unknown boundary values.

  10. Regularity and predictability of human mobility in personal space.

    PubMed

    Austin, Daniel; Cross, Robin M; Hayes, Tamara; Kaye, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Fundamental laws governing human mobility have many important applications such as forecasting and controlling epidemics or optimizing transportation systems. These mobility patterns, studied in the context of out of home activity during travel or social interactions with observations recorded from cell phone use or diffusion of money, suggest that in extra-personal space humans follow a high degree of temporal and spatial regularity - most often in the form of time-independent universal scaling laws. Here we show that mobility patterns of older individuals in their home also show a high degree of predictability and regularity, although in a different way than has been reported for out-of-home mobility. Studying a data set of almost 15 million observations from 19 adults spanning up to 5 years of unobtrusive longitudinal home activity monitoring, we find that in-home mobility is not well represented by a universal scaling law, but that significant structure (predictability and regularity) is uncovered when explicitly accounting for contextual data in a model of in-home mobility. These results suggest that human mobility in personal space is highly stereotyped, and that monitoring discontinuities in routine room-level mobility patterns may provide an opportunity to predict individual human health and functional status or detect adverse events and trends.

  11. Validity and Regularization of Classical Half-Space Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qin; Lu, Jianfeng; Sun, Weiran

    2017-01-01

    Recent result (Wu and Guo in Commun Math Phys 336(3):1473-1553, 2015) has shown that over the 2D unit disk, the classical half-space equation (CHS) for the neutron transport does not capture the correct boundary layer behaviour as long believed. In this paper we develop a regularization technique for CHS to any arbitrary order and use its first-order regularization to show that in the case of the 2D unit disk, although CHS misrepresents the boundary layer behaviour, it does give the correct boundary condition for the interior macroscopic (Laplace) equation. Therefore CHS is still a valid equation to recover the correct boundary condition for the interior Laplace equation over the 2D unit disk.

  12. Spherically Symmetric Space Time with Regular de Sitter Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dymnikova, Irina

    We formulate the requirements which lead to the existence of a class of globally regular solutions of the minimally coupled GR equations asymptotically de Sitter at the center. The source term for this class, invariant under boosts in the radial direction, is classified as spherically symmetric vacuum with variable density and pressure Tμ ν vac associated with an r-dependent cosmological term Λ μ ν = 8π GTμ ν vac, whose asymptotic at the origin, dictated by the weak energy condition, is the Einstein cosmological term Λgμν, while asymptotic at infinity is de Sitter vacuum with λ < Λ or Minkowski vacuum. For this class of metrics the mass m defined by the standard ADM formula is related to both the de Sitter vacuum trapped at the origin and the breaking of space time symmetry. In the case of the flat asymptotic, space time symmetry changes smoothly from the de Sitter group at the center to the Lorentz group at infinity through radial boosts in between. Geometry is asymptotically de Sitter as r → 0 and asymptotically Schwarzschild at large r. In the range of masses m ≥ mcrit, the de Sitter Schwarzschild geometry describes a vacuum nonsingular black hole (ΛBH), and for m < mcrit it describes G-lump — a vacuum selfgravitating particle-like structure without horizons. In the case of de Sitter asymptotic at infinity, geometry is asymptotically de Sitter as r → 0 and asymptotically Schwarzschild de Sitter at large r. Λμν geometry describes, dependently on parameters m and q = √ {Λ /λ } and choice of coordinates, a vacuum nonsingular cosmological black hole, self-gravitating particle-like structure at the de Sitter background λgμν, and regular cosmological models with cosmological constant evolving smoothly from Λ to λ.

  13. Mathematical strategies for filtering complex systems: Regularly spaced sparse observations

    SciTech Connect

    Harlim, J. Majda, A.J.

    2008-05-01

    Real time filtering of noisy turbulent signals through sparse observations on a regularly spaced mesh is a notoriously difficult and important prototype filtering problem. Simpler off-line test criteria are proposed here as guidelines for filter performance for these stiff multi-scale filtering problems in the context of linear stochastic partial differential equations with turbulent solutions. Filtering turbulent solutions of the stochastically forced dissipative advection equation through sparse observations is developed as a stringent test bed for filter performance with sparse regular observations. The standard ensemble transform Kalman filter (ETKF) has poor skill on the test bed and even suffers from filter divergence, surprisingly, at observable times with resonant mean forcing and a decaying energy spectrum in the partially observed signal. Systematic alternative filtering strategies are developed here including the Fourier Domain Kalman Filter (FDKF) and various reduced filters called Strongly Damped Approximate Filter (SDAF), Variance Strongly Damped Approximate Filter (VSDAF), and Reduced Fourier Domain Kalman Filter (RFDKF) which operate only on the primary Fourier modes associated with the sparse observation mesh while nevertheless, incorporating into the approximate filter various features of the interaction with the remaining modes. It is shown below that these much cheaper alternative filters have significant skill on the test bed of turbulent solutions which exceeds ETKF and in various regimes often exceeds FDKF, provided that the approximate filters are guided by the off-line test criteria. The skill of the various approximate filters depends on the energy spectrum of the turbulent signal and the observation time relative to the decorrelation time of the turbulence at a given spatial scale in a precise fashion elucidated here.

  14. Regularization methods for a class of variational inequalities in banach spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buong, Nguyen; Phuong, Nguyen Thi Hong

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we introduce two regularization methods, based on the Browder-Tikhonov and iterative regularizations, for finding a solution of variational inequalities over the set of common fixed points of an infinite family of nonexpansive mappings on real reflexive and strictly convex Banach spaces with a uniformly Gateaux differentiate norm.

  15. New properties of BK-spaces defined by using regular matrix of Fibonacci numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ercan, Sinan; Bektaş, ćiǧdem A.

    2016-06-01

    In the present paper, we studied the new properties of BK-spaces which were defined using regular matrix of Fibonacci numbers in [1]. We computed alpha-, beta-, gamma- duals of these spaces and obtained Schauder basis. We also derived some topological properties of these spaces.

  16. Visualization of Sound Waves Using Regularly Spaced Soap Films

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, F.; Hutzler, S.; Ferreira, M. S.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a novel demonstration experiment for the visualization and measurement of standing sound waves in a tube. The tube is filled with equally spaced soap films whose thickness varies in response to the amplitude of the sound wave. The thickness variations are made visible based on optical interference. The distance between two antinodes is…

  17. Besov Space Regularity Conditions for Weak Solutions of the Navier-Stokes Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farwig, Reinhard; Sohr, Hermann; Varnhorn, Werner

    2014-06-01

    Consider a bounded domain with smooth boundary, some initial value , and a weak solution u of the Navier-Stokes system in . Our aim is to develop regularity and uniqueness conditions for u which are based on the Besov space with ; here A denotes the Stokes operator. This space, introduced by Farwig et al. (Ann. Univ. Ferrara 55:89-110, 2009 and J. Math. Fluid Mech. 14: 529-540, 2012), is a subspace of the well known Besov space , see Amann (Nonhomogeneous Navier-Stokes Equations with Integrable Low-Regularity Data. Int. Math. Ser. pp. 1-28. Kluwer/Plenum, New York, 2002). Our main results on the regularity of u exploits a variant of the space in which the integral in time has to be considered only on finite intervals (0, δ ) with . Further we discuss several criteria for uniqueness and local right-hand regularity, in particular, if u satisfies Serrin's limit condition . Finally, we obtain a large class of regular weak solutions u defined by a smallness condition with some constant.

  18. The existence results and Tikhonov regularization method for generalized mixed variational inequalities in Banach spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Min

    2016-04-01

    This paper aims to establish the Tikhonov regularization method for generalized mixed variational inequalities in Banach spaces. For this purpose, we firstly prove a very general existence result for generalized mixed variational inequalities, provided that the mapping involved has the so-called mixed variational inequality property and satisfies a rather weak coercivity condition. Finally, we establish the Tikhonov regularization method for generalized mixed variational inequalities. Our findings extended the results for the generalized variational inequality problem (for short, GVIP(F, K)) in R^n spaces (He in Abstr Appl Anal, 2012) to the generalized mixed variational inequality problem (for short, GMVIP(F,φ , K) ) in reflexive Banach spaces. On the other hand, we generalized the corresponding results for the generalized mixed variational inequality problem (for short, GMVIP(F,φ ,K) ) in R^n spaces (Fu and He in J Sichuan Norm Univ (Nat Sci) 37:12-17, 2014) to reflexive Banach spaces.

  19. A partial regularity result for an anisotropic smoothing functional for image restoration in BV space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wunderli, Thomas

    2008-03-01

    Here we examine the partial regularity of minimizers of a functional used for image restoration in BV space. This functional is a combination of a regularized p-Laplacian for the part of the image with small gradient and a total variation functional for the part with large gradient. This model was originally introduced in Chambolle and Lions using the Laplacian. Due to the singular nature of the p-Laplacian we study a regularized p-Laplacian. We show that where the gradient is small, the regularized p-Laplacian smooths the image u, in the sense that u[set membership, variant]C1,[alpha] for some 0<[alpha]<1. This functional thus anisotropically smooths the image where the gradient is small and preserves edges via total variation where the gradient is large.

  20. On Landweber-Kaczmarz methods for regularizing systems of ill-posed equations in Banach spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitão, A.; Marques Alves, M.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, iterative regularization methods of Landweber-Kaczmarz type are considered for solving systems of ill-posed equations modeled (finitely many) by operators acting between Banach spaces. Using assumptions of uniform convexity and smoothness on the parameter space, we are able to prove a monotony result for the proposed method, as well as to establish convergence (for exact data) and stability results (in the noisy data case).

  1. Dimensional regularization in position space and a Forest Formula for Epstein-Glaser renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dütsch, Michael; Fredenhagen, Klaus; Keller, Kai Johannes; Rejzner, Katarzyna

    2014-12-01

    We reformulate dimensional regularization as a regularization method in position space and show that it can be used to give a closed expression for the renormalized time-ordered products as solutions to the induction scheme of Epstein-Glaser. This closed expression, which we call the Epstein-Glaser Forest Formula, is analogous to Zimmermann's Forest Formula for BPH renormalization. For scalar fields, the resulting renormalization method is always applicable, we compute several examples. We also analyze the Hopf algebraic aspects of the combinatorics. Our starting point is the Main Theorem of Renormalization of Stora and Popineau and the arising renormalization group as originally defined by Stückelberg and Petermann.

  2. Fixed spaced stimulation restores adaptive plasticity within the spinal cord: Identifying the eliciting conditions.

    PubMed

    Baumbauer, Kyle M; Turtle, Joel D; Grau, James W

    2017-02-24

    Prior work has shown that neurons within the spinal cord are sensitive to temporal relations and that stimulus regularity impacts nociceptive processing and adaptive plasticity. Application of brief (80ms) shocks (180-900) in a variable manner induces a form of maladaptive plasticity that inhibits spinally-mediated learning and enhances nociceptive reactivity. In contrast, an extended exposure (720-900) to stimuli given at regular (fixed spaced) intervals has a restorative effect that counters nociceptive sensitization and enables learning. The present paper explores the stimulus parameters under which this therapeutic effect of fixed spaced stimulation emerges. Spinally transected rats received variably spaced stimulation (180 shocks) to the sciatic nerve at an intensity (40-V) that recruits pain (C) fibers, producing a form of maladaptive plasticity that impairs spinal learning. As previously shown, exposure to 720 fixed spaced shocks had a therapeutic effect that restored adaptive learning. This therapeutic effect was most robust at a lower shock intensity (20V) and was equally strong irrespective of pulse duration (20-80ms). A restorative effect was observed when stimuli were given at a frequency between 0.5 and 5Hz, but not at a higher (50Hz) or lower (0.05Hz) rate. The results are consistent with prior work implicating neural systems related to the central pattern generator that drives stepping behavior. Clinical implications are discussed.

  3. Two regularization methods for solving a Riesz-Feller space-fractional backward diffusion problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, G. H.; Wei, T.

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, a backward diffusion problem for a space-fractional diffusion equation (SFDE) in a strip is investigated. Such a problem is obtained from the classical diffusion equation in which the second-order space derivative is replaced with a Riesz-Feller derivative of order β in (0, 2]. We show that such a problem is severely ill-posed and further propose a new regularization method and apply a spectral regularization method to solve it based on the solution given by the Fourier method. Convergence estimates are presented under a priori bound assumptions for the exact solution. Finally, numerical examples are given to show that the proposed numerical methods are effective.

  4. General regular charged space-times in teleparallel equivalent of general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nashed, G. G. L.

    2007-07-01

    Using a non-linear version of electrodynamics coupled to the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity (TEGR), we obtain new regular exact solutions. The non-linear theory reduces to the Maxwell one in the weak limit with the tetrad fields corresponding to a charged space-time. We then apply the energy-momentum tensor of the gravitational field, established in the Hamiltonian structure of the TEGR, to the solutions obtained.

  5. Radio stimulation and diagnostics of space plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Min-Chang

    1993-01-01

    We have investigated the small-scale topside ionospheric plasma structures first observed at Millstone Hill, Massachusetts with the 440 MHz incoherent scatter radar. These small-scale obliquely propagating plasma modes occurring in the vicinity of the midlatitude ionospheric trough, have large radar cross-sections and narrow spectral widths. They have, until recently, been dismissed solely as hard target contamination of the incoherent scatter radar. The geophysical conditions associated with the ionospheric trough, such as the field-aligned current activity and steep plasma density gradients, suggest that these recently discovered small-scale topside ionospheric plasmas may also appear in the auroral and polar ionosphere. In fact, this speculation has been corroborated by the preliminary experiments and data analyses at Tromso, Norway and Sondrestromfjord, Greenland. The primary research results are highlighted. Described in Section 3 are the experiments conducted at Arecibo, Puerto Rico in the past summer for simulating the geophysical conditions of generating these topside ionospheric plasma structures. Recommendation for the future research is finally given. Attached as the appendix of this report are several chapters which present the detailed results of research in the concerned topside ionospheric clutter. Highlights of the research results include: (1) causes of the enhanced radar backscatter (ERB) phenomenon; (2) occurrence of the ERB phenomenon; (3) altitudes of the ERB phenomenon; (4) strength of the ERB returns; (5) range of altitudes of the ERB returns; (6) occurrence frequency of the ERB phenomenon; (7) Doppler effect of the ERB phenomenon; (8) persistency of the ERB; and (9) distinction between ERB phenomenon and space object signatures.

  6. Integration of Building Knowledge Into Binary Space Partitioning for the Reconstruction of Regularized Building Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wichmann, A.; Jung, J.; Sohn, G.; Kada, M.; Ehlers, M.

    2015-09-01

    Recent approaches for the automatic reconstruction of 3D building models from airborne point cloud data integrate prior knowledge of roof shapes with the intention to improve the regularization of the resulting models without lessening the flexibility to generate all real-world occurring roof shapes. In this paper, we present a method to integrate building knowledge into the data-driven approach that uses binary space partitioning (BSP) for modeling the 3D building geometry. A retrospective regularization of polygons that emerge from the BSP tree is not without difficulty because it has to deal with the 2D BSP subdivision itself and the plane definitions of the resulting partition regions to ensure topological correctness. This is aggravated by the use of hyperplanes during the binary subdivision that often splits planar roof regions into several parts that are stored in different subtrees of the BSP tree. We therefore introduce the use of hyperpolylines in the generation of the BSP tree to avoid unnecessary spatial subdivisions, so that the spatial integrity of planar roof regions is better maintained. The hyperpolylines are shown to result from basic building roof knowledge that is extracted based on roof topology graphs. An adjustment of the underlying point segments ensures that the positions of the extracted hyperpolylines result in regularized 2D partitions as well as topologically correct 3D building models. The validity and limitations of the approach are demonstrated on real-world examples.

  7. Maximal Sobolev regularity for solutions of elliptic equations in infinite dimensional Banach spaces endowed with a weighted Gaussian measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappa, G.; Ferrari, S.

    2016-12-01

    Let X be a separable Banach space endowed with a non-degenerate centered Gaussian measure μ. The associated Cameron-Martin space is denoted by H. Let ν =e-U μ, where U : X → R is a sufficiently regular convex and continuous function. In this paper we are interested in the W 2 , 2 regularity of the weak solutions of elliptic equations of the type

  8. A convergence rates result for an iteratively regularized Gauss-Newton-Halley method in Banach space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaltenbacher, B.

    2015-01-01

    The use of second order information on the forward operator often comes at a very moderate additional computational price in the context of parameter identification problems for differential equation models. On the other hand the use of general (non-Hilbert) Banach spaces has recently found much interest due to its usefulness in many applications. This motivates us to extend the second order method from Kaltenbacher (2014 Numer. Math. at press), (see also Hettlich and Rundell 2000 SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 37 587620) to a Banach space setting and analyze its convergence. We here show rates results for a particular source condition and different exponents in the formulation of Tikhonov regularization in each step. This includes a complementary result on the (first order) iteratively regularized Gauss-Newton method in case of a one-homogeneous data misfit term, which corresponds to exact penalization. The results clearly show the possible advantages of using second order information, which get most pronounced in this exact penalization case. Numerical simulations for an inverse source problem for a nonlinear elliptic PDE illustrate the theoretical findings.

  9. An iterative regularization method for the solution of the split feasibility problem in Banach spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöpfer, F.; Schuster, T.; Louis, A. K.

    2008-10-01

    The split feasibility problem (SFP) consists of finding a common point in the intersection of finitely many convex sets, where some of the sets arise by imposing convex constraints in the range of linear operators. We are concerned with its solution in Banach spaces. To this end we generalize the CQ algorithm of Byrne with Bregman and metric projections to obtain an iterative solution method. In case the sets projected onto are contaminated with noise we show that a discrepancy principle renders this algorithm a regularization method. We measure the distance between convex sets by local versions of the Hausdorff distance, which in contrast to the standard Hausdorff distance allow us to measure the distance between unbounded sets. Hereby we prove a uniform continuity result for both kind of projections. The performance of the algorithm is demonstrated with some numerical experiments.

  10. Learning an L1-regularized Gaussian Bayesian network in the equivalence class space.

    PubMed

    Vidaurre, Diego; Bielza, Concha; Larrañaga, Pedro

    2010-10-01

    Learning the structure of a graphical model from data is a common task in a wide range of practical applications. In this paper, we focus on Gaussian Bayesian networks, i.e., on continuous data and directed acyclic graphs with a joint probability density of all variables given by a Gaussian. We propose to work in an equivalence class search space, specifically using the k-greedy equivalence search algorithm. This, combined with regularization techniques to guide the structure search, can learn sparse networks close to the one that generated the data. We provide results on some synthetic networks and on modeling the gene network of the two biological pathways regulating the biosynthesis of isoprenoids for the Arabidopsis thaliana plant.

  11. Regularities of interaction between drops of UHV coolants and surfaces of traps of frameless heat removal systems in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koroteev, A. A.; Bondareva, N. V.; Nagel, Yu. A.; Filatov, N. I.; Baidenko, I. V.

    2016-11-01

    The regularities of interaction of drops of ultra-high vacuum liquid working media of space drop emitters with surfaces of trapping devices were considered. Their comparison with the characteristics of the interaction of drops of distilled water was performed. The achievability of trapping regimes without secondary drop formation in space was justified.

  12. A pseudo-differential calculus on non-standard symplectic space; Spectral and regularity results in modulation spaces

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Nuno Costa; de Gosson, Maurice; Luef, Franz; Prata, João Nuno

    2011-01-01

    The usual Weyl calculus is intimately associated with the choice of the standard symplectic structure on Rn⊕Rn. In this paper we will show that the replacement of this structure by an arbitrary symplectic structure leads to a pseudo-differential calculus of operators acting on functions or distributions defined, not on Rn but rather on Rn⊕Rn. These operators are intertwined with the standard Weyl pseudo-differential operators using an infinite family of partial isometries of L2(Rn)→L2(R2n) indexed by S(Rn). This allows us to obtain spectral and regularity results for our operators using Shubinʼs symbol classes and Feichtingerʼs modulation spaces. PMID:22158824

  13. Regular structures of the lunar Orientale Basin: ring spacing and beads-like collars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2013-09-01

    The NASA's GRAIL mission produced unprecedented detailed gravity maps of the lunar subsurface as its measurements (from very low orbits - 55 -23 kilometers) included some depths of the satellite (down to the core?). However, one might say that these maps have repeated in some aspects the principal gravity pattern acquired earlier by Clementine [1] and Kaguya missions (Fig. 3), which shows the surface densely "peppered" by evensized "craters" about 100 km in diameter. The wave planetology admits that many of them are of an impact origin but a bulk is due to an intersection of standing waves produced by the two elliptical orbit of the body (Fig. 2). The lunar community should realize that one of bases of the Moon's geology - crater size -frequency curve is of a complex nature. Impacts surely contribute to this curve but a significant part of it is due to ring structures of non-impact origin. Ring structures can be produced by an interference of standing inertiagravity waves of four directions (ortho- and diagonal) warping any rotating celestial body moving in an elliptical orbit (Fig. 2) [2]. Many ring structures observed on solid and gaseous planetary spheres are of such profound nature. They form regular grids of shoulder-to-shoulder even ring structures (Fig. 1-3). Their sizes depend on orbiting frequencies: the higher frequency- the smaller "rings", and vice versa. Satellites having two orbiting frequencies in the Solar system are particularly "peppered" with rings as a low frequency modulates a high one producing along with the main ring populations the side populations [3]. Recent MOONKAM lunar images (GRAIL mission) at the first time show so clearly intersecting planetary scale lineations (imprint of standing waves) producing chains and grids of ring features (Fig. 5-6; a theoretical model-Fig. 2). This wave woven pattern with spacing and beads has to be compared with a real gravity pattern of Fig. 1. Multi-ring spacing with the factor of √ 2 and collars

  14. Stimulated coherent emission from short electron bunches in free space

    SciTech Connect

    Robb, G.R.M.; Phelps, A.D.R.; Ginzburg, N.S.

    1995-12-31

    In previous papers stimulated coherent emission of short electron bunches (superradiance-SR) was considered in the frame of 1-D models. In the present work we study superradiance of an electron bunch which has a finite transverse size in the frame of a 2-D model. This model include effects of optical guiding as well as transverse electromagnetic energy escaping and diffraction. Using a nonstationary parabolic equation we described SR of a sheet shaped electron bunch in free space. It is shown that the radiation is composed of a sequence of e.m. pulses which are diffracted after escaping from the channel formed by the electron beam. This process is accompanied by a progressive increase of the electron efficiency. This enhancement is caused by the phenomenon of permanent self supporting resonance due to the variation of the radiation angle and frequency.

  15. Plasma instabilities stimulated by HF transmitters in space

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, R.F.; Vinas, A.F.

    1988-08-01

    Diffuse incoherent signal returns are often observed on Alouette and ISIS topside ionograms in addition to coherent echoes of electromagnetic and electrostatic waves. These diffuse signals, which at times can be the dominant features on topside ionograms, have been attributed to sounder-induced temperature anisotropies which drive the Harris instability. Previous theoretical investigations were based on the electrostatic approximation to the dispersion equation. The present paper will present calculations indicating that when the electromagnetic terms are retained in the dispersion equation and when the sounder-stimulated perpendicular electron temperature approaches 1 keV, then the whistler mode can have a temporal growth rate larger than the electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic wave mode central to the diffuse resonance problem. Present sounders lack the power and antenna lengths to generate whistler mode waves in this manner. In addition, such waves would have large group velocities and would quickly leave the vicinity of the sounder. Experiments to investigate the wave growth, propagation, and damping of such stimulated waves are planned for the 1990s using a highly flexible sounder on the Space Shuttle and a receiver on a subsatellite. 30 references.

  16. Plasma instabilities stimulated by HF transmitters in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Robert F.; Vinas, Adolfo F.

    1988-01-01

    Diffuse incoherent signal returns are often observed on Alouette and ISIS topside ionograms in addition to coherent echoes of electromagnetic and electrostatic waves. These diffuse signals, which at times can be the dominant features on topside ionograms, have been attributed to sounder-induced temperature anisotropies which drive the Harris instability. Previous theoretical investigations were based on the electrostatic approximation to the dispersion equation. The present paper will present calculations indicating that when the electromagnetic terms are retained in the dispersion equation and when the sounder-stimulated perpendicular electron temperature approaches 1 keV, then the whistler mode can have a temporal growth rate larger than the electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic wave mode central to the diffuse resonance problem. Present sounders lack the power and antenna lengths to generate whistler mode waves in this manner. In addition, such waves would have large group velocities and would quickly leave the vicinity of the sounder. Experiments to investigate the wave growth, propagation, and damping of such stimulated waves are planned for the 1990s using a highly flexible sounder on the Space Shuttle and a receiver on a subsatellite.

  17. Two-dimensional encoder with picometre resolution using lattice spacing on regular crystalline surface as standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aketagawa, Masato; Honda, Hiroshi; Ishige, Masashi; Patamaporn, Chaikool

    2007-02-01

    A two-dimensional (2D) encoder with picometre resolution using multi-tunnelling-probes scanning tunnelling microscope (MTP-STM) as detector units and a regular crystalline lattice as a reference is proposed. In experiments to demonstrate the method, a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) crystal is utilized as the reference. The MTP-STM heads, which are set upon a sample stage, observe multi-points which satisfy some relationship on the HOPG crystalline surface on the sample stage, and the relative 2D displacement between the MTP-STM heads and the sample stage can be determined from the multi-current signals of the multi-points. Two unit lattice vectors on the HOPG crystalline surface with length and intersection angle of 0.246 nm and 60°, respectively, are utilized as 2D displacement references. 2D displacement of the sample stage on which the HOPG crystal is placed can be calculated using the linear sum of the two unit lattice vectors, derived from a linear operation of the multi-current signals. Displacement interpolation less than the lattice spacing of the HOPG crystal can also be performed. To determine the linear sum of the two unit vectors as the 2D displacement, the multi-points to be observed with the MTP-STM must be properly positioned according to the 2D atomic structure of the HOPG crystal. In the experiments, the proposed method is compared with a capacitance sensor whose resolution is improved to approximately 0.1 nm by limiting the sensor's bandwidth to 300 Hz. In order to obtain suitable multi-current signals of the properly positioned multi-points in semi-real-time, lateral dither modulations are applied to the STM probes. The results show that the proposed method has the capability to measure 2D lateral displacements with a resolution on the order of 10 pm with a maximum measurement speed of 100 nm s-1 or more.

  18. Unexpected series of regular frequency spacing of δ Scuti stars in the non-asymptotic regime - I. The methodology

    DOE PAGES

    Paparo, M.; Benko, J. M.; Hareter, M.; ...

    2016-05-11

    In this study, a sequence search method was developed to search the regular frequency spacing in δ Scuti stars through visual inspection and an algorithmic search. We searched for sequences of quasi-equally spaced frequencies, containing at least four members per sequence, in 90 δ Scuti stars observed by CoRoT. We found an unexpectedly large number of independent series of regular frequency spacing in 77 δ Scuti stars (from one to eight sequences) in the non-asymptotic regime. We introduce the sequence search method presenting the sequences and echelle diagram of CoRoT 102675756 and the structure of the algorithmic search. Four sequencesmore » (echelle ridges) were found in the 5–21 d–1 region where the pairs of the sequences are shifted (between 0.5 and 0.59 d–1) by twice the value of the estimated rotational splitting frequency (0.269 d–1). The general conclusions for the whole sample are also presented in this paper. The statistics of the spacings derived by the sequence search method, by FT (Fourier transform of the frequencies), and the statistics of the shifts are also compared. In many stars more than one almost equally valid spacing appeared. The model frequencies of FG Vir and their rotationally split components were used to formulate the possible explanation that one spacing is the large separation while the other is the sum of the large separation and the rotational frequency. In CoRoT 102675756, the two spacings (2.249 and 1.977 d–1) are in better agreement with the sum of a possible 1.710 d–1 large separation and two or one times, respectively, the value of the rotational frequency.« less

  19. Unexpected Series of Regular Frequency Spacing of δ Scuti Stars in the Non-asymptotic Regime. I. The Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paparó, M.; Benkő, J. M.; Hareter, M.; Guzik, J. A.

    2016-05-01

    A sequence search method was developed to search the regular frequency spacing in δ Scuti stars through visual inspection and an algorithmic search. We searched for sequences of quasi-equally spaced frequencies, containing at least four members per sequence, in 90 δ Scuti stars observed by CoRoT. We found an unexpectedly large number of independent series of regular frequency spacing in 77 δ Scuti stars (from one to eight sequences) in the non-asymptotic regime. We introduce the sequence search method presenting the sequences and echelle diagram of CoRoT 102675756 and the structure of the algorithmic search. Four sequences (echelle ridges) were found in the 5-21 d-1 region where the pairs of the sequences are shifted (between 0.5 and 0.59 d-1) by twice the value of the estimated rotational splitting frequency (0.269 d-1). The general conclusions for the whole sample are also presented in this paper. The statistics of the spacings derived by the sequence search method, by FT (Fourier transform of the frequencies), and the statistics of the shifts are also compared. In many stars more than one almost equally valid spacing appeared. The model frequencies of FG Vir and their rotationally split components were used to formulate the possible explanation that one spacing is the large separation while the other is the sum of the large separation and the rotational frequency. In CoRoT 102675756, the two spacings (2.249 and 1.977 d-1) are in better agreement with the sum of a possible 1.710 d-1 large separation and two or one times, respectively, the value of the rotational frequency.

  20. Disentangling regular and chaotic motion in the standard map using complex network analysis of recurrences in phase space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yong; Donner, Reik V.; Thiel, Marco; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-02-01

    Recurrence in the phase space of complex systems is a well-studied phenomenon, which has provided deep insights into the nonlinear dynamics of such systems. For dissipative systems, characteristics based on recurrence plots have recently attracted much interest for discriminating qualitatively different types of dynamics in terms of measures of complexity, dynamical invariants, or even structural characteristics of the underlying attractor's geometry in phase space. Here, we demonstrate that the latter approach also provides a corresponding distinction between different co-existing dynamical regimes of the standard map, a paradigmatic example of a low-dimensional conservative system. Specifically, we show that the recently developed approach of recurrence network analysis provides potentially useful geometric characteristics distinguishing between regular and chaotic orbits. We find that chaotic orbits in an intermittent laminar phase (commonly referred to as sticky orbits) have a distinct geometric structure possibly differing in a subtle way from those of regular orbits, which is highlighted by different recurrence network properties obtained from relatively short time series. Thus, this approach can help discriminating regular orbits from laminar phases of chaotic ones, which presents a persistent challenge to many existing chaos detection techniques.

  1. An image space approach to Cartesian based parallel MR imaging with total variation regularization.

    PubMed

    Keeling, Stephen L; Clason, Christian; Hintermüller, Michael; Knoll, Florian; Laurain, Antoine; von Winckel, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    The Cartesian parallel magnetic imaging problem is formulated variationally using a high-order penalty for coil sensitivities and a total variation like penalty for the reconstructed image. Then the optimality system is derived and numerically discretized. The objective function used is non-convex, but it possesses a bilinear structure that allows the ambiguity among solutions to be resolved technically by regularization and practically by normalizing a pre-estimated norm of the reconstructed image. Since the objective function is convex in each single argument, convex analysis is used to formulate the optimality condition for the image in terms of a primal-dual system. To solve the optimality system, a nonlinear Gauss-Seidel outer iteration is used in which the objective function is minimized with respect to one variable after the other using an inner generalized Newton iteration. Computational results for in vivo MR imaging data show that a significant improvement in reconstruction quality can be obtained by using the proposed regularization methods in relation to alternative approaches.

  2. Space-time fractional diffusion equation using a derivative with nonsingular and regular kernel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Aguilar, J. F.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, using the fractional operators with Mittag-Leffler kernel in Caputo and Riemann-Liouville sense the space-time fractional diffusion equation is modified, the fractional equation will be examined separately; with fractional spatial derivative and fractional temporal derivative. For the study cases, the order considered is 0 < β , γ ≤ 1 respectively. In this alternative representation we introduce the appropriate fractional dimensional parameters which characterize consistently the existence of the fractional space-time derivatives into the fractional diffusion equation, these parameters related to equation results in a fractal space-time geometry provide a new family of solutions for the diffusive processes. The proposed mathematical representation can be useful to understand electrochemical phenomena, propagation of energy in dissipative systems, viscoelastic materials, material heterogeneities and media with different scales.

  3. The IVP for the Benjamin-Ono-Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation in low regularity Sobolev spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, Alysson; Pastor, Ademir

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we study the initial-value problem associated with the Benjamin-Ono-Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation. Such equation appears as a two-dimensional generalization of the Benjamin-Ono equation when transverse effects are included via weak dispersion of Zakharov-Kuznetsov type. We prove that the initial-value problem is locally well-posed in the usual L2 (R2)-based Sobolev spaces Hs (R2), s > 11 / 8, and in some weighted Sobolev spaces. To obtain our results, most of the arguments are accomplished taking into account the ones for the Benjamin-Ono equation.

  4. Timing in the Absence of Supraspinal Input I: Variable, but not Fixed, Spaced Stimulation of the Sciatic Nerve Undermines Spinally-Mediated Instrumental Learning

    PubMed Central

    Baumbauer, Kyle M.; Hoy, Kevin C.; Huie, John R.; Hughes, Abbey J.; Woller, Sarah A.; Puga, Denise A.; Setlow, Barry; Grau, James W.

    2008-01-01

    Rats with complete spinal transections are capable of acquiring a simple instrumentally trained response. If rats receive shock to one hindlimb when the limb is extended (controllable shock), the spinal cord will learn to hold the leg in a flexed position that minimizes shock exposure. If shock is delivered irrespective of leg position, subjects do not exhibit an increase in flexion duration and subsequently fail to learn when tested with controllable shock (learning deficit). Just 6 min of variable intermittent shock produces a learning deficit that lasts 24 hrs. Evidence suggests that the neural mechanisms underlying the learning deficit may be related to those involved in other instances of spinal plasticity (e.g., wind-up, long-term potentiation). The present paper begins to explore these relations by demonstrating that direct stimulation of the sciatic nerve also impairs instrumental learning. Six minutes of electrical stimulation (mono- or biphasic direct current [DC]) of the sciatic nerve in spinally transected rats produced a voltage-dependent learning deficit that persisted for 24 hr (Experiments 1–2) and was dependent on C-fiber activation (Experiment 7). Exposure to continuous stimulation did not produce a deficit, but intermittent burst or single pulse (as short as 0.1 ms) stimulation (delivered at a frequency of 0.5 Hz) did, irrespective of the pattern (fixed or variable) of stimulus delivery (Experiments 3–6, 8). When the duration of stimulation was extended from 6 to 30 min, a surprising result emerged; shocks applied in a random (variable) fashion impaired subsequent learning whereas shocks given in a regular pattern (fixed spacing) did not (Experiments 9–10). The results imply that spinal neurons are sensitive to temporal relations and that stimulation at regular intervals can have a restorative effect. PMID:18674601

  5. Application of Fourier-wavelet regularized deconvolution for improving image quality of free space propagation x-ray phase contrast imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhongxing; Gao, Feng; Zhao, Huijuan; Zhang, Lixin

    2012-11-21

    New x-ray phase contrast imaging techniques without using synchrotron radiation confront a common problem from the negative effects of finite source size and limited spatial resolution. These negative effects swamp the fine phase contrast fringes and make them almost undetectable. In order to alleviate this problem, deconvolution procedures should be applied to the blurred x-ray phase contrast images. In this study, three different deconvolution techniques, including Wiener filtering, Tikhonov regularization and Fourier-wavelet regularized deconvolution (ForWaRD), were applied to the simulated and experimental free space propagation x-ray phase contrast images of simple geometric phantoms. These algorithms were evaluated in terms of phase contrast improvement and signal-to-noise ratio. The results demonstrate that the ForWaRD algorithm is most appropriate for phase contrast image restoration among above-mentioned methods; it can effectively restore the lost information of phase contrast fringes while reduce the amplified noise during Fourier regularization.

  6. Unexpected series of regular frequency spacing of δ Scuti stars in the non-asymptotic regime. II. Sample-Echelle diagrams and rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Paparo, M.; Benko, J. M.; Hareter, M.; Guzik, J. A.

    2016-06-17

    A sequence search method was developed for searching for regular frequency spacing in δ Scuti stars by visual inspection (VI) and algorithmic search. The sample contains 90 δ Scuti stars observed by CoRoT. An example is given to represent the VI. The algorithm (SSA) is described in detail. The data treatment of the CoRoT light curves, the criteria for frequency filtering, and the spacings derived by two methods (i.e., three approaches: VI, SSA, and FT) are given for each target. Echelle diagrams are presented for 77 targets for which at least one sequence of regular spacing was identified. Comparing the spacing and the shifts between pairs of echelle ridges revealed that at least one pair of echelle ridges is shifted to midway between the spacing for 22 stars. The estimated rotational frequencies compared to the shifts revealed rotationally split doublets, triplets, and multiplets not only for single frequencies, but for the complete echelle ridges in 31 δ Scuti stars. Furthermore, using several possible assumptions for the origin of the spacings, we derived the large separation (${\\rm{\\Delta }}\

  7. Unexpected Series of Regular Frequency Spacing of δ Scuti Stars in the Non-asymptotic Regime. II. Sample-Echelle Diagrams and Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paparó, M.; Benkő, J. M.; Hareter, M.; Guzik, J. A.

    2016-06-01

    A sequence search method was developed for searching for regular frequency spacing in δ Scuti stars by visual inspection (VI) and algorithmic search. The sample contains 90 δ Scuti stars observed by CoRoT. An example is given to represent the VI. The algorithm (SSA) is described in detail. The data treatment of the CoRoT light curves, the criteria for frequency filtering, and the spacings derived by two methods (i.e., three approaches: VI, SSA, and FT) are given for each target. Echelle diagrams are presented for 77 targets for which at least one sequence of regular spacing was identified. Comparing the spacing and the shifts between pairs of echelle ridges revealed that at least one pair of echelle ridges is shifted to midway between the spacing for 22 stars. The estimated rotational frequencies compared to the shifts revealed rotationally split doublets, triplets, and multiplets not only for single frequencies, but for the complete echelle ridges in 31 δ Scuti stars. Using several possible assumptions for the origin of the spacings, we derived the large separation ({{Δ }}ν ) that are distributed along the mean density versus large separations relation derived from stellar models.

  8. Unexpected series of regular frequency spacing of δ Scuti stars in the non-asymptotic regime. II. Sample-Echelle diagrams and rotation

    DOE PAGES

    Paparo, M.; Benko, J. M.; Hareter, M.; ...

    2016-06-17

    A sequence search method was developed for searching for regular frequency spacing in δ Scuti stars by visual inspection (VI) and algorithmic search. The sample contains 90 δ Scuti stars observed by CoRoT. An example is given to represent the VI. The algorithm (SSA) is described in detail. The data treatment of the CoRoT light curves, the criteria for frequency filtering, and the spacings derived by two methods (i.e., three approaches: VI, SSA, and FT) are given for each target. Echelle diagrams are presented for 77 targets for which at least one sequence of regular spacing was identified. Comparing the spacing and the shifts between pairs of echelle ridges revealed that at least one pair of echelle ridges is shifted to midway between the spacing for 22 stars. The estimated rotational frequencies compared to the shifts revealed rotationally split doublets, triplets, and multiplets not only for single frequencies, but for the complete echelle ridges in 31 δ Scuti stars. Furthermore, using several possible assumptions for the origin of the spacings, we derived the large separation (more » $${\\rm{\\Delta }}\

  9. Quantifying uncertainty in Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation - A high resolution simulation study in ICBM space.

    PubMed

    Toschi, Nicola; Keck, Martin E; Welt, Tobias; Guerrisi, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation offers enormous potential for noninvasive brain stimulation. While it is known that brain tissue significantly "reshapes" induced field and charge distributions, most modeling investigations to-date have focused on single-subject data with limited generality. Further, the effects of the significant uncertainties which exist in the simulation (i.e. brain conductivity distributions) and stimulation (e.g. coil positioning and orientations) setup have not been quantified. In this study, we construct a high-resolution anisotropic head model in standard ICBM space, which can be used as a population-representative standard for bioelectromagnetic simulations. Further, we employ Monte-Carlo simulations in order to quantify how uncertainties in conductivity values propagate all the way to induced field and currents, demonstrating significant, regionally dependent dispersions in values which are commonly assumed "ground truth". This framework can be leveraged in order to quantify the effect of any type of uncertainty in noninvasive brain stimulation and bears relevance in all applications of TMS, both investigative and therapeutic.

  10. Augmenting LTP-Like Plasticity in Human Motor Cortex by Spaced Paired Associative Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Müller-Dahlhaus, Florian; Lücke, Caroline; Lu, Ming-Kuei; Arai, Noritoshi; Fuhl, Anna; Herrmann, Eva; Ziemann, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Paired associative stimulation (PASLTP) of the human primary motor cortex (M1) can induce LTP-like plasticity by increasing corticospinal excitability beyond the stimulation period. Previous studies showed that two consecutive PASLTP protocols interact by homeostatic metaplasticity, but animal experiments provided evidence that LTP can be augmented by repeated stimulation protocols spaced by ~30 min. Here we tested in twelve healthy selected PASLTP responders the possibility that LTP-like plasticity can be augmented in the human M1 by systematically varying the interval between two consecutive PASLTP protocols. The first PASLTP protocol (PAS1) induced strong LTP-like plasticity lasting for 30-60 min. The effect of a second identical PASLTP protocol (PAS2) critically depended on the time between PAS1 and PAS2. At 10 min, PAS2 prolonged the PAS1-induced LTP-like plasticity. At 30 min, PAS2 augmented the LTP-like plasticity induced by PAS1, by increasing both magnitude and duration. At 60 min and 180 min, PAS2 had no effect on corticospinal excitability. The cumulative LTP-like plasticity after PAS1 and PAS2 at 30 min exceeded significantly the effect of PAS1 alone, and the cumulative PAS1 and PAS2 effects at 60 min and 180 min. In summary, consecutive PASLTP protocols interact in human M1 in a time-dependent manner. If spaced by 30 min, two consecutive PASLTP sessions can augment LTP-like plasticity in human M1. Findings may inspire further research on optimized therapeutic applications of non-invasive brain stimulation in neurological and psychiatric diseases.

  11. Simulation of Canopy CO2/H2O Fluxes for a Rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis) Plantation in Central Cambodia: The Effect of the Regular Spacing of Planted Trees

    SciTech Connect

    Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Mudd, Ryan; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Liu, Wen; Giambelluca, Thomas; Kobayashi, N.; Lim, Tiva Khan; Jomura, Mayuko; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Huang, Maoyi; Chen, Qi; Ziegler, Alan; Yin, Song

    2013-09-10

    We developed a soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) model applicable to simulating CO2 and H2O fluxes from the canopies of rubber plantations, which are characterized by distinct canopy clumping produced by regular spacing of plantation trees. Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.) plantations, which are rapidly expanding into both climatically optimal and sub-optimal environments throughout mainland Southeast Asia, potentially change the partitioning of water, energy, and carbon at multiple scales, compared with traditional land covers it is replacing. Describing the biosphere-atmosphere exchange in rubber plantations via SVAT modeling is therefore essential to understanding the impacts on environmental processes. The regular spacing of plantation trees creates a peculiar canopy structure that is not well represented in most SVAT models, which generally assumes a non-uniform spacing of vegetation. Herein we develop a SVAT model applicable to rubber plantation and an evaluation method for its canopy structure, and examine how the peculiar canopy structure of rubber plantations affects canopy CO2 and H2O exchanges. Model results are compared with measurements collected at a field site in central Cambodia. Our findings suggest that it is crucial to account for intensive canopy clumping in order to reproduce observed rubber plantation fluxes. These results suggest a potentially optimal spacing of rubber trees to produce high productivity and water use efficiency.

  12. Unexpected series of regular frequency spacing of δ Scuti stars in the non-asymptotic regime - I. The methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Paparo, M.; Benko, J. M.; Hareter, M.; Guzik, J. A.

    2016-05-11

    In this study, a sequence search method was developed to search the regular frequency spacing in δ Scuti stars through visual inspection and an algorithmic search. We searched for sequences of quasi-equally spaced frequencies, containing at least four members per sequence, in 90 δ Scuti stars observed by CoRoT. We found an unexpectedly large number of independent series of regular frequency spacing in 77 δ Scuti stars (from one to eight sequences) in the non-asymptotic regime. We introduce the sequence search method presenting the sequences and echelle diagram of CoRoT 102675756 and the structure of the algorithmic search. Four sequences (echelle ridges) were found in the 5–21 d–1 region where the pairs of the sequences are shifted (between 0.5 and 0.59 d–1) by twice the value of the estimated rotational splitting frequency (0.269 d–1). The general conclusions for the whole sample are also presented in this paper. The statistics of the spacings derived by the sequence search method, by FT (Fourier transform of the frequencies), and the statistics of the shifts are also compared. In many stars more than one almost equally valid spacing appeared. The model frequencies of FG Vir and their rotationally split components were used to formulate the possible explanation that one spacing is the large separation while the other is the sum of the large separation and the rotational frequency. In CoRoT 102675756, the two spacings (2.249 and 1.977 d–1) are in better agreement with the sum of a possible 1.710 d–1 large separation and two or one times, respectively, the value of the rotational frequency.

  13. Manifold-Splitting Regularization, Self-Linking Twisting, Writhing Numbers of Space-Time Ribbons and POLYAKOV’S Proof of Fermi-Bose Transmutations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tze, Chia-Hsiung

    We present an alternative formulation of Polyakov’s regularization of Gauss’ integral formula for a single closed Feynman path. A key element in his proof of the D=3 fermi-bose transmutations induced by topological gauge fields, this regularization is linked here with the existence and properties of a nontrivial topological invariant for a closed space ribbon. This self-linking coefficient, an integer, is the sum of two differential characteristics of the ribbon, its twisting and writhing numbers. These invariants form the basis for a physical interpretation of our regularization. Their connection to Polyakov’s spinorization is discussed. We further generalize our construction to the self-linking, twisting and writhing of higher dimensional d=n (odd) submanifolds in D=(2n+1) space-time. Our comprehensive analysis intends to supplement Polyakov’s work as it identifies a natural path to its higher dimensional mathematical and physical generalizations. Combining the theorems of White on self-linking of manifolds and of Adams on nontrivial Hopf fibre bundles and the four composition-division algebras, we argue that besides Polyakov’s case where (d, D)=(1, 3) tied to complex numbers, the potentially interesting extensions are two chiral models with (d, D)=(3, 7) and (7, 15) uniquely linked to quaternions and octonions. In Memoriam Richard P. Feynman

  14. Recent advances in stimulated radiation studies during radiowave heating the near earth space environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scales, W. A.

    2016-02-01

    Investigation of stimulated radiation, commonly known as stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE), produced by the interaction of high-power, high-frequency HF radiowaves with the ionospheric plasma has been a vibrant area of research since the early 1980s. Substantial diagnostic information about ionospheric plasma characteristics, dynamics, and turbulence can be obtained from the frequency spectrum of the stimulated radiation. During the past several decades, so-called wideband SEE which exists in a frequency band of ±100 kHz or so of the transmit wave frequency (which is several MHz) has been investigated relatively thoroughly. Recent upgrades both in transmitter power and diagnostic receiver frequency sensitivity at major ionosphere interaction facilities in Alaska and Norway have allowed new breakthroughs in the ability to study a plethora of processes associated with the ionospheric plasma during these experiments. A primary advance is in observations of so-called narrowband SEE (NSEE) which exists roughly within ±1 kHz of the transmit wave frequency. An overview of several important new results associated with NSEE are discussed as well as implications to new diagnostics of space plasma physics occurring during ionospheric interaction experiments.

  15. Third Spaces and Video-Stimulated Recall: An Exploration of Teachers' Cultural Role in an Indigenous Education Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Blair

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the use of video-stimulated recall as a reflective approach for supporting the development of third spaces in action research. The concept of third spaces is used as a conceptual descriptor of the specific intercultural context and relations between the researcher and participants present within the project. The paper…

  16. Alpha stimulation of the human parietal cortex attunes tactile perception to external space.

    PubMed

    Ruzzoli, Manuela; Soto-Faraco, Salvador

    2014-02-03

    An intriguing question in neuroscience concerns how somatosensory events on the skin are represented in the human brain. Since Head and Holmes' [1] neuropsychological dissociation between localizing touch on the skin and localizing body parts in external space, touch is considered to operate in a variety of spatial reference frames [2]. At least two representations of space are in competition during orienting to touch: a somatotopic one, reflecting the organization of the somatosensory cortex (S1) [3], and a more abstract, external reference frame that factors postural changes in relation to body parts and/or external space [4, 5]. Previous transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies suggest that the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) plays a key role in supporting representations as well as orienting attention in an external reference frame [4, 6]. Here, we capitalized on the TMS entrainment approach [7, 8], targeting the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). We found that frequency-specific (10 Hz) tuning of the PPC induced spatially specific enhancement of tactile detection that was expressed in an external reference frame. This finding establishes a tight causal link between a concrete form of brain activity (10 Hz oscillation) and a specific type of spatial representation, revealing a fundamental property of how the parietal cortex encodes information.

  17. Perceptual Spaces Induced by Cochlear Implant All-Polar Stimulation Mode

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Colette M.

    2016-01-01

    It has been argued that a main limitation of the cochlear implant is the spread of current induced by each electrode, which activates an inappropriately large range of sensory neurons. To reduce this spread, an alternative stimulation mode, the all-polar mode, was tested with five participants. It was designed to activate all the electrodes simultaneously with appropriate current levels and polarities to recruit narrower regions of auditory nerves at specific intracochlear electrode positions (denoted all-polar electrodes). In this study, the all-polar mode was compared with the current commercial stimulation mode: the monopolar mode. The participants were asked to judge the sound dissimilarity between pairs of two-electrode pulse-train stimuli that differed in the electrode positions and were presented in either monopolar or all-polar mode with pulses on the two electrodes presented either sequentially or simultaneously. The dissimilarity ratings were analyzed using a multidimensional scaling technique and three-dimensional stimulus perceptual spaces were produced. For all the conditions (mode and simultaneity), the first perceptual dimension was highly correlated with the position of the most apical activated electrode of the electrical stimulation and the second dimension with the position of the most basal electrode. In both sequential and simultaneous conditions, the monopolar and all-polar stimuli were significantly separated by a third dimension, which may indicate that all-polar stimuli have a perceptual quality that differs from monopolar stimuli. Overall, the results suggest that both modes might successfully represent spectral information in a sound processing strategy. PMID:27604784

  18. Linear regularity and [phi]-regularity of nonconvex sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Kung Fu; Zang, Rui

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, we discuss some sufficient conditions for the linear regularity and bounded linear regularity (and their variations) of finitely many closed (not necessarily convex) sets in a normed vector space. The accompanying necessary conditions are also given in the setting of Asplund spaces.

  19. Spacing patterns of an Acacia tree in the Kalahari over a 61-year period: How clumped becomes regular and vice versa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moustakas, Aristides; Wiegand, Kerstin; Getzin, Stephan; Ward, David; Meyer, Katrin M.; Guenther, Matthias; Mueller, Karl-Heinz

    2008-05-01

    Nearest tree neighbour distances and the tree spatial formation on a large scale over time and space replicates were examined. The study was conducted in a natural savanna ecosystem in the Southern Kalahari, South Africa. Nearest tree neighbour and point pattern analysis methods were used to investigate changes in the spatial pattern of trees in two plots. Trees larger than 2 m canopy diameter were mapped. We used aerial photographs of the study area from 1940, 1964, 1984, 1993, and a satellite image from 2001 to follow two plots over time. Field work was carried out too for classification accuracy. We were able to identify and individually follow over 2400 individual trees from 1940 until 2001. Nearest neighbour analysis results indicate that dead trees were on average closer to their nearest neighbouring trees than living trees were to their neighbours. Most dead trees were on average 6 m from their nearest neighbours, while most living trees were about 20 m apart. Point pattern analysis results show a cyclical transition from clumped to random and sequentially to regular tree spacing. These transitions were not correlated across two plots. Generally, decreases in small-scale clumping coincided with periods of high mortality. Our findings show that regular, clumped, and random tree pattern can occur, pending on time, location, and scale within the location.

  20. Tracking the effects of crusher gradients on gradient-echo BOLD signal in space and time during rat sensory stimulation.

    PubMed

    Goelman, Gadi; Pelled, Galit; Dodd, Steve; Koretsky, Alan

    2008-09-01

    A unique method to map the effect of crusher gradients in space and time on the gradient echo blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal is introduced. Using the Radial Correlation Contrast (RCC) analysis method, amplitude-RCC maps at different time segments and different gradient strengths were obtained. The ratio of amplitude-RCC cluster volumes, with and without crusher gradients, showed a temporal dependency with stronger volume reduction for stimulation-onset versus stimulation-decline. Aside from signal-to-noise ratio reduction in diffusion weighted images, the average temporal patterns were equal. Comparison of the data with and without crushers showed a stronger reduction in local coherence for stimulation-onset times. We hypothesize that the stimulation decline was weighted by extravascular effects originating in expanded veins due to their larger volume and long range susceptibility which couples neighboring voxels. The ratio of amplitude-RCC with and without crushers calculated for each voxel at each time segment yielded a spatial-temporal mapping of the crusher effect. These maps suggest that early stimulation-onset ( approximately 9 s) is weighted by flow; later a dynamic steady-state between intra- and extravascular effects is obtained. Stimulation-decline was dominated by extravascular effects, and at late stimulation decline as well as at early stimulation onset, clusters were small and localized to expected site of neuronal activity.

  1. Near-invariance under dynamic scaling for Navier-Stokes equations in critical spaces: a probabilistic approach to regularity problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkitani, Koji

    2017-01-01

    We make a detailed comparison between the Navier-Stokes equations and their dynamically scaled counterpart, the so-called Leray equations. The Navier-Stokes equations are invariant under static scaling transforms, but are not generally invariant under dynamic scaling transforms. We will study how closely they can be brought together using the critical dependent variables and discuss the implications on the regularity problems. Assuming that the Navier-Stokes equations written in the vector potential have a solution that blows up at t = 1, we derive the Leray equations by dynamic scaling. We observe: (1) the Leray equations have only one term extra on top of those of the Navier-Stokes equations (2) we can recast the Navier-Stokes equations as a Wiener path integral and the Leray equations as another Ornstein-Uhlenbeck path integral. Using the Maruyama-Girsanov theorem, both equations take the identical form modulo the Maruyama-Girsanov density, which is valid up to t=2\\sqrt{2} by the Novikov condition (3) the global solution of the Leray equations is given by a finite-dimensional projection {\\boldsymbol{R}} of a functional of an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process and a probability measure. If {\\boldsymbol{R}} remains smooth beyond t = 1 under an absolute continuous change of the probability measure, we can rule out finite-time blowup by contradiction. There are two cases: (A) {\\boldsymbol{R}} given by a finite number of Wiener integrals, and (B) otherwise. Ruling out blowup in (A) is straightforward. For (B), a condition based on a limit passage in the Picard iterations is identified for such a contradiction to come out. The whole argument equally holds in {{{R}}}d for any d≥slant 2.

  2. Neglect-like behavior in healthy subjects: dissociation of space exploration and goal-directed pointing after vestibular stimulation.

    PubMed

    Karnath, Hans-Otto; Himmelbach, Marc; Perenin, Marie-Thérèse

    2003-11-01

    Evidence has been reported favoring the view of a dual mode of space representation for action and spatial cognition. While the dorsal system seems to be mainly involved in direct coding of space for action by means of several effector-specific representations, the ventral system appears to be responsible for more enduring and conscious representations underlying spatial cognition and awareness. In accordance with this view are recent studies documenting dissociations between exploratory and goal-directed movements in patients with brain damage. Patients with neglect exhibit a spatial bias of exploratory movements to the ipsilesional side, while goal-directed movements land precisely on target. The exploratory bias was found susceptible to asymmetric sensory stimulation such as caloric vestibular stimulation, inducing transient reduction of contralateral neglect. The present study compared exploratory and goal-directed hand movements in healthy subjects following cold caloric stimulation of the right vestibular organ. We observed a rightward shift of tactile exploration, while goal-directed pointing remained unaffected. Asymmetric vestibular stimulation in healthy subjects thus produced a neglect-like behavior with a similar dissociation between impaired exploratory and nonimpaired goal-directed hand movements. The stimulation provoked a further, very characteristic symptom of neglect patients: a deviation of spontaneous head orientation toward the right. The present observations strengthen substantially the assumption of different modes of space representation for action and spatial cognition in humans.

  3. Geometry of spinor regularization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hestenes, D.; Lounesto, P.

    1983-01-01

    The Kustaanheimo theory of spinor regularization is given a new formulation in terms of geometric algebra. The Kustaanheimo-Stiefel matrix and its subsidiary condition are put in a spinor form directly related to the geometry of the orbit in physical space. A physically significant alternative to the KS subsidiary condition is discussed. Derivations are carried out without using coordinates.

  4. Space radiation dosimetry: An optically stimulated luminescence radiation detector for low-Earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaza, Ramona

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of this study was to investigate Al2O3:C as a potential optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) radiation detector for Low-Earth Orbit. The OSL response of Al2O3:C was characterized in terms of its luminescence efficiency for a variety of heavy charged particles (HCPs) with features similar to those found in space. The HCP irradiations were performed using the HIMAC accelerator at Chiba (Japan), the proton facility at Loma Linda (CA) and the NSRL facility at Brookhaven (NY). The OSL curves were further investigated to obtain information about the 'mean efficiency' and 'mean LET', parameters that needed to assess the absorbed dose and the dose equivalent. This analysis was applied for simulated mixed radiation fields (ICCHIBAN) and actual space radiation exposures (i.e., STS-105, BRADOS, and TRACER). In parallel, the thermoluminescence response of dosimetry materials LiF:Mg,Ti and CaF2:Tm was also studied. Findings and conclusions. The OSL efficiency of Al2O 3:C exposed to HCPs was found to decrease with increasing linear energy transfer (LET) for the investigated LET range (i.e., from 0.4 keV/mum to 459 keV/mum). For simulated mixed radiation fields with a strong low-LET component, the results indicated that the OSL calibration methods (i.e., tau-method and R-method) can be used with good accuracy to obtain information about the absorbed dose and the dose equivalent. Nevertheless, for mixed fields with a strong high-LET component these methods will give larger errors when estimating the absorbed dose and the dose equivalent. For actual space radiation exposures, the results indicated that different materials/calibration methods (i.e., the LiF:Mg,Ti/HTR-method and the CaF2:Tm/peak 5 + 6/peak 3-method) give different results in terms of 'mean efficiency' and 'mean LET'. This was explained by suggesting that none of the above calibration methods can give information about the true average LET of the incident radiation, but rather

  5. Manifold Regularized Reinforcement Learning.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongliang; Liu, Derong; Wang, Ding

    2017-01-27

    This paper introduces a novel manifold regularized reinforcement learning scheme for continuous Markov decision processes. Smooth feature representations for value function approximation can be automatically learned using the unsupervised manifold regularization method. The learned features are data-driven, and can be adapted to the geometry of the state space. Furthermore, the scheme provides a direct basis representation extension for novel samples during policy learning and control. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated on two benchmark control tasks, i.e., the inverted pendulum and the energy storage problem. Simulation results illustrate the concepts of the proposed scheme and show that it can obtain excellent performance.

  6. Krein regularization of QED

    SciTech Connect

    Forghan, B. Takook, M.V.; Zarei, A.

    2012-09-15

    In this paper, the electron self-energy, photon self-energy and vertex functions are explicitly calculated in Krein space quantization including quantum metric fluctuation. The results are automatically regularized or finite. The magnetic anomaly and Lamb shift are also calculated in the one loop approximation in this method. Finally, the obtained results are compared to conventional QED results. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Krein regularization yields finite values for photon and electron self-energies and vertex function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The magnetic anomaly is calculated and is exactly the same as the conventional result. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Lamb shift is calculated and is approximately the same as in Hilbert space.

  7. Experimental studies on heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of laminar flow through a circular tube fitted with regularly spaced helical screw-tape inserts

    SciTech Connect

    Sivashanmugam, P.; Suresh, S.

    2007-02-15

    Experimental investigation of heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of circular tube fitted with full-length helical screw element of different twist ratio, and helical screw inserts with spacer length 100, 200, 300 and 400mm have been studied with uniform heat flux under laminar flow condition. The experimental data obtained are verified with those obtained from plain tube published data. The effect of spacer length on heat transfer augmentation and friction factor, and the effect of twist ratio on heat transfer augmentation and friction factor have been presented separately. The decrease in Nusselt number for the helical twist with spacer length is within 10% for each subsequent 100mm increase in spacer length. The decrease in friction factor is nearly two times lower than the full length helical twist at low Reynolds number, and four times lower than the full length helical twist at high Reynolds number for all twist ratio. The regularly spaced helical screw inserts can safely be used for heat transfer augmentation without much increase in pressure drop than full length helical screw inserts. (author)

  8. Application of a Rat Hindlimb Model: A Prediction of Force Spaces Reachable Through Stimulation of Nerve Fascicles

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Will L.; Jindrich, Devin L.; Zhong, Hui; Roy, Roland R.

    2011-01-01

    A device to generate standing or locomotion through chronically placed electrodes has not been fully developed due in part to limitations of clinical experimentation and the high number of muscle activation inputs of the leg. We investigated the feasibility of functional electrical stimulation paradigms that minimize the input dimensions for controlling the limbs by stimulating at nerve fascicles, utilizing a model of the rat hindlimb which combined previously collected morphological data with muscle physiological parameters presented herein. As validation of the model we investigated the suitability of a lumped-parameter model for prediction of muscle activation during dynamic tasks. Using the validated model we found that the space of forces producible through activation of muscle groups sharing common nerve fascicles was nonlinearly dependent on the number of discrete muscle groups that could be individually activated (equivalently, the neuroanatomical level of activation). Seven commonly innervated muscle groups were sufficient to produce 78% of the force space producible through individual activation of the 42 modeled hindlimb muscles. This novel, neuroanatomically derived reduction in input dimension emphasizes the potential to simplify controllers for functional electrical stimulation to improve functional recovery after a neuromuscular injury. PMID:21244999

  9. Flexible sparse regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Dirk A.; Resmerita, Elena

    2017-01-01

    The seminal paper of Daubechies, Defrise, DeMol made clear that {{\\ell }}p spaces with p\\in [1,2) and p-powers of the corresponding norms are appropriate settings for dealing with reconstruction of sparse solutions of ill-posed problems by regularization. It seems that the case p = 1 provides the best results in most of the situations compared to the cases p\\in (1,2). An extensive literature gives great credit also to using {{\\ell }}p spaces with p\\in (0,1) together with the corresponding quasi-norms, although one has to tackle challenging numerical problems raised by the non-convexity of the quasi-norms. In any of these settings, either superlinear, linear or sublinear, the question of how to choose the exponent p has been not only a numerical issue, but also a philosophical one. In this work we introduce a more flexible way of sparse regularization by varying exponents. We introduce the corresponding functional analytic framework, that leaves the setting of normed spaces but works with so-called F-norms. One curious result is that there are F-norms which generate the ℓ 1 space, but they are strictly convex, while the ℓ 1-norm is just convex.

  10. Studies on gene expressions analyses for Arabidopsis thaliana plants stimulated by space flight condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jinying; Liu, Min; Pan, Yi; Li, Huasheng

    We carried out whole-genome microarray to screen the transcript profile of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings after three treatment: space microgravity condition( Seedlings grown in microgravity state of space flight of SIMBOX on Shenzhou-8), 1g centrifugal force in space(Seedlings grown in 1g centrifugal force state of space flight of SIMBOX on Shenzhou-8) and ground control. The result of microarray analysis is as followed: There were 368 genes significantly differentially expressed in space microgravity condition compared with that in 1g centrifuge space condition. Space radiation caused 246 genes significantly differentially expressed between seedlings in 1g centrifuge space condition and ground control. Space conditions (including microgravity and radiation) caused 621 genes significantly differentially expressed between seedlings in space microgravity condition and ground control. Microgravity and radiation as a single factor can cause plant gene expression change, but two factors synergism can produce some new effects on plant gene expression. The function of differential expression genes were analyst by bioinformatics, and we found the expression of genes related with stress were more different, such as the dehydration of protein (dehydrin Xero2) expression is up-regulated 57 times; low-temperature-induced protein expression is up-regulated in 49 times; heat shock protein expression is up-regulated 20 times; transcription factor DREB2A expression increase 25 times; protein phosphatase 2C expression is up-regulated 14 times; transcription factor NAM-like protein expression is up-regulated 13 times; cell wall metabolism related genes (xyloglucan, endo-1, 4-beta-D-glucanase) expression is down-regulated in 15 times. The results provide scientific data for the mechanism of space mutation.

  11. Far-space neglect in conjunction but not feature search following transcranial magnetic stimulation over right posterior parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Mahayana, Indra T; Liu, Chia-Lun; Chang, Chi Fu; Hung, Daisy L; Tzeng, Ovid J L; Juan, Chi-Hung; Muggleton, Neil G

    2014-02-01

    Near- and far-space coding in the human brain is a dynamic process. Areas in dorsal, as well as ventral visual association cortex, including right posterior parietal cortex (rPPC), right frontal eye field (rFEF), and right ventral occipital cortex (rVO), have been shown to be important in visuospatial processing, but the involvement of these areas when the information is in near or far space remains unclear. There is a need for investigations of these representations to help explain the pathophysiology of hemispatial neglect, and the role of near and far space is crucial to this. We used a conjunction visual search task using an elliptical array to investigate the effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation delivered over rFEF, rPPC, and rVO on the processing of targets in near and far space and at a range of horizontal eccentricities. As in previous studies, we found that rVO was involved in far-space search, and rFEF was involved regardless of the distance to the array. It was found that rPPC was involved in search only in far space, with a neglect-like effect when the target was located in the most eccentric locations. No effects were seen for any site for a feature search task. As the search arrays had higher predictability with respect to target location than is often the case, these data may form a basis for clarifying both the role of PPC in visual search and its contribution to neglect, as well as the importance of near and far space in these.

  12. Studies of plant gene expression and function stimulated by space microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jinying; Liu, Min; Li, Huasheng; Zhao, Hui

    2016-07-01

    One of the important questions in space biology is how plants respond to an outer space environment i.e., how genetic expression is altered in space microgravity. In this study, the transcriptome of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings was analyzed as part of the Germany SIMBOX (Science in Microgravity Box) spaceflight experiment on Shenzhou 8. A gene chip was used to screen gene expression differences in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings between microgravity and 1g centrifugal force in space. Microarray analysis revealed that 368 genes were differentially expressed. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis indicated that these genes were involved in the plant's response to stress, secondary metabolism, hormone metabolism, transcription, protein phosphorylation, lipid metabolism, transport and cell wall metabolism processes. Real time PCR was used to analyzed the miRNA expression including Arabidopsis miR160,miR161, miR394, miR402, miR403, and miR408. MiR408 was significantly upregulated. An overexpression vector of Arabidopsis miR408 was constructed and transferred to Arabidopsis plant. The roots of plants over expressing miR408 exhibited a slower reorientation upon gravistimulation in comparison with those of wild-type. This result indicated that miR408 could play a role in root gravitropic response.

  13. Cardiovascular response to lower body negative pressure stimulation before, during, and after space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baisch, F.; Beck, L.; Blomqvist, G.; Wolfram, G.; Drescher, J.; Rome, J. L.; Drummer, C.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that space travel cause post-flight orthostatic hypotension and it was assumed that autonomic cardiovascular control deteriorates in space. Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) was used to assess autonomic function of the cardiovascular system. METHODS: LBNP tests were performed on six crew-members before and on the first days post-flight in a series of three space missions. Additionally, two of the subjects performed LBNP tests in-flight. LBNP mimics fluid distribution of upright posture in a gravity independent way. It causes an artificial sequestration of blood, reduces preload, and filtrates plasma into the lower part of the body. Fluid distribution was assessed by bioelectrical impedance and anthropometric measurements. RESULTS: Heart rate, blood pressure, and total peripheral resistance increased significantly during LBNP experiments in-flight. The decrease in stroke volume, the increased pooling of blood, and the increased filtration of plasma into the lower limbs during LBNP indicated that a plasma volume reduction and a deficit of the interstitial volume of lower limbs rather than a change in cardiovascular control was responsible for the in-flight response. Post-flight LBNP showed no signs of cardiovascular deterioration. The still more pronounced haemodynamic changes during LBNP reflected the expected behaviour of cardiovascular control faced with less intravascular volume. In-flight, the status of an intra-and extravascular fluid deficit increases sympathetic activity, the release of vasoactive substances and consequently blood pressure. Post-flight, blood pressure decreases significantly below pre-flight values after restoration of volume deficits. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the cardiovascular changes in-flight are a consequence of a fluid deficit rather than a consequence of changes in autonomic signal processing.

  14. Simulated Space Radiation: Murine Skeletal Responses During Recovery and with Mechanical Stimulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirazi-Fard, Yasaman; Zaragoza, Josergio; Schreurs, Ann-Sofie; Truong, Tiffany; Tahimic, Candice; Alwood, Joshua S.; Globus, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    Simulated space radiation at doses similar to those of solar particle events or a round-trip sojourn to Mars (1-2Gy) may cause skeletal tissue degradation and deplete stem/progenitor cell pools throughout the body. We hypothesized that simulated space radiation (SSR) causes late, time-dependent deficits in bone structure and bone cell function reflected by changes in gene expression in response to anabolic stimuli. We used a unique sequential dual ion exposure (proton and iron) for SSR to investigate time-dependence of responses in gene expression, cell function, and microarchitecture with respect to radiation and an anabolic stimulus of axial loading (AL). Male 16-wk C57BL6/J mice (n=120 total) were exposed to 0Gy (Sham, n=10), 56Fe (2Gy, positive control dose, n=10), or sequential ions for SSR (1Gy 1H/56Fe/1H, n=10) by total body irradiation (IR), and the tissues were harvested 2 or 6 mo. later. Further, to assess the response to anabolic stimuli, we subjected additional Sham-AL (n=15) and SSR-AL (n=15) groups to rest-inserted tibial axial loading (AL) starting at 1 and 5 months post-IR (-9N, 60 cycles/day, 3 days/wk, 4 wks). Exposure to 56Fe caused a significant reduction in cancellous bone volume fraction (BV/TV) compared to Sham (-34%) and SSR (-20%) in the proximal tibia metaphysis at 2-months post-IR; however BV/TV for SSR group was not different than Sham. Both 56Fe and SSR caused significant reduction in trabecular number (Tb.N) compared to Sham (-33% and -16%, respectively). Further, Tb.N for 56Fe (2Gy) was significantly lower than SSR (-21%). Ex vivo culture of marrow cells to assess growth and differentiation of osteoblast lineage cells 6 months post-IR showed that both 56Fe and SSR exposures significantly impaired colony formation compared to Sham (-66% and -54%, respectively), as well as nodule mineralization (-90% and -51%, respectively). Two-way analysis of variance showed that both mechanical loading and radiation reduced BV/TV, mechanical loading

  15. Simulated Space Radiation: Murine Skeletal Responses During Recovery and with Mechanical Stimulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirazi-Fard, Yasaman; Zaragoza, Josergio; Schreurs, Ann-Sofie; Truong, Tiffany; Tahimic, Candice; Alwood, Joshua S.; Castillo, Alesha B.; Globus, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    Simulated space radiation at doses similar to those of solar particle events or a round-trip sojourn to Mars (1-2Gy) may cause skeletal tissue degradation and deplete stem/progenitor cell pools throughout the body. We hypothesized that simulated space radiation (SSR) causes late, time-dependent deficits in bone structure and bone cell function reflected by changes in gene expression in response to anabolic stimuli. We used a unique sequential dual ion exposure (proton and iron) for SSR to investigate time-dependence of responses in gene expression, cell function, and microarchitecture with respect to radiation and an anabolic stimulus of axial loading (AL). Male 16-wk C57BL6/J mice (n=120 total) were exposed to 0Gy (Sham, n=10), 56Fe (2Gy, positive control dose, n=10), or sequential ions for SSR (1Gy 1H/56Fe/1H, n=10) by total body irradiation (IR), and the tissues were harvested 2 or 6 mo. later. Further, to assess the response to anabolic stimuli, we subjected additional Sham-AL (n=15) and SSR-AL (n=15) groups to rest-inserted tibial axial loading (AL) starting at 1 and 5 months post-IR (-9N, 60 cycles/day, 3 days/wk, 4 wks). Exposure to 56Fe caused a significant reduction in cancellous bone volume fraction (BV/TV) compared to Sham (-34%) and SSR (-20%) in the proximal tibia metaphysis at 2-months post-IR; however BV/TV for SSR group was not different than Sham. Both 56Fe and SSR caused significant reduction in trabecular number (Tb.N) compared to Sham (-33% and -16%, respectively). Further, Tb.N for 56Fe (2Gy) was significantly lower than SSR (-21%). Ex vivo culture of marrow cells to assess growth and differentiation of osteoblast lineage cells 6 months post-IR showed that both 56Fe and SSR exposures significantly impaired colony formation compared to Sham (-66% and -54%, respectively), as well as nodule mineralization (-90% and -51%, respectively). Two-way analysis of variance showed that both mechanical loading and radiation reduced BV/TV, mechanical loading

  16. Subthalamic Stimulation Reduces Vowel Space at the Initiation of Sustained Production: Implications for Articulatory Motor Control in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sidtis, John J.; Alken, Amy G.; Tagliati, Michele; Alterman, Ron; Van Lancker Sidtis, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stimulation of the subthalamic nuclei (STN) is an effective treatment for Parkinson’s disease, but complaints of speech difficulties after surgery have been difficult to quantify. Speech measures do not convincingly account for such reports. Objective: This study examined STN stimulation effects on vowel production, in order to probe whether DBS affects articulatory posturing. The objective was to compare positioning during the initiation phase with the steady prolongation phase by measuring vowel spaces for three “corner” vowels at these two time frames. Methods: Vowel space was measured over the initial 0.25 sec of sustained productions of high front (/i/), high back (/u/) and low vowels (/a/), and again during a 2 sec segment at the midpoint. Eight right-handed male subjects with bilateral STN stimulation and seven age-matched male controls were studied based on their participation in a larger study that included functional imaging. Mean values: age = 57±4.6 yrs; PD duration = 12.3±2.7 yrs; duration of DBS = 25.6±21.2 mos, and UPDRS III speech score = 1.6±0.7. STN subjects were studied off medication at their therapeutic DBS settings and again with their stimulators off, counter-balanced order. Results: Vowel space was larger in the initiation phase compared to the midpoint for both the control and the STN subjects off stimulation. With stimulation on, however, the initial vowel space was significantly reduced to the area measured at the mid-point. For the three vowels, the acoustics were differentially affected, in accordance with expected effects of front versus back position in the vocal tract. Conclusions: STN stimulation appears to constrain initial articulatory gestures for vowel production, raising the possibility that articulatory positions normally used in speech are similarly constrained. PMID:27003219

  17. The role of artificial gravity in the exploration of space.

    PubMed

    Burton, R R

    1994-07-01

    Terrestrial animals including the human require regular periodic gravitational (g) stimulation to maintain normal physiologic functions on earth or in space. Identical g stimulations can be produced in space with inertial forces (G) using a centrifuge. These stimulations may be made more efficient in preventing physiologic deconditioning by increasing G levels above 1 G. The effective operational use of the centrifuge in space to prevent physiologic deconditioning from microgravity exposures will require ground-based studies using weightless simulation such as bedrest or dry immersion with laboratories that have human-use centrifuges. The use of periodic, increased-G exposures in space may offer a practical inexpensive solution in preventing physiologic deconditioning.

  18. The Volume of the Regular Octahedron

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trigg, Charles W.

    1974-01-01

    Five methods are given for computing the area of a regular octahedron. It is suggested that students first construct an octahedron as this will aid in space visualization. Six further extensions are left for the reader to try. (LS)

  19. Physical model of dimensional regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schonfeld, Jonathan F.

    2016-12-01

    We explicitly construct fractals of dimension 4{-}ɛ on which dimensional regularization approximates scalar-field-only quantum-field theory amplitudes. The construction does not require fractals to be Lorentz-invariant in any sense, and we argue that there probably is no Lorentz-invariant fractal of dimension greater than 2. We derive dimensional regularization's power-law screening first for fractals obtained by removing voids from 3-dimensional Euclidean space. The derivation applies techniques from elementary dielectric theory. Surprisingly, fractal geometry by itself does not guarantee the appropriate power-law behavior; boundary conditions at fractal voids also play an important role. We then extend the derivation to 4-dimensional Minkowski space. We comment on generalization to non-scalar fields, and speculate about implications for quantum gravity.

  20. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the inferior frontal cortex affects the "social scaling" of extrapersonal space depending on perspective-taking ability.

    PubMed

    Fini, Chiara; Bardi, Lara; Epifanio, Alessandra; Committeri, Giorgia; Moors, Agnes; Brass, Marcel

    2017-03-01

    When we have to judge the distance between another person and an object (social condition), we judge this distance as being smaller compared to judging the distance between two objects (nonsocial condition). It has been suggested that this compression is mediated by the attribution of a motor potential to the reference frame (other person vs. object). In order to explore the neural basis of this effect, we investigated whether the modulation of activity in the inferior frontal cortex (IFC) of the left hemisphere (recruited during visuospatial processes with a social component) changes the way we categorize space in a social compared with a nonsocial condition. We applied transcranial direct current stimulation to the left IFC, with different polarities (anodal, cathodal, and sham) while subjects performed an extrapersonal space categorization task. Interestingly, anodal stimulation of IFC induced an higher compression of space in the social compared to nonsocial condition. By contrast, cathodal stimulation induced the opposite effect. Furthermore, we found that this effect is modulated by interindividual differences in cognitive perspective taking. Our data support the idea that IFC is recruited during the social categorization of space.

  1. Ensemble manifold regularization.

    PubMed

    Geng, Bo; Tao, Dacheng; Xu, Chao; Yang, Linjun; Hua, Xian-Sheng

    2012-06-01

    We propose an automatic approximation of the intrinsic manifold for general semi-supervised learning (SSL) problems. Unfortunately, it is not trivial to define an optimization function to obtain optimal hyperparameters. Usually, cross validation is applied, but it does not necessarily scale up. Other problems derive from the suboptimality incurred by discrete grid search and the overfitting. Therefore, we develop an ensemble manifold regularization (EMR) framework to approximate the intrinsic manifold by combining several initial guesses. Algorithmically, we designed EMR carefully so it 1) learns both the composite manifold and the semi-supervised learner jointly, 2) is fully automatic for learning the intrinsic manifold hyperparameters implicitly, 3) is conditionally optimal for intrinsic manifold approximation under a mild and reasonable assumption, and 4) is scalable for a large number of candidate manifold hyperparameters, from both time and space perspectives. Furthermore, we prove the convergence property of EMR to the deterministic matrix at rate root-n. Extensive experiments over both synthetic and real data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

  2. Experiment aboard Russian satellite "Foton M2" in 2005: new approaches for study on stimulating effect of space flight on cell proliferation and regeneration in Urodela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryan, E.; Almeida, E.; Domaratskaya, E.; Tairbekov, M.; Aleinikova, K.; Mitashov, V.

    A study on space flight effect upon processes of regeneration is due to the necessity to know their characteristics in animals and human exposed to space and earth conditions shortly after flight Several experiments on the newts performed earlier aboard Russian biosatellites showed that the rate of organ and tissue regeneration in space was greater than that on the ground Space flight effect stimulating regeneration was enduring and apparent not only just after flight but long time later as well This observation found support in studies simulated physiological weightlessness by means of fast-rotating clinostat It was shown also that the higher rate of regeneration was associated with enhanced cell proliferation For instance we found that the number of cells in S-phase in regenerating tissues was significantly greater in space-flown animals than in the ground controls However it was unclear whether cell proliferation stimulation was induced by micro- g per se or by conditions of hyper- g during launching and re-adaptation on the earth Molecular mechanisms underlying the change also remained obscure These issues were addressed by the joint Russian-USA experiment Regeneration performed on Foton-M2 in 2005 In 16- day flight we used two well-known models of regeneration lens regeneration after lensectomy and tail regeneration after amputation in adult newts Pleurodeles walt Urodela In order to evaluate cell proliferative activity in time limits of microgravity influence the original method for in-flight delivering DNA precursor BrdU

  3. The effective intensity of Coriolis, cross-coupling stimulation is gravitoinertial force dependent - Implications for space motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lackner, J. R.; Graybiel, A.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of gravity on the severity of the Coriolis-induced motion sickness was investigated in ten individuals subjected to high and low G-force phases of parabolic flight maneuvers using constant level Coriolis, cross-coupled angular acceleration stimulation. Using seven levels of severity in the diagnosis of motion sickness, it was found that the subjects were less susceptible at 0 G than at +2 Gz, and that the perceived intensity and provocativeness of Coriolis stimulation decreased in 0 G and increased in +2 Gz relative to the +1 Gz baseline values. The changes in the apparent intensity of Coriolis stimulation occur virtually immediately when the background gravitatioinertial force level is varied. These findings explain why the Skylab astronauts were refractory to motion sickness during Coriolis stimulation in-flight.

  4. Learning about Time within the Spinal Cord II: Evidence that Temporal Regularity Is Encoded by a Spinal Oscillator

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kuan H.; Huang, Yung-Jen; Grau, James W.

    2016-01-01

    How a stimulus impacts spinal cord function depends upon temporal relations. When intermittent noxious stimulation (shock) is applied and the interval between shock pulses is varied (unpredictable), it induces a lasting alteration that inhibits adaptive learning. If the same stimulus is applied in a temporally regular (predictable) manner, the capacity to learn is preserved and a protective/restorative effect is engaged that counters the adverse effect of variable stimulation. Sensitivity to temporal relations implies a capacity to encode time. This study explores how spinal neurons discriminate variable and fixed spaced stimulation. Communication with the brain was blocked by means of a spinal transection and adaptive capacity was tested using an instrumental learning task. In this task, subjects must learn to maintain a hind limb in a flexed position to minimize shock exposure. To evaluate the possibility that a distinct class of afferent fibers provide a sensory cue for regularity, we manipulated the temporal relation between shocks given to two dermatomes (leg and tail). Evidence for timing emerged when the stimuli were applied in a coherent manner across dermatomes, implying that a central (spinal) process detects regularity. Next, we show that fixed spaced stimulation has a restorative effect when half the physical stimuli are randomly omitted, as long as the stimuli remain in phase, suggesting that stimulus regularity is encoded by an internal oscillator Research suggests that the oscillator that drives the tempo of stepping depends upon neurons within the rostral lumbar (L1-L2) region. Disrupting communication with the L1-L2 tissue by means of a L3 transection eliminated the restorative effect of fixed spaced stimulation. Implications of the results for step training and rehabilitation after injury are discussed. PMID:26903830

  5. Dimensional Regularization is Generic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujikawa, Kazuo

    The absence of the quadratic divergence in the Higgs sector of the Standard Model in the dimensional regularization is usually regarded to be an exceptional property of a specific regularization. To understand what is going on in the dimensional regularization, we illustrate how to reproduce the results of the dimensional regularization for the λϕ4 theory in the more conventional regularization such as the higher derivative regularization; the basic postulate involved is that the quadratically divergent induced mass, which is independent of the scale change of the physical mass, is kinematical and unphysical. This is consistent with the derivation of the Callan-Symanzik equation, which is a comparison of two theories with slightly different masses, for the λϕ4 theory without encountering the quadratic divergence. In this sense the dimensional regularization may be said to be generic in a bottom-up approach starting with a successful low energy theory. We also define a modified version of the mass independent renormalization for a scalar field which leads to the homogeneous renormalization group equation. Implications of the present analysis on the Standard Model at high energies and the presence or absence of SUSY at LHC energies are briey discussed.

  6. Regular phantom black holes.

    PubMed

    Bronnikov, K A; Fabris, J C

    2006-06-30

    We study self-gravitating, static, spherically symmetric phantom scalar fields with arbitrary potentials (favored by cosmological observations) and single out 16 classes of possible regular configurations with flat, de Sitter, and anti-de Sitter asymptotics. Among them are traversable wormholes, bouncing Kantowski-Sachs (KS) cosmologies, and asymptotically flat black holes (BHs). A regular BH has a Schwarzschild-like causal structure, but the singularity is replaced by a de Sitter infinity, giving a hypothetic BH explorer a chance to survive. It also looks possible that our Universe has originated in a phantom-dominated collapse in another universe, with KS expansion and isotropization after crossing the horizon. Explicit examples of regular solutions are built and discussed. Possible generalizations include k-essence type scalar fields (with a potential) and scalar-tensor gravity.

  7. Regularized Structural Equation Modeling.

    PubMed

    Jacobucci, Ross; Grimm, Kevin J; McArdle, John J

    A new method is proposed that extends the use of regularization in both lasso and ridge regression to structural equation models. The method is termed regularized structural equation modeling (RegSEM). RegSEM penalizes specific parameters in structural equation models, with the goal of creating easier to understand and simpler models. Although regularization has gained wide adoption in regression, very little has transferred to models with latent variables. By adding penalties to specific parameters in a structural equation model, researchers have a high level of flexibility in reducing model complexity, overcoming poor fitting models, and the creation of models that are more likely to generalize to new samples. The proposed method was evaluated through a simulation study, two illustrative examples involving a measurement model, and one empirical example involving the structural part of the model to demonstrate RegSEM's utility.

  8. Synchronization of Regular Automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caucal, Didier

    Functional graph grammars are finite devices which generate the class of regular automata. We recall the notion of synchronization by grammars, and for any given grammar we consider the class of languages recognized by automata generated by all its synchronized grammars. The synchronization is an automaton-related notion: all grammars generating the same automaton synchronize the same languages. When the synchronizing automaton is unambiguous, the class of its synchronized languages forms an effective boolean algebra lying between the classes of regular languages and unambiguous context-free languages. We additionally provide sufficient conditions for such classes to be closed under concatenation and its iteration.

  9. Functional MRI using regularized parallel imaging acquisition.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fa-Hsuan; Huang, Teng-Yi; Chen, Nan-Kuei; Wang, Fu-Nien; Stufflebeam, Steven M; Belliveau, John W; Wald, Lawrence L; Kwong, Kenneth K

    2005-08-01

    Parallel MRI techniques reconstruct full-FOV images from undersampled k-space data by using the uncorrelated information from RF array coil elements. One disadvantage of parallel MRI is that the image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is degraded because of the reduced data samples and the spatially correlated nature of multiple RF receivers. Regularization has been proposed to mitigate the SNR loss originating due to the latter reason. Since it is necessary to utilize static prior to regularization, the dynamic contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in parallel MRI will be affected. In this paper we investigate the CNR of regularized sensitivity encoding (SENSE) acquisitions. We propose to implement regularized parallel MRI acquisitions in functional MRI (fMRI) experiments by incorporating the prior from combined segmented echo-planar imaging (EPI) acquisition into SENSE reconstructions. We investigated the impact of regularization on the CNR by performing parametric simulations at various BOLD contrasts, acceleration rates, and sizes of the active brain areas. As quantified by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the simulations suggest that the detection power of SENSE fMRI can be improved by regularized reconstructions, compared to unregularized reconstructions. Human motor and visual fMRI data acquired at different field strengths and array coils also demonstrate that regularized SENSE improves the detection of functionally active brain regions.

  10. Functional MRI Using Regularized Parallel Imaging Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Fa-Hsuan; Huang, Teng-Yi; Chen, Nan-Kuei; Wang, Fu-Nien; Stufflebeam, Steven M.; Belliveau, John W.; Wald, Lawrence L.; Kwong, Kenneth K.

    2013-01-01

    Parallel MRI techniques reconstruct full-FOV images from undersampled k-space data by using the uncorrelated information from RF array coil elements. One disadvantage of parallel MRI is that the image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is degraded because of the reduced data samples and the spatially correlated nature of multiple RF receivers. Regularization has been proposed to mitigate the SNR loss originating due to the latter reason. Since it is necessary to utilize static prior to regularization, the dynamic contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in parallel MRI will be affected. In this paper we investigate the CNR of regularized sensitivity encoding (SENSE) acquisitions. We propose to implement regularized parallel MRI acquisitions in functional MRI (fMRI) experiments by incorporating the prior from combined segmented echo-planar imaging (EPI) acquisition into SENSE reconstructions. We investigated the impact of regularization on the CNR by performing parametric simulations at various BOLD contrasts, acceleration rates, and sizes of the active brain areas. As quantified by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the simulations suggest that the detection power of SENSE fMRI can be improved by regularized reconstructions, compared to unregularized reconstructions. Human motor and visual fMRI data acquired at different field strengths and array coils also demonstrate that regularized SENSE improves the detection of functionally active brain regions. PMID:16032694

  11. Themed Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Christopher O.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a classroom activity that introduces students to the concept of themed space. Students learn to think critically about the spaces they encounter on a regular basis by analyzing existing spaces and by working in groups to create their own themed space. This exercise gives students the chance to see the relevance of critical…

  12. Economic impact of stimulated technological activity. Part 3: Case study, knowledge additions and earth links from space crew systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A case study of knowledge contributions from the crew life support aspect of the manned space program is reported. The new information needed to be learned, the solutions developed, and the relation of new knowledge gained to earthly problems were investigated. Illustrations are given in the following categories: supplying atmosphere for spacecraft; providing carbon dioxide removal and recycling; providing contaminant control and removal; maintaining the body's thermal balance; protecting against the space hazards of decompression, radiation, and meteorites; minimizing fire and blast hazards; providing adequate light and conditions for adequate visual performance; providing mobility and work physiology; and providing adequate habitability.

  13. Investigating Stimulated Wave-Particle Interaction of Radiation Belt Particles with Space-Borne Whistler Mode Transmitters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-30

    These observations will be compared with raytracing models. These analyses will determine the controlling factors of the coupling between the...ionosphere and magnetosphere, and the propagation characteristics of whistler waves in space, verify the raytracing models, and provide guidance for... raytracing model improvements when necessary. Correctly modeling whistler wave propagation in the magnetosphere as functions of plasma conditions and wave

  14. Regular Gleason Measures and Generalized Effect Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvurečenskij, Anatolij; Janda, Jiří

    2015-12-01

    We study measures, finitely additive measures, regular measures, and σ-additive measures that can attain even infinite values on the quantum logic of a Hilbert space. We show when particular classes of non-negative measures can be studied in the frame of generalized effect algebras.

  15. On the regularity in some variational problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragusa, Maria Alessandra; Tachikawa, Atsushi

    2017-01-01

    Our main goal is the study some regularity results where are considered estimates in Morrey spaces for the derivatives of local minimizers of variational integrals of the form 𝒜 (u ,Ω )= ∫Ω F (x ,u ,D u ) dx where Ω is a bounded domain in ℝm and the integrand F have some different forms.

  16. Regularizing portfolio optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Still, Susanne; Kondor, Imre

    2010-07-01

    The optimization of large portfolios displays an inherent instability due to estimation error. This poses a fundamental problem, because solutions that are not stable under sample fluctuations may look optimal for a given sample, but are, in effect, very far from optimal with respect to the average risk. In this paper, we approach the problem from the point of view of statistical learning theory. The occurrence of the instability is intimately related to over-fitting, which can be avoided using known regularization methods. We show how regularized portfolio optimization with the expected shortfall as a risk measure is related to support vector regression. The budget constraint dictates a modification. We present the resulting optimization problem and discuss the solution. The L2 norm of the weight vector is used as a regularizer, which corresponds to a diversification 'pressure'. This means that diversification, besides counteracting downward fluctuations in some assets by upward fluctuations in others, is also crucial because it improves the stability of the solution. The approach we provide here allows for the simultaneous treatment of optimization and diversification in one framework that enables the investor to trade off between the two, depending on the size of the available dataset.

  17. Spacecraft Instrumentation to Measure and Stimulate Space Particles and Plasma Waves in the Medium-Earth Orbit (MEO) Regime

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-12

    particles, the magnetic field vector information for the Loss Cone Imager ( LCI ) payload, and the ULF wave environment. The project is on schedule for...shown in Figure 8 generates the flux- gate drive signal, detects the second harmonic of this signal, nulls the field sur- rounding the sensor, and...recursively filtered to pro- 4pT -- ,vide data at 16 vectors/second to the space- 125 mHz 82 pT , 1 HZ. W: 477.42 mHz Hz craft telemetry. This digital

  18. Transient effects in beam-plasma interactions in a space simulation chamber stimulated by a fast pulse electron gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raitt, W. J.; Banks, P. M.; Denig, W. F.; Anderson, H. R.

    1982-01-01

    Interest in the interaction of electron beams with plasma generated by ionization caused by the primary electron beam was stimulated by the need to develop special vacuum tubes to operate in the kMHz frequency region. The experiments of Getty and Smullin (1963) indicated that the interaction of an energetic electron beam with its self-produced plasma resulted in the emission of wave energy over a wide range of frequencies associated with cyclotron and longitudinal plasma instabilities. This enhanced the thermal plasma density in the vicinity of the beam, and the term Beam-Plasma Discharge (BPD) was employed to described this phenomenon. The present investigation is concerned with some of the transient phenomena associated with wave emission during the beam switch-on and switch-off periods. Results are presented on the changes in electron energy spectra on a time scale of tens of milliseconds following beam switch-on. The results are discussed in terms of the beam plasma discharge phenomenon.

  19. Effects of confined space and near vision stimulation on refractive status and vitreous chamber depth in adolescent rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Leng, Yunxia; Lan, Weizhong; Yu, Keming; Liu, Bingqian; Yang, Zhikuan; Li, Zheng; Zhong, Xingwu; Zhang, Shaochong; Ge, Jian

    2010-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of sustained near vision stimulation, on the refractive development and elongation of the vitreous chamber in adolescent rhesus monkeys. A total of 12 adolescent rhesus monkeys (1.5-2.0 years old) were randomly assigned to 3 groups. In groups A (n=4) and B (n=4), monkeys were reared in close-vision cages for 8 and 4 h d(-1), respectively; tiny granules were added on the cage floor to avoid visual deprivation and to encourage near gaze. In group C (n=4), monkeys were reared in open-vision cages, with non-granule food as a control. Vitreous chamber depth, refractive status, and corneal refractive power were assessed over 18 months. Paired t-test was used to compare the differences and a P-value<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. In group A, vitreous chamber depth and optical axis elongated significantly, and refractive error shifted towards myopia during the observation period. In group B, vitreous chambers and optical axis elongated but the refractive power did not show significant changes. In group C, there was no significant elongation in vitreous chambers and optical axis, and the refractive power changed slightly towards hypermetropia. There were no significant changes in corneal refractive power in each group. Sustained near vision can promote vitreous chamber growth and induce myopic shifts in refractive power in adolescent monkeys. Our results demonstrate the potential for a primate model of near-work-related myopia.

  20. Restricting maternal space during parturition in the pig. Effects on oxytocin, vasopressin and cortisol secretion following vagino-cervical stimulation and administration of naloxone.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, C L; Boulton, M I; Forsling, M L; Goode, J A; McGrath, T J

    1997-04-01

    This experiment studied the effects on endocrine and birth parameters of parturient pigs produced by restricting maternal freedom of movement without otherwise altering environment. Six primiparous pigs (gilts) were each given a jugular catheter under anaesthesia 7 days before parturition and commenced birth in a strawed pen, 2.0 m x 1.5 m in size. Continuous automated blood sampling (3 ml min-1) from unrestrained gilts began following the birth of the first piglet (stage 1) and continued for 2 h. After at least 30 min of blood collection, maternal space was reduced to 2.0 m x 0.55 m by placing rails across the pen (stage 2). The scope for movement in stage 2 was similar to that offered by a farrowing crate. After at least 25 min each gilt was given the opioid antagonist naloxone (1 mg kg-1 i.v.: stage 3). At each stage, vagino-cervical stimulation (VCS) was applied to mimic foetal ejection. Non-cervically stimulated oxytocin (OT) secretion between stages 1 and 2 was unchanged (P > 0.05) but increased significantly relative to both stages 1 and 2 following naloxone treatment for 15-20 min (P < 0.05, paired t-tests on log10 data). Following VCS in all stages plasma OT rose (P < 0.05) for 1-2 min in a similar way to that seen previously following foetal ejection, the increases being proportionally similar irrespective of stage or baseline secretion. Cortisol secretion did not increase as a consequence of space restriction (mean +/- SEM concentrations were 28.6 +/- 8.51 pmol l-1 and 32.3 +/- 11.8 pmol l-1 in stages 1 and 2, respectively). In addition, VCS did not significantly affect cortisol output. Lysine vasopressin concentrations were not affected as a consequence of either stage or VCS. Parturition was not interrupted following space restriction of gilts. These data suggest that reducing maternal space allowance during parturition is not stressful when the process does not involve the movement of animals to novel surroundings.

  1. Strongly Regular Graphs,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-10-01

    The theory of strongly regular graphs was introduced by Bose r7 1 in 1963, in connection with partial geometries and 2 class association schemes. One...non adjacent vertices is constant and equal to ~. We shall denote by ~(p) (reap.r(p)) the set of vertices adjacent (resp.non adjacent) to a vertex p...is the complement of .2’ if the set of vertices of ~ is the set of vertices of .2’ and if two vertices in .2’ are adjacent if and only if they were

  2. Regularized versus non-regularized statistical reconstruction techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisova, N. V.

    2011-08-01

    An important feature of positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) is the stochastic property of real clinical data. Statistical algorithms such as ordered subset-expectation maximization (OSEM) and maximum a posteriori (MAP) are a direct consequence of the stochastic nature of the data. The principal difference between these two algorithms is that OSEM is a non-regularized approach, while the MAP is a regularized algorithm. From the theoretical point of view, reconstruction problems belong to the class of ill-posed problems and should be considered using regularization. Regularization introduces an additional unknown regularization parameter into the reconstruction procedure as compared with non-regularized algorithms. However, a comparison of non-regularized OSEM and regularized MAP algorithms with fixed regularization parameters has shown very minor difference between reconstructions. This problem is analyzed in the present paper. To improve the reconstruction quality, a method of local regularization is proposed based on the spatially adaptive regularization parameter. The MAP algorithm with local regularization was tested in reconstruction of the Hoffman brain phantom.

  3. Aquaporin-4 regulates extracellular space volume dynamics during high-frequency synaptic stimulation: a gene deletion study in mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Haj-Yasein, Nadia Nabil; Jensen, Vidar; Østby, Ivar; Omholt, Stig W; Voipio, Juha; Kaila, Kai; Ottersen, Ole P; Hvalby, Øivind; Nagelhus, Erlend A

    2012-05-01

    Little is known about the physiological roles of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in the central nervous system. AQP4 water channels are concentrated in endfeet membranes of astrocytes but also localize to the fine astrocytic processes that abut central synapses. Based on its pattern of expression, we predicted that AQP4 could be involved in controlling water fluxes and changes in extracellular space (ECS) volume that are associated with activation of excitatory pathways. Here, we show that deletion of Aqp4 accentuated the shrinkage of the ECS that occurred in the mouse hippocampal CA1 region during activation of Schaffer collateral/commissural fibers. This effect was found in the stratum radiatum (where perisynaptic astrocytic processes abound) but not in the pyramidal cell layer (where astrocytic processes constitute but a minor volume fraction). For both genotypes the ECS shrinkage was most pronounced in the pyramidal cell layer. Our data attribute a physiological role to AQP4 and indicate that this water channel regulates extracellular volume dynamics in the mammalian brain.

  4. Mainstreaming the Regular Classroom Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Michael

    The paper presents activities, suggested by regular classroom teachers, to help prepare the regular classroom student for mainstreaming. The author points out that regular classroom children need a vehicle in which curiosity, concern, interest, fear, attitudes and feelings can be fully explored, where prejudices can be dispelled, and where the…

  5. Regular black holes with flux tube core

    SciTech Connect

    Zaslavskii, Oleg B.

    2009-09-15

    We consider a class of black holes for which the area of the two-dimensional spatial cross section has a minimum on the horizon with respect to a quasiglobal (Krusckal-like) coordinate. If the horizon is regular, one can generate a tubelike counterpart of such a metric and smoothly glue it to a black hole region. The resulting composite space-time is globally regular, so all potential singularities under the horizon of the original metrics are removed. Such a space-time represents a black hole without an apparent horizon. It is essential that the matter should be nonvacuum in the outer region but vacuumlike in the inner one. As an example we consider the noninteracting mixture of vacuum fluid and matter with a linear equation of state and scalar phantom fields. This approach is extended to distorted metrics, with the requirement of spherical symmetry relaxed.

  6. Regularization of multiplicative iterative algorithms with nonnegative constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benvenuto, Federico; Piana, Michele

    2014-03-01

    This paper studies the regularization of the constrained maximum likelihood iterative algorithms applied to incompatible ill-posed linear inverse problems. Specifically, we introduce a novel stopping rule which defines a regularization algorithm for the iterative space reconstruction algorithm in the case of least-squares minimization. Further we show that the same rule regularizes the expectation maximization algorithm in the case of Kullback-Leibler minimization, provided a well-justified modification of the definition of Tikhonov regularization is introduced. The performances of this stopping rule are illustrated in the case of an image reconstruction problem in the x-ray solar astronomy.

  7. Space station needs, attributes, and architectural options: Commercial opportunities in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolbers, H. L., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The roles of government and industry in the commercialization of space are examined and an approach for stimulating the interests of potential users is described. Several illustrative examples of potential commercial developments are presented. The role of manned space systems in space commercialization is discussed as well as some of the issues and opportunities that are likely to be encountered in the commercial exploitation of the unique characteristics of space. Results suggest that interest in space facilities can be found among a number of commercially oriented users. In order to develop and maintain the involvement of these potential users, however, space demonstrations are required, and commercial growth or evolution depends on the results of the initial in situ experience. Manned facilities are required for the conceptual research and development phases and for maintenance and servicing operations during production or operational missions. Space facilities must be easily accessible by dependable and regularly scheduled means.

  8. The residual method for regularizing ill-posed problems

    PubMed Central

    Grasmair, Markus; Haltmeier, Markus; Scherzer, Otmar

    2011-01-01

    Although the residual method, or constrained regularization, is frequently used in applications, a detailed study of its properties is still missing. This sharply contrasts the progress of the theory of Tikhonov regularization, where a series of new results for regularization in Banach spaces has been published in the recent years. The present paper intends to bridge the gap between the existing theories as far as possible. We develop a stability and convergence theory for the residual method in general topological spaces. In addition, we prove convergence rates in terms of (generalized) Bregman distances, which can also be applied to non-convex regularization functionals. We provide three examples that show the applicability of our theory. The first example is the regularized solution of linear operator equations on Lp-spaces, where we show that the results of Tikhonov regularization generalize unchanged to the residual method. As a second example, we consider the problem of density estimation from a finite number of sampling points, using the Wasserstein distance as a fidelity term and an entropy measure as regularization term. It is shown that the densities obtained in this way depend continuously on the location of the sampled points and that the underlying density can be recovered as the number of sampling points tends to infinity. Finally, we apply our theory to compressed sensing. Here, we show the well-posedness of the method and derive convergence rates both for convex and non-convex regularization under rather weak conditions. PMID:22345828

  9. Construction of regular black holes in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zhong-Ying; Wang, Xiaobao

    2016-12-01

    We present a general procedure for constructing exact black hole solutions with electric or magnetic charges in general relativity coupled to a nonlinear electrodynamics. We obtain a variety of two-parameter family spherically symmetric black hole solutions. In particular, the singularity at the center of the space-time can be canceled in the parameter space and the black hole solutions become regular everywhere in space-time. We study the global properties of the solutions and derive the first law of thermodynamics. We also generalize the procedure to include a cosmological constant and construct regular black hole solutions that are asymptotic to anti-de Sitter space-time.

  10. Generalization Performance of Regularized Ranking With Multiscale Kernels.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yicong; Chen, Hong; Lan, Rushi; Pan, Zhibin

    2016-05-01

    The regularized kernel method for the ranking problem has attracted increasing attentions in machine learning. The previous regularized ranking algorithms are usually based on reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces with a single kernel. In this paper, we go beyond this framework by investigating the generalization performance of the regularized ranking with multiscale kernels. A novel ranking algorithm with multiscale kernels is proposed and its representer theorem is proved. We establish the upper bound of the generalization error in terms of the complexity of hypothesis spaces. It shows that the multiscale ranking algorithm can achieve satisfactory learning rates under mild conditions. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for drug discovery and recommendation tasks.

  11. On regular rotating black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, R.; Fayos, F.

    2017-01-01

    Different proposals for regular rotating black hole spacetimes have appeared recently in the literature. However, a rigorous analysis and proof of the regularity of this kind of spacetimes is still lacking. In this note we analyze rotating Kerr-like black hole spacetimes and find the necessary and sufficient conditions for the regularity of all their second order scalar invariants polynomial in the Riemann tensor. We also show that the regularity is linked to a violation of the weak energy conditions around the core of the rotating black hole.

  12. Fast Image Reconstruction with L2-Regularization

    PubMed Central

    Bilgic, Berkin; Chatnuntawech, Itthi; Fan, Audrey P.; Setsompop, Kawin; Cauley, Stephen F.; Wald, Lawrence L.; Adalsteinsson, Elfar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We introduce L2-regularized reconstruction algorithms with closed-form solutions that achieve dramatic computational speed-up relative to state of the art L1- and L2-based iterative algorithms while maintaining similar image quality for various applications in MRI reconstruction. Materials and Methods We compare fast L2-based methods to state of the art algorithms employing iterative L1- and L2-regularization in numerical phantom and in vivo data in three applications; 1) Fast Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping (QSD), 2) Lipid artifact suppression in Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging (MRSI), and 3) Diffusion Spectrum Imaging (DSI). In all cases, proposed L2-based methods are compared with the state of the art algorithms, and two to three orders of magnitude speed up is demonstrated with similar reconstruction quality. Results The closed-form solution developed for regularized QSM allows processing of a 3D volume under 5 seconds, the proposed lipid suppression algorithm takes under 1 second to reconstruct single-slice MRSI data, while the PCA based DSI algorithm estimates diffusion propagators from undersampled q-space for a single slice under 30 seconds, all running in Matlab using a standard workstation. Conclusion For the applications considered herein, closed-form L2-regularization can be a faster alternative to its iterative counterpart or L1-based iterative algorithms, without compromising image quality. PMID:24395184

  13. Regularly timed events amid chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakely, Jonathan N.; Cooper, Roy M.; Corron, Ned J.

    2015-11-01

    We show rigorously that the solutions of a class of chaotic oscillators are characterized by regularly timed events in which the derivative of the solution is instantaneously zero. The perfect regularity of these events is in stark contrast with the well-known unpredictability of chaos. We explore some consequences of these regularly timed events through experiments using chaotic electronic circuits. First, we show that a feedback loop can be implemented to phase lock the regularly timed events to a periodic external signal. In this arrangement the external signal regulates the timing of the chaotic signal but does not strictly lock its phase. That is, phase slips of the chaotic oscillation persist without disturbing timing of the regular events. Second, we couple the regularly timed events of one chaotic oscillator to those of another. A state of synchronization is observed where the oscillators exhibit synchronized regular events while their chaotic amplitudes and phases evolve independently. Finally, we add additional coupling to synchronize the amplitudes, as well, however in the opposite direction illustrating the independence of the amplitudes from the regularly timed events.

  14. Trajectory optimization using regularized variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewallen, J. M.; Szebehely, V.; Tapley, B. D.

    1969-01-01

    Regularized equations for a particular optimal trajectory are compared with unregularized equations with respect to computational characteristics, using perturbation type numerical optimization. In the case of the three dimensional, low thrust, Earth-Jupiter rendezvous, the regularized equations yield a significant reduction in computer time.

  15. Electrically Stimulated Antagonist Muscle Contraction Increased Muscle Mass and Bone Mineral Density of One Astronaut - Initial Verification on the International Space Station

    PubMed Central

    Takano, Yoshio; Yoshimitsu, Kazuhiro; Omoto, Masayuki; Hashida, Ryuki; Tagawa, Yoshihiko; Inada, Tomohisa; Yamada, Shin; Ohshima, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal atrophy is one of the major problems of extended periods of exposure to weightlessness such as on the International Space Station (ISS). We developed the Hybrid Training System (HTS) to maintain an astronaut’s musculoskeletal system using an electrically stimulated antagonist to resist the volitional contraction of the agonist instead of gravity. The present study assessed the system’s orbital operation capability and utility, as well as its preventative effect on an astronaut’s musculoskeletal atrophy. Methods HTS was attached to the non-dominant arm of an astronaut staying on the ISS, and his dominant arm without HTS was established as the control (CTR). 10 sets of 10 reciprocal elbow curls were one training session, and 12 total sessions of training (3 times per week for 4 weeks) were performed. Pre and post flight ground based evaluations were performed by Biodex (muscle performance), MRI (muscle volume), and DXA (BMD, lean [muscle] mass, fat mass). Pre and post training inflight evaluations were performed by a hand held dynamometer (muscle force) and a measuring tape (upper arm circumference). Results The experiment was completed on schedule, and HTS functioned well without problems. Isokinetic elbow extension torque (Nm) changed -19.4% in HTS, and -21.7% in CTR. Isokinetic elbow flexion torque changed -23.7% in HTS, and there was no change in CTR. Total Work (Joule) of elbow extension changed -8.3% in HTS, and +0.3% in CTR. For elbow flexion it changed -23.3% in HTS and -32.6% in CTR. Average Power (Watts) of elbow extension changed +22.1% in HTS and -8.0% in CTR. For elbow flexion it changed -6.5% in HTS and -4.8% in CTR. Triceps muscle volume according to MRI changed +11.7% and that of biceps was +2.1% using HTS, however -0.1% and -0.4% respectively for CTR. BMD changed +4.6% in the HTS arm and -1.2% for CTR. Lean (muscle) mass of the arm changed only +10.6% in HTS. Fat mass changed -12.6% in HTS and -6.4% in CTR

  16. Augmenting saturated LTP by broadly spaced episodes of theta-burst stimulation in hippocampal area CA1 of adult rats and mice

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Guan

    2014-01-01

    Hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) is a model system for studying cellular mechanisms of learning and memory. Recent interest in mechanisms underlying the advantage of spaced over massed learning has prompted investigation into the effects of distributed episodes of LTP induction. The amount of LTP induced in hippocampal area CA1 by one train (1T) of theta-burst stimulation (TBS) in young Sprague-Dawley rats was further enhanced by additional bouts of 1T given at 1-h intervals. However, in young Long-Evans (LE) rats, 1T did not initially saturate LTP. Instead, a stronger LTP induction paradigm using eight trains of TBS (8T) induced saturated LTP in hippocampal slices from both young and adult LE rats as well as adult mice. The saturated LTP induced by 8T could be augmented by another episode of 8T following an interval of at least 90 min. The success rate across animals and slices in augmenting LTP by an additional episode of 8T increased significantly with longer intervals between the first and last episodes, ranging from 0% at 30- and 60-min intervals to 13–66% at 90- to 180-min intervals to 90–100% at 240-min intervals. Augmentation above initially saturated LTP was blocked by the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor antagonist d-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (d-APV). These findings suggest that the strength of induction and interval between episodes of TBS, as well as the strain and age of the animal, are important components in the augmentation of LTP. PMID:25057146

  17. Rotating regular black hole solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdujabbarov, Ahmadjon

    2016-07-01

    Based on the Newman-Janis algorithm, the Ayón-Beato-García spacetime metric [Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5056 (1998)] of the regular spherically symmetric, static, and charged black hole has been converted into rotational form. It is shown that the derived solution for rotating a regular black hole is regular and the critical value of the electric charge for which two horizons merge into one sufficiently decreases in the presence of the nonvanishing rotation parameter a of the black hole.

  18. Universality in the flooding of regular islands by chaotic states.

    PubMed

    Bäcker, Arnd; Ketzmerick, Roland; Monastra, Alejandro G

    2007-06-01

    We investigate the structure of eigenstates in systems with a mixed phase space in terms of their projection onto individual regular tori. Depending on dynamical tunneling rates and the Heisenberg time, regular states disappear and chaotic states flood the regular tori. For a quantitative understanding we introduce a random matrix model. The resulting statistical properties of eigenstates as a function of an effective coupling strength are in very good agreement with numerical results for a kicked system. We discuss the implications of these results for the applicability of the semiclassical eigenfunction hypothesis.

  19. Exploring the spectrum of regularized bosonic string theory

    SciTech Connect

    Ambjørn, J. Makeenko, Y.

    2015-03-15

    We implement a UV regularization of the bosonic string by truncating its mode expansion and keeping the regularized theory “as diffeomorphism invariant as possible.” We compute the regularized determinant of the 2d Laplacian for the closed string winding around a compact dimension, obtaining the effective action in this way. The minimization of the effective action reliably determines the energy of the string ground state for a long string and/or for a large number of space-time dimensions. We discuss the possibility of a scaling limit when the cutoff is taken to infinity.

  20. NONCONVEX REGULARIZATION FOR SHAPE PRESERVATION

    SciTech Connect

    CHARTRAND, RICK

    2007-01-16

    The authors show that using a nonconvex penalty term to regularize image reconstruction can substantially improve the preservation of object shapes. The commonly-used total-variation regularization, {integral}|{del}u|, penalizes the length of the object edges. They show that {integral}|{del}u|{sup p}, 0 < p < 1, only penalizes edges of dimension at least 2-p, and thus finite-length edges not at all. We give numerical examples showing the resulting improvement in shape preservation.

  1. Condition Number Regularized Covariance Estimation.

    PubMed

    Won, Joong-Ho; Lim, Johan; Kim, Seung-Jean; Rajaratnam, Bala

    2013-06-01

    Estimation of high-dimensional covariance matrices is known to be a difficult problem, has many applications, and is of current interest to the larger statistics community. In many applications including so-called the "large p small n" setting, the estimate of the covariance matrix is required to be not only invertible, but also well-conditioned. Although many regularization schemes attempt to do this, none of them address the ill-conditioning problem directly. In this paper, we propose a maximum likelihood approach, with the direct goal of obtaining a well-conditioned estimator. No sparsity assumption on either the covariance matrix or its inverse are are imposed, thus making our procedure more widely applicable. We demonstrate that the proposed regularization scheme is computationally efficient, yields a type of Steinian shrinkage estimator, and has a natural Bayesian interpretation. We investigate the theoretical properties of the regularized covariance estimator comprehensively, including its regularization path, and proceed to develop an approach that adaptively determines the level of regularization that is required. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of the regularized estimator in decision-theoretic comparisons and in the financial portfolio optimization setting. The proposed approach has desirable properties, and can serve as a competitive procedure, especially when the sample size is small and when a well-conditioned estimator is required.

  2. Geometric continuum regularization of quantum field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Halpern, M.B. . Dept. of Physics)

    1989-11-08

    An overview of the continuum regularization program is given. The program is traced from its roots in stochastic quantization, with emphasis on the examples of regularized gauge theory, the regularized general nonlinear sigma model and regularized quantum gravity. In its coordinate-invariant form, the regularization is seen as entirely geometric: only the supermetric on field deformations is regularized, and the prescription provides universal nonperturbative invariant continuum regularization across all quantum field theory. 54 refs.

  3. Regular Language Constrained Sequence Alignment Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucherov, Gregory; Pinhas, Tamar; Ziv-Ukelson, Michal

    Imposing constraints in the form of a finite automaton or a regular expression is an effective way to incorporate additional a priori knowledge into sequence alignment procedures. With this motivation, Arslan [1] introduced the Regular Language Constrained Sequence Alignment Problem and proposed an O(n 2 t 4) time and O(n 2 t 2) space algorithm for solving it, where n is the length of the input strings and t is the number of states in the non-deterministic automaton, which is given as input. Chung et al. [2] proposed a faster O(n 2 t 3) time algorithm for the same problem. In this paper, we further speed up the algorithms for Regular Language Constrained Sequence Alignment by reducing their worst case time complexity bound to O(n 2 t 3/logt). This is done by establishing an optimal bound on the size of Straight-Line Programs solving the maxima computation subproblem of the basic dynamic programming algorithm. We also study another solution based on a Steiner Tree computation. While it does not improve the run time complexity in the worst case, our simulations show that both approaches are efficient in practice, especially when the input automata are dense.

  4. Discovering Structural Regularity in 3D Geometry

    PubMed Central

    Pauly, Mark; Mitra, Niloy J.; Wallner, Johannes; Pottmann, Helmut; Guibas, Leonidas J.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a computational framework for discovering regular or repeated geometric structures in 3D shapes. We describe and classify possible regular structures and present an effective algorithm for detecting such repeated geometric patterns in point- or mesh-based models. Our method assumes no prior knowledge of the geometry or spatial location of the individual elements that define the pattern. Structure discovery is made possible by a careful analysis of pairwise similarity transformations that reveals prominent lattice structures in a suitable model of transformation space. We introduce an optimization method for detecting such uniform grids specifically designed to deal with outliers and missing elements. This yields a robust algorithm that successfully discovers complex regular structures amidst clutter, noise, and missing geometry. The accuracy of the extracted generating transformations is further improved using a novel simultaneous registration method in the spatial domain. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm on a variety of examples and show applications to compression, model repair, and geometry synthesis. PMID:21170292

  5. Regular Patterns in Cerebellar Purkinje Cell Simple Spike Trains

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Soon-Lim; Hoebeek, Freek E.; Schonewille, Martijn; De Zeeuw, Chris I.; Aertsen, Ad; De Schutter, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Background Cerebellar Purkinje cells (PC) in vivo are commonly reported to generate irregular spike trains, documented by high coefficients of variation of interspike-intervals (ISI). In strong contrast, they fire very regularly in the in vitro slice preparation. We studied the nature of this difference in firing properties by focusing on short-term variability and its dependence on behavioral state. Methodology/Principal Findings Using an analysis based on CV2 values, we could isolate precise regular spiking patterns, lasting up to hundreds of milliseconds, in PC simple spike trains recorded in both anesthetized and awake rodents. Regular spike patterns, defined by low variability of successive ISIs, comprised over half of the spikes, showed a wide range of mean ISIs, and were affected by behavioral state and tactile stimulation. Interestingly, regular patterns often coincided in nearby Purkinje cells without precise synchronization of individual spikes. Regular patterns exclusively appeared during the up state of the PC membrane potential, while single ISIs occurred both during up and down states. Possible functional consequences of regular spike patterns were investigated by modeling the synaptic conductance in neurons of the deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN). Simulations showed that these regular patterns caused epochs of relatively constant synaptic conductance in DCN neurons. Conclusions/Significance Our findings indicate that the apparent irregularity in cerebellar PC simple spike trains in vivo is most likely caused by mixing of different regular spike patterns, separated by single long intervals, over time. We propose that PCs may signal information, at least in part, in regular spike patterns to downstream DCN neurons. PMID:17534435

  6. Learning rates of lq coefficient regularization learning with gaussian kernel.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shaobo; Zeng, Jinshan; Fang, Jian; Xu, Zongben

    2014-10-01

    Regularization is a well-recognized powerful strategy to improve the performance of a learning machine and l(q) regularization schemes with 0 < q < ∞ are central in use. It is known that different q leads to different properties of the deduced estimators, say, l(2) regularization leads to a smooth estimator, while l(1) regularization leads to a sparse estimator. Then how the generalization capability of l(q) regularization learning varies with q is worthy of investigation. In this letter, we study this problem in the framework of statistical learning theory. Our main results show that implementing l(q) coefficient regularization schemes in the sample-dependent hypothesis space associated with a gaussian kernel can attain the same almost optimal learning rates for all 0 < q < ∞. That is, the upper and lower bounds of learning rates for l(q) regularization learning are asymptotically identical for all 0 < q < ∞. Our finding tentatively reveals that in some modeling contexts, the choice of q might not have a strong impact on the generalization capability. From this perspective, q can be arbitrarily specified, or specified merely by other nongeneralization criteria like smoothness, computational complexity or sparsity.

  7. Regularized Generalized Structured Component Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Heungsun

    2009-01-01

    Generalized structured component analysis (GSCA) has been proposed as a component-based approach to structural equation modeling. In practice, GSCA may suffer from multi-collinearity, i.e., high correlations among exogenous variables. GSCA has yet no remedy for this problem. Thus, a regularized extension of GSCA is proposed that integrates a ridge…

  8. Giftedness in the Regular Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Anne

    This paper presents a rationale for serving gifted students in the regular classroom and offers guidelines for recognizing students who are gifted in the seven types of intelligence proposed by Howard Gardner. Stressed is the importance of creating in the classroom a community of learners that allows all children to actively explore ideas and…

  9. 76 FR 3629 - Regular Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... A. Approval of Minutes December 9, 2010. B. New Business Review of Insurance Premium Rates. FCSIC... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board Regular Meeting SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given...

  10. Regularization of Localized Degradation Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-12-28

    order to assess the regularization properties of non-classical micropolar Cosserat continua which feature non-symmetric stress and strain tensors because...of the presence of couple-stresses and micro-curvatures. It was shown that micropolar media may only exhibit localized failure in the form of tensile

  11. Resource Guide for Regular Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampert, George J.

    The resource guide for regular teachers provides policies and procedures of the Flour Bluff (Texas) school district regarding special education of handicapped students. Individual sections provide guidelines for the following areas: the referral process; individual assessment; participation on student evaluation and placement committee; special…

  12. A regularized parameter choice in regularization for a common solution of a finite system of ill-posed equations involving Lipschitz continuous and accretive mappings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buong, Nguyen; Dung, Nguyen Dinh

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we present a regularized parameter choice in a new regularization method of Browder-Tikhonov type, for finding a common solution of a finite system of ill-posed operator equations involving Lipschitz continuous and accretive mappings in a real reflexive and strictly convex Banach space with a uniformly Gateaux differentiate norm. An estimate for convergence rates of regularized solution is also established.

  13. Temporal regularity in speech perception: Is regularity beneficial or deleterious?

    PubMed

    Geiser, Eveline; Shattuck-Hufnagel, Stefanie

    2012-04-01

    Speech rhythm has been proposed to be of crucial importance for correct speech perception and language learning. This study investigated the influence of speech rhythm in second language processing. German pseudo-sentences were presented to participants in two conditions: 'naturally regular speech rhythm' and an 'emphasized regular rhythm'. Nine expert English speakers with 3.5±1.6 years of German training repeated each sentence after hearing it once over headphones. Responses were transcribed using the International Phonetic Alphabet and analyzed for the number of correct, false and missing consonants as well as for consonant additions. The over-all number of correct reproductions of consonants did not differ between the two experimental conditions. However, speech rhythmicization significantly affected the serial position curve of correctly reproduced syllables. The results of this pilot study are consistent with the view that speech rhythm is important for speech perception.

  14. Muscle Stimulation Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Under a Goddard Space Flight Center contract, Electrologic of America was able to refine the process of densely packing circuitry on personal computer boards, providing significant contributions to the closed-loop systems for the Remote Manipulator System Simulator. The microcircuitry work was then applied to the StimMaster FES Ergometer, an exercise device used to stimulate muscles suffering from paralysis. The electrical stimulation equipment was developed exclusively for V-Care Health Systems, Inc. Product still commercially available as of March 2002.

  15. On different facets of regularization theory.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhe; Haykin, Simon

    2002-12-01

    This review provides a comprehensive understanding of regularization theory from different perspectives, emphasizing smoothness and simplicity principles. Using the tools of operator theory and Fourier analysis, it is shown that the solution of the classical Tikhonov regularization problem can be derived from the regularized functional defined by a linear differential (integral) operator in the spatial (Fourier) domain. State-of-the-art research relevant to the regularization theory is reviewed, covering Occam's razor, minimum length description, Bayesian theory, pruning algorithms, informational (entropy) theory, statistical learning theory, and equivalent regularization. The universal principle of regularization in terms of Kolmogorov complexity is discussed. Finally, some prospective studies on regularization theory and beyond are suggested.

  16. Regular Motions of Resonant Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraz-Mello, S.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Se revisan resultados analiticos relativos a soluciones regulares del problema asteroidal eliptico promediados en la vecindad de una resonancia con jupiten Mencionamos Ia ley de estructura para libradores de alta excentricidad, la estabilidad de los centros de liberaci6n, las perturbaciones forzadas por la excentricidad de jupiter y las 6rbitas de corotaci6n. ABSTRAC This paper reviews analytical results concerning the regular solutions of the elliptic asteroidal problem averaged in the neighbourhood of a resonance with jupiter. We mention the law of structure for high-eccentricity librators, the stability of the libration centers, the perturbations forced by the eccentricity ofjupiter and the corotation orbits. Key words: ASThROIDS

  17. Energy functions for regularization algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delingette, H.; Hebert, M.; Ikeuchi, K.

    1991-01-01

    Regularization techniques are widely used for inverse problem solving in computer vision such as surface reconstruction, edge detection, or optical flow estimation. Energy functions used for regularization algorithms measure how smooth a curve or surface is, and to render acceptable solutions these energies must verify certain properties such as invariance with Euclidean transformations or invariance with parameterization. The notion of smoothness energy is extended here to the notion of a differential stabilizer, and it is shown that to void the systematic underestimation of undercurvature for planar curve fitting, it is necessary that circles be the curves of maximum smoothness. A set of stabilizers is proposed that meet this condition as well as invariance with rotation and parameterization.

  18. Regularization of Nutation Time Series at GSFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bail, K.; Gipson, J. M.; Bolotin, S.

    2012-12-01

    VLBI is unique in its ability to measure all five Earth orientation parameters. In this paper we focus on the two nutation parameters which characterize the orientation of the Earth's rotation axis in space. We look at the periodicities and the spectral characteristics of these parameters for both R1 and R4 sessions independently. The study of the most significant periodic signals for periods shorter than 600 days is common for these four time series (period of 450 days), and the type of noise determined by the Allan variance is a white noise for the four series. To investigate methods of regularizing the series, we look at a Singular Spectrum Analysis-derived method and at the Kalman filter. The two methods adequately reproduce the tendency of the nutation time series, but the resulting series are noisier using the Singular Spectrum Analysis-derived method.

  19. Thermodynamics of regular accelerating black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astorino, Marco

    2017-03-01

    Using the covariant phase space formalism, we compute the conserved charges for a solution, describing an accelerating and electrically charged Reissner-Nordstrom black hole. The metric is regular provided that the acceleration is driven by an external electric field, in spite of the usual string of the standard C-metric. The Smarr formula and the first law of black hole thermodynamics are fulfilled. The resulting mass has the same form of the Christodoulou-Ruffini irreducible mass. On the basis of these results, we can extrapolate the mass and thermodynamics of the rotating C-metric, which describes a Kerr-Newman-(A)dS black hole accelerated by a pulling string.

  20. Kernelized Elastic Net Regularization: Generalization Bounds, and Sparse Recovery.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yunlong; Lv, Shao-Gao; Hang, Hanyuan; Suykens, Johan A K

    2016-03-01

    Kernelized elastic net regularization (KENReg) is a kernelization of the well-known elastic net regularization (Zou & Hastie, 2005). The kernel in KENReg is not required to be a Mercer kernel since it learns from a kernelized dictionary in the coefficient space. Feng, Yang, Zhao, Lv, and Suykens (2014) showed that KENReg has some nice properties including stability, sparseness, and generalization. In this letter, we continue our study on KENReg by conducting a refined learning theory analysis. This letter makes the following three main contributions. First, we present refined error analysis on the generalization performance of KENReg. The main difficulty of analyzing the generalization error of KENReg lies in characterizing the population version of its empirical target function. We overcome this by introducing a weighted Banach space associated with the elastic net regularization. We are then able to conduct elaborated learning theory analysis and obtain fast convergence rates under proper complexity and regularity assumptions. Second, we study the sparse recovery problem in KENReg with fixed design and show that the kernelization may improve the sparse recovery ability compared to the classical elastic net regularization. Finally, we discuss the interplay among different properties of KENReg that include sparseness, stability, and generalization. We show that the stability of KENReg leads to generalization, and its sparseness confidence can be derived from generalization. Moreover, KENReg is stable and can be simultaneously sparse, which makes it attractive theoretically and practically.

  1. Three-dimensional SPACE fluid-attenuated inversion recovery at 3 T to improve subthalamic nucleus lead placement for deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease: from preclinical to clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Senova, Suhan; Hosomi, Koichi; Gurruchaga, Jean-Marc; Gouello, Gaëtane; Ouerchefani, Naoufel; Beaugendre, Yara; Lepetit, Hélène; Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal; Badin, Romina Aron; Dauguet, Julien; Jan, Caroline; Hantraye, Philippe; Brugières, Pierre; Palfi, Stéphane

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a well-established therapy for motor symptoms in patients with pharmacoresistant Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the procedure, which requires multimodal perioperative exploration such as imaging, electrophysiology, or clinical examination during macrostimulation to secure lead positioning, remains challenging because the STN cannot be reliably visualized using the gold standard, T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) at 1.5 T. Thus, there is a need to improve imaging tools to better visualize the STN, optimize DBS lead implantation, and enlarge DBS diffusion. METHODS Gradient-echo sequences such as those used in T2WI suffer from higher distortions at higher magnetic fields than spin-echo sequences. First, a spin-echo 3D SPACE (sampling perfection with application-optimized contrasts using different flip angle evolutions) FLAIR sequence at 3 T was designed, validated histologically in 2 nonhuman primates, and applied to 10 patients with PD; their data were clinically compared in a double-blind manner with those of a control group of 10 other patients with PD in whom STN targeting was performed using T2WI. RESULTS Overlap between the nonhuman primate STNs segmented on 3D-histological and on 3D-SPACE-FLAIR volumes was high for the 3 most anterior quarters (mean [± SD] Dice scores 0.73 ± 0.11, 0.74 ± 0.06, and 0.60 ± 0.09). STN limits determined by the 3D-SPACE-FLAIR sequence were more consistent with electrophysiological edges than those determined by T2WI (0.9 vs 1.4 mm, respectively). The imaging contrast of the STN on the 3D-SPACE-FLAIR sequence was 4 times higher (p < 0.05). Improvement in the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III score (off medication, on stimulation) 12 months after the operation was higher for patients who underwent 3D-SPACE-FLAIR-guided implantation than for those in whom T2WI was used (62.2% vs 43.6%, respectively; p < 0.05). The total electrical energy

  2. Quantitative regularities in floodplain formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevidimova, O.

    2009-04-01

    Quantitative regularities in floodplain formation Modern methods of the theory of complex systems allow to build mathematical models of complex systems where self-organizing processes are largely determined by nonlinear effects and feedback. However, there exist some factors that exert significant influence on the dynamics of geomorphosystems, but hardly can be adequately expressed in the language of mathematical models. Conceptual modeling allows us to overcome this difficulty. It is based on the methods of synergetic, which, together with the theory of dynamic systems and classical geomorphology, enable to display the dynamics of geomorphological systems. The most adequate for mathematical modeling of complex systems is the concept of model dynamics based on equilibrium. This concept is based on dynamic equilibrium, the tendency to which is observed in the evolution of all geomorphosystems. As an objective law, it is revealed in the evolution of fluvial relief in general, and in river channel processes in particular, demonstrating the ability of these systems to self-organization. Channel process is expressed in the formation of river reaches, rifts, meanders and floodplain. As floodplain is a periodically flooded surface during high waters, it naturally connects river channel with slopes, being one of boundary expressions of the water stream activity. Floodplain dynamics is inseparable from the channel dynamics. It is formed at simultaneous horizontal and vertical displacement of the river channel, that is at Y=Y(x, y), where х, y - horizontal and vertical coordinates, Y - floodplain height. When dу/dt=0 (for not lowering river channel), the river, being displaced in a horizontal plane, leaves behind a low surface, which flooding during high waters (total duration of flooding) changes from the maximum during the initial moment of time t0 to zero in the moment tn. In a similar manner changed is the total amount of accumulated material on the floodplain surface

  3. Elastic-net regularization versus ℓ 1-regularization for linear inverse problems with quasi-sparse solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, De-Han; Hofmann, Bernd; Zou, Jun

    2017-01-01

    We consider the ill-posed operator equation Ax  =  y with an injective and bounded linear operator A mapping between {{\\ell}2} and a Hilbert space Y, possessing the unique solution {{x}\\dagger}=≤ft\\{{{x}\\dagger}k\\right\\}k=1∞ . For the cases that sparsity {{x}\\dagger}\\in {{\\ell}0} is expected but often slightly violated in practice, we investigate in comparison with the {{\\ell}1} -regularization the elastic-net regularization, where the penalty is a weighted superposition of the {{\\ell}1} -norm and the {{\\ell}2} -norm square, under the assumption that {{x}\\dagger}\\in {{\\ell}1} . There occur two positive parameters in this approach, the weight parameter η and the regularization parameter as the multiplier of the whole penalty in the Tikhonov functional, whereas only one regularization parameter arises in {{\\ell}1} -regularization. Based on the variational inequality approach for the description of the solution smoothness with respect to the forward operator A and exploiting the method of approximate source conditions, we present some results to estimate the rate of convergence for the elastic-net regularization. The occurring rate function contains the rate of the decay {{x}\\dagger}k\\to 0 for k\\to ∞ and the classical smoothness properties of {{x}\\dagger} as an element in {{\\ell}2} .

  4. Knowledge and regularity in planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, John A.; Langley, Pat; Matwin, Stan

    1992-01-01

    The field of planning has focused on several methods of using domain-specific knowledge. The three most common methods, use of search control, use of macro-operators, and analogy, are part of a continuum of techniques differing in the amount of reused plan information. This paper describes TALUS, a planner that exploits this continuum, and is used for comparing the relative utility of these methods. We present results showing how search control, macro-operators, and analogy are affected by domain regularity and the amount of stored knowledge.

  5. An Anisotropic Partial Regularity Criterion for the Navier-Stokes Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukavica, Igor; Rusin, Walter; Ziane, Mohammed

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we address the partial regularity of suitable weak solutions of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. We prove an interior regularity criterion involving only one component of the velocity. Namely, if ( u, p) is a suitable weak solution and a certain scale-invariant quantity involving only u 3 is small on a space-time cylinder {{Qr^{*}}(x_0,t_0)}, then u is regular at ( x 0, t 0).

  6. "Space, the Final Frontier"; Books on Space and Space Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Anne Devereaux

    1997-01-01

    Advocates play in a child's life. Describes how science fiction seizes the imaginations of young readers with its tales of the future and of outer space. Talks about various nonfiction books about space. Elaborates a workshop on books about space exploration. Gives 10 questions about stimulating student response. (PA)

  7. A New Regularization Mechanism for the Boltzmann Equation Without Cut-Off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvestre, Luis

    2016-11-01

    We apply recent results on regularity for general integro-differential equations to derive a priori estimates in Hölder spaces for the space homogeneous Boltzmann equation in the non cut-off case. We also show an a priori estimate in {L^∞} which applies in the space inhomogeneous case as well, provided that the macroscopic quantities remain bounded.

  8. 22 CFR 120.39 - Regular employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Regular employee. 120.39 Section 120.39 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.39 Regular employee. (a) A regular employee means for purposes of this subchapter: (1) An...

  9. 22 CFR 120.39 - Regular employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Regular employee. 120.39 Section 120.39 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.39 Regular employee. (a) A regular employee means for purposes of this subchapter: (1) An...

  10. 22 CFR 120.39 - Regular employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Regular employee. 120.39 Section 120.39 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.39 Regular employee. (a) A regular employee means for purposes of this subchapter: (1) An...

  11. Regular Pentagons and the Fibonacci Sequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Doug

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates how to draw a regular pentagon. Shows the sequence of a succession of regular pentagons formed by extending the sides. Calculates the general formula of the Lucas and Fibonacci sequences. Presents a regular icosahedron as an example of the golden ratio. (YP)

  12. Discriminative Elastic-Net Regularized Linear Regression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zheng; Lai, Zhihui; Xu, Yong; Shao, Ling; Wu, Jian; Xie, Guo-Sen

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we aim at learning compact and discriminative linear regression models. Linear regression has been widely used in different problems. However, most of the existing linear regression methods exploit the conventional zero-one matrix as the regression targets, which greatly narrows the flexibility of the regression model. Another major limitation of these methods is that the learned projection matrix fails to precisely project the image features to the target space due to their weak discriminative capability. To this end, we present an elastic-net regularized linear regression (ENLR) framework, and develop two robust linear regression models which possess the following special characteristics. First, our methods exploit two particular strategies to enlarge the margins of different classes by relaxing the strict binary targets into a more feasible variable matrix. Second, a robust elastic-net regularization of singular values is introduced to enhance the compactness and effectiveness of the learned projection matrix. Third, the resulting optimization problem of ENLR has a closed-form solution in each iteration, which can be solved efficiently. Finally, rather than directly exploiting the projection matrix for recognition, our methods employ the transformed features as the new discriminate representations to make final image classification. Compared with the traditional linear regression model and some of its variants, our method is much more accurate in image classification. Extensive experiments conducted on publicly available data sets well demonstrate that the proposed framework can outperform the state-of-the-art methods. The MATLAB codes of our methods can be available at http://www.yongxu.org/lunwen.html.

  13. Regularized degenerate multi-solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, Francisco; Fring, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    We report complex {P}{T} -symmetric multi-soliton solutions to the Korteweg de-Vries equation that asymptotically contain one-soliton solutions, with each of them possessing the same amount of finite real energy. We demonstrate how these solutions originate from degenerate energy solutions of the Schrödinger equation. Technically this is achieved by the application of Darboux-Crum transformations involving Jordan states with suitable regularizing shifts. Alternatively they may be constructed from a limiting process within the context Hirota's direct method or on a nonlinear superposition obtained from multiple Bäcklund transformations. The proposed procedure is completely generic and also applicable to other types of nonlinear integrable systems.

  14. Natural frequency of regular basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjandra, Sugih S.; Pudjaprasetya, S. R.

    2014-03-01

    Similar to the vibration of a guitar string or an elastic membrane, water waves in an enclosed basin undergo standing oscillatory waves, also known as seiches. The resonant (eigen) periods of seiches are determined by water depth and geometry of the basin. For regular basins, explicit formulas are available. Resonance occurs when the dominant frequency of external force matches the eigen frequency of the basin. In this paper, we implement the conservative finite volume scheme to 2D shallow water equation to simulate resonance in closed basins. Further, we would like to use this scheme and utilizing energy spectra of the recorded signal to extract resonant periods of arbitrary basins. But here we first test the procedure for getting resonant periods of a square closed basin. The numerical resonant periods that we obtain are comparable with those from analytical formulas.

  15. Brain Stimulation Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Magnetic Seizure Therapy Deep Brain Stimulation Additional Resources Brain Stimulation Therapies Overview Brain stimulation therapies can play ... for a shorter recovery time than ECT Deep Brain Stimulation Deep brain stimulation (DBS) was first developed ...

  16. Information fusion in regularized inversion of tomographic pumping tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohling, G.C.; ,

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter we investigate a simple approach to incorporating geophysical information into the analysis of tomographic pumping tests for characterization of the hydraulic conductivity (K) field in an aquifer. A number of authors have suggested a tomographic approach to the analysis of hydraulic tests in aquifers - essentially simultaneous analysis of multiple tests or stresses on the flow system - in order to improve the resolution of the estimated parameter fields. However, even with a large amount of hydraulic data in hand, the inverse problem is still plagued by non-uniqueness and ill-conditioning and the parameter space for the inversion needs to be constrained in some sensible fashion in order to obtain plausible estimates of aquifer properties. For seismic and radar tomography problems, the parameter space is often constrained through the application of regularization terms that impose penalties on deviations of the estimated parameters from a prior or background model, with the tradeoff between data fit and model norm explored through systematic analysis of results for different levels of weighting on the regularization terms. In this study we apply systematic regularized inversion to analysis of tomographic pumping tests in an alluvial aquifer, taking advantage of the steady-shape flow regime exhibited in these tests to expedite the inversion process. In addition, we explore the possibility of incorporating geophysical information into the inversion through a regularization term relating the estimated K distribution to ground penetrating radar velocity and attenuation distributions through a smoothing spline model. ?? 2008 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  17. Flicker Regularity Is Crucial for Entrainment of Alpha Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Notbohm, Annika; Herrmann, Christoph S.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that alpha oscillations (8–13 Hz) in human electroencephalogram (EEG) modulate perception via phase-dependent inhibition. If entrained to an external driving force, inhibition maxima and minima of the oscillation appear more distinct in time and make potential phase-dependent perception predictable. There is an ongoing debate about whether visual stimulation is suitable to entrain alpha oscillations. On the one hand, it has been argued that a series of light flashes results in transient event-related responses (ERPs) superimposed on the ongoing EEG. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that alpha oscillations become entrained to a series of light flashes if they are presented at a certain temporal regularity. This raises the question under which circumstances a sequence of light flashes causes entrainment, i.e., whether an arrhythmic stream of light flashes would also result in entrainment. Here, we measured detection rates in response to visual targets at two opposing stimulation phases during rhythmic and arrhythmic light stimulation. We introduce a new measure called “behavioral modulation depth” to determine differences in perception. This measure is capable of correcting for inevitable artifacts that occur in visual detection tasks during visual stimulation. The physical concept of entrainment predicts that increased stimulation intensity should produce stronger entrainment. Thus, two experiments with medium (Experiment 1) and high (Experiment 2) stimulation intensity were performed. Data from the first experiment show that the behavioral modulation depth (alpha phase-dependent differences in detection threshold) increases with increasing entrainment of alpha oscillations. Furthermore, individual alpha phase delays of entrained alpha oscillations determine the behavioral modulation depth: the largest behavioral modulation depth can be found if targets presented during the minimum of the entrained oscillation are

  18. Flicker Regularity Is Crucial for Entrainment of Alpha Oscillations.

    PubMed

    Notbohm, Annika; Herrmann, Christoph S

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that alpha oscillations (8-13 Hz) in human electroencephalogram (EEG) modulate perception via phase-dependent inhibition. If entrained to an external driving force, inhibition maxima and minima of the oscillation appear more distinct in time and make potential phase-dependent perception predictable. There is an ongoing debate about whether visual stimulation is suitable to entrain alpha oscillations. On the one hand, it has been argued that a series of light flashes results in transient event-related responses (ERPs) superimposed on the ongoing EEG. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that alpha oscillations become entrained to a series of light flashes if they are presented at a certain temporal regularity. This raises the question under which circumstances a sequence of light flashes causes entrainment, i.e., whether an arrhythmic stream of light flashes would also result in entrainment. Here, we measured detection rates in response to visual targets at two opposing stimulation phases during rhythmic and arrhythmic light stimulation. We introduce a new measure called "behavioral modulation depth" to determine differences in perception. This measure is capable of correcting for inevitable artifacts that occur in visual detection tasks during visual stimulation. The physical concept of entrainment predicts that increased stimulation intensity should produce stronger entrainment. Thus, two experiments with medium (Experiment 1) and high (Experiment 2) stimulation intensity were performed. Data from the first experiment show that the behavioral modulation depth (alpha phase-dependent differences in detection threshold) increases with increasing entrainment of alpha oscillations. Furthermore, individual alpha phase delays of entrained alpha oscillations determine the behavioral modulation depth: the largest behavioral modulation depth can be found if targets presented during the minimum of the entrained oscillation are compared to

  19. Partial Regularity for Holonomic Minimisers of Quasiconvex Functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopper, Christopher P.

    2016-10-01

    We prove partial regularity for local minimisers of certain strictly quasiconvex integral functionals, over a class of Sobolev mappings into a compact Riemannian manifold, to which such mappings are said to be holonomically constrained. Our approach uses the lifting of Sobolev mappings to the universal covering space, the connectedness of the covering space, an application of Ekeland's variational principle and a certain tangential A-harmonic approximation lemma obtained directly via a Lipschitz approximation argument. This allows regularity to be established directly on the level of the gradient. Several applications to variational problems in condensed matter physics with broken symmetries are also discussed, in particular those concerning the superfluidity of liquid helium-3 and nematic liquid crystals.

  20. Gevrey regularity for the supercritical quasi-geostrophic equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Animikh

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, following the techniques of Foias and Temam, we establish suitable Gevrey class regularity of solutions to the supercritical quasi-geostrophic equations in the whole space, with initial data in “critical” Sobolev spaces. Moreover, the Gevrey class that we obtain is “near optimal” and as a corollary, we obtain temporal decay rates of higher order Sobolev norms of the solutions. Unlike the Navier-Stokes or the subcritical quasi-geostrophic equations, the low dissipation poses a difficulty in establishing Gevrey regularity. A new commutator estimate in Gevrey classes, involving the dyadic Littlewood-Paley operators, is established that allow us to exploit the cancellation properties of the equation and circumvent this difficulty.

  1. Yosida-Moreau Regularization of Sweeping Processes with Unbounded Variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunze, M.; Monteiro Marques, M. D. P.

    1996-09-01

    Lett↦C(t) be a Hausdorff-continuous multifunction with closed convex values in a Hilbert spaceHsuch thatC(t) has nonempty interior for allt. We show that the Yosida-Moreau regularizations of the sweeping process with moving setC(t), i.e., the solutions of[formula]are strongly pointwisely convergent asλ→0+to the solution of the corresponding sweeping process, formally written as[formula

  2. Nondissipative Velocity and Pressure Regularizations for the ICON Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restelli, M.; Giorgetta, M.; Hundertmark, T.; Korn, P.; Reich, S.

    2009-04-01

    A challenging aspect in the numerical simulation of atmospheric and oceanic flows is the multiscale character of the problem both in space and time. The small spacial scales are generated by the turbulent energy and enstrophy cascades, and are usually dealt with by means of turbulence parametrizations, while the small temporal scales are governed by the propagation of acoustic and gravity waves, which are of little importance for the large scale dynamics and are often eliminated by means of a semi-implicit time discretization. We propose to treat both phenomena of subgrid turbulence and temporal scale separation in a unified way by means of nondissipative regularizations of the underlying model equations. More precisely, we discuss the use of two regularized equation sets: the velocity regularization, also know as Lagrangian averaged Navier-Stokes system, and the pressure regularization. Both regularizations are nondissipative since they do not enhance the dissipation of energy and enstrophy of the flow. The velocity regularization models the effects of the subgrid velocity fluctuations on the mean flow, it has thus been proposed as a turbulence parametrization and it has been found to yield promising results in ocean modeling [HHPW08]. In particular, the velocity regularization results in a higher variability of the numerical solution. The pressure regularization, discussed in [RWS07], modifies the propagation of acoustic and gravity waves so that the resulting system can be discretized explicitly in time with time steps analogous to those allowed by a semi-implicit method. Compared to semi-implicit time integrators, however, the pressure regularization takes fully into account the geostrophic balance of the flow. We discuss here the implementation of the velocity and pressure regularizations within the numerical framework of the ICON general circulation model (GCM) [BR05] for the case of the rotating shallow water system, showing how the original numerical

  3. On the regularizing effect for unbounded solutions of first-order Hamilton-Jacobi equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barles, Guy; Chasseigne, Emmanuel

    2016-05-01

    We give a simplified proof of regularizing effects for first-order Hamilton-Jacobi Equations of the form ut + H (x , t , Du) = 0 in RN × (0 , + ∞) in the case where the idea is to first estimate ut. As a consequence, we have a Lipschitz regularity in space and time for coercive Hamiltonians and, for hypo-elliptic Hamiltonians, we also have an Hölder regularizing effect in space following a result of L.C. Evans and M.R. James.

  4. Reducing errors in the GRACE gravity solutions using regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Save, Himanshu; Bettadpur, Srinivas; Tapley, Byron D.

    2012-09-01

    solutions (RL04) from the Center for Space Research (CSR). Post-fit residual analysis shows that the regularized solutions fit the data to within the noise level of GRACE. A time series of filtered hydrological model is used to confirm that signal attenuation for basins in the Total Runoff Integrating Pathways (TRIP) database over 320 km radii is less than 1 cm equivalent water height RMS, which is within the noise level of GRACE.

  5. A multiplicative regularization for force reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aucejo, M.; De Smet, O.

    2017-02-01

    Additive regularizations, such as Tikhonov-like approaches, are certainly the most popular methods for reconstructing forces acting on a structure. These approaches require, however, the knowledge of a regularization parameter, that can be numerically computed using specific procedures. Unfortunately, these procedures are generally computationally intensive. For this particular reason, it could be of primary interest to propose a method able to proceed without defining any regularization parameter beforehand. In this paper, a multiplicative regularization is introduced for this purpose. By construction, the regularized solution has to be calculated in an iterative manner. In doing so, the amount of regularization is automatically adjusted throughout the resolution process. Validations using synthetic and experimental data highlight the ability of the proposed approach in providing consistent reconstructions.

  6. Total variation regularization with bounded linear variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makovetskii, Artyom; Voronin, Sergei; Kober, Vitaly

    2016-09-01

    One of the most known techniques for signal denoising is based on total variation regularization (TV regularization). A better understanding of TV regularization is necessary to provide a stronger mathematical justification for using TV minimization in signal processing. In this work, we deal with an intermediate case between one- and two-dimensional cases; that is, a discrete function to be processed is two-dimensional radially symmetric piecewise constant. For this case, the exact solution to the problem can be obtained as follows: first, calculate the average values over rings of the noisy function; second, calculate the shift values and their directions using closed formulae depending on a regularization parameter and structure of rings. Despite the TV regularization is effective for noise removal; it often destroys fine details and thin structures of images. In order to overcome this drawback, we use the TV regularization for signal denoising subject to linear signal variations are bounded.

  7. Testing times: regularities in the historical sciences.

    PubMed

    Jeffares, Ben

    2008-12-01

    The historical sciences, such as geology, evolutionary biology, and archaeology, appear to have no means to test hypotheses. However, on closer examination, reasoning in the historical sciences relies upon regularities, regularities that can be tested. I outline the role of regularities in the historical sciences, and in the process, blur the distinction between the historical sciences and the experimental sciences: all sciences deploy theories about the world in their investigations.

  8. Regularity effect in prospective memory during aging

    PubMed Central

    Blondelle, Geoffrey; Hainselin, Mathieu; Gounden, Yannick; Heurley, Laurent; Voisin, Hélène; Megalakaki, Olga; Bressous, Estelle; Quaglino, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    Background Regularity effect can affect performance in prospective memory (PM), but little is known on the cognitive processes linked to this effect. Moreover, its impacts with regard to aging remain unknown. To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine regularity effect in PM in a lifespan perspective, with a sample of young, intermediate, and older adults. Objective and design Our study examined the regularity effect in PM in three groups of participants: 28 young adults (18–30), 16 intermediate adults (40–55), and 25 older adults (65–80). The task, adapted from the Virtual Week, was designed to manipulate the regularity of the various activities of daily life that were to be recalled (regular repeated activities vs. irregular non-repeated activities). We examine the role of several cognitive functions including certain dimensions of executive functions (planning, inhibition, shifting, and binding), short-term memory, and retrospective episodic memory to identify those involved in PM, according to regularity and age. Results A mixed-design ANOVA showed a main effect of task regularity and an interaction between age and regularity: an age-related difference in PM performances was found for irregular activities (older < young), but not for regular activities. All participants recalled more regular activities than irregular ones with no age effect. It appeared that recalling of regular activities only involved planning for both intermediate and older adults, while recalling of irregular ones were linked to planning, inhibition, short-term memory, binding, and retrospective episodic memory. Conclusion Taken together, our data suggest that planning capacities seem to play a major role in remembering to perform intended actions with advancing age. Furthermore, the age-PM-paradox may be attenuated when the experimental design is adapted by implementing a familiar context through the use of activities of daily living. The clinical implications of regularity

  9. Analysis of Tikhonov regularization for function approximation by neural networks.

    PubMed

    Burger, Martin; Neubauer, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the convergence and stability analysis of Tikhonov regularization for function approximation by a class of feed-forward neural networks with one hidden layer and linear output layer. We investigate two frequently used approaches, namely regularization by output smoothing and regularization by weight decay, as well as a combination of both methods to combine their advantages. We show that in all cases stable approximations are obtained converging to the approximated function in a desired Sobolev space as the noise in the data tends to zero (in the weaker L(2)-norm) if the regularization parameter and the number of units in the network are chosen appropriately. Under additional smoothness assumptions we are able to show convergence rates results in terms of the noise level and the number of units in the network. In addition, we show how the theoretical results can be applied to the important classes of perceptrons with one hidden layer and to translation networks. Finally, the performance of the different approaches is compared in some numerical examples.

  10. Timing predictability enhances regularity encoding in the human subcortical auditory pathway.

    PubMed

    Gorina-Careta, Natàlia; Zarnowiec, Katarzyna; Costa-Faidella, Jordi; Escera, Carles

    2016-11-17

    The encoding of temporal regularities is a critical property of the auditory system, as short-term neural representations of environmental statistics serve to auditory object formation and detection of potentially relevant novel stimuli. A putative neural mechanism underlying regularity encoding is repetition suppression, the reduction of neural activity to repeated stimulation. Although repetitive stimulation per se has shown to reduce auditory neural activity in animal cortical and subcortical levels and in the human cerebral cortex, other factors such as timing may influence the encoding of statistical regularities. This study was set out to investigate whether temporal predictability in the ongoing auditory input modulates repetition suppression in subcortical stages of the auditory processing hierarchy. Human auditory frequency-following responses (FFR) were recorded to a repeating consonant-vowel stimuli (/wa/) delivered in temporally predictable and unpredictable conditions. FFR amplitude was attenuated by repetition independently of temporal predictability, yet we observed an accentuated suppression when the incoming stimulation was temporally predictable. These findings support the view that regularity encoding spans across the auditory hierarchy and point to temporal predictability as a modulatory factor of regularity encoding in early stages of the auditory pathway.

  11. Timing predictability enhances regularity encoding in the human subcortical auditory pathway

    PubMed Central

    Gorina-Careta, Natàlia; Zarnowiec, Katarzyna; Costa-Faidella, Jordi; Escera, Carles

    2016-01-01

    The encoding of temporal regularities is a critical property of the auditory system, as short-term neural representations of environmental statistics serve to auditory object formation and detection of potentially relevant novel stimuli. A putative neural mechanism underlying regularity encoding is repetition suppression, the reduction of neural activity to repeated stimulation. Although repetitive stimulation per se has shown to reduce auditory neural activity in animal cortical and subcortical levels and in the human cerebral cortex, other factors such as timing may influence the encoding of statistical regularities. This study was set out to investigate whether temporal predictability in the ongoing auditory input modulates repetition suppression in subcortical stages of the auditory processing hierarchy. Human auditory frequency–following responses (FFR) were recorded to a repeating consonant–vowel stimuli (/wa/) delivered in temporally predictable and unpredictable conditions. FFR amplitude was attenuated by repetition independently of temporal predictability, yet we observed an accentuated suppression when the incoming stimulation was temporally predictable. These findings support the view that regularity encoding spans across the auditory hierarchy and point to temporal predictability as a modulatory factor of regularity encoding in early stages of the auditory pathway. PMID:27853313

  12. Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2006-01-01

    This abstract covers a one hour presentation on Space Exploration. The audience is elementary students; therefore there are few words on the slides, mostly pictures of living and working in space. The presentation opens with a few slides describing a day in the life of a space explorer. It begins with a launch, discussions of day-night cycles, eating, exercising, housekeeping, EVA, relaxation, and sleeping. The next section of the presentation shows photos of astronauts performing experiments on the ISS. Yokomi Elementary School launched this fall with the most advanced educational technology tools available in schools today. The science and technology magnet school is equipped with interactive white boards, digital projectors, integrated sound systems and several computers for use by teachers and students. The only elementary school in Fresno Unified with a science focus also houses dedicated science classrooms equipped specifically for elementary students to experience hands-on science instruction in addition to the regular elementary curriculum.

  13. Continuum regularization of quantum field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bern, Z.

    1986-04-01

    Possible nonperturbative continuum regularization schemes for quantum field theory are discussed which are based upon the Langevin equation of Parisi and Wu. Breit, Gupta and Zaks made the first proposal for new gauge invariant nonperturbative regularization. The scheme is based on smearing in the ''fifth-time'' of the Langevin equation. An analysis of their stochastic regularization scheme for the case of scalar electrodynamics with the standard covariant gauge fixing is given. Their scheme is shown to preserve the masslessness of the photon and the tensor structure of the photon vacuum polarization at the one-loop level. Although stochastic regularization is viable in one-loop electrodynamics, two difficulties arise which, in general, ruins the scheme. One problem is that the superficial quadratic divergences force a bottomless action for the noise. Another difficulty is that stochastic regularization by fifth-time smearing is incompatible with Zwanziger's gauge fixing, which is the only known nonperturbaive covariant gauge fixing for nonabelian gauge theories. Finally, a successful covariant derivative scheme is discussed which avoids the difficulties encountered with the earlier stochastic regularization by fifth-time smearing. For QCD the regularized formulation is manifestly Lorentz invariant, gauge invariant, ghost free and finite to all orders. A vanishing gluon mass is explicitly verified at one loop. The method is designed to respect relevant symmetries, and is expected to provide suitable regularization for any theory of interest. Hopefully, the scheme will lend itself to nonperturbative analysis. 44 refs., 16 figs.

  14. Numerical Regularization of Ill-Posed Problems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-09

    Unione Matematica Italiana. 4. The parameter choice problem in linear regularization: a mathematical introduction, in "Ill-Posed Problems: Theory and...vector b which is generally unavailable (see [21], [22]). Kdckler [33] has shon however that in the case of Tikhonov regularization for matrices it may

  15. Transport Code for Regular Triangular Geometry

    SciTech Connect

    1993-06-09

    DIAMANT2 solves the two-dimensional static multigroup neutron transport equation in planar regular triangular geometry. Both regular and adjoint, inhomogeneous and homogeneous problems subject to vacuum, reflective or input specified boundary flux conditions are solved. Anisotropy is allowed for the scattering source. Volume and surface sources are allowed for inhomogeneous problems.

  16. 12 CFR 725.3 - Regular membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Regular membership. 725.3 Section 725.3 Banks... UNION ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.3 Regular membership. (a) A natural person credit... stock subscription;1 and 1 A credit union which submits its application for membership prior to...

  17. 12 CFR 725.3 - Regular membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Regular membership. 725.3 Section 725.3 Banks... UNION ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.3 Regular membership. (a) A natural person credit... stock subscription;1 and 1 A credit union which submits its application for membership prior to...

  18. 12 CFR 725.3 - Regular membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Regular membership. 725.3 Section 725.3 Banks... UNION ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.3 Regular membership. (a) A natural person credit... stock subscription;1 and 1 A credit union which submits its application for membership prior to...

  19. 12 CFR 725.3 - Regular membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Regular membership. 725.3 Section 725.3 Banks... UNION ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.3 Regular membership. (a) A natural person credit... stock subscription;1 and 1 A credit union which submits its application for membership prior to...

  20. 12 CFR 725.3 - Regular membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regular membership. 725.3 Section 725.3 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.3 Regular membership. (a) A natural person...

  1. Regularization techniques in realistic Laplacian computation.

    PubMed

    Bortel, Radoslav; Sovka, Pavel

    2007-11-01

    This paper explores regularization options for the ill-posed spline coefficient equations in the realistic Laplacian computation. We investigate the use of the Tikhonov regularization, truncated singular value decomposition, and the so-called lambda-correction with the regularization parameter chosen by the L-curve, generalized cross-validation, quasi-optimality, and the discrepancy principle criteria. The provided range of regularization techniques is much wider than in the previous works. The improvement of the realistic Laplacian is investigated by simulations on the three-shell spherical head model. The conclusion is that the best performance is provided by the combination of the Tikhonov regularization and the generalized cross-validation criterion-a combination that has never been suggested for this task before.

  2. A linear functional strategy for regularized ranking.

    PubMed

    Kriukova, Galyna; Panasiuk, Oleksandra; Pereverzyev, Sergei V; Tkachenko, Pavlo

    2016-01-01

    Regularization schemes are frequently used for performing ranking tasks. This topic has been intensively studied in recent years. However, to be effective a regularization scheme should be equipped with a suitable strategy for choosing a regularization parameter. In the present study we discuss an approach, which is based on the idea of a linear combination of regularized rankers corresponding to different values of the regularization parameter. The coefficients of the linear combination are estimated by means of the so-called linear functional strategy. We provide a theoretical justification of the proposed approach and illustrate them by numerical experiments. Some of them are related with ranking the risk of nocturnal hypoglycemia of diabetes patients.

  3. Fine-granularity and spatially-adaptive regularization for projection-based image deblurring.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin

    2011-04-01

    This paper studies two classes of regularization strategies to achieve an improved tradeoff between image recovery and noise suppression in projection-based image deblurring. The first is based on a simple fact that r-times Landweber iteration leads to a fixed level of regularization, which allows us to achieve fine-granularity control of projection-based iterative deblurring by varying the value r. The regularization behavior is explained by using the theory of Lagrangian multiplier for variational schemes. The second class of regularization strategy is based on the observation that various regularized filters can be viewed as nonexpansive mappings in the metric space. A deeper understanding about different regularization filters can be gained by probing into their asymptotic behavior--the fixed point of nonexpansive mappings. By making an analogy to the states of matter in statistical physics, we can observe that different image structures (smooth regions, regular edges and textures) correspond to different fixed points of nonexpansive mappings when the temperature(regularization) parameter varies. Such an analogy motivates us to propose a deterministic annealing based approach toward spatial adaptation in projection-based image deblurring. Significant performance improvements over the current state-of-the-art schemes have been observed in our experiments, which substantiates the effectiveness of the proposed regularization strategies.

  4. Compressing Regular Expressions' DFA Table by Matrix Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanbing; Guo, Li; Liu, Ping; Tan, Jianlong

    Recently regular expression matching has become a research focus as a result of the urgent demand for Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) in many network security systems. Deterministic Finite Automaton (DFA), which recognizes a set of regular expressions, is usually adopted to cater to the need for real-time processing of network traffic. However, the huge memory usage of DFA prevents it from being applied even on a medium-sized pattern set. In this article, we propose a matrix decomposition method for DFA table compression. The basic idea of the method is to decompose a DFA table into the sum of a row vector, a column vector and a sparse matrix, all of which cost very little space. Experiments on typical rule sets show that the proposed method significantly reduces the memory usage and still runs at fast searching speed.

  5. Regularization of hidden dynamics in piecewise smooth flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novaes, Douglas D.; Jeffrey, Mike R.

    2015-11-01

    This paper studies the equivalence between differentiable and non-differentiable dynamics in Rn. Filippov's theory of discontinuous differential equations allows us to find flow solutions of dynamical systems whose vector fields undergo switches at thresholds in phase space. The canonical convex combination at the discontinuity is only the linear part of a nonlinear combination that more fully explores Filippov's most general problem: the differential inclusion. Here we show how recent work relating discontinuous systems to singular limits of continuous (or regularized) systems extends to nonlinear combinations. We show that if sliding occurs in a discontinuous systems, there exists a differentiable slow-fast system with equivalent slow invariant dynamics. We also show the corresponding result for the pinching method, a converse to regularization which approximates a smooth system by a discontinuous one.

  6. Elementary Particle Spectroscopy in Regular Solid Rewrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trell, Erik

    2008-10-01

    The Nilpotent Universal Computer Rewrite System (NUCRS) has operationalized the radical ontological dilemma of Nothing at All versus Anything at All down to the ground recursive syntax and principal mathematical realisation of this categorical dichotomy as such and so governing all its sui generis modalities, leading to fulfilment of their individual terms and compass when the respective choice sequence operations are brought to closure. Focussing on the general grammar, NUCRS by pure logic and its algebraic notations hence bootstraps Quantum Mechanics, aware that it "is the likely keystone of a fundamental computational foundation" also for e.g. physics, molecular biology and neuroscience. The present work deals with classical geometry where morphology is the modality, and ventures that the ancient regular solids are its specific rewrite system, in effect extensively anticipating the detailed elementary particle spectroscopy, and further on to essential structures at large both over the inorganic and organic realms. The geodetic antipode to Nothing is extension, with natural eigenvector the endless straight line which when deployed according to the NUCRS as well as Plotelemeian topographic prescriptions forms a real three-dimensional eigenspace with cubical eigenelements where observed quark-skewed quantum-chromodynamical particle events self-generate as an Aristotelean phase transition between the straight and round extremes of absolute endlessness under the symmetry- and gauge-preserving, canonical coset decomposition SO(3)×O(5) of Lie algebra SU(3). The cubical eigen-space and eigen-elements are the parental state and frame, and the other solids are a range of transition matrix elements and portions adapting to the spherical root vector symmetries and so reproducibly reproducing the elementary particle spectroscopy, including a modular, truncated octahedron nano-composition of the Electron which piecemeal enter into molecular structures or compressed to each

  7. Elementary Particle Spectroscopy in Regular Solid Rewrite

    SciTech Connect

    Trell, Erik

    2008-10-17

    The Nilpotent Universal Computer Rewrite System (NUCRS) has operationalized the radical ontological dilemma of Nothing at All versus Anything at All down to the ground recursive syntax and principal mathematical realisation of this categorical dichotomy as such and so governing all its sui generis modalities, leading to fulfilment of their individual terms and compass when the respective choice sequence operations are brought to closure. Focussing on the general grammar, NUCRS by pure logic and its algebraic notations hence bootstraps Quantum Mechanics, aware that it ''is the likely keystone of a fundamental computational foundation'' also for e.g. physics, molecular biology and neuroscience. The present work deals with classical geometry where morphology is the modality, and ventures that the ancient regular solids are its specific rewrite system, in effect extensively anticipating the detailed elementary particle spectroscopy, and further on to essential structures at large both over the inorganic and organic realms. The geodetic antipode to Nothing is extension, with natural eigenvector the endless straight line which when deployed according to the NUCRS as well as Plotelemeian topographic prescriptions forms a real three-dimensional eigenspace with cubical eigenelements where observed quark-skewed quantum-chromodynamical particle events self-generate as an Aristotelean phase transition between the straight and round extremes of absolute endlessness under the symmetry- and gauge-preserving, canonical coset decomposition SO(3)xO(5) of Lie algebra SU(3). The cubical eigen-space and eigen-elements are the parental state and frame, and the other solids are a range of transition matrix elements and portions adapting to the spherical root vector symmetries and so reproducibly reproducing the elementary particle spectroscopy, including a modular, truncated octahedron nano-composition of the Electron which piecemeal enter into molecular structures or compressed to each

  8. A theoretical foundation for multi-scale regular vegetation patterns.

    PubMed

    Tarnita, Corina E; Bonachela, Juan A; Sheffer, Efrat; Guyton, Jennifer A; Coverdale, Tyler C; Long, Ryan A; Pringle, Robert M

    2017-01-18

    Self-organized regular vegetation patterns are widespread and thought to mediate ecosystem functions such as productivity and robustness, but the mechanisms underlying their origin and maintenance remain disputed. Particularly controversial are landscapes of overdispersed (evenly spaced) elements, such as North American Mima mounds, Brazilian murundus, South African heuweltjies, and, famously, Namibian fairy circles. Two competing hypotheses are currently debated. On the one hand, models of scale-dependent feedbacks, whereby plants facilitate neighbours while competing with distant individuals, can reproduce various regular patterns identified in satellite imagery. Owing to deep theoretical roots and apparent generality, scale-dependent feedbacks are widely viewed as a unifying and near-universal principle of regular-pattern formation despite scant empirical evidence. On the other hand, many overdispersed vegetation patterns worldwide have been attributed to subterranean ecosystem engineers such as termites, ants, and rodents. Although potentially consistent with territorial competition, this interpretation has been challenged theoretically and empirically and (unlike scale-dependent feedbacks) lacks a unifying dynamical theory, fuelling scepticism about its plausibility and generality. Here we provide a general theoretical foundation for self-organization of social-insect colonies, validated using data from four continents, which demonstrates that intraspecific competition between territorial animals can generate the large-scale hexagonal regularity of these patterns. However, this mechanism is not mutually exclusive with scale-dependent feedbacks. Using Namib Desert fairy circles as a case study, we present field data showing that these landscapes exhibit multi-scale patterning-previously undocumented in this system-that cannot be explained by either mechanism in isolation. These multi-scale patterns and other emergent properties, such as enhanced resistance to

  9. Semi-regular biorthogonal pairs and generalized Riesz bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, H.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we introduce general theories of semi-regular biorthogonal pairs, generalized Riesz bases and its physical applications. Here we deal with biorthogonal sequences {ϕn} and {ψn} in a Hilbert space H , with domains D ( ϕ ) = { x ∈ H ; ∑ k = 0 ∞ |" separators=" ( x | ϕ k ) | 2 < ∞ } and D ( ψ ) = { x ∈ H ; ∑ k = 0 ∞ |" separators=" ( x | ψ k ) | 2 < ∞ } and linear spans Dϕ ≡ Span{ϕn} and Dψ ≡ Span{ψn}. A biorthogonal pair ({ϕn}, {ψn}) is called regular if both Dϕ and Dψ are dense in H , and it is called semi-regular if either Dϕ and D(ϕ) or Dψ and D(ψ) are dense in H . In a previous paper [H. Inoue, J. Math. Phys. 57, 083511 (2016)], we have shown that if ({ϕn}, {ψn}) is a regular biorthogonal pair then both {ϕn} and {ψn} are generalized Riesz bases defined in the work of Inoue and Takakura [J. Math. Phys. 57, 083505 (2016)]. Here we shall show that the same result holds true if the pair is only semi-regular by using operators Tϕ,e, Te,ϕ, Tψ,e, and Te,ψ defined by an orthonormal basis e in H and a biorthogonal pair ({ϕn}, {ψn}). Furthermore, we shall apply this result to pseudo-bosons in the sense of the papers of Bagarello [J. Math. Phys. 51, 023531 (2010); J. Phys. A 44, 015205 (2011); Phys. Rev. A 88, 032120 (2013); and J. Math. Phys. 54, 063512 (2013)].

  10. Relative optically stimulated luminescence and thermoluminescence efficiencies of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C dosimeters to heavy charged particles with energies relevant to space and radiotherapy dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Sawakuchi, G. O.; Yukihara, E. G.; McKeever, S. W. S.; Benton, E. R.; Gaza, R.; Uchihori, Y.; Yasuda, N.; Kitamura, H.

    2008-12-15

    This article presents a comprehensive characterization of the thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) relative luminescence efficiencies of carbon-doped aluminum (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C) for heavy charged particles (HCPs) with atomic numbers ranging from 1 (proton) to 54 (xenon) and energies ranging from 7 to 1000 MeV/u, and investigates the dependence of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C response on experimental conditions. Relative luminescence efficiency values are presented for 19 primary charge/energy combinations, plus 31 additional charge/energy combinations obtained by introducing absorbers in the primary beam. Our results show that for energies of hundreds of MeV/u the data can be described by a single curve of relative luminescence efficiency versus linear energy transfer (LET). This information is needed to compensate for the reduced OSL efficiency to high-LET particles in such applications as space dosimetry. For lower energies, the relative luminescence efficiency as function of LET cannot be described by a single curve; instead, it separates into different components corresponding to different particles. We also present data on the low-LET dose response of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C, measured under the same experimental conditions in which the relative luminescence efficiencies to HCPs were obtained, providing information relevant to future theoretical investigations of HCP energy deposition and luminescence production in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C.

  11. Bone marrow fat accumulation after 60 days of bed rest persisted 1 year after activities were resumed along with hemopoietic stimulation: the Women International Space Simulation for Exploration study.

    PubMed

    Trudel, Guy; Payne, Michael; Mädler, Burkhard; Ramachandran, Nanthan; Lecompte, Martin; Wade, Charles; Biolo, Gianni; Blanc, Stéphane; Hughson, Richard; Bear, Lisa; Uhthoff, Hans K

    2009-08-01

    Immobility in bed and decreased mobility cause adaptations to most human body systems. The effect of immobility on fat accumulation in hemopoietic bone marrow has never been measured prospectively. The reversibility of marrow fat accumulation and the effects on hemopoiesis are not known. In the present study, 24 healthy women (age: 25-40 yr) underwent -6 degrees head-down bed rest for 60 days. We used MRI to noninvasively measure the lumbar vertebral fat fraction at various time points. We also measured hemoglobin, erythropoietin, reticulocytes, leukocytes, platelet count, peripheral fat mass, leptin, cortisol, and C-reactive protein during bed rest and for 1 yr after bed rest ended. Compared with baseline, the mean (+/-SE) fat fraction was increased after 60 days of bed rest (+2.5+/-1.1%, P<0.05); the increase persisted 1 yr after the resumption of regular activities (+2.3+/-0.8%, P<0.05). Mean hemoglobin levels were significantly decreased 6 days after bed rest ended (-1.36+/-0.20 g/dl, P<0.05) but had recovered at 1 yr, with significantly lower mean circulating erythropoietin levels (-3.8+/-1.2 mU/ml, P<0.05). Mean numbers of neutrophils and lymphocytes remained significantly elevated at 1 yr (+617+/-218 neutrophils/microl and +498+/-112 lymphocytes/microl, both P<0.05). These results constitute direct evidence that bed rest irreversibly accelerated fat accumulation in hemopoietic bone marrow. The 2.5% increase in fat fraction after 60 days of bed rest was 25-fold larger than expected from historical ambulatory controls. Sixty days of bed rest accelerated by 4 yr the normal bone marrow involution. Bed rest and marrow adiposity were associated with hemopoietic stimulation. One year after subjects returned to normal activities, hemoglobin levels were maintained, with 43% lower circulating erythropoietin levels, and leukocytes remained significantly elevated across lineages. Lack of mobility alters hemopoiesis, possibly through marrow fat accumulation, with

  12. Regular biorthogonal pairs and pseudo-bosonic operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, H.; Takakura, M.

    2016-08-01

    The first purpose of this paper is to show a method of constructing a regular biorthogonal pair based on the commutation rule: ab - ba = I for a pair of operators a and b acting on a Hilbert space H with inner product (ṡ| ṡ ). Here, sequences {ϕn} and {ψn} in a Hilbert space H are biorthogonal if (ϕn|ψm) = δnm, n, m = 0, 1, …, and they are regular if both Dϕ ≡ Span{ϕn} and Dψ ≡ Span{ψn} are dense in H . Indeed, the assumptions to construct the regular biorthogonal pair coincide with the definition of pseudo-bosons as originally given in F. Bagarello ["Pseudobosons, Riesz bases, and coherent states," J. Math. Phys. 51, 023531 (2010)]. Furthermore, we study the connections between the pseudo-bosonic operators a, b, a†, b† and the pseudo-bosonic operators defined by a regular biorthogonal pair ({ϕn}, {ψn}) and an ONB e of H in H. Inoue ["General theory of regular biorthogonal pairs and its physical applications," e-print arXiv:math-ph/1604.01967]. The second purpose is to define and study the notion of D -pseudo-bosons in F. Bagarello ["More mathematics for pseudo-bosons," J. Math. Phys. 54, 063512 (2013)] and F. Bagarello ["From self-adjoint to non self-adjoint harmonic oscillators: Physical consequences and mathematical pitfalls," Phys. Rev. A 88, 032120 (2013)] and give a method of constructing D -pseudo-bosons on some steps. Then it is shown that for any ONB e = {en} in H and any operators T and T-1 in L † ( D ) , we may construct operators A and B satisfying D -pseudo bosons, where D is a dense subspace in a Hilbert space H and L † ( D ) the set of all linear operators T from D to D such that T * D ⊂ D , where T* is the adjoint of T. Finally, we give some physical examples of D -pseudo-bosons based on standard bosons by the method of constructing D -pseudo-bosons stated above.

  13. Completeness and regularity of generalized fuzzy graphs.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Sovan; Sarkar, Biswajit; Shin, Dongmin; Pal, Madhumangal

    2016-01-01

    Fuzzy graphs are the backbone of many real systems like networks, image, scheduling, etc. But, due to some restriction on edges, fuzzy graphs are limited to represent for some systems. Generalized fuzzy graphs are appropriate to avoid such restrictions. In this study generalized fuzzy graphs are introduced. In this study, matrix representation of generalized fuzzy graphs is described. Completeness and regularity are two important parameters of graph theory. Here, regular and complete generalized fuzzy graphs are introduced. Some properties of them are discussed. After that, effective regular graphs are exemplified.

  14. Partitioning of regular computation on multiprocessor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Fung Fung

    1988-01-01

    Problem partitioning of regular computation over two dimensional meshes on multiprocessor systems is examined. The regular computation model considered involves repetitive evaluation of values at each mesh point with local communication. The computational workload and the communication pattern are the same at each mesh point. The regular computation model arises in numerical solutions of partial differential equations and simulations of cellular automata. Given a communication pattern, a systematic way to generate a family of partitions is presented. The influence of various partitioning schemes on performance is compared on the basis of computation to communication ratio.

  15. Partitioning of regular computation on multiprocessor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Fung F.

    1990-01-01

    Problem partitioning of regular computation over two dimensional meshes on multiprocessor systems is examined. The regular computation model considered involves repetitive evaluation of values at each mesh point with local communication. The computational workload and the communication pattern are the same at each mesh point. The regular computation model arises in numerical solutions of partial differential equations and simulations of cellular automata. Given a communication pattern, a systematic way to generate a family of partitions is presented. The influence of various partitioning schemes on performance is compared on the basis of computation to communication ratio.

  16. Partitioning of regular computation on multiprocessor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, F. . Computer Systems Lab.)

    1990-07-01

    Problem partitioning of regular computation over two-dimensional meshes on multiprocessor systems is examined. The regular computation model considered involves repetitive evaluation of values at each mesh point with local communication. The computational workload and the communication pattern are the same at each mesh point. The regular computation model arises in numerical solutions of partial differential equations and simulations of cellular automata. Given a communication pattern, a systematic way to generate a family of partitions is presented. The influence of various partitioning schemes on performance is compared on the basis of computation to communication ratio.

  17. THE STIMULATING EFFECT OF GLYCOLS AND THEIR POLYMERS ON THE TARSAL RECEPTORS OF BLOWFLIES

    PubMed Central

    Dethier, V. G.; Chadwick, L. E.

    1948-01-01

    The rejection thresholds of Phormia regina Meigen for twenty-four glycols have been determined. A definite relationship between the concentration of the test material and the distribution of thresholds has been noted regularly in samples of flies selected at random from a population of known age which had been reared under standard conditions. The scattering of thresholds is normal with respect to the logarithm of concentration. Recalculation of the data of other workers reveals the same sort of relationship with other species of insects and the minnow Phoxinus. The underlying reason for the phenomenon is not known. The glycols in common with other series of homologous alipbatic compounds are rejected at logarithmically decreasing concentrations as the chain length is increased. In general the straight chain diols are more stimulating than the corresponding polyethylene and polypropylene glycols. This difference is related in some manner to the presence of ether linkages in the latter. Polypropylene glycols, with chains of three carbon atoms between the ether linkages are more stimulating than polyethylene glycols, where the spacing is —O—C—C—O—. Unipolymers are more stimulating than mixtures of homologues with the same average molecular weights. Polyethylene glycol 1540 is the largest molecule of measured molecular weight known to stimulate chemoreceptors. The introduction of a second terminal hydroxyl group into the straight hydrocarbon chain reduces the stimulating effect. Alcohols corresponding to the first three diols average about four times as stimulating as the latter while those corresponding to the higher diols average more than one hundred times as stimulating. PMID:18891141

  18. Temporal Prediction in lieu of Periodic Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Charles E.; Wyart, Valentin

    2016-01-01

    Predicting not only what will happen, but also when it will happen is extremely helpful for optimizing perception and action. Temporal predictions driven by periodic stimulation increase perceptual sensitivity and reduce response latencies. At the neurophysiological level, a single mechanism has been proposed to mediate this twofold behavioral improvement: the rhythmic entrainment of slow cortical oscillations to the stimulation rate. However, temporal regularities can occur in aperiodic contexts, suggesting that temporal predictions per se may be dissociable from entrainment to periodic sensory streams. We investigated this possibility in two behavioral experiments, asking human participants to detect near-threshold auditory tones embedded in streams whose temporal and spectral properties were manipulated. While our findings confirm that periodic stimulation reduces response latencies, in agreement with the hypothesis of a stimulus-driven entrainment of neural excitability, they further reveal that this motor facilitation can be dissociated from the enhancement of auditory sensitivity. Perceptual sensitivity improvement is unaffected by the nature of temporal regularities (periodic vs aperiodic), but contingent on the co-occurrence of a fulfilled spectral prediction. Altogether, the dissociation between predictability and periodicity demonstrates that distinct mechanisms flexibly and synergistically operate to facilitate perception and action. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Temporal predictions are increasingly recognized as fundamental instruments for optimizing performance, enabling mammals to exploit regularities in the world. However, the notion of temporal predictions is often confounded with the idea of entrainment to periodic sensory inputs. At the behavioral level, it is also unclear whether perceptual sensitivity and reaction time improvements benefit the same way from temporal predictions and periodic stimulation. In two behavioral experiments on human

  19. [Serum ferritin in donors with regular plateletpheresis].

    PubMed

    Ma, Chun-Hui; Guo, Ru-Hua; Wu, Wei-Jian; Yan, Jun-Xiong; Yu, Jin-Lin; Zhu, Ye-Hua; He, Qi-Tong; Luo, Yi-Hong; Huang, Lu; Ye, Rui-Yun

    2011-04-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the impact of regular donating platelets on serum ferritin (SF) of donors. A total of 93 male blood donors including 24 initial plateletpheresis donors and 69 regular plateletpheresis donors were selected randomly. Their SF level was measured by ELISA. The results showed that the SF level of initial plateletpheresis donors and regular plateletpheresis donors were 91.08 ± 23.38 µg/L and 57.16 ± 35.48 µg/L respectively, and all were in normal levels, but there was significant difference between the 2 groups (p < 0.05). The SF level decreased when the donation frequency increased, there were no significant differences between the groups with different donation frequency. Correlation with lifetime donations of platelets was not found. It is concluded that regular plateletpheresis donors may have lower SF level.

  20. Epigenetic adaptation to regular exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Ling, Charlotte; Rönn, Tina

    2014-07-01

    Regular exercise has numerous health benefits, for example, it reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. It has also been shown that the risk of type 2 diabetes can be halved in high-risk groups through nonpharmacological lifestyle interventions involving exercise and diet. Nevertheless, the number of people living a sedentary life is dramatically increasing worldwide. Researchers have searched for molecular mechanisms explaining the health benefits of regular exercise for decades and it is well established that exercise alters the gene expression pattern in multiple tissues. However, until recently it was unknown that regular exercise can modify the genome-wide DNA methylation pattern in humans. This review will focus on recent progress in the field of regular exercise and epigenetics.

  1. Regularization of B-Spline Objects.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guoliang; Bajaj, Chandrajit

    2011-01-01

    By a d-dimensional B-spline object (denoted as ), we mean a B-spline curve (d = 1), a B-spline surface (d = 2) or a B-spline volume (d = 3). By regularization of a B-spline object we mean the process of relocating the control points of such that they approximate an isometric map of its definition domain in certain directions and is shape preserving. In this paper we develop an efficient regularization method for , d = 1, 2, 3 based on solving weak form L(2)-gradient flows constructed from the minimization of certain regularizing energy functionals. These flows are integrated via the finite element method using B-spline basis functions. Our experimental results demonstrate that our new regularization method is very effective.

  2. The experimental localization of Aubry-Mather sets using regularization techniques inspired by viscosity theory.

    PubMed

    Guzzo, Massimiliano; Bernardi, Olga; Cardin, Franco

    2007-09-01

    We provide a new method for the localization of Aubry-Mather sets in quasi-integrable two-dimensional twist maps. Inspired by viscosity theories, we introduce regularization techniques based on the new concept of "relative viscosity and friction," which allows one to obtain regularized parametrizations of invariant sets with irrational rotation number. Such regularized parametrizations allow one to compute a curve in the phase-space that passes near the Aubry-Mather set, and an invariant measure whose density allows one to locate the gaps on the curve. We show applications to the "golden" cantorus of the standard map as well as to a more general case.

  3. Graph Laplacian Regularization for Image Denoising: Analysis in the Continuous Domain.

    PubMed

    Pang, Jiahao; Cheung, Gene

    2017-04-01

    Inverse imaging problems are inherently underdetermined, and hence, it is important to employ appropriate image priors for regularization. One recent popular prior-the graph Laplacian regularizer-assumes that the target pixel patch is smooth with respect to an appropriately chosen graph. However, the mechanisms and implications of imposing the graph Laplacian regularizer on the original inverse problem are not well understood. To address this problem, in this paper, we interpret neighborhood graphs of pixel patches as discrete counterparts of Riemannian manifolds and perform analysis in the continuous domain, providing insights into several fundamental aspects of graph Laplacian regularization for image denoising. Specifically, we first show the convergence of the graph Laplacian regularizer to a continuous-domain functional, integrating a norm measured in a locally adaptive metric space. Focusing on image denoising, we derive an optimal metric space assuming non-local self-similarity of pixel patches, leading to an optimal graph Laplacian regularizer for denoising in the discrete domain. We then interpret graph Laplacian regularization as an anisotropic diffusion scheme to explain its behavior during iterations, e.g., its tendency to promote piecewise smooth signals under certain settings. To verify our analysis, an iterative image denoising algorithm is developed. Experimental results show that our algorithm performs competitively with state-of-the-art denoising methods, such as BM3D for natural images, and outperforms them significantly for piecewise smooth images.

  4. On the low regularity of the Benney-Lin equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wengu; Li, Junfeng

    2008-03-01

    We consider the low regularity of the Benney-Lin equation ut+uux+uxxx+[beta](uxx+uxxxx)+[eta]uxxxxx=0. We established the global well posedness for the initial value problem of Benney-Lin equation in the Sobolev spaces for 0[greater-or-equal, slanted]s>-2, improving the well-posedness result of Biagioni and Linares [H.A. Biaginoi, F. Linares, On the Benney-Lin and Kawahara equation, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 211 (1997) 131-152]. For s<-2 we also prove some ill-posedness issues.

  5. Wavelet Characterizations of Multi-Directional Regularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slimane, Mourad Ben

    2011-05-01

    The study of d dimensional traces of functions of m several variables leads to directional behaviors. The purpose of this paper is two-fold. Firstly, we extend the notion of one direction pointwise Hölder regularity introduced by Jaffard to multi-directions. Secondly, we characterize multi-directional pointwise regularity by Triebel anisotropic wavelet coefficients (resp. leaders), and also by Calderón anisotropic continuous wavelet transform.

  6. Probabilistic regularization in inverse optical imaging.

    PubMed

    De Micheli, E; Viano, G A

    2000-11-01

    The problem of object restoration in the case of spatially incoherent illumination is considered. A regularized solution to the inverse problem is obtained through a probabilistic approach, and a numerical algorithm based on the statistical analysis of the noisy data is presented. Particular emphasis is placed on the question of the positivity constraint, which is incorporated into the probabilistically regularized solution by means of a quadratic programming technique. Numerical examples illustrating the main steps of the algorithm are also given.

  7. Usual Source of Care in Preventive Service Use: A Regular Doctor versus a Regular Site

    PubMed Central

    Xu, K Tom

    2002-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of having a regular doctor and having a regular site on five preventive services, controlling for the endogeneity of having a usual source of care. Data Source The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey 1996 conducted by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the National Center for Health Statistics. Study Design Mammograms, pap smears, blood pressure checkups, cholesterol level checkups, and flu shots were examined. A modified behavioral model framework was presented, which controlled for the endogeneity of having a usual source of care. Based on this framework, a two-equation empirical model was established to predict the probabilities of having a regular doctor and having a regular site, and use of each type of preventive service. Principal Findings Having a regular doctor was found to have a greater impact than having a regular site on discretional preventive services, such as blood pressure and cholesterol level checkups. No statistically significant differences were found between the effects a having a regular doctor and having a regular site on the use of flu shots, pap smears, and mammograms. Among the five preventive services, having a usual source of care had the greatest impact on cholesterol level checkups and pap smears. Conclusions Promoting a stable physician–patient relationship can improve patients’ timely receipt of clinical prevention. For certain preventive services, having a regular doctor is more effective than having a regular site. PMID:12546284

  8. Vagus Nerve Stimulation

    MedlinePlus

    Vagus nerve stimulation Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Vagus nerve stimulation is a procedure that involves implantation of a device that stimulates the vagus nerve with electrical impulses. There's one vagus nerve on ...

  9. Channeling power across ecological systems: social regularities in community organizing.

    PubMed

    Christens, Brian D; Inzeo, Paula Tran; Faust, Victoria

    2014-06-01

    Relational and social network perspectives provide opportunities for more holistic conceptualizations of phenomena of interest in community psychology, including power and empowerment. In this article, we apply these tools to build on multilevel frameworks of empowerment by proposing that networks of relationships between individuals constitute the connective spaces between ecological systems. Drawing on an example of a model for grassroots community organizing practiced by WISDOM—a statewide federation supporting local community organizing initiatives in Wisconsin—we identify social regularities (i.e., relational and temporal patterns) that promote empowerment and the development and exercise of social power through building and altering relational ties. Through an emphasis on listening-focused one-to-one meetings, reflection, and social analysis, WISDOM organizing initiatives construct and reinforce social regularities that develop social power in the organizing initiatives and advance psychological empowerment among participant leaders in organizing. These patterns are established by organizationally driven brokerage and mobilization of interpersonal ties, some of which span ecological systems.Hence, elements of these power-focused social regularities can be conceptualized as cross-system channels through which micro-level empowerment processes feed into macro-level exercise of social power, and vice versa. We describe examples of these channels in action, and offer recommendations for theory and design of future action research [corrected] .

  10. Manifold regularized non-negative matrix factorization with label information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huirong; Zhang, Jiangshe; Wang, Changpeng; Liu, Junmin

    2016-03-01

    Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) as a popular technique for finding parts-based, linear representations of non-negative data has been successfully applied in a wide range of applications, such as feature learning, dictionary learning, and dimensionality reduction. However, both the local manifold regularization of data and the discriminative information of the available label have not been taken into account together in NMF. We propose a new semisupervised matrix decomposition method, called manifold regularized non-negative matrix factorization (MRNMF) with label information, which incorporates the manifold regularization and the label information into the NMF to improve the performance of NMF in clustering tasks. We encode the local geometrical structure of the data space by constructing a nearest neighbor graph and enhance the discriminative ability of different classes by effectively using the label information. Experimental comparisons with the state-of-the-art methods on theCOIL20, PIE, Extended Yale B, and MNIST databases demonstrate the effectiveness of MRNMF.

  11. Enhanced manifold regularization for semi-supervised classification.

    PubMed

    Gan, Haitao; Luo, Zhizeng; Fan, Yingle; Sang, Nong

    2016-06-01

    Manifold regularization (MR) has become one of the most widely used approaches in the semi-supervised learning field. It has shown superiority by exploiting the local manifold structure of both labeled and unlabeled data. The manifold structure is modeled by constructing a Laplacian graph and then incorporated in learning through a smoothness regularization term. Hence the labels of labeled and unlabeled data vary smoothly along the geodesics on the manifold. However, MR has ignored the discriminative ability of the labeled and unlabeled data. To address the problem, we propose an enhanced MR framework for semi-supervised classification in which the local discriminative information of the labeled and unlabeled data is explicitly exploited. To make full use of labeled data, we firstly employ a semi-supervised clustering method to discover the underlying data space structure of the whole dataset. Then we construct a local discrimination graph to model the discriminative information of labeled and unlabeled data according to the discovered intrinsic structure. Therefore, the data points that may be from different clusters, though similar on the manifold, are enforced far away from each other. Finally, the discrimination graph is incorporated into the MR framework. In particular, we utilize semi-supervised fuzzy c-means and Laplacian regularized Kernel minimum squared error for semi-supervised clustering and classification, respectively. Experimental results on several benchmark datasets and face recognition demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method.

  12. Hessian estimates in weighted Lebesgue spaces for fully nonlinear elliptic equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Sun-Sig; Lee, Mikyoung; Palagachev, Dian K.

    2016-03-01

    We prove global regularity in weighted Lebesgue spaces for the viscosity solutions to the Dirichlet problem for fully nonlinear elliptic equations. As a consequence, regularity in Morrey spaces of the Hessian is derived as well.

  13. C1,1 regularity for degenerate elliptic obstacle problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daskalopoulos, Panagiota; Feehan, Paul M. N.

    2016-03-01

    The Heston stochastic volatility process is a degenerate diffusion process where the degeneracy in the diffusion coefficient is proportional to the square root of the distance to the boundary of the half-plane. The generator of this process with killing, called the elliptic Heston operator, is a second-order, degenerate-elliptic partial differential operator, where the degeneracy in the operator symbol is proportional to the distance to the boundary of the half-plane. In mathematical finance, solutions to the obstacle problem for the elliptic Heston operator correspond to value functions for perpetual American-style options on the underlying asset. With the aid of weighted Sobolev spaces and weighted Hölder spaces, we establish the optimal C 1 , 1 regularity (up to the boundary of the half-plane) for solutions to obstacle problems for the elliptic Heston operator when the obstacle functions are sufficiently smooth.

  14. Perturbations in a regular bouncing universe

    SciTech Connect

    Battefeld, T.J.; Geshnizjani, G.

    2006-03-15

    We consider a simple toy model of a regular bouncing universe. The bounce is caused by an extra timelike dimension, which leads to a sign flip of the {rho}{sup 2} term in the effective four dimensional Randall Sundrum-like description. We find a wide class of possible bounces: big bang avoiding ones for regular matter content, and big rip avoiding ones for phantom matter. Focusing on radiation as the matter content, we discuss the evolution of scalar, vector and tensor perturbations. We compute a spectral index of n{sub s}=-1 for scalar perturbations and a deep blue index for tensor perturbations after invoking vacuum initial conditions, ruling out such a model as a realistic one. We also find that the spectrum (evaluated at Hubble crossing) is sensitive to the bounce. We conclude that it is challenging, but not impossible, for cyclic/ekpyrotic models to succeed, if one can find a regularized version.

  15. Shadow of rotating regular black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdujabbarov, Ahmadjon; Amir, Muhammed; Ahmedov, Bobomurat; Ghosh, Sushant G.

    2016-05-01

    We study the shadows cast by the different types of rotating regular black holes viz. Ayón-Beato-García (ABG), Hayward, and Bardeen. These black holes have in addition to the total mass (M ) and rotation parameter (a ), different parameters as electric charge (Q ), deviation parameter (g ), and magnetic charge (g*). Interestingly, the size of the shadow is affected by these parameters in addition to the rotation parameter. We found that the radius of the shadow in each case decreases monotonically, and the distortion parameter increases when the values of these parameters increase. A comparison with the standard Kerr case is also investigated. We have also studied the influence of the plasma environment around regular black holes to discuss its shadow. The presence of the plasma affects the apparent size of the regular black hole's shadow to be increased due to two effects: (i) gravitational redshift of the photons and (ii) radial dependence of plasma density.

  16. Nonlinear electrodynamics and regular black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajadi, S. N.; Riazi, N.

    2017-03-01

    In this work, an exact regular black hole solution in General Relativity is presented. The source is a nonlinear electromagnetic field with the algebraic structure T00=T11 for the energy-momentum tensor, partially satisfying the weak energy condition but not the strong energy condition. In the weak field limit, the EM field behaves like the Maxwell field. The solution corresponds to a charged black hole with q≤0.77 m. The metric, the curvature invariants, and the electric field are regular everywhere. The BH is stable against small perturbations of spacetime and using the Weinhold metric, geometrothermodynamical stability has been investigated. Finally we investigate the idea that the observable universe lives inside a regular black hole. We argue that this picture might provide a viable description of universe.

  17. Regular homotopy for immersions of graphs into surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Permyakov, D. A.

    2016-06-01

    We study invariants of regular immersions of graphs into surfaces up to regular homotopy. The concept of the winding number is used to introduce a new simple combinatorial invariant of regular homotopy. Bibliography: 20 titles.

  18. Exploring Regularities for Improving FAÇADE Reconstruction from Point Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, K.; Gorte, B.; Zlatanova, S.

    2016-06-01

    (Semi)-automatic facade reconstruction from terrestrial LiDAR point clouds is often affected by both quality of point cloud itself and imperfectness of object recognition algorithms. In this paper, we employ regularities, which exist on façades, to mitigate these problems. For example, doors, windows and balconies often have orthogonal and parallel boundaries. Many windows are constructed with the same shape. They may be arranged at the same lines and distance intervals, so do different windows. By identifying regularities among objects with relatively poor quality, these can be applied to calibrate the objects and improve their quality. The paper focuses on the regularities among the windows, which is the majority of objects on the wall. Regularities are classified into three categories: within an individual window, among similar windows and among different windows. Nine cases are specified as a reference for exploration. A hierarchical clustering method is employed to identify and apply regularities in a feature space, where regularities can be identified from clusters. To find the corresponding features in the nine cases of regularities, two phases are distinguished for similar and different windows. In the first phase, ICP (iterative closest points) is used to identify groups of similar windows. The registered points and a number of transformation matrices are used to identify and apply regularities among similar windows. In the second phase, features are extracted from the boundaries of the different windows. When applying regularities by relocating windows, the connections, called chains, established among the similar windows in the first phase are preserved. To test the performance of the algorithms, two datasets from terrestrial LiDAR point clouds are used. Both show good effects on the reconstructed model, while still matching with original point cloud, preventing over or under-regularization.

  19. Regular transport dynamics produce chaotic travel times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villalobos, Jorge; Muñoz, Víctor; Rogan, José; Zarama, Roberto; Johnson, Neil F.; Toledo, Benjamín; Valdivia, Juan Alejandro

    2014-06-01

    In the hope of making passenger travel times shorter and more reliable, many cities are introducing dedicated bus lanes (e.g., Bogota, London, Miami). Here we show that chaotic travel times are actually a natural consequence of individual bus function, and hence of public transport systems more generally, i.e., chaotic dynamics emerge even when the route is empty and straight, stops and lights are equidistant and regular, and loading times are negligible. More generally, our findings provide a novel example of chaotic dynamics emerging from a single object following Newton's laws of motion in a regularized one-dimensional system.

  20. Generalised hyperbolicity in spacetimes with Lipschitz regularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez Sanchez, Yafet; Vickers, James A.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we obtain general conditions under which the wave equation is well-posed in spacetimes with metrics of Lipschitz regularity. In particular, the results can be applied to spacetimes where there is a loss of regularity on a hypersurface such as shell-crossing singularities, thin shells of matter, and surface layers. This provides a framework for regarding gravitational singularities not as obstructions to the world lines of point-particles, but rather as obstruction to the dynamics of test fields.

  1. Demosaicing as the problem of regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunina, Irina; Volkov, Aleksey; Gladilin, Sergey; Nikolaev, Dmitry

    2015-12-01

    Demosaicing is the process of reconstruction of a full-color image from Bayer mosaic, which is used in digital cameras for image formation. This problem is usually considered as an interpolation problem. In this paper, we propose to consider the demosaicing problem as a problem of solving an underdetermined system of algebraic equations using regularization methods. We consider regularization with standard l1/2-, l1 -, l2- norms and their effect on quality image reconstruction. The experimental results showed that the proposed technique can both be used in existing methods and become the base for new ones

  2. Regular transport dynamics produce chaotic travel times.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Jorge; Muñoz, Víctor; Rogan, José; Zarama, Roberto; Johnson, Neil F; Toledo, Benjamín; Valdivia, Juan Alejandro

    2014-06-01

    In the hope of making passenger travel times shorter and more reliable, many cities are introducing dedicated bus lanes (e.g., Bogota, London, Miami). Here we show that chaotic travel times are actually a natural consequence of individual bus function, and hence of public transport systems more generally, i.e., chaotic dynamics emerge even when the route is empty and straight, stops and lights are equidistant and regular, and loading times are negligible. More generally, our findings provide a novel example of chaotic dynamics emerging from a single object following Newton's laws of motion in a regularized one-dimensional system.

  3. Stable sequential Kuhn-Tucker theorem in iterative form or a regularized Uzawa algorithm in a regular nonlinear programming problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumin, M. I.

    2015-06-01

    A parametric nonlinear programming problem in a metric space with an operator equality constraint in a Hilbert space is studied assuming that its lower semicontinuous value function at a chosen individual parameter value has certain subdifferentiability properties in the sense of nonlinear (nonsmooth) analysis. Such subdifferentiability can be understood as the existence of a proximal subgradient or a Fréchet subdifferential. In other words, an individual problem has a corresponding generalized Kuhn-Tucker vector. Under this assumption, a stable sequential Kuhn-Tucker theorem in nondifferential iterative form is proved and discussed in terms of minimizing sequences on the basis of the dual regularization method. This theorem provides necessary and sufficient conditions for the stable construction of a minimizing approximate solution in the sense of Warga in the considered problem, whose initial data can be approximately specified. A substantial difference of the proved theorem from its classical same-named analogue is that the former takes into account the possible instability of the problem in the case of perturbed initial data and, as a consequence, allows for the inherited instability of classical optimality conditions. This theorem can be treated as a regularized generalization of the classical Uzawa algorithm to nonlinear programming problems. Finally, the theorem is applied to the "simplest" nonlinear optimal control problem, namely, to a time-optimal control problem.

  4. Mixed Total Variation and L1 Regularization Method for Optical Tomography Based on Radiative Transfer Equation

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Bo; Li, Li

    2017-01-01

    Optical tomography is an emerging and important molecular imaging modality. The aim of optical tomography is to reconstruct optical properties of human tissues. In this paper, we focus on reconstructing the absorption coefficient based on the radiative transfer equation (RTE). It is an ill-posed parameter identification problem. Regularization methods have been broadly applied to reconstruct the optical coefficients, such as the total variation (TV) regularization and the L1 regularization. In order to better reconstruct the piecewise constant and sparse coefficient distributions, TV and L1 norms are combined as the regularization. The forward problem is discretized with the discontinuous Galerkin method on the spatial space and the finite element method on the angular space. The minimization problem is solved by a Jacobian-based Levenberg-Marquardt type method which is equipped with a split Bregman algorithms for the L1 regularization. We use the adjoint method to compute the Jacobian matrix which dramatically improves the computation efficiency. By comparing with the other imaging reconstruction methods based on TV and L1 regularizations, the simulation results show the validity and efficiency of the proposed method. PMID:28280517

  5. Mixed Total Variation and L(1) Regularization Method for Optical Tomography Based on Radiative Transfer Equation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jinping; Han, Bo; Han, Weimin; Bi, Bo; Li, Li

    2017-01-01

    Optical tomography is an emerging and important molecular imaging modality. The aim of optical tomography is to reconstruct optical properties of human tissues. In this paper, we focus on reconstructing the absorption coefficient based on the radiative transfer equation (RTE). It is an ill-posed parameter identification problem. Regularization methods have been broadly applied to reconstruct the optical coefficients, such as the total variation (TV) regularization and the L(1) regularization. In order to better reconstruct the piecewise constant and sparse coefficient distributions, TV and L(1) norms are combined as the regularization. The forward problem is discretized with the discontinuous Galerkin method on the spatial space and the finite element method on the angular space. The minimization problem is solved by a Jacobian-based Levenberg-Marquardt type method which is equipped with a split Bregman algorithms for the L(1) regularization. We use the adjoint method to compute the Jacobian matrix which dramatically improves the computation efficiency. By comparing with the other imaging reconstruction methods based on TV and L(1) regularizations, the simulation results show the validity and efficiency of the proposed method.

  6. Atomic oxygen stimulated outgassing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linton, Roger C.; Reynolds, John M.

    1991-01-01

    The passive Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Experiment A0034, Atomic Oxygen Simulated Outgassing, consisted of two identical one-sixth tray modules, exposing selected thermal control coatings to atomic oxygen and the combined space environment on the leading edge and, for reference, to the relative wake environment on the trailing edge. Optical mirrors were included adjacent to the thermal coatings for deposition of outgassing products. Ultraviolet grade windows and metal covers were provided for additional assessment of the effects of the various environmental factors. Preliminary results indicate that orbital atomic oxygen is both a degrading and a optically restorative factor in the thermo-optical properties of selected thermal coatings. There is evidence of more severe optical degradation on collector mirrors adjacent to coatings that were exposed to the RAM-impinging atomic oxygen. This evidence of atomic oxygen stimulated outgassing is discussed in relation to alternative factors that could affect degradation. The general effects of the space environment on the experiment hardware as well as the specimens are discussed.

  7. Application of perceptual difference model (PDM) on regularization techniques of parallel MR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Donglai; Xu, Dan; Ying, Leslie; Liang, Zhi-Pei; Wilson, David

    2005-04-01

    Parallel magnetic resonance imaging through sensitivity encoding using multiple receiver coils has emerged as an effective tool to reduce imaging time or improve the image quality. Reconstructed image quality is limited by the noise in the acquired k-space data, inaccurate estimation of the sensitivity map, and the ill-conditioned nature of the coefficient matrix. Tikhonov Regularization is currently the most popular method to solve the ill-condition problem. Selections of the regularization map and the regularization parameter are very important. The Perceptual Difference Model (PDM) is a quantitative image quality evaluation tool which has been successfully applied to varieties of MR applications. High correlation between the human rating and the PDM score shows that PDM could be suitable for evaluating image quality in parallel MR imaging. By applying PDM, we compared four methods of selecting the regularization map and four methods of selecting regularization parameter. We find that generalized series (GS) method to select the regularization map together with spatially adaptive method to select the regularization parameter gives the best solution to reconstruct the image. PDM also work as a quantitative image quality index to optimize two important free parameters in spatially adaptive method. We conclude that PDM is an effective tool in helping design and optimize reconstruction methods in parallel MR imaging.

  8. Asymmetry Factors Shaping Regular and Irregular Bursting Rhythms in Central Pattern Generators

    PubMed Central

    Elices, Irene; Varona, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Central Pattern Generator (CPG) circuits are neural networks that generate rhythmic motor patterns. These circuits are typically built of half-center oscillator subcircuits with reciprocally inhibitory connections. Another common property in many CPGs is the remarkable rich spiking-bursting dynamics of their constituent cells, which balance robustness and flexibility to generate their joint coordinated rhythms. In this paper, we use conductance-based models and realistic connection topologies inspired by the crustacean pyloric CPG to address the study of asymmetry factors shaping CPG bursting rhythms. In particular, we assess the role of asymmetric maximal synaptic conductances, time constants and gap-junction connectivity to establish the regularity of half-center oscillator based CPGs. We map and characterize the synaptic parameter space that lead to regular and irregular bursting activity in these networks. The analysis indicates that asymmetric configurations display robust regular rhythms and that large regions of both regular and irregular but coordinated rhythms exist as a function of the asymmetry in the circuit. Our results show that asymmetry both in the maximal conductances and in the temporal dynamics of mutually inhibitory neurons can synergistically contribute to shape wide regimes of regular spiking-bursting activity in CPGs. Finally, we discuss how a closed-loop protocol driven by a regularity goal can be used to find and characterize regular regimes when there is not time to perform an exhaustive search, as in most experimental studies. PMID:28261081

  9. Asymmetry Factors Shaping Regular and Irregular Bursting Rhythms in Central Pattern Generators.

    PubMed

    Elices, Irene; Varona, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Central Pattern Generator (CPG) circuits are neural networks that generate rhythmic motor patterns. These circuits are typically built of half-center oscillator subcircuits with reciprocally inhibitory connections. Another common property in many CPGs is the remarkable rich spiking-bursting dynamics of their constituent cells, which balance robustness and flexibility to generate their joint coordinated rhythms. In this paper, we use conductance-based models and realistic connection topologies inspired by the crustacean pyloric CPG to address the study of asymmetry factors shaping CPG bursting rhythms. In particular, we assess the role of asymmetric maximal synaptic conductances, time constants and gap-junction connectivity to establish the regularity of half-center oscillator based CPGs. We map and characterize the synaptic parameter space that lead to regular and irregular bursting activity in these networks. The analysis indicates that asymmetric configurations display robust regular rhythms and that large regions of both regular and irregular but coordinated rhythms exist as a function of the asymmetry in the circuit. Our results show that asymmetry both in the maximal conductances and in the temporal dynamics of mutually inhibitory neurons can synergistically contribute to shape wide regimes of regular spiking-bursting activity in CPGs. Finally, we discuss how a closed-loop protocol driven by a regularity goal can be used to find and characterize regular regimes when there is not time to perform an exhaustive search, as in most experimental studies.

  10. Regularizing cosmological singularities by varying physical constants

    SciTech Connect

    Dąbrowski, Mariusz P.; Marosek, Konrad E-mail: k.marosek@wmf.univ.szczecin.pl

    2013-02-01

    Varying physical constant cosmologies were claimed to solve standard cosmological problems such as the horizon, the flatness and the Λ-problem. In this paper, we suggest yet another possible application of these theories: solving the singularity problem. By specifying some examples we show that various cosmological singularities may be regularized provided the physical constants evolve in time in an appropriate way.

  11. TAUBERIAN THEOREMS FOR MATRIX REGULAR VARIATION

    PubMed Central

    MEERSCHAERT, M. M.; SCHEFFLER, H.-P.

    2013-01-01

    Karamata’s Tauberian theorem relates the asymptotics of a nondecreasing right-continuous function to that of its Laplace-Stieltjes transform, using regular variation. This paper establishes the analogous Tauberian theorem for matrix-valued functions. Some applications to time series analysis are indicated. PMID:24644367

  12. Regular Nonchaotic Attractors with Positive Plural

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xu

    2016-12-01

    The study of the strange nonchaotic attractors is an interesting topic, where the dynamics are neither regular nor chaotic (the word chaotic means the positive Lyapunov exponents), and the shape of the attractors has complicated geometry structure, or fractal structure. It is found that in a class of planar first-order nonautonomous systems, it is possible that there exist attractors, where the shape of the attractors is regular, the orbits are transitive on the attractors, and the dynamics are not chaotic. We call this type of attractors as regular nonchaotic attractors with positive plural, which are different from the strange nonchaotic attractors, attracting fixed points, or attracting periodic orbits. Several examples with computer simulations are given. The first two examples have annulus-shaped attractors. Another two examples have disk-shaped attractors. The last two examples with externally driven terms at two incommensurate frequencies have regular nonchaotic attractors with positive plural, implying that the existence of externally driven terms at two incommensurate frequencies might not be the sufficient condition to guarantee that the system has strange nonchaotic attractors.

  13. Generalisation of Regular and Irregular Morphological Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasada, Sandeep; and Pinker, Steven

    1993-01-01

    When it comes to explaining English verbs' patterns of regular and irregular generalization, single-network theories have difficulty with the former, rule-only theories with the latter process. Linguistic and psycholinguistic evidence, based on observation during experiments and simulations in morphological pattern generation, independently call…

  14. Strategies of Teachers in the Regular Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Leeuw, Renske Ria; De Boer, Anke Aaltje

    2016-01-01

    It is known that regular schoolteachers have difficulties in educating students with social, emotional and behavioral difficulties (SEBD), mainly because of their disruptive behavior. In order to manage the disruptive behavior of students with SEBD many advices and strategies are provided in educational literature. However, very little is known…

  15. Regularities in Spearman's Law of Diminishing Returns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Arthur R.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the assumption that Spearman's law acts unsystematically and approximately uniformly for various subtests of cognitive ability in an IQ test battery when high- and low-ability IQ groups are selected. Data from national standardization samples for Wechsler adult and child IQ tests affirm regularities in Spearman's "Law of Diminishing…

  16. Semantic Gender Assignment Regularities in German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwichtenberg, Beate; Schiller, Niels O.

    2004-01-01

    Gender assignment relates to a native speaker's knowledge of the structure of the gender system of his/her language, allowing the speaker to select the appropriate gender for each noun. Whereas categorical assignment rules and exceptional gender assignment are well investigated, assignment regularities, i.e., tendencies in the gender distribution…

  17. Starting flow in regular polygonal ducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. Y.

    2016-06-01

    The starting flows in regular polygonal ducts of S = 3, 4, 5, 6, 8 sides are determined by the method of eigenfunction superposition. The necessary S-fold symmetric eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the Helmholtz equation are found either exactly or by boundary point match. The results show the starting time is governed by the first eigenvalue.

  18. Regularity Aspects in Inverse Musculoskeletal Biomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, Marie; Stâhl, Fredrik; Gulliksson, Mârten

    2008-09-01

    Inverse simulations of musculoskeletal models computes the internal forces such as muscle and joint reaction forces, which are hard to measure, using the more easily measured motion and external forces as input data. Because of the difficulties of measuring muscle forces and joint reactions, simulations are hard to validate. One way of reducing errors for the simulations is to ensure that the mathematical problem is well-posed. This paper presents a study of regularity aspects for an inverse simulation method, often called forward dynamics or dynamical optimization, that takes into account both measurement errors and muscle dynamics. Regularity is examined for a test problem around the optimum using the approximated quadratic problem. The results shows improved rank by including a regularization term in the objective that handles the mechanical over-determinancy. Using the 3-element Hill muscle model the chosen regularization term is the norm of the activation. To make the problem full-rank only the excitation bounds should be included in the constraints. However, this results in small negative values of the activation which indicates that muscles are pushing and not pulling, which is unrealistic but the error maybe small enough to be accepted for specific applications. These results are a start to ensure better results of inverse musculoskeletal simulations from a numerical point of view.

  19. Regularization of turbulence - a comprehensive modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geurts, B. J.

    2011-12-01

    Turbulence readily arises in numerous flows in nature and technology. The large number of degrees of freedom of turbulence poses serious challenges to numerical approaches aimed at simulating and controlling such flows. While the Navier-Stokes equations are commonly accepted to precisely describe fluid turbulence, alternative coarsened descriptions need to be developed to cope with the wide range of length and time scales. These coarsened descriptions are known as large-eddy simulations in which one aims to capture only the primary features of a flow, at considerably reduced computational effort. Such coarsening introduces a closure problem that requires additional phenomenological modeling. A systematic approach to the closure problem, know as regularization modeling, will be reviewed. Its application to multiphase turbulent will be illustrated in which a basic regularization principle is enforced to physically consistently approximate momentum and scalar transport. Examples of Leray and LANS-alpha regularization are discussed in some detail, as are compatible numerical strategies. We illustrate regularization modeling to turbulence under the influence of rotation and buoyancy and investigate the accuracy with which particle-laden flow can be represented. A discussion of the numerical and modeling errors incurred will be given on the basis of homogeneous isotropic turbulence.

  20. Regularity of rotational travelling water waves.

    PubMed

    Escher, Joachim

    2012-04-13

    Several recent results on the regularity of streamlines beneath a rotational travelling wave, along with the wave profile itself, will be discussed. The survey includes the classical water wave problem in both finite and infinite depth, capillary waves and solitary waves as well. A common assumption in all models to be discussed is the absence of stagnation points.

  1. Temporally Regular Musical Primes Facilitate Subsequent Syntax Processing in Children with Specific Language Impairment.

    PubMed

    Bedoin, Nathalie; Brisseau, Lucie; Molinier, Pauline; Roch, Didier; Tillmann, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Children with developmental language disorders have been shown to be also impaired in rhythm and meter perception. Temporal processing and its link to language processing can be understood within the dynamic attending theory. An external stimulus can stimulate internal oscillators, which orient attention over time and drive speech signal segmentation to provide benefits for syntax processing, which is impaired in various patient populations. For children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and dyslexia, previous research has shown the influence of an external rhythmic stimulation on subsequent language processing by comparing the influence of a temporally regular musical prime to that of a temporally irregular prime. Here we tested whether the observed rhythmic stimulation effect is indeed due to a benefit provided by the regular musical prime (rather than a cost subsequent to the temporally irregular prime). Sixteen children with SLI and 16 age-matched controls listened to either a regular musical prime sequence or an environmental sound scene (without temporal regularities in event occurrence; i.e., referred to as "baseline condition") followed by grammatically correct and incorrect sentences. They were required to perform grammaticality judgments for each auditorily presented sentence. Results revealed that performance for the grammaticality judgments was better after the regular prime sequences than after the baseline sequences. Our findings are interpreted in the theoretical framework of the dynamic attending theory (Jones, 1976) and the temporal sampling (oscillatory) framework for developmental language disorders (Goswami, 2011). Furthermore, they encourage the use of rhythmic structures (even in non-verbal materials) to boost linguistic structure processing and outline perspectives for rehabilitation.

  2. Temporally Regular Musical Primes Facilitate Subsequent Syntax Processing in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Bedoin, Nathalie; Brisseau, Lucie; Molinier, Pauline; Roch, Didier; Tillmann, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Children with developmental language disorders have been shown to be also impaired in rhythm and meter perception. Temporal processing and its link to language processing can be understood within the dynamic attending theory. An external stimulus can stimulate internal oscillators, which orient attention over time and drive speech signal segmentation to provide benefits for syntax processing, which is impaired in various patient populations. For children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and dyslexia, previous research has shown the influence of an external rhythmic stimulation on subsequent language processing by comparing the influence of a temporally regular musical prime to that of a temporally irregular prime. Here we tested whether the observed rhythmic stimulation effect is indeed due to a benefit provided by the regular musical prime (rather than a cost subsequent to the temporally irregular prime). Sixteen children with SLI and 16 age-matched controls listened to either a regular musical prime sequence or an environmental sound scene (without temporal regularities in event occurrence; i.e., referred to as “baseline condition”) followed by grammatically correct and incorrect sentences. They were required to perform grammaticality judgments for each auditorily presented sentence. Results revealed that performance for the grammaticality judgments was better after the regular prime sequences than after the baseline sequences. Our findings are interpreted in the theoretical framework of the dynamic attending theory (Jones, 1976) and the temporal sampling (oscillatory) framework for developmental language disorders (Goswami, 2011). Furthermore, they encourage the use of rhythmic structures (even in non-verbal materials) to boost linguistic structure processing and outline perspectives for rehabilitation. PMID:27378833

  3. Dynamic microtubule-dependent interactions position homotypic neurones in regular monolayered arrays during retinal development.

    PubMed

    Galli-Resta, Lucia; Novelli, Elena; Viegi, Alessandro

    2002-08-01

    In the vertebrate retina cell layers support serial processing, while monolayered arrays of homotypic neurones tile each layer to allow parallel processing. How neurones form layers and arrays is still largely unknown. We show that monolayered retinal arrays are dynamic structures based on dendritic interactions between the array cells. The analysis of three developing retinal arrays shows that these become regular as a net of dendritic processes links neighbouring array cells. Molecular or pharmacological perturbations of microtubules within dendrites lead to a stereotyped and reversible disruption of array organization: array cells lose their regular spacing and the arrangement in a monolayer. This leads to a micro-mechanical explanation of how monolayers of regularly spaced 'like-cells' are formed.

  4. [Spinal cord stimulation for the management of chronic pain].

    PubMed

    Perruchoud, Christophe; Mariotti, Nicolas

    2016-06-22

    Neuromodulation techniques modify the activity of the central or peripheral nervous system. Spinal cord stimulation is a reversible and minimally invasive treatment whose efficacy and cost effectiveness are recognized for the treatment of chronic neuropathic pain or ischemic pain. Spinal cord stimulation is not the option of last resort and should be considered among other options before prescribing long-term opioids or considering reoperation. The selection and regular follow-up of patients are crucial to the success of the therapy.

  5. Mainstreaming from Plan to Program: From the Perspective of the Regular Classroom Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battaglia, Marguerite

    A regular classroom teacher describes a mainstreaming program for handicapped children within an open space and team teaching situation. Described are ways that placement procedures, the use of learning centers, and teacher attitudes can facilitate successful mainstreaming. Examples are given of methods of monitoring student progress and of…

  6. Cubic Trigonometric B-spline Galerkin Methods for the Regularized Long Wave Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irk, Dursun; Keskin, Pinar

    2016-10-01

    A numerical solution of the Regularized Long Wave (RLW) equation is obtained using Galerkin finite element method, based on Crank Nicolson method for the time integration and cubic trigonometric B-spline functions for the space integration. After two different linearization techniques are applied, the proposed algorithms are tested on the problems of propagation of a solitary wave and interaction of two solitary waves.

  7. Sufficient conditions for local regularity to the generalized Newtonian fluid with shear thinning viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Hyeong-Ohk; Wolf, Jörg

    2017-02-01

    We prove the local regularity of a weak solution {\\varvec{u}} to the equations of a generalized Newtonian fluid with power law 1< q ≤ 2 if {\\varvec{u}} belongs to a suitable Lebesgue space. This result extends the well-known Serrin condition for weak solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations to the shear-thinning fluids.

  8. Neural Evidence of Statistical Learning: Efficient Detection of Visual Regularities without Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk-Browne, Nicholas B.; Scholl, Brian J.; Chun, Marvin M.; Johnson, Marcia K.

    2009-01-01

    Our environment contains regularities distributed in space and time that can be detected by way of statistical learning. This unsupervised learning occurs without intent or awareness, but little is known about how it relates to other types of learning, how it affects perceptual processing, and how quickly it can occur. Here we use fMRI during…

  9. Using Tikhonov Regularization for Spatial Projections from CSR Regularized Spherical Harmonic GRACE Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Save, H.; Bettadpur, S. V.

    2013-12-01

    It has been demonstrated before that using Tikhonov regularization produces spherical harmonic solutions from GRACE that have very little residual stripes while capturing all the signal observed by GRACE within the noise level. This paper demonstrates a two-step process and uses Tikhonov regularization to remove the residual stripes in the CSR regularized spherical harmonic coefficients when computing the spatial projections. We discuss methods to produce mass anomaly grids that have no stripe features while satisfying the necessary condition of capturing all observed signal within the GRACE noise level.

  10. Model-Based Analysis and Design of Waveforms for Efficient Neural Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Grill, Warren M.

    2016-01-01

    The design space for electrical stimulation of the nervous system is extremely large, and because the response to stimulation is highly non-linear, the selection of stimulation parameters to achieve a desired response is a challenging problem. Computational models of the response of neurons to extracellular stimulation allow analysis of the effects of stimulation parameters on neural excitation and provide an approach to select or design optimal parameters of stimulation. Here, I review the use of computational models to understand the effects of stimulation waveform on the energy efficiency of neural excitation and to design novel stimulation waveforms to increase the efficiency of neural stimulation. PMID:26541380

  11. 42 CFR 61.3 - Purpose of regular fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purpose of regular fellowships. 61.3 Section 61.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.3 Purpose of regular fellowships. Regular fellowships...

  12. 42 CFR 61.3 - Purpose of regular fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose of regular fellowships. 61.3 Section 61.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.3 Purpose of regular fellowships. Regular fellowships...

  13. 42 CFR 61.3 - Purpose of regular fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose of regular fellowships. 61.3 Section 61.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.3 Purpose of regular fellowships. Regular fellowships...

  14. 42 CFR 61.3 - Purpose of regular fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Purpose of regular fellowships. 61.3 Section 61.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.3 Purpose of regular fellowships. Regular fellowships...

  15. Space Awareness: Inspiring A New Generation of Space Explorers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Pedro

    2016-10-01

    Space Awareness (EUSPACE-AWE) will use the excitement of space to attract young people into science and technology and stimulate European and global citizenship. Our main goal is to increase the number of young people that choose space-related careers.

  16. Charged fermions tunneling from regular black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Sharif, M. Javed, W.

    2012-11-15

    We study Hawking radiation of charged fermions as a tunneling process from charged regular black holes, i.e., the Bardeen and ABGB black holes. For this purpose, we apply the semiclassical WKB approximation to the general covariant Dirac equation for charged particles and evaluate the tunneling probabilities. We recover the Hawking temperature corresponding to these charged regular black holes. Further, we consider the back-reaction effects of the emitted spin particles from black holes and calculate their corresponding quantum corrections to the radiation spectrum. We find that this radiation spectrum is not purely thermal due to the energy and charge conservation but has some corrections. In the absence of charge, e = 0, our results are consistent with those already present in the literature.

  17. Superfast Tikhonov Regularization of Toeplitz Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnes, Christopher K.; Balcan, Doru; Romberg, Justin

    2014-08-01

    Toeplitz-structured linear systems arise often in practical engineering problems. Correspondingly, a number of algorithms have been developed that exploit Toeplitz structure to gain computational efficiency when solving these systems. The earliest "fast" algorithms for Toeplitz systems required O(n^2) operations, while more recent "superfast" algorithms reduce the cost to O(n (log n)^2) or below. In this work, we present a superfast algorithm for Tikhonov regularization of Toeplitz systems. Using an "extension-and-transformation" technique, our algorithm translates a Tikhonov-regularized Toeplitz system into a type of specialized polynomial problem known as tangential interpolation. Under this formulation, we can compute the solution in only O(n (log n)^2) operations. We use numerical simulations to demonstrate our algorithm's complexity and verify that it returns stable solutions.

  18. Modeling Regular Replacement for String Constraint Solving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, Xiang; Li, Chung-Chih

    2010-01-01

    Bugs in user input sanitation of software systems often lead to vulnerabilities. Among them many are caused by improper use of regular replacement. This paper presents a precise modeling of various semantics of regular substitution, such as the declarative, finite, greedy, and reluctant, using finite state transducers (FST). By projecting an FST to its input/output tapes, we are able to solve atomic string constraints, which can be applied to both the forward and backward image computation in model checking and symbolic execution of text processing programs. We report several interesting discoveries, e.g., certain fragments of the general problem can be handled using less expressive deterministic FST. A compact representation of FST is implemented in SUSHI, a string constraint solver. It is applied to detecting vulnerabilities in web applications

  19. Tracking magnetogram proper motions by multiscale regularization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harrison P.

    1995-01-01

    Long uninterrupted sequences of solar magnetograms from the global oscillations network group (GONG) network and from the solar and heliospheric observatory (SOHO) satellite will provide the opportunity to study the proper motions of magnetic features. The possible use of multiscale regularization, a scale-recursive estimation technique which begins with a prior model of how state variables and their statistical properties propagate over scale. Short magnetogram sequences are analyzed with the multiscale regularization algorithm as applied to optical flow. This algorithm is found to be efficient, provides results for all the spatial scales spanned by the data and provides error estimates for the solutions. It is found that the algorithm is less sensitive to evolutionary changes than correlation tracking.

  20. 3D Gravity Inversion using Tikhonov Regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toushmalani, Reza; Saibi, Hakim

    2015-08-01

    Subsalt exploration for oil and gas is attractive in regions where 3D seismic depth-migration to recover the geometry of a salt base is difficult. Additional information to reduce the ambiguity in seismic images would be beneficial. Gravity data often serve these purposes in the petroleum industry. In this paper, the authors present an algorithm for a gravity inversion based on Tikhonov regularization and an automatically regularized solution process. They examined the 3D Euler deconvolution to extract the best anomaly source depth as a priori information to invert the gravity data and provided a synthetic example. Finally, they applied the gravity inversion to recently obtained gravity data from the Bandar Charak (Hormozgan, Iran) to identify its subsurface density structure. Their model showed the 3D shape of salt dome in this region.

  1. Chaos regularization of quantum tunneling rates.

    PubMed

    Pecora, Louis M; Lee, Hoshik; Wu, Dong-Ho; Antonsen, Thomas; Lee, Ming-Jer; Ott, Edward

    2011-06-01

    Quantum tunneling rates through a barrier separating two-dimensional, symmetric, double-well potentials are shown to depend on the classical dynamics of the billiard trajectories in each well and, hence, on the shape of the wells. For shapes that lead to regular (integrable) classical dynamics the tunneling rates fluctuate greatly with eigenenergies of the states sometimes by over two orders of magnitude. Contrarily, shapes that lead to completely chaotic trajectories lead to tunneling rates whose fluctuations are greatly reduced, a phenomenon we call regularization of tunneling rates. We show that a random-plane-wave theory of tunneling accounts for the mean tunneling rates and the small fluctuation variances for the chaotic systems.

  2. Regularity of nuclear structure under random interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Y. M.

    2011-05-06

    In this contribution I present a brief introduction to simplicity out of complexity in nuclear structure, specifically, the regularity of nuclear structure under random interactions. I exemplify such simplicity by two examples: spin-zero ground state dominance and positive parity ground state dominance in even-even nuclei. Then I discuss two recent results of nuclear structure in the presence of random interactions, in collaboration with Prof. Arima. Firstly I discuss sd bosons under random interactions, with the focus on excited states in the yrast band. We find a few regular patterns in these excited levels. Secondly I discuss our recent efforts towards obtaining eigenvalues without diagonalizing the full matrices of the nuclear shell model Hamiltonian.

  3. Power-law regularities in human language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehri, Ali; Lashkari, Sahar Mohammadpour

    2016-11-01

    Complex structure of human language enables us to exchange very complicated information. This communication system obeys some common nonlinear statistical regularities. We investigate four important long-range features of human language. We perform our calculations for adopted works of seven famous litterateurs. Zipf's law and Heaps' law, which imply well-known power-law behaviors, are established in human language, showing a qualitative inverse relation with each other. Furthermore, the informational content associated with the words ordering, is measured by using an entropic metric. We also calculate fractal dimension of words in the text by using box counting method. The fractal dimension of each word, that is a positive value less than or equal to one, exhibits its spatial distribution in the text. Generally, we can claim that the Human language follows the mentioned power-law regularities. Power-law relations imply the existence of long-range correlations between the word types, to convey an especial idea.

  4. Symmetries and regular behavior of Hamiltonian systems.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, Valeriy V.

    1996-03-01

    The behavior of the phase trajectories of the Hamilton equations is commonly classified as regular and chaotic. Regularity is usually related to the condition for complete integrability, i.e., a Hamiltonian system with n degrees of freedom has n independent integrals in involution. If at the same time the simultaneous integral manifolds are compact, the solutions of the Hamilton equations are quasiperiodic. In particular, the entropy of the Hamiltonian phase flow of a completely integrable system is zero. It is found that there is a broader class of Hamiltonian systems that do not show signs of chaotic behavior. These are systems that allow n commuting "Lagrangian" vector fields, i.e., the symplectic 2-form on each pair of such fields is zero. They include, in particular, Hamiltonian systems with multivalued integrals. (c) 1996 American Institute of Physics.

  5. Interfacial turbulence and regularization in electrified falling films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseluiko, Dmitri; Blyth, Mark; Lin, Te-Sheng; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2016-11-01

    Consider a liquid film flowing down an inclined wall and subjected to a normal electric field. Previous studies on the problem invoked the long-wave approximation. Here, for the first time, we analyze the Stokes-flow regime using both a non-local long-wave model and the full system of governing equations. For an obtuse inclination angle and strong surface tension, the evolution of the interface is chaotic in space and time. However, a sufficiently strong electric field has a regularizing effect, and the time-dependent solution evolves into an array of continuously interacting pulses, each of which resembles a single-hump solitary pulse. This is the so-called interfacial turbulence regime. For an acute inclination angle and a sufficiently small supercritical value of the electric field, solitary-pulse solutions do not exist, and the time-dependent solution is instead a modulated array of short-wavelength waves. When the electric field is increased, the evolution of the interface first becomes chaotic, but then is regularized so that an array of pulses is generated. A coherent-structure theory for such pulses is developed and corroborated by numerical simulations. This work was supported by the EPSRC under Grants EP/J001740/1 and EP/K041134/1.

  6. Regularities and symmetries in atomic structure and spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pain, Jean-Christophe

    2013-09-01

    The use of statistical methods for the description of complex quantum systems was primarily motivated by the failure of a line-by-line interpretation of atomic spectra. Such methods reveal regularities and trends in the distributions of levels and lines. In the past, much attention was paid to the distribution of energy levels (Wigner surmise, random-matrix model…). However, information about the distribution of the lines (energy and strength) is lacking. Thirty years ago, Learner found empirically an unexpected law: the logarithm of the number of lines whose intensities lie between 2kI0 and 2k+1I0, I0 being a reference intensity and k an integer, is a decreasing linear function of k. In the present work, the fractal nature of such an intriguing regularity is outlined and a calculation of its fractal dimension is proposed. Other peculiarities are also presented, such as the fact that the distribution of line strengths follows Benford's law of anomalous numbers, the existence of additional selection rules (PH coupling), the symmetry with respect to a quarter of the subshell in the spin-adapted space (LL coupling) and the odd-even staggering in the distribution of quantum numbers, pointed out by Bauche and Cossé.

  7. Relational-Regularized Discriminative Sparse Learning for Alzheimer's Disease Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Lei, Baiying; Yang, Peng; Wang, Tianfu; Chen, Siping; Ni, Dong

    2017-01-16

    Accurate identification and understanding informative feature is important for early Alzheimer's disease (AD) prognosis and diagnosis. In this paper, we propose a novel discriminative sparse learning method with relational regularization to jointly predict the clinical score and classify AD disease stages using multimodal features. Specifically, we apply a discriminative learning technique to expand the class-specific difference and include geometric information for effective feature selection. In addition, two kind of relational information are incorporated to explore the intrinsic relationships among features and training subjects in terms of similarity learning. We map the original feature into the target space to identify the informative and predictive features by sparse learning technique. A unique loss function is designed to include both discriminative learning and relational regularization methods. Experimental results based on a total of 805 subjects [including 226 AD patients, 393 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects, and 186 normal controls (NCs)] from AD neuroimaging initiative database show that the proposed method can obtain a classification accuracy of 94.68% for AD versus NC, 80.32% for MCI versus NC, and 74.58% for progressive MCI versus stable MCI, respectively. In addition, we achieve remarkable performance for the clinical scores prediction and classification label identification, which has efficacy for AD disease diagnosis and prognosis. The algorithm comparison demonstrates the effectiveness of the introduced learning techniques and superiority over the state-of-the-arts methods.

  8. ACTH (cosyntropin) stimulation test

    MedlinePlus

    ... The ACTH stimulation test measures how well the adrenal glands respond to adrenocorticotropic hormone ( ACTH ). ACTH is a ... produced in the pituitary gland that stimulates the adrenal glands to release a hormone called cortisol. How the ...

  9. A regularization approach to hydrofacies delineation

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlberg, Brendt; Tartakovsky, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    We consider an inverse problem of identifying complex internal structures of composite (geological) materials from sparse measurements of system parameters and system states. Two conceptual frameworks for identifying internal boundaries between constitutive materials in a composite are considered. A sequential approach relies on support vector machines, nearest neighbor classifiers, or geostatistics to reconstruct boundaries from measurements of system parameters and then uses system states data to refine the reconstruction. A joint approach inverts the two data sets simultaneously by employing a regularization approach.

  10. Speech enhancement using local spectral regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandoval-Ibarra, Yuma; Diaz-Ramirez, Victor H.; Kober, Vitaly; Diaz, Arnoldo

    2016-09-01

    A locally-adaptive algorithm for speech enhancement based on local spectral regularization is presented. The algorithm is able to retrieve a clean speech signal from a noisy signal using locally-adaptive signal processing. The proposed algorithm is able to increase the quality of a noisy signal in terms of objective metrics. Computer simulation results obtained with the proposed algorithm are presented and discussed in processing speech signals corrupted with additive noise.

  11. Hyperspectral Image Recovery via Hybrid Regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arablouei, Reza; de Hoog, Frank

    2016-12-01

    Natural images tend to mostly consist of smooth regions with individual pixels having highly correlated spectra. This information can be exploited to recover hyperspectral images of natural scenes from their incomplete and noisy measurements. To perform the recovery while taking full advantage of the prior knowledge, we formulate a composite cost function containing a square-error data-fitting term and two distinct regularization terms pertaining to spatial and spectral domains. The regularization for the spatial domain is the sum of total-variation of the image frames corresponding to all spectral bands. The regularization for the spectral domain is the l1-norm of the coefficient matrix obtained by applying a suitable sparsifying transform to the spectra of the pixels. We use an accelerated proximal-subgradient method to minimize the formulated cost function. We analyze the performance of the proposed algorithm and prove its convergence. Numerical simulations using real hyperspectral images exhibit that the proposed algorithm offers an excellent recovery performance with a number of measurements that is only a small fraction of the hyperspectral image data size. Simulation results also show that the proposed algorithm significantly outperforms an accelerated proximal-gradient algorithm that solves the classical basis-pursuit denoising problem to recover the hyperspectral image.

  12. Hyperspectral Image Recovery via Hybrid Regularization.

    PubMed

    Arablouei, Reza; de Hoog, Frank

    2016-09-27

    Natural images tend to mostly consist of smooth regions with individual pixels having highly correlated spectra. This information can be exploited to recover hyperspectral images of natural scenes from their incomplete and noisy measurements. To perform the recovery while taking full advantage of the prior knowledge, we formulate a composite cost function containing a square-error data-fitting term and two distinct regularization terms pertaining to spatial and spectral domains. The regularization for the spatial domain is the sum of total-variation of the image frames corresponding to all spectral bands. The regularization for the spectral domain is the ��������-norm of the coefficient matrix obtained by applying a suitable sparsifying transform to the spectra of the pixels. We use an accelerated proximal-subgradient method to minimize the formulated cost function. We analyse the performance of the proposed algorithm and prove its convergence. Numerical simulations using real hyperspectral images exhibit that the proposed algorithm offers an excellent recovery performance with a number of measurements that is only a small fraction of the hyperspectral image data size. Simulation results also show that the proposed algorithm significantly outperforms an accelerated proximal-gradient algorithm that solves the classical basis-pursuit denoising problem to recover the hyperspectral image.

  13. Guaranteed classification via regularized similarity learning.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zheng-Chu; Ying, Yiming

    2014-03-01

    Learning an appropriate (dis)similarity function from the available data is a central problem in machine learning, since the success of many machine learning algorithms critically depends on the choice of a similarity function to compare examples. Despite many approaches to similarity metric learning that have been proposed, there has been little theoretical study on the links between similarity metric learning and the classification performance of the resulting classifier. In this letter, we propose a regularized similarity learning formulation associated with general matrix norms and establish their generalization bounds. We show that the generalization error of the resulting linear classifier can be bounded by the derived generalization bound of similarity learning. This shows that a good generalization of the learned similarity function guarantees a good classification of the resulting linear classifier. Our results extend and improve those obtained by Bellet, Habrard, and Sebban (2012). Due to the techniques dependent on the notion of uniform stability (Bousquet & Elisseeff, 2002), the bound obtained there holds true only for the Frobenius matrix-norm regularization. Our techniques using the Rademacher complexity (Bartlett & Mendelson, 2002) and its related Khinchin-type inequality enable us to establish bounds for regularized similarity learning formulations associated with general matrix norms, including sparse L1-norm and mixed (2,1)-norm.

  14. Automatic detection of regularly repeating vocalizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellinger, David

    2005-09-01

    Many animal species produce repetitive sounds at regular intervals. This regularity can be used for automatic recognition of the sounds, providing improved detection at a given signal-to-noise ratio. Here, the detection of sperm whale sounds is examined. Sperm whales produce highly repetitive ``regular clicks'' at periods of about 0.2-2 s, and faster click trains in certain behavioral contexts. The following detection procedure was tested: a spectrogram was computed; values within a certain frequency band were summed; time windowing was applied; each windowed segment was autocorrelated; and the maximum of the autocorrelation within a certain periodicity range was chosen. This procedure was tested on sets of recordings containing sperm whale sounds and interfering sounds, both low-frequency recordings from autonomous hydrophones and high-frequency ones from towed hydrophone arrays. An optimization procedure iteratively varies detection parameters (spectrogram frame length and frequency range, window length, periodicity range, etc.). Performance of various sets of parameters was measured by setting a standard level of allowable missed calls, and the resulting optimium parameters are described. Performance is also compared to that of a neural network trained using the data sets. The method is also demonstrated for sounds of blue whales, minke whales, and seismic airguns. [Funding from ONR.

  15. Regularization Parameter Selections via Generalized Information Criterion

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiyun; Li, Runze; Tsai, Chih-Ling

    2009-01-01

    We apply the nonconcave penalized likelihood approach to obtain variable selections as well as shrinkage estimators. This approach relies heavily on the choice of regularization parameter, which controls the model complexity. In this paper, we propose employing the generalized information criterion (GIC), encompassing the commonly used Akaike information criterion (AIC) and Bayesian information criterion (BIC), for selecting the regularization parameter. Our proposal makes a connection between the classical variable selection criteria and the regularization parameter selections for the nonconcave penalized likelihood approaches. We show that the BIC-type selector enables identification of the true model consistently, and the resulting estimator possesses the oracle property in the terminology of Fan and Li (2001). In contrast, however, the AIC-type selector tends to overfit with positive probability. We further show that the AIC-type selector is asymptotically loss efficient, while the BIC-type selector is not. Our simulation results confirm these theoretical findings, and an empirical example is presented. Some technical proofs are given in the online supplementary material. PMID:20676354

  16. Low-cost management aspects for developing, producing and operating future space transportation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goehlich, Robert A.; Rücker, Udo

    2005-01-01

    It is believed that a potential means for further significant reduction of the recurrent launch cost, which results also in a stimulation of launch rates of small satellites, is to make the launcher reusable, to increase its reliability and to make it suitable for new markets such as mass space tourism. Therefore, not only launching small satellites with expendable rockets on non-regular flights but also with reusable rockets on regular flights should be considered for the long term. However, developing, producing and operating reusable rockets require a fundamental change in the current "business as usual" philosophy. Under current conditions, it might not be possible to develop, to produce or to operate a reusable vehicle fleet economically. The favorite philosophy is based on "smart business" processes adapted by the authors using cost engineering techniques. In the following paper, major strategies for reducing costs are discussed, which are applied for a representative program proposal.

  17. The effect of regularization on the reconstruction of ACAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, J. A.; Ceeh, H.; Hugenschmidt, C.; Leitner, M.; Böni, P.

    2014-04-01

    The Fermi surface, i.e. the two-dimensional surface separating occupied and unoccupied states in k-space, is the defining property of a metal. Full information about its shape is mandatory for identifying nesting vectors or for validating band structure calculations. With the angular correlation of positron-electron annihilation radiation (ACAR) it is easy to get projections of the Fermi surface. Nevertheless it is claimed to be inexact compared to more common methods like the determination based on quantum oscillations or angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. In this article we will present a method for reconstructing the Fermi surface from projections with statistically correct data treatment which is able to increase accuracy by introducing different types of regularization.

  18. Chiral Thirring–Wess model with Faddeevian regularization

    SciTech Connect

    Rahaman, Anisur

    2015-03-15

    Replacing vector type of interaction of the Thirring–Wess model by the chiral type a new model is presented which is termed here as chiral Thirring–Wess model. Ambiguity parameters of regularization are so chosen that the model falls into the Faddeevian class. The resulting Faddeevian class of model in general does not possess Lorentz invariance. However we can exploit the arbitrariness admissible in the ambiguity parameters to relate the quantum mechanically generated ambiguity parameters with the classical parameter involved in the masslike term of the gauge field which helps to maintain physical Lorentz invariance instead of the absence of manifestly Lorentz covariance of the model. The phase space structure and the theoretical spectrum of this class of model have been determined through Dirac’s method of quantization of constraint system.

  19. New approach to gridding using regularization and estimation theory.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Daniel

    2002-07-01

    When sampling under time-varying gradients, data is acquired over a non-equally spaced grid in k-space. The most computationally efficient method of reconstruction is first to interpolate the data onto a Cartesian grid, enabling the subsequent use of the inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT). The most commonly used interpolation technique is called gridding, and is comprised of four steps: precompensation, convolution with a Kaiser-Bessel window, IFFT, and postcompensation. Recently, the author introduced a new gridding method called Block Uniform ReSampling (BURS), which is both optimal and efficient. The interpolation coefficients are computed by solving a set of linear equations using singular value decomposition (SVD). BURS requires neither the pre- nor the postcompensation steps, and resamples onto an n x n grid rather than the 2n x 2n matrix required by conventional gridding. This significantly decreases the computational complexity. Several authors have reported that although the BURS algorithm is very accurate, it is also sensitive to noise. As a consequence, even in the presence of a low level of measurement noise, the resulting image is often highly contaminated with noise. In this work, the origin of the noise sensitivity is traced back to the potentially ill-posed matrix inversion performed by BURS. Two approaches to the solution are presented. The first uses regularization theory to stabilize the inversion process. The second formulates the interpolation as an estimation problem, and employs estimation theory for the solution. The new algorithm, called rBURS, contains a regularization parameter, which is used to trade off the accuracy of the result against the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The results of the new method are compared with those obtained using conventional gridding via simulations. For the SNR performance of conventional gridding, it is shown that the rBURS algorithm exhibits equal or better accuracy. This is achieved at a decreased

  20. Analysis of regularized inversion of data corrupted by white Gaussian noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kekkonen, Hanne; Lassas, Matti; Siltanen, Samuli

    2014-04-01

    Tikhonov regularization is studied in the case of linear pseudodifferential operator as the forward map and additive white Gaussian noise as the measurement error. The measurement model for an unknown function u(x) is \\begin{eqnarray*} m(x) = Au(x) + \\delta \\varepsilon (x), \\end{eqnarray*} where δ > 0 is the noise magnitude. If ɛ was an L2-function, Tikhonov regularization gives an estimate \\begin{eqnarray*} T_\\alpha (m) = \\mathop {{arg\\, min}}_{u\\in H^r} \\big \\lbrace \\Vert A u-m\\Vert _{L^2}^2+ \\alpha \\Vert u\\Vert _{H^r}^2 \\big \\rbrace \\end{eqnarray*} for u where α = α(δ) is the regularization parameter. Here penalization of the Sobolev norm \\Vert u\\Vert _{H^r} covers the cases of standard Tikhonov regularization (r = 0) and first derivative penalty (r = 1). Realizations of white Gaussian noise are almost never in L2, but do belong to Hs with probability one if s < 0 is small enough. A modification of Tikhonov regularization theory is presented, covering the case of white Gaussian measurement noise. Furthermore, the convergence of regularized reconstructions to the correct solution as δ → 0 is proven in appropriate function spaces using microlocal analysis. The convergence of the related finite-dimensional problems to the infinite-dimensional problem is also analysed.

  1. Supplementary Auditory and Vestibular Stimulation: Effects on Institutionalized Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casler, Lawrence

    1975-01-01

    Supplementary stimulation was supplied for 30 minutes per day for approximately six weeks to 156 normal, full-term institutionalized infants prior to adoption. The Gesell Developmental Schedules were administered regularly (until age 27 months), to determine whether development had been enhanced by the treatment. (JMB)

  2. Brain Stimulation in Addiction.

    PubMed

    Salling, Michael C; Martinez, Diana

    2016-11-01

    Localized stimulation of the human brain to treat neuropsychiatric disorders has been in place for over 20 years. Although these methods have been used to a greater extent for mood and movement disorders, recent work has explored brain stimulation methods as potential treatments for addiction. The rationale behind stimulation therapy in addiction involves reestablishing normal brain function in target regions in an effort to dampen addictive behaviors. In this review, we present the rationale and studies investigating brain stimulation in addiction, including transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, and deep brain stimulation. Overall, these studies indicate that brain stimulation has an acute effect on craving for drugs and alcohol, but few studies have investigated the effect of brain stimulation on actual drug and alcohol use or relapse. Stimulation therapies may achieve their effect through direct or indirect modulation of brain regions involved in addiction, either acutely or through plastic changes in neuronal transmission. Although these mechanisms are not well understood, further identification of the underlying neurobiology of addiction and rigorous evaluation of brain stimulation methods has the potential for unlocking an effective, long-term treatment of addiction.

  3. Convergence rates in constrained Tikhonov regularization: equivalence of projected source conditions and variational inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flemming, Jens; Hofmann, Bernd

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we enlighten the role of variational inequalities for obtaining convergence rates in Tikhonov regularization of nonlinear ill-posed problems with convex penalty functionals under convexity constraints in Banach spaces. Variational inequalities are able to cover solution smoothness and the structure of nonlinearity in a uniform manner, not only for unconstrained but, as we indicate, also for constrained Tikhonov regularization. In this context, we extend the concept of projected source conditions already known in Hilbert spaces to Banach spaces, and we show in the main theorem that such projected source conditions are to some extent equivalent to certain variational inequalities. The derived variational inequalities immediately yield convergence rates measured by Bregman distances.

  4. Stimulating Investment in Research and Development. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Science, Research and Technology of the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology. U.S. House of Representatives, One Hundred First Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Science, Space and Technology.

    Views on ways the U.S. tax code might be used to stimulate investment in research and development were presented at this hearing. Witnesses represented industry and universities and included experts on how tax policy impacts scientific research and development. The document contains testimonies and supporting documentation from the following…

  5. Subthalamic Nucleus Stimulation Modulates Thalamic Neuronal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weidong; Russo, Gary S.; Hashimoto, Takao; Zhang, Jianyu; Vitek, Jerrold L.

    2009-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an effective tool for the treatment of advanced Parkinson’s disease. The mechanism by which STN DBS elicits its beneficial effect, however, remains unclear. We previously reported STN stimulation increased the rate and produced a more regular and periodic pattern of neuronal activity in the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi). Here we extend our observations to neurons in the pallidal (ventralis lateralis pars oralis (VLo) and ventralis anterior (VA)) and cerebellar (ventralis lateralis posterior pars oralis (VPLo)) receiving areas of the motor thalamus during STN DBS. Stimulation parameters that produced improvement in rigidity and bradykinesia resulted in changes in the pattern and power of oscillatory activity of neuronal activity that were similar in both regions of the motor thalamus. Neurons in both VA/VLo and VPLo tended to become more periodic and regular with a shift in oscillatory activity from low to high frequencies. Burst activity was reduced in VA/VLo, but was not significantly changed in VPLo. There was also a significant shift in the population of VA/VLo neurons that were inhibited during STN DBS, while VPLo neurons tended to be activated. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that STN DBS increases output from the nucleus and produces a change in the pattern and periodicity of neuronal activity in the basal ganglia thalamic network, and that these changes include cerebellar pathways likely via activation of adjacent cerebello-thalamic fiber bundles. PMID:19005057

  6. Convergence and Fluctuations of Regularized Tyler Estimators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammoun, Abla; Couillet, Romain; Pascal, Ferderic; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-02-01

    This article studies the behavior of regularized Tyler estimators (RTEs) of scatter matrices. The key advantages of these estimators are twofold. First, they guarantee by construction a good conditioning of the estimate and second, being a derivative of robust Tyler estimators, they inherit their robustness properties, notably their resilience to the presence of outliers. Nevertheless, one major problem that poses the use of RTEs in practice is represented by the question of setting the regularization parameter $\\rho$. While a high value of $\\rho$ is likely to push all the eigenvalues away from zero, it comes at the cost of a larger bias with respect to the population covariance matrix. A deep understanding of the statistics of RTEs is essential to come up with appropriate choices for the regularization parameter. This is not an easy task and might be out of reach, unless one considers asymptotic regimes wherein the number of observations $n$ and/or their size $N$ increase together. First asymptotic results have recently been obtained under the assumption that $N$ and $n$ are large and commensurable. Interestingly, no results concerning the regime of $n$ going to infinity with $N$ fixed exist, even though the investigation of this assumption has usually predated the analysis of the most difficult $N$ and $n$ large case. This motivates our work. In particular, we prove in the present paper that the RTEs converge to a deterministic matrix when $n\\to\\infty$ with $N$ fixed, which is expressed as a function of the theoretical covariance matrix. We also derive the fluctuations of the RTEs around this deterministic matrix and establish that these fluctuations converge in distribution to a multivariate Gaussian distribution with zero mean and a covariance depending on the population covariance and the parameter $\\rho$.

  7. Regularity and stability of transition fronts in nonlocal equations with time heterogeneous ignition nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Wenxian; Shen, Zhongwei

    2017-03-01

    The present paper is devoted to the investigation of various properties of transition fronts in one-dimensional nonlocal equations in heterogeneous media of ignition type, whose existence has been established by the authors of the present paper in a previous work. It is first shown that transition fronts are continuously differentiable in space with uniformly bounded and uniformly Lipschitz continuous space partial derivative. This is the first time that space regularity of transition fronts in nonlocal equations is ever studied. It is then shown that transition fronts are uniformly steep. Finally, asymptotic stability, in the sense of exponentially attracting front-like initial data, of transition fronts is studied.

  8. Axial Presentations of Regular Arcs on Mn

    PubMed Central

    Morse, Marston

    1972-01-01

    THEOREM 1. Let Mn be a Riemannian manifold of class Cm, m > 0. On Mn let g be a simple compact, sensed, regular arc whose local coordinates are functions of class Cm of the algebraic arc length s, measured along g from a prescribed point of g. There then exists a presentation (F: U, X) [unk] [unk]Mn such that g [unk] X, and each point p(s) of g is represented in the euclidean domain U by coordinates (x1,...,xn) = (s,0,...,0). PMID:16592036

  9. Multichannel image regularization using anisotropic geodesic filtering

    SciTech Connect

    Grazzini, Jacopo A

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends a recent image-dependent regularization approach introduced in aiming at edge-preserving smoothing. For that purpose, geodesic distances equipped with a Riemannian metric need to be estimated in local neighbourhoods. By deriving an appropriate metric from the gradient structure tensor, the associated geodesic paths are constrained to follow salient features in images. Following, we design a generalized anisotropic geodesic filter; incorporating not only a measure of the edge strength, like in the original method, but also further directional information about the image structures. The proposed filter is particularly efficient at smoothing heterogeneous areas while preserving relevant structures in multichannel images.

  10. Regularization ambiguities in loop quantum gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, Alejandro

    2006-02-15

    One of the main achievements of loop quantum gravity is the consistent quantization of the analog of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation which is free of ultraviolet divergences. However, ambiguities associated to the intermediate regularization procedure lead to an apparently infinite set of possible theories. The absence of an UV problem--the existence of well-behaved regularization of the constraints--is intimately linked with the ambiguities arising in the quantum theory. Among these ambiguities is the one associated to the SU(2) unitary representation used in the diffeomorphism covariant 'point-splitting' regularization of the nonlinear functionals of the connection. This ambiguity is labeled by a half-integer m and, here, it is referred to as the m ambiguity. The aim of this paper is to investigate the important implications of this ambiguity. We first study 2+1 gravity (and more generally BF theory) quantized in the canonical formulation of loop quantum gravity. Only when the regularization of the quantum constraints is performed in terms of the fundamental representation of the gauge group does one obtain the usual topological quantum field theory as a result. In all other cases unphysical local degrees of freedom arise at the level of the regulated theory that conspire against the existence of the continuum limit. This shows that there is a clear-cut choice in the quantization of the constraints in 2+1 loop quantum gravity. We then analyze the effects of the ambiguity in 3+1 gravity exhibiting the existence of spurious solutions for higher representation quantizations of the Hamiltonian constraint. Although the analysis is not complete in 3+1 dimensions - due to the difficulties associated to the definition of the physical inner product - it provides evidence supporting the definitions quantum dynamics of loop quantum gravity in terms of the fundamental representation of the gauge group as the only consistent possibilities. If the gauge group is SO(3) we find

  11. New Regularization Method for EXAFS Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Reich, Tatiana Ye.; Reich, Tobias; Korshunov, Maxim E.; Antonova, Tatiana V.; Ageev, Alexander L.; Moll, Henry

    2007-02-02

    As an alternative to the analysis of EXAFS spectra by conventional shell fitting, the Tikhonov regularization method has been proposed. An improved algorithm that utilizes a priori information about the sample has been developed and applied to the analysis of U L3-edge spectra of soddyite, (UO2)2SiO4{center_dot}2H2O, and of U(VI) sorbed onto kaolinite. The partial radial distribution functions g1(UU), g2(USi), and g3(UO) of soddyite agree with crystallographic values and previous EXAFS results.

  12. Total-variation regularization with bound constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Chartrand, Rick; Wohlberg, Brendt

    2009-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for bound-constrained total-variation (TV) regularization that in comparison with its predecessors is simple, fast, and flexible. We use a splitting approach to decouple TV minimization from enforcing the constraints. Consequently, existing TV solvers can be employed with minimal alteration. This also makes the approach straightforward to generalize to any situation where TV can be applied. We consider deblurring of images with Gaussian or salt-and-pepper noise, as well as Abel inversion of radiographs with Poisson noise. We incorporate previous iterative reweighting algorithms to solve the TV portion.

  13. Regularization ambiguities in loop quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Alejandro

    2006-02-01

    One of the main achievements of loop quantum gravity is the consistent quantization of the analog of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation which is free of ultraviolet divergences. However, ambiguities associated to the intermediate regularization procedure lead to an apparently infinite set of possible theories. The absence of an UV problem—the existence of well-behaved regularization of the constraints—is intimately linked with the ambiguities arising in the quantum theory. Among these ambiguities is the one associated to the SU(2) unitary representation used in the diffeomorphism covariant “point-splitting” regularization of the nonlinear functionals of the connection. This ambiguity is labeled by a half-integer m and, here, it is referred to as the m ambiguity. The aim of this paper is to investigate the important implications of this ambiguity. We first study 2+1 gravity (and more generally BF theory) quantized in the canonical formulation of loop quantum gravity. Only when the regularization of the quantum constraints is performed in terms of the fundamental representation of the gauge group does one obtain the usual topological quantum field theory as a result. In all other cases unphysical local degrees of freedom arise at the level of the regulated theory that conspire against the existence of the continuum limit. This shows that there is a clear-cut choice in the quantization of the constraints in 2+1 loop quantum gravity. We then analyze the effects of the ambiguity in 3+1 gravity exhibiting the existence of spurious solutions for higher representation quantizations of the Hamiltonian constraint. Although the analysis is not complete in 3+1 dimensions—due to the difficulties associated to the definition of the physical inner product—it provides evidence supporting the definitions quantum dynamics of loop quantum gravity in terms of the fundamental representation of the gauge group as the only consistent possibilities. If the gauge group is SO(3) we

  14. The challenge of the US Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beggs, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    The U.S. Space Station program is described. The objectives of the present national space policy are reviewed. International involvement and commercial use of space are the two strategies involved in the development of the Space Station. The Space Station is to be a multifunctional, modular, permanent facility with manned and unmanned platforms. The functions of the Space Station for space research projects, such as material processing and electrophoresis, are examined. The infrastructure required for commercialization of space is analyzed. NASA's space policy aimed at stimulating space commerce is discussed. NASA's plans to reduce the financial, institutional, and technical risks of space research are studied.

  15. Supporting Regularized Logistic Regression Privately and Efficiently.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenfa; Liu, Hongzhe; Yang, Peng; Xie, Wei

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most popular statistical and machine learning models, logistic regression with regularization has found wide adoption in biomedicine, social sciences, information technology, and so on. These domains often involve data of human subjects that are contingent upon strict privacy regulations. Concerns over data privacy make it increasingly difficult to coordinate and conduct large-scale collaborative studies, which typically rely on cross-institution data sharing and joint analysis. Our work here focuses on safeguarding regularized logistic regression, a widely-used statistical model while at the same time has not been investigated from a data security and privacy perspective. We consider a common use scenario of multi-institution collaborative studies, such as in the form of research consortia or networks as widely seen in genetics, epidemiology, social sciences, etc. To make our privacy-enhancing solution practical, we demonstrate a non-conventional and computationally efficient method leveraging distributing computing and strong cryptography to provide comprehensive protection over individual-level and summary data. Extensive empirical evaluations on several studies validate the privacy guarantee, efficiency and scalability of our proposal. We also discuss the practical implications of our solution for large-scale studies and applications from various disciplines, including genetic and biomedical studies, smart grid, network analysis, etc.

  16. Accelerating Large Data Analysis By Exploiting Regularities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Patrick J.; Ellsworth, David

    2003-01-01

    We present techniques for discovering and exploiting regularity in large curvilinear data sets. The data can be based on a single mesh or a mesh composed of multiple submeshes (also known as zones). Multi-zone data are typical to Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. Regularities include axis-aligned rectilinear and cylindrical meshes as well as cases where one zone is equivalent to a rigid-body transformation of another. Our algorithms can also discover rigid-body motion of meshes in time-series data. Next, we describe a data model where we can utilize the results from the discovery process in order to accelerate large data visualizations. Where possible, we replace general curvilinear zones with rectilinear or cylindrical zones. In rigid-body motion cases we replace a time-series of meshes with a transformed mesh object where a reference mesh is dynamically transformed based on a given time value in order to satisfy geometry requests, on demand. The data model enables us to make these substitutions and dynamic transformations transparently with respect to the visualization algorithms. We present results with large data sets where we combine our mesh replacement and transformation techniques with out-of-core paging in order to achieve significant speed-ups in analysis.

  17. Supporting Regularized Logistic Regression Privately and Efficiently

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenfa; Liu, Hongzhe; Yang, Peng; Xie, Wei

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most popular statistical and machine learning models, logistic regression with regularization has found wide adoption in biomedicine, social sciences, information technology, and so on. These domains often involve data of human subjects that are contingent upon strict privacy regulations. Concerns over data privacy make it increasingly difficult to coordinate and conduct large-scale collaborative studies, which typically rely on cross-institution data sharing and joint analysis. Our work here focuses on safeguarding regularized logistic regression, a widely-used statistical model while at the same time has not been investigated from a data security and privacy perspective. We consider a common use scenario of multi-institution collaborative studies, such as in the form of research consortia or networks as widely seen in genetics, epidemiology, social sciences, etc. To make our privacy-enhancing solution practical, we demonstrate a non-conventional and computationally efficient method leveraging distributing computing and strong cryptography to provide comprehensive protection over individual-level and summary data. Extensive empirical evaluations on several studies validate the privacy guarantee, efficiency and scalability of our proposal. We also discuss the practical implications of our solution for large-scale studies and applications from various disciplines, including genetic and biomedical studies, smart grid, network analysis, etc. PMID:27271738

  18. Nonlinear regularization techniques for seismic tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Loris, I. Douma, H.; Nolet, G.; Regone, C.

    2010-02-01

    The effects of several nonlinear regularization techniques are discussed in the framework of 3D seismic tomography. Traditional, linear, l{sub 2} penalties are compared to so-called sparsity promoting l{sub 1} and l{sub 0} penalties, and a total variation penalty. Which of these algorithms is judged optimal depends on the specific requirements of the scientific experiment. If the correct reproduction of model amplitudes is important, classical damping towards a smooth model using an l{sub 2} norm works almost as well as minimizing the total variation but is much more efficient. If gradients (edges of anomalies) should be resolved with a minimum of distortion, we prefer l{sub 1} damping of Daubechies-4 wavelet coefficients. It has the additional advantage of yielding a noiseless reconstruction, contrary to simple l{sub 2} minimization ('Tikhonov regularization') which should be avoided. In some of our examples, the l{sub 0} method produced notable artifacts. In addition we show how nonlinear l{sub 1} methods for finding sparse models can be competitive in speed with the widely used l{sub 2} methods, certainly under noisy conditions, so that there is no need to shun l{sub 1} penalizations.

  19. Effects of periodic stimulation on an overly activated neuronal circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Okyu; Kim, Kiwoong; Park, Sungwon; Moon, Hie-Tae

    2011-08-01

    Motivated by therapeutic deep brain stimulation, we carried out a model study on the effects of periodic stimulation on an overly activated neuronal circuit. Our neuronal circuit, modeled as a small-world network of noisy Hodgkin-Huxley neurons, is controlled to undergo the mechanism of coherence resonance to exhibit spontaneous synchronization of neuronal firing. This state of energy burst is then directly modulated by a chain of electric pulses. Our study shows that (i) the stimulation blocks the synchronization by generating traveling waves, (ii) only the pulse with proper frequency can block the synchronization, and (iii) the effects of stimulation are completely reversible. It is also found that the stimulation is effective only when the network maintains fairly good structural regularity.

  20. Regular black holes and noncommutative geometry inspired fuzzy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Shinpei

    2016-05-01

    We investigated regular black holes with fuzzy sources in three and four dimensions. The density distributions of such fuzzy sources are inspired by noncommutative geometry and given by Gaussian or generalized Gaussian functions. We utilized mass functions to give a physical interpretation of the horizon formation condition for the black holes. In particular, we investigated three-dimensional BTZ-like black holes and four-dimensional Schwarzschild-like black holes in detail, and found that the number of horizons is related to the space-time dimensions, and the existence of a void in the vicinity of the center of the space-time is significant, rather than noncommutativity. As an application, we considered a three-dimensional black hole with the fuzzy disc which is a disc-shaped region known in the context of noncommutative geometry as a source. We also analyzed a four-dimensional black hole with a source whose density distribution is an extension of the fuzzy disc, and investigated the horizon formation condition for it.

  1. Effects of far infrared acupoint stimulation on autonomic activity and quality of life in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Su, Ling-Hwa; Wu, Kwan-Dun; Lee, Li-Shan; Wang, Harrison; Liu, Chi-Feng

    2009-01-01

    Patients receiving regular hemodialysis sessions have been known to suffer from fatigue and depression. This experiment was designed to determine the effects of far infrared ray (FIR) stimulation on acupoints of patients suffering from renal failure who are receiving regular hemodialysis. Patients receiving long-term and regular hemodialysis who volunteered for this procedure were randomly selected to undergo either FIR or heat pad (HP) therapy to determine the impact of FIR treatment on these patients. Both the activities of the autonomic nervous system and changes in quality of life were measured before and after treatment to determine the effectiveness of the FIR treatment. Results from this study show that FIR therapy decreases both stress and fatigue levels of these patients. It also stimulates autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity in patients who are diagnosed with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and are receiving regular hemodialysis (HD). Therefore, benefits of FIR stimulation on these patients are clearly demonstrated in this preliminary study.

  2. Factors stimulating bone formation.

    PubMed

    Lind, M; Bünger, C

    2001-10-01

    The aim of this review is to describe major approaches for stimulating bone healing and to review other factors affecting bone healing. Spinal bone fusion after surgery is a demanding process requiring optimal conditions for clinical success. Bone formation and healing can be enhanced through various methods. Experimental studies have revealed an array of stimulative measures. These include biochemical stimulation by use of hormones and growth factors, physical stimulation through mechanical and electromagnetic measures, and bone grafting by use of bone tissue or bone substitutes. Newer biological techniques such as stem cell transplantation and gene therapy can also be used to stimulate bone healing. Apart from bone transplantation, clinical experience with the many stimulation modalities is limited. Possible areas for clinical use of these novel methods are discussed.

  3. Causal Measurement Models: Can Criticism Stimulate Clarification?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markus, Keith A.

    2016-01-01

    In their 2016 work, Aguirre-Urreta et al. provided a contribution to the literature on causal measurement models that enhances clarity and stimulates further thinking. Aguirre-Urreta et al. presented a form of statistical identity involving mapping onto the portion of the parameter space involving the nomological net, relationships between the…

  4. Laplacian embedded regression for scalable manifold regularization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Tsang, Ivor W; Xu, Dong

    2012-06-01

    Semi-supervised learning (SSL), as a powerful tool to learn from a limited number of labeled data and a large number of unlabeled data, has been attracting increasing attention in the machine learning community. In particular, the manifold regularization framework has laid solid theoretical foundations for a large family of SSL algorithms, such as Laplacian support vector machine (LapSVM) and Laplacian regularized least squares (LapRLS). However, most of these algorithms are limited to small scale problems due to the high computational cost of the matrix inversion operation involved in the optimization problem. In this paper, we propose a novel framework called Laplacian embedded regression by introducing an intermediate decision variable into the manifold regularization framework. By using ∈-insensitive loss, we obtain the Laplacian embedded support vector regression (LapESVR) algorithm, which inherits the sparse solution from SVR. Also, we derive Laplacian embedded RLS (LapERLS) corresponding to RLS under the proposed framework. Both LapESVR and LapERLS possess a simpler form of a transformed kernel, which is the summation of the original kernel and a graph kernel that captures the manifold structure. The benefits of the transformed kernel are two-fold: (1) we can deal with the original kernel matrix and the graph Laplacian matrix in the graph kernel separately and (2) if the graph Laplacian matrix is sparse, we only need to perform the inverse operation for a sparse matrix, which is much more efficient when compared with that for a dense one. Inspired by kernel principal component analysis, we further propose to project the introduced decision variable into a subspace spanned by a few eigenvectors of the graph Laplacian matrix in order to better reflect the data manifold, as well as accelerate the calculation of the graph kernel, allowing our methods to efficiently and effectively cope with large scale SSL problems. Extensive experiments on both toy and real

  5. Recognition Memory for Novel Stimuli: The Structural Regularity Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Anne M.; Morris, Alison L.; Langley, Moses M.

    2007-01-01

    Early studies of human memory suggest that adherence to a known structural regularity (e.g., orthographic regularity) benefits memory for an otherwise novel stimulus (e.g., G. A. Miller, 1958). However, a more recent study suggests that structural regularity can lead to an increase in false-positive responses on recognition memory tests (B. W. A.…

  6. The Essential Special Education Guide for the Regular Education Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Edward

    2007-01-01

    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) of 2004 has placed a renewed emphasis on the importance of the regular classroom, the regular classroom teacher and the general curriculum as the primary focus of special education. This book contains over 100 topics that deal with real issues and concerns regarding the regular classroom and…

  7. Charge regularization in phase separating polyelectrolyte solutions.

    PubMed

    Muthukumar, M; Hua, Jing; Kundagrami, Arindam

    2010-02-28

    Theoretical investigations of phase separation in polyelectrolyte solutions have so far assumed that the effective charge of the polyelectrolyte chains is fixed. The ability of the polyelectrolyte chains to self-regulate their effective charge due to the self-consistent coupling between ionization equilibrium and polymer conformations, depending on the dielectric constant, temperature, and polymer concentration, affects the critical phenomena and phase transitions drastically. By considering salt-free polyelectrolyte solutions, we show that the daughter phases have different polymer charges from that of the mother phase. The critical point is also altered significantly by the charge self-regularization of the polymer chains. This work extends the progress made so far in the theory of phase separation of strong polyelectrolyte solutions to a higher level of understanding by considering chains which can self-regulate their charge.

  8. Multiloop integrals in dimensional regularization made simple.

    PubMed

    Henn, Johannes M

    2013-06-21

    Scattering amplitudes at loop level can be expressed in terms of Feynman integrals. The latter satisfy partial differential equations in the kinematical variables. We argue that a good choice of basis for (multi)loop integrals can lead to significant simplifications of the differential equations, and propose criteria for finding an optimal basis. This builds on experience obtained in supersymmetric field theories that can be applied successfully to generic quantum field theory integrals. It involves studying leading singularities and explicit integral representations. When the differential equations are cast into canonical form, their solution becomes elementary. The class of functions involved is easily identified, and the solution can be written down to any desired order in ϵ within dimensional regularization. Results obtained in this way are particularly simple and compact. In this Letter, we outline the general ideas of the method and apply them to a two-loop example.

  9. Conformal regularization of Einstein's field equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röhr, Niklas; Uggla, Claes

    2005-09-01

    To study asymptotic structures, we regularize Einstein's field equations by means of conformal transformations. The conformal factor is chosen so that it carries a dimensional scale that captures crucial asymptotic features. By choosing a conformal orthonormal frame, we obtain a coupled system of differential equations for a set of dimensionless variables, associated with the conformal dimensionless metric, where the variables describe ratios with respect to the chosen asymptotic scale structure. As examples, we describe some explicit choices of conformal factors and coordinates appropriate for the situation of a timelike congruence approaching a singularity. One choice is shown to just slightly modify the so-called Hubble-normalized approach, and one leads to dimensionless first-order symmetric hyperbolic equations. We also discuss differences and similarities with other conformal approaches in the literature, as regards, e.g., isotropic singularities.

  10. Regularity of inviscid shell models of turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin, Peter; Levant, Boris; Titi, Edriss S.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we continue the analytical study of the sabra shell model of energy turbulent cascade. We prove the global existence of weak solutions of the inviscid sabra shell model, and show that these solutions are unique for some short interval of time. In addition, we prove that the solutions conserve energy, provided that the components of the solution satisfy ∣un∣≤Ckn-1/3[nlog(n+1)]-1 for some positive absolute constant C , which is the analog of the Onsager’s conjecture for the Euler’s equations. Moreover, we give a Beal-Kato-Majda type criterion for the blow-up of solutions of the inviscid sabra shell model and show the global regularity of the solutions in the “two-dimensional” parameters regime.

  11. Regularity of free boundaries a heuristic retro

    PubMed Central

    Caffarelli, Luis A.; Shahgholian, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    This survey concerns regularity theory of a few free boundary problems that have been developed in the past half a century. Our intention is to bring up different ideas and techniques that constitute the fundamentals of the theory. We shall discuss four different problems, where approaches are somewhat different in each case. Nevertheless, these problems can be divided into two groups: (i) obstacle and thin obstacle problem; (ii) minimal surfaces, and cavitation flow of a perfect fluid. In each case, we shall only discuss the methodology and approaches, giving basic ideas and tools that have been specifically designed and tailored for that particular problem. The survey is kept at a heuristic level with mainly geometric interpretation of the techniques and situations in hand. PMID:26261372

  12. Prereferral Intervention Practices of Regular Classroom Teachers: Implications for Regular and Special Education Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Joyceanne; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This survey of 201 regular education teachers found that the most frequently used prereferral strategies used to facilitate classroom adjustment and achievement were consultation with other professionals, parent conferences, and behavior management techniques. Elementary teachers implemented more strategies than secondary-level teachers.…

  13. Black hole mimickers: Regular versus singular behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zaslavskii, Oleg B.

    2008-07-15

    Black hole mimickers are possible alternatives to black holes; they would look observationally almost like black holes but would have no horizon. The properties in the near-horizon region where gravity is strong can be quite different for both types of objects, but at infinity it could be difficult to discern black holes from their mimickers. To disentangle this possible confusion, we examine the near-horizon properties, and their connection with far away asymptotic properties, of some candidates to black mimickers. We study spherically symmetric uncharged or charged but nonextremal objects, as well as spherically symmetric charged extremal objects. Within the uncharged or charged but nonextremal black hole mimickers, we study nonextremal {epsilon}-wormholes on the threshold of the formation of an event horizon, of which a subclass are called black foils, and gravastars. Within the charged extremal black hole mimickers we study extremal {epsilon}-wormholes on the threshold of the formation of an event horizon, quasi-black holes, and wormholes on the basis of quasi-black holes from Bonnor stars. We elucidate whether or not the objects belonging to these two classes remain regular in the near-horizon limit. The requirement of full regularity, i.e., finite curvature and absence of naked behavior, up to an arbitrary neighborhood of the gravitational radius of the object enables one to rule out potential mimickers in most of the cases. A list ranking the best black hole mimickers up to the worst, both nonextremal and extremal, is as follows: wormholes on the basis of extremal black holes or on the basis of quasi-black holes, quasi-black holes, wormholes on the basis of nonextremal black holes (black foils), and gravastars. Since in observational astrophysics it is difficult to find extremal configurations (the best mimickers in the ranking), whereas nonextremal configurations are really bad mimickers, the task of distinguishing black holes from their mimickers seems to

  14. Regularization for Atmospheric Temperature Retrieval Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velez-Reyes, Miguel; Galarza-Galarza, Ruben

    1997-01-01

    Passive remote sensing of the atmosphere is used to determine the atmospheric state. A radiometer measures microwave emissions from earth's atmosphere and surface. The radiance measured by the radiometer is proportional to the brightness temperature. This brightness temperature can be used to estimate atmospheric parameters such as temperature and water vapor content. These quantities are of primary importance for different applications in meteorology, oceanography, and geophysical sciences. Depending on the range in the electromagnetic spectrum being measured by the radiometer and the atmospheric quantities to be estimated, the retrieval or inverse problem of determining atmospheric parameters from brightness temperature might be linear or nonlinear. In most applications, the retrieval problem requires the inversion of a Fredholm integral equation of the first kind making this an ill-posed problem. The numerical solution of the retrieval problem requires the transformation of the continuous problem into a discrete problem. The ill-posedness of the continuous problem translates into ill-conditioning or ill-posedness of the discrete problem. Regularization methods are used to convert the ill-posed problem into a well-posed one. In this paper, we present some results of our work in applying different regularization techniques to atmospheric temperature retrievals using brightness temperatures measured with the SSM/T-1 sensor. Simulation results are presented which show the potential of these techniques to improve temperature retrievals. In particular, no statistical assumptions are needed and the algorithms were capable of correctly estimating the temperature profile corner at the tropopause independent of the initial guess.

  15. Regularization of Instantaneous Frequency Attribute Computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yedlin, M. J.; Margrave, G. F.; Van Vorst, D. G.; Ben Horin, Y.

    2014-12-01

    We compare two different methods of computation of a temporally local frequency:1) A stabilized instantaneous frequency using the theory of the analytic signal.2) A temporally variant centroid (or dominant) frequency estimated from a time-frequency decomposition.The first method derives from Taner et al (1979) as modified by Fomel (2007) and utilizes the derivative of the instantaneous phase of the analytic signal. The second method computes the power centroid (Cohen, 1995) of the time-frequency spectrum, obtained using either the Gabor or Stockwell Transform. Common to both methods is the necessity of division by a diagonal matrix, which requires appropriate regularization.We modify Fomel's (2007) method by explicitly penalizing the roughness of the estimate. Following Farquharson and Oldenburg (2004), we employ both the L curve and GCV methods to obtain the smoothest model that fits the data in the L2 norm.Using synthetic data, quarry blast, earthquakes and the DPRK tests, our results suggest that the optimal method depends on the data. One of the main applications for this work is the discrimination between blast events and earthquakesFomel, Sergey. " Local seismic attributes." , Geophysics, 72.3 (2007): A29-A33.Cohen, Leon. " Time frequency analysis theory and applications." USA: Prentice Hall, (1995).Farquharson, Colin G., and Douglas W. Oldenburg. "A comparison of automatic techniques for estimating the regularization parameter in non-linear inverse problems." Geophysical Journal International 156.3 (2004): 411-425.Taner, M. Turhan, Fulton Koehler, and R. E. Sheriff. " Complex seismic trace analysis." Geophysics, 44.6 (1979): 1041-1063.

  16. Community assembly and biomass production in regularly and never weeded experimental grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roscher, Christiane; Temperton, Vicky M.; Buchmann, Nina; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef

    2009-03-01

    We studied the natural colonisation of new species in experimental grasslands varying in plant species richness (from 1 to 60) and plant functional group richness (from 1 to 4) in either regularly or never weeded subplots during the first 3 years after establishment. Sown species established successfully, with no differences in species richness or their relative abundances between the regularly and never weeded subplots during the study period. Aboveground biomass of sown species increased with increasing sown species richness in both treatments. While a positive relationship between sown species richness and total aboveground biomass (including colonising species) existed in the 2nd year after sowing in the regularly and never weeded subplots, this positive relationship decayed in the 3rd year in the never weeded subplots because of a higher biomass of colonising species in species-poor mixtures. Total aboveground biomass varied independently of total species richness 3 years after sowing in both treatments. Jaccard similarity of coloniser species composition between regularly and never weeded subplots decreased from the 2nd to the 3rd year, indicating a divergence in coloniser species composition. Coloniser immigration and turnover rates were higher in regularly weeded subplots, confirming that weeding counteracts species saturation and increases the chance that new colonisers would establish. Although our study shows that low diversity plant communities are unstable and converge to higher levels of biodiversity, the effects of initially sown species on community composition persisted 3 years after sowing even when allowing for succession, suggesting that colonising species mainly filled empty niche space.

  17. Temporal sparsity exploiting nonlocal regularization for 4D computed tomography reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Kazantsev, Daniil; Guo, Enyu; Kaestner, Anders; Lionheart, William R B; Bent, Julian; Withers, Philip J; Lee, Peter D

    2016-01-01

    X-ray imaging applications in medical and material sciences are frequently limited by the number of tomographic projections collected. The inversion of the limited projection data is an ill-posed problem and needs regularization. Traditional spatial regularization is not well adapted to the dynamic nature of time-lapse tomography since it discards the redundancy of the temporal information. In this paper, we propose a novel iterative reconstruction algorithm with a nonlocal regularization term to account for time-evolving datasets. The aim of the proposed nonlocal penalty is to collect the maximum relevant information in the spatial and temporal domains. With the proposed sparsity seeking approach in the temporal space, the computational complexity of the classical nonlocal regularizer is substantially reduced (at least by one order of magnitude). The presented reconstruction method can be directly applied to various big data 4D (x, y, z+time) tomographic experiments in many fields. We apply the proposed technique to modelled data and to real dynamic X-ray microtomography (XMT) data of high resolution. Compared to the classical spatio-temporal nonlocal regularization approach, the proposed method delivers reconstructed images of improved resolution and higher contrast while remaining significantly less computationally demanding.

  18. Temporal sparsity exploiting nonlocal regularization for 4D computed tomography reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kazantsev, Daniil; Guo, Enyu; Kaestner, Anders; Lionheart, William R. B.; Bent, Julian; Withers, Philip J.; Lee, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    X-ray imaging applications in medical and material sciences are frequently limited by the number of tomographic projections collected. The inversion of the limited projection data is an ill-posed problem and needs regularization. Traditional spatial regularization is not well adapted to the dynamic nature of time-lapse tomography since it discards the redundancy of the temporal information. In this paper, we propose a novel iterative reconstruction algorithm with a nonlocal regularization term to account for time-evolving datasets. The aim of the proposed nonlocal penalty is to collect the maximum relevant information in the spatial and temporal domains. With the proposed sparsity seeking approach in the temporal space, the computational complexity of the classical nonlocal regularizer is substantially reduced (at least by one order of magnitude). The presented reconstruction method can be directly applied to various big data 4D (x, y, z+time) tomographic experiments in many fields. We apply the proposed technique to modelled data and to real dynamic X-ray microtomography (XMT) data of high resolution. Compared to the classical spatio-temporal nonlocal regularization approach, the proposed method delivers reconstructed images of improved resolution and higher contrast while remaining significantly less computationally demanding. PMID:27002902

  19. Dynamic experiment design regularization approach to adaptive imaging with array radar/SAR sensor systems.

    PubMed

    Shkvarko, Yuriy; Tuxpan, José; Santos, Stewart

    2011-01-01

    We consider a problem of high-resolution array radar/SAR imaging formalized in terms of a nonlinear ill-posed inverse problem of nonparametric estimation of the power spatial spectrum pattern (SSP) of the random wavefield scattered from a remotely sensed scene observed through a kernel signal formation operator and contaminated with random Gaussian noise. First, the Sobolev-type solution space is constructed to specify the class of consistent kernel SSP estimators with the reproducing kernel structures adapted to the metrics in such the solution space. Next, the "model-free" variational analysis (VA)-based image enhancement approach and the "model-based" descriptive experiment design (DEED) regularization paradigm are unified into a new dynamic experiment design (DYED) regularization framework. Application of the proposed DYED framework to the adaptive array radar/SAR imaging problem leads to a class of two-level (DEED-VA) regularized SSP reconstruction techniques that aggregate the kernel adaptive anisotropic windowing with the projections onto convex sets to enforce the consistency and robustness of the overall iterative SSP estimators. We also show how the proposed DYED regularization method may be considered as a generalization of the MVDR, APES and other high-resolution nonparametric adaptive radar sensing techniques. A family of the DYED-related algorithms is constructed and their effectiveness is finally illustrated via numerical simulations.

  20. Full Regularity for a C*-ALGEBRA of the Canonical Commutation Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundling, Hendrik; Neeb, Karl-Hermann

    The Weyl algebra — the usual C*-algebra employed to model the canonical commutation relations (CCRs), has a well-known defect, in that it has a large number of representations which are not regular and these cannot model physical fields. Here, we construct explicitly a C*-algebra which can reproduce the CCRs of a countably dimensional symplectic space (S, B) and such that its representation set is exactly the full set of regular representations of the CCRs. This construction uses Blackadar's version of infinite tensor products of nonunital C*-algebras, and it produces a "host algebra" (i.e. a generalized group algebra, explained below) for the σ-representation theory of the Abelian group S where σ(·,·) ≔ eiB(·,·)/2. As an easy application, it then follows that for every regular representation of /line{Δ (S, B)} on a separable Hilbert space, there is a direct integral decomposition of it into irreducible regular representations (a known result).

  1. Spend a Day in Outer Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Describes the Alabama Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, Alabama as stimulating experience for students in aerospace education. The center has the largest collection of space-age hardware assembled under one roof, a Space Flight simulator, a Skylab space station mock-up and many more interesting exhibits. (BR)

  2. Receptive field characteristics under electrotactile stimulation of the fingertip.

    PubMed

    Warren, Jay P; Bobich, Lisa R; Santello, Marco; Sweeney, James D; Tillery, Stephen I Helms

    2008-08-01

    Skin on human fingertips has high concentrations of mechanoreceptors, which are used to provide fine resolution tactile representations of our environment. Here, we explore the ability to discriminate electrotactile stimulation at four sites on the fingertip. Electrical stimulation was delivered to arrays of electrodes centered on the index fingertip (volar aspect). Accuracy of discrimination was tested by examining electrode size, interelectrode spacing, and stimulation frequency as primary factors. Electrical stimulation was delivered at 2 mA with the pulse width modulated to be at (or above) perceptual threshold at 25 and 75 Hz and an average pulse width of 1.03 ms (+/- 0.70 ms standard deviation). Discrimination of the stimulated locations under this stimulation paradigm was significantly above chance level in all cases. Subjects' ability to discriminate stimulus location was not significantly influenced by electrode size or stimulation frequency when considered as separate factors. However, increased electrode spacing significantly increased subjects' ability to discriminate the location of the stimulated electrode. Further analysis revealed that errors were only significantly reduced along the medial-lateral direction with increasing interelectrode spacing. These results suggest that the electrotactile stimulus localization on the fingertip has some directional dependency, in addition to its dependency on interelectrode spacing. The neural mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are discussed in relation to electrical stimulus transduction characteristics of tactile mechanoreceptors.

  3. Optokinetic Stimulation Affects Temporal Estimation in Healthy Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicario, Carmelo Mario; Caltagirone, Carlo; Oliveri, Massimiliano

    2007-01-01

    The representation of time and space are closely linked in the cognitive system. Optokinetic stimulation modulates spatial attention in healthy subjects and patients with spatial neglect. In order to evaluate whether optokinetic stimulation could influence time perception, a group of healthy subjects performed "time-comparison" tasks of sub- and…

  4. The connection between regularization operators and support vector kernels.

    PubMed

    Smola, Alex J.; Schölkopf, Bernhard; Müller, Klaus Robert

    1998-06-01

    In this paper a correspondence is derived between regularization operators used in regularization networks and support vector kernels. We prove that the Green's Functions associated with regularization operators are suitable support vector kernels with equivalent regularization properties. Moreover, the paper provides an analysis of currently used support vector kernels in the view of regularization theory and corresponding operators associated with the classes of both polynomial kernels and translation invariant kernels. The latter are also analyzed on periodical domains. As a by-product we show that a large number of radial basis functions, namely conditionally positive definite functions, may be used as support vector kernels.

  5. Error analysis for matrix elastic-net regularization algorithms.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Chen, Na; Li, Luoqing

    2012-05-01

    Elastic-net regularization is a successful approach in statistical modeling. It can avoid large variations which occur in estimating complex models. In this paper, elastic-net regularization is extended to a more general setting, the matrix recovery (matrix completion) setting. Based on a combination of the nuclear-norm minimization and the Frobenius-norm minimization, we consider the matrix elastic-net (MEN) regularization algorithm, which is an analog to the elastic-net regularization scheme from compressive sensing. Some properties of the estimator are characterized by the singular value shrinkage operator. We estimate the error bounds of the MEN regularization algorithm in the framework of statistical learning theory. We compute the learning rate by estimates of the Hilbert-Schmidt operators. In addition, an adaptive scheme for selecting the regularization parameter is presented. Numerical experiments demonstrate the superiority of the MEN regularization algorithm.

  6. Chaos and Regularity in the Doubly Magic Nucleus 208Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietz, B.; Heusler, A.; Maier, K. H.; Richter, A.; Brown, B. A.

    2017-01-01

    High-resolution experiments have recently lead to a complete identification (energy, spin, and parity) of 151 nuclear levels up to an excitation energy of Ex=6.20 MeV in 208Pb [Heusler et al., Phys. Rev. C 93, 054321 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevC.93.054321]. We present a thorough study of the fluctuation properties in the energy spectra of the unprecedented set of nuclear bound states. In a first approach, we group states with the same spin and parity into 14 subspectra, analyze standard statistical measures for short- and long-range correlations, i.e., the nearest-neighbor spacing distribution, the number variance Σ2, the Dyson-Mehta Δ3 statistics, and the novel distribution of the ratios of consecutive spacings of adjacent energy levels in each energy sequence, and then compute their ensemble average. Their comparison with a random matrix ensemble which interpolates between Poisson statistics expected for regular systems and the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (GOE) predicted for chaotic systems shows that the data are well described by the GOE. In a second approach, following an idea of Rosenzweig and Porter [Phys. Rev. 120, 1698 (1960), 10.1103/PhysRev.120.1698], we consider the complete spectrum composed of the independent subspectra. We analyze their fluctuation properties using the method of Bayesian inference involving a quantitative measure, called the chaoticity parameter f , which also interpolates between Poisson (f =0 ) and GOE statistics (f =1 ). It turns out to be f ≈0.9 . This is so far the closest agreement with a GOE observed in the spectra of bound states in a nucleus. The same analysis is also performed with spectra computed on the basis of shell model calculations with different interactions (surface-delta interaction, Kuo-Brown, Michigan-three-Yukawa). While the simple surface-delta interaction exhibits features typical for nuclear many-body systems with regular dynamics, the other, more realistic interactions yield chaoticity parameters f close

  7. Preparation of Regular Specimens for Atom Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlman, Kim; Wishard, James

    2003-01-01

    A method of preparation of specimens of non-electropolishable materials for analysis by atom probes is being developed as a superior alternative to a prior method. In comparison with the prior method, the present method involves less processing time. Also, whereas the prior method yields irregularly shaped and sized specimens, the present developmental method offers the potential to prepare specimens of regular shape and size. The prior method is called the method of sharp shards because it involves crushing the material of interest and selecting microscopic sharp shards of the material for use as specimens. Each selected shard is oriented with its sharp tip facing away from the tip of a stainless-steel pin and is glued to the tip of the pin by use of silver epoxy. Then the shard is milled by use of a focused ion beam (FIB) to make the shard very thin (relative to its length) and to make its tip sharp enough for atom-probe analysis. The method of sharp shards is extremely time-consuming because the selection of shards must be performed with the help of a microscope, the shards must be positioned on the pins by use of micromanipulators, and the irregularity of size and shape necessitates many hours of FIB milling to sharpen each shard. In the present method, a flat slab of the material of interest (e.g., a polished sample of rock or a coated semiconductor wafer) is mounted in the sample holder of a dicing saw of the type conventionally used to cut individual integrated circuits out of the wafers on which they are fabricated in batches. A saw blade appropriate to the material of interest is selected. The depth of cut and the distance between successive parallel cuts is made such that what is left after the cuts is a series of thin, parallel ridges on a solid base. Then the workpiece is rotated 90 and the pattern of cuts is repeated, leaving behind a square array of square posts on the solid base. The posts can be made regular, long, and thin, as required for samples

  8. Local regularity for time-dependent tug-of-war games with varying probabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parviainen, Mikko; Ruosteenoja, Eero

    2016-07-01

    We study local regularity properties of value functions of time-dependent tug-of-war games. For games with constant probabilities we get local Lipschitz continuity. For more general games with probabilities depending on space and time we obtain Hölder and Harnack estimates. The games have a connection to the normalized p (x , t)-parabolic equation ut = Δu + (p (x , t) - 2) Δ∞Nu.

  9. Existence of periodic travelling wave solutions for a regularized Benjamin-Ono system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pipicano, Felipe Alexander; Muñoz Grajales, Juan Carlos

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we discuss the existence of periodic travelling wave solutions of a regularized Benjamin-Ono system by using the topological-degree theory of positive operators on Banach spaces. Furthermore, we use a high-accuracy pseudospectral solver based on a Fourier decomposition to construct numerical approximations of these stationary solutions. The numerical simulations are in perfect agreement with the theoretical results.

  10. Electrophysiological channel interactions using focused multipolar stimulation for cochlear implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Shefin S.; Shivdasani, Mohit N.; Wise, Andrew K.; Shepherd, Robert K.; Fallon, James B.

    2015-12-01

    Objective. Speech intelligibility with existing multichannel cochlear implants (CIs) is thought to be limited by poor spatial selectivity and interactions between CI channels caused by overlapping activation with monopolar (MP) stimulation. Our previous studies have shown that focused multipolar (FMP) and tripolar (TP) stimulation produce more restricted neural activation in the inferior colliculus (IC), compared to MP stimulation. Approach. This study explored interactions in the IC produced by simultaneous stimulation of two CI channels. We recorded multi-unit neural activity in the IC of anaesthetized cats with normal and severely degenerated spiral ganglion neuron populations in response to FMP, TP and MP stimulation from a 14 channel CI. Stimuli were applied to a ‘fixed’ CI channel, chosen toward the middle of the cochlear electrode array, and the effects of simultaneously stimulating a more apical ‘test’ CI channel were measured as a function of spatial separation between the two stimulation channels and stimulus level of the fixed channel. Channel interactions were quantified by changes in neural responses and IC threshold (i.e., threshold shift) elicited by simultaneous stimulation of two CI channels, compared to stimulation of the test channel alone. Main results. Channel interactions were significantly lower for FMP and TP than for MP stimulation (p < 0.001), whereas no significant difference was observed between FMP and TP stimulation. With MP stimulation, threshold shifts increased with decreased inter-electrode spacing and increased stimulus levels of the fixed channel. For FMP and TP stimulation, channel interactions were found to be similar for different inter-electrode spacing and stimulus levels of the fixed channel. Significance. The present study demonstrates how the degree of channel interactions in a CI can be controlled using stimulation configurations such as FMP and TP; such knowledge is essential in enhancing CI function in complex

  11. Music acupuncture stimulation method.

    PubMed

    Brătilă, F; Moldovan, C

    2007-01-01

    Harmonic Medicine is the model using the theory that the body rhythms synchronize to an outer rhythm applied for therapeutic purpose, can restores the energy balance in acupuncture channels and organs and the condition of well-being. The purpose of this scientific work was to demonstrate the role played by harmonic sounds in the stimulation of the Lung (LU) Meridian (Shoutaiyin Feijing) and of the Kidney (KI) Meridian (Zushaoyin Shenjing). It was used an original method that included: measurement and electronic sound stimulation of the Meridian Entry Point, measurement of Meridian Exit Point, computer data processing, bio feed-back adjustment of the music stimulation parameters. After data processing, it was found that the sound stimulation of the Lung Meridian Frequency is optimal between 122 Hz and 128 Hz, with an average of 124 Hz (87% of the subjects) and for Kidney Meridian from 118 Hz to 121 Hz, with an average of 120 Hz (67% of the subjects). The acupuncture stimulation was more intense for female subjects (> 7%) than for the male ones. We preliminarily consider that an informational resonance phenomenon can be developed between the acupuncture music stimulation frequency and the cellular dipole frequency, being a really "resonant frequency signature" of an acupoint. The harmonic generation and the electronic excitation or low-excitation status of an acupuncture point may be considered as a resonance mechanism. By this kind of acupunctural stimulation, a symphony may act and play a healer role.

  12. Regularization of circular restricted three-body problem accounting radiation pressure and oblateness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Vineet K.; Kumar, Jai; Kushvah, Badam Singh

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a time- and space-coordinate transformation, commonly known as the Kustaanheimo-Stiefel (KS)-transformation, is applied to reduce the order of singularities arising due to the motion of an infinitesimal body in the vicinity of a smaller primary in the three-body system. In this work, the Sun-Earth system is considered assuming the Sun to be a radiating body and the Earth as an oblate spheroid. The study covers motion around collinear Lagrangian L1 and L2 points. Numerical computations are performed for both regularized and non-regularized equations of motion and results are compared for non-periodic as well as periodic motion. In the transformed space, time is also computed as a function of solar radiation pressure (q) and oblateness of the Earth (A2). The two parameters (q, A2) have a significant impact on time in the transformed space. It is found that KS-regularization reduces the order of the pole from five to three at the point of singularity of the governing equations of motion.

  13. Compression and regularization with the information bottleneck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strouse, Dj; Schwab, David

    Compression fundamentally involves a decision about what is relevant and what is not. The information bottleneck (IB) by Tishby, Pereira, and Bialek formalized this notion as an information-theoretic optimization problem and proposed an optimal tradeoff between throwing away as many bits as possible, and selectively keeping those that are most important. The IB has also recently been proposed as a theory of sensory gating and predictive computation in the retina by Palmer et al. Here, we introduce an alternative formulation of the IB, the deterministic information bottleneck (DIB), that we argue better captures the notion of compression, including that done by the brain. As suggested by its name, the solution to the DIB problem is a deterministic encoder, as opposed to the stochastic encoder that is optimal under the IB. We then compare the IB and DIB on synthetic data, showing that the IB and DIB perform similarly in terms of the IB cost function, but that the DIB vastly outperforms the IB in terms of the DIB cost function. Our derivation of the DIB also provides a family of models which interpolates between the DIB and IB by adding noise of a particular form. We discuss the role of this noise as a regularizer.

  14. Determinants of Scanpath Regularity in Reading.

    PubMed

    von der Malsburg, Titus; Kliegl, Reinhold; Vasishth, Shravan

    2015-09-01

    Scanpaths have played an important role in classic research on reading behavior. Nevertheless, they have largely been neglected in later research perhaps due to a lack of suitable analytical tools. Recently, von der Malsburg and Vasishth (2011) proposed a new measure for quantifying differences between scanpaths and demonstrated that this measure can recover effects that were missed with the traditional eyetracking measures. However, the sentences used in that study were difficult to process and scanpath effects accordingly strong. The purpose of the present study was to test the validity, sensitivity, and scope of applicability of the scanpath measure, using simple sentences that are typically read from left to right. We derived predictions for the regularity of scanpaths from the literature on oculomotor control, sentence processing, and cognitive aging and tested these predictions using the scanpath measure and a large database of eye movements. All predictions were confirmed: Sentences with short words and syntactically more difficult sentences elicited more irregular scanpaths. Also, older readers produced more irregular scanpaths than younger readers. In addition, we found an effect that was not reported earlier: Syntax had a smaller influence on the eye movements of older readers than on those of young readers. We discuss this interaction of syntactic parsing cost with age in terms of shifts in processing strategies and a decline of executive control as readers age. Overall, our results demonstrate the validity and sensitivity of the scanpath measure and thus establish it as a productive and versatile tool for reading research.

  15. Manifold Regularized Experimental Design for Active Learning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lining; Shum, Hubert P H; Shao, Ling

    2016-12-02

    Various machine learning and data mining tasks in classification require abundant data samples to be labeled for training. Conventional active learning methods aim at labeling the most informative samples for alleviating the labor of the user. Many previous studies in active learning select one sample after another in a greedy manner. However, this is not very effective because the classification models has to be retrained for each newly labeled sample. Moreover, many popular active learning approaches utilize the most uncertain samples by leveraging the classification hyperplane of the classifier, which is not appropriate since the classification hyperplane is inaccurate when the training data are small-sized. The problem of insufficient training data in real-world systems limits the potential applications of these approaches. This paper presents a novel method of active learning called manifold regularized experimental design (MRED), which can label multiple informative samples at one time for training. In addition, MRED gives an explicit geometric explanation for the selected samples to be labeled by the user. Different from existing active learning methods, our method avoids the intrinsic problems caused by insufficiently labeled samples in real-world applications. Various experiments on synthetic datasets, the Yale face database and the Corel image database have been carried out to show how MRED outperforms existing methods.

  16. Information theoretic regularization in diffuse optical tomography.

    PubMed

    Panagiotou, Christos; Somayajula, Sangeetha; Gibson, Adam P; Schweiger, Martin; Leahy, Richard M; Arridge, Simon R

    2009-05-01

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) retrieves the spatially distributed optical characteristics of a medium from external measurements. Recovering the parameters of interest involves solving a nonlinear and highly ill-posed inverse problem. This paper examines the possibility of regularizing DOT via the introduction of a priori information from alternative high-resolution anatomical modalities, using the information theory concepts of mutual information (MI) and joint entropy (JE). Such functionals evaluate the similarity between the reconstructed optical image and the prior image while bypassing the multimodality barrier manifested as the incommensurate relation between the gray value representations of corresponding anatomical features in the two modalities. By introducing structural information, we aim to improve the spatial resolution and quantitative accuracy of the solution. We provide a thorough explanation of the theory from an imaging perspective, accompanied by preliminary results using numerical simulations. In addition we compare the performance of MI and JE. Finally, we have adopted a method for fast marginal entropy evaluation and optimization by modifying the objective function and extending it to the JE case. We demonstrate its use on an image reconstruction framework and show significant computational savings.

  17. Flip to Regular Triangulation and Convex Hull.

    PubMed

    Gao, Mingcen; Cao, Thanh-Tung; Tan, Tiow-Seng

    2017-02-01

    Flip is a simple and local operation to transform one triangulation to another. It makes changes only to some neighboring simplices, without considering any attribute or configuration global in nature to the triangulation. Thanks to this characteristic, several flips can be independently applied to different small, non-overlapping regions of one triangulation. Such operation is favored when designing algorithms for data-parallel, massively multithreaded hardware, such as the GPU. However, most existing flip algorithms are designed to be executed sequentially, and usually need some restrictions on the execution order of flips, making them hard to be adapted to parallel computation. In this paper, we present an in depth study of flip algorithms in low dimensions, with the emphasis on the flexibility of their execution order. In particular, we propose a series of provably correct flip algorithms for regular triangulation and convex hull in 2D and 3D, with implementations for both CPUs and GPUs. Our experiment shows that our GPU implementation for constructing these structures from a given point set achieves up to two orders of magnitude of speedup over other popular single-threaded CPU implementation of existing algorithms.

  18. A well-posed Cauchy problem for an evolution equation with coefficients of low regularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicognani, Massimo; Colombini, Ferruccio

    In the hyperbolic Cauchy problem, the well-posedness in Sobolev spaces is strictly related to the modulus of continuity of the coefficients. This holds true for p-evolution equations with real characteristics (p=1 hyperbolic equations, p=2 vibrating plate and Schrödinger type models, …). We show that, for p⩾2, a lack of regularity in t can be balanced by a damping of the too fast oscillations as the space variable x→∞. This cannot happen in the hyperbolic case p=1 because of the finite speed of propagation.

  19. Random matrix theory for mixed regular-chaotic dynamics in the super-extensive regime

    SciTech Connect

    El-Hady, A. Abd; Abul-Magd, A. Y.

    2011-10-27

    We apply Tsallis's q-indexed nonextensive entropy to formulate a random matrix theory (RMT), which may be suitable for systems with mixed regular-chaotic dynamics. We consider the super-extensive regime of q<1. We obtain analytical expressions for the level-spacing distributions, which are strictly valid for 2 X2 random-matrix ensembles, as usually done in the standard RMT. We compare the results with spacing distributions, numerically calculated for random matrix ensembles describing a harmonic oscillator perturbed by Gaussian orthogonal and unitary ensembles.

  20. About the Regularized Navier Stokes Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannone, Marco; Karch, Grzegorz

    2005-03-01

    The first goal of this paper is to study the large time behavior of solutions to the Cauchy problem for the 3-dimensional incompressible Navier Stokes system. The Marcinkiewicz space L3,∞ is used to prove some asymptotic stability results for solutions with infinite energy. Next, this approach is applied to the analysis of two classical “regularized” Navier Stokes systems. The first one was introduced by J. Leray and consists in “mollifying” the nonlinearity. The second one was proposed by J.-L. Lions, who added the artificial hyper-viscosity (-Δ)ℓ/ 2, ℓ > 2 to the model. It is shown in the present paper that, in the whole space, solutions to those modified models converge as t → ∞ toward solutions of the original Navier Stokes system.

  1. Regularized spherical polar fourier diffusion MRI with optimal dictionary learning.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jian; Jiang, Tianzi; Deriche, Rachid; Shen, Dinggang; Yap, Pew-Thian

    2013-01-01

    Compressed Sensing (CS) takes advantage of signal sparsity or compressibility and allows superb signal reconstruction from relatively few measurements. Based on CS theory, a suitable dictionary for sparse representation of the signal is required. In diffusion MRI (dMRI), CS methods proposed for reconstruction of diffusion-weighted signal and the Ensemble Average Propagator (EAP) utilize two kinds of Dictionary Learning (DL) methods: 1) Discrete Representation DL (DR-DL), and 2) Continuous Representation DL (CR-DL). DR-DL is susceptible to numerical inaccuracy owing to interpolation and regridding errors in a discretized q-space. In this paper, we propose a novel CR-DL approach, called Dictionary Learning - Spherical Polar Fourier Imaging (DL-SPFI) for effective compressed-sensing reconstruction of the q-space diffusion-weighted signal and the EAP. In DL-SPFI, a dictionary that sparsifies the signal is learned from the space of continuous Gaussian diffusion signals. The learned dictionary is then adaptively applied to different voxels using a weighted LASSO framework for robust signal reconstruction. Compared with the start-of-the-art CR-DL and DR-DL methods proposed by Merlet et al. and Bilgic et al., respectively, our work offers the following advantages. First, the learned dictionary is proved to be optimal for Gaussian diffusion signals. Second, to our knowledge, this is the first work to learn a voxel-adaptive dictionary. The importance of the adaptive dictionary in EAP reconstruction will be demonstrated theoretically and empirically. Third, optimization in DL-SPFI is only performed in a small subspace resided by the SPF coefficients, as opposed to the q-space approach utilized by Merlet et al. We experimentally evaluated DL-SPFI with respect to L1-norm regularized SPFI (L1-SPFI), which uses the original SPF basis, and the DR-DL method proposed by Bilgic et al. The experiment results on synthetic and real data indicate that the learned dictionary produces

  2. Temporal Regularity of the Environment Drives Time Perception

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    It’s reasonable to assume that a regularly paced sequence should be perceived as regular, but here we show that perceived regularity depends on the context in which the sequence is embedded. We presented one group of participants with perceptually regularly paced sequences, and another group of participants with mostly irregularly paced sequences (75% irregular, 25% regular). The timing of the final stimulus in each sequence could be varied. In one experiment, we asked whether the last stimulus was regular or not. We found that participants exposed to an irregular environment frequently reported perfectly regularly paced stimuli to be irregular. In a second experiment, we asked participants to judge whether the final stimulus was presented before or after a flash. In this way, we were able to determine distortions in temporal perception as changes in the timing necessary for the sound and the flash to be perceived synchronous. We found that within a regular context, the perceived timing of deviant last stimuli changed so that the relative anisochrony appeared to be perceptually decreased. In the irregular context, the perceived timing of irregular stimuli following a regular sequence was not affected. These observations suggest that humans use temporal expectations to evaluate the regularity of sequences and that expectations are combined with sensory stimuli to adapt perceived timing to follow the statistics of the environment. Expectations can be seen as a-priori probabilities on which perceived timing of stimuli depend. PMID:27441686

  3. Managing chronic pain with spinal cord stimulation.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Lawrence J; Palmieri, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Since its introduction as a procedure of last resort in a terminally ill patient with intractable cancer-related pain, spinal cord stimulation has been used to effectively treat chronic pain of varied origins. Spinal cord stimulation is commonly used for control of pain secondary to failed back surgery syndrome and complex regional pain syndrome, as well as pain from angina pectoris, peripheral vascular disease, and other causes. By stimulating one or more electrodes implanted in the posterior epidural space, the patient feels paresthesias in their areas of pain, which reduces the level of pain. Pain is reduced without the side effects associated with analgesic medications. Patients have improved quality of life and improved function, with many returning to work. Spinal cord stimulation has been shown to be cost effective as compared with conservative management alone. There is strong evidence for efficacy and cost effectiveness of spinal cord stimulation in the treatment of pain associated with intractable angina, failed back surgery syndrome, and complex regional pain syndrome. In this article, we review the history and pathophysiology of spinal cord stimulation, and the evidence (or lack thereof) for efficacy in common clinical practice.

  4. Prevalence of legal and illegal stimulating agents in sports.

    PubMed

    Deventer, K; Roels, K; Delbeke, F T; Van Eenoo, P

    2011-08-01

    This paper reviews the prevalence of legal and illegal stimulants in relation to doping-control analysis. Stimulants are among the oldest classes of doping agents, having been used since ancient times. Despite the ease with which they can be detected and the availability of sensitive detection methods, stimulants are still popular among athletes. Indeed, they remain one of the top three most popular classes of prohibited substances. Because the list of legal and illegal stimulants is extensive only a selection is discussed in detail. The compounds selected are caffeine, ephedrines, amphetamine and related compounds, methylphenidate, cocaine, strychnine, modafinil, adrafinil, 4-methyl-2-hexaneamine, and sibutramine. These compounds are mainly prevalent in sport or are of therapeutic importance. Because stimulants are the oldest doping class the first detection methods were for this group. Several early detection techniques including GC-NPD, GC-ECD, and TLC are highlighted. The more novel detection techniques GC-MS and LC-MS are also discussed in detail. In particular, the last technique has been shown to enable successful detection of stimulants difficult to detect by GC-MS or for stimulants previously undetectable. Because stimulants are also regularly detected in nutritional (food) supplements a section on this topic is also included.

  5. Synthesis and Structure - Property Relationships for Regular Multigraft Copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Mays, Jimmy; Uhrig, David; Gido, Samuel; Zhu, Yuqing; Weidisch, Roland; Iatrou, Hermis; Hadjichristidis, Nikos; Hong, Kunlun; Beyer, Frederick; Lach, Ralph

    2004-01-01

    Multigraft copolymers with polyisoprene backbones and polystyrene branches, having multiple regularly spaced branch points, were synthesized by anionic polymerization high vacuum techniques and controlled chlorosilane linking chemistry. The functionality of the branch points (1, 2 and 4) can be controlled, through the choice of chlorosilane linking agent. The morphologies of the various graft copolymers were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray scattering. It was concluded that the morphology of these complex architectures is governed by the behavior of the corresponding miktoarm star copolymer associated with each branch point (constituting block copolymer), which follows Milner's theoretical treatment for miktoarm stars. By comparing samples having the same molecular weight backbone and branches but different number of branches it was found that the extent of long range order decreases with increasing number of branch points. The stress-strain properties in tension were investigated for some of these multigraft copolymers. For certain compositions thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) behavior was observed, and in many instances the elongation at break was much higher (2-3X) than that of conventional triblock TPEs.

  6. Descriptor Learning via Supervised Manifold Regularization for Multioutput Regression.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Xiantong; Yu, Mengyang; Islam, Ali; Bhaduri, Mousumi; Chan, Ian; Li, Shuo

    2016-06-08

    Multioutput regression has recently shown great ability to solve challenging problems in both computer vision and medical image analysis. However, due to the huge image variability and ambiguity, it is fundamentally challenging to handle the highly complex input-target relationship of multioutput regression, especially with indiscriminate high-dimensional representations. In this paper, we propose a novel supervised descriptor learning (SDL) algorithm for multioutput regression, which can establish discriminative and compact feature representations to improve the multivariate estimation performance. The SDL is formulated as generalized low-rank approximations of matrices with a supervised manifold regularization. The SDL is able to simultaneously extract discriminative features closely related to multivariate targets and remove irrelevant and redundant information by transforming raw features into a new low-dimensional space aligned to targets. The achieved discriminative while compact descriptor largely reduces the variability and ambiguity for multioutput regression, which enables more accurate and efficient multivariate estimation. We conduct extensive evaluation of the proposed SDL on both synthetic data and real-world multioutput regression tasks for both computer vision and medical image analysis. Experimental results have shown that the proposed SDL can achieve high multivariate estimation accuracy on all tasks and largely outperforms the algorithms in the state of the arts. Our method establishes a novel SDL framework for multioutput regression, which can be widely used to boost the performance in different applications.

  7. Revealing hidden regularities with a general approach to fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Karl-Heinz; Jurado, Beatriz

    2015-12-01

    Selected aspects of a general approach to nuclear fission are described with the focus on the possible benefit of meeting the increasing need of nuclear data for the existing and future emerging nuclear applications. The most prominent features of this approach are the evolution of quantum-mechanical wave functions in systems with complex shape, memory effects in the dynamics of stochastic processes, the influence of the Second Law of thermodynamics on the evolution of open systems in terms of statistical mechanics, and the topological properties of a continuous function in multi-dimensional space. It is demonstrated that this approach allows reproducing the measured fission barriers and the observed properties of the fission fragments and prompt neutrons. Our approach is based on sound physical concepts, as demonstrated by the fact that practically all the parameters have a physical meaning, and reveals a high degree of regularity in the fission observables. Therefore, we expect a good predictive power within the region extending from Po isotopes to Sg isotopes where the model parameters have been adjusted. Our approach can be extended to other regions provided that there is enough empirical information available that allows determining appropriate values of the model parameters. Possibilities for combining this general approach with microscopic models are suggested. These are supposed to enhance the predictive power of the general approach and to help improving or adjusting the microscopic models. This could be a way to overcome the present difficulties for producing evaluations with the required accuracy.

  8. Adiabatic invariants for the regular region of the Dicke model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastarrachea-Magnani, M. A.; Relaño, A.; Lerma-Hernández, S.; López-del-Carpio, B.; Chávez-Carlos, J.; Hirsch, J. G.

    2017-04-01

    Adiabatic invariants for the non-integrable Dicke model are introduced. They are shown to provide approximate second integrals of motion in the energy region where the system exhibits a regular dynamics. This low-energy region, present for any set of values of the Hamiltonian parameters is described both with a semiclassical and a full quantum analysis in a broad region of the parameter space. Peres lattices in this region exhibit that many observables vary smoothly with energy, along distinct lines which beg for a formal description. It is demonstrated how the adiabatic invariants provide a rationale to their presence in many cases. They are built employing the Born–Oppenheimer approximation, valid when a fast system is coupled to a much slower one. As the Dicke model has one bosonic and one fermionic degree of freedom, two versions of the approximation are used, depending on which one is the faster. In both cases a noticeably accord with exact numerical results is obtained. The employment of the adiabatic invariants provides a simple and clear theoretical framework to study the physical phenomenology associated to these regimes, far beyond the energies where a quadratic approximation around the minimal energy configuration can be used.

  9. Markov Boundary Discovery with Ridge Regularized Linear Models

    PubMed Central

    Visweswaran, Shyam

    2016-01-01

    Ridge regularized linear models (RRLMs), such as ridge regression and the SVM, are a popular group of methods that are used in conjunction with coefficient hypothesis testing to discover explanatory variables with a significant multivariate association to a response. However, many investigators are reluctant to draw causal interpretations of the selected variables due to the incomplete knowledge of the capabilities of RRLMs in causal inference. Under reasonable assumptions, we show that a modified form of RRLMs can get “very close” to identifying a subset of the Markov boundary by providing a worst-case bound on the space of possible solutions. The results hold for any convex loss, even when the underlying functional relationship is nonlinear, and the solution is not unique. Our approach combines ideas in Markov boundary and sufficient dimension reduction theory. Experimental results show that the modified RRLMs are competitive against state-of-the-art algorithms in discovering part of the Markov boundary from gene expression data. PMID:27170915

  10. Physics-driven Spatiotemporal Regularization for High-dimensional Predictive Modeling: A Novel Approach to Solve the Inverse ECG Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Bing; Yang, Hui

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a novel physics-driven spatiotemporal regularization (STRE) method for high-dimensional predictive modeling in complex healthcare systems. This model not only captures the physics-based interrelationship between time-varying explanatory and response variables that are distributed in the space, but also addresses the spatial and temporal regularizations to improve the prediction performance. The STRE model is implemented to predict the time-varying distribution of electric potentials on the heart surface based on the electrocardiogram (ECG) data from the distributed sensor network placed on the body surface. The model performance is evaluated and validated in both a simulated two-sphere geometry and a realistic torso-heart geometry. Experimental results show that the STRE model significantly outperforms other regularization models that are widely used in current practice such as Tikhonov zero-order, Tikhonov first-order and L1 first-order regularization methods.

  11. Physics-driven Spatiotemporal Regularization for High-dimensional Predictive Modeling: A Novel Approach to Solve the Inverse ECG Problem

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Bing; Yang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel physics-driven spatiotemporal regularization (STRE) method for high-dimensional predictive modeling in complex healthcare systems. This model not only captures the physics-based interrelationship between time-varying explanatory and response variables that are distributed in the space, but also addresses the spatial and temporal regularizations to improve the prediction performance. The STRE model is implemented to predict the time-varying distribution of electric potentials on the heart surface based on the electrocardiogram (ECG) data from the distributed sensor network placed on the body surface. The model performance is evaluated and validated in both a simulated two-sphere geometry and a realistic torso-heart geometry. Experimental results show that the STRE model significantly outperforms other regularization models that are widely used in current practice such as Tikhonov zero-order, Tikhonov first-order and L1 first-order regularization methods. PMID:27966576

  12. Physics-driven Spatiotemporal Regularization for High-dimensional Predictive Modeling: A Novel Approach to Solve the Inverse ECG Problem.

    PubMed

    Yao, Bing; Yang, Hui

    2016-12-14

    This paper presents a novel physics-driven spatiotemporal regularization (STRE) method for high-dimensional predictive modeling in complex healthcare systems. This model not only captures the physics-based interrelationship between time-varying explanatory and response variables that are distributed in the space, but also addresses the spatial and temporal regularizations to improve the prediction performance. The STRE model is implemented to predict the time-varying distribution of electric potentials on the heart surface based on the electrocardiogram (ECG) data from the distributed sensor network placed on the body surface. The model performance is evaluated and validated in both a simulated two-sphere geometry and a realistic torso-heart geometry. Experimental results show that the STRE model significantly outperforms other regularization models that are widely used in current practice such as Tikhonov zero-order, Tikhonov first-order and L1 first-order regularization methods.

  13. On reductibility of degenerate optimization problems to regular operator equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednarczuk, E. M.; Tretyakov, A. A.

    2016-12-01

    We present an application of the p-regularity theory to the analysis of non-regular (irregular, degenerate) nonlinear optimization problems. The p-regularity theory, also known as the p-factor analysis of nonlinear mappings, was developed during last thirty years. The p-factor analysis is based on the construction of the p-factor operator which allows us to analyze optimization problems in the degenerate case. We investigate reducibility of a non-regular optimization problem to a regular system of equations which do not depend on the objective function. As an illustration we consider applications of our results to non-regular complementarity problems of mathematical programming and to linear programming problems.

  14. Transient Lunar Phenomena: Regularity and Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crotts, Arlin P. S.

    2009-05-01

    Transient lunar phenomena (TLPs) have been reported for centuries, but their nature is largely unsettled, and even their existence as a coherent phenomenon is controversial. Nonetheless, TLP data show regularities in the observations; a key question is whether this structure is imposed by processes tied to the lunar surface, or by terrestrial atmospheric or human observer effects. I interrogate an extensive catalog of TLPs to gauge how human factors determine the distribution of TLP reports. The sample is grouped according to variables which should produce differing results if determining factors involve humans, and not reflecting phenomena tied to the lunar surface. Features dependent on human factors can then be excluded. Regardless of how the sample is split, the results are similar: ~50% of reports originate from near Aristarchus, ~16% from Plato, ~6% from recent, major impacts (Copernicus, Kepler, Tycho, and Aristarchus), plus several at Grimaldi. Mare Crisium produces a robust signal in some cases (however, Crisium is too large for a "feature" as defined). TLP count consistency for these features indicates that ~80% of these may be real. Some commonly reported sites disappear from the robust averages, including Alphonsus, Ross D, and Gassendi. These reports begin almost exclusively after 1955, when TLPs became widely known and many more (and inexperienced) observers searched for TLPs. In a companion paper, we compare the spatial distribution of robust TLP sites to transient outgassing (seen by Apollo and Lunar Prospector instruments). To a high confidence, robust TLP sites and those of lunar outgassing correlate strongly, further arguing for the reality of TLPs.

  15. TRANSIENT LUNAR PHENOMENA: REGULARITY AND REALITY

    SciTech Connect

    Crotts, Arlin P. S.

    2009-05-20

    Transient lunar phenomena (TLPs) have been reported for centuries, but their nature is largely unsettled, and even their existence as a coherent phenomenon is controversial. Nonetheless, TLP data show regularities in the observations; a key question is whether this structure is imposed by processes tied to the lunar surface, or by terrestrial atmospheric or human observer effects. I interrogate an extensive catalog of TLPs to gauge how human factors determine the distribution of TLP reports. The sample is grouped according to variables which should produce differing results if determining factors involve humans, and not reflecting phenomena tied to the lunar surface. Features dependent on human factors can then be excluded. Regardless of how the sample is split, the results are similar: {approx}50% of reports originate from near Aristarchus, {approx}16% from Plato, {approx}6% from recent, major impacts (Copernicus, Kepler, Tycho, and Aristarchus), plus several at Grimaldi. Mare Crisium produces a robust signal in some cases (however, Crisium is too large for a 'feature' as defined). TLP count consistency for these features indicates that {approx}80% of these may be real. Some commonly reported sites disappear from the robust averages, including Alphonsus, Ross D, and Gassendi. These reports begin almost exclusively after 1955, when TLPs became widely known and many more (and inexperienced) observers searched for TLPs. In a companion paper, we compare the spatial distribution of robust TLP sites to transient outgassing (seen by Apollo and Lunar Prospector instruments). To a high confidence, robust TLP sites and those of lunar outgassing correlate strongly, further arguing for the reality of TLPs.

  16. Analysis of regularized Navier-Stokes equations. I, II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ou, Yuh-Roung; Sritharan, S. S.

    1991-01-01

    A regularized form of the conventional Navier-Stokes equations is analyzed. The global existence and uniqueness are established for two classes of generalized solutions. It is shown that the solution of this regularized system converges to the solution of the conventional Navier-Stokes equations for low Reynolds numbers. Particular attention is given to the structure of attractors characterizing the solutions. Both local and global invariant manifolds are found, and the regularity properties of these manifolds are analyzed.

  17. The Relationship between Gentle Tactile Stimulation on the Fetus and Its Temperament 3 Months after Birth

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhe-Wei; Hua, Jing; Xu, Yu-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gentle tactile stimulation on the fetus in its temperament 3 months after birth. Method. A total of 302 mother-3-month-infant dyads enrolled the retrospective cohort study. 76 mothers had regular gentle tactile stimulation on the fetus in their pregnancy; 62 mothers had irregular tactile stimulation on the fetus, and the rest of 164 mothers who had no tactile stimulation served as nonexposure group. Temperament was assessed using the EITS (a nine-dimensional scale of temperament). Results. Significant difference in temperament type was found among infants in 3 groups at 3 months of age. In the regular practice group, the babies with easy type temperament accounted for 73.7%, which was higher than that in irregular practice group (53.2%, P = 0.012) and that in the control group (42.1%, P < 0.001). Compared to infants in no practice group, the infants who had received regular gentle tactile stimulation before birth were lower in negative mood (P = 0.047) while higher in adaptability (P < 0.001), approach (P = 0.001), and persistence (P = 0.001), respectively. Conclusion. Regular gentle tactile stimulation on fetus may promote the formation of easy type infant temperament. PMID:26180374

  18. A Regularized Solution to Edge Detection.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    Fourier transform of f(x). Physically, the constraint of smoothness allows us to effectively eliminate the noise that creeps in, after, or during the...all this by taking the Fourier transform of equation 3.) It is straightforward to find the Green’s function of (5) which vanishes at plus and minus...infinity. This is given by =~,X e- IzIvX/Vi ’~ _ _ - (8) / Cos ,, 4 4 In Fourier space, the transform of R(z, )) can be obtained directly from (5): 17B

  19. Comparison of the contractile responses to irregular and regular trains of stimuli during microstimulation of single human motor axons.

    PubMed

    Leitch, Michael; Macefield, Vaughan G

    2014-04-01

    During voluntary contractions, human motoneurons discharge with a physiological variability of ∼20%. However, studies that have measured the contractile responses to microstimulation of single motor axons have used regular trains of stimuli with no variability. We tested the hypothesis that irregular (physiological) trains of stimuli produce greater contractile responses than regular (nonphysiological) trains of identical mean frequency but zero variability. High-impedance tungsten microelectrodes were inserted into the common peroneal nerve and guided into fascicles supplying a toe extensor muscle. Selective microstimulation was achieved for 14 single motor axons. Contractile responses were measured via an angular displacement transducer over the relevant toe. After the responses to regular trains of 10 stimuli extending from 2 to 100 Hz were recorded, irregular trains of 10 stimuli, based on the interspike intervals recorded from single motor units during voluntary contractions, were delivered. Finally, the stimulation sequences were repeated following a 2-min period of continuous stimulation at 10 Hz to induce muscle fatigue. Regular trains of stimuli generated a sigmoidal increase in displacement with frequency, whereas irregular trains, emulating the firing of volitionally driven motoneurons, displayed significantly greater responses over the same frequency range (8-24 Hz). This was maintained even in the presence of fatigue. We conclude that physiological discharge variability, which incorporates short and long interspike intervals, offers an advantage to the neuromuscular system by allowing motor units to operate on a higher level of the contraction-frequency curve and taking advantage of catch-like properties in skeletal muscle.

  20. L1-norm locally linear representation regularization multi-source adaptation learning.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jianwen; Wen, Shiting; Hu, Wenjun

    2015-09-01

    In most supervised domain adaptation learning (DAL) tasks, one has access only to a small number of labeled examples from target domain. Therefore the success of supervised DAL in this "small sample" regime needs the effective utilization of the large amounts of unlabeled data to extract information that is useful for generalization. Toward this end, we here use the geometric intuition of manifold assumption to extend the established frameworks in existing model-based DAL methods for function learning by incorporating additional information about the target geometric structure of the marginal distribution. We would like to ensure that the solution is smooth with respect to both the ambient space and the target marginal distribution. In doing this, we propose a novel L1-norm locally linear representation regularization multi-source adaptation learning framework which exploits the geometry of the probability distribution, which has two techniques. Firstly, an L1-norm locally linear representation method is presented for robust graph construction by replacing the L2-norm reconstruction measure in LLE with L1-norm one, which is termed as L1-LLR for short. Secondly, considering the robust graph regularization, we replace traditional graph Laplacian regularization with our new L1-LLR graph Laplacian regularization and therefore construct new graph-based semi-supervised learning framework with multi-source adaptation constraint, which is coined as L1-MSAL method. Moreover, to deal with the nonlinear learning problem, we also generalize the L1-MSAL method by mapping the input data points from the input space to a high-dimensional reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) via a nonlinear mapping. Promising experimental results have been obtained on several real-world datasets such as face, visual video and object.

  1. Lagrangian averaging, nonlinear waves, and shock regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, Harish S.

    In this thesis, we explore various models for the flow of a compressible fluid as well as model equations for shock formation, one of the main features of compressible fluid flows. We begin by reviewing the variational structure of compressible fluid mechanics. We derive the barotropic compressible Euler equations from a variational principle in both material and spatial frames. Writing the resulting equations of motion requires certain Lie-algebraic calculations that we carry out in detail for expository purposes. Next, we extend the derivation of the Lagrangian averaged Euler (LAE-alpha) equations to the case of barotropic compressible flows. The derivation in this thesis involves averaging over a tube of trajectories etaepsilon centered around a given Lagrangian flow eta. With this tube framework, the LAE-alpha equations are derived by following a simple procedure: start with a given action, expand via Taylor series in terms of small-scale fluid fluctuations xi, truncate, average, and then model those terms that are nonlinear functions of xi. We then analyze a one-dimensional subcase of the general models derived above. We prove the existence of a large family of traveling wave solutions. Computing the dispersion relation for this model, we find it is nonlinear, implying that the equation is dispersive. We carry out numerical experiments that show that the model possesses smooth, bounded solutions that display interesting pattern formation. Finally, we examine a Hamiltonian partial differential equation (PDE) that regularizes the inviscid Burgers equation without the addition of standard viscosity. Here alpha is a small parameter that controls a nonlinear smoothing term that we have added to the inviscid Burgers equation. We show the existence of a large family of traveling front solutions. We analyze the initial-value problem and prove well-posedness for a certain class of initial data. We prove that in the zero-alpha limit, without any standard viscosity

  2. Manifold regularized multitask learning for semi-supervised multilabel image classification.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yong; Tao, Dacheng; Geng, Bo; Xu, Chao; Maybank, Stephen J

    2013-02-01

    It is a significant challenge to classify images with multiple labels by using only a small number of labeled samples. One option is to learn a binary classifier for each label and use manifold regularization to improve the classification performance by exploring the underlying geometric structure of the data distribution. However, such an approach does not perform well in practice when images from multiple concepts are represented by high-dimensional visual features. Thus, manifold regularization is insufficient to control the model complexity. In this paper, we propose a manifold regularized multitask learning (MRMTL) algorithm. MRMTL learns a discriminative subspace shared by multiple classification tasks by exploiting the common structure of these tasks. It effectively controls the model complexity because different tasks limit one another's search volume, and the manifold regularization ensures that the functions in the shared hypothesis space are smooth along the data manifold. We conduct extensive experiments, on the PASCAL VOC'07 dataset with 20 classes and the MIR dataset with 38 classes, by comparing MRMTL with popular image classification algorithms. The results suggest that MRMTL is effective for image classification.

  3. Multisensory integration of redundant trisensory stimulation.

    PubMed

    Hagmann, Carl Erick; Russo, Natalie

    2016-11-01

    Integration of sensory information across modalities can confer behavioral advantages by decreasing perceptual ambiguity, increasing reaction time, and increasing detection accuracy relative to unisensory stimuli. We asked how combinations of auditory, visual, and somatosensory events alter response time. Participants detected stimulation on one side of space (right or left) while ignoring stimulation on the other side of space. There were seven types of suprathreshold stimuli: auditory (tones from speakers), visual (sinusoidal contrast gratings), somatosensory (fingertip vibrations), audio-visual, somato-visual, audio-somatosensory, and audio-somato-visual. Response enhancement and race model analysis confirmed that bisensory and trisensory trials enhanced response time relative to unisensory trials. Exploratory analysis of individual differences in intersensory facilitation revealed that participants fit into one of two groups: those who benefitted from trisensory information and those who did not.

  4. A regularizing iterative ensemble Kalman method for PDE-constrained inverse problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, Marco A.

    2016-02-01

    We introduce a derivative-free computational framework for approximating solutions to nonlinear PDE-constrained inverse problems. The general aim is to merge ideas from iterative regularization with ensemble Kalman methods from Bayesian inference to develop a derivative-free stable method easy to implement in applications where the PDE (forward) model is only accessible as a black box (e.g. with commercial software). The proposed regularizing ensemble Kalman method can be derived as an approximation of the regularizing Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) scheme (Hanke 1997 Inverse Problems 13 79-95) in which the derivative of the forward operator and its adjoint are replaced with empirical covariances from an ensemble of elements from the admissible space of solutions. The resulting ensemble method consists of an update formula that is applied to each ensemble member and that has a regularization parameter selected in a similar fashion to the one in the LM scheme. Moreover, an early termination of the scheme is proposed according to a discrepancy principle-type of criterion. The proposed method can be also viewed as a regularizing version of standard Kalman approaches which are often unstable unless ad hoc fixes, such as covariance localization, are implemented. The aim of this paper is to provide a detailed numerical investigation of the regularizing and convergence properties of the proposed regularizing ensemble Kalman scheme; the proof of these properties is an open problem. By means of numerical experiments, we investigate the conditions under which the proposed method inherits the regularizing properties of the LM scheme of (Hanke 1997 Inverse Problems 13 79-95) and is thus stable and suitable for its application in problems where the computation of the Fréchet derivative is not computationally feasible. More concretely, we study the effect of ensemble size, number of measurements, selection of initial ensemble and tunable parameters on the performance of the method

  5. Dose domain regularization of MLC leaf patterns for highly complex IMRT plans

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Dan; Yu, Victoria Y.; Ruan, Dan; Cao, Minsong; Low, Daniel A.; Sheng, Ke; O’Connor, Daniel

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: The advent of automated beam orientation and fluence optimization enables more complex intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning using an increasing number of fields to exploit the expanded solution space. This has created a challenge in converting complex fluences to robust multileaf collimator (MLC) segments for delivery. A novel method to regularize the fluence map and simplify MLC segments is introduced to maximize delivery efficiency, accuracy, and plan quality. Methods: In this work, we implemented a novel approach to regularize optimized fluences in the dose domain. The treatment planning problem was formulated in an optimization framework to minimize the segmentation-induced dose distribution degradation subject to a total variation regularization to encourage piecewise smoothness in fluence maps. The optimization problem was solved using a first-order primal-dual algorithm known as the Chambolle-Pock algorithm. Plans for 2 GBM, 2 head and neck, and 2 lung patients were created using 20 automatically selected and optimized noncoplanar beams. The fluence was first regularized using Chambolle-Pock and then stratified into equal steps, and the MLC segments were calculated using a previously described level reducing method. Isolated apertures with sizes smaller than preset thresholds of 1–3 bixels, which are square units of an IMRT fluence map from MLC discretization, were removed from the MLC segments. Performance of the dose domain regularized (DDR) fluences was compared to direct stratification and direct MLC segmentation (DMS) of the fluences using level reduction without dose domain fluence regularization. Results: For all six cases, the DDR method increased the average planning target volume dose homogeneity (D95/D5) from 0.814 to 0.878 while maintaining equivalent dose to organs at risk (OARs). Regularized fluences were more robust to MLC sequencing, particularly to the stratification and small aperture removal. The maximum and

  6. Quantum search algorithms on a regular lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Hein, Birgit; Tanner, Gregor

    2010-07-15

    Quantum algorithms for searching for one or more marked items on a d-dimensional lattice provide an extension of Grover's search algorithm including a spatial component. We demonstrate that these lattice search algorithms can be viewed in terms of the level dynamics near an avoided crossing of a one-parameter family of quantum random walks. We give approximations for both the level splitting at the avoided crossing and the effectively two-dimensional subspace of the full Hilbert space spanning the level crossing. This makes it possible to give the leading order behavior for the search time and the localization probability in the limit of large lattice size including the leading order coefficients. For d=2 and d=3, these coefficients are calculated explicitly. Closed form expressions are given for higher dimensions.

  7. Centers for the commercial development of space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Susan E. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    In 1985, NASA initiated an innovative effort called Centers for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS). The CCDS program was designed to increase private-sector interest and investment in space-related activities, while encouraging U.S. economic leadership and stimulating advances in promising areas of research and development. Research conducted in the Centers handling the following areas is summarized: materials processing; life sciences; remote sensing; automation and robotics; space propulsion; space structures and materials; and space power.

  8. Regular and chaotic motions in applied dynamics of a rigid body.

    PubMed

    Beletskii, V. V.; Pivovarov, M. L.; Starostin, E. L.

    1996-06-01

    Periodic and regular motions, having a predictable functioning mode, play an important role in many problems of dynamics. The achievements of mathematics and mechanics (beginning with Poincare) have made it possible to establish that such motion modes, generally speaking, are local and form "islands" of regularity in a "chaotic sea" of essentially unpredictable trajectories. The development of computer techniques together with theoretical investigations makes it possible to study the global structure of the phase space of many problems having applied significance. A review of a number of such problems, considered by the authors in the past four or five years, is given in this paper. These include orientation and rotation problems of artificial and natural celestial bodies and the problem of controlling the motion of a locomotion robot. The structure of phase space is investigated for these problems. The phase trajectories of the motion are constructed by a numerical implementation of the Poincare point map method. Distinctions are made between regular (or resonance), quasiregular (or conditionally periodic), and chaotic trajectories. The evolution of the phase picture as the parameters are varied is investigated. A large number of "phase portraits" gives a notion of the arrangement and size of the stability islands in the "sea" of chaotic motions, about the appearance and disappearance of these islands as the parameters are varied, etc. (c) 1996 American Institute of Physics.

  9. Vagus Nerve Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Howland, Robert H

    2014-06-01

    The vagus nerve is a major component of the autonomic nervous system, has an important role in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis, and plays a key role in the neuroendocrine-immune axis to maintain homeostasis through its afferent and efferent pathways. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) refers to any technique that stimulates the vagus nerve, including manual or electrical stimulation. Left cervical VNS is an approved therapy for refractory epilepsy and for treatment resistant depression. Right cervical VNS is effective for treating heart failure in preclinical studies and a phase II clinical trial. The effectiveness of various forms of non-invasive transcutaneous VNS for epilepsy, depression, primary headaches, and other conditions has not been investigated beyond small pilot studies. The relationship between depression, inflammation, metabolic syndrome, and heart disease might be mediated by the vagus nerve. VNS deserves further study for its potentially favorable effects on cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, metabolic, and other physiological biomarkers associated with depression morbidity and mortality.

  10. Vagus Nerve Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Howland, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    The vagus nerve is a major component of the autonomic nervous system, has an important role in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis, and plays a key role in the neuroendocrine-immune axis to maintain homeostasis through its afferent and efferent pathways. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) refers to any technique that stimulates the vagus nerve, including manual or electrical stimulation. Left cervical VNS is an approved therapy for refractory epilepsy and for treatment resistant depression. Right cervical VNS is effective for treating heart failure in preclinical studies and a phase II clinical trial. The effectiveness of various forms of non-invasive transcutaneous VNS for epilepsy, depression, primary headaches, and other conditions has not been investigated beyond small pilot studies. The relationship between depression, inflammation, metabolic syndrome, and heart disease might be mediated by the vagus nerve. VNS deserves further study for its potentially favorable effects on cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, metabolic, and other physiological biomarkers associated with depression morbidity and mortality. PMID:24834378

  11. Fundamental and Regular Elementary Schools: Do Differences Exist?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Larry J.; And Others

    This study compared the academic achievement and other outcomes of three public fundamental elementary schools with three regular elementary schools in a metropolitan school district. Modeled after the John Marshal Fundamental School in Pasadena, California, which opened in the fall of 1973, fundamental schools differ from regular schools in that…

  12. Analysis of regularized Navier-Stokes equations, 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ou, Yuh-Roung; Sritharan, S. S.

    1989-01-01

    A practically important regularization of the Navier-Stokes equations was analyzed. As a continuation of the previous work, the structure of the attractors characterizing the solutins was studied. Local as well as global invariant manifolds were found. Regularity properties of these manifolds are analyzed.

  13. 20 CFR 216.13 - Regular current connection test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Regular current connection test. 216.13... ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Current Connection With the Railroad Industry § 216.13 Regular current connection test. An employee has a current connection with the railroad industry if he or she meets one of...

  14. Regular and Special Educators Inservice: A Model of Cooperative Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Duyne, H. John; And Others

    The Regular Education Inservice Program (REIT) at Bowling Green State University (Ohio) assists instructional resource centers (IRC's) and local educational agencies (LEA's) in developing and implementing inservice non-degree programs which respond to the mandates of Public Law 94-142. The target population is regular education personnel working…

  15. Cognitive Aspects of Regularity Exhibit When Neighborhood Disappears

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Sau-Chin; Hu, Jon-Fan

    2015-01-01

    Although regularity refers to the compatibility between pronunciation of character and sound of phonetic component, it has been suggested as being part of consistency, which is defined by neighborhood characteristics. Two experiments demonstrate how regularity effect is amplified or reduced by neighborhood characteristics and reveals the…

  16. 39 CFR 3010.7 - Schedule of regular rate changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Schedule of regular rate changes. 3010.7 Section... PRODUCTS General Provisions § 3010.7 Schedule of regular rate changes. (a) The Postal Service shall... estimated implementation dates for future Type 1-A rate changes for each separate class of mail, should...

  17. Chimeric mitochondrial peptides from contiguous regular and swinger RNA.

    PubMed

    Seligmann, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    Previous mass spectrometry analyses described human mitochondrial peptides entirely translated from swinger RNAs, RNAs where polymerization systematically exchanged nucleotides. Exchanges follow one among 23 bijective transformation rules, nine symmetric exchanges (X ↔ Y, e.g. A ↔ C) and fourteen asymmetric exchanges (X → Y → Z → X, e.g. A → C → G → A), multiplying by 24 DNA's protein coding potential. Abrupt switches from regular to swinger polymerization produce chimeric RNAs. Here, human mitochondrial proteomic analyses assuming abrupt switches between regular and swinger transcriptions, detect chimeric peptides, encoded by part regular, part swinger RNA. Contiguous regular- and swinger-encoded residues within single peptides are stronger evidence for translation of swinger RNA than previously detected, entirely swinger-encoded peptides: regular parts are positive controls matched with contiguous swinger parts, increasing confidence in results. Chimeric peptides are 200 × rarer than swinger peptides (3/100,000 versus 6/1000). Among 186 peptides with > 8 residues for each regular and swinger parts, regular parts of eleven chimeric peptides correspond to six among the thirteen recognized, mitochondrial protein-coding genes. Chimeric peptides matching partly regular proteins are rarer and less expressed than chimeric peptides matching non-coding sequences, suggesting targeted degradation of misfolded proteins. Present results strengthen hypotheses that the short mitogenome encodes far more proteins than hitherto assumed. Entirely swinger-encoded proteins could exist.

  18. 47 CFR 76.614 - Cable television system regular monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cable television system regular monitoring. 76... SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Technical Standards § 76.614 Cable television system regular monitoring. Cable television operators transmitting carriers in the frequency bands...

  19. 47 CFR 76.614 - Cable television system regular monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cable television system regular monitoring. 76... SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Technical Standards § 76.614 Cable television system regular monitoring. Cable television operators transmitting carriers in the frequency bands...

  20. 47 CFR 76.614 - Cable television system regular monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cable television system regular monitoring. 76... SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Technical Standards § 76.614 Cable television system regular monitoring. Cable television operators transmitting carriers in the frequency bands...

  1. 47 CFR 76.614 - Cable television system regular monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cable television system regular monitoring. 76... SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Technical Standards § 76.614 Cable television system regular monitoring. Cable television operators transmitting carriers in the frequency bands...

  2. 29 CFR 778.500 - Artificial regular rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Artificial regular rates. 778.500 Section 778.500 Labor... Circumvent the Act Devices to Evade the Overtime Requirements § 778.500 Artificial regular rates. (a) Since... of his compensation. Payment for overtime on the basis of an artificial “regular” rate will...

  3. 29 CFR 778.500 - Artificial regular rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Artificial regular rates. 778.500 Section 778.500 Labor... Circumvent the Act Devices to Evade the Overtime Requirements § 778.500 Artificial regular rates. (a) Since... of his compensation. Payment for overtime on the basis of an artificial “regular” rate will...

  4. 29 CFR 778.500 - Artificial regular rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Artificial regular rates. 778.500 Section 778.500 Labor... Circumvent the Act Devices to Evade the Overtime Requirements § 778.500 Artificial regular rates. (a) Since... of his compensation. Payment for overtime on the basis of an artificial “regular” rate will...

  5. 29 CFR 778.500 - Artificial regular rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Artificial regular rates. 778.500 Section 778.500 Labor... Circumvent the Act Devices to Evade the Overtime Requirements § 778.500 Artificial regular rates. (a) Since... of his compensation. Payment for overtime on the basis of an artificial “regular” rate will...

  6. 29 CFR 778.500 - Artificial regular rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Artificial regular rates. 778.500 Section 778.500 Labor... Circumvent the Act Devices to Evade the Overtime Requirements § 778.500 Artificial regular rates. (a) Since... of his compensation. Payment for overtime on the basis of an artificial “regular” rate will...

  7. 29 CFR 778.408 - The specified regular rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... employee's compensation. Suppose, for example, that the compensation of an employee is normally made up in...) with an employee whose regular weekly earnings are made up in part by the payment of regular bonuses... compensation, over and above the guaranteed amount, by way of extra premiums for work on holidays, or...

  8. New York Canyon Stimulation

    SciTech Connect

    Raemy, Bernard

    2012-06-21

    The New York Canyon Stimulation Project was to demonstrate the commercial application of Enhanced Geothermal System techniques in Buena Vista Valley area of Pershing County, Nevada. From October 2009 to early 2012, TGP Development Company aggressively implemented Phase I of Pre-Stimulation and Site/Wellbore readiness. This included: geological studies; water studies and analyses and procurement of initial permits for drilling. Oversubscription of water rights and lack of water needed for implementation of EGS were identified and remained primary obstacles. Despite extended efforts to find alternative solutions, the water supply circumstances could not be overcome and led TGP to determine a "No Go" decision and initiate project termination in April 2012.

  9. Regular expression order-sorted unification and matching

    PubMed Central

    Kutsia, Temur; Marin, Mircea

    2015-01-01

    We extend order-sorted unification by permitting regular expression sorts for variables and in the domains of function symbols. The obtained signature corresponds to a finite bottom-up unranked tree automaton. We prove that regular expression order-sorted (REOS) unification is of type infinitary and decidable. The unification problem presented by us generalizes some known problems, such as, e.g., order-sorted unification for ranked terms, sequence unification, and word unification with regular constraints. Decidability of REOS unification implies that sequence unification with regular hedge language constraints is decidable, generalizing the decidability result of word unification with regular constraints to terms. A sort weakening algorithm helps to construct a minimal complete set of REOS unifiers from the solutions of sequence unification problems. Moreover, we design a complete algorithm for REOS matching, and show that this problem is NP-complete and the corresponding counting problem is #P-complete. PMID:26523088

  10. Nonconvex regularizations in fluorescence molecular tomography for sparsity enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Dianwen; Li, Changqing

    2014-06-01

    In vivo fluorescence imaging has been a popular functional imaging modality in preclinical imaging. Near infrared probes used in fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) are designed to localize in the targeted tissues, hence sparse solution to the FMT image reconstruction problem is preferred. Nonconvex regularization methods are reported to enhance sparsity in the fields of statistical learning, compressed sensing etc. We investigated such regularization methods in FMT for small animal imaging with numerical simulations and phantom experiments. We adopted a majorization-minimization algorithm for the iterative reconstruction process and compared the reconstructed images using our proposed nonconvex regularizations with those using the well known L1 regularization. We found that the proposed nonconvex methods outperform L1 regularization in accurately recovering sparse targets in FMT.

  11. Lipschitz regularity for integro-differential equations with coercive Hamiltonians and application to large time behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barles, Guy; Ley, Olivier; Topp, Erwin

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we provide suitable adaptations of the ‘weak version of Bernstein method’ introduced by the first author in 1991, in order to obtain Lipschitz regularity results and Lipschitz estimates for nonlinear integro-differential elliptic and parabolic equations set in the whole space. Our interest is to obtain such Lipschitz results to possibly degenerate equations, or to equations which are indeed ‘uniformly elliptic’ (maybe in the nonlocal sense) but which do not satisfy the usual ‘growth condition’ on the gradient term allowing to use (for example) the Ishii-Lions’ method. We treat the case of a model equation with a superlinear coercivity on the gradient term which has a leading role in the equation. This regularity result together with comparison principle provided for the problem allow to obtain the ergodic large time behavior of the evolution problem in the periodic setting.

  12. Diffractive index determination by Tikhonov regularization on forced string vibration data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asekritova, Irina; Nilsson, Börje; Rydström, Sara

    2009-03-01

    Wave analysis is efficient for investigating the interior of objects. Examples are ultra sound examination of humans and radar using elastic and electromagnetic waves. A common procedure is inverse scattering where both transmitters and receivers are located outside the object or on its boundary. A variant is when both transmitters and receivers are located on the scattering object. The canonical model is a finite inhomogeneous string driven by a harmonic point force. The inverse problem for the determination of the diffractive index of the string is studied. This study is a first step to the problem for the determination of the mechanical strength of wooden logs. An inverse scattering theory is formulated incorporating two regularizing strategies. The results of simulations using this theory show that the suggested method works quite well and that the regularization methods based on the couple of spaces (L2, H1) could be very useful in such problems.

  13. Regularity criteria for unsteady MHD third grade fluid due to rotating porous disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, S.; Hayat, T.; Ahmad, B.

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of present paper is to establish the regularity criteria for nonlinear problem of unsteady flow of third grade fluid in a rotating frame. The fluid is between two plates and the lower plate is porous. The main result of this paper is to establish the global regularity of classical solutions when | F| _{BMO}2, | g| _{BMO}2, | partial g/partial y| _{BMO}2 and | partial 2 g/partial y2| _{BMO}2 are sufficiently small. In addition uniqueness of weak solution is also verified. Here BMO denotes the homogeneous space of bounded mean oscillations, F is the velocity and g=nabla × F=partial F/partial z is the vorticity of the rotating fluid.

  14. A regularized model for impact in explicit dynamics applied to the split Hopkinson pressure bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Peter; De Lorenzis, Laura; Unger, Jörg F.

    2016-10-01

    In the numerical simulation of impact phenomena, artificial oscillations can occur due to an instantaneous change of velocity in the contact area. In this paper, a nonlinear penalty regularization is used to avoid these oscillations. A particular focus is the investigation of higher order methods in space and time to increase the computational efficiency. The spatial discretization is realized by higher order spectral element methods that are characterized by a diagonal mass matrix. The time integration scheme is based on half-explicit Runge-Kutta scheme of fourth order. For the conditionally stable scheme, the critical time step is influenced by the penalty regularization. A framework is presented to adjust the penalty stiffness and the time step for a specific mesh to avoid oscillations. The methods presented in this paper are applied to 1D-simulations of a split Hopkinson pressure bar, which is commonly used for the investigation of materials under dynamic loading.

  15. Theoretical properties of regularities in the oscillation spectra of A-F main-sequence stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez, Juan Carlos; Hernández, Antonio García; Moya, Andrés; Rodrigo, Carlos; Solano, Enrique; Garrido, Rafael; Rodón, José R.

    2014-02-01

    We study the theoretical properties of the regular spacings found in the oscillation spectra of δ Scuti stars. A linear relation between the large separation and the mean density is predicted to be found in the low-frequency domain (i.e. radial orders spanning from 1 to 8, approximately) of the main-sequence δ Scuti stars' oscillation spectrum. This implies an independent direct measure of the average density of δ Scuti stars, analogous to that of the Sun, and places tight constraints on the mode identification and hence on the stellar internal structure and dynamics, and allows a determination the radii of planets orbiting around δ Scuti stars with unprecedented precision. This opens the way for studying the evolution of regular patterns in pulsating stars, and its relation to stellar structure and evolution.

  16. Entropy principle, non-regular processes, and generalized exploitation procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triani, V.; Cimmelli, V. A.

    2012-06-01

    The classical Coleman-Noll approach to the exploitation of the entropy principle regards the classical balances of mass, linear and angular momentum and energy as differential constraints for the entropy inequality, and presupposes that the second law of thermodynamics is a restriction on the constitutive equations describing the material properties [B. D. Coleman and W. Noll, "The thermodynamics of elastic materials with heat conduction and viscosity," Arch. Rational Mech. Anal. 13, 167-178 (1963), 10.1007/BF01262690]. In 1996, Muschik and Ehrentraut proved that this presupposition may be confirmed by a rigorous proof, provided that an amendment to the classical second law of thermodynamics, which asserts that, except in equilibria, reversible process directions in state space do not exist, is postulated ["An amendment to the second law," J. Non-Equilib. Thermodyn. 21, 175-192 (1996), 10.1515/jnet.1996.21.2.175]. In their paper, the authors considered regular processes only. In a recent article [V. Triani and V. A. Cimmelli, "Interpretation of second law of thermodynamics in the presence of interfaces," Continuum. Mech. Thermodyn. 24, 165-174 (2012), 10.1007/s00161-011-0231-8], we proved that the result above remains valid in the presence of interfaces across which the unknown fields suffer jump discontinuities. Here, we show that the same conclusions achieved by Muschik and Ehrentraut and Triani and Cimmelli hold when the classical Coleman-Noll and Liu ["Method of Lagrange multipliers for exploitation of the entropy principle," Arch. Rational Mech. Anal. 46, 131-148 (1972), 10.1007/BF00250688] procedures for the exploitation of the second law, are generalized by considering also the gradients of the fundamental balance equations as constraints for the entropy inequality.

  17. Implicit Regularization for Reconstructing 3D Building Rooftop Models Using Airborne LiDAR Data

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jaewook; Jwa, Yoonseok; Sohn, Gunho

    2017-01-01

    With rapid urbanization, highly accurate and semantically rich virtualization of building assets in 3D become more critical for supporting various applications, including urban planning, emergency response and location-based services. Many research efforts have been conducted to automatically reconstruct building models at city-scale from remotely sensed data. However, developing a fully-automated photogrammetric computer vision system enabling the massive generation of highly accurate building models still remains a challenging task. One the most challenging task for 3D building model reconstruction is to regularize the noises introduced in the boundary of building object retrieved from a raw data with lack of knowledge on its true shape. This paper proposes a data-driven modeling approach to reconstruct 3D rooftop models at city-scale from airborne laser scanning (ALS) data. The focus of the proposed method is to implicitly derive the shape regularity of 3D building rooftops from given noisy information of building boundary in a progressive manner. This study covers a full chain of 3D building modeling from low level processing to realistic 3D building rooftop modeling. In the element clustering step, building-labeled point clouds are clustered into homogeneous groups by applying height similarity and plane similarity. Based on segmented clusters, linear modeling cues including outer boundaries, intersection lines, and step lines are extracted. Topology elements among the modeling cues are recovered by the Binary Space Partitioning (BSP) technique. The regularity of the building rooftop model is achieved by an implicit regularization process in the framework of Minimum Description Length (MDL) combined with Hypothesize and Test (HAT). The parameters governing the MDL optimization are automatically estimated based on Min-Max optimization and Entropy-based weighting method. The performance of the proposed method is tested over the International Society for

  18. Systematic regularization of linear inverse solutions of the EEG source localization problem.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Christophe; Rugg, Michael D; Fristont, Karl J

    2002-09-01

    Distributed linear solutions of the EEG source localization problem are used routinely. Here we describe an approach based on the weighted minimum norm method that imposes constraints using anatomical and physiological information derived from other imaging modalities to regularize the solution. In this approach the hyperparameters controlling the degree of regularization are estimated using restricted maximum likelihood (ReML). EEG data are always contaminated by noise, e.g., exogenous noise and background brain activity. The conditional expectation of the source distribution, given the data, is attained by carefully balancing the minimization of the residuals induced by noise and the improbability of the estimates as determined by their priors. This balance is specified by hyperparameters that control the relative importance of fitting and conforming to prior constraints. Here we introduce a systematic approach to this regularization problem, in the context of a linear observation model we have described previously. In this model, basis functions are extracted to reduce the solution space a priori in the spatial and temporal domains. The basis sets are motivated by knowledge of the evoked EEG response and information theory. In this paper we focus on an iterative "expectation-maximization" procedure to jointly estimate the conditional expectation of the source distribution and the ReML hyperparameters on which this solution rests. We used simulated data mixed with real EEG noise to explore the behavior of the approach with various source locations, priors, and noise levels. The results enabled us to conclude: (i) Solutions in the space of informed basis functions have a high face and construct validity, in relation to conventional analyses. (ii) The hyperparameters controlling the degree of regularization vary largely with source geometry and noise. The second conclusion speaks to the usefulness of using adaptative ReML hyperparameter estimates.

  19. Neural dynamics during repetitive visual stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoneva, Tsvetomira; Garcia-Molina, Gary; Desain, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Objective. Steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs), the brain responses to repetitive visual stimulation (RVS), are widely utilized in neuroscience. Their high signal-to-noise ratio and ability to entrain oscillatory brain activity are beneficial for their applications in brain-computer interfaces, investigation of neural processes underlying brain rhythmic activity (steady-state topography) and probing the causal role of brain rhythms in cognition and emotion. This paper aims at analyzing the space and time EEG dynamics in response to RVS at the frequency of stimulation and ongoing rhythms in the delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma bands. Approach.We used electroencephalography (EEG) to study the oscillatory brain dynamics during RVS at 10 frequencies in the gamma band (40-60 Hz). We collected an extensive EEG data set from 32 participants and analyzed the RVS evoked and induced responses in the time-frequency domain. Main results. Stable SSVEP over parieto-occipital sites was observed at each of the fundamental frequencies and their harmonics and sub-harmonics. Both the strength and the spatial propagation of the SSVEP response seem sensitive to stimulus frequency. The SSVEP was more localized around the parieto-occipital sites for higher frequencies (>54 Hz) and spread to fronto-central locations for lower frequencies. We observed a strong negative correlation between stimulation frequency and relative power change at that frequency, the first harmonic and the sub-harmonic components over occipital sites. Interestingly, over parietal sites for sub-harmonics a positive correlation of relative power change and stimulation frequency was found. A number of distinct patterns in delta (1-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz) and beta (15-30 Hz) bands were also observed. The transient response, from 0 to about 300 ms after stimulation onset, was accompanied by increase in delta and theta power over fronto-central and occipital sites, which returned to baseline

  20. Encoding of configural regularity in the human visual system.

    PubMed

    Kubilius, Jonas; Wagemans, Johan; Op de Beeck, Hans P

    2014-08-13

    The visual system is very efficient in encoding stimulus properties by utilizing available regularities in the inputs. To explore the underlying encoding strategies during visual information processing, we presented participants with two-line configurations that varied in the amount of configural regularity (or degrees of freedom in the relative positioning of the two lines) in a fMRI experiment. Configural regularity ranged from a generic configuration to stimuli resembling an "L" (i.e., a right-angle L-junction), a "T" (i.e., a right-angle midpoint T-junction), or a "+",-the latter being the most regular stimulus. We found that the response strength in the shape-selective lateral occipital area was consistently lower for a higher degree of regularity in the stimuli. In the second experiment, using multivoxel pattern analysis, we further show that regularity is encoded in terms of the fMRI signal strength but not in the distributed pattern of responses. Finally, we found that the results of these experiments could not be accounted for by low-level stimulus properties and are distinct from norm-based encoding. Our results suggest that regularity plays an important role in stimulus encoding in the ventral visual processing stream.

  1. Strategy for implementing research in hydrology to promote space science among school children in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alabi, Omowumi O.

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes a proposed activity to introduce school children in Nigeria to research in hydrology through the public outreach coordinated by the United Nations affiliated African Regional Centre for Space Science and Technology Education in English (ARCSSTE-E). Over the years, ARCSSTE-E has established a vibrant relationship with Nigerian schools through periodic zonal and national space educational workshops organized for students and teachers. The enthusiasm displayed by the students, coupled with the brilliant performance in the evaluation tests, indicated that this method of informal education is suitable for stimulating the interest of Nigerian pre-collegiate youths in space science and technology, and also to inspire the young learners and develop their interest in the Sciences, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM). Because only few representatives from each school can participate in these public outreach programs, it became expedient for the Centre to inaugurate space clubs in schools as a forum for students and teachers to meet regularly to discuss space related issues. Since the first space club was officially launched in 2007, the Centre has inaugurated over 300 space clubs in primary, secondary and tertiary institutions, strategically distributed over the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria. The presentation highlights a space club activity designed to introduce the students to precipitation data collection, with locally fabricated rain gauges. The paper also documents the proposed post-data collection activities in which ARCSSTE-E, acting as the coordinating Centre will collaborate with other national and international organizations to standardize and utilize the rainfall data collected by the students for ground validation of satellite data from the Global Precipitation Measurement. Key words: Public Outreach, Space Club, Human Capacity Development, Hydrologic Research, Global Precipitation Measurement.

  2. Transcranial brain stimulation: closing the loop between brain and stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Karabanov, Anke; Thielscher, Axel; Siebner, Hartwig Roman

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review To discuss recent strategies for boosting the efficacy of noninvasive transcranial brain stimulation to improve human brain function. Recent findings Recent research exposed substantial intra- and inter-individual variability in response to plasticity-inducing transcranial brain stimulation. Trait-related and state-related determinants contribute to this variability, challenging the standard approach to apply stimulation in a rigid, one-size-fits-all fashion. Several strategies have been identified to reduce variability and maximize the plasticity-inducing effects of noninvasive transcranial brain stimulation. Priming interventions or paired associative stimulation can be used to ‘standardize’ the brain-state and hereby, homogenize the group response to stimulation. Neuroanatomical and neurochemical profiling based on magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy can capture trait-related and state-related variability. Fluctuations in brain-states can be traced online with functional brain imaging and inform the timing or other settings of transcranial brain stimulation. State-informed open-loop stimulation is aligned to the expression of a predefined brain state, according to prespecified rules. In contrast, adaptive closed-loop stimulation dynamically adjusts stimulation settings based on the occurrence of stimulation-induced state changes. Summary Approaches that take into account trait-related and state-related determinants of stimulation-induced plasticity bear considerable potential to establish noninvasive transcranial brain stimulation as interventional therapeutic tool. PMID:27224087

  3. Blind image deblurring with edge enhancing total variation regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yu; Hong, Hanyu; Song, Jie; Hua, Xia

    2015-04-01

    Blind image deblurring is an important issue. In this paper, we focus on solving this issue by constrained regularization method. Motivated by the importance of edges to visual perception, the edge-enhancing indicator is introduced to constrain the total variation regularization, and the bilateral filter is used for edge-preserving smoothing. The proposed edge enhancing regularization method aims to smooth preferably within each region and preserve edges. Experiments on simulated and real motion blurred images show that the proposed method is competitive with recent state-of-the-art total variation methods.

  4. Low-Rank Matrix Factorization With Adaptive Graph Regularizer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Gui-Fu; Wang, Yong; Zou, Jian

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we present a novel low-rank matrix factorization algorithm with adaptive graph regularizer (LMFAGR). We extend the recently proposed low-rank matrix with manifold regularization (MMF) method with an adaptive regularizer. Different from MMF, which constructs an affinity graph in advance, LMFAGR can simultaneously seek graph weight matrix and low-dimensional representations of data. That is, graph construction and low-rank matrix factorization are incorporated into a unified framework, which results in an automatically updated graph rather than a predefined one. The experimental results on some data sets demonstrate that the proposed algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art low-rank matrix factorization methods.

  5. Some results on the spectra of strongly regular graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, Luís António de Almeida; Mano, Vasco Moço

    2016-06-01

    Let G be a strongly regular graph whose adjacency matrix is A. We associate a real finite dimensional Euclidean Jordan algebra 𝒱, of rank three to the strongly regular graph G, spanned by I and the natural powers of A, endowed with the Jordan product of matrices and with the inner product as being the usual trace of matrices. Finally, by the analysis of the binomial Hadamard series of an element of 𝒱, we establish some inequalities on the parameters and on the spectrum of a strongly regular graph like those established in theorems 3 and 4.

  6. Quaternion regularization and stabilization of perturbed central motion. II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelnokov, Yu. N.

    1993-04-01

    Generalized regular quaternion equations for the three-dimensional two-body problem in terms of Kustaanheimo-Stiefel variables are obtained within the framework of the quaternion theory of regularizing and stabilizing transformations of the Newtonian equations for perturbed central motion. Regular quaternion equations for perturbed central motion of a material point in a central field with a certain potential Pi are also derived in oscillatory and normal forms. In addition, systems of perturbed central motion equations are obtained which include quaternion equations of perturbed orbit orientations in oscillatory or normal form, and a generalized Binet equation is derived. A comparative analysis of the equations is carried out.

  7. Space Discovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackman, Joan

    1998-01-01

    Describes one teacher's experience taking Space Discovery courses that were sponsored by the United States Space Foundation (USSF). These courses examine the history of space science, theory of orbits and rocketry, the effects of living in outer space on humans, and space weather. (DDR)

  8. Motion-adaptive spatio-temporal regularization for accelerated dynamic MRI.

    PubMed

    Asif, M Salman; Hamilton, Lei; Brummer, Marijn; Romberg, Justin

    2013-09-01

    Accelerated magnetic resonance imaging techniques reduce signal acquisition time by undersampling k-space. A fundamental problem in accelerated magnetic resonance imaging is the recovery of quality images from undersampled k-space data. Current state-of-the-art recovery algorithms exploit the spatial and temporal structures in underlying images to improve the reconstruction quality. In recent years, compressed sensing theory has helped formulate mathematical principles and conditions that ensure recovery of (structured) sparse signals from undersampled, incoherent measurements. In this article, a new recovery algorithm, motion-adaptive spatio-temporal regularization, is presented that uses spatial and temporal structured sparsity of MR images in the compressed sensing framework to recover dynamic MR images from highly undersampled k-space data. In contrast to existing algorithms, our proposed algorithm models temporal sparsity using motion-adaptive linear transformations between neighboring images. The efficiency of motion-adaptive spatio-temporal regularization is demonstrated with experiments on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging for a range of reduction factors. Results are also compared with k-t FOCUSS with motion estimation and compensation-another recently proposed recovery algorithm for dynamic magnetic resonance imaging. .

  9. EU Space Awareness: Initial implemenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    EU Space Awareness uses the excitement of space to attract young people into science and technology and stimulate European and global citizenship. The project will show children and teenagers the opportunities offered by space science and engineering and inspire primary-school children when their curiosity is high and their value systems are being formed. EU Space Awareness, a 3-year project, has started in March 2015 with 10 partner organisations and 15 network nodes in 17 European countries and the IAU Office of Astronomy for Development. During this talk we will give a update about the intial implementation of the project and its relevant for astronomy for development.

  10. Space physiology and medicine, 2nd ed

    SciTech Connect

    Nicogossian, A.E.; Huntoon, C.L.; Pool, S.L.; Johnson, P.C.

    1988-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Physiological Adaptation to Space Flight: Overall Adaptation to Space Flight and Implications; The Neurovestibular System; Performance; The Cardiopulmonary System; Nutrition; Bone and Mineral Metabolism; Hematology, Immunology, Endocrinology, and Biochemistry; Microgravity: Stimulations and Analogs; Health Maintenance of Space Crewmemebers: Medical Evaluation for Astronaut Selection and Longitudinal Studies; Biomedical Training of Space Crews; Ground-Based Medical Programs; Countermeasures to Space Deconditioning; Medical Problems of Space Flight: Toxic Hazards in Space Operations; Radiation Exposure Issues and Medical Care and Health Maintenance in Flight.

  11. Stimulated Raman photoacoustic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yakovlev, Vladislav V.; Zhang, Hao F.; Noojin, Gary D.; Denton, Michael L.; Thomas, Robert J.; Scully, Marlan O.

    2010-01-01

    Achieving label-free, molecular-specific imaging with high spatial resolution in deep tissue is often considered the grand challenge of optical imaging. To accomplish this goal, significant optical scattering in tissues has to be overcome while achieving molecular specificity without resorting to extrinsic labeling. We demonstrate the feasibility of developing such an optical imaging modality by combining the molecularly specific stimulated Raman excitation with the photoacoustic detection. By employing two ultrashort excitation laser pulses, separated in frequency by the vibrational frequency of a targeted molecule, only the specific vibrational level of the target molecules in the illuminated tissue volume is excited. This targeted optical absorption generates ultrasonic waves (referred to as stimulated Raman photoacoustic waves) which are detected using a traditional ultrasonic transducer to form an image following the design of the established photoacoustic microscopy. PMID:21059930

  12. Electromechanical Nerve Stimulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tcheng, Ping; Supplee, Frank H., Jr.; Prass, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    Nerve stimulator applies and/or measures precisely controlled force and/or displacement to nerve so response of nerve measured. Consists of three major components connected in tandem: miniature probe with spherical tip; transducer; and actuator. Probe applies force to nerve, transducer measures force and sends feedback signal to control circuitry, and actuator positions force transducer and probe. Separate box houses control circuits and panel. Operator uses panel to select operating mode and parameters. Stimulator used in research to characterize behavior of nerve under various conditions of temperature, anesthesia, ventilation, and prior damage to nerve. Also used clinically to assess damage to nerve from disease or accident and to monitor response of nerve during surgery.

  13. A novel regularized edge-preserving super-resolution algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hui; Chen, Fu-sheng; Zhang, Zhi-jie; Wang, Chen-sheng

    2013-09-01

    Using super-resolution (SR) technology is a good approach to obtain high-resolution infrared image. However, Image super-resolution reconstruction is essentially an ill-posed problem, it is important to design an effective regularization term (image prior). Gaussian prior is widely used in the regularization term, but the reconstructed SR image becomes over-smoothness. Here, a novel regularization term called non-local means (NLM) term is derived based on the assumption that the natural image content is likely to repeat itself within some neighborhood. In the proposed framework, the estimated high image is obtained by minimizing a cost function. The iteration method is applied to solve the optimum problem. With the progress of iteration, the regularization term is adaptively updated. The proposed algorithm has been tested in several experiments. The experimental results show that the proposed approach is robust and can reconstruct higher quality images both in quantitative term and perceptual effect.

  14. Thermodynamical Stability of a New Regular Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadat, Hassan

    2013-09-01

    In this paper we consider a new regular black hole and calculate thermodynamical variables such as entropy, specific heat and free energy. Then we study thermodynamical stability of this black hole by using the specific heat in constant volume.

  15. Spelling-stress regularity effects are intact in developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Mundy, Ian R; Carroll, Julia M

    2013-01-01

    The current experiment investigated conflicting predictions regarding the effects of spelling-stress regularity on the lexical decision performance of skilled adult readers and adults with developmental dyslexia. In both reading groups, lexical decision responses were significantly faster and significantly more accurate when the orthographic structure of a word ending was a reliable as opposed to an unreliable predictor of lexical stress assignment. Furthermore, the magnitude of this spelling-stress regularity effect was found to be equivalent across reading groups. These findings are consistent with intact phoneme-level regularity effects also observed in dyslexia. The paper discusses how findings of intact spelling-sound regularity effects at both prosodic and phonemic levels, as well as other similar results, can be reconciled with the obvious difficulties that people with dyslexia experience in other domains of phonological processing.

  16. 39 CFR 3010.7 - Schedule of regular rate changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... shall display the Schedule for Regular and Predictable Rate Changes on the Commission Web site, http... of mailers of each class of mail in developing the schedule. (e) Whenever the Postal Service deems...

  17. Regularized Chapman-Enskog expansion for scalar conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schochet, Steven; Tadmor, Eitan

    1990-01-01

    Rosenau has recently proposed a regularized version of the Chapman-Enskog expansion of hydrodynamics. This regularized expansion resembles the usual Navier-Stokes viscosity terms at law wave-numbers, but unlike the latter, it has the advantage of being a bounded macroscopic approximation to the linearized collision operator. The behavior of Rosenau regularization of the Chapman-Enskog expansion (RCE) is studied in the context of scalar conservation laws. It is shown that thie RCE model retains the essential properties of the usual viscosity approximation, e.g., existence of traveling waves, monotonicity, upper-Lipschitz continuity..., and at the same time, it sharpens the standard viscous shock layers. It is proved that the regularized RCE approximation converges to the underlying inviscid entropy solution as its mean-free-path epsilon approaches 0, and the convergence rate is estimated.

  18. Mini-Stroke vs. Regular Stroke: What's the Difference?

    MedlinePlus

    ... How is a ministroke different from a regular stroke? Answers from Jerry W. Swanson, M.D. When ... brain, spinal cord or retina, which may cause stroke-like symptoms but does not damage brain cells ...

  19. Automatic Constraint Detection for 2D Layout Regularization.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Haiyong; Nan, Liangliang; Yan, Dong-Ming; Dong, Weiming; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Wonka, Peter

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of constraint detection for layout regularization. The layout we consider is a set of two-dimensional elements where each element is represented by its bounding box. Layout regularization is important in digitizing plans or images, such as floor plans and facade images, and in the improvement of user-created contents, such as architectural drawings and slide layouts. To regularize a layout, we aim to improve the input by detecting and subsequently enforcing alignment, size, and distance constraints between layout elements. Similar to previous work, we formulate layout regularization as a quadratic programming problem. In addition, we propose a novel optimization algorithm that automatically detects constraints. We evaluate the proposed framework using a variety of input layouts from different applications. Our results demonstrate that our method has superior performance to the state of the art.

  20. Are Pupils in Special Education Too "Special" for Regular Education?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pijl, Ysbrand J.; Pijl, Sip J.

    1998-01-01

    In the Netherlands special needs pupils are often referred to separate schools for the Educable Mentally Retarded (EMR) or the Learning Disabled (LD). There is an ongoing debate on how to reduce the growing numbers of special education placements. One of the main issues in this debate concerns the size of the difference in cognitive abilities between pupils in regular education and those eligible for LD or EMR education. In this study meta-analysis techniques were used to synthesize the findings from 31 studies on differences between pupils in regular primary education and those in special education in the Netherlands. Studies were grouped into three categories according to the type of measurements used: achievement, general intelligence and neuropsychological tests. It was found that pupils in regular education and those in special education differ in achievement and general intelligence. Pupils in schools for the educable mentally retarded in particular perform at a much lower level than is common in regular Dutch primary education.

  1. Loop Invariants, Exploration of Regularities, and Mathematical Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginat, David

    2001-01-01

    Presents an approach for illustrating, on an intuitive level, the significance of loop invariants for algorithm design and analysis. The illustration is based on mathematical games that require the exploration of regularities via problem-solving heuristics. (Author/MM)

  2. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor.

    PubMed

    Tuncel, Murat

    2016-01-05

    Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) plays a pivotal role in thyroid hormone metabolism. It is a major controller of thyroid cell function and growth. Mutations in TSHR may lead to several thyroid diseases, most commonly hyperthyroidism. Although its genetic and epigenetic alterations do not directly lead to carcinogenesis, it has a crucial role in tumor growth, which is initiated by several oncogenes. This article will provide a brief review of TSHR and related diseases.

  3. Deep Brain Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, X.L.; Xiong, Y.Y.; Xu, G.L.; Liu, X.F.

    2013-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has provided remarkable therapeutic benefits for people with a variety of neurological disorders. Despite the uncertainty of the precise mechanisms underlying its efficacy, DBS is clinically effective in improving motor function of essential tremor, Parkinson's disease and primary dystonia and in relieving obsessive-compulsive disorder. Recently, this surgical technique has continued to expand to other numerous neurological diseases with encouraging results. This review highlighted the current and potential future clinical applications of DBS. PMID:25187779

  4. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Tuncel, Murat

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) plays a pivotal role in thyroid hormone metabolism. It is a major controller of thyroid cell function and growth. Mutations in TSHR may lead to several thyroid diseases, most commonly hyperthyroidism. Although its genetic and epigenetic alterations do not directly lead to carcinogenesis, it has a crucial role in tumor growth, which is initiated by several oncogenes. This article will provide a brief review of TSHR and related diseases. PMID:28117293

  5. Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderton, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The official start of a bold new space program, essential to maintain the United States' leadership in space was signaled by a Presidential directive to move aggressively again into space by proceeding with the development of a space station. Development concepts for a permanently manned space station are discussed. Reasons for establishing an inhabited space station are given. Cost estimates and timetables are also cited.

  6. Raft River well stimulation experiments: geothermal reservoir well stimulation program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    The Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program (GRWSP) performed two field experiments at the Raft River KGRA in 1979. Wells RRGP-4 and RRGP-5 were selected for the hydraulic fracture stimulation treatments. The well selection process, fracture treatment design, field execution, stimulation results, and pre- and post-job evaluations are presented.

  7. Human Tissue Stimulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Neurodyne Corporation Human Tissue Stimulator (HTS) is a totally implantable system used for treatment of chronic pain and involuntary motion disorders by electrical stimulation. It was developed by Pacesetter Systems, Inc. in cooperation with the Applied Physics Laboratory. HTS incorporates a nickel cadmium battery, telemetry and command systems technologies of the same type as those used in NASA's Small Astronomy Satellite-3 in microminiature proportions so that the implantable element is the size of a deck of cards. The stimulator includes a rechargeable battery, an antenna and electronics to receive and process commands and to report on its own condition via telemetry, a wireless process wherein instrument data is converted to electrical signals and sent to a receiver where signals are presented as usable information. The HTS is targeted to nerve centers or to particular areas of the brain to provide relief from intractable pain or arrest involuntary motion. The nickel cadmium battery can be recharged through the skin. The first two HTS units were implanted last year and have been successful. Extensive testing is required before HTS can be made available for general use.

  8. A Regularized Neural Net Approach for Retrieval of Atmospheric and Surface Temperatures with the IASI Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aires, F.; Chedin, A.; Scott, N. A.; Rossow, W. B.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, a fast atmospheric and surface temperature retrieval algorithm is developed for the high resolution Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) space-borne instrument. This algorithm is constructed on the basis of a neural network technique that has been regularized by introduction of a priori information. The performance of the resulting fast and accurate inverse radiative transfer model is presented for a large divE:rsified dataset of radiosonde atmospheres including rare events. Two configurations are considered: a tropical-airmass specialized scheme and an all-air-masses scheme.

  9. Regularization by Functions of Bounded Variation and Applications to Image Enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Casas, E.; Pola, C.

    1999-09-15

    Optimization problems regularized by bounded variation seminorms are analyzed. The optimality system is obtained and finite-dimensional approximations of bounded variation function spaces as well as of the optimization problems are studied. It is demonstrated that the choice of the vector norm in the definition of the bounded variation seminorm is of special importance for approximating subspaces consisting of piecewise constant functions. Algorithms based on a primal-dual framework that exploit the structure of these nondifferentiable optimization problems are proposed. Numerical examples are given for denoising of blocky images with very high noise.

  10. The Mimetic Finite Element Method and the Virtual Element Method for elliptic problems with arbitrary regularity.

    SciTech Connect

    Manzini, Gianmarco

    2012-07-13

    We develop and analyze a new family of virtual element methods on unstructured polygonal meshes for the diffusion problem in primal form, that use arbitrarily regular discrete spaces V{sub h} {contained_in} C{sup {alpha}} {element_of} N. The degrees of freedom are (a) solution and derivative values of various degree at suitable nodes and (b) solution moments inside polygons. The convergence of the method is proven theoretically and an optimal error estimate is derived. The connection with the Mimetic Finite Difference method is also discussed. Numerical experiments confirm the convergence rate that is expected from the theory.

  11. Error analysis of coefficient-based regularized algorithm for density-level detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Pan, Zhibin; Li, Luoqing; Tang, Yuanyan

    2013-04-01

    In this letter, we consider a density-level detection (DLD) problem by a coefficient-based classification framework with [Formula: see text]-regularizer and data-dependent hypothesis spaces. Although the data-dependent characteristic of the algorithm provides flexibility and adaptivity for DLD, it leads to difficulty in generalization error analysis. To overcome this difficulty, an error decomposition is introduced from an established classification framework. On the basis of this decomposition, the estimate of the learning rate is obtained by using Rademacher average and stepping-stone techniques. In particular, the estimate is independent of the capacity assumption used in the previous literature.

  12. On maximal parabolic regularity for non-autonomous parabolic operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disser, Karoline; ter Elst, A. F. M.; Rehberg, Joachim

    2017-02-01

    We consider linear inhomogeneous non-autonomous parabolic problems associated to sesquilinear forms, with discontinuous dependence of time. We show that for these problems, the property of maximal parabolic regularity can be extrapolated to time integrability exponents r ≠ 2. This allows us to prove maximal parabolic Lr-regularity for discontinuous non-autonomous second-order divergence form operators in very general geometric settings and to prove existence results for related quasilinear equations.

  13. Deaths in the UK Regular Armed Forces 2006

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-30

    DEATHS IN THE UK REGULAR ARMED FORCES 2006 INTRODUCTION • This National Statistic Notice provides summary statistics on deaths in 2006...categories of cause of death for 2006 (Table 2 and Figure 2). • Several changes have been made in the presentation of data from previous years. As...the Brigade of Gurkhas is part of the regular Army this Notice has been amended to include both the numbers of deaths for Gurkhas and the age

  14. Regular satellite formation and evolution in a dead zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cheng; Martin, Rebecca G.

    2017-01-01

    The dead zone in a circumplanetary disk is a non-turbulent region at the disk midplane that is an ideal location for regular satellite formation. The lower viscosity in the dead zone allows small objects to accrete and grow. We model the evolution of a circumplanetary disk with a dead zone for a range of disk and dead zone parameters. We investigate how these affect the formation and subsequent evolution of regular satellites that form in the disk.

  15. Iterative CT reconstruction using shearlet-based regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandeghinste, Bert; Goossens, Bart; Van Holen, Roel; Vanhove, Christian; Pizurica, Aleksandra; Vandenberghe, Stefaan; Staelens, Steven

    2012-03-01

    In computerized tomography, it is important to reduce the image noise without increasing the acquisition dose. Extensive research has been done into total variation minimization for image denoising and sparse-view reconstruction. However, TV minimization methods show superior denoising performance for simple images (with little texture), but result in texture information loss when applied to more complex images. Since in medical imaging, we are often confronted with textured images, it might not be beneficial to use TV. Our objective is to find a regularization term outperforming TV for sparse-view reconstruction and image denoising in general. A recent efficient solver was developed for convex problems, based on a split-Bregman approach, able to incorporate regularization terms different from TV. In this work, a proof-of-concept study demonstrates the usage of the discrete shearlet transform as a sparsifying transform within this solver for CT reconstructions. In particular, the regularization term is the 1-norm of the shearlet coefficients. We compared our newly developed shearlet approach to traditional TV on both sparse-view and on low-count simulated and measured preclinical data. Shearlet-based regularization does not outperform TV-based regularization for all datasets. Reconstructed images exhibit small aliasing artifacts in sparse-view reconstruction problems, but show no staircasing effect. This results in a slightly higher resolution than with TV-based regularization.

  16. The relationship between lifestyle regularity and subjective sleep quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Timothy H.; Reynolds, Charles F 3rd; Buysse, Daniel J.; DeGrazia, Jean M.; Kupfer, David J.

    2003-01-01

    In previous work we have developed a diary instrument-the Social Rhythm Metric (SRM), which allows the assessment of lifestyle regularity-and a questionnaire instrument--the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), which allows the assessment of subjective sleep quality. The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between lifestyle regularity and subjective sleep quality. Lifestyle regularity was assessed by both standard (SRM-17) and shortened (SRM-5) metrics; subjective sleep quality was assessed by the PSQI. We hypothesized that high lifestyle regularity would be conducive to better sleep. Both instruments were given to a sample of 100 healthy subjects who were studied as part of a variety of different experiments spanning a 9-yr time frame. Ages ranged from 19 to 49 yr (mean age: 31.2 yr, s.d.: 7.8 yr); there were 48 women and 52 men. SRM scores were derived from a two-week diary. The hypothesis was confirmed. There was a significant (rho = -0.4, p < 0.001) correlation between SRM (both metrics) and PSQI, indicating that subjects with higher levels of lifestyle regularity reported fewer sleep problems. This relationship was also supported by a categorical analysis, where the proportion of "poor sleepers" was doubled in the "irregular types" group as compared with the "non-irregular types" group. Thus, there appears to be an association between lifestyle regularity and good sleep, though the direction of causality remains to be tested.

  17. Analysis of a regularized, time-staggered discretization method and its link to the semi-implicit method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, J.; Reich, S.; Staniforth, A.; White, A.; Wood, N.

    2005-04-01

    A key aspect of the recently proposed Hamiltonian particle-mesh (HPM) method is its time-staggered discretization combined with a regularization of the continuous governing equations. In this article, the time discretization aspect of the HPM method is analysed for the linearized, rotating, shallow-water equations with orography, and the combined effect of time-staggering and regularization is compared analytically with the popular two-time-level semi-implicit time discretization of the unregularized equations. It is found that the two approaches are essentially equivalent, provided the regularization parameter is chosen appropriately in terms of the time step t. The article treats space as a continuum and, hence, its analysis is not limited to the HPM method.

  18. Motor cortex stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    De Rose, Marisa; Guzzi, Giusy; Bosco, Domenico; Romano, Mary; Lavano, Serena Marianna; Plastino, Massimiliano; Volpentesta, Giorgio; Marotta, Rosa; Lavano, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    Motor Cortex Stimulation (MCS) is less efficacious than Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson's disease. However, it might be proposed to patients excluded from DBS or unresponsive to DBS. Ten patients with advanced PD underwent unilateral MCS contralaterally to the worst clinical side. A plate electrode was positioned over the motor cortex in the epidural space through single burr hole after identification of the area with neuronavigation and neurophysiological tests. Clinical assessment was performed by total UPDRS, UPDRS III total, UPDRS III-items 27-31, UPDRS IV, and UPDRS II before implantation in off-medication and on-medication states and after surgery at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months in on-medication/on-stimulation and off-medication/on-stimulation states. We assessed changes of quality of life, throughout the Parkinson's disease quality of life scale (PDQoL-39), and the dose of anti-Parkinson's disease medications, throughout the Ldopa equivalent daily dose (LEDD). During off-medication state, we observed moderate and transitory reduction of total UPDRS and UPDRS total scores and significant and long-lasting improvement in UPDRS III items 27-31 score for axial symptoms. There was marked reduction of UPDRS IV score and LEDD. PDQL-39 improvement was also significant. No important complications and adverse events occurred.

  19. Motor Cortex Stimulation in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    De Rose, Marisa; Guzzi, Giusy; Bosco, Domenico; Romano, Mary; Lavano, Serena Marianna; Plastino, Massimiliano; Volpentesta, Giorgio; Marotta, Rosa; Lavano, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    Motor Cortex Stimulation (MCS) is less efficacious than Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson's disease. However, it might be proposed to patients excluded from DBS or unresponsive to DBS. Ten patients with advanced PD underwent unilateral MCS contralaterally to the worst clinical side. A plate electrode was positioned over the motor cortex in the epidural space through single burr hole after identification of the area with neuronavigation and neurophysiological tests. Clinical assessment was performed by total UPDRS, UPDRS III total, UPDRS III-items 27–31, UPDRS IV, and UPDRS II before implantation in off-medication and on-medication states and after surgery at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months in on-medication/on-stimulation and off-medication/on-stimulation states. We assessed changes of quality of life, throughout the Parkinson's disease quality of life scale (PDQoL-39), and the dose of anti-Parkinson's disease medications, throughout the Ldopa equivalent daily dose (LEDD). During off-medication state, we observed moderate and transitory reduction of total UPDRS and UPDRS total scores and significant and long-lasting improvement in UPDRS III items 27–31 score for axial symptoms. There was marked reduction of UPDRS IV score and LEDD. PDQL-39 improvement was also significant. No important complications and adverse events occurred. PMID:23213520

  20. Space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Donald F.; Hayes, Judith

    1989-01-01

    The history of American space flight indicates that a space station is the next logical step in the scientific pursuit of greater knowledge of the universe. The Space Station and its complement of space vehicles, developed by NASA, will add new dimensions to an already extensive space program in the United States. The Space Station offers extraordinary benefits for a comparatively modest investment (currently estimated at one-ninth the cost of the Apollo Program). The station will provide a permanent multipurpose facility in orbit necessary for the expansion of space science and technology. It will enable significant advancements in life sciences research, satellite communications, astronomy, and materials processing. Eventually, the station will function in support of the commercialization and industrialization of space. Also, as a prerequisite to manned interplanetary exploration, the long-duration space flights typical of Space Station missions will provide the essential life sciences research to allow progressively longer human staytime in space.

  1. Variational regularization of complex deautoconvolution and phase retrieval in ultrashort laser pulse characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anzengruber, Stephan W.; Bürger, Steven; Hofmann, Bernd; Steinmeyer, Günter

    2016-03-01

    The SD-SPIDER method for the characterization of ultrashort laser pulses requires the solution of a nonlinear integral equation of autoconvolution type with a device-based kernel function. Taking into account the analytical background of a variational regularization approach for solving the corresponding ill-posed operator equation formulated in complex-valued L2-spaces over finite real intervals, we suggest and evaluate numerical procedures using NURBS and the TIGRA method for calculating the regularized solutions in a stable manner. In this context, besides the complex deautoconvolution problem with noisy but full data, a phase retrieval problem is introduced which adapts to the experimental state of the art in laser optics. For the treatment of this problem facet, which is formulated as a tensor product operator equation, we derive the well-posedness of variational regularization methods. Case studies with synthetic and real optical data show the capability of the implemented approach as well as its limitations due to measurement deficits.

  2. Tunneling into quantum wires: Regularization of the tunneling Hamiltonian and consistency between free and bosonized fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippone, Michele; Brouwer, Piet W.

    2016-12-01

    Tunneling between a point contact and a one-dimensional wire is usually described with the help of a tunneling Hamiltonian that contains a δ function in position space. Whereas the leading-order contribution to the tunneling current is independent of the way this δ function is regularized, higher-order corrections with respect to the tunneling amplitude are known to depend on the regularization. Instead of regularizing the δ function in the tunneling Hamiltonian, one may also obtain a finite tunneling current by invoking the ultraviolet cutoffs in a field-theoretic description of the electrons in the one-dimensional conductor, a procedure that is often used in the literature. For the latter case, we show that standard ultraviolet cutoffs lead to different results for the tunneling current in fermionic and bosonized formulations of the theory, when going beyond leading order in the tunneling amplitude. We show how to recover the standard fermionic result using the formalism of functional bosonization and revisit the tunneling current to leading order in the interacting case.

  3. A Regularized Linear Dynamical System Framework for Multivariate Time Series Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zitao; Hauskrecht, Milos

    2015-01-01

    Linear Dynamical System (LDS) is an elegant mathematical framework for modeling and learning Multivariate Time Series (MTS). However, in general, it is difficult to set the dimension of an LDS’s hidden state space. A small number of hidden states may not be able to model the complexities of a MTS, while a large number of hidden states can lead to overfitting. In this paper, we study learning methods that impose various regularization penalties on the transition matrix of the LDS model and propose a regularized LDS learning framework (rLDS) which aims to (1) automatically shut down LDSs’ spurious and unnecessary dimensions, and consequently, address the problem of choosing the optimal number of hidden states; (2) prevent the overfitting problem given a small amount of MTS data; and (3) support accurate MTS forecasting. To learn the regularized LDS from data we incorporate a second order cone program and a generalized gradient descent method into the Maximum a Posteriori framework and use Expectation Maximization to obtain a low-rank transition matrix of the LDS model. We propose two priors for modeling the matrix which lead to two instances of our rLDS. We show that our rLDS is able to recover well the intrinsic dimensionality of the time series dynamics and it improves the predictive performance when compared to baselines on both synthetic and real-world MTS datasets. PMID:25905027

  4. Global services systems - Space communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepphird, F. H.; Wolbers, H. L.

    1979-01-01

    The requirements projected to the year 2000 for space-based global service systems, including both personal communications and innovative services, are developed based on historic trends and anticipated worldwide demographic and economic growth patterns. The growing demands appear to be best satisfied by developing larger, more sophisticated space systems in order to reduce the size, complexity, and expense of ground terminals. The availability of low-cost ground terminals will, in turn, further stimulate the generation of new services and new customers.

  5. The Rocks From Space 'Space Safari

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Victoria; Brooks, Val

    2010-05-01

    We describe an integrated online science programme incorporating Moodle virtual learning environments (VLEs) and Elluminate Live! virtual classrooms. The "Space Safari" was run as part of the Rocks From Space (RFS) programme hosted at The Open University (OU) and in partnership with Stockton City Learning Centre (SCLC). Schools used these resources for direct science teaching or to incorporate them into the wider curriculum (arts/literature etc), after which they produce an output. Emphasis was on providing links between schools and scientists within the higher education sector. Live sessions with experts via Elluminate Live! were held regularly, including sessions with NASA scientists and astronomers in Mallorca. Teachers and students have used Space Safari resources as part of the school science curriculum and to develop key skills and additional curriculum skills. They have also used it for informal (forums, online discussions) opportunities to engage with science. Over 3 years of the project, over 1500 students have engaged, with the project. The use of virtual classrooms enabled direct interaction with many students; one session alone involved over 100 students. This project is now hosted on the eTwinning portal to enable sustainability and widen access.

  6. Resampling Images to a Regular Grid From a Non-Regular Subset of Pixel Positions Using Frequency Selective Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Jurgen; Jonscher, Markus; Schöberl, Michael; Kaup, André

    2015-11-01

    Even though image signals are typically defined on a regular 2D grid, there also exist many scenarios where this is not the case and the amplitude of the image signal only is available for a non-regular subset of pixel positions. In such a case, a resampling of the image to a regular grid has to be carried out. This is necessary since almost all algorithms and technologies for processing, transmitting or displaying image signals rely on the samples being available on a regular grid. Thus, it is of great importance to reconstruct the image on this regular grid, so that the reconstruction comes closest to the case that the signal has been originally acquired on the regular grid. In this paper, Frequency Selective Reconstruction is introduced for solving this challenging task. This algorithm reconstructs image signals by exploiting the property that small areas of images can be represented sparsely in the Fourier domain. By further considering the basic properties of the optical transfer function of imaging systems, a sparse model of the signal is iteratively generated. In doing so, the proposed algorithm is able to achieve a very high reconstruction quality, in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and structural similarity measure as well as in terms of visual quality. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is able to outperform state-of-the-art reconstruction algorithms and gains of more than 1 dB PSNR are possible.

  7. Regular treatment with salmeterol for chronic asthma: serious adverse events

    PubMed Central

    Cates, Christopher J; Cates, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiological evidence has suggested a link between beta2-agonists and increases in asthma mortality. There has been much debate about possible causal links for this association, and whether regular (daily) long-acting beta2-agonists are safe. Objectives The aim of this review is to assess the risk of fatal and non-fatal serious adverse events in trials that randomised patients with chronic asthma to regular salmeterol versus placebo or regular short-acting beta2-agonists. Search methods We identified trials using the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register of trials. We checked websites of clinical trial registers for unpublished trial data and FDA submissions in relation to salmeterol. The date of the most recent search was August 2011. Selection criteria We included controlled parallel design clinical trials on patients of any age and severity of asthma if they randomised patients to treatment with regular salmeterol and were of at least 12 weeks’ duration. Concomitant use of inhaled corticosteroids was allowed, as long as this was not part of the randomised treatment regimen. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently selected trials for inclusion in the review. One author extracted outcome data and the second checked them. We sought unpublished data on mortality and serious adverse events. Main results The review includes 26 trials comparing salmeterol to placebo and eight trials comparing with salbutamol. These included 62,815 participants with asthma (including 2,599 children). In six trials (2,766 patients), no serious adverse event data could be obtained. All-cause mortality was higher with regular salmeterol than placebo but the increase was not significant (Peto odds ratio (OR) 1.33 (95% CI 0.85 to 2.08)). Non-fatal serious adverse events were significantly increased when regular salmeterol was compared with placebo (OR 1.15 95% CI 1.02 to 1.29). One extra serious adverse event occurred over 28 weeks for every 188 people

  8. An adaptive regularization parameter choice strategy for multispectral bioluminescence tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Feng Jinchao; Qin Chenghu; Jia Kebin; Han Dong; Liu Kai; Zhu Shouping; Yang Xin; Tian Jie

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Bioluminescence tomography (BLT) provides an effective tool for monitoring physiological and pathological activities in vivo. However, the measured data in bioluminescence imaging are corrupted by noise. Therefore, regularization methods are commonly used to find a regularized solution. Nevertheless, for the quality of the reconstructed bioluminescent source obtained by regularization methods, the choice of the regularization parameters is crucial. To date, the selection of regularization parameters remains challenging. With regards to the above problems, the authors proposed a BLT reconstruction algorithm with an adaptive parameter choice rule. Methods: The proposed reconstruction algorithm uses a diffusion equation for modeling the bioluminescent photon transport. The diffusion equation is solved with a finite element method. Computed tomography (CT) images provide anatomical information regarding the geometry of the small animal and its internal organs. To reduce the ill-posedness of BLT, spectral information and the optimal permissible source region are employed. Then, the relationship between the unknown source distribution and multiview and multispectral boundary measurements is established based on the finite element method and the optimal permissible source region. Since the measured data are noisy, the BLT reconstruction is formulated as l{sub 2} data fidelity and a general regularization term. When choosing the regularization parameters for BLT, an efficient model function approach is proposed, which does not require knowledge of the noise level. This approach only requests the computation of the residual and regularized solution norm. With this knowledge, we construct the model function to approximate the objective function, and the regularization parameter is updated iteratively. Results: First, the micro-CT based mouse phantom was used for simulation verification. Simulation experiments were used to illustrate why multispectral data were used

  9. Space Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Appropriate directions for the applied research and technology programs that will develop space power systems for U.S. future space missions beyond 1995 are explored. Spacecraft power supplies; space stations, space power reactors, solar arrays, thermoelectric generators, energy storage, and communication satellites are among the topics discussed.

  10. Space colonization.

    PubMed

    2002-12-01

    NASA interest in colonization encompasses space tourism; space exploration; space bases in orbit, at L1, on the Moon, or on Mars; in-situ resource utilization; and planetary terraforming. Activities progressed during 2002 in areas such as Mars colonies, hoppers, and biomass; space elevators and construction; and in-situ consumables.

  11. Prospective regularization design in prior-image-based reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Hao; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.; Stayman, J. Webster

    2015-01-01

    Prior-image-based reconstruction (PIBR) methods leveraging patient-specific anatomical information from previous imaging studies and/or sequences have demonstrated dramatic improvements in dose utilization and image quality for low-fidelity data. However, a proper balance of information from the prior images and information from the measurements is required (e.g., through careful tuning of regularization parameters). Inappropriate selection of reconstruction parameters can lead to detrimental effects including false structures and failure to improve image quality. Traditional methods based on heuristics are subject to error and sub-optimal solutions, while exhaustive searches require a large number of computationally intensive image reconstructions. In this work, we propose a novel method that prospectively estimates the optimal amount of prior image information for accurate admission of specific anatomical changes in PIBR without performing full image reconstructions. This method leverages an analytical approximation to the implicitly defined PIBR estimator, and introduces a predictive performance metric leveraging this analytical form and knowledge of a particular presumed anatomical change whose accurate reconstruction is sought. Additionally, since model-based PIBR approaches tend to be space-variant, a spatially varying prior image strength map is proposed to optimally admit changes everywhere in the image (eliminating the need to know change locations a priori). Studies were conducted in both an ellipse phantom and a realistic thorax phantom emulating a lung nodule surveillance scenario. The proposed method demonstrated accurate estimation of the optimal prior image strength while achieving a substantial computational speedup (about a factor of 20) compared to traditional exhaustive search. Moreover, the use of the proposed prior strength map in PIBR demonstrated accurate reconstruction of anatomical changes without foreknowledge of change locations in

  12. Prospective regularization design in prior-image-based reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Hao; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.; Webster Stayman, J.

    2015-12-01

    Prior-image-based reconstruction (PIBR) methods leveraging patient-specific anatomical information from previous imaging studies and/or sequences have demonstrated dramatic improvements in dose utilization and image quality for low-fidelity data. However, a proper balance of information from the prior images and information from the measurements is required (e.g. through careful tuning of regularization parameters). Inappropriate selection of reconstruction parameters can lead to detrimental effects including false structures and failure to improve image quality. Traditional methods based on heuristics are subject to error and sub-optimal solutions, while exhaustive searches require a large number of computationally intensive image reconstructions. In this work, we propose a novel method that prospectively estimates the optimal amount of prior image information for accurate admission of specific anatomical changes in PIBR without performing full image reconstructions. This method leverages an analytical approximation to the implicitly defined PIBR estimator, and introduces a predictive performance metric leveraging this analytical form and knowledge of a particular presumed anatomical change whose accurate reconstruction is sought. Additionally, since model-based PIBR approaches tend to be space-variant, a spatially varying prior image strength map is proposed to optimally admit changes everywhere in the image (eliminating the need to know change locations a priori). Studies were conducted in both an ellipse phantom and a realistic thorax phantom emulating a lung nodule surveillance scenario. The proposed method demonstrated accurate estimation of the optimal prior image strength while achieving a substantial computational speedup (about a factor of 20) compared to traditional exhaustive search. Moreover, the use of the proposed prior strength map in PIBR demonstrated accurate reconstruction of anatomical changes without foreknowledge of change locations in

  13. Multiscale regularized reconstruction for enhancing microcalcification in digital breast tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yao; Chan, Heang-Ping; Wei, Jun; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Zhou, Chuan

    2012-03-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) holds strong promise for improving the sensitivity of detecting subtle mass lesions. Detection of microcalcifications is more difficult because of high noise and subtle signals in the large DBT volume. It is important to enhance the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of microcalcifications in DBT reconstruction. A major challenge of implementing microcalcification enhancement or noise regularization in DBT reconstruction is to preserve the image quality of masses, especially those with ill-defined margins and subtle spiculations. We are developing a new multiscale regularization (MSR) method for the simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) to improve the CNR of microcalcifications without compromising the quality of masses. Each DBT slice is stratified into different frequency bands via wavelet decomposition and the regularization method applies different degrees of regularization to different frequency bands to preserve features of interest and suppress noise. Regularization is constrained by a characteristic map to avoid smoothing subtle microcalcifications. The characteristic map is generated via image feature analysis to identify potential microcalcification locations in the DBT volume. The MSR method was compared to the non-convex total pvariation (TpV) method and SART with no regularization (NR) in terms of the CNR and the full width at half maximum of the line profiles intersecting calcifications and mass spiculations in DBT of human subjects. The results demonstrated that SART regularized by the MSR method was superior to the TpV method for subtle microcalcifications in terms of CNR enhancement. The MSR method preserved the quality of subtle spiculations better than the TpV method in comparison to NR.

  14. Another look at statistical learning theory and regularization.

    PubMed

    Cherkassky, Vladimir; Ma, Yunqian

    2009-09-01

    The paper reviews and highlights distinctions between function-approximation (FA) and VC theory and methodology, mainly within the setting of regression problems and a squared-error loss function, and illustrates empirically the differences between the two when data is sparse and/or input distribution is non-uniform. In FA theory, the goal is to estimate an unknown true dependency (or 'target' function) in regression problems, or posterior probability P(y/x) in classification problems. In VC theory, the goal is to 'imitate' unknown target function, in the sense of minimization of prediction risk or good 'generalization'. That is, the result of VC learning depends on (unknown) input distribution, while that of FA does not. This distinction is important because regularization theory originally introduced under clearly stated FA setting [Tikhonov, N. (1963). On solving ill-posed problem and method of regularization. Doklady Akademii Nauk USSR, 153, 501-504; Tikhonov, N., & V. Y. Arsenin (1977). Solution of ill-posed problems. Washington, DC: W. H. Winston], has been later used under risk-minimization or VC setting. More recently, several authors [Evgeniou, T., Pontil, M., & Poggio, T. (2000). Regularization networks and support vector machines. Advances in Computational Mathematics, 13, 1-50; Hastie, T., Tibshirani, R., & Friedman, J. (2001). The elements of statistical learning: Data mining, inference and prediction. Springer; Poggio, T. and Smale, S., (2003). The mathematics of learning: Dealing with data. Notices of the AMS, 50 (5), 537-544] applied constructive methodology based on regularization framework to learning dependencies from data (under VC-theoretical setting). However, such regularization-based learning is usually presented as a purely constructive methodology (with no clearly stated problem setting). This paper compares FA/regularization and VC/risk minimization methodologies in terms of underlying theoretical assumptions. The control of model

  15. Early family regularity protects against later disruptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Tiemeier, Henning; Ringoot, Ank P; Ivanova, Masha Y; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Roza, Sabine J

    2016-07-01

    Infants' temperamental anger or frustration reactions are highly stable, but are also influenced by maturation and experience. It is yet unclear why some infants high in anger or frustration reactions develop disruptive behavior problems whereas others do not. We examined family regularity, conceptualized as the consistency of mealtime and bedtime routines, as a protective factor against the development of oppositional and aggressive behavior. This study used prospectively collected data from 3136 families participating in the Generation R Study. Infant anger or frustration reactions and family regularity were reported by mothers when children were ages 6 months and 2-4 years, respectively. Multiple informants (parents, teachers, and children) and methods (questionnaire and interview) were used in the assessment of children's oppositional and aggressive behavior at age 6. Higher levels of family regularity were associated with lower levels of child aggression independent of temperamental anger or frustration reactions (β = -0.05, p = 0.003). The association between child oppositional behavior and temperamental anger or frustration reactions was moderated by family regularity and child gender (β = 0.11, p = 0.046): family regularity reduced the risk for oppositional behavior among those boys who showed anger or frustration reactions in infancy. In conclusion, family regularity reduced the risk for child aggression and showed a gender-specific protective effect against child oppositional behavior associated with anger or frustration reactions. Families that ensured regularity of mealtime and bedtime routines buffered their infant sons high in anger or frustration reactions from developing oppositional behavior.

  16. Particle motion and Penrose processes around rotating regular black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdujabbarov, Ahmadjon

    2016-07-01

    The neutral particle motion around rotating regular black hole that was derived from the Ayón-Beato-García (ABG) black hole solution by the Newman-Janis algorithm in the preceding paper (Toshmatov et al., Phys. Rev. D, 89:104017, 2014) has been studied. The dependencies of the ISCO (innermost stable circular orbits along geodesics) and unstable orbits on the value of the electric charge of the rotating regular black hole have been shown. Energy extraction from the rotating regular black hole through various processes has been examined. We have found expression of the center of mass energy for the colliding neutral particles coming from infinity, based on the BSW (Baňados-Silk-West) mechanism. The electric charge Q of rotating regular black hole decreases the potential of the gravitational field as compared to the Kerr black hole and the particles demonstrate less bound energy at the circular geodesics. This causes an increase of efficiency of the energy extraction through BSW process in the presence of the electric charge Q from rotating regular black hole. Furthermore, we have studied the particle emission due to the BSW effect assuming that two neutral particles collide near the horizon of the rotating regular extremal black hole and produce another two particles. We have shown that efficiency of the energy extraction is less than the value 146.6 % being valid for the Kerr black hole. It has been also demonstrated that the efficiency of the energy extraction from the rotating regular black hole via the Penrose process decreases with the increase of the electric charge Q and is smaller in comparison to 20.7 % which is the value for the extreme Kerr black hole with the specific angular momentum a= M.

  17. Non-Negative Spectral Learning and Sparse Regression-Based Dual-Graph Regularized Feature Selection.

    PubMed

    Shang, Ronghua; Wang, Wenbing; Stolkin, Rustam; Jiao, Licheng

    2017-03-06

    Feature selection is an important approach for reducing the dimension of high-dimensional data. In recent years, many feature selection algorithms have been proposed, but most of them only exploit information from the data space. They often neglect useful information contained in the feature space, and do not make full use of the characteristics of the data. To overcome this problem, this paper proposes a new unsupervised feature selection algorithm, called non-negative spectral learning and sparse regression-based dual-graph regularized feature selection (NSSRD). NSSRD is based on the feature selection framework of joint embedding learning and sparse regression, but extends this framework by introducing the feature graph. By using low dimensional embedding learning in both data space and feature space, NSSRD simultaneously exploits the geometric information of both spaces. Second, the algorithm uses non-negative constraints to constrain the low-dimensional embedding matrix of both feature space and data space, ensuring that the elements in the matrix are non-negative. Third, NSSRD unifies the embedding matrix of the feature space and the sparse transformation matrix. To ensure the sparsity of the feature array, the sparse transformation matrix is constrained using the L₂,₂-norm. Thus feature selection can obtain accurate discriminative information from these matrices. Finally, NSSRD uses an iterative and alternative updating rule to optimize the objective function, enabling it to select the representative features more quickly and efficiently. This paper explains the objective function, the iterative updating rules and a proof of convergence. Experimental results show that NSSRD is significantly more effective than several other feature selection algorithms from the literature, on a variety of test data.

  18. Manifold parameter space and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Atsushi

    2004-11-01

    We review the several features of the new parameter space which we presented in the previous paper, and show the differentiable manifold properties of this parameter space coordinate. Using this parameter coordinate we calculate three Feynman amplitudes of the vacuum polarization with a gluon loop, a quark loop and a ghost loop in QCD and show that the results are perfectly equal to those of the usual calculations by the Feynman parametrization technique in the scheme of the dimensional regularization. Then we try to calculate the anomalous magnetic moment of an on-shell quark in QCD by using the dimensional regularization, our new parametrization and integral method.

  19. Regular theta-firing neurons in the nucleus incertus during sustained hippocampal activation.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Bellver, Sergio; Cervera-Ferri, Ana; Martínez-Ricós, Joana; Ruiz-Torner, Amparo; Luque-Garcia, Aina; Luque-Martinez, Aina; Blasco-Serra, Arantxa; Guerrero-Martínez, Juan; Bataller-Mompeán, Manuel; Teruel-Martí, Vicent

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes the existence of theta-coupled neuronal activity in the nucleus incertus (NI). Theta rhythm is relevant for cognitive processes such as spatial navigation and memory processing, and can be recorded in a number of structures related to the hippocampal activation including the NI. Strong evidence supports the role of this tegmental nucleus in neural circuits integrating behavioural activation with the hippocampal theta rhythm. Theta oscillations have been recorded in the local field potential of the NI, highly coupled to the hippocampal waves, although no rhythmical activity has been reported in neurons of this nucleus. The present work analyses the neuronal activity in the NI in conditions leading to sustained hippocampal theta in the urethane-anaesthetised rat, in order to test whether such activation elicits a differential firing pattern. Wavelet analysis has been used to better define the neuronal activity already described in the nucleus, i.e., non-rhythmical neurons firing at theta frequency (type I neurons) and fast-firing rhythmical neurons (type II). However, the most remarkable finding was that sustained stimulation activated regular-theta neurons (type III), which were almost silent in baseline conditions and have not previously been reported. Thus, we describe the electrophysiological properties of type III neurons, focusing on their coupling to the hippocampal theta. Their spike rate, regularity and phase locking to the oscillations increased at the beginning of the stimulation, suggesting a role in the activation or reset of the oscillation. Further research is needed to address the specific contribution of these neurons to the entire circuit.

  20. Space Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    invest in and support commercial efforts. In testimony before the House Committee on Space and Aeronautics in April of 2005, Elon Musk provided the...Response Launch Vehicle. Space Daily. Retrieved April 9, 2006 from www.spacedaily.com. 81 Musk , Elon (2005, April 20). Commercialization of Space...Space Transportation Policy. (2006, January 5). Retrieved May 30, 2006 from http://www.ostp.gov/html/SpaceTransFactSheetJan2005.pdf. 86 Musk , Elon

  1. On the Blow-up Criterion of 3D-NSE in Sobolev-Gevrey Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benameur, Jamel; Jlali, Lotfi

    2016-12-01

    In Benameur (Methods Appl 103:87-97, 2014), Benameur proved a blow-up result of the non regular solution of ( NSE) in the Sobolev-Gevrey spaces. In this paper we improve this result, precisely we give an exponential type explosion in Sobolev-Gevrey spaces with less regularity on the initial condition. Fourier analysis and standard techniques are used.

  2. Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation with Sawtooth Waves: Simultaneous Stimulation and EEG Recording.

    PubMed

    Dowsett, James; Herrmann, Christoph S

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) has until now mostly been administered as an alternating sinusoidal wave. Despite modern tACS stimulators being able to deliver alternating current with any arbitrary shape there has been no systematic exploration into the relative benefits of different waveforms. As tACS is a relatively new technique there is a huge parameter space of unexplored possibilities which may prove superior or complimentary to the traditional sinusoidal waveform. Here, we begin to address this with an investigation into the effects of sawtooth wave tACS on individual alpha power. Evidence from animal models suggests that the gradient and direction of an electric current should be important factors for the subsequent neural firing rate; we compared positive and negative ramp sawtooth waves to test this. An additional advantage of sawtooth waves is that the resulting artifact in the electroencephalogram (EEG) recording is significantly simpler to remove than a sine wave; accordingly we were able to observe alpha oscillations both during and after stimulation. We found that positive ramp sawtooth, but not negative ramp sawtooth, significantly enhanced alpha power during stimulation relative to sham (p < 0.01). In addition we tested for an after-effect of both sawtooth and sinusoidal stimulation on alpha power but in this case did not find any significant effect. This preliminary study paves the way for further investigations into the effect of the gradient and direction of the current in tACS which could significantly improve the usefulness of this technique.

  3. Dynamic MRI using SmooThness Regularization on Manifolds (SToRM)

    PubMed Central

    Poddar, Sunrita; Jacob, Mathews

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a novel algorithm to recover real time dynamic MR images from highly under-sampled k-t space measurements. The proposed scheme models the images in the dynamic dataset as points on a smooth, low dimensional manifold in high dimensional space. We propose to exploit the non-linear and non-local redundancies in the dataset by posing its recovery as a manifold smoothness regularized optimization problem. A navigator acquisition scheme is used to determine the structure of the manifold, or equivalently the associated graph Laplacian matrix. The estimated Laplacian matrix is used to recover the dataset from undersampled measurements. The utility of the proposed scheme is demonstrated by comparisons with state of the art methods in multi-slice real-time cardiac and speech imaging applications. PMID:26685228

  4. Existence, uniqueness and regularity for a class of semilinear stochastic Volterra equations with multiplicative noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeumer, Boris; Geissert, Matthias; Kovács, Mihály

    2015-01-01

    We consider a class of semilinear Volterra type stochastic evolution equation driven by multiplicative Gaussian noise. The memory kernel, not necessarily analytic, is such that the deterministic linear equation exhibits a parabolic character. Under appropriate Lipschitz-type and linear growth assumptions on the nonlinear terms we show that the unique mild solution is mean-p Hölder continuous with values in an appropriate Sobolev space depending on the kernel and the data. In particular, we obtain pathwise space-time (Sobolev-Hölder) regularity of the solution together with a maximal type bound on the spatial Sobolev norm. As one of the main technical tools we establish a smoothing property of the derivative of the deterministic evolution operator family.

  5. Prior regular exercise prevents synaptic plasticity impairment in sleep deprived female rats.

    PubMed

    Saadati, Hakimeh; Sheibani, Vahid; Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed; Hajali, Vahid; Mazhari, Shahrzad

    2014-09-01

    Previous studies have indicated that physical exercise plays a preventive role in synaptic plasticity deficits in the hippocampus of sleep-deprived male rats. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of treadmill running on early long term potentiation (E-LTP) at the Cornu Ammonis (CA1) area of the hippocampus in sleep-deprived female rats. Intact and ovariectomiezed (OVX) female Wistar rats were used in the present study. The exercise protocol was four weeks treadmill running and the multiple platform method was applied to induce 72 h sleep deprivation (SD). We examine the effect of exercise and/or SD on synaptic plasticity using in vivo extracellular recording in the CA1 area of the hippocampus. The field excitatory post-synaptic potential (fEPSP) slope was measured before and 2h after high frequency stimulation (HFS) in the experimental groups. Field potential recording indicated that the induction and maintenance phase of E-LTP impaired in the sleep deprived animals compared to the other groups. After 72 h SD, E-LTP impairments were prevented by 4 weeks of regular treadmill exercise. In conclusion, the synaptic plasticity deficit in sleep-deprived female rats was improved by regular physical exercise. Further studies are suggested to evaluate the possible underlying mechanisms.

  6. Exploiting Feature and Class Relationships in Video Categorization with Regularized Deep Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu-Gang; Wu, Zuxuan; Wang, Jun; Xue, Xiangyang; Chang, Shih-Fu

    2017-02-16

    In this paper, we study the challenging problem of categorizing videos according to high-level semantics such as the existence of a particular human action or a complex event. Although extensive efforts have been devoted in recent years, most existing works combined multiple video features using simple fusion strategies and neglected the utilization of inter-class semantic relationships. This paper proposes a novel unified framework that jointly exploits the feature relationships and the class relationships for improved categorization performance. Specifically, these two types of relationships are estimated and utilized by imposing regularizations in the learning process of a deep neural network (DNN). Through arming the DNN with better capability of harnessing both the feature and the class relationships, the proposed regularized DNN (rDNN) is more suitable for modeling video semantics. We show that rDNN produces better performance over several state-of-the-art approaches. Competitive results are reported on the well-known Hollywood2 and Columbia Consumer Video benchmarks. In addition, to stimulate future research on large scale video categorization, we collect and release a new benchmark dataset, called FCVID, which contains 91,223 Internet videos and 239 manually annotated categories.

  7. Regular treatment with formoterol for chronic asthma: serious adverse events

    PubMed Central

    Cates, Christopher J; Cates, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiological evidence has suggested a link between beta2-agonists and increases in asthma mortality. There has been much debate about possible causal links for this association, and whether regular (daily) long-acting beta2-agonists are safe. Objectives The aim of this review is to assess the risk of fatal and non-fatal serious adverse events in trials that randomised patients with chronic asthma to regular formoterol versus placebo or regular short-acting beta2-agonists. Search methods We identified trials using the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register of trials. We checked websites of clinical trial registers for unpublished trial data and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) submissions in relation to formoterol. The date of the most recent search was January 2012. Selection criteria We included controlled, parallel design clinical trials on patients of any age and severity of asthma if they randomised patients to treatment with regular formoterol and were of at least 12 weeks’ duration. Concomitant use of inhaled corticosteroids was allowed, as long as this was not part of the randomised treatment regimen. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently selected trials for inclusion in the review. One author extracted outcome data and the second author checked them. We sought unpublished data on mortality and serious adverse events. Main results The review includes 22 studies (8032 participants) comparing regular formoterol to placebo and salbutamol. Non-fatal serious adverse event data could be obtained for all participants from published studies comparing formoterol and placebo but only 80% of those comparing formoterol with salbutamol or terbutaline. Three deaths occurred on regular formoterol and none on placebo; this difference was not statistically significant. It was not possible to assess disease-specific mortality in view of the small number of deaths. Non-fatal serious adverse events were significantly increased when

  8. Space Technology for Medical Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1982

    1982-01-01

    A line of biomedical devices based on aerospace expertise leads a sampling of spinoffs in the field of medicine. These include a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)-developed computer program used by the Centers for Disease Control, medical products research, crawling aid, portable medical system, and human tissue stimulator.…

  9. Spatially variant regularization of lateral displacement measurement using variance.

    PubMed

    Sumi, Chikayoshi; Itoh, Toshiki

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to confirm the effectiveness of our proposed spatially variant displacement component-dependent regularization for our previously developed ultrasonic two-dimensional (2D) displacement vector measurement methods, i.e., 2D cross-spectrum phase gradient method (CSPGM), 2D autocorrelation method (AM), and 2D Doppler method (DM). Generally, the measurement accuracy of lateral displacement spatially varies and the accuracy is lower than that of axial displacement that is accurate enough. This inaccurate measurement causes an instability in a 2D shear modulus reconstruction. Thus, the spatially variant lateral displacement regularization using the lateral displacement variance will be effective in obtaining an accurate lateral strain measurement and a stable shear modulus reconstruction than a conventional spatially uniform regularization. The effectiveness is verified through agar phantom experiments. The agar phantom [60mm (height) x 100 mm (lateral width) x 40 mm (elevational width)] that has, at a depth of 10mm, a circular cylindrical inclusion (dia.=10mm) of a higher shear modulus (2.95 and 1.43 x 10(6)N/m(2), i.e., relative shear modulus, 2.06) is compressed in the axial direction from the upper surface of the phantom using a commercial linear array type transducer that has a nominal frequency of 7.5-MHz. Because a contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) expresses the detectability of the inhomogeneous region in the lateral strain image and further has almost the same sense as that of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for strain measurement, the obtained results show that the proposed spatially variant lateral displacement regularization yields a more accurate lateral strain measurement as well as a higher detectability in the lateral strain image (e.g., CNRs and SNRs for 2D CSPGM, 2.36 vs 2.27 and 1.74 vs 1.71, respectively). Furthermore, the spatially variant lateral displacement regularization yields a more stable and more accurate 2D shear modulus

  10. Saving Strokes with Space Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Inventor Dave Pelz developed a space spinoff Teacher Alignment Computer for Sunmark Preceptor Golf Ltd. which helps golfers learn proper putting aim. The light beam, reflected into the computer, measures putter alignment and lights atop the box tell the golfer he is on target or off to either side and how much. A related putting aid idea is to stroke the ball at the putter's "sweet spot," which is bracketed by metal prongs. Regular practice develops solid impacts for better putting.

  11. Nonparametric Tikhonov Regularized NMF and Its Application in Cancer Clustering.

    PubMed

    Mirzal, Andri

    2014-01-01

    The Tikhonov regularized nonnegative matrix factorization (TNMF) is an NMF objective function that enforces smoothness on the computed solutions, and has been successfully applied to many problem domains including text mining, spectral data analysis, and cancer clustering. There is, however, an issue that is still insufficiently addressed in the development of TNMF algorithms, i.e., how to develop mechanisms that can learn the regularization parameters directly from the data sets. The common approach is to use fixed values based on a priori knowledge about the problem domains. However, from the linear inverse problems study it is known that the quality of the solutions of the Tikhonov regularized least square problems depends heavily on the choosing of appropriate regularization parameters. Since least squares are the building blocks of the NMF, it can be expected that similar situation also applies to the NMF. In this paper, we propose two formulas to automatically learn the regularization parameters from the data set based on the L-curve approach. We also develop a convergent algorithm for the TNMF based on the additive update rules. Finally, we demonstrate the use of the proposed algorithm in cancer clustering tasks.

  12. X-ray computed tomography using curvelet sparse regularization

    SciTech Connect

    Wieczorek, Matthias Vogel, Jakob; Lasser, Tobias; Frikel, Jürgen; Demaret, Laurent; Eggl, Elena; Pfeiffer, Franz; Kopp, Felix; Noël, Peter B.

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Reconstruction of x-ray computed tomography (CT) data remains a mathematically challenging problem in medical imaging. Complementing the standard analytical reconstruction methods, sparse regularization is growing in importance, as it allows inclusion of prior knowledge. The paper presents a method for sparse regularization based on the curvelet frame for the application to iterative reconstruction in x-ray computed tomography. Methods: In this work, the authors present an iterative reconstruction approach based on the alternating direction method of multipliers using curvelet sparse regularization. Results: Evaluation of the method is performed on a specifically crafted numerical phantom dataset to highlight the method’s strengths. Additional evaluation is performed on two real datasets from commercial scanners with different noise characteristics, a clinical bone sample acquired in a micro-CT and a human abdomen scanned in a diagnostic CT. The results clearly illustrate that curvelet sparse regularization has characteristic strengths. In particular, it improves the restoration and resolution of highly directional, high contrast features with smooth contrast variations. The authors also compare this approach to the popular technique of total variation and to traditional filtered backprojection. Conclusions: The authors conclude that curvelet sparse regularization is able to improve reconstruction quality by reducing noise while preserving highly directional features.

  13. Rotating Hayward's regular black hole as particle accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amir, Muhammed; Ghosh, Sushant G.

    2015-07-01

    Recently, Bañados, Silk and West (BSW) demonstrated that the extremal Kerr black hole can act as a particle accelerator with arbitrarily high center-of-mass energy ( E CM) when the collision takes place near the horizon. The rotating Hayward's regular black hole, apart from Mass ( M) and angular momentum ( a), has a new parameter g ( g > 0 is a constant) that provides a deviation from the Kerr black hole. We demonstrate that for each g, with M = 1, there exist critical a E and r {/H E }, which corresponds to a regular extremal black hole with degenerate horizons, and a E decreases whereas r {/H E } increases with increase in g. While a < a E describe a regular non-extremal black hole with outer and inner horizons. We apply the BSW process to the rotating Hayward's regular black hole, for different g, and demonstrate numerically that the E CM diverges in the vicinity of the horizon for the extremal cases thereby suggesting that a rotating regular black hole can also act as a particle accelerator and thus in turn provide a suitable framework for Plank-scale physics. For a non-extremal case, there always exist a finite upper bound for the E CM, which increases with the deviation parameter g.

  14. Regularization of inverse planning for intensity-modulated radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Chvetsov, Alexei V; Calvetti, Daniela; Sohn, Jason W; Kinsella, Timothy J

    2005-02-01

    The performance of a variational regularization technique to improve robustness of inverse treatment planning for intensity modulated radiotherapy is analyzed and tested. Inverse treatment planning is based on the numerical solutions to the Fredholm integral equation of the first kind which is ill-posed. Therefore, a fundamental problem with inverse treatment planning is that it may exhibit instabilities manifested in nonphysical oscillations in the beam intensity functions. To control the instabilities, we consider a variational regularization technique which can be applied for the methods which minimize a quadratic objective function. In this technique, the quadratic objective function is modified by adding of a stabilizing functional that allows for arbitrary order regularization. An optimal form of stabilizing functional is selected which allows for both regularization and good approximation of beam intensity functions. The regularized optimization algorithm is shown, by comparison for a typical case of a head-and-neck cancer treatment, to be significantly more accurate and robust than the standard approach, particularly for the smaller beamlet sizes.

  15. Incorporating anatomical side information into PET reconstruction using nonlocal regularization.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Van-Giang; Lee, Soo-Jin

    2013-10-01

    With the introduction of combined positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) or PET/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners, there is an increasing emphasis on reconstructing PET images with the aid of the anatomical side information obtained from X-ray CT or MRI scanners. In this paper, we propose a new approach to incorporating prior anatomical information into PET reconstruction using the nonlocal regularization method. The nonlocal regularizer developed for this application is designed to selectively consider the anatomical information only when it is reliable. As our proposed nonlocal regularization method does not directly use anatomical edges or boundaries which are often used in conventional methods, it is not only free from additional processes to extract anatomical boundaries or segmented regions, but also more robust to the signal mismatch problem that is caused by the indirect relationship between the PET image and the anatomical image. We perform simulations with digital phantoms. According to our experimental results, compared to the conventional method based on the traditional local regularization method, our nonlocal regularization method performs well even with the imperfect prior anatomical information or in the presence of signal mismatch between the PET image and the anatomical image.

  16. Alternating Direction Method of Multiplier for Tomography With Nonlocal Regularizers

    PubMed Central

    Dewaraja, Yuni K.; Fessler, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    The ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) algorithm approximates the gradient of a likelihood function using a subset of projections instead of using all projections so that fast image reconstruction is possible for emission and transmission tomography such as SPECT, PET, and CT. However, OSEM does not significantly accelerate reconstruction with computationally expensive regularizers such as patch-based nonlocal (NL) regularizers, because the regularizer gradient is evaluated for every subset. We propose to use variable splitting to separate the likelihood term and the regularizer term for penalized emission tomographic image reconstruction problem and to optimize it using the alternating direction method of multiplier (ADMM). We also propose a fast algorithm to optimize the ADMM parameter based on convergence rate analysis. This new scheme enables more sub-iterations related to the likelihood term. We evaluated our ADMM for 3-D SPECT image reconstruction with a patch-based NL regularizer that uses the Fair potential function. Our proposed ADMM improved the speed of convergence substantially compared to other existing methods such as gradient descent, EM, and OSEM using De Pierro’s approach, and the limited-memory Broyden–Fletcher–Goldfarb–Shanno algorithm. PMID:25291351

  17. Regularization methods for near-field acoustical holography.

    PubMed

    Williams, E G

    2001-10-01

    The reconstruction of the pressure and normal surface velocity provided by near-field acoustical holography (NAH) from pressure measurements made near a vibrating structure is a linear, ill-posed inverse problem due to the existence of strongly decaying, evanescentlike waves. Regularization provides a technique of overcoming the ill-posedness and generates a solution to the linear problem in an automated way. We present four robust methods for regularization; the standard Tikhonov procedure along with a novel improved version, Landweber iteration, and the conjugate gradient approach. Each of these approaches can be applied to all forms of interior or exterior NAH problems; planar, cylindrical, spherical, and conformal. We also study two parameter selection procedures, the Morozov discrepancy principle and the generalized cross validation, which are crucial to any regularization theory. In particular, we concentrate here on planar and cylindrical holography. These forms of NAH which rely on the discrete Fourier transform are important due to their popularity and to their tremendous computational speed. In order to use regularization theory for the separable geometry problems we reformulate the equations of planar, cylindrical, and spherical NAH into an eigenvalue problem. The resulting eigenvalues and eigenvectors couple easily to regularization theory, which can be incorporated into the NAH software with little sacrifice in computational speed. The resulting complete automation of the NAH algorithm for both separable and nonseparable geometries overcomes the last significant hurdle for NAH.

  18. Enumeration of Extended m-Regular Linear Stacks.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qiang-Hui; Sun, Lisa H; Wang, Jian

    2016-12-01

    The contact map of a protein fold in the two-dimensional (2D) square lattice has arc length at least 3, and each internal vertex has degree at most 2, whereas the two terminal vertices have degree at most 3. Recently, Chen, Guo, Sun, and Wang studied the enumeration of [Formula: see text]-regular linear stacks, where each arc has length at least [Formula: see text] and the degree of each vertex is bounded by 2. Since the two terminal points in a protein fold in the 2D square lattice may form contacts with at most three adjacent lattice points, we are led to the study of extended [Formula: see text]-regular linear stacks, in which the degree of each terminal point is bounded by 3. This model is closed to real protein contact maps. Denote the generating functions of the [Formula: see text]-regular linear stacks and the extended [Formula: see text]-regular linear stacks by [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], respectively. We show that [Formula: see text] can be written as a rational function of [Formula: see text]. For a certain [Formula: see text], by eliminating [Formula: see text], we obtain an equation satisfied by [Formula: see text] and derive the asymptotic formula of the numbers of [Formula: see text]-regular linear stacks of length [Formula: see text].

  19. Regularized friction and continuation: Comparison with Coulomb's law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigué, Pierre; Vergez, Christophe; Karkar, Sami; Cochelin, Bruno

    2017-02-01

    Periodic solutions of systems with friction are difficult to investigate because of the non-smooth nature of friction laws. This paper examines periodic solutions and most notably stick-slip, on a simple one-degree-of-freedom system (mass, spring, damper, and belt), with Coulomb's friction law, and with a regularized friction law (i.e. the friction coefficient becomes a function of relative speed, with a stiffness parameter). With Coulomb's law, the stick-slip solution is constructed step by step, which gives a usable existence condition. With the regularized law, the Asymptotic Numerical Method and the Harmonic Balance Method provide bifurcation diagrams with respect to the belt speed or normal force, and for several values of the regularization parameter. Formulations from the Coulomb case give the means of a comparison between regularized solutions and a standard reference. With an appropriate definition, regularized stick-slip motion exists, its amplitude increases with respect to the belt speed and its pulsation decreases with respect to the normal force.

  20. Fast multislice fluorescence molecular tomography using sparsity-inducing regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejazi, Sedigheh Marjaneh; Sarkar, Saeed; Darezereshki, Ziba

    2016-02-01

    Fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) is a rapidly growing imaging method that facilitates the recovery of small fluorescent targets within biological tissue. The major challenge facing the FMT reconstruction method is the ill-posed nature of the inverse problem. In order to overcome this problem, the acquisition of large FMT datasets and the utilization of a fast FMT reconstruction algorithm with sparsity regularization have been suggested recently. Therefore, the use of a joint L1/total-variation (TV) regularization as a means of solving the ill-posed FMT inverse problem is proposed. A comparative quantified analysis of regularization methods based on L1-norm and TV are performed using simulated datasets, and the results show that the fast composite splitting algorithm regularization method can ensure the accuracy and robustness of the FMT reconstruction. The feasibility of the proposed method is evaluated in an in vivo scenario for the subcutaneous implantation of a fluorescent-dye-filled capillary tube in a mouse, and also using hybrid FMT and x-ray computed tomography data. The results show that the proposed regularization overcomes the difficulties created by the ill-posed inverse problem.

  1. Multigrid Approach to Solving the Long Transportation Problem on a Regular Grid in Cost Space

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    feasible solution has an optimal solution ( Bazaraa , 1990). Some traditional solution methods are presf-nted next. D. THE SIMPLEX METHOD Whenever feasible...root to every node in D. If the solution to a minimal cost flow problem is examined graphically it corresponds to a spanning tree in the network ( Bazaraa ...REFERENCES Balas, Egon, "Solution of Large-Scale Transportation Problems Through Aggregation," Operations Research, 13, 1965, pp. 82-84. Bazaraa , M.S

  2. Ninja Turtles, Space Aliens, and Regular Folks: A Fifth-Grade Genre Study of Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfarb, Carolyn

    1999-01-01

    Describes a fifth grade teacher's eight-week unit of study on fiction. Notes that fiction had been a part of the teacher's reading workshop but was absent from her writing workshop. Discusses immersion and exploration, characterization, developing plot, and drafting and revision. (RS)

  3. Dorsal column stimulator applications

    PubMed Central

    Yampolsky, Claudio; Hem, Santiago; Bendersky, Damián

    2012-01-01

    Background: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been used to treat neuropathic pain since 1967. Following that, technological progress, among other advances, helped SCS become an effective tool to reduce pain. Methods: This article is a non-systematic review of the mechanism of action, indications, results, programming parameters, complications, and cost-effectiveness of SCS. Results: In spite of the existence of several studies that try to prove the mechanism of action of SCS, it still remains unknown. The mechanism of action of SCS would be based on the antidromic activation of the dorsal column fibers, which activate the inhibitory interneurons within the dorsal horn. At present, the indications of SCS are being revised constantly, while new applications are being proposed and researched worldwide. Failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) is the most common indication for SCS, whereas, the complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is the second one. Also, this technique is useful in patients with refractory angina and critical limb ischemia, in whom surgical or endovascular treatment cannot be performed. Further indications may be phantom limb pain, chronic intractable pain located in the head, face, neck, or upper extremities, spinal lumbar stenosis in patients who are not surgical candidates, and others. Conclusion: Spinal cord stimulation is a useful tool for neuromodulation, if an accurate patient selection is carried out prior, which should include a trial period. Undoubtedly, this proper selection and a better knowledge of its underlying mechanisms of action, will allow this cutting edge technique to be more acceptable among pain physicians. PMID:23230533

  4. Space prospects. [european space programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A strategy for keeping the Common Market's space effort independent of and competitive with NASA and the space shuttle is discussed. Limited financing is the chief obstacle to this. Proposals include an outer space materials processing project and further development of the Ariane rocket. A manned space program is excluded for the foreseeable future.

  5. Downscaling Satellite Precipitation with Emphasis on Extremes: A Variational 1-Norm Regularization in the Derivative Domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foufoula-Georgiou, E.; Ebtehaj, A. M.; Zhang, S. Q.; Hou, A. Y.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing availability of precipitation observations from space, e.g., from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and the forthcoming Global Precipitation Measuring (GPM) Mission, has fueled renewed interest in developing frameworks for downscaling and multi-sensor data fusion that can handle large data sets in computationally efficient ways while optimally reproducing desired properties of the underlying rainfall fields. Of special interest is the reproduction of extreme precipitation intensities and gradients, as these are directly relevant to hazard prediction. In this paper, we present a new formalism for downscaling satellite precipitation observations, which explicitly allows for the preservation of some key geometrical and statistical properties of spatial precipitation. These include sharp intensity gradients (due to high-intensity regions embedded within lower-intensity areas), coherent spatial structures (due to regions of slowly varying rainfall),and thicker-than-Gaussian tails of precipitation gradients and intensities. Specifically, we pose the downscaling problem as a discrete inverse problem and solve it via a regularized variational approach (variational downscaling) where the regularization term is selected to impose the desired smoothness in the solution while allowing for some steep gradients(called 1-norm or total variation regularization). We demonstrate the duality between this geometrically inspired solution and its Bayesian statistical interpretation, which is equivalent to assuming a Laplace prior distribution for the precipitation intensities in the derivative (wavelet) space. When the observation operator is not known, we discuss the effect of its misspecification and explore a previously proposed dictionary-based sparse inverse downscaling methodology to indirectly learn the observation operator from a database of coincidental high- and low-resolution observations. The proposed method and ideas are illustrated in case

  6. Minimum divergence viscous flow simulation through finite difference and regularization techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Victor, Rodolfo A.; Mirabolghasemi, Maryam; Bryant, Steven L.; Prodanović, Maša

    2016-09-01

    We develop a new algorithm to simulate single- and two-phase viscous flow through a three-dimensional Cartesian representation of the porous space, such as those available through X-ray microtomography. We use the finite difference method to discretize the governing equations and also propose a new method to enforce the incompressible flow constraint under zero Neumann boundary conditions for the velocity components. Finite difference formulation leads to fast parallel implementation through linear solvers for sparse matrices, allowing relatively fast simulations, while regularization techniques used on solving inverse problems lead to the desired incompressible fluid flow. Tests performed using benchmark samples show good agreement with experimental/theoretical values. Additional tests are run on Bentheimer and Buff Berea sandstone samples with available laboratory measurements. We compare the results from our new method, based on finite differences, with an open source finite volume implementation as well as experimental results, specifically to evaluate the benefits and drawbacks of each method. Finally, we calculate relative permeability by using this modified finite difference technique together with a level set based algorithm for multi-phase fluid distribution in the pore space. To our knowledge this is the first time regularization techniques are used in combination with finite difference fluid flow simulations.

  7. Radial basis function networks and complexity regularization in function learning.

    PubMed

    Krzyzak, A; Linder, T

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we apply the method of complexity regularization to derive estimation bounds for nonlinear function estimation using a single hidden layer radial basis function network. Our approach differs from previous complexity regularization neural-network function learning schemes in that we operate with random covering numbers and l(1) metric entropy, making it possible to consider much broader families of activation functions, namely functions of bounded variation. Some constraints previously imposed on the network parameters are also eliminated this way. The network is trained by means of complexity regularization involving empirical risk minimization. Bounds on the expected risk in terms of the sample size are obtained for a large class of loss functions. Rates of convergence to the optimal loss are also derived.

  8. Manufacture of Regularly Shaped Sol-Gel Pellets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leventis, Nicholas; Johnston, James C.; Kinder, James D.

    2006-01-01

    An extrusion batch process for manufacturing regularly shaped sol-gel pellets has been devised as an improved alternative to a spray process that yields irregularly shaped pellets. The aspect ratio of regularly shaped pellets can be controlled more easily, while regularly shaped pellets pack more efficiently. In the extrusion process, a wet gel is pushed out of a mold and chopped repetitively into short, cylindrical pieces as it emerges from the mold. The pieces are collected and can be either (1) dried at ambient pressure to xerogel, (2) solvent exchanged and dried under ambient pressure to ambigels, or (3) supercritically dried to aerogel. Advantageously, the extruded pellets can be dropped directly in a cross-linking bath, where they develop a conformal polymer coating around the skeletal framework of the wet gel via reaction with the cross linker. These pellets can be dried to mechanically robust X-Aerogel.

  9. Context effects on orthographic learning of regular and irregular words.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua-Chen; Castles, Anne; Nickels, Lyndsey; Nation, Kate

    2011-05-01

    The self-teaching hypothesis proposes that orthographic learning takes place via phonological decoding in meaningful texts, that is, in context. Context is proposed to be important in learning to read, especially when decoding is only partial. However, little research has directly explored this hypothesis. The current study looked at the effect of context on orthographic learning and examined whether there were different effects for novel words given regular and irregular pronunciations. Two experiments were conducted using regular and irregular novel words, respectively. Second-grade children were asked to learn eight novel words either in stories or in a list of words. The results revealed no significant effect of context for the regular items. However, in an orthographic decision task, there was a facilitatory effect of context on irregular novel word learning. The findings support the view that contextual information is important to orthographic learning, but only when the words to be learned contain irregular spelling-sound correspondences.

  10. Analysis of the "Learning in Regular Classrooms" movement in China.

    PubMed

    Deng, M; Manset, G

    2000-04-01

    The Learning in Regular Classrooms experiment has evolved in response to China's efforts to educate its large population of students with disabilities who, until the mid-1980s, were denied a free education. In the Learning in Regular Classrooms, students with disabilities (primarily sensory impairments or mild mental retardation) are educated in neighborhood schools in mainstream classrooms. Despite difficulties associated with developing effective inclusive programming, this approach has contributed to a major increase in the enrollment of students with disabilities and increased involvement of schools, teachers, and parents in China's newly developing special education system. Here we describe the development of the Learning in Regular Classroom approach and the challenges associated with educating students with disabilities in China.

  11. Wavelet domain image restoration with adaptive edge-preserving regularization.

    PubMed

    Belge, M; Kilmer, M E; Miller, E L

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a wavelet based edge-preserving regularization scheme for use in linear image restoration problems. Our efforts build on a collection of mathematical results indicating that wavelets are especially useful for representing functions that contain discontinuities (i.e., edges in two dimensions or jumps in one dimension). We interpret the resulting theory in a statistical signal processing framework and obtain a highly flexible framework for adapting the degree of regularization to the local structure of the underlying image. In particular, we are able to adapt quite easily to scale-varying and orientation-varying features in the image while simultaneously retaining the edge preservation properties of the regularizer. We demonstrate a half-quadratic algorithm for obtaining the restorations from observed data.

  12. Breast ultrasound tomography with total-variation regularization

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Lianjie; Li, Cuiping; Duric, Neb

    2009-01-01

    Breast ultrasound tomography is a rapidly developing imaging modality that has the potential to impact breast cancer screening and diagnosis. A new ultrasound breast imaging device (CURE) with a ring array of transducers has been designed and built at Karmanos Cancer Institute, which acquires both reflection and transmission ultrasound signals. To extract the sound-speed information from the breast data acquired by CURE, we have developed an iterative sound-speed image reconstruction algorithm for breast ultrasound transmission tomography based on total-variation (TV) minimization. We investigate applicability of the TV tomography algorithm using in vivo ultrasound breast data from 61 patients, and compare the results with those obtained using the Tikhonov regularization method. We demonstrate that, compared to the Tikhonov regularization scheme, the TV regularization method significantly improves image quality, resulting in sound-speed tomography images with sharp (preserved) edges of abnormalities and few artifacts.

  13. Consistent regularization and renormalization in models with inhomogeneous phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Prabal; Andersen, Jens O.

    2017-02-01

    In many models in condensed matter and high-energy physics, one finds inhomogeneous phases at high density and low temperature. These phases are characterized by a spatially dependent condensate or order parameter. A proper calculation requires that one takes the vacuum fluctuations of the model into account. These fluctuations are ultraviolet divergent and must be regularized. We discuss different ways of consistently regularizing and renormalizing quantum fluctuations, focusing on momentum cutoff, symmetric energy cutoff, and dimensional regularization. We apply these techniques calculating the vacuum energy in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in 1 +1 dimensions in the large-Nc limit and in the 3 +1 dimensional quark-meson model in the mean-field approximation both for a one-dimensional chiral-density wave.

  14. Structural characterization of the packings of granular regular polygons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chuncheng; Dong, Kejun; Yu, Aibing

    2015-12-01

    By using a recently developed method for discrete modeling of nonspherical particles, we simulate the random packings of granular regular polygons with three to 11 edges under gravity. The effects of shape and friction on the packing structures are investigated by various structural parameters, including packing fraction, the radial distribution function, coordination number, Voronoi tessellation, and bond-orientational order. We find that packing fraction is generally higher for geometrically nonfrustrated regular polygons, and can be increased by the increase of edge number and decrease of friction. The changes of packing fraction are linked with those of the microstructures, such as the variations of the translational and orientational orders and local configurations. In particular, the free areas of Voronoi tessellations (which are related to local packing fractions) can be described by log-normal distributions for all polygons. The quantitative analyses establish a clearer picture for the packings of regular polygons.

  15. Gamma regularization based reconstruction for low dose CT.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junfeng; Chen, Yang; Hu, Yining; Luo, Limin; Shu, Huazhong; Li, Bicao; Liu, Jin; Coatrieux, Jean-Louis

    2015-09-07

    Reducing the radiation in computerized tomography is today a major concern in radiology. Low dose computerized tomography (LDCT) offers a sound way to deal with this problem. However, more severe noise in the reconstructed CT images is observed under low dose scan protocols (e.g. lowered tube current or voltage values). In this paper we propose a Gamma regularization based algorithm for LDCT image reconstruction. This solution is flexible and provides a good balance between the regularizations based on l0-norm and l1-norm. We evaluate the proposed approach using the projection data from simulated phantoms and scanned Catphan phantoms. Qualitative and quantitative results show that the Gamma regularization based reconstruction can perform better in both edge-preserving and noise suppression when compared with other norms.

  16. Space transportation analysis and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartunian, R.; Moss, B.; Wolfe, M.; Statsinger, J.; Forrest, L.

    1992-03-01

    This TOR is intended to be a living document that will be updated at regular intervals, and will be linked to an ever-increasing body of easily accessed space transportation corporate knowledge in the form of both paper, magnetic, and intellectual media. This body of knowledge will include reports, computer-based analytical tools, technical databases, and human skills/knowledge databases. It is expected that its growth will be very much influenced by customer demand and the evolving future role of Aerospace in the global space community. Consequently, the table of contents should in no way be assumed to be definitive.

  17. Local conservative regularizations of compressible magnetohydrodynamic and neutral flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnaswami, Govind S.; Sachdev, Sonakshi; Thyagaraja, A.

    2016-02-01

    Ideal systems like magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and Euler flow may develop singularities in vorticity ( w =∇×v ). Viscosity and resistivity provide dissipative regularizations of the singularities. In this paper, we propose a minimal, local, conservative, nonlinear, dispersive regularization of compressible flow and ideal MHD, in analogy with the KdV regularization of the 1D kinematic wave equation. This work extends and significantly generalizes earlier work on incompressible Euler and ideal MHD. It involves a micro-scale cutoff length λ which is a function of density, unlike in the incompressible case. In MHD, it can be taken to be of order the electron collisionless skin depth c/ωpe. Our regularization preserves the symmetries of the original systems and, with appropriate boundary conditions, leads to associated conservation laws. Energy and enstrophy are subject to a priori bounds determined by initial data in contrast to the unregularized systems. A Hamiltonian and Poisson bracket formulation is developed and applied to generalize the constitutive relation to bound higher moments of vorticity. A "swirl" velocity field is identified, and shown to transport w/ρ and B/ρ, generalizing the Kelvin-Helmholtz and Alfvén theorems. The steady regularized equations are used to model a rotating vortex, MHD pinch, and a plane vortex sheet. The proposed regularization could facilitate numerical simulations of fluid/MHD equations and provide a consistent statistical mechanics of vortices/current filaments in 3D, without blowup of enstrophy. Implications for detailed analyses of fluid and plasma dynamic systems arising from our work are briefly discussed.

  18. Zigzag stacks and m-regular linear stacks.

    PubMed

    Chen, William Y C; Guo, Qiang-Hui; Sun, Lisa H; Wang, Jian

    2014-12-01

    The contact map of a protein fold is a graph that represents the patterns of contacts in the fold. It is known that the contact map can be decomposed into stacks and queues. RNA secondary structures are special stacks in which the degree of each vertex is at most one and each arc has length of at least two. Waterman and Smith derived a formula for the number of RNA secondary structures of length n with exactly k arcs. Höner zu Siederdissen et al. developed a folding algorithm for extended RNA secondary structures in which each vertex has maximum degree two. An equation for the generating function of extended RNA secondary structures was obtained by Müller and Nebel by using a context-free grammar approach, which leads to an asymptotic formula. In this article, we consider m-regular linear stacks, where each arc has length at least m and the degree of each vertex is bounded by two. Extended RNA secondary structures are exactly 2-regular linear stacks. For any m ≥ 2, we obtain an equation for the generating function of the m-regular linear stacks. For given m, we deduce a recurrence relation and an asymptotic formula for the number of m-regular linear stacks on n vertices. To establish the equation, we use the reduction operation of Chen, Deng, and Du to transform an m-regular linear stack to an m-reduced zigzag (or alternating) stack. Then we find an equation for m-reduced zigzag stacks leading to an equation for m-regular linear stacks.

  19. UV radiation transmittance: regular clothing versus sun-protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Bielinski, Kenneth; Bielinski, Nolan

    2014-09-01

    There are many clothing options available for patients who are interested in limiting their exposure to UV radiation; however, these options can be confusing for patients. For dermatologists, there is limited clinical data regarding the advantages, if any, of sun-protective clothing. In this study, we examined the UV radiation transmittance of regular clothing versus sun-protective clothing. We found that regular clothing may match or even exceed sun-protective clothing in blocking the transmittance of UV radiation. These data will help dermatologists better counsel their patients on clothing options for sun protection.

  20. Lifshitz anomalies, Ward identities and split dimensional regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arav, Igal; Oz, Yaron; Raviv-Moshe, Avia

    2017-03-01

    We analyze the structure of the stress-energy tensor correlation functions in Lifshitz field theories and construct the corresponding anomalous Ward identities. We develop a framework for calculating the anomaly coefficients that employs a split dimensional regularization and the pole residues. We demonstrate the procedure by calculating the free scalar Lifshitz scale anomalies in 2 + 1 spacetime dimensions. We find that the analysis of the regularization dependent trivial terms requires a curved spacetime description without a foliation structure. We discuss potential ambiguities in Lifshitz scale anomaly definitions.