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  1. Cleavage of Hyaluronan and CD44 Adhesion Molecule Regulate Astrocyte Morphology via Rac1 Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Anna; Zeug, Andre; Skupien, Anna; Kaza, Beata; Mueller, Franziska; Chwedorowicz, Agnieszka; Ponimaskin, Evgeni; Wilczynski, Grzegorz M.; Dzwonek, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Communication of cells with their extracellular environment is crucial to fulfill their function in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. The literature data provide evidence that such a communication is also important in case of astrocytes. Mechanisms that contribute to the interaction between astrocytes and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are still poorly understood. Hyaluronan is the main component of ECM in the brain, where its major receptor protein CD44 is expressed by a subset of astrocytes. Considering the fact that functions of astrocytes are tightly coupled with changes in their morphology (e.g.: glutamate clearance in the synaptic cleft, migration, astrogliosis), we investigated the influence of hyaluronan cleavage by hyaluronidase, knockdown of CD44 by specific shRNA and CD44 overexpression on astrocyte morphology. Our results show that hyaluronidase treatment, as well as knockdown of CD44, in astrocytes result in a “stellate”-like morphology, whereas overexpression of CD44 causes an increase in cell body size and changes the shape of astrocytes into flattened cells. Moreover, as a dynamic reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton is supposed to be responsible for morphological changes of cells, and this reorganization is controlled by small GTPases of the Rho family, we hypothesized that GTPase Rac1 acts as a downstream effector for hyaluronan and CD44 in astrocytes. We used FRET-based biosensor and a dominant negative mutant of Rac1 to investigate the involvement of Rac1 activity in hyaluronidase- and CD44-dependent morphological changes of astrocytes. Both, hyaluronidase treatment and knockdown of CD44, enhances Rac1 activity while overexpression of CD44 reduces the activity state in astrocytes. Furthermore, morphological changes were blocked by specific inhibition of Rac1 activity. These findings indicate for the first time that regulation of Rac1 activity is responsible for hyaluronidase and CD44-driven morphological changes of

  2. CD44-mediated Adhesion to Hyaluronic Acid Contributes to Mechanosensing and Invasive Motility

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yushan; Kumar, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    The high molecular weight glycosaminoglycan, hyaluronic acid (HA), makes up a significant portion of the brain extracellular matrix (ECM). Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a highly invasive brain tumor, is associated with aberrant HA secretion, tissue stiffening, and overexpression of the HA receptor CD44. Here, transcriptomic analysis, engineered materials, and measurements of adhesion, migration, and invasion were used to investigate how HA/CD44 ligation contributes to the mechanosensing and invasive motility of GBM tumor cells, both intrinsically and in the context of RGD/integrin adhesion. Analysis of transcriptomic data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) reveals up-regulation of transcripts associated with HA/CD44 adhesion. CD44 suppression in culture reduces cell adhesion to HA on short time scales (0.5h post-incubation) even if RGD is present, whereas maximal adhesion on longer time scales (3h) requires both CD44 and integrins. Moreover, time-lapse imaging demonstrates that cell adhesive structures formed during migration on bare HA matrices are more short-lived than cellular protrusions formed on surfaces containing RGD. Interestingly, adhesion and migration speed were dependent on HA hydrogel stiffness, implying that CD44-based signaling is intrinsically mechanosensitive. Finally, CD44 expression paired with an HA-rich microenvironment maximized three-dimensional invasion, whereas CD44 suppression or abundant integrin-based adhesion limited it. These findings demonstrate that CD44 transduces HA-based stiffness cues, temporally precedes integrin-based adhesion maturation, and facilitates invasion. PMID:24962319

  3. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate Clusters the Cell Adhesion Molecule CD44 and Assembles a Specific CD44-Ezrin Heterocomplex, as Revealed by Small Angle Neutron Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Khajeh, Jahan Ali; Ju, Jeong Ho; Gupta, Yogesh K.; Stanley, Christopher B.; Do, Changwoo; Heller, William T.; Aggarwal, Aneel K.; Callaway, David J.E.; Bu, Zimei

    2015-01-08

    The cell adhesion molecule CD44 regulates diverse cellular functions, including cell-cell and cell-matrix interaction, cell motility, migration, differentiation, and growth. In cells, CD44 co-localizes with the membrane-cytoskeleton adapter protein Ezrin, which links the CD44 assembled receptor signaling complexes to the cytoskeletal actin and organizes the spatial and temporal localization of signaling events. Here we report that the cytoplasmic tail of CD44 (CD44ct) is largely disordered and adopts an autoinhibited conformation, which prevents CD44ct from binding directly to activated Ezrin in solution. Binding to the signaling lipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphlate (PIP2) disrupts autoinhibition in CD44ct, and activates CD44ct to associate with Ezrin. Further, using contrast variation small angle neutron scattering, we show that PIP2 mediates the assembly of a specific hetero-tetramer complex of CD44ct with Ezrin. This study reveals a novel autoregulation mechanism in the cytoplasmic tail of CD44 and the role of PIP2 in mediating the assembly of multimeric CD44ct-Ezrin complexes. We hypothesize that polyvalent electrostatic interactions are responsible for the assembly of multimeric PIP2-CD44-Ezrin complexes.

  4. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate Clusters the Cell Adhesion Molecule CD44 and Assembles a Specific CD44-Ezrin Heterocomplex, as Revealed by Small Angle Neutron Scattering

    DOE PAGES

    Khajeh, Jahan Ali; Ju, Jeong Ho; Gupta, Yogesh K.; Stanley, Christopher B.; Do, Changwoo; Heller, William T.; Aggarwal, Aneel K.; Callaway, David J.E.; Bu, Zimei

    2015-01-08

    The cell adhesion molecule CD44 regulates diverse cellular functions, including cell-cell and cell-matrix interaction, cell motility, migration, differentiation, and growth. In cells, CD44 co-localizes with the membrane-cytoskeleton adapter protein Ezrin, which links the CD44 assembled receptor signaling complexes to the cytoskeletal actin and organizes the spatial and temporal localization of signaling events. Here we report that the cytoplasmic tail of CD44 (CD44ct) is largely disordered and adopts an autoinhibited conformation, which prevents CD44ct from binding directly to activated Ezrin in solution. Binding to the signaling lipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphlate (PIP2) disrupts autoinhibition in CD44ct, and activates CD44ct to associate with Ezrin.more » Further, using contrast variation small angle neutron scattering, we show that PIP2 mediates the assembly of a specific hetero-tetramer complex of CD44ct with Ezrin. This study reveals a novel autoregulation mechanism in the cytoplasmic tail of CD44 and the role of PIP2 in mediating the assembly of multimeric CD44ct-Ezrin complexes. We hypothesize that polyvalent electrostatic interactions are responsible for the assembly of multimeric PIP2-CD44-Ezrin complexes.« less

  5. Glycosylation of CD44 negatively regulates its recognition of hyaluronan

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Although CD44 is expressed on a wide variety of cell types, few of them use it to recognize the ligand hyaluronan (HA). A glycosylation- defective clone of Chinese hamster ovary cells (Lec 8) bound HA, demonstrating that complete processing of glycoproteins with addition of a full complement of sialic acid is not required. On the contrary, subsequent findings revealed that complex sugars on CD44 can actually inhibit ligand recognition. Two subclones of wild-type Chinese hamster ovary cells with similar amounts of surface CD44 were isolated on the basis of HA binding and found to differ with respect to CD44 size as well as staining with fluorescent lectins. Treatment of the nonbinding clone with tunicamycin reduced the size of the protein and allowed the cells to recognize HA via CD44. This function was also induced by treatment with deglycosylating enzymes (either a mixture of endoglycosidase F and N-glycosidase F or neuraminidase alone). A possible role for glycosylation in regulation of adhesion was then sought with a series of normal and transformed murine cells. Disruption of glycosylation or treatment with deglycosylating enzymes did not induce ligand binding in an interleukin 7-dependent pre-B cell line, and splenic B cells also appeared to be in an inactive state. Some normal B cells acquired the ability to recognize HA after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide or interleukin 5 and had distinctive surface characteristics (loss of immunoglobulin D and acquisition of CD43). An additional subset of activated cells might have been in a transitional state, because the cells bound ligand after neuraminidase treatment. The ligand-binding ability of a purified CD44-immunoglobulin fusion protein dramatically increased after neuraminidase treatment. Thus, differential glycosylation of this molecule is sufficient to influence its recognition function. Cell adhesion involving HA can be regulated by multiple mechanisms, one of which involves variable glycosylation of CD

  6. Chondroitin sulfate addition to CD44H negatively regulates hyaluronan binding

    SciTech Connect

    Ruffell, Brian; Johnson, Pauline . E-mail: pauline@interchange.ubc.ca

    2005-08-26

    CD44 is a widely expressed cell adhesion molecule that binds hyaluronan, an extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan, in a tightly regulated manner. This regulated interaction has been implicated in inflammation and tumor metastasis. CD44 exists in the standard form, CD44H, or as higher molecular mass isoforms due to alternative splicing. Here, we identify serine 180 in human CD44H as the site of chondroitin sulfate addition and show that lack of chondroitin sulfate addition at this site enhances hyaluronan binding by CD44. A CD44H-immunoglobulin fusion protein expressed in HEK293 cells, and CD44H expressed in murine L fibroblast cells were modified by chondroitin sulfate, as determined by reduced sulfate incorporation after chondroitinase ABC treatment. Mutation of serine 180 or glycine 181 in CD44H reduced chondroitin sulfate addition and increased hyaluronan binding, indicating that serine 180 is the site for chondroitin sulfate addition in CD44H and that this negatively regulates hyaluronan binding.

  7. The role of CD44 in fetal and adult hematopoietic stem cell regulation.

    PubMed

    Cao, Huimin; Heazlewood, Shen Y; Williams, Brenda; Cardozo, Daniela; Nigro, Julie; Oteiza, Ana; Nilsson, Susan K

    2016-01-01

    Throughout development, hematopoietic stem cells migrate to specific microenvironments, where their fate is, in part, extrinsically controlled. CD44 standard as a member of the cell adhesion molecule family is extensively expressed within adult bone marrow and has been previously reported to play important roles in adult hematopoietic regulation via CD44 standard-ligand interactions. In this manuscript, CD44 expression and function are further assessed and characterized on both fetal and adult hematopoietic stem cells. Using a CD44(-/-) mouse model, conserved functional roles of CD44 are revealed throughout development. CD44 is critical in the maintenance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor pools, as well as in hematopoietic stem cell migration. CD44 expression on hematopoietic stem cells as well as other hematopoietic cells within the bone marrow microenvironment is important in the homing and lodgment of adult hematopoietic stem cells isolated from the bone/bone marrow interface. CD44 is also involved in fetal hematopoietic stem cell migration out of the liver, via a process involving stromal cell-derived factor-1α. The absence of CD44 in neonatal bone marrow has no impact on the size of the long-term reconstituting hematopoietic stem cell pool, but results in an enhanced long-term engraftment potential of hematopoietic stem cells.

  8. Evidence of a Role for CD44 and Cell Adhesion in Mediating Resistance to Lenalidomide in Multiple Myeloma: Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Bjorklund, Chad C.; Baladandayuthapani, Veerabhadran; Lin, Heather Y.; Jones, Richard J.; Kuiatse, Isere; Wang, Hua; Yang, Jing; Shah, Jatin J.; Thomas, Sheeba K.; Wang, Michael; Weber, Donna M.; Orlowski, Robert Z.

    2013-01-01

    Resistance of myeloma to lenalidomide is an emerging clinical problem, and though it has been associated in part with activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, the mediators of this phenotype remained undefined. Lenalidomide-resistant models were found to overexpress the hyaluronan (HA)-binding protein CD44, a downstream Wnt/β-catenin transcriptional target. Consistent with a role of CD44 in cell adhesion-mediated drug-resistance (CAM-DR), lenalidomide-resistant myeloma cells were more adhesive to bone marrow stroma and HA-coated plates. Blockade of CD44 with monoclonal antibodies, free HA, or CD44 knockdown reduced adhesion and sensitized to lenalidomide. Wnt/β-catenin suppression by FH535 enhanced the activity of lenalidomide, as did interleukin-6 neutralization with siltuximab. Notably, all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) down-regulated total β-catenin, cell-surface and total CD44, reduced adhesion of lenalidomide-resistant myeloma cells, and enhanced the activity of lenalidomide in a lenalidomide-resistant in vivo murine xenograft model. Finally, ATRA sensitized primary myeloma samples from patients that had relapsed and/or refractory disease after lenalidomide therapy to this immunomodulatory agent ex vivo. Taken together, our findings support the hypotheses that CD44 and CAM-DR contribute to lenalidomide-resistance in multiple myeloma, that CD44 should be evaluated as a putative biomarker of sensitivity to lenalidomide, and that ATRA or other approaches that target CD44 may overcome clinical lenalidomide resistance. PMID:23760401

  9. CD44 regulates vascular endothelial barrier integrity via a PECAM-1 dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Kelly M; Michaud, Michael; Canosa, Sandra; Madri, Joseph A

    2013-07-01

    Vascular integrity is a critical parameter in normal growth and development. Loss of appropriate vascular barrier function is present in various immune- and injury-mediated pathological conditions. CD44 is an adhesion molecule expressed by multiple cell types, including endothelial cells (EC). The goal of the present study was to examine how loss of CD44 affected vascular permeability. Using C57BL/6 WT and CD44-KO mice, we found no significant permeability to Evan's Blue in either strain at baseline. However, there was significantly increased histamine-induced permeability in CD44-deficient mice compared to WT counterparts. Similar results were observed in vitro, where CD44-deficient endothelial monolayers were also impermeable to 40kD-FITC dextran in the absence of vasoactive challenge, but exhibited enhanced and prolonged permeability following histamine. However, CD44-KO monolayers have reduced baseline barrier strength by electrical resistance, which correlated with increased permeability, at baseline, to smaller molecular weight 4-kD FITC-dextran, suggesting weakly formed endothelial junctions. The CD44-KO EC displayed several characteristics consistent with impaired barrier function/dysfunctional EC junctions, including differential expression, phosphorylation, and localization of endothelial junction proteins, increased matrix metalloprotease expression, and altered cellular morphology. Reduced platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) expression by CD44-KO EC in vivo and in vitro was also observed. Reconstitution of murine CD44 or PECAM-1 restored these defects to near WT status, suggesting CD44 regulates vascular permeability and integrity through a PECAM-1 dependent mechanism.

  10. Lipid Raft-Mediated Regulation of Hyaluronan–CD44 Interactions in Inflammation and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Murai, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronan is a major component of the extracellular matrix and plays pivotal roles in inflammation and cancer. Hyaluronan oligomers are frequently found in these pathological conditions, in which they exert their effects via association with the transmembrane receptor CD44. Lipid rafts are cholesterol- and glycosphingolipid-enriched membrane microdomains that may regulate membrane receptors while serving as platforms for transmembrane signaling at the cell surface. This article focuses on the recent discovery that lipid rafts regulate the interaction between CD44 and hyaluronan, which depends largely on hyaluronan’s size. Lipid rafts regulate CD44’s ability to bind hyaluronan in T cells, control the rolling adhesion of lymphocytes on vascular endothelial cells, and regulate hyaluronan- and CD44-mediated cancer cell migration. The implications of these findings for preventing inflammatory disorders and cancer are also discussed. PMID:26347743

  11. Alternatively spliced variants of the cell adhesion molecule CD44 and tumour progression in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Gotley, D. C.; Fawcett, J.; Walsh, M. D.; Reeder, J. A.; Simmons, D. L.; Antalis, T. M.

    1996-01-01

    Increased expression of alternatively spliced variants of the CD44 family of cell adhesion molecules has been associated with tumour metastasis. In the present study, expression of alternatively spliced variants of CD44 and their cellular distribution have been investigated in human colonic tumours and in the corresponding normal mucosa, in addition to benign adenomatous polyps. The expression of CD44 alternatively spliced variants has been correlated with tumour progression according to Dukes' histological stage. CD44 variant expression was determined by immunohistochemisty using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific CD44 variant domains together with RT-PCR analysis of CD44 variant mRNA expression in the same tissue specimens. We demonstrate that as well as being expressed in colonic tumour cells, the full range of CD44 variants, CD44v2-v10, are widely expressed in normal colonic crypt epithelium, predominantly in the crypt base. CD44v6, the epitope which is most commonly associated with tumour progression and metastasis, was not only expressed by many benign colonic tumours, but was expressed as frequently in normal basal crypt epithelium as in malignant colonic tumour cells, and surprisingly, was even absent from some metastatic colorectal tumours. Expression of none of the CD44 variant epitopes was found to be positively correlated with tumour progression or with colorectal tumour metastasis to the liver, results which are inconsistent with a role for CD44 variants as indicators of colonic cancer progression. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8695347

  12. TNFalpha and IL-8 regulate the expression and function of CD44 variant proteins in human colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Barshishat, Michal; Ariel, Amiram; Cahalon, Liora; Chowers, Yehuda; Lider, Ofer; Schwartz, Betty

    2002-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the inflammatory and metastatic processes share a number of similar pathways, such as those involving adhesion, migration and extravasation. In this article, the effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines on metastatic-related activities of colon cancer cells were tested. The expression and biological activity of the proteoglycan CD44 in low (LS174T) and high metastatic (HM7) cell lines following exposure to TNFalpha and IL-8 were assessed. Treated cells expressed more CD44 splice variants (CD44v), while CD44 standard protein (CD44s) expression remained unchanged. Treatment with TNFalpha induced IL-8 secretion and IL-8 gene transcription in a time-dependent manner. Both cytokines enhanced the ability of the cells to adhere to the CD44-specific ligand hyaluronic acid, an effect that was specifically blocked by an anti-IL-8 antibody. These results suggest that the effect of TNFalpha on IL-8 is responsible for the regulation of the expression of CD44 isoforms. Additional experiments showed that neither of the cytokines tested regulate the expression of CD44 gene regulation via activation of a well-characterized specific 22-bp epidermal growth factor regulatory element present in the CD44 promoter sequence, suggesting that this is not the mechanism of activation. We conclude that immuno-modulatory mediators can modify the expression of cell-to-cell or cell-to-matrix adhesion proteins, implicated in the determination of phenotypes associated with aggressiveness and metastasis of colon cancer cells. PMID:12090473

  13. Cell adhesion molecule CD44: its functional roles in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Iczkowski, Kenneth A

    2010-09-12

    CD44 is a cell adhesion glycoprotein that also governs cell signaling. Dysregulated CD44 expression characterizes most human cancers, including prostate cancer (PCa). PCa loses expression of CD44 standard (CD44s) that is present in benign epithelium, and overexpresses the novel splice variant (v) isoform, CD44v7-10. We studied CD44 in PCa for more than a decade, and in a series of papers, established its functional significance. Using retrovi-ral gene delivery to PC-3M PCa cells, we expressed luciferase-only, enforced CD44s re-expression as a fusion protein with luciferase at its C-terminus or as a protein separate from luciferase, or knocked down CD44v7-10 by RNAi. Invasion, migration, proliferation, soft agar colony formation, adhesion, Docetaxel sensitivity, and xenograft growth assays were carried out. Compared to luciferase-only PC-3M cells, all 3 treatments reduced invasion and migration. Growth and soft agar colony formation were reduced only by re-expression of CD44s as a separate or fusion protein but not CD44v7-10 RNAi. Hyaluronan and osteopontin binding were greatly strengthened by CD44s expression as a separate protein, but not a fusion protein. CD44v7-10 RNAi in PC-3M cells caused marked sensitization to Docetaxel; the 2 CD44s re-expression approaches caused minimal sensitization. In limited numbers of mouse subcutaneous xeno-grafts, all 3 alterations produced only nonsignificant trends toward slower growth compared with luciferase-only controls. In further work, we tested the effects of the anti-growth compound silibinin, a milk thistle derivative. Using a luciferase promoter construct to test for CD44 promoter activity, silibinin significantly and dose-dependently inhibited promoter activity at physiologic doses. Total CD44 RNA and CD44v7-10 RNA were significantly decreased; both were also decreased at the protein level. Phenyl-methylene hydantoins (PMH), guanidine alkaloids derived from Red Sea sponges, have the ability to increase cell

  14. CD44 functions in Wnt signaling by regulating LRP6 localization and activation

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, M; Metzger, M; Gradl, D; Davidson, G; Orian-Rousseau, V

    2015-01-01

    Wnt reception at the membrane is complex and not fully understood. CD44 is a major Wnt target gene in the intestine and is essential for Wnt-induced tumor progression in colorectal cancer. Here we show that CD44 acts as a positive regulator of the Wnt receptor complex. Downregulation of CD44 expression decreases, whereas CD44 overexpression increases Wnt activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Epistasis experiments place CD44 function at the level of the Wnt receptor LRP6. Mechanistically, CD44 physically associates with LRP6 upon Wnt treatment and modulates LRP6 membrane localization. Moreover, CD44 regulates Wnt signaling in the developing brain of Xenopus laevis embryos as shown by a decreased expression of Wnt targets tcf-4 and en-2 in CD44 morphants. PMID:25301071

  15. Cytoskeletal Regulation of CD44 Membrane Organization and Interactions with E-selectin*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Yago, Tadayuki; Zhang, Nan; Abdisalaam, Salim; Alexandrakis, George; Rodgers, William; McEver, Rodger P.

    2014-01-01

    Interactions of CD44 on neutrophils with E-selectin on activated endothelial cells mediate rolling under flow, a prerequisite for neutrophil arrest and migration into perivascular tissues. How CD44 functions as a rolling ligand despite its weak affinity for E-selectin is unknown. We examined the nanometer scale organization of CD44 on intact cells. CD44 on leukocytes and transfected K562 cells was cross-linked within a 1.14-nm spacer. Depolymerizing actin with latrunculin B reduced cross-linking. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) revealed tight co-clustering between CD44 fused to yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) and CD44 fused to cyan fluorescent protein on K562 cells. Latrunculin B reduced FRET-reported co-clustering. Number and brightness analysis confirmed actin-dependent CD44-YFP clusters on living cells. CD44 lacking binding sites for ankyrin and for ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) proteins on its cytoplasmic domain (ΔANKΔERM) did not cluster. Unexpectedly, CD44 lacking only the ankyrin-binding site (ΔANK) formed larger but looser clusters. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching demonstrated increased CD44 mobility by latrunculin B treatment or by deleting the cytoplasmic domain. ΔANKΔERM mobility increased only modestly, suggesting that the cytoplasmic domain engages the cytoskeleton by an additional mechanism. Ex vivo differentiated CD44-deficient neutrophils expressing exogenous CD44 rolled on E-selectin and activated Src kinases after binding anti-CD44 antibody. In contrast, differentiated neutrophils expressing ΔANK had impaired rolling and kinase activation. These data demonstrate that spectrin and actin networks regulate CD44 clustering and suggest that ankyrin enhances CD44-mediated neutrophil rolling and signaling. PMID:25359776

  16. A novel mechanism of regulating breast cancer cell migration via palmitoylation-dependent alterations in the lipid raft affiliation of CD44

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Most breast cancer-related deaths result from metastasis, a process involving dynamic regulation of tumour cell adhesion and migration. The adhesion protein CD44, a key regulator of cell migration, is enriched in cholesterol-enriched membrane microdomains termed lipid rafts. We recently reported that raft affiliation of CD44 negatively regulates interactions with its migratory binding partner ezrin. Since raft affiliation is regulated by post-translational modifications including palmitoylation, we sought to establish the contribution of CD44 palmitoylation and lipid raft affiliation to cell migration. Methods Recovery of CD44 and its binding partners from raft versus non-raft membrane microdomains was profiled in non-migrating and migrating breast cancer cell lines. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to introduce single or double point mutations into both CD44 palmitoylation sites (Cys286 and Cys295), whereupon the implications for lipid raft recovery, phenotype, ezrin co-precipitation and migratory behaviour was assessed. Finally CD44 palmitoylation status and lipid raft affiliation was assessed in primary cultures from a small panel of breast cancer patients. Results CD44 raft affiliation was increased during migration of non-invasive breast cell lines, but decreased during migration of highly-invasive breast cells. The latter was paralleled by increased CD44 recovery in non-raft fractions, and exclusive non-raft recovery of its binding partners. Point mutation of CD44 palmitoylation sites reduced CD44 raft affiliation in invasive MDA-MB-231 cells, increased CD44-ezrin co-precipitation and accordingly enhanced cell migration. Expression of palmitoylation-impaired (raft-excluded) CD44 mutants in non-invasive MCF-10a cells was sufficient to reversibly induce the phenotypic appearance of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and to increase cell motility. Interestingly, cell migration was associated with temporal reductions in CD44 palmitoylation in

  17. Knock-down of CD44 regulates endothelial cell differentiation via NFκB-mediated chemokine production.

    PubMed

    Olofsson, Berit; Porsch, Helena; Heldin, Paraskevi

    2014-01-01

    A striking feature of microvascular endothelial cells is their capacity to fuse and differentiate into tubular structures when grown in three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrices, in collagen or Matrigel, mimicking the in vivo blood vessel formation. In this study we demonstrate that human telomerase-immortalised foreskin microvascular endothelial (TIME) cells express high levels of the hyaluronan receptor CD44 and the hyaluronidase HYAL2. Knock-down of CD44 or HYAL2 resulted in an inability of TIME cells to form a tubular network, suggesting a key regulatory role of hyaluronan in controlling TIME cell tubulogenesis in 3D matrices. Knock-down of CD44 resulted in an upregulation of mRNA expression of the chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL12, as well as their receptors CXCR3 and CXCR4. This was accompanied by a defect maturation of the tubular structure network and increased phosphorylation of the inhibitor of NFκB kinase (IKK) complex and thus translocation of NFκB into the nucleus and activation of chemokine targed genes. Furthermore, the interaction between CD44 and hyaluronan determines the adhesion of breast cancer cells. In summary, our observations support the notion that the interaction between CD44 and hyaluronan regulates microvascular endothelial cell tubulogenesis by affecting the expression of cytokines and their receptors, as well as breast cancer dissemination. PMID:24614402

  18. Kaempferol regulates OPN-CD44 pathway to inhibit the atherogenesis of apolipoprotein E deficient mice

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Hong-Bo; Lu, Xiang-Yang; Sun, Zhi-Liang; Zhang, Heng-Bo

    2011-12-15

    Recent studies show that osteopontin (OPN) and its receptor cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) are two pro-inflammatory cytokines contributing to the development of atherosclerosis. The objective of this study was to explore the inhibitory effect of kaempferol, a naturally occurring flavonoid compound, on atherogenesis and the mechanisms involved. The experiments were performed in aorta and plasma from C57BL/6J control and apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE{sup -/-}) mice treated or not with kaempferol (50 or 100 mg/kg, intragastrically) for 4 weeks. Kaempferol treatment decreased atherosclerotic lesion area, improved endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, and increased the maximal relaxation value concomitantly with decrease in the half-maximum effective concentration, plasma OPN level, aortic OPN expression, and aortic CD44 expression in ApoE{sup -/-} mice. In addition, treatment with kaempferol also significantly decreased reactive oxygen species production in mice aorta. The present results suggest that kaempferol regulates OPN-CD44 pathway to inhibit the atherogenesis of ApoE{sup -/-} mice. -- Graphical abstract: Kaempferol regulates OPN-CD44 pathway to inhibit the atherogenesis of ApoE{sup -/-} mice. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OPN-CD44 pathway plays a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine lesion area, OPN and CD44 changes after kaempferol treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Kaempferol treatment decreased atherosclerotic lesion area in ApoE{sup -/-} mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Kaempferol treatment decreased aortic OPN and CD44 expressions in ApoE{sup -/-} mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Kaempferol regulates OPN-CD44 pathway to inhibit the atherogenesis.

  19. Uncovering the dual role of RHAMM as an HA receptor and a regulator of CD44 expression in RHAMM-expressing mesenchymal progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Veiseh, Mandana; Leith, Sean J.; Tolg, Cornelia; Elhayek, Sallie S.; Bahrami, S. Bahram; Collis, Lisa; Hamilton, Sara; McCarthy, James B.; Bissell, Mina J.; Turley, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The interaction of hyaluronan (HA) with mesenchymal progenitor cells impacts trafficking and fate after tissue colonization during wound repair and these events contribute to diseases such as cancer. How this interaction occurs is poorly understood. Using 10T½ cells as a mesenchymal progenitor model and fluorescent (F-HA) or gold-labeled HA (G-HA) polymers, we studied the role of two HA receptors, RHAMM and CD44, in HA binding and uptake in non-adherent and adherent mesenchymal progenitor (10T½) cells to mimic aspects of cell trafficking and tissue colonization. We show that fluorescent labeled HA (F-HA) binding/uptake was high in non-adherent cells but dropped over time as cells became increasingly adherent. Non-adherent cells displayed both CD44 and RHAMM but only function-blocking anti-RHAMM and not anti-CD44 antibodies significantly reduced F-HA binding/uptake. Adherent cells, which also expressed CD44 and RHAMM, primarily utilized CD44 to bind to F-HA since anti-CD44 but not anti-RHAMM antibodies blocked F-HA uptake. RHAMM overexpression in adherent 10T½ cells led to increased F-HA uptake but this increased binding remained CD44 dependent. Further studies showed that RHAMM-transfection increased CD44 mRNA and protein expression while blocking RHAMM function reduced expression. Collectively, these results suggest that cellular microenvironments in which these receptors function as HA binding proteins differ significantly, and that RHAMM plays at least two roles in F-HA binding by acting as an HA receptor in non-attached cells and by regulating CD44 expression and display in attached cells. Our findings demonstrate adhesion-dependent mechanisms governing HA binding/ uptake that may impact development of new mesenchymal cell-based therapies. PMID:26528478

  20. PTK7 regulates Id1 expression in CD44-high glioma cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing; Zhang, Chi; Yuan, Jian; Fu, Jun; Wu, Minghua; Su, Jun; Wang, Xiangyu; Yuan, Xianrui; Jiang, Weixi

    2015-01-01

    Background CD44 is a molecular marker associated with molecular subtype and treatment resistance in glioma. More effective therapies will result from approaches aimed at targeting the CD44-high gliomas. Methods Protein tyrosine kinase 7 (PTK7) mRNA expression was analyzed based on The Cancer Genome Atlas glioblastoma dataset. PTK7 expression was depleted through lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA knockdown. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling was used to evaluate cell apoptosis following PTK7 knockdown. Gene expression analysis was performed on Affymetrix microarray. A nude mice orthotopic tumor model was used to evaluate the in vivo effect of PTK7 depletion. Results PTK7 is highly expressed in CD44-high glioblastoma and predicts unfavorable prognosis. PTK7 knockdown attenuated cell proliferation, impaired tumorigenic potential, and induced apoptosis in CD44-high glioma cell lines. Gene expression analysis identified inhibitor of DNA Binding 1 (Id1) gene as a potential downstream effector for PTK7. Overexpression of Id1 mostly restored the cell proliferation and colony formation attenuated by PTK7 depletion. PTK7 enhanced anchorage-independent growth in normal human astrocytes, which was attenuated by Id1 knockdown. Furthermore, PTK7 regulated Id1 expression through modulating TGF-β/Smad signaling, while pharmacological inhibition on TGF-β/Smad signaling or PTK7/Id1 depletion attenuated TGF-β–stimulated cell proliferation. PTK7 depletion consistently reduced Id1 expression, suppressed tumor growth, and induced apoptosis in a murine orthotopic tumor model, which could be translated into prolonged survival in tumor-bearing mice. Conclusions PTK7 regulates Id1 expression in CD44-high glioma cell lines. Targeting PTK7 could be an effective strategy for treating glioma with high CD44 expression. PMID:25204555

  1. Up-regulation of CD44 in the development of metastasis, recurrence and drug resistance of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan; Foster, Rosemary; Yang, Xiaoqian; Feng, Yong; Shen, Jacson K; Mankin, Henry J; Hornicek, Francis J; Amiji, Mansoor M; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2015-04-20

    The clinical significance of Cluster of Differentiation 44 (CD44) remains controversial in human ovarian cancer. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical significance of CD44 expression by using a unique tissue microarray, and then to determine the biological functions of CD44 in ovarian cancer. In this study, a unique ovarian cancer tissue microarray (TMA) was constructed with paired primary, metastatic, and recurrent tumor tissues from 26 individual patients. CD44 expression in TMA was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Both the metastatic and recurrent ovarian cancer tissues expressed higher level of CD44 than the patient-matched primary tumor. A significant association has been shown between CD44 expression and both the disease free survival and overall survival. A strong increase of CD44 was found in the tumor recurrence of mouse model. Finally, when CD44 was knocked down, proliferation, migration/invasion activity, and spheroid formation were significantly suppressed, while drug sensitivity was enhanced. Thus, up-regulation of CD44 represents a crucial event in the development of metastasis, recurrence, and drug resistance to current treatments in ovarian cancer. Developing strategies to target CD44 may prevent metastasis, recurrence, and drug resistance in ovarian cancer.

  2. Isolation of All CD44 Transcripts in Human Epidermis and Regulation of Their Expression by Various Agents.

    PubMed

    Teye, Kwesi; Numata, Sanae; Ishii, Norito; Krol, Rafal P; Tsuchisaka, Atsunari; Hamada, Takahiro; Koga, Hiroshi; Karashima, Tadashi; Ohata, Chika; Tsuruta, Daisuke; Saya, Hideyuki; Haftek, Marek; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    CD44, a cell surface proteoglycan, is involved in many biological events. CD44 transcripts undergo complex alternative splicing, resulting in many functionally distinct isoforms. To date, however, the nature of these isoforms in human epidermis has not been adequately determined. In this study, we isolated all CD44 transcripts from normal human epidermis, and studied how their expressions are regulated. By RT-PCR, we found that a number of different CD44 transcripts were expressed in human epidermis, and we obtained all these transcripts from DNA bands in agarose and acrylamide gels by cloning. Detailed sequence analysis revealed 18 CD44 transcripts, 3 of which were novel. Next, we examined effects of 10 different agents on the expression of CD44 transcripts in cultured human keratinocytes, and found that several agents, particularly epidermal growth factor, hydrogen peroxide, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, retinoic acid, calcium and fetal calf serum differently regulated their expressions in various patterns. Furthermore, normal and malignant keratinocytes were found to produce different CD44 transcripts upon serum stimulation and subsequent starvation, suggesting that specific CD44 isoforms are involved in tumorigenesis via different CD44-mediated biological pathways. PMID:27505250

  3. Isolation of All CD44 Transcripts in Human Epidermis and Regulation of Their Expression by Various Agents

    PubMed Central

    Teye, Kwesi; Numata, Sanae; Ishii, Norito; Krol, Rafal P.; Tsuchisaka, Atsunari; Hamada, Takahiro; Koga, Hiroshi; Karashima, Tadashi; Ohata, Chika; Tsuruta, Daisuke; Saya, Hideyuki; Haftek, Marek; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    CD44, a cell surface proteoglycan, is involved in many biological events. CD44 transcripts undergo complex alternative splicing, resulting in many functionally distinct isoforms. To date, however, the nature of these isoforms in human epidermis has not been adequately determined. In this study, we isolated all CD44 transcripts from normal human epidermis, and studied how their expressions are regulated. By RT-PCR, we found that a number of different CD44 transcripts were expressed in human epidermis, and we obtained all these transcripts from DNA bands in agarose and acrylamide gels by cloning. Detailed sequence analysis revealed 18 CD44 transcripts, 3 of which were novel. Next, we examined effects of 10 different agents on the expression of CD44 transcripts in cultured human keratinocytes, and found that several agents, particularly epidermal growth factor, hydrogen peroxide, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, retinoic acid, calcium and fetal calf serum differently regulated their expressions in various patterns. Furthermore, normal and malignant keratinocytes were found to produce different CD44 transcripts upon serum stimulation and subsequent starvation, suggesting that specific CD44 isoforms are involved in tumorigenesis via different CD44-mediated biological pathways. PMID:27505250

  4. CD44 Binding to Hyaluronic Acid Is Redox Regulated by a Labile Disulfide Bond in the Hyaluronic Acid Binding Site

    PubMed Central

    Kellett-Clarke, Helena; Stegmann, Monika; Barclay, A. Neil; Metcalfe, Clive

    2015-01-01

    CD44 is the primary leukocyte cell surface receptor for hyaluronic acid (HA), a component of the extracellular matrix. Enzymatic post translational cleavage of labile disulfide bonds is a mechanism by which proteins are structurally regulated by imparting an allosteric change and altering activity. We have identified one such disulfide bond in CD44 formed by Cys77 and Cys97 that stabilises the HA binding groove. This bond is labile on the surface of leukocytes treated with chemical and enzymatic reducing agents. Analysis of CD44 crystal structures reveal the disulfide bond to be solvent accessible and in the–LH hook configuration characteristic of labile disulfide bonds. Kinetic trapping and binding experiments on CD44-Fc chimeric proteins show the bond is preferentially reduced over the other disulfide bonds in CD44 and reduction inhibits the CD44-HA interaction. Furthermore cells transfected with CD44 no longer adhere to HA coated surfaces after pre-treatment with reducing agents. The implications of CD44 redox regulation are discussed in the context of immune function, disease and therapeutic strategies. PMID:26379032

  5. Trans-acting factors regulate the expression of CD44 splice variants.

    PubMed Central

    Konig, H; Moll, J; Ponta, H; Herrlich, P

    1996-01-01

    Variant isoforms of the cell surface glycoprotein CD44 (CD44v) are expressed during development, in selected adult tissues and in certain metastatic tumor cells. CD44v differ from the standard isoform (CD44s) by up to ten additional exon sequences included by alternative splicing. By cell fusion experiments, we have obtained evidence for the existence of cell-type specific trans-acting factors recruiting CD44 variant exon sequences. Stable cell hybrids of CD44s and CD44v expressing cells indicated a dominant mechanism for variant-exon inclusion. In transient interspecies heterokaryons of human keratinocytes and rat fibroblasts, the ability of the keratinocytes to include all variant exon sequences in CD44 was conferred completely on the rat fibroblast nucleus. Fusions of cells with complex CD44 splice patterns do not permit interpretation of splice control by the relative abundance of a single trans-acting factor, but rather by (a) positively acting factor(s) recruiting variant exon sequences in the 3' to 5' direction and additional factors selecting individual exons. Since the pancreatic carcinoma cell line BSp73ASML (in contrast to the cervix carcinoma cell lines SiHa and ME180) could not transfer its specific splice pattern in cell fusions, we conclude that in some tumors, splicing is also controlled by mutation of cis-acting recognition sites. Images PMID:8670907

  6. CD44 alternative splicing in gastric cancer cells is regulated by culture dimensionality and matrix stiffness.

    PubMed

    Branco da Cunha, Cristiana; Klumpers, Darinka D; Koshy, Sandeep T; Weaver, James C; Chaudhuri, Ovijit; Seruca, Raquel; Carneiro, Fátima; Granja, Pedro L; Mooney, David J

    2016-08-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) cultures often fail to mimic key architectural and physical features of the tumor microenvironment. Advances in biomaterial engineering allow the design of three-dimensional (3D) cultures within hydrogels that mimic important tumor-like features, unraveling cancer cell behaviors that would not have been observed in traditional 2D plastic surfaces. This study determined how 3D cultures impact CD44 alternative splicing in gastric cancer (GC) cells. In 3D cultures, GC cells lost expression of the standard CD44 isoform (CD44s), while gaining CD44 variant 6 (CD44v6) expression. This splicing switch was reversible, accelerated by nutrient shortage and delayed at lower initial cell densities, suggesting an environmental stress-induced response. It was further shown to be dependent on the hydrogel matrix mechanical properties and accompanied by the upregulation of genes involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), metabolism and angiogenesis. The 3D cultures reported here revealed the same CD44 alternative splicing pattern previously observed in human premalignant and malignant gastric lesions. These findings indicate that fundamental features of 3D cultures - such as soluble factors diffusion and mechanical cues - influence CD44 expression in GC cells. Moreover, this study provides a new model system to study CD44 dysfunction, whose role in cancer has been in the spotlight for decades.

  7. CD44 is highly expressed on milk neutrophils in bovine mastitis and plays a role in their adhesion to matrix and mammary epithelium.

    PubMed

    Gonen, Erez; Nedvetzki, Shlomo; Naor, David; Shpigel, Nahum Y

    2008-01-01

    Mastitis, inflammation of the mammary gland, is a common and economically important disease in dairy animals. Mammary pathogenic organisms, such as Escherichia coli, invade the teat canal,milk ducts, and mammary alveolar space, replicate in mammary secretions, and elicit a local inflammatory response characterized by massive recruitment of blood polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMN) into the alveoli and milk ducts. CD44 is a trans-membrane glycoprotein previously shown to play a role in mediation and control of blood PMN recruitment in response to inflammatory signals. Here we show, for the first time, increased expression of CD44 on recruited milk PMN in bovine mastitis and the expression of a CD44 variant, CD44v10, on these PMN. Furthermore, we demonstrate that CD44 mediates specific adhesion of bovine blood PMN to hyaluronic acid and mammary epithelial cells. Our results suggest that in mastitis CD44 plays a role in recruiting blood PMN into the mammary glands, the exact nature of this role needs to be elucidated.

  8. Interactions between Hyaluronan and Its Receptors (CD44, RHAMM) Regulate the Activities of Inflammation and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Suniti; Hascall, Vincent C.; Markwald, Roger R.; Ghatak, Shibnath

    2015-01-01

    The glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA), a major component of extracellular matrices, and cell surface receptors of HA have been proposed to have pivotal roles in cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, which are necessary for inflammation and cancer progression. CD44 and receptor for HA-mediated motility (RHAMM) are the two main HA-receptors whose biological functions in human and murine inflammations and tumor cells have been investigated comprehensively. HA was initially considered to be only an inert component of connective tissues, but is now known as a “dynamic” molecule with a constant turnover in many tissues through rapid metabolism that involves HA molecules of various sizes: high molecular weight HA (HMW HA), low molecular weight HA, and oligosaccharides. The intracellular signaling pathways initiated by HA interactions with CD44 and RHAMM that lead to inflammatory and tumorigenic responses are complex. Interestingly, these molecules have dual functions in inflammations and tumorigenesis. For example, the presence of CD44 is involved in initiation of arthritis, while the absence of CD44 by genetic deletion in an arthritis mouse model increases rather than decreases disease severity. Similar dual functions of CD44 exist in initiation and progression of cancer. RHAMM overexpression is most commonly linked to cancer progression, whereas loss of RHAMM is associated with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor growth. HA may similarly perform dual functions. An abundance of HMW HA can promote malignant cell proliferation and development of cancer, whereas antagonists to HA-CD44 signaling inhibit tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo by interfering with HMW HA-CD44 interaction. This review describes the roles of HA interactions with CD44 and RHAMM in inflammatory responses and tumor development/progression, and how therapeutic strategies that block these key inflammatory/tumorigenic processes may be developed in rodent and human diseases. PMID:25999946

  9. CD44 deficiency inhibits unloading-induced cortical bone loss through downregulation of osteoclast activity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuheng; Zhong, Guohui; Sun, Weijia; Zhao, Chengyang; Zhang, Pengfei; Song, Jinping; Zhao, Dingsheng; Jin, Xiaoyan; Li, Qi; Ling, Shukuan; Li, Yingxian

    2015-01-01

    The CD44 is cellular surface adhesion molecule that is involved in physiological processes such as hematopoiesis, lymphocyte homing and limb development. It plays an important role in a variety of cellular functions including adhesion, migration, invasion and survival. In bone tissue, CD44 is widely expressed in osteoblasts, osteoclasts and osteocytes. However, the mechanisms underlying its role in bone metabolism remain unclear. We found that CD44 expression was upregulated during osteoclastogenesis. CD44 deficiency in vitro significantly inhibited osteoclast activity and function by regulating the NF-κB/NFATc1-mediated pathway. In vivo, CD44 mRNA levels were significantly upregulated in osteoclasts isolated from the hindlimb of tail-suspended mice. CD44 deficiency can reduce osteoclast activity and counteract cortical bone loss in the hindlimb of unloaded mice. These results suggest that therapeutic inhibition of CD44 may protect from unloading induced bone loss by inhibiting osteoclast activity. PMID:26530337

  10. CD44 deficiency inhibits unloading-induced cortical bone loss through downregulation of osteoclast activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuheng; Zhong, Guohui; Sun, Weijia; Zhao, Chengyang; Zhang, Pengfei; Song, Jinping; Zhao, Dingsheng; Jin, Xiaoyan; Li, Qi; Ling, Shukuan; Li, Yingxian

    2015-01-01

    The CD44 is cellular surface adhesion molecule that is involved in physiological processes such as hematopoiesis, lymphocyte homing and limb development. It plays an important role in a variety of cellular functions including adhesion, migration, invasion and survival. In bone tissue, CD44 is widely expressed in osteoblasts, osteoclasts and osteocytes. However, the mechanisms underlying its role in bone metabolism remain unclear. We found that CD44 expression was upregulated during osteoclastogenesis. CD44 deficiency in vitro significantly inhibited osteoclast activity and function by regulating the NF-κB/NFATc1-mediated pathway. In vivo, CD44 mRNA levels were significantly upregulated in osteoclasts isolated from the hindlimb of tail-suspended mice. CD44 deficiency can reduce osteoclast activity and counteract cortical bone loss in the hindlimb of unloaded mice. These results suggest that therapeutic inhibition of CD44 may protect from unloading induced bone loss by inhibiting osteoclast activity.

  11. CD44 deficiency inhibits unloading-induced cortical bone loss through downregulation of osteoclast activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuheng; Zhong, Guohui; Sun, Weijia; Zhao, Chengyang; Zhang, Pengfei; Song, Jinping; Zhao, Dingsheng; Jin, Xiaoyan; Li, Qi; Ling, Shukuan; Li, Yingxian

    2015-01-01

    The CD44 is cellular surface adhesion molecule that is involved in physiological processes such as hematopoiesis, lymphocyte homing and limb development. It plays an important role in a variety of cellular functions including adhesion, migration, invasion and survival. In bone tissue, CD44 is widely expressed in osteoblasts, osteoclasts and osteocytes. However, the mechanisms underlying its role in bone metabolism remain unclear. We found that CD44 expression was upregulated during osteoclastogenesis. CD44 deficiency in vitro significantly inhibited osteoclast activity and function by regulating the NF-κB/NFATc1-mediated pathway. In vivo, CD44 mRNA levels were significantly upregulated in osteoclasts isolated from the hindlimb of tail-suspended mice. CD44 deficiency can reduce osteoclast activity and counteract cortical bone loss in the hindlimb of unloaded mice. These results suggest that therapeutic inhibition of CD44 may protect from unloading induced bone loss by inhibiting osteoclast activity. PMID:26530337

  12. The high and low molecular weight forms of hyaluronan have distinct effects on CD44 clustering.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cuixia; Cao, Manlin; Liu, Hua; He, Yiqing; Xu, Jing; Du, Yan; Liu, Yiwen; Wang, Wenjuan; Cui, Lian; Hu, Jiajie; Gao, Feng

    2012-12-14

    CD44 is a major cell surface receptor for the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA). Native high molecular weight hyaluronan (nHA) and oligosaccharides of hyaluronan (oHA) provoke distinct biological effects upon binding to CD44. Despite the importance of such interactions, however, the feature of binding with CD44 at the cell surface and the molecular basis for functional distinction between different sizes of HA is still unclear. In this study we investigated the effects of high and low molecular weight hyaluronan on CD44 clustering. For the first time, we provided direct evidence for a strong relationship between HA size and CD44 clustering in vivo. In CD44-transfected COS-7 cells, we showed that exogenous nHA stimulated CD44 clustering, which was disrupted by oHA. Moreover, naturally expressed CD44 was distributed into clusters due to abundantly expressed nHA in HK-2 cells (human renal proximal tubule cells) and BT549 cells (human breast cancer cell line) without exogenous stimulation. Our results suggest that native HA binding to CD44 selectively induces CD44 clustering, which could be inhibited by oHA. Finally, we demonstrated that HA regulates cell adhesion in a manner specifically dependent on its size. oHA promoted cell adhesion while nHA showed no effects. Our results might elucidate a molecular- and/or cellular-based mechanism for the diverse biological activities of nHA and oHA.

  13. ETS-1-mediated transcriptional up-regulation of CD44 is required for sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor subtype 3-stimulated chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenliang; Zhao, Jiawei; Lee, Jen-Fu; Gartung, Allison; Jawadi, Hiba; Lambiv, Wanyu Louis; Honn, Kenneth V; Lee, Menq-Jer

    2013-11-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)-regulated chemotaxis plays critical roles in various physiological and pathophysiological conditions. S1P-regulated chemotaxis is mediated by the S1P family of G-protein-coupled receptors. However, molecular details of the S1P-regulated chemotaxis are incompletely understood. Cultured human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines abundantly express S1P receptor subtype 3 (S1P3), thus providing a tractable in vitro system to characterize molecular mechanism(s) underlying the S1P3 receptor-regulated chemotactic response. S1P treatment enhances CD44 expression and induces membrane localization of CD44 polypeptides via the S1P3/Rho kinase (ROCK) signaling pathway. Knockdown of CD44 completely diminishes the S1P-stimulated chemotaxis. Promoter analysis suggests that the CD44 promoter contains binding sites of the ETS-1 (v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog 1) transcriptional factor. ChIP assay confirms that S1P treatment stimulates the binding of ETS-1 to the CD44 promoter region. Moreover, S1P induces the expression and nuclear translocation of ETS-1. Knockdown of S1P3 or inhibition of ROCK abrogates the S1P-induced ETS-1 expression. Furthermore, knockdown of ETS-1 inhibits the S1P-induced CD44 expression and cell migration. In addition, we showed that S1P3/ROCK signaling up-regulates ETS-1 via the activity of JNK. Collectively, we characterized a novel signaling axis, i.e., ROCK-JNK-ETS-1-CD44 pathway, which plays an essential role in the S1P3-regulated chemotactic response.

  14. CD44 Occupancy Prevents Macrophage Multinucleation

    PubMed Central

    Sterling, Hyacinth; Saginario, Charles; Vignery, Agnès

    1998-01-01

    Cells of the mononuclear phagocyte lineage have the capability to adhere to and fuse with each other and to differentiate into osteoclasts and giant cells. To investigate the macrophage adhesion/fusion mechanism, we focused our attention on CD44, a surface glycoprotein known to play a role in hematopoietic cell–cell adhesion. We report that CD44 expression by macrophages is highly and transiently induced by fusogenic conditions both in vitro and in vivo. We show that CD44 ligands, hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfates, and osteopontin prevent macrophage multinucleation. In addition, we report that the recombinant extracellular domain of CD44 binds fusing macrophages and prevents multinucleation in vitro. These data suggest that CD44 may control the mononucleated status of macrophages in tissues by virtue of mediating cell–cell interaction. PMID:9813101

  15. The adhesion molecule CD44v6 is associated with a high risk for local recurrence in adult soft tissue sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Maula, S; Huuhtanen, R L; Blomqvist, C P; Wiklund, T A; Laurila, P; Ristamäki, R

    2001-01-01

    In many malignant diseases the expression levels of CD44 and its splice variant v6 (CD44v6) have been associated with the prognosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of CD44 in adult soft tissue sarcomas (STS). 133 STS patients with a limb or superficial trunk tumour treated at the Helsinki University Central Hospital in 1987–1993 with a median follow-up time of 68 months were included in this study. The expression of CD44 and CD44v6 was determined immunohistochemically on paraffin-embedded tumour samples. 95% of the tumours expressed CD44 and CD44v6 was detected in 57%. Strong CD44 expression was associated with low grade (P = 0.04) and small tumour size (P = 0.02). In diploid tumours the CD44 expression was correlated with low S-phase fraction (P = 0.001). High expression of both, CD44 in general as well as that of CD44v6, predicted a higher risk for local recurrence (CD44: P = 0.01 and CD44v6: P = 0.05). Low CD44v6 content of the primary tumour correlated with poor survival (P = 0.02). Determining the expression of CD44 or CD44v6 in a primary STS could be a valuable tool for selecting the group of patients who might benefit from intensified local tumour treatment. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11161384

  16. Isoproterenol regulates CD44 expression in gastric cancer cells through STAT3/MicroRNA373 cascade.

    PubMed

    Wei, Bo; Sun, Xiaoyan; Geng, Zhijun; Shi, Ming; Chen, Zhida; Chen, Lin; Wang, Yongan; Fu, Xiaobing

    2016-10-01

    Gastric cancer is a heterogeneous disease, and stem cells are thought to be the cell of origin contributed to this malignancy. However, studies with breast and intestinal cancer models show non-stem cancer cells can change their surface phenotype and convert into tumor-initiating cells induced by the signals emanating from surrounding tumor microenvironment. Here, we show that CD44 was expressed at different levels in gastric metastases compared with primary tumors, and also negatively correlated with the expression of miR-373. By using a panel of human gastric cancer cell lines and analysis of archived data from The Cancer Genomics Altas (TCGA) database, we verified the inverse correlation between CD44 and miR-373. Furthermore, the stress-associated hormone, isoproterenol, could increase the expression levels of "stem"-related proteins, such as CD44, Nanog, and Rex-1, and induce chemoresistance in gastric cancer cells. Transfection with miR-373, however, reversed not only the effect of isoproterenol on phenotypic conversion but also its effect on drug sensitivity. Isoproterenol triggered downstream target STAT3 mainly through β2-adrenergic receptors (β2-ARs). Activated STAT3 functioned as a miR-373 suppressor by binding to its promoter, which forms a positive feedback circuit to maintain CD44 activity and direct the phenotypic conversion from CD44(low) to CD44(hi) expression. Our data suggest an important role of β2-AR/STAT3/miR-373 signaling on the transformation of gastric cancer cells. This study also suggests a potential therapeutic or preventive treatment for gastric cancer patients who are especially prone to psychosocial stress. PMID:27512943

  17. Isoproterenol regulates CD44 expression in gastric cancer cells through STAT3/MicroRNA373 cascade.

    PubMed

    Wei, Bo; Sun, Xiaoyan; Geng, Zhijun; Shi, Ming; Chen, Zhida; Chen, Lin; Wang, Yongan; Fu, Xiaobing

    2016-10-01

    Gastric cancer is a heterogeneous disease, and stem cells are thought to be the cell of origin contributed to this malignancy. However, studies with breast and intestinal cancer models show non-stem cancer cells can change their surface phenotype and convert into tumor-initiating cells induced by the signals emanating from surrounding tumor microenvironment. Here, we show that CD44 was expressed at different levels in gastric metastases compared with primary tumors, and also negatively correlated with the expression of miR-373. By using a panel of human gastric cancer cell lines and analysis of archived data from The Cancer Genomics Altas (TCGA) database, we verified the inverse correlation between CD44 and miR-373. Furthermore, the stress-associated hormone, isoproterenol, could increase the expression levels of "stem"-related proteins, such as CD44, Nanog, and Rex-1, and induce chemoresistance in gastric cancer cells. Transfection with miR-373, however, reversed not only the effect of isoproterenol on phenotypic conversion but also its effect on drug sensitivity. Isoproterenol triggered downstream target STAT3 mainly through β2-adrenergic receptors (β2-ARs). Activated STAT3 functioned as a miR-373 suppressor by binding to its promoter, which forms a positive feedback circuit to maintain CD44 activity and direct the phenotypic conversion from CD44(low) to CD44(hi) expression. Our data suggest an important role of β2-AR/STAT3/miR-373 signaling on the transformation of gastric cancer cells. This study also suggests a potential therapeutic or preventive treatment for gastric cancer patients who are especially prone to psychosocial stress.

  18. A role for CD44 in T cell development and function during direct competition between CD44+ and CD44- cells.

    PubMed

    Graham, Victoria A; Marzo, Amanda L; Tough, David F

    2007-04-01

    The role of CD44 in T cell biology remains incompletely understood. Although studies using anti-CD44 antibodies have implicated this cell adhesion molecule in a variety of important T cell processes, few T cell defects have been reported in CD44-deficient mice. We have assessed the requirement for CD44 in T cell development and mature T cell function by analyzing mice in which CD44(-/-) and WT cells were produced simultaneously. In mixed (CD44(-/-) + CD44(+/+)) bone marrow chimeras, production of CD44(-/-) T cells was shown to be reduced compared to WT cells due to inefficient intrathymic development. In addition, mature CD44(-/-) CD8(+) T cells generated a substantially lower response than WT T cells after infection of mice with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, with the reduction in response apparent in both lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues. Overall, these results demonstrate a poor capacity of CD44(-/-) T lineage cells to compete with WT cells at multiple levels, implicating CD44 in normal T cell function. PMID:17330818

  19. High levels of the adhesion molecule CD44 on leukemic cells generate acute myeloid leukemia relapse after withdrawal of the initial transforming event.

    PubMed

    Quéré, R; Andradottir, S; Brun, A C M; Zubarev, R A; Karlsson, G; Olsson, K; Magnusson, M; Cammenga, J; Karlsson, S

    2011-03-01

    Multiple genetic hits are detected in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). To investigate this further, we developed a tetracycline-inducible mouse model of AML, in which the initial transforming event, overexpression of HOXA10, can be eliminated. Continuous overexpression of HOXA10 is required to generate AML in primary recipient mice, but is not essential for maintenance of the leukemia. Transplantation of AML to secondary recipients showed that in established leukemias, ∼80% of the leukemia-initiating cells (LICs) in bone marrow stopped proliferating upon withdrawal of HOXA10 overexpression. However, the population of LICs in primary recipients is heterogeneous, as ∼20% of the LICs induce leukemia in secondary recipients despite elimination of HOXA10-induced overexpression. Intrinsic genetic activation of several proto-oncogenes was observed in leukemic cells resistant to inactivation of the initial transformation event. Interestingly, high levels of the adhesion molecule CD44 on leukemic cells are essential to generate leukemia after removal of the primary event. This suggests that extrinsic niche-dependent factors are also involved in the host-dependent outgrowth of leukemias after withdrawal of HOXA10 overexpression event that initiates the leukemia.

  20. CD44 Influences Fibroblast Behaviors Via Modulation of Cell-Cell and Cell-Matrix Interactions, Affecting Survivin and Hippo Pathways.

    PubMed

    Tsuneki, Masayuki; Madri, Joseph A

    2016-03-01

    CD44 has been studied in a wide variety of cell types, in a diverse array of cell behaviors and in a diverse range of signaling pathways. We now document a role for CD44 in mediating fibroblast behaviors via regulation of N-cadherin, extracellular matrix expression, Survivin and the Hippo pathway. Here, we report our findings on the roles of CD44 in modulating proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion of murine wild-type (WT-FB) and CD44 knockout dermal fibroblasts (CD44KO-FB). As we have documented in microvascular endothelial cells lacking CD44, we found persistent increased proliferation, reduced activation of cleaved caspase 3, increased initial attachment, but decreased strength of cell attachment in high cell density, post confluent CD44KO-FB cultures. Additionally, we found that siRNA knock-down of CD44 mimicked the behaviors of CD44KO-FB, restoring the decreases in N-cadherin, collagen type I, fibronectin, Survivin, nuclear fractions of YAP and phospho-YAP and decreased levels of cleaved caspase 3 to the levels observed in CD44KO-FB. Interestingly, plating CD44KO-FB on collagen type I or fibronectin resulted in significant decreases in secondary proliferation rates compared to plating cells on non-coated dishes, consistent with increased cell adhesion compared to their effects on WT-FB. Lastly, siRNA knockdown of CD44 in WT-FB resulted in increased fibroblast migration compared to WT-FB, albeit at reduced rates compared to CD44KO-FB. These results are consistent with CD44's pivotal role in modulating several diverse behaviors important for adhesion, proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion during development, growth, repair, maintenance and regression of a wide variety of mesenchymal tissues.

  1. Increased CD44 gene expression in lymphocytes derived from Alzheimer disease patients.

    PubMed

    Uberti, D; Cenini, G; Bonini, S A; Barcikowska, M; Styczynska, M; Szybinska, A; Memo, M

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrated for the first time an increased CD44 gene expression in lymphocytes derived from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients in comparison with healthy subjects. CD44 is a surface antigen expressed by cells of the immune and central nervous system as well as in a variety of other tissues. Functioning as adhesion molecule, CD44 is furthermore involved in driving immune response into infected tissues, including the CNS. We also found that lymphocytes of the same patients expressed significant levels of unfolded p53 isoform, confirming what we already demonstrated in fibroblasts and lymphocytes derived from other cohorts of AD patients. A correlation between p53 and CD44 expression has been well demonstrated in cancer cells, suggesting that CD44 could be a target gene of mutant p53, or either mutant p53 could lack its ability to negatively regulate CD44 expression. The contemporaneous increased expression of unfolded p53 and CD44 in AD lymphocytes may suggest that these two molecules cross-talk together participating in peripheral immune response during the development of the disease.

  2. CD44 standard and variant isoform expression in human epidermal skin tumors is not correlated with tumor aggressiveness but down-regulated during proliferation and tumor de-differentiation.

    PubMed

    Seelentag, W K; Günthert, U; Saremaslani, P; Futo, E; Pfaltz, M; Heitz, P U; Roth, J

    1996-06-21

    CD44 isoforms have been reported to be involved in tumor invasion and metastasis formation. Normal human skin expresses high levels of CD44 isoforms, but little is known about their expression in epidermal skin tumors. Expression of CD44 standard (CD44s) and variant exon (CD44v3, -v4, -v5, -v6, -v9)-encoded gene products has been studied in 74 benign, semi-malignant and malignant human epithelial skin tumors using a panel of well-characterized, variant exon-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Sensitivity and resolution of the immunohistochemical staining in paraffin sections was substantially improved by using microwave-based antigen retrieval and an optimized streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase technique. Immunostaining was evaluated semi-quantitatively and correlated with tumor type and degree of histological differentiation by non-parametric statistical tests. Furthermore, the relationship between CD44 expression and cellular proliferation rate as defined by the Ki-67 antigen was analyzed in basal cell carcinomas. We found a significant correlation between tumor type and CD44 isoform expression. Basal cell carcinomas exhibited the weakest staining and keratoacanthomas the strongest. Squamous cell carcinomas ranged in between, with a tendency to down-regulate CD44 expression upon de-differentiation. In basal cell carcinomas, an inverse relationship between CD44 expression and proliferation rate was directly demonstrated at the cellular level using double immunolabelling. Our data indicate that qualitative and quantitative changes in CD44 splicevariant expression in human skin tumors do not correlate with invasive and metastatic potential but are rather related to the degree of tumor differentiation. PMID:8682591

  3. Comparable roles of CD44v8-10 and CD44s in the development of bone metastases in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Hiraga, Toru; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    Cluster of differentiation (CD)44 has been implicated in cancer metastasis to bone. Clinical and experimental studies have suggested that the standard isoform of CD44 (CD44s) and the variant isoform of CD44 (CD44v) enhance metastasis. The present study examined the differential roles of CD44s and CD44v, particularly CD44v8-10, in the development of bone metastases. For this purpose, MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells and A549 human lung cancer cells were stably transduced with epithelial splicing regulatory protein 1 (ESRP1), which regulates the alternative splicing of several genes, including CD44. The introduction of ESRP1 induced a splicing switch from CD44s to CD44v, particularly to CD44v8-10, while the total amount of CD44 was rarely affected. However, ESRP1 did not significantly affect cell proliferation, migration, invasion or tumor sphere formation in vitro. Furthermore, ESRP1 did not cause significant differences in the development of bone metastases in a mouse model. As an alternative approach, cancer cells transduced with the CD44v8-10 gene were also established. The overexpression of CD44v8-10 in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, which rarely express any isoform of CD44, promoted cell migration and sphere formation, whereas the overexpression of CD44v8-10 in MDA-MB-231 cells, which endogenously express high levels of CD44s, did not exert these effects. The results of the present study collectively suggest that the ability of CD44v8-10 to promote tumor aggressiveness and bone metastases is similar to that of CD44s. CD44v8-10 and CD44s may represent potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of bone metastases.

  4. Induction of interactions between CD44 and hyaluronic acid by a short exposure of human T cells to diverse pro-inflammatory mediators.

    PubMed

    Ariel, A; Lider, O; Brill, A; Cahalon, L; Savion, N; Varon, D; Hershkoviz, R

    2000-07-01

    Migration of T cells into extravascular sites of inflammation is mediated by cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion receptors, including the hyaluronan-binding glycoprotein, CD44. The biochemical nature of CD44 variants and the ligand specificity, function and the regulation of activation of CD44 expressed on various cell types have been extensively studied. However, little is still known about the short-term influence of cytokines and chemokines on the activation of CD44 on human T cells. Therefore, we studied the role of inflammatory mediators in regulating the adhesion of T cells from human peripheral blood to immobilized hyaluronan under static or shear stress conditions. We found that the CD44-dependent adhesion, under static and shear stress (i.e. relative gradual resistance to flow of 150 and 1500 s-1) conditions, of T cells to hyaluronan requires a T-cell activation of 2-3 hr and is regulated by the cross-linking of CD3, cytokines (e.g. interleukin-2 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha), and chemokines (e.g. MIP-1beta, interleukin-8, and RANTES). This T-cell adhesion was manifested by polarization, spreading and co-localization of cell surface CD44 with a rearranged actin cytoskeleton in hyaluronan-bound T cells. Thus, cytokines and chemokines present in the vicinities of blood vessel walls or present intravascularly in tissues where immune reactions take place, can rapidly activate the CD44 molecules expressed on T cells. PMID:10929056

  5. The metastasis suppressor, NDRG1, inhibits “stemness” of colorectal cancer via down-regulation of nuclear β-catenin and CD44

    PubMed Central

    Wangpu, Xiongzhi; Yang, Xiao; Zhao, Jingkun; Lu, Jiaoyang; Guan, Shaopei; Lu, Jun; Kovacevic, Zaklina; Liu, Wensheng; Mi, Lan; Jin, Runsen; Sun, Jing; Yue, Fei; Ma, Junjun; Lu, Aiguo; Richardson, Des R.; Wang, Lishun; Zheng, Minhua

    2015-01-01

    N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1), has been identified as an important metastasis suppressor for colorectal cancer (CRC). In this study, we investigated: (1) the effects of NDRG1 on CRC stemness and tumorigenesis; (2) the molecular mechanisms involved; and (3) the relationship between NDRG1 expression and colorectal cancer prognosis. Our investigation demonstrated that CRC cells with silenced NDRG1 showed more tumorigenic ability and stem cell-like properties, such as: colony and sphere formation, chemoresistance, cell invasion, high expression of CD44, and tumorigenicity in vivo. Moreover, NDRG1 silencing reduced β-catenin expression on the cell membrane, while increasing its nuclear expression. The anti-tumor activity of NDRG1 was demonstrated to be mediated by preventing β-catenin nuclear translocation, as silencing of this latter molecule could reverse the effects of silencing NDRG1 expression. NDRG1 expression was also demonstrated to be negatively correlated to CRC prognosis. In addition, there was a negative correlation between NDRG1 and nuclear β-catenin and also NDRG1 and CD44 expression in clinical CRC specimens. Taken together, our investigation demonstrates that the anti-metastatic activity of NDRG1 in CRC occurs through the down-regulation of nuclear β-catenin and suggests that NDRG1 is a significant therapeutic target. PMID:26418878

  6. Twist2 promotes kidney cancer cell proliferation and invasion by regulating ITGA6 and CD44 expression in the ECM-receptor interaction pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hao-jie; Tao, Jing; Sheng, Lu; Hu, Xin; Rong, Rui-ming; Xu, Ming; Zhu, Tong-yu

    2016-01-01

    Twist2 is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family and plays a critical role in tumorigenesis. Growing evidence has proven that Twist2 is involved in tumor progression; however, the role of Twist2 in human kidney cancer and its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis were used to detect the expression of Twist2 in kidney cancer cells and tissues. Cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, migration, and invasion assay were analyzed using the Cell Count Kit-8, flow cytometry, wound healing, and Transwell analysis, respectively. In this study, we showed that Twist2 was upregulated in human kidney cancer tissues compared with normal kidney tissues. Twist2 promoted cell proliferation, inhibited cell apoptosis, and augmented cell migration and invasion in human kidney-cancer-derived cells in vitro. Twist2 also promoted tumor growth in vivo. Moreover, we found that the knockdown of Twist2 decreased the levels of ITGA6 and CD44 expression. This result indicates that Twist2 may promote migration and invasion of kidney cancer cells by regulating ITGA6 and CD44 expression. Therefore, our data demonstrated that Twist2 is involved in kidney cancer progression. The identification of the role of Twist2 in the migration and invasion of kidney cancer provides a potential appropriate treatment for human kidney cancer. PMID:27099513

  7. Expression of CD44 variants in human inflammatory synovitis

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, L.P.; Haynes, B.F.; McCachren, S.

    1995-11-01

    The cell surface hyaluronate receptor CD44 has previously been shown to have immunomodulatory activity and to be upregulated in inflammatory synovitis. Since these findings were reported, the genomic structure of CD44 has been delineated, and multiple splice variants have been described. Therefore, we determined which CD44 variant exons are present during inflammatory synovitis by a combination of Northern blot analysis and reverse transcription followed by polymerase chain reaction amplification of synovial RNA. Immunohistochemical staining was used to define the sites of expression of individual v6 and v9 exons in synovial tissue. The standard (S) or hematopoietic isoform, CD44S, was the predominant form of CD44 expressed in synovium and was expressed by most cell types. Other isoforms, containing alternatively spliced exons in the proximal extracellular domain, were found by RT-PCR, but at lower levels than CD44S. The second most prevalent form was CD44E, which has an insertion of three exons (v8-v10) in the proximal extracellular domain. Immunohistochemical studies showed that reactivity with v9-specific antibodies was primarily in macrophages, particularly those in the synovial lining layer. CD44 exon v6, previously reported to be important in immune activation and in epithelial tumor metastasis, was also expressed in synovial lining cells and in occasional synovial interstitial cells. The presence of CD44 variants containing v9 in rheumatoid synovial macrophages may be important in the adhesion and activation of mononuclear phagocytes in the synovium and, thus, may be a target for novel antiinflammatory therapies in the future. The role of CD44 isoforms in cellular adhesion, immune activation, and joint erosion in inflammatory synovitis deserves further study. 7 figs., 2 tabs., 56 refs.

  8. CD44 Deficiency Contributes to Enhanced Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Kelly M.; Michaud, Michael; Madri, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Adhesion molecule CD44 is expressed by multiple cell types and is implicated in various cellular and immunological processes. In this study, we examined the effect of global CD44 deficiency on myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide (MOG)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a murine model of multiple sclerosis. Compared to C57BL/6 wild-type mice, CD44-deficient mice presented with greater disease severity, increased immune cell numbers in the central nervous system, and increased anti-MOG antibody and proinflammatory cytokine production, especially those associated with T helper 17 (Th17) cells. Further, decreased numbers of peripheral CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) were observed in CD44-knockout mice throughout the disease course. CD44-knockout CD4 T cells exhibited reduced transforming growth factor-β receptor type I (TGF-β RI) expression that did not impart a defect in Treg polarization in vitro, but did correlate with enhanced Th17 polarization in vitro. Further, EAE in bone marrow–chimeric animals suggested CD44 expression on both circulating and noncirculating cells limited disease severity. Endothelial expression of CD44 limited T-cell adhesion to and transmigration through murine endothelial monolayers in vitro. Importantly, we also identified increased permeability of the blood–brain barrier in vivo in CD44-deficient mice before and following immunization. These data suggest that CD44 has multiple protective roles in EAE, with effects on cytokine production, T-cell differentiation, T-cell–endothelial cell interactions, and blood–brain barrier integrity. PMID:23416161

  9. Lipid raft association restricts CD44-ezrin interaction and promotion of breast cancer cell migration.

    PubMed

    Donatello, Simona; Babina, Irina S; Hazelwood, Lee D; Hill, Arnold D K; Nabi, Ivan R; Hopkins, Ann M

    2012-12-01

    Cancer cell migration is an early event in metastasis, the main cause of breast cancer-related deaths. Cholesterol-enriched membrane domains called lipid rafts influence the function of many molecules, including the raft-associated protein CD44. We describe a novel mechanism whereby rafts regulate interactions between CD44 and its binding partner ezrin in migrating breast cancer cells. Specifically, in nonmigrating cells, CD44 and ezrin localized to different membranous compartments: CD44 predominantly in rafts, and ezrin in nonraft compartments. After the induction of migration (either nonspecific or CD44-driven), CD44 affiliation with lipid rafts was decreased. This was accompanied by increased coprecipitation of CD44 and active (threonine-phosphorylated) ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) proteins in nonraft compartments and increased colocalization of CD44 with the nonraft protein, transferrin receptor. Pharmacological raft disruption using methyl-β-cyclodextrin also increased CD44-ezrin coprecipitation and colocalization, further suggesting that CD44 interacts with ezrin outside rafts during migration. Conversely, promoting CD44 retention inside lipid rafts by pharmacological inhibition of depalmitoylation virtually abolished CD44-ezrin interactions. However, transient single or double knockdown of flotillin-1 or caveolin-1 was not sufficient to increase cell migration over a short time course, suggesting complex crosstalk mechanisms. We propose a new model for CD44-dependent breast cancer cell migration, where CD44 must relocalize outside lipid rafts to drive cell migration. This could have implications for rafts as pharmacological targets to down-regulate cancer cell migration.

  10. Proteomic analysis of CD44(+) and CD44(-) gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dayeon; Shin, Hyun-Soo; Choi, Go; Lee, Yong Chan

    2014-11-01

    CD44 is a cell surface protein and it is widely used as a cancer stem cell marker in various cancer types including gastric cancer. We conducted proteomic analysis in CD44(+) and CD44(-) gastric cancer cells to understand characteristics of CD44(+) and CD44(-) cells. In the present study, we sorted cells from the gastric cancer cell line MKN45 according to CD44 expression to separate out CD44(+) and CD44(-) cells. And we conducted RT-PCR to identify mRNA expression of cancer stem cell markers in CD44(+) and CD44(-) cells. Cancer stem cell markers showed upregulated expression in CD44(+) cells. Next, we performed two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis to determine the differential expression pattern of proteins in each group; control, CD44(+), and CD44(-) MKN45 cells. We found a total of 113 spots that varied in expression between CD44(+) and CD44(-) cells, and subjected 20 of those protein spots to MALDI-MS. We selected the three proteins (HSPA8; heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein isoform 1, ezrin, α-enolase) upregulated in CD44(+) cells than CD44(-) cells and one protein (prohibitin) showed increased expression in CD44(-) cells. We validated the protein expression levels of four selected proteins by Western blot. We suggest that our study could be a helpful background to study CD44(+) cancer stem-like cells and differences between CD44(+) and CD44(-) cells in gastric cancer. PMID:25081334

  11. CD44 and hyaluronan expression in human cutaneous scar fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Messadi, D. V.; Bertolami, C. N.

    1993-01-01

    Fibrotic disorders of skin and other organs are typically associated with an abnormal accumulation of extracellular matrix. This study focuses on a matrix constituent, hyaluronan-which is known to be altered in fibrotic disorders of skin- and on CD44, a cell adhesion molecule and putative receptor for hyaluronan. Tissue samples were obtained from biopsies of human normal skin, normal cutaneous scar; and hypertrophic cutaneous scar. After culturing, cells were studied by single- and double-labeling immunohistochemistry using the two anti-CD44 monoclonal antibodies, BU-52 and J173, and a biotinylated hyaluronan binding complex probe, b-HABR. Certain cultures were pretreated with Streptomyces hyaluronidase to assess the dependency of CD44 expression on the presence of endogenous hyaluronan. CD44 expression, both in the presence and the absence of exogenous hyaluronan, was quantitated by radioimmunobinding assay. Overall glycosaminoglycan synthesis and identification of hyaluronan were accomplished by precursor incorporation assays and by quantitative cellulose acetate electrophoresis. CD44 was found to be a normal human adult fibroblastic antigen whose expression is markedly increased for hypertrophic scar fibroblasts compared with normal skin fibroblasts. Although hyaluronan was found to be the predominant glycosaminoglycan constituent of the pericellular matrix for these fibroblasts, CD44 attachment to the cell surface is neither mediated by hyaluronan nor is the presence of hyaluronan a prerequisite for CD44 expression. Exogenous hyaluronan induced a decline in measurable CD44 expression for normal skin fibroblasts but not for hypertrophic scar fibroblasts. These observations are compatible with current understanding of the way cells manage the hyaluronan economy of the extracellular matrix and emphasize phenotypic heterogeneities between fibroblasts derived from normal versus scar tissues. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 PMID:8475990

  12. Simvastatin inhibits CD44 fragmentation in chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Terabe, Kenya; Takahashi, Nobunori; Takemoto, Toki; Knudson, Warren; Ishiguro, Naoki; Kojima, Toshihisa

    2016-08-15

    In human osteoarthritic chondrocytes, the hyaluronan receptor CD44 undergoes proteolytic cleavage at the cell surface. CD44 cleavage is thought to require transit of CD44 into cholesterol-rich lipid rafts. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether statins exert a protective effect on articular chondrocytes due to diminution of cholesterol. Three model systems of chondrocytes were examined including human HCS-2/8 chondrosarcoma cells, human osteoarthritic chondrocytes and normal bovine articular chondrocytes. Treatment with IL-1β + Oncostatin M resulted in a substantial increase in CD44 fragmentation in each of the three chondrocyte models. Pre-incubation with simvastatin prior to treatment with IL-1β + Oncostatin M decreased the level of CD44 fragmentation, decreased the proportion of CD44 that transits into the lipid raft fractions, decreased ADAM10 activity and diminished the interaction between CD44 and ADAM10. In HCS-2/8 cells and bovine articular chondrocytes, fragmentation of CD44 was blocked by the knockdown of ADAM10. Inhibition of CD44 fragmentation by simvastatin also resulted in improved retention of pericellular matrix. Addition of cholesterol and farnesyl-pyrophosphate reversed the protective effects of simvastatin. Thus, the addition of simvastatin exerts positive effects on chondrocytes including reduced CD44 fragmentation and enhanced the retention of pericellular matrix.

  13. Lipid Raft Association Restricts CD44-Ezrin Interaction and Promotion of Breast Cancer Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Donatello, Simona; Babina, Irina S.; Hazelwood, Lee D.; Hill, Arnold D.K.; Nabi, Ivan R.; Hopkins, Ann M.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer cell migration is an early event in metastasis, the main cause of breast cancer-related deaths. Cholesterol-enriched membrane domains called lipid rafts influence the function of many molecules, including the raft-associated protein CD44. We describe a novel mechanism whereby rafts regulate interactions between CD44 and its binding partner ezrin in migrating breast cancer cells. Specifically, in nonmigrating cells, CD44 and ezrin localized to different membranous compartments: CD44 predominantly in rafts, and ezrin in nonraft compartments. After the induction of migration (either nonspecific or CD44-driven), CD44 affiliation with lipid rafts was decreased. This was accompanied by increased coprecipitation of CD44 and active (threonine-phosphorylated) ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) proteins in nonraft compartments and increased colocalization of CD44 with the nonraft protein, transferrin receptor. Pharmacological raft disruption using methyl-β-cyclodextrin also increased CD44-ezrin coprecipitation and colocalization, further suggesting that CD44 interacts with ezrin outside rafts during migration. Conversely, promoting CD44 retention inside lipid rafts by pharmacological inhibition of depalmitoylation virtually abolished CD44-ezrin interactions. However, transient single or double knockdown of flotillin-1 or caveolin-1 was not sufficient to increase cell migration over a short time course, suggesting complex crosstalk mechanisms. We propose a new model for CD44-dependent breast cancer cell migration, where CD44 must relocalize outside lipid rafts to drive cell migration. This could have implications for rafts as pharmacological targets to down-regulate cancer cell migration. PMID:23031255

  14. CD44, Hyaluronan, the Hematopoietic Stem Cell, and Leukemia-Initiating Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zöller, Margot

    2015-01-01

    CD44 is an adhesion molecule that varies in size due to glycosylation and insertion of so-called variant exon products. The CD44 standard isoform (CD44s) is highly expressed in many cells and most abundantly in cells of the hematopoietic system, whereas expression of CD44 variant isoforms (CD44v) is more restricted. CD44s and CD44v are known as stem cell markers, first described for hematopoietic stem cells and later on confirmed for cancer- and leukemia-initiating cells. Importantly, both abundantly expressed CD44s as well as CD44v actively contribute to the maintenance of stem cell features, like generating and embedding in a niche, homing into the niche, maintenance of quiescence, and relative apoptosis resistance. This is surprising, as CD44 is not a master stem cell gene. I here will discuss that the functional contribution of CD44 relies on its particular communication skills with neighboring molecules, adjacent cells and, last not least, the surrounding matrix. In fact, it is the interaction of the hyaluronan receptor CD44 with its prime ligand, which strongly assists stem cells to fulfill their special and demanding tasks. Recent fundamental progress in support of this “old” hypothesis, which may soon pave the way for most promising new therapeutics, is presented for both hematopoietic stem cell and leukemia-initiating cell. The contribution of CD44 to the generation of a stem cell niche, to homing of stem cells in their niche, to stem cell quiescence and apoptosis resistance will be in focus. PMID:26074915

  15. Virtual screening-driven repositioning of etoposide as CD44 antagonist in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre-Alvarado, Charmina; Segura-Cabrera, Aldo; Velázquez-Quesada, Inés; Hernández-Esquivel, Miguel A.; García-Pérez, Carlos A.; Guerrero-Rodríguez, Sandra L.; Ruiz, Angel J.; Rodríguez-Moreno, Andrea; Pérez-Tapia, Sonia M.; Velasco-Velázquez, Marco A.

    2016-01-01

    CD44 is a receptor for hyaluronan (HA) that promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), induces cancer stem cell (CSC) expansion, and favors metastasis. Thus, CD44 is a target for the development of antineoplastic agents. In order to repurpose drugs as CD44 antagonists, we performed consensus-docking studies using the HA-binding domain of CD44 and 11,421 molecules. Drugs that performed best in docking were examined in molecular dynamics simulations, identifying etoposide as a potential CD44 antagonist. Ligand competition and cell adhesion assays in MDA-MB-231 cells demonstrated that etoposide decreased cell binding to HA as effectively as a blocking antibody. Etoposide-treated MDA-MB-231 cells developed an epithelial morphology; increased their expression of E-cadherin; and reduced their levels of EMT-associated genes and cell migration. By gene expression analysis, etoposide reverted an EMT signature similarly to CD44 knockdown, whereas other topoisomerase II (TOP2) inhibitors did not. Moreover, etoposide decreased the proportion of CD44+/CD24− cells, lowered chemoresistance, and blocked mammosphere formation. Our data indicate that etoposide blocks CD44 activation, impairing key cellular functions that drive malignancy, thus rendering it a candidate for further translational studies and a potential lead compound in the development of new CD44 antagonists. PMID:27009862

  16. Molecular mechanism for the action of the anti-CD44 monoclonal antibody MEM-85.

    PubMed

    Škerlová, Jana; Král, Vlastimil; Kachala, Michael; Fábry, Milan; Bumba, Ladislav; Svergun, Dmitri I; Tošner, Zdeněk; Veverka, Václav; Řezáčová, Pavlína

    2015-08-01

    The hyaluronate receptor CD44 plays role in cell adhesion and migration and is involved in tumor metastasis. The extracellular domain of CD44 comprises the hyaluronate-binding domain (HABD) and the membrane-proximal stem region; the short intracellular portion interacts with adaptor proteins and triggers signaling pathways. Binding of hyaluronate to CD44 HABD induces an allosteric conformational change, which results in CD44 shedding. A poorly characterized epitope in human CD44 HABD is recognized by the murine monoclonal antibody MEM-85, which cross-blocks hyaluronate binding to CD44 and also induces CD44 shedding. MEM-85 is of therapeutic interest, as it inhibits growth of lung cancer cells in murine models. In this work, we employed a combination of biophysical methods to determine the MEM-85 binding epitope in CD44 HABD and to provide detailed insight into the mechanism of MEM-85 action. In particular, we constructed a single-chain variable fragment (scFv) of MEM-85 as a tool for detailed characterization of the CD44 HABD-antibody complex and identified residues within CD44 HABD involved in the interaction with scFv MEM-85 by NMR spectroscopy and mutational analysis. In addition, we built a rigid body model of the CD44 HABD-scFv MEM-85 complex using a low-resolution structure obtained by small-angle X-ray scattering. The MEM-85 epitope is situated in the C-terminal part of CD44 HABD, rather than the hyaluronate-binding groove, and the binding of MEM-85 induces a structural reorganization similar to that induced by hyaluronate. Therefore, the mechanism of MEM-85 cross-blocking of hyaluronate binding is likely of an allosteric, relay-like nature. PMID:26066970

  17. CD44 is a macrophage binding site for Mycobacterium tuberculosis that mediates macrophage recruitment and protective immunity against tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Leemans, Jaklien C.; Florquin, Sandrine; Heikens, Mirjam; Pals, Steven T.; Neut, Ronald van der; van der Poll, Tom

    2003-01-01

    Cell migration and phagocytosis are both important for controlling Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and are critically dependent on the reorganization of the cytoskeleton. Since CD44 is an adhesion molecule involved in inflammatory responses and is connected to the actin cytoskeleton, we investigated the role of CD44 in both these processes. Macrophage (Mφ) recruitment into M. tuberculosis–infected lungs and delayed-type hypersensitivity sites was impaired in CD44-deficient (CD44–/–) mice. In addition, the number of T lymphocytes and the concentration of the protective key cytokine IFN-γ were reduced in the lungs of infected CD44–/– mice. The production of IFN-γ by splenocytes of CD44–/– mice was profoundly increased upon antigen-specific stimulation. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that soluble CD44 can directly bind to virulent M. tuberculosis. Mycobacteria also interacted with Mφ-associated CD44, as reflected by reduced binding and internalization of bacilli by CD44–/– Mφs. This suggests that CD44 is a receptor on Mφs for binding of M. tuberculosis. CD44–/– mice displayed a decreased survival and an enhanced mycobacterial outgrowth in lungs and liver during pulmonary tuberculosis. In summary, we have identified CD44 as a new Mφ binding site for M. tuberculosis that mediates mycobacterial phagocytosis, Mφ recruitment, and protective immunity against pulmonary tuberculosis. PMID:12618522

  18. A monoclonal antibody that blocks poliovirus attachment recognizes the lymphocyte homing receptor CD44.

    PubMed Central

    Shepley, M P; Racaniello, V R

    1994-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody, AF3, was previously shown to specifically inhibit poliovirus binding to HeLa cells and to detect a 100-kDa glycoprotein only in cell lines and tissues permissive for poliovirus infection. These results suggested that the 100-kDa protein may be involved in the pathogenesis of poliomyelitis and the cellular function of the poliovirus receptor site. To study further the role of the 100-kDa protein in poliovirus attachment, immunoaffinity purification, amino acid sequencing, and cDNA cloning were undertaken. The results demonstrate that antibody AF3 reacts with the lymphocyte homing receptor CD44, a multifunctional cell surface glycoprotein involved in the homing of circulating lymphocytes to lymph nodes and the modulation of lymphocyte adhesion and activation. Antibody AF3 reacts with a subset of CD44 molecules (AF3CD44H), which appears to be a small fraction of the heterogeneously glycosylated CD44 molecules expressed on hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells. Anti-CD44 monoclonal antibodies, previously reported to induce CD44-mediated modulation of lymphocyte activation and adhesion, compete with 125I-AF3 in binding assays, demonstrating functional overlap among the epitopes. The anti-CD44 monoclonal antibody A3D8, which binds to a greater molecular weight range of CD44 than does AF3, inhibits poliovirus binding to a similar degree. CD44 does not act as a poliovirus receptor, since CD44-expressing mouse L-cell transformants did not bind poliovirus. The poliovirus receptor and AF3CD44H may be noncovalently associated, or they may interact through the cytoskeleton or signal transduction pathways. Images PMID:7508992

  19. CD44S-hyaluronan interactions protect cells resulting from EMT against anoikis

    PubMed Central

    Cieply, Benjamin; Koontz, Colton; Frisch, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    The detachment of normal epithelial cells from matrix triggers an apoptotic response known as anoikis, during homeostatic turnover. Metastatic tumor cells evade anoikis, by mechanisms that are only partly characterized. In particular, the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) in a subset of invasive tumor cells confers anoikis-resistance. In some cases, EMT up-regulates the cancer stem cell marker CD44S and the enzyme hyaluronic acid synthase-2 (HAS2). CD44S is the major receptor for hyaluronan in the extracellular matrix. Herein, we demonstrate that CD44S, unlike the CD44E isoform expressed in normal epithelial cells, contributes to the protection against anoikis. This protection requires the interaction of CD44S with hyaluronan (HA). CD44S–HA interaction is proposed to play an important role in tumor metastasis through enhanced cell survival under detached conditions. PMID:25937513

  20. Molecular studies into the role of CD44 variants in metastasis in gastric cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, H F; Yu, J C; Ho, L I; Chiu, S C; Harn, H J

    1999-01-01

    CD44, an integral membrane glycoprotein expressed by many cell types, serves as the principal transmembrane hyaluronate receptor and might be a determinant of metastatic and invasive behaviour in carcinomas. The generation of CD44 splice variants might be linked closely with gastric carcinoma tumorigenesis and differentiation. Some studies have reported that the magnitude of CD44 variant synthesis at the protein level correlates with lymph node metastasis. A number of studies have examined the possible mechanism of involvement of the CD44 variant in tumour metastasis. Most studies have reported that the regulation of CD44 binding to hyaluronate results from glycosylation of variably spliced exons. Direct hyaluronate binding studies of CD44 V4-V7 isoforms transfected into the human gastric carcinoma cell line, SC-M1, have indicated that the V4-V7 isoforms themselves, in addition to glycosylation, can alter hyaluronate binding. PMID:10439835

  1. CD44-engineered mesoporous silica nanoparticles for overcoming multidrug resistance in breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Liu, Ying; Wang, Shouju; Shi, Donghong; Zhou, Xianguang; Wang, Chunyan; Wu, Jiang; Zeng, Zhiyong; Li, Yanjun; Sun, Jing; Wang, Jiandong; Zhang, Longjiang; Teng, Zhaogang; Lu, Guangming

    2015-03-01

    Multidrug resistance is a major impediment for the successful chemotherapy in breast cancer. CD44 is over-expressed in multidrug resistant human breast cancer cells. CD44 monoclonal antibody exhibits anticancer potential by inhibiting proliferation and regulating P-glycoprotein-mediated drug efflux activity in multidrug resistant cells. Thereby, CD44 monoclonal antibody in combination with chemotherapeutic drug might be result in enhancing chemosensitivity and overcoming multidrug resistance. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the CD44 monoclonal antibody functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles containing doxorubicin on human breast resistant cancer MCF-7 cells. The data showed that CD44-modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles increased cytotoxicity and enhanced the downregulation of P-glycoprotein in comparison to CD44 antibody. Moreover, CD44-engineered mesoporous silica nanoparticles provided active target, which promoted more cellular uptake of DOX in the resistant cells and more retention of DOX in tumor tissues than unengineered counterpart. Animal studies of the resistant breast cancer xenografts demonstrated that CD44-engineered drug delivery system remarkably induced apoptosis and inhibited the tumor growth. Our results indicated that the CD44-engineered mesoporous silica nanoparticle-based drug delivery system offers an effective approach to overcome multidrug resistance in human breast cancer.

  2. A distinct glycoform of CD44 is an L-selectin ligand on human hematopoietic cells

    PubMed Central

    Dimitroff, Charles J.; Lee, Jack Y.; Fuhlbrigge, Robert C.; Sackstein, Robert

    2000-01-01

    We previously have obtained operational evidence of a hematopoietic cell L-selectin ligand expressed on normal human hematopoietic cells and on leukemic blasts. Using a technique developed in our laboratory for analyzing and identifying adhesion molecules, we show here that hematopoietic cell L-selectin ligand is a specialized glycoform of CD44. This L-selectin ligand activity of CD44 requires sialofucosylated N-linked glycans and is sulfation-independent. These data provide important insights on the structural biology of CD44 and reveal a role for this protein as an L-selectin ligand on human hematopoietic cells. PMID:11095749

  3. A reciprocal regulatory circuit between CD44 and FGFR2 via c-myc controls gastric cancer cell growth

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ha-Jung; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Choi, Eun Young; Kang, Myung-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Despite their suggested importance, the mechanistic roles of FGFR2 and gastric cancer stem cell (GCSC) marker CD44 remain unclear. We investigated cross talk between CD44 and FGFR2. FGFR2 and CD44 positively regulate each other's expression. While FGFR2 suppresses c-Myc transcription, CD44 activates it. c-Myc in turn augments FGFR2 transcription. CD44 knockdown (KD) depleted FGFR2 and other GCSC markers, decreased c-Myc and Sox2 expression, and suppressed tumor growth, whereas CD44 activation led to FGFR2 induction. FGFR2 KD decreased most GCSC marker expression, including CD44, but increased c-Myc and Sox2 expression and attenuated tumor growth. FGFR2 kinase inhibitor and FGFR2 neutralizing antibody decreased the CD44+/hi GCSC fraction. Conversely, FGFR2 overexpression increased CD44 and accelerated tumor growth in mice. FGFR2 was co-expressed and colocalized diffusively with CD44, EpCAM, and LGR5. In contrast, phospho-FGFR2 colocalized densely with CD44, forming an aggregated signaling complex that was prevented by FGFR2 inhibition. The c-Myc KD depleted FGFR2 but not CD44. Similarly to CD44+/hi phenotypes, sorted FGFR+/hi cells had larger volumes, formed more tumor spheres, grew faster in vivo with bigger tumor mass, and expressed more CD44, EpCAM, and HER2. These findings suggest that FGFR2+/hi cells have stemness properties. Moreover, in situ FGFR2 expression in patient-derived gastric cancer tissue correlated with tumorigenic potential in a xenograft model. In conclusion, CD44 and FGFR2 maintain stemness in gastric cancer by differentially regulating c-Myc transcription. PMID:27107424

  4. CD44 expression in intraoral salivary ductal papillomas and oral papillary squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Sarah G; Montague, Lindsay J; Cohen, Donald M; Bhattacharyya, Indraneel

    2013-06-01

    CD44 is a transmembrane adhesion molecule which has been previously shown to be useful in the differentiation of benign papillary lesions from invasive carcinoma in several different areas including sinonasal mucosa and breast tissue. CD44 expression has previously been shown to be lost in invasive carcinoma and retained in benign papillary lesions in both of the above locations. In addition, studies have evaluated oral mucosal lesions for CD44 expression and found a loss with invasive squamous cell carcinoma when compared to normal epithelium, hyperplasia, and squamous papillomas, which stained particularly strongly. To the best of our knowledge, no study has evaluated CD44 expression when comparing salivary ductal papillomas in comparison to oral papillary SCCA. In this study 18 cases of intraductal papilloma were compared to 19 cases of oral papillary SCCA. Within the ductal papilloma group, all cases stained either absent (6%), weakly (33%), or moderately (61%) with 76% expressing the stain diffusely and 24% focally. In comparison, the papillary squamous cell carcinoma cases expressed the CD44 moderately (26%) or strongly (74%) with 100 % showing diffuse staining. Thus, the CD44 expression was contrary to expectation based on previous studies, which we hypothesize is due to the extremely well differentiated nature of papillary SCCA which expressed CD44 staining compatible with levels previously reported with oral squamous papillomas than invasive carcinoma.

  5. Intracellular targeting of CD44+ cells with self-assembling, protein only nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pesarrodona, Mireia; Ferrer-Miralles, Neus; Unzueta, Ugutz; Gener, Petra; Tatkiewicz, Witold; Abasolo, Ibane; Ratera, Imma; Veciana, Jaume; Schwartz, Simó; Villaverde, Antonio; Vazquez, Esther

    2014-10-01

    CD44 is a multifunctional cell surface protein involved in proliferation and differentiation, angiogenesis and signaling. The expression of CD44 is up-regulated in several types of human tumors and particularly in cancer stem cells, representing an appealing target for drug delivery in the treatment of cancer. We have explored here several protein ligands of CD44 for the construction of self-assembling modular proteins designed to bind and internalize target cells. Among five tested ligands, two of them (A5G27 and FNI/II/V) drive the formation of protein-only, ring-shaped nanoparticles of about 14 nm that efficiently bind and penetrate CD44(+) cells by an endosomal route. The potential of these newly designed nanoparticles is evaluated regarding the need of biocompatible nanostructured materials for drug delivery in CD44-linked conditions.

  6. Lung cancer tumorigenicity and drug resistance are maintained through ALDH(hi)CD44(hi) tumor initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Xiao, Zhijie; Wong, Sunny Kit-Man; Tin, Vicky Pui-Chi; Ho, Ka-Yan; Wang, Junwen; Sham, Mai-Har; Wong, Maria Pik

    2013-10-01

    Limited improvement in long term survival of lung cancer patients has been achieved by conventional chemotherapy or targeted therapy. To explore the potentials of tumor initiating cells (TIC)-directed therapy, it is essential to identify the cell targets and understand their maintenance mechanisms. We have analyzed the performance of ALDH/CD44 co-expression as TIC markers and treatment targets of lung cancer using well-validated in vitro and in vivo analyses in multiple established and patient-derived lung cancer cells. The ALDH(hi)CD44(hi) subset showed the highest enhancement of stem cell phenotypic properties compared to ALDH(hi)CD44(lo), ALDH(lo)CD44(hi), ALDH(lo)CD44(lo) cells and unsorted controls. They showed higher invasion capacities, pluripotency genes and epithelial-mesenchymal transition transcription factors expression, lower intercellular adhesion protein expression and higher G2/M phase cell cycle fraction. In immunosuppressed mice, the ALDH(hi)CD44(hi)xenografts showed the highest tumor induction frequency, serial transplantability, shortest latency, largest volume and highest growth rates. Inhibition of sonic Hedgehog and Notch developmental pathways reduced ALDH+CD44+ compartment. Chemotherapy and targeted therapy resulted in higher AALDH(hi)CD44(hi) subset viability and ALDH(lo)CD44(lo) subset apoptosis fraction. ALDH inhibition and CD44 knockdown led to reduced stemness gene expression and sensitization to drug treatment. In accordance, clinical lung cancers containing a higher abundance of ALDH and CD44-coexpressing cells was associated with lower recurrence-free survival. Together, results suggested theALDH(hi)CD44(hi)compartment was the cellular mediator of tumorigenicity and drug resistance. Further investigation of the regulatory mechanisms underlying ALDH(hi)CD44(hi)TIC maintenance would be beneficial for the development of long term lung cancer control.

  7. Molecular isoforms of murine CD44 and evidence that the membrane proximal domain is not critical for hyaluronate recognition

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    We previously found that the CD44 glycoprotein on some lymphocytes can mediate adhesion to hyaluronate (HA) bearing cells. However, many questions remain about the molecular heterogeneity of CD44 and mechanisms which control its recognition of this ligand. In vitro mutagenesis and DNA sequencing have now been used to investigate the importance of the membrane proximal region of murine CD44 for recognition of soluble or cell surface HA. CD44 with an 83 amino acid deletion in this region mediated binding to soluble ligand and the apparent avidity increased markedly in the presence of a particular antibody to CD44, IRAWB14. The shortened CD44 was however inefficient in mediating adhesion of transfected cells to HA immobilized on cell surfaces. Four new murine isoforms of CD44 were isolated from a carcinoma line by use of the polymerase chain reaction. Only two of them correspond to ones recently discovered in rat and human cells. The longest variant nearly doubled the length of the extracellular portion of the molecule and introduced an additional 20 potential sites for glycosylation. When expressed on T lymphoma cells, all four of the new murine CD44 isoforms were capable of mediating adhesion to HA bearing cells. This result contrasts with a report that a related human CD44 isoform lacks this ability when expressed on B lineage lymphoma cells. The new murine isoforms also conferred the ability to recognize soluble HA and were very responsive to the IRAWB14 antibody. A brief survey of normal murine cell lines and tissues revealed that the hemopoietic isoform was the most abundant species. These findings indicate that the NH2-terminal portion of CD44 is sufficient for HA recognition and that this function is not necessarily abrogated by variations which occur in the membrane proximal domain. They add to the known molecular diversity of CD44 and provide another experimental model in which isoform specific functions can be investigated. PMID:1469058

  8. CD44 in Differentiated Embryonic Stem Cells: Surface Expression and Transcripts Encoding Multiple Variants

    PubMed Central

    Haegel, Hélène; Dierich, Andrée

    1994-01-01

    Expression of the surface-adhesion molecule CD44 was investigated during the in vitro differentiation of the embryonic stem (ES) cell line D3. By immunofluorescence analysis, totipotent, undifferentiated ES cells did not show surface expression of CD44, although two transcripts of approximately 1.6 and 3.3 kb were detected on Northern blots. Following 1 week of differentiation in either suspension or substrate-attached cultures, CD44 appeared on the surface of some D3 cells, and synthesis of an additional 4.5 kb mRNA species was detected on Northern blots. At this stage, at least three distinct transcripts encoding CD44 variants were induced within the cultures, resulting from alternative splicing of additional exons in the variable domains of CD44. From PCR analysis, they all appeared to contain the variable exon v10, and two of them in addition contained v6. Taken together, these results suggest that CD44 may play a role in cell migration and adhesion in the early development of the mouse embryo. PMID:7542511

  9. Production and characterization of a peptide-based monoclonal antibody against CD44 variant 6.

    PubMed

    Zarei, Saeed; Bayat, Ali Ahmad; Hadavi, Reza; Mahmoudi, Ahmad R; Tavangar, Banafsheh; Vojgani, Yasaman; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Amirghofran, Zahra

    2015-02-01

    The gene that codes for the CD44 family members consists of 20 exons, nine of which encode the standard form of the molecule. The other exons can be inserted in various combinations into the membrane proximal region of the extracellular domain of the protein, giving rise to variant isoforms (CD44v). CD44 variants, especially the CD44v6, have been reported to regulate tumor invasion, progression, and metastasis of carcinomas. Producing a high affinity monoclonal antibody against human CD44v6 provides a powerful tool to monitor and trace CD44v6 function in different biological fluids. In this study, a synthetic peptide from CD44v6 was conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and injected into BALB/c mice. Splenocytes from the immunized mice were fused with murine SP2/0 myeloma cells followed by selection of antibody producing hybridoma cells. After screening of hybridoma colonies by ELISA, high affinity antibodies were selected and purified by affinity chromatography. Western blot, immunocytochemistry, and flow cytometry experiments were used to characterize the antibodies. Six stable hybridoma cell lines, designated as 1H1, 1H2, 2A12, 2G11, 3H3, and 3H7, were obtained. Flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry results showed that the new monoclonal antibodies recognized CD44v6 on the cell surface. This novel panel of anti-CD44v6 antibodies has the potential for investigating the role of CD44v6 in cancer pathogenesis. PMID:25723282

  10. A crucial role of sialidase Neu1 in hyaluronan receptor function of CD44 in T helper type 2-mediated airway inflammation of murine acute asthmatic model.

    PubMed

    Katoh, S; Maeda, S; Fukuoka, H; Wada, T; Moriya, S; Mori, A; Yamaguchi, K; Senda, S; Miyagi, T

    2010-08-01

    CD44 is a highly glycosylated cell adhesion molecule that is involved in lymphocyte infiltration of inflamed tissues. We have demonstrated previously that sialic acid residues of CD44 negatively regulates its receptor function and CD44 plays an important role in the accumulation of T helper type 2 (Th2) cells in the airway of a murine model of acute asthma. Here we evaluated the role of sialidase in the hyaluronic acid (HA) receptor function of CD44 expressed on CD4+ T cells, as well as in the development of a mite antigen-induced murine model of acute asthma. Splenic CD4+ T cell binding of HA was examined with flow cytometry. Expression of sialidases (Neu1, Neu2, Neu3 and Neu4) in spleen cells was evaluated by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) were evaluated in the asthmatic Neu1-deficient mouse strain SM/J model. Splenic CD4+ T cells from asthmatic model mice displayed increased HA receptor activity of CD44 after culture with the antigen, along with characteristic parallel induction of sialidase (Neu1) expression. This induction of HA binding was suppressed significantly by a sialidase inhibitor and was not observed in SM/J mice. Th2 cytokine concentration and absolute number of Th2 cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and AHR were decreased in SM/J mice. In conclusion, HA receptor activity of CD44 and acute asthmatic reactions, including Th2-mediated airway inflammation and AHR, are dependent upon Neu1 enzymatic activity. Our observation suggests that Neu1 may be a target molecule for the treatment of asthma.

  11. Tyrosine phosphatase PTPRD suppresses colon cancer cell migration in coordination with CD44.

    PubMed

    Funato, Kosuke; Yamazumi, Yusuke; Oda, Takeaki; Akiyama, Tetsu

    2011-05-01

    PTPRD is a receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase. Recent analyses of comprehensive mutations and copy numbers have revealed that PTPRD is frequently mutated and homozygously deleted in various types of cancer, including glioblastoma, melanoma, breast and colon cancer. However, the molecular functions of PTPRD in cancer progression have yet to be elucidated. Herein, PTPRD suppressed colon cancer cell migration and was required for appropriate cell-cell adhesion. In addition, PTPRD regulated cell migration in cooperation with β-catenin/TCF signaling and its target CD44. Furthermore, expression levels of PTPRD were down-regulated in highly invasive cancers and were significantly correlated with patient survival. Our findings suggest that PTPRD is required for colon cancer invasion and progression.

  12. Inside-out Regulation of Ectodomain Cleavage of Cluster-of-Differentiation-44 (CD44) and of Neuregulin-1 Requires Substrate Dimerization*♦

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Monika; Parra, Liseth M.; Ruschel, Anne; Lindner, Christina; Morrison, Helen; Herrlich, Andreas; Herrlich, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Ectodomain shedding of transmembrane precursor proteins generates numerous life-essential molecules, such as epidermal growth factor receptor ligands. This cleavage not only releases the regulatory growth factor, but it is also the required first step for the subsequent processing by γ-secretase and the release of gene regulatory intracellular fragments. Signaling within the cell modifies the cytoplasmic tails of substrates, a step important in starting the specific and regulated cleavage of a large number of studied substrates. Ectodomain cleavage occurs, however, on the outside of the plasma membrane and is carried out by membrane-bound metalloproteases. How the intracellular domain modification communicates with the ectodomain of the substrate to allow for cleavage to occur is unknown. Here, we show that homodimerization of a cluster-of-differentiation-44 or of pro-neuregulin-1 monomers represents an essential pre-condition for their regulated ectodomain cleavage. Both substrates are associated with their respective metalloproteases under both basal or cleavage-stimulated conditions. These interactions only turn productive by specific intracellular signal-induced intracellular domain modifications of the substrates, which in turn regulate metalloprotease access to the substrates' ectodomain and cleavage. We propose that substrate intracellular domain modification induces a relative rotation or other positional change of the dimerization partners that allow metalloprotease cleavage in the extracellular space. Our findings fill an important gap in understanding substrate-specific inside-out signal transfer along cleaved transmembrane proteins and suggest that substrate dimerization (homo- or possibly heterodimerization) might represent a general principle in ectodomain shedding. PMID:25925953

  13. CD44 variant 6 is correlated with peritoneal dissemination and poor prognosis in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Tjhay, Francisca; Motohara, Takeshi; Tayama, Shingo; Narantuya, Dashdemberel; Fujimoto, Koichi; Guo, Jianying; Sakaguchi, Isao; Honda, Ritsuo; Tashiro, Hironori; Katabuchi, Hidetaka

    2015-10-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) drive tumor initiation and metastasis in several types of human cancer. However, the contribution of ovarian CSCs to peritoneal metastasis remains unresolved. The cell adhesion molecule CD44 has been identified as a major marker for CSCs in solid tumors, including epithelial ovarian cancer. CD44 exists as a standard form (CD44s) and also as numerous variant isoforms (CD44v) generated by alternative mRNA splicing. Here we show that disseminated ovarian tumors in the pelvic peritoneum contain highly enriched CD44v6-positive cancer cells, which drive tumor metastasis and are responsible for tumor resistance to chemotherapy. Clinically, an increased number of CD44v6-positive cancer cells in primary tumors was associated with a shortened overall survival in stage III-IV ovarian cancer patients. Furthermore, a subpopulation of CD44v6-positive cancer cells manifested the ability to initiate tumor metastasis in the pelvic peritoneum in an in vivo mouse model, suggesting that CD44v6-positive cells show the potential to serve as metastasis-initiating cells. Thus, the peritoneal disseminated metastasis of epithelial ovarian cancer is initiated by the CD44v6-positive subpopulation, and CD44v6 expression is a biomarker for the clinical outcome of advanced ovarian cancer patients. Given that a distinct subpopulation of CD44v6-positive cancer cells plays a critical role in peritoneal metastasis, definitive treatment should target this subpopulation of CD44v6-positive cells in epithelial ovarian cancer.

  14. Interaction of CD44 and hyaluronan is the dominant mechanism for neutrophil sequestration in inflamed liver sinusoids

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Braedon; McAvoy, Erin F.; Lam, Florence; Gill, Varinder; de la Motte, Carol; Savani, Rashmin C.; Kubes, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Adhesion molecules known to be important for neutrophil recruitment in many other organs are not involved in recruitment of neutrophils into the sinusoids of the liver. The prevailing view is that neutrophils become physically trapped in inflamed liver sinusoids. In this study, we used a biopanning approach to identify hyaluronan (HA) as disproportionately expressed in the liver versus other organs under both basal and inflammatory conditions. Spinning disk intravital microscopy revealed that constitutive HA expression was restricted to liver sinusoids. Blocking CD44–HA interactions reduced neutrophil adhesion in the sinusoids of endotoxemic mice, with no effect on rolling or adhesion in postsinusoidal venules. Neutrophil but not endothelial CD44 was required for adhesion in sinusoids, yet neutrophil CD44 avidity for HA did not increase significantly in endotoxemia. Instead, activation of CD44–HA engagement via qualitative modification of HA was demonstrated by a dramatic induction of serum-derived HA-associated protein in sinusoids in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS-induced hepatic injury was significantly reduced by blocking CD44–HA interactions. Administration of anti-CD44 antibody 4 hours after LPS rapidly detached adherent neutrophils in sinusoids and improved sinusoidal perfusion in endotoxemic mice, revealing CD44 as a potential therapeutic target in systemic inflammatory responses involving the liver. PMID:18362172

  15. Inversed relationship between CD44 variant and c-Myc due to oxidative stress-induced canonical Wnt activation

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Go J. Saya, Hideyuki

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •CD44 variant8–10 and c-Myc are inversely expressed in gastric cancer cells. •Redox-stress enhances c-Myc expression via canonical Wnt signal. •CD44v, but not CD44 standard, suppresses redox stress-induced Wnt activation. •CD44v expression promotes both transcription and proteasome degradation of c-Myc. •Inversed expression pattern between CD44v and c-Myc is often recognized in vivo. -- Abstract: Cancer stem-like cells express high amount of CD44 variant8-10 which protects cancer cells from redox stress. We have demonstrated by immunohistochemical analysis and Western blotting, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, that CD44 variant8-10 and c-Myc tend to show the inversed expression manner in gastric cancer cells. That is attributable to the oxidative stress-induced canonical Wnt activation, and furthermore, the up-regulation of the downstream molecules, one of which is oncogenic c-Myc, is not easily to occur in CD44 variant-positive cancer cells. We have also found out that CD44v8-10 expression is associated with the turn-over of the c-Myc with the experiments using gastric cancer cell lines. This cannot be simply explained by the model of oxidative stress-induced Wnt activation. CD44v8-10-positive cancer cells are enriched at the invasive front. Tumor tissue at the invasive area is considered to be composed of heterogeneous cellular population; dormant cancer stem-like cells with CD44v8-10 {sup high}/ Fbw7 {sup high}/ c-Myc {sup low} and proliferative cancer stem-like cells with CD44v8-10 {sup high}/ Fbw7 {sup low}/ c-Myc {sup high}.

  16. Impacts of CD44 knockdown in cancer cells on tumor and host metabolic systems revealed by quantitative imaging mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ohmura, Mitsuyo; Hishiki, Takako; Yamamoto, Takehiro; Nakanishi, Tsuyoshi; Kubo, Akiko; Tsuchihashi, Kenji; Tamada, Mayumi; Toue, Sakino; Kabe, Yasuaki; Saya, Hideyuki; Suematsu, Makoto

    2015-04-30

    CD44 expressed in cancer cells was shown to stabilize cystine transporter (xCT) that uptakes cystine and excretes glutamate to supply cysteine as a substrate for reduced glutathione (GSH) for survival. While targeting CD44 serves as a potentially therapeutic stratagem to attack cancer growth and chemoresistance, the impact of CD44 targeting in cancer cells on metabolic systems of tumors and host tissues in vivo remains to be fully determined. This study aimed to reveal effects of CD44 silencing on alterations in energy metabolism and sulfur-containing metabolites in vitro and in vivo using capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry and quantitative imaging mass spectrometry (Q-IMS), respectively. In an experimental model of xenograft transplantation of human colon cancer HCT116 cells in superimmunodeficient NOG mice, snap-frozen liver tissues containing metastatic tumors were examined by Q-IMS. As reported previously, short hairpin CD44 RNA interference (shCD44) in cancer cells caused significant regression of tumor growth in the host liver. Under these circumstances, the CD44 knockdown suppressed polyamines, GSH and energy charges not only in metastatic tumors but also in the host liver. In culture, HCT116 cells treated with shCD44 decreased total amounts of methionine-pool metabolites including spermidine and spermine, and reactive cysteine persulfides, suggesting roles of these metabolites for cancer growth. Collectively, these results suggest that CD44 expressed in cancer accounts for a key regulator of metabolic interplay between tumor and the host tissue. PMID:25461272

  17. Effect of CD44 gene polymorphisms on risk of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Weng, Wei-Chun; Huang, Yu-Hui; Yang, Shun-Fa; Wang, Shian-Shiang; Kuo, Wu-Hsien; Hsueh, Chao-Wen; Huang, Ching-Hsuan; Chou, Ying-Erh

    2016-05-01

    The carcinogenesis of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder involves etiological factors, such as ethnicity, the environment, genetics, and diet. Cluster of differentiation (CD44), a well-known tumor marker, plays a crucial role in regulating tumor cell differentiation and metastasis. This study investigated the effect of CD44 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on TCC risk and clinicopathological characteristics. Five SNPs of CD44 were analyzed through real-time polymerase chain reaction in 275 patients with TCC and 275 participants without cancer. In this study, we observed that CD44 rs187115 polymorphism carriers with the genotype of at least one G were associated with TCC risk. Furthermore, TCC patients who carried at least one G allele at CD44 rs187115 had a higher stage risk than did patients carrying the wild-type allele (p < 0.05). In addition, The AATAC or GACGC haplotype among the five CD44 sites was also associated with a reduced risk of TCC. In conclusion, our results suggest that CD44 SNPs influence the risk of TCC. Patients with CD44 rs187115 variant genotypes (AG + GG) exhibited a higher risk of TCC; these patients may possess chemoresistance to developing late-stage TCC compared with those with the wild-type genotype. The CD44 rs187115 SNP may predict poor prognosis in patients with TCC.

  18. Regulation of Cell Adhesion Strength by Peripheral Focal Adhesion Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Elineni, Kranthi Kumar; Gallant, Nathan D.

    2011-01-01

    Cell adhesion to extracellular matrices is a tightly regulated process that involves the complex interplay between biochemical and mechanical events at the cell-adhesive interface. Previous work established the spatiotemporal contributions of adhesive components to adhesion strength and identified a nonlinear dependence on cell spreading. This study was designed to investigate the regulation of cell-adhesion strength by the size and position of focal adhesions (FA). The cell-adhesive interface was engineered to direct FA assembly to the periphery of the cell-spreading area to delineate the cell-adhesive area from the cell-spreading area. It was observed that redistributing the same adhesive area over a larger cell-spreading area significantly enhanced cell-adhesion strength, but only up to a threshold area. Moreover, the size of the peripheral FAs, which was interpreted as an adhesive patch, did not directly govern the adhesion strength. Interestingly, this is in contrast to the previously reported functional role of FAs in regulating cellular traction where sizes of the peripheral FAs play a critical role. These findings demonstrate, to our knowledge for the first time, that two spatial regimes in cell-spreading area exist that uniquely govern the structure-function role of FAs in regulating cell-adhesion strength. PMID:22208188

  19. Suppression of human breast tumors in NOD/SCID mice by CD44 shRNA gene therapy combined with doxorubicin treatment

    PubMed Central

    Van Pham, Phuc; Vu, Ngoc Bich; Duong, Thuy Thanh; Nguyen, Tam Thanh; Truong, Nhung Hai; Phan, Nhan Lu Chinh; Vuong, Tue Gia; Pham, Viet Quoc; Nguyen, Hoang Minh; Nguyen, Kha The; Nguyen, Nhung Thi; Nguyen, Khue Gia; Khat, Lam Tan; Van Le, Dong; Truong, Kiet Dinh; Phan, Ngoc Kim

    2012-01-01

    Background Breast cancer stem cells with a CD44+CD24− phenotype are the origin of breast tumors. Strong CD44 expression in this population indicates its important role in maintaining the stem cell phenotype. Previous studies show that CD44 down-regulation causes CD44+CD24− breast cancer stem cells to differentiate into non-stem cells that are sensitive to antitumor drugs and lose many characteristics of the original cells. In this study, we determined tumor suppression in non-obese severe combined immunodeficiency mice using CD44 shRNA therapy combined with doxorubicin treatment. Methods Tumor-bearing non-obese severe combined immunodeficiency mice were established by injection of CD44+CD24− cells. To track CD44+CD24− cells, green fluorescence protein was stably transduced using a lentiviral vector prior to injection into mice. The amount of CD44 shRNA lentiviral vector used for transduction was based on CD44 down-regulation by in vitro CD44 shRNA transduction. Mice were treated with direct injection of CD44 shRNA lentiviral vector into tumors followed by doxorubicin administration after 48 hours. The effect was evaluated by changes in the size and weight of tumors compared with that of the control. Results The combination of CD44 down-regulation and doxorubicin strongly suppressed tumor growth with significant differences in tumor sizes and weights compared with that of CD44 down-regulation or doxorubicin treatment alone. In the combination of CD44 down-regulation and doxorubicin group, the tumor weight was significantly decreased by 4.38-fold compared with that of the control group. Conclusion These results support a new strategy for breast cancer treatment by combining gene therapy with chemotherapy. PMID:22649280

  20. Soluble CD44 inhibits melanoma tumor growth by blocking cell surface CD44 binding to hyaluronic acid.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, T; Sleeman, J P; Schempp, C M; Howells, N; Hofmann, M; Ponta, H; Herrlich, P; Simon, J C

    2001-06-01

    Proteolytic cleavage of the extracellular domain of CD44 from the surface of cells has been observed recently in different cell types. In cell culture supernatants of human melanoma cell lines a 70 kDa soluble CD44 protein (solCD44) was detected at concentrations of 250-300 ng/ml. Protease inhibitor studies revealed that serine proteases and metalloproteases are involved in the cleavage of CD44 from the surface of melanoma cells. To analyse a possible function of soluble CD44 a human malignant melanoma cell line was stably transfected with cDNAs encoding either wild type soluble CD44s or mutated forms with defective HA binding properties (CD44sR41A and CD44sR150A/R154A). Soluble CD44s almost completely inhibited hyaluronic acid binding by melanoma cells, whereas soluble CD44 mutated in the HA binding domain had no effect. When cultivated on hyaluronic acid, melanoma cell proliferation was induced by 30% for both the parental and the control transfected cells. This increase in proliferation was blocked completely in solCD44s-secreting transfectants, whereas solCD44sR41A and solCD44sR150A/R154A-secreting cells again showed hyaluronic acid-induced cell proliferation. These cell lines were subcutaneously injected into MF1 nu/nu mice to compare their growth as tumors in vivo. Compared to tumors derived from parental and control transfected cells, we observed a dramatic reduction of primary tumor growth with solCD44s expressing MM cells. Transfectants expressing solCD44s mutated in the HA binding domain in contrast developed fast-growing primary tumors. These results provide strong evidence that direct solCD44 interactions with hyaluronic acid interfere competitively with processes induced by hyaluronic acid binding to surface CD44. Autocrine, or drug-induced secretion of solCD44 by human melanoma cells may thus exert potent antitumoral effects in vivo. PMID:11423990

  1. CD44 and beta3 integrin organize two functionally distinct actin-based domains in osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Chabadel, Anne; Bañon-Rodríguez, Inmaculada; Cluet, David; Rudkin, Brian B; Wehrle-Haller, Bernhard; Genot, Elisabeth; Jurdic, Pierre; Anton, Ines M; Saltel, Frédéric

    2007-12-01

    The actin cytoskeleton of mature osteoclasts (OCs) adhering to nonmineralized substrates is organized in a belt of podosomes reminiscent of the sealing zone (SZ) found in bone resorbing OCs. In this study, we demonstrate that the belt is composed of two functionally different actin-based domains: podosome cores linked with CD44, which are involved in cell adhesion, and a diffuse cloud associated with beta3 integrin, which is involved in cell adhesion and contraction. Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome Protein (WASp) Interacting Protein (WIP)-/- OCs were devoid of podosomes, but they still exhibited actin clouds. Indeed, WIP-/- OCs show diminished expression of WASp, which is required for podosome formation. CD44 is a novel marker of OC podosome cores and the first nonintegrin receptor detected in these structures. The importance of CD44 is revealed by showing that its clustering restores podosome cores and WASp expression in WIP-/- OCs. However, although CD44 signals are sufficient to form a SZ, the presence of WIP is indispensable for the formation of a fully functional SZ.

  2. MicroRNAs 373 and 520c are downregulated in prostate cancer, suppress CD44 translation and enhance invasion of prostate cancer cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kui; Handorean, Alina M; Iczkowski, Kenneth A

    2009-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa), like most human cancers, features dysregulated CD44 expression. It loses expression of CD44 standard (CD44s), present in benign epithelium, and overexpresses a less abundant splice isoform, CD44v7-10. MicroRNAs 373 and 520c putatively regulate CD44. The levels of these two microRNAs were measured in matched benign and malignant patient tissues and in prostate cell lines. The effects of their transfection on CD44 mRNA and protein were documented. Whether these miRNAs act on CD44 promoter, or its 3' untranslated region (UTR), was studied with luciferase reporter constructs and their influences on migration and invasion were determined in PC-3M cells. miR-373 and miR-520c expression were decreased in PCa cell lines and tissues, in proportion to their decreases in total CD44 mRNA. Exogenous miR-373 caused a dose-dependent increase in total CD44 RNA, but a decrease in CD44v7-10 RNA, with an optimal dose at 6 nM. At the protein level, however, both microRNAs suppressed CD44. Both migration and invasion were stimulated by miR-373 and miR-520c. The microRNAs had no effect on the CD44 promoter, but did exhibit 3'UTR binding. In conclusion, miR-373 and miR-520c exert their effect in PCa by preventing the translation of CD44 RNA, rather than by degrading the RNA. Despite this observation, they exert pro-invasive functional effects, as previously described in breast cancer cells. Their effects are mediated by binding CD44 3'UTR.

  3. Regulation of chondrocyte differentiation by the actin cytoskeleton and adhesive interactions.

    PubMed

    Woods, Anita; Wang, Guoyan; Beier, Frank

    2007-10-01

    Chondrocyte differentiation is a multi-step process characterized by successive changes in cell morphology and gene expression. In addition to tight regulation by numerous soluble factors, these processes are controlled by adhesive events. During the early phase of the chondrocyte life cycle, cell-cell adhesion through molecules such as N-cadherin and neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) is required for differentiation of mesenchymal precursor cells to chondrocytes. At later stages, for example in growth plate chondrocytes, adhesion signaling from extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins through integrins and other ECM receptors such as the discoidin domain receptor (DDR) 2 (a collagen receptor) and Annexin V is necessary for normal chondrocyte proliferation and hypertrophy. Cell-matrix interactions are also important for chondrogenesis, for example through the activity of CD44, a receptor for Hyaluronan and collagens. The roles of several signaling molecules involved in adhesive signaling, such as integrin-linked kinase (ILK) and Rho GTPases, during chondrocyte differentiation are beginning to be understood, and the actin cytoskeleton has been identified as a common target of these adhesive pathways. Complete elucidation of the pathways connecting adhesion receptors to downstream effectors and the mechanisms integrating adhesion signaling with growth factor- and hormone-induced pathways is required for a better understanding of physiological and pathological skeletal development.

  4. Overexpression of c-Met and CD44v6 receptors contributes to autocrine TGF-β1 signaling in interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Ghatak, Shibnath; Bogatkevich, Galina S; Atnelishvili, Ilia; Akter, Tanjina; Feghali-Bostwick, Carol; Hoffman, Stanley; Fresco, Victor M; Fuchs, John C; Visconti, Richard P; Markwald, Roger R; Padhye, Subhas B; Silver, Richard M; Hascall, Vincent C; Misra, Suniti

    2014-03-14

    The hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and the HGF receptor Met pathway are important in the pathogenesis of interstitial lung disease (ILD). Alternatively spliced isoforms of CD44 containing variable exon 6 (CD44v6) and its ligand hyaluronan (HA) alter cellular function in response to interaction between CD44v6 and HGF. TGF-β1 is the crucial cytokine that induces fibrotic action in ILD fibroblasts (ILDFbs). We have identified an autocrine TGF-β1 signaling that up-regulates both Met and CD44v6 mRNA and protein expression. Western blot analysis, flow cytometry, and immunostaining revealed that CD44v6 and Met colocalize in fibroblasts and in tissue sections from ILD patients and in lungs of bleomycin-treated mice. Interestingly, cell proliferation induced by TGF-β1 is mediated through Met and CD44v6. Further, cell proliferation mediated by TGF-β1/CD44v6 is ERK-dependent. In contrast, action of Met on ILDFb proliferation does not require ERK but does require p38(MAPK). ILDFbs were sorted into CD44v6(+)/Met(+) and CD44v6(-)/Met(+) subpopulations. HGF inhibited TGF-β1-stimulated collagen-1 and α-smooth muscle cell actin expression in both of these subpopulations by interfering with TGF-β1 signaling. HGF alone markedly stimulated CD44v6 expression, which in turn regulated collagen-1 synthesis. Our data with primary lung fibroblast cultures with respect to collagen-1, CD44v6, and Met expressions were supported by immunostaining of lung sections from bleomycin-treated mice and from ILD patients. These results define the relationships between CD44v6, Met, and autocrine TGF-β1 signaling and the potential modulating influence of HGF on TGF-β1-induced CD44v6-dependent fibroblast function in ILD fibrosis.

  5. Overexpression of c-Met and CD44v6 receptors contributes to autocrine TGF-β1 signaling in interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Ghatak, Shibnath; Bogatkevich, Galina S; Atnelishvili, Ilia; Akter, Tanjina; Feghali-Bostwick, Carol; Hoffman, Stanley; Fresco, Victor M; Fuchs, John C; Visconti, Richard P; Markwald, Roger R; Padhye, Subhas B; Silver, Richard M; Hascall, Vincent C; Misra, Suniti

    2014-03-14

    The hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and the HGF receptor Met pathway are important in the pathogenesis of interstitial lung disease (ILD). Alternatively spliced isoforms of CD44 containing variable exon 6 (CD44v6) and its ligand hyaluronan (HA) alter cellular function in response to interaction between CD44v6 and HGF. TGF-β1 is the crucial cytokine that induces fibrotic action in ILD fibroblasts (ILDFbs). We have identified an autocrine TGF-β1 signaling that up-regulates both Met and CD44v6 mRNA and protein expression. Western blot analysis, flow cytometry, and immunostaining revealed that CD44v6 and Met colocalize in fibroblasts and in tissue sections from ILD patients and in lungs of bleomycin-treated mice. Interestingly, cell proliferation induced by TGF-β1 is mediated through Met and CD44v6. Further, cell proliferation mediated by TGF-β1/CD44v6 is ERK-dependent. In contrast, action of Met on ILDFb proliferation does not require ERK but does require p38(MAPK). ILDFbs were sorted into CD44v6(+)/Met(+) and CD44v6(-)/Met(+) subpopulations. HGF inhibited TGF-β1-stimulated collagen-1 and α-smooth muscle cell actin expression in both of these subpopulations by interfering with TGF-β1 signaling. HGF alone markedly stimulated CD44v6 expression, which in turn regulated collagen-1 synthesis. Our data with primary lung fibroblast cultures with respect to collagen-1, CD44v6, and Met expressions were supported by immunostaining of lung sections from bleomycin-treated mice and from ILD patients. These results define the relationships between CD44v6, Met, and autocrine TGF-β1 signaling and the potential modulating influence of HGF on TGF-β1-induced CD44v6-dependent fibroblast function in ILD fibrosis. PMID:24324260

  6. CD82 suppresses CD44 alternative splicing-dependent melanoma metastasis by mediating U2AF2 ubiquitination and degradation

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Ailing; Zhu, Huifeng; Ren, Qiao; Wang, Bochu; Xu, Xingran; Bai, Huiyuan; Dong, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is one of the most lethal forms of skin cancer due to its early metastatic spread. The variant form of CD44 (CD44v), a cell surface glycoprotein, is highly expressed on metastatic melanoma. The mechanisms of regulation of CD44 alternative splicing in melanoma and its pathogenic contributions are so far poorly understood. Here, we investigated the expression level of CD44 in a large set of melanocytic lesions at different stages. We found that the expression of CD44v8-10 and a splicing factor, U2AF2, is significantly increased during melanoma progression, while CD82/KAI1, a tetraspanin family of tumor suppressor, is reduced in metastatic melanoma. CD44v8-10 and U2AF2 expressions which are negatively correlated with CD82 levels are dramatically elevated in primary melanoma compared with dysplastic nevi and further increased in metastatic melanoma. We also showed that patients with higher CD44v8-10 and U2AF2 expression levels tended to have shorter survival. By using both in vivo and in vitro assays, we demonstrated that CD82 inhibits the production of CD44v8-10 on melanoma. Mechanistically, U2AF2 is a downstream target of CD82 and in malignant melanoma facilitates CD44v8-10 alternative splicing. U2AF2-mediated CD44 isoform switch is required for melanoma migration in vitro and lung and liver metastasis in vivo. Notably, overexpression of CD82 suppresses U2AF2 activity by inducing U2AF2 ubiquitination. In addition, our data suggested that enhancement of melanoma migration by U2AF2-dependent CD44v8-10 splicing is mediated by Src/FAK/RhoA activation and formation of stress fibers as well as CD44-E-selectin binding reinforcement. These findings uncovered a hitherto unappreciated function of CD82 in severing the linkage between U2AF2-mediated CD44 alternative splicing and cancer aggressiveness, with potential prognostic and therapeutic implications in melanoma. PMID:27041584

  7. Single-molecule binding of CD44 to fibrin versus P-selectin predicts their distinct shear-dependent interactions in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Phrabha S.; Alves, Christina S.; Wirtz, Denis; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos

    2011-01-01

    P-selectin and fibrin(ogen) have pivotal roles in the hematogenous dissemination of tumor cells. CD44 variant isoforms, CD44v, have been identified as the major functional P-selectin ligands and fibrin receptors on metastatic colon carcinoma cells. The molecular recognition of CD44v by fibrin mediates firm adhesion at low shear, whereas CD44v–P-selectin binding supports transient rolling interactions at elevated shear stresses and low site densities of P-selectin. We used single-molecule force spectroscopy to provide a molecular interpretation for these two distinct adhesion events. The CD44v–P-selectin bond has a longer unstressed equilibrium lifetime, a lower reactive compliance and a higher tensile strength relative to the CD44v–fibrin bond. These intrinsic differences confer the ability to the CD44v–P-selectin pair to mediate binding at higher shear stresses. Increasing the duration of receptor–ligand contact (2–200 milliseconds) did not affect the micromechanical properties of the CD44v–P-selectin bond, but it increased the tensile strength and the depth of the free energy barrier of the CD44v–fibrin bond and decreased its reactive compliance. This bond strengthening at longer interaction times might explain why CD44v binding to immobilized fibrin occurs at low shear. Single-molecule characterization of receptor–ligand binding can predict the shear-dependent adhesive interactions between cells and substrates observed both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:21558419

  8. Growth Inhibitory and Tumor- Suppressive Functions of p53 Depend on its Repression of CD44 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Godar, Samuel; Ince, Tan A.; Bell, George W.; Feldser, David; Donaher, Joana Liu; Bergh, Jonas; Liu, Anne; Miu, Kevin; Watnick, Randolph S.; Reinhardt, Ferenc; McAllister, Sandra S.; Jacks, Tyler; Weinberg, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The p53 tumor suppressor is a key mediator of cellular responses to various stresses. Here we show that under conditions of basal physiologic and cell-culture stress, p53 inhibits expression of the CD44 cell-surface molecule via binding to a non-canonical p53-binding sequence in the CD44 promoter. This interaction enables an untransformed cell to respond to stress-induced, p53-dependent cytostatic and apoptotic signals that would otherwise be blocked by the actions of CD44. In the absence of p53 function, the resulting de-repressed CD44 expression is essential for the growth and tumor-initiating ability of highly tumorigenic mammary epithelial cells. In both tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic cells, CD44’s expression is positively regulated by p63, a paralogue of p53. Our data indicate that CD44 is a key tumor-promoting agent in transformed tumor cells lacking p53 function. They also suggest that the de-repression of CD44 resulting from inactivation of p53 can potentially aid the survival of immortalized, premalignant, cells. PMID:18614011

  9. CD44 Antibody Inhibition of Macrophage Phagocytosis Targets Fcγ Receptor- and Complement Receptor 3-Dependent Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Amash, Alaa; Wang, Lin; Wang, Yawen; Bhakta, Varsha; Fairn, Gregory D; Hou, Ming; Peng, Jun; Sheffield, William P; Lazarus, Alan H

    2016-04-15

    Targeting CD44, a major leukocyte adhesion molecule, using specific Abs has been shown beneficial in several models of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The mechanisms contributing to the anti-inflammatory effects of CD44 Abs, however, remain poorly understood. Phagocytosis is a key component of immune system function and can play a pivotal role in autoimmune states where CD44 Abs have shown to be effective. In this study, we show that the well-known anti-inflammatory CD44 Ab IM7 can inhibit murine macrophage phagocytosis of RBCs. We assessed three selected macrophage phagocytic receptor systems: Fcγ receptors (FcγRs), complement receptor 3 (CR3), and dectin-1. Treatment of macrophages with IM7 resulted in significant inhibition of FcγR-mediated phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized RBCs. The inhibition of FcγR-mediated phagocytosis was at an early stage in the phagocytic process involving both inhibition of the binding of the target RBC to the macrophages and postbinding events. This CD44 Ab also inhibited CR3-mediated phagocytosis of C3bi-opsonized RBCs, but it did not affect the phagocytosis of zymosan particles, known to be mediated by the C-type lectin dectin-1. Other CD44 Abs known to have less broad anti-inflammatory activity, including KM114, KM81, and KM201, did not inhibit FcγR-mediated phagocytosis of RBCs. Taken together, these findings demonstrate selective inhibition of FcγR and CR3-mediated phagocytosis by IM7 and suggest that this broadly anti-inflammatory CD44 Ab inhibits these selected macrophage phagocytic pathways. The understanding of the immune-regulatory effects of CD44 Abs is important in the development and optimization of therapeutic strategies for the potential treatment of autoimmune conditions.

  10. CD44 Antibody Inhibition of Macrophage Phagocytosis Targets Fcγ Receptor- and Complement Receptor 3-Dependent Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Amash, Alaa; Wang, Lin; Wang, Yawen; Bhakta, Varsha; Fairn, Gregory D; Hou, Ming; Peng, Jun; Sheffield, William P; Lazarus, Alan H

    2016-04-15

    Targeting CD44, a major leukocyte adhesion molecule, using specific Abs has been shown beneficial in several models of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The mechanisms contributing to the anti-inflammatory effects of CD44 Abs, however, remain poorly understood. Phagocytosis is a key component of immune system function and can play a pivotal role in autoimmune states where CD44 Abs have shown to be effective. In this study, we show that the well-known anti-inflammatory CD44 Ab IM7 can inhibit murine macrophage phagocytosis of RBCs. We assessed three selected macrophage phagocytic receptor systems: Fcγ receptors (FcγRs), complement receptor 3 (CR3), and dectin-1. Treatment of macrophages with IM7 resulted in significant inhibition of FcγR-mediated phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized RBCs. The inhibition of FcγR-mediated phagocytosis was at an early stage in the phagocytic process involving both inhibition of the binding of the target RBC to the macrophages and postbinding events. This CD44 Ab also inhibited CR3-mediated phagocytosis of C3bi-opsonized RBCs, but it did not affect the phagocytosis of zymosan particles, known to be mediated by the C-type lectin dectin-1. Other CD44 Abs known to have less broad anti-inflammatory activity, including KM114, KM81, and KM201, did not inhibit FcγR-mediated phagocytosis of RBCs. Taken together, these findings demonstrate selective inhibition of FcγR and CR3-mediated phagocytosis by IM7 and suggest that this broadly anti-inflammatory CD44 Ab inhibits these selected macrophage phagocytic pathways. The understanding of the immune-regulatory effects of CD44 Abs is important in the development and optimization of therapeutic strategies for the potential treatment of autoimmune conditions. PMID:26944929

  11. CD44 variant expression in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Orteu, C H; Li, W; Allen, M H; Smith, N P; Barker, J N; Whittaker, S J

    1997-07-01

    Expression of the lymphocyte homing receptor CD44 and its splice variants have been linked to tumour dissemination and poor prognosis in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Specifically, the in vitro expression of variant exon V6 confers metastatic potential in rat pancreatic carcinoma cell lines. In this study, we investigated the expression of CD44 splice variants in cutaneous T-cell lymphomas, including patients with mycosis fungoides (MF), Sezary syndrome (SS), large-cell anaplastic lymphoma (LCAL) and HTLV1-associated cutaneous lymphoma. In addition, 4 involved lymph nodes from 2 patients with MF and 1 patient with SS were examined. Inflammatory dermatoses, lichen planus and psoriasis, and normal skin were also studied. Immunohistochemistry was performed using a panel of monoclonal antibodies, including those with specificity for CD44H (standard isoform) and variant exons V3, V6 and V8-9. Normal epidermal keratinocytes were consistently CD44H and CD44 V3, V6 and V8-9 positive. In all the different clinicopathological subtypes and stages of cutaneous T-cell lymphomas, including involved lymph nodes, tumour cells consistently expressed CD44H, but were CD44 V3 and V6 negative. CD44 V8-9 was expressed on a majority of tumour cells in 2/5 LCAL and on occasional tumour cells in 2/5 LCAL. Occasional V8-9 positive tumour cells were also identified in 6/13 MF, 1/4 SS and 3/4 HTLV1. In 2/3 lymph node samples from 2 patients with tumour-stage MF, CD44 V8-9 expression was found on a small percentage of atypical mononuclear cells. Scattered V8-9 positive dermal mononuclear cells were present in sections of lichen planus and psoriasis. We have found no evidence to suggest that the metastasis-associated CD44 variant exon (V6) is expressed in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, or that CD44H expression is associated with an adverse prognostic group. It is not clear whether the strong expression of CD44 V8-9 in 2 patients with CD30 positive LCAL reflects activation status or metastatic potential.

  12. Osteoactivin inhibition of osteoclastogenesis is mediated through CD44-ERK signaling

    PubMed Central

    Sondag, Gregory R; Mbimba, Thomas S; Moussa, Fouad M; Novak, Kimberly; Yu, Bing; Jaber, Fatima A; Abdelmagid, Samir M; Geldenhuys, Werner J; Safadi, Fayez F

    2016-01-01

    Osteoactivin is a heavily glycosylated protein shown to have a role in bone remodeling. Previous studies from our lab have shown that mutation in Osteoactivin enhances osteoclast differentiation but inhibits their function. To date, a classical receptor and a signaling pathway for Osteoactivin-mediated osteoclast inhibition has not yet been characterized. In this study, we examined the role of Osteoactivin treatment on osteoclastogenesis using bone marrow-derived osteoclast progenitor cells and identify a signaling pathway relating to Osteoactivin function. We reveal that recombinant Osteoactivin treatment inhibited osteoclast differentiation in a dose-dependent manner shown by qPCR, TRAP staining, activity and count. Using several approaches, we show that Osteoactivin binds CD44 in osteoclasts. Furthermore, recombinant Osteoactivin treatment inhibited ERK phosphorylation in a CD44-dependent manner. Finally, we examined the role of Osteoactivin on receptor activator of nuclear factor-κ B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteolysis in vivo. Our data indicate that recombinant Osteoactivin inhibits RANKL-induced osteolysis in vivo and this effect is CD44-dependent. Overall, our data indicate that Osteoactivin is a negative regulator of osteoclastogenesis in vitro and in vivo and that this process is regulated through CD44 and ERK activation. PMID:27585719

  13. Osteoactivin inhibition of osteoclastogenesis is mediated through CD44-ERK signaling.

    PubMed

    Sondag, Gregory R; Mbimba, Thomas S; Moussa, Fouad M; Novak, Kimberly; Yu, Bing; Jaber, Fatima A; Abdelmagid, Samir M; Geldenhuys, Werner J; Safadi, Fayez F

    2016-01-01

    Osteoactivin is a heavily glycosylated protein shown to have a role in bone remodeling. Previous studies from our lab have shown that mutation in Osteoactivin enhances osteoclast differentiation but inhibits their function. To date, a classical receptor and a signaling pathway for Osteoactivin-mediated osteoclast inhibition has not yet been characterized. In this study, we examined the role of Osteoactivin treatment on osteoclastogenesis using bone marrow-derived osteoclast progenitor cells and identify a signaling pathway relating to Osteoactivin function. We reveal that recombinant Osteoactivin treatment inhibited osteoclast differentiation in a dose-dependent manner shown by qPCR, TRAP staining, activity and count. Using several approaches, we show that Osteoactivin binds CD44 in osteoclasts. Furthermore, recombinant Osteoactivin treatment inhibited ERK phosphorylation in a CD44-dependent manner. Finally, we examined the role of Osteoactivin on receptor activator of nuclear factor-κ B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteolysis in vivo. Our data indicate that recombinant Osteoactivin inhibits RANKL-induced osteolysis in vivo and this effect is CD44-dependent. Overall, our data indicate that Osteoactivin is a negative regulator of osteoclastogenesis in vitro and in vivo and that this process is regulated through CD44 and ERK activation. PMID:27585719

  14. CD44 alternative splicing and hnRNP A1 expression are associated with the metastasis of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Loh, Tiing Jen; Moon, Heegyum; Cho, Sunghee; Jang, Hana; Liu, Yong Chao; Tai, Hongmei; Jung, Da-Woon; Williams, Darren R; Kim, Hey-Ran; Shin, Myung-Geun; Liao, D Joshua; Zhou, Jianhua; Shi, Wei; Zheng, Xuexiu; Shen, Haihong

    2015-09-01

    CD44 is a transmembrane receptor for hyaluronic acid. CD44 pre-mRNA contains 19 exons, 9 of which are alternatively spliced. Among the CD44 spliced variants, the v4-7 variant, one of the v6 exon-containing isoforms that contains variable exon 4, 5, 6 and 7, confers metastatic potential to non-metastatic cells. Splicing of CD44 and the function of CD44 isoforms are different in breast cancer cells. hnRNP A1 is a ubiquitously expressed protein with an inhibitory function in pre-mRNA splicing. We showed that CD44v6 isoform, which includes all of the v6-containing mRNA isoforms, had the highest expression level in non-metatatic breast cancer cells (MCF7) when compared to the level in metastatic breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) and normal breast cells (MCF10A). Furthermore we showed that hnRNP A1 knockdown regulated splicing of CD44 differently in breast cancer cells. We showed here that CD44 isoform expression is completely different in MDA-MB-231 cells than that in MCF7 and MCF10A cells, whereas MCF7 and MCF10A cells had a similar expression pattern of CD44 isoforms. RT-PCR analysis of CD44v6 showed that MCF7 and MCF10A cells predominantly expressed the c5v6v7v8v9v10c6 isoform. However, in addition to this isoform, MDA-MB-231 cells also expressed the c5v6v8v9v10c6 and c5v6c6 isoforms. We also found that knockdown of hnRNP A1 significantly reduced the expression of c5v6v7v8v9v10c6 and c5v6v8v9v10c6, and promoted the expression of c5v6c6. hnRNP A1 knockdown significantly induced cell death. In addition, hnRNP A1 knockdown induced a decrease in cell invasion in the MDA-MB-231 cells. Our results indicate that the knockdown of hnRNP A1 has a specific function on the splicing of CD44 in breast cancer cells.

  15. T lymphocytes adhere to airway smooth muscle cells via integrins and CD44 and induce smooth muscle cell DNA synthesis

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Asthma is a disease of airway inflammation and hyperreactivity that is associated with a lymphocytic infiltrate in the bronchial submucosa. The interactions between infiltrating T lymphocytes with cellular and extracellular matrix components of the airway and the consequences of these interactions have not been defined. We demonstrate the constitutive expression of CD44 on human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells in culture as well as in human bronchial tissue transplanted into severe combined immunodeficient mice. In contrast, basal levels of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) expression are minimal but are induced on ASM by inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). Activated, but not resting T cells, adhere to cultured ASM; stimulation of the ASM with TNF-alpha enhanced this adhesion. Adhesion was partially blocked by monoclonal antibodies (mAb) specific for lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) and very late antigen 4 (VLA-4) on T cells and ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 on ASM cells. The observed integrin-independent adhesion was mediated by CD44/hyaluronate interactions as it was inhibited by anti-CD44 mAb 5F12 and by hyaluronidase. Furthermore, the adhesion of activated T lymphocytes induced DNA synthesis in growth-arrested ASM cells. Thus, the interaction between T cells and ASM may provide insight into the mechanisms that induce bronchial inflammation and possibly ASM cell hyperplasia seen in asthma. PMID:7520473

  16. Association of genetic variants of cancer stem cell gene CD44 haplotypes with gallbladder cancer susceptibility in North Indian population.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kiran Lata; Yadav, Anu; Gupta, Annapurna; Tulsayan, Sonam; Kumar, Vijay; Misra, Sanjeev; Kumar, Ashok; Mittal, Balraj

    2014-03-01

    CD44 is an important marker for cancer stem cells. Germline variants in CD44 gene have been associated with susceptibility to breast and nasopharyngeal carcinomas but no study in gallbladder cancer (GBC) has been done yet. The present study included 405 GBC patients and 200 healthy controls from North India. Tagger SNPs for CD44 were selected from the GIH population data. Genotyping was carried out by PCR-RFLP and Taqman probes. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS. Bonferroni correction was applied in subgroup analysis. Logistic regression analysis showed no individual association of CD44 polymorphisms with GBC risk. However, [CCAT] haplotype was associated with overall reduced risk of GBC [P = 0.04, odds ratios (OR) = 0.47]. Gender stratification revealed that [CCAT] and [TAGT] haplotypes were significantly associated with decreased risk in female GBC patients [P = 0.022, OR = 0.38; P = 0.011, OR = 0.17, respectively]. The CAAT haplotype was marginally associated with low GBC risk in patients with co-existing gallstones [P = 0.026, OR = 0.53]. The cancer risk was not further modified with tobacco usage or age of onset. In silico analysis showed change in transcriptional regulation of selected SNPs. This study reports an important role of CD44 haplotypes with reduced risk of GBC.

  17. Cleaved CD44 intracellular domain supports activation of stemness factors and promotes tumorigenesis of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yunhee; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Kang, Hyeok-Gu; Kim, Hye-Young; Kim, Seok-Jun; Chun, Kyung-Hee

    2015-04-20

    CD44 plays a role in the progression of tumors and is expressed in cancer stem cells (CSCs). However, the mechanisms underlying the crosstalk of CD44 with stemness genes in CSC maintenance remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated how the cleaved intracellular domain of CD44 (CD44ICD) activates stemness factors such as Nanog, Sox2 and Oct4, and contributes to the tumorigenesis of breast cancer. We have found that the overexpression of CD44ICD increased mammosphere formation in breast cancer cells. Treatment with a γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI), which blocks the cleavage of CD44ICD, interfered with mammosphere formation. Interestingly, CD44ICD decreased the expression levels and nuclear localization of stemness factors, but overexpression of CD44ICD reversed these effects. In addition, we showed that nuclear localization of CD44ICD is important for transcriptional activation of the stemness factors. Furthermore, CD44ICD-overexpressed cells exhibited strong tumorigenecity and greater metastatic potential than did the control cells or CD44-depleted cells in vivo in mice models. Taken together, it was supposed that CD44 promotes tumorigenesis through the interaction and nuclear-translocation of its intracellular domain and stemness factors. We suggest that the prevention of cleavage and nuclear-translocation of CD44ICD is a potential target in treating breast cancer. PMID:25909162

  18. sCD44 overexpression increases intraocular pressure and aqueous outflow resistance

    PubMed Central

    Giovingo, Michael; Nolan, Michael; McCarty, Ryan; Pang, Iok-Hou; Clark, Abbot F.; Beverley, Rachel M.; Schwartz, Steven; Stamer, W. Daniel; Walker, Loyal; Grybauskas, Algis; Skuran, Kevin; Kuprys, Paulius V.; Yue, Beatrice Y.J.T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose CD44 plays major roles in multiple physiologic processes. The ectodomain concentration of the CD44 receptor, soluble CD44 (sCD44), is significantly increased in the aqueous humor of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). The purpose of this study was to determine if adenoviral constructs of CD44 and isolated 32-kDa sCD44 change intraocular pressure (IOP) in vivo and aqueous outflow resistance in vitro. Methods Adenoviral constructs of human standard CD44 (Ad-CD44S), soluble CD44 (Ad-sCD44), and empty viral cDNA were injected into the vitreous of BALB/cJ mice, followed by serial IOP measurements. Overexpression of CD44S and sCD44 was verified in vitro by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot analysis. Anterior segments of porcine eyes were perfused with the isolated sCD44. sCD44-treated human trabecular meshwork (TM) cells and microdissected porcine TM were examined by confocal microscopy and Optiprep density gradient with western blot analysis to determine changes in lipid raft components. Results Intravitreous injection of adenoviral constructs with either Ad-CD44S or Ad-sCD44 vectors caused prolonged ocular hypertension in mice. Eight days after vector injection, Ad-CD44S significantly elevated IOP to 28.3±1.2 mmHg (mean±SEM, n=8; p<0.001); Ad-sCD44 increased IOP to 18.5±2.6 mmHg (n=8; p<0.01), whereas the IOP of uninjected eyes was 12.7±0.2 mmHg (n=16). The IOP elevation lasted more than 50 days. Topical administration of a γ-secretase inhibitor normalized Ad-sCD44-induced elevated IOP. sCD44 levels were significantly elevated in the aqueous humor of Ad-CD44S and Ad-sCD44 eyes versus contralateral uninjected eyes (p<0.01). Anterior segment perfusion of isolated 32-kDa sCD44 significantly decreased aqueous outflow rates. Co-administration of isolated sCD44 and CD44 neutralizing antibody or of γ-secretase inhibitor significantly enhanced flow rates. sCD44-treated human TM cells displayed cross-linked actin network formation

  19. A switch from CD44+ cell to EMT cell drives the metastasis of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Zhiqun; Cai, Qiliang; Zhang, Minghao; Zhu, Shimiao; Ma, Yuan; Sun, Libin; Jiang, Ning; Tian, Jing; Niu, Xiaodan; Chen, Jiatong; Sun, Yinghao; Niu, Yuanjie

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been linked to cancer stem-like (CD44+) cell in the prostate cancer (PCa) metastasis. However, the molecular mechanism remains elusive. Here, we found EMT contributed to metastasis in PCa patients failed in androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Castration TRAMP model also proved PCa treated with ADT promoted EMT with increased CD44+ stem-like cells. Switched CD44+ cell to EMT cell is a key step for luminal PCa cell metastasis. Our results also suggested ADT might go through promoting TGFβ1-CD44 signaling to enhance swift to EMT. Targeting CD44 with salinomycin and siRNA could inhibit cell transition and decrease PCa invasion. Together, cancer stem-like (CD44+) cells could be the initiator cells of EMT modulated by TGFβ1-CD44 signaling. Combined therapy of ADT with anti-CD44 may become a new potential therapeutic approach to battle later stage PCa. PMID:25483103

  20. CD44/chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan and alpha 2 beta 1 integrin mediate human melanoma cell migration on type IV collagen and invasion of basement membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Knutson, J R; Iida, J; Fields, G B; McCarthy, J B

    1996-01-01

    Tumor cell invasion of basement membranes (BM) represents one of the critical steps in the metastatic process. Tumor cell recognition of individual BM matrix components may involve individual cell adhesion receptors, such as integrins or cell surface proteoglycans, or may involve a coordinate action of both types of receptors. In this study, we have focused on the identification of a cell surface CD44/chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) and alpha 2 beta 1 integrin on human melanoma cells that are both directly involved in the in vitro invasion of reconstituted BM via a type IV collagen-dependent mechanism. Interfering with cell surface expression of human melanoma CSPG with either p-nitro-phenyl-beta-D-xylopyranoside treatment or anti-CD44 monoclonal antibody (mAb) preincubation (mAb) preincubation inhibits melanoma cell invasion through reconstituted BM. These treatments also strongly inhibit melanoma cell migration on type IV collagen, however, they are ineffective at inhibiting cell adhesion to type IV collagen. Purified melanoma cell surface CD44/CSPG, or purified chondroitin sulfate, bind to type IV collagen affinity columns, consistent with a role for CD44/CSPG-type IV collagen interactions in mediating tumor cell invasion. In contrast, melanoma cell migration on laminin (LM) does not involve CD44/CSPG, nor does CD44/CSPG bind to LM, suggesting that CD44/CSPG-type IV collagen interactions are specific in nature. Additionally, anti-alpha 2 and anti-beta 1 integrin mAbs are capable of blocking melanoma cell invasion of reconstituted BM. Both of these anti-integrin mAbs inhibit melanoma cell adhesion and migration on type IV collagen, whereas only anti-beta 1 mAb inhibits cell adhesion to LM. Collectively, these results indicate that melanoma cell adhesion to type IV collagen is an important consideration in invasion of reconstituted BM in vitro, and suggest that CD44/CSPG and alpha 2 beta 1 integrin may collaborate to promote human melanoma cell adhesion

  1. Hyaluronan-CD44 Interaction Promotes Growth of Decidual Stromal Cells in Human First-Trimester Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Rui; Wang, Song-Cun; Sun, Chan; Tao, Yu; Piao, Hai-Lan; Wang, Xiao-Qiu; Du, Mei-Rong; Da-Jin Li

    2013-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) and its receptor CD44 are expressed at the maternal-fetal interface, but its role in early pregnancy remains unclear. Here, we found that primary decidual stromal cells (DSCs) continuously secreted HA and expressed its receptor CD44. Pregnancy-associated hormones up-regulated HA synthetase (HAS) 2 transcription and HA release from DSCs. High molecular weight-HA (HMW-HA), but not medium molecular weight (MMW-HA) or low molecular weight (LMW-HA), promoted proliferation and inhibited apoptosis of DSCs in a CD44-dependent manner. The in-cell Western analysis revealed HMW-HA activated PI3K/AKT and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/ERK1/2 signaling pathways time-dependently. Blocking these pathways by specific inhibitor LY294002 or U0126 abrogated HMW-HA-regulated DSc proliferation and apoptosis. Finally, we have found that HA content, HA molecular weight, HAS2 mRNA level, and CD44 expression were significantly decreased in DSCs from unexplained miscarriage compared with the normal pregnancy. Collectively, our results indicate that higher level and greater molecular mass of HA at maternal-fetal interface contributes to DSc growth and maintenance of DSCs in human early pregnancy. PMID:24069351

  2. miR-106b modulates cancer stem cell characteristics through TGF-β/Smad signaling in CD44-positive gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dayeon; Shin, Hyun-Soo; Lee, Yeo Song; Lee, Yong Chan

    2014-12-01

    Cancer stem cells have the capacity to form new tumors and are thus considered to be a cause of metastasis and tumor recurrence. However, many of the mechanisms determining cancer stem cell characteristics are still unknown. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are possible modulators of cancer stem cell generation and may be involved in the retention of cancer stem cell characteristics. The aim of this study was to examine the miRNA expression profiles regulating the cancer stem-like cell characteristics in gastric cancer. We sorted gastric cancer stem-like cells using the stem cell marker CD44 by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. CD44(+) cells formed more and larger spheres compared with CD44(-) cells. Cancer stem cell markers were overexpressed in CD44(+) cells. CD44(+) cells showed increased expression of mesenchymal cell markers, whereas epithelial markers were downregulated. In miRNA microarray, the miR-106b family comprising miR-106b, miR-93, and miR-25 was significantly upregulated in CD44(+) cells than in CD44(-) cells. Smad7, which inhibits transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/Smad signaling as a target of the miR-106b family, was downregulated in CD44(+) cells. Furthermore, expression of TGF-β/Smad signal molecules was activated in CD44(+) cells, in accordance with the action of the miR-106b family. Inhibition of miR-106b showed suppression of the TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway and decreased self-renewal capacity and cell invasiveness. Our study suggests that CD44(+) gastric cancer cells show cancer stem cell properties with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Increased miR-106b family expression regulated cancer stem-like cell properties, particularly EMT characteristics, through the TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway in CD44(+) stem-like cells. Taken together, these results indicate that targeting miR-106b may be an effective form of cancer therapy in gastric cancer through the modulation of cancer stem cell characteristics.

  3. Direct binding of hepatocyte growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor to CD44v6

    PubMed Central

    Volz, Yvonne; Koschut, David; Matzke-Ogi, Alexandra; Dietz, Marina S.; Karathanasis, Christos; Richert, Ludovic; Wagner, Moritz G.; Mély, Yves; Heilemann, Mike; Niemann, Hartmut H.; Orian-Rousseau, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    CD44v6, a member of the CD44 family of transmembrane glycoproteins is a co-receptor for two receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), Met and VEGFR-2 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2). CD44v6 is not only required for the activation of these RTKs but also for signalling. In order to understand the role of CD44v6 in Met and VEGFR-2 activation and signalling we tested whether CD44v6 binds to their ligands, HGF (hepatocyte growth factor) and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), respectively. FACS analysis and cellular ELISA showed binding of HGF and VEGF only to cells expressing CD44v6. Direct binding of CD44v6 to HGF and VEGF was demonstrated in pull-down assays and the binding affinities were determined using MicroScale Thermophoresis, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and fluorescence anisotropy. The binding affinity of CD44v6 to HGF is in the micromolar range in contrast with the high-affinity binding measured in the case of VEGF and CD44v6, which is in the nanomolar range. These data reveal a heparan sulfate-independent direct binding of CD44v6 to the ligands of Met and VEGFR-2 and suggest different roles of CD44v6 for these RTKs. PMID:26181364

  4. Multifunctionalized iron oxide nanoparticles for selective drug delivery to CD44-positive cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aires, Antonio; Ocampo, Sandra M.; Simões, Bruno M.; Josefa Rodríguez, María; Cadenas, Jael F.; Couleaud, Pierre; Spence, Katherine; Latorre, Alfonso; Miranda, Rodolfo; Somoza, Álvaro; Clarke, Robert B.; Carrascosa, José L.; Cortajarena, Aitziber L.

    2016-02-01

    Nanomedicine nowadays offers novel solutions in cancer therapy and diagnosis by introducing multimodal treatments and imaging tools in one single formulation. Nanoparticles acting as nanocarriers change the solubility, biodistribution and efficiency of therapeutic molecules, reducing their side effects. In order to successfully apply these novel therapeutic approaches, efforts are focused on the biological functionalization of the nanoparticles to improve the selectivity towards cancer cells. In this work, we present the synthesis and characterization of novel multifunctionalized iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with antiCD44 antibody and gemcitabine derivatives, and their application for the selective treatment of CD44-positive cancer cells. The lymphocyte homing receptor CD44 is overexpressed in a large variety of cancer cells, but also in cancer stem cells (CSCs) and circulating tumor cells (CTCs). Therefore, targeting CD44-overexpressing cells is a challenging and promising anticancer strategy. Firstly, we demonstrate the targeting of antiCD44 functionalized MNPs to different CD44-positive cancer cell lines using a CD44-negative non-tumorigenic cell line as a control, and verify the specificity by ultrastructural characterization and downregulation of CD44 expression. Finally, we show the selective drug delivery potential of the MNPs by the killing of CD44-positive cancer cells using a CD44-negative non-tumorigenic cell line as a control. In conclusion, the proposed multifunctionalized MNPs represent an excellent biocompatible nanoplatform for selective CD44-positive cancer therapy in vitro.

  5. Multifunctionalized iron oxide nanoparticles for selective drug delivery to CD44-positive cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Aires, Antonio; Ocampo, Sandra M; Simões, Bruno M; Josefa Rodríguez, María; Cadenas, Jael F; Couleaud, Pierre; Spence, Katherine; Latorre, Alfonso; Miranda, Rodolfo; Somoza, Álvaro; Clarke, Robert B; Carrascosa, José L; Cortajarena, Aitziber L

    2016-02-12

    Nanomedicine nowadays offers novel solutions in cancer therapy and diagnosis by introducing multimodal treatments and imaging tools in one single formulation. Nanoparticles acting as nanocarriers change the solubility, biodistribution and efficiency of therapeutic molecules, reducing their side effects. In order to successfully  apply these novel therapeutic approaches, efforts are focused on the biological functionalization of the nanoparticles to improve the selectivity towards cancer cells. In this work, we present the synthesis and characterization of novel multifunctionalized iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with antiCD44 antibody and gemcitabine derivatives, and their application for the selective treatment of CD44-positive cancer cells. The lymphocyte homing receptor CD44 is overexpressed in a large variety of cancer cells, but also in cancer stem cells (CSCs) and circulating tumor cells (CTCs). Therefore, targeting CD44-overexpressing cells is a challenging and promising anticancer strategy. Firstly, we demonstrate the targeting of antiCD44 functionalized MNPs to different CD44-positive cancer cell lines using a CD44-negative non-tumorigenic cell line as a control, and verify the specificity by ultrastructural characterization and downregulation of CD44 expression. Finally, we show the selective drug delivery potential of the MNPs by the killing of CD44-positive cancer cells using a CD44-negative non-tumorigenic cell line as a control. In conclusion, the proposed multifunctionalized MNPs represent an excellent biocompatible nanoplatform for selective CD44-positive cancer therapy in vitro.

  6. Overexpression of molecular chaperons GRP78 and GRP94 in CD44hi/CD24lo breast cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Nami, Babak; Ghasemi-Dizgah, Armin; Vaseghi, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Breast cancer stem cell with CD44hi/CD24lo phonotype is described having stem cell properties and represented as the main driving factor in breast cancer initiation, growth, metastasis and low response to anti-cancer agents. Glucoseregulated proteins (GRPs) are heat shock protein family chaperons that are charged with regulation of protein machinery and modulation of endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis whose important roles in stem cell development and invasion of various cancers have been demonstrated. Here, we investigated the expression levels of GRP78 and GRP94 in CD44hi/CD24lo phenotype breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs). Methods: MCF7, T-47D and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines were used. CD44hi/CD24lo phenotype cell population were analyzed and sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Transcriptional and translational expression of GRP78 and GRP94 were investigated by western blotting and quantitative real time PCR. Results: Results showed different proportion of CD44hi/CD24lo phenotype cell population in their original bulk cells. The ranking of the cell lines in terms of CD44hi/CD24lo phenotype cell population was as MCF7CD44hi/CD24lo phenotype cells exhibited higher mRNA and protein expression level of GRP78 and GRP94 compared to their original bulk cells. Conclusion: Our results show a relationship between overexpression of GRP78 and GRP94 and exhibiting CD44hi/CD24lo phenotype in breast cancer cells. We conclude that upregulation of GRPs may be an important factor in the emergence of CD44hi/CD24lo phenotype BCSCs features. PMID:27525228

  7. Radiation-Induced Reprogramming of Pre-Senescent Mammary Epithelial Cells Enriches Putative CD44+/CD24−/low Stem Cell Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xuefeng; Sishc, Brock J.; Nelson, Christopher B.; Hahnfeldt, Philip; Bailey, Susan M.; Hlatky, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    The enrichment of putative CD44+/CD24−/low breast stem cell populations following exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) has been ascribed to their inherent radioresistance and an elevated frequency of symmetric division during repopulation. However, recent studies demonstrating radiation-induced phenotypic reprogramming (the transition of non-CD44+/CD24−/low cells into the CD44+/CD24−/low phenotype) as a potential mechanism of CD44+/CD24−/low cell enrichment have raised the question of whether a higher survival and increased self-renewal of existing CD44+/CD24−/low cells or induced reprogramming is an additional mode of enrichment. To investigate this question, we combined a cellular automata model with in vitro experimental data using both MCF-10A non-tumorigenic human mammary epithelial cells and MCF-7 breast cancer cells, with the goal of identifying the mechanistic basis of CD44+/CD24−/low stem cell enrichment in the context of radiation-induced cellular senescence. Quantitative modeling revealed that incomplete phenotypic reprogramming of pre-senescent non-stem cells (reprogramming whereby the CD44+/CD24−/low phenotype is conveyed, along with the short-term proliferation capacity of the original cell) could be an additional mode of enriching the CD44+/CD24−/low subpopulation. Furthermore, stem cell enrichment in MCF-7 cells occurs both at lower doses and earlier time points, and has longer persistence, than that observed in MCF-10A cells, suggesting that phenotypic plasticity appears to be less regulated in breast cancer cells. Taken together, these results suggest that reprogramming of pre-senescent non-stem cells may play a significant role in both cancer and non-tumorigenic mammary epithelial populations following exposure to IR, a finding with important implications for both radiation therapy and radiation carcinogenesis. PMID:27379202

  8. CD44-dependent lymphoma cell dissemination: a cell surface CD44 variant, rather than standard CD44, supports in vitro lymphoma cell rolling on hyaluronic acid substrate and its in vivo accumulation in the peripheral lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Wallach-Dayan, S B; Grabovsky, V; Moll, J; Sleeman, J; Herrlich, P; Alon, R; Naor, D

    2001-10-01

    Cell motility is an essential element of tumor dissemination, allowing organ infiltration by cancer cells. Using mouse LB lymphoma cells transfected with standard CD44 (CD44s) cDNA (LB-TRs cells) or with the alternatively spliced CD44 variant CD44v4-v10 (CD44v) cDNA (LB-TRv cells), we explored their CD44-dependent cell migration. LB-TRv cells, but not LB-TRs or parental LB cells, bound soluble hyaluronic acid (HA) and other glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), and exclusively formed, under physiological shear force, rolling attachments on HA substrate. Furthermore, LB-TRv cells, but not LB-TRs cells or their parental LB cells, displayed accelerated local tumor formation and enhanced accumulation in the peripheral lymph nodes after s.c. inoculation. The aggressive metastatic behavior of i.v.-injected LB-TRV cells, when compared with that of other LB-transfectants, is attributed to more efficient migration to the lymph nodes, rather than to local growth in the lymph node. Injection of anti-CD44 monoclonal antibody or of the enzyme hyaluronidase also prevented tumor growth in lymph nodes of BALB/c mice inoculated with LB-TRv cells. The enhanced in vitro rolling and enhanced in vivo local tumor growth and lymph node invasion disappeared in LB cells transfected with CD44v cDNA bearing a point mutation at the HA binding site, located at the distal end of the molecule constant region. These findings show that the interaction of cell surface CD44v with HA promotes cell migration both in vitro and in vivo, and they contribute to our understanding of the mechanism of cell trafficking, including tumor spread. PMID:11682606

  9. The Importance of CD44 as a Stem Cell Biomarker and Therapeutic Target in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Thapa, Ranjeeta; Wilson, George D.

    2016-01-01

    CD44 is a cell surface HA-binding glycoprotein that is overexpressed to some extent by almost all tumors of epithelial origin and plays an important role in tumor initiation and metastasis. CD44 is a compelling marker for cancer stem cells of many solid malignancies. In addition, interaction of HA and CD44 promotes EGFR-mediated pathways, consequently leading to tumor cell growth, tumor cell migration, and chemotherapy resistance in solid cancers. Accumulating evidence indicates that major HA-CD44 signaling pathways involve a specific variant of CD44 isoforms; however, the particular variant almost certainly depends on the type of tumor cell and the stage of the cancer progression. Research to date suggests use of monoclonal antibodies against different CD44 variant isoforms and targeted inhibition of HA/CD44-mediated signaling combined with conventional radio/chemotherapy may be the most favorable therapeutic strategy for future treatments of advanced stage malignancies. Thus, this paper briefly focuses on the association of the major CD44 variant isoforms in cancer progression, the role of HA-CD44 interaction in oncogenic pathways, and strategies to target CD44-overexpressed tumor cells. PMID:27200096

  10. Overexpression of Specific CD44 Isoforms Is Associated with Aggressive Cell Features in Acquired Endocrine Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Bellerby, Rebecca; Smith, Chris; Kyme, Sue; Gee, Julia; Günthert, Ursula; Green, Andy; Rakha, Emad; Barrett-Lee, Peter; Hiscox, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    While endocrine therapy is the mainstay of ER+ breast cancer, the clinical effectiveness of these agents is limited by the phenomenon of acquired resistance that is associated with disease relapse and poor prognosis. Our previous studies revealed that acquired resistance is accompanied by a gain in cellular invasion and migration and also that CD44 family proteins are overexpressed in the resistant phenotype. Given the association of CD44 with tumor progression, we hypothesized that its overexpression may act to promote the aggressive behavior of endocrine-resistant breast cancers. Here, we have investigated further the role of two specific CD44 isoforms, CD44v3 and CD44v6, in the endocrine-resistant phenotype. Our data revealed that overexpression of CD44v6, but not CD44v3, in endocrine-sensitive MCF-7 cells resulted in a gain in EGFR signaling, enhanced their endogenous invasive capacity, and attenuated their response to endocrine treatment. Suppression of CD44v6 in endocrine-resistant cell models was associated with a reduction in their invasive capacity. Our data suggest that upregulation of CD44v6 in acquired resistant breast cancer may contribute to a gain in the aggressive phenotype of these cells and loss of endocrine response through transactivation of the EGFR pathway. Future therapeutic targeting of CD44v6 may prove to be an effective strategy alongside EGFR-targeted agents in delaying/preventing acquired resistance in breast cancer. PMID:27379207

  11. CD44 standard and variant isoform expression in normal human skin appendages and epidermis.

    PubMed

    Seelentag, W K; Günthert, U; Saremaslani, P; Futo, E; Pfaltz, M; Heitz, P U; Roth, J

    1996-09-01

    CD44 isoforms have been implicated in tumor progression and metastasis formation. This study presents a thorough immunohistochemical analysis of CD44 standard and isoform expression in normal human skin appendages and epidermis applying monoclonal antibodies against CD44s, CD44v3, -v4, -v5, -v6, and -v9. An improved immunohistochemical protocol with microwave-based antigen retrieval in paraffin sections and heavy metal amplification of the diaminobenzidine reaction product provided enhanced resolution and sensitivity as compared to studies on frozen sections. The hair follicle, the seborrheic and eccrine sweat glands were strongly positive for all CD44 isoforms studied. In the latter, the clear cells but not the dark (intercalated) cells were positive. the sudoriferous ducts adjacent to the glands were weakly positive for all CD44 isoforms and strongly positive near the skin surface. In the apocrine glands, the basal cells showed only a moderate positivity. The myoepithelial cells expressed only CD44s. In the epidermis, all CD44 isoforms were detectable, with strongest CD44 immunostaining in the lower third of the stratum spinosum and weaker staining in the stratum basale and the upper two-thirds of the stratum granulosum. The stratum granulosum and corneum were unreactive. Thus, a regional and cell type-specific CD44 expression was revealed. PMID:8897069

  12. Can CD44 Be a Mediator of Cell Destruction? The Challenge of Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Assayag-Asherie, Nathalie; Sever, Dror; Bogdani, Marika; Johnson, Pamela; Weiss, Talya; Ginzberg, Ariel; Perles, Sharon; Weiss, Lola; Sebban, Lora Eshkar; Turley, Eva A; Okon, Elimelech; Raz, Itamar; Naor, David

    2015-01-01

    CD44 is a multi-functional receptor with multiple of isoforms engaged in modulation of cell trafficking and transmission of apoptotic signals. We have previously shown that injection of anti-CD44 antibody into NOD mice induced resistance to type 1 diabetes (T1D). In this communication we describe our efforts to understand the mechanism underlying this effect. We found that CD44-deficient NOD mice develop stronger resistance to T1D than wild-type littermates. This effect is not explained by the involvement of CD44 in cell migration, because CD44-deficient inflammatory cells surprisingly had greater invasive potential than the corresponding wild type cells, probably owing to molecular redundancy. We have previously reported and we show here again that CD44 expression and hyaluronic acid (HA, the principal ligand for CD44) accumulation are detected in pancreatic islets of diabetic NOD mice, but not of non-diabetic DBA/1 mice. Expression of CD44 on insulin-secreting β cells renders them susceptible to the autoimmune attack, and is associated with a diminution in β-cells function (e.g., less insulin production and/or insulin secretion) and possibly also with an enhanced apoptosis rate. The diabetes-supportive effect of CD44 expression on β cells was assessed by the TUNEL assay and further strengthened by functional assays exhibiting increased nitric oxide release, reduced insulin secretion after glucose stimulation and decreased insulin content in β cells. All these parameters could not be detected in CD44-deficient islets. We further suggest that HA-binding to CD44-expressing β cells is implicated in β-cell demise. Altogether, these data agree with the concept that CD44 is a receptor capable of modulating cell fate. This finding is important for other pathologies (e.g., cancer, neurodegenerative diseases) in which CD44 and HA appear to be implicated. PMID:26624007

  13. Proteoglycan from salmon nasal cartridge promotes in vitro wound healing of fibroblast monolayers via the CD44 receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Gen; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Takeda, Yoshie; Sokabe, Masahiro

    2015-01-16

    Highlights: • Proteoglycan from salmon nasal cartridge (SNC-PG) promoted wound healing in fibroblast monolayers. • SNC-PG stimulated both cell proliferation and cell migration. • Interaction between chondroitin sulfate-units and CD44 is responsible for the effect. - Abstract: Proteoglycans (PGs) are involved in various cellular functions including cell growth, adhesion, and differentiation; however, their physiological roles are not fully understood. In this study, we examined the effect of PG purified from salmon nasal cartilage (SNC-PG) on wound closure using tissue-cultured cell monolayers, an in vitro wound-healing assay. The results indicated that SNC-PG significantly promoted wound closure in NIH/3T3 cell monolayers by stimulating both cell proliferation and cell migration. SNC-PG was effective in concentrations from 0.1 to 10 μg/ml, but showed much less effect at higher concentrations (100–1000 μg/ml). The effect of SNC-PG was abolished by chondroitinase ABC, indicating that chondroitin sulfates (CSs), a major component of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in SNC-PG, are crucial for the SNC-PG effect. Furthermore, chondroitin 6-sulfate (C-6-S), a major CS of SNC-PG GAGs, could partially reproduce the SNC-PG effect and partially inhibit the binding of SNC-PG to cells, suggesting that SNC-PG exerts its effect through an interaction between the GAGs in SNC-PG and the cell surface. Neutralization by anti-CD44 antibodies or CD44 knockdown abolished SNC-PG binding to the cells and the SNC-PG effect on wound closure. These results suggest that interactions between CS-rich GAG-chains of SNC-PG and CD44 on the cell surface are responsible for the SNC-PG effect on wound closure.

  14. Molecular mechanisms regulating CD13-mediated adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Mallika; Gerber, Claire; Rahman, M Mamunur; Vernier, Kaitlyn M; Pereira, Flavia E; Subramani, Jaganathan; Caromile, Leslie A; Shapiro, Linda H

    2014-01-01

    CD13/Aminopeptidase N is a transmembrane metalloproteinase that is expressed in many tissues where it regulates various cellular functions. In inflammation, CD13 is expressed on myeloid cells, is up-regulated on endothelial cells at sites of inflammation and mediates monocyte/endothelial adhesion by homotypic interactions. In animal models the lack of CD13 alters the profiles of infiltrating inflammatory cells at sites of ischaemic injury. Here, we found that CD13 expression is enriched specifically on the pro-inflammatory subset of monocytes, suggesting that CD13 may regulate trafficking and function of specific subsets of immune cells. To further dissect the mechanisms regulating CD13-dependent trafficking we used the murine model of thioglycollate-induced sterile peritonitis. Peritoneal monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells were significantly decreased in inflammatory exudates from global CD13KO animals when compared with wild-type controls. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of wild-type and CD13KO primary myeloid cells, or wild-type myeloid cells pre-treated with CD13-blocking antibodies into thioglycollate-challenged wild-type recipients demonstrated fewer CD13KO or treated cells in the lavage, suggesting that CD13 expression confers a competitive advantage in trafficking. Similarly, both wild-type and CD13KO cells were reduced in infiltrates in CD13KO recipients, confirming that both monocytic and endothelial CD13 contribute to trafficking. Finally, murine monocyte cell lines expressing mouse/human chimeric CD13 molecules demonstrated that the C-terminal domain of the protein mediates CD13 adhesion. Therefore, this work verifies that the altered inflammatory trafficking in CD13KO mice is the result of aberrant myeloid cell subset trafficking and further defines the molecular mechanisms underlying this regulation. PMID:24627994

  15. Impaired Development of Early Endometriotic Lesions in CD44 Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Knudtson, Jennifer F; Tekmal, Rajeshwar R; Santos, Marlen Tellez; Binkley, Peter A; Krishnegowda, Naveen; Valente, Philip; Schenken, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown endometrial cell (EC) CD44 and peritoneal mesothelial cell (PMC)-associated hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid [HA]) are involved in the attachment of endometrial stroma and epithelial cells to peritoneal mesothelium. Here we assess the CD44-HA interaction in the formation of the early endometriotic lesion using CD44(-/-) (knockout) mice. Using an established murine model and crossover technique, endometrial tissue from donor mice (wild type [WT] and CD44(-/-)) was used to induce endometriosis in recipient mice (WT and CD44(-/-)). Endometriotic lesions were visualized by fluorescent microscopy and confirmed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Early endometriotic lesions were decreased when CD44(-/-) endometrium was placed in WT recipients and when WT endometrium was placed in CD44(-/-) recipients (P = .002). Early endometriotic lesions were also significantly decreased when both peritoneal and endometrial tissues lacked CD44 expression (P < .01). These studies demonstrate that both EC and PMC CD44 play a role in the development of early endometriotic lesion. PMID:26169039

  16. Phototheranostics of CD44-positive cell populations in triple negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Jiefu; Krishnamachary, Balaji; Mironchik, Yelena; Kobayashi, Hisataka; Bhujwalla, Zaver M.

    2016-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is one of the most lethal subtypes of breast cancer that has limited treatment options. Its high rates of recurrence and metastasis have been associated, in part, with a subpopulation of breast cancer stem-like cells that are resistant to conventional therapies. A compendium of markers such as CD44high/CD24low, and increased expression of the ABCG2 transporter and increased aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH1), have been associated with these cells. We developed a CD44-targeted monoclonal antibody photosensitizer conjugate for combined fluorescent detection and photoimmunotherapy (PIT) of CD44 expressing cells in TNBC. The CD44-targeted conjugate demonstrated acute cell killing of breast cancer cells with high CD44 expression. This cell death process was dependent upon CD44-specific cell membrane binding combined with near-infrared irradiation. The conjugate selectively accumulated in CD44-positive tumors and caused dramatic tumor shrinkage and efficient elimination of CD44-positive cell populations following irradiation. This novel phototheranostic strategy provides a promising opportunity for the destruction of CD44-positive populations that include cancer stem-like cells, in locally advanced primary and metastatic TNBC. PMID:27302409

  17. The CD44+/CD24- phenotype is enriched in basal-like breast tumors

    PubMed Central

    Honeth, Gabriella; Bendahl, Pär-Ola; Ringnér, Markus; Saal, Lao H; Gruvberger-Saal, Sofia K; Lövgren, Kristina; Grabau, Dorthe; Fernö, Mårten; Borg, Åke; Hegardt, Cecilia

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Human breast tumors are heterogeneous and consist of phenotypically diverse cells. Breast cancer cells with a CD44+/CD24- phenotype have been suggested to have tumor-initiating properties with stem cell-like and invasive features, although it is unclear whether their presence within a tumor has clinical implications. There is also a large heterogeneity between tumors, illustrated by reproducible stratification into various subtypes based on gene expression profiles or histopathological features. We have explored the prevalence of cells with different CD44/CD24 phenotypes within breast cancer subtypes. Methods Double-staining immunohistochemistry was used to quantify CD44 and CD24 expression in 240 human breast tumors for which information on other tumor markers and clinical characteristics was available. Gene expression data were also accessible for a cohort of the material. Results A considerable heterogeneity in CD44 and CD24 expression was seen both between and within tumors. A complete lack of both proteins was evident in 35% of the tumors, while 13% contained cells of more than one of the CD44+/CD24-, CD44-/CD24+ and CD44+/CD24+ phenotypes. CD44+/CD24- cells were detected in 31% of the tumors, ranging in proportion from only a few to close to 100% of tumor cells. The CD44+/CD24- phenotype was most common in the basal-like subgroup – characterized as negative for the estrogen and progesterone receptors as well as for HER2, and as positive for cytokeratin 5/14 and/or epidermal growth factor receptor, and particularly common in BRCA1 hereditary tumors, of which 94% contained CD44+/CD24- cells. The CD44+/CD24- phenotype was surprisingly scarce in HER2+ tumors, which had a predominantly CD24+ status. A CD44+/CD24- gene expression signature was generated, which included CD44 and α6-integrin (CD49f) among the top-ranked overexpressed genes. Conclusion We demonstrate an association between basal-like and particularly BRCA1 hereditary breast cancer and

  18. CD44v6 Dependence of Premetastatic Niche Preparation by Exosomes12

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Thorsten; Castellana, Donatello; Klingbeil, Pamela; Hernández, Ines Cuesta; Vitacolonna, Mario; Orlicky, David J; Roffler, Steve R; Brodt, Pnina; Zöller, Margot

    2009-01-01

    The metastasizing capacity of the rat pancreatic adenocarcinoma BSp73ASML (ASMLwt) is strikingly reduced by a knockdown of CD44v4-v7 (ASMLkd). We used this model to analyze the role of the CD44 variant isoform (CD44v) in (pre)metastatic niche formation. Intrafootpad injections of ASMLwt-, but not ASMLkd-conditioned medium (CM), strongly promote settlement of ASMLkd cells in lymph nodes and lung. Fractionation of CM revealed a contribution by a soluble matrix and exosomes, where the CD44v6-containing ASMLwt-soluble fraction can complement ASMLkd-exosomes, but not vice versa. This implies that exosomes are the final actors, are CD44v-independent, but require a soluble matrix, which depends on CD44v. Analyzing the composition revealed that only the ASMLwt-matrix contains c-Met and urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor. In vitro, mostly ASMLwt-exosomes promote proliferation and induce gene expression in metastatic organ cells. However, in vivo corresponding changes in the (pre) metastatic organ are only observed when both, exosomes plus the soluble matrix, are provided. Thus, neither CD44v nor exosomes alone suffice for (pre)metastatic niche formation. Instead, CD44v suffices for assembling a soluble matrix, which allows exosomes, independent of their origin from poorly or highly metastatic cells, to modulate (pre) metastatic organ cells for tumor cell embedding and growth. PMID:19794968

  19. AP-1-mediated invasion requires increased expression of the hyaluronan receptor CD44.

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, R F; Hennigan, R F; Turnbull, K; Katsanakis, K D; MacKenzie, E D; Birnie, G D; Ozanne, B W

    1997-01-01

    Fibroblasts transformed by Fos oncogenes display increased expression of a number of genes implicated in tumor cell invasion and metastasis. In contrast to normal 208F rat fibroblasts, Fos-transformed 208F fibroblasts are growth factor independent for invasion. We demonstrate that invasion of v-Fos- or epidermal growth factor (EGF)-transformed cells requires AP-1 activity. v-Fos-transformed cell invasion is inhibited by c-jun antisense oligonucleotides and by expression of a c-jun dominant negative mutant, TAM-67. EGF-induced invasion is inhibited by both c-fos and c-jun antisense oligonucleotides. CD44s, the standard form of a transmembrane receptor for hyaluronan, is implicated in tumor cell invasion and metastasis. We demonstrate that increased expression of CD44 in Fos- and EGF-transformed cells is dependent upon AP-1. CD44 antisense oligonucleotides reduce expression of CD44 in v-Fos- or EGF-transformed cells and inhibit invasion but not migration. Expression of a fusion protein between human CD44s and Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (GFP) in 208F cells complements the inhibition of invasion by the rat-specific CD44 antisense oligonucleotide. We further show that both v-Fos and EGF transformations result in a concentration of endogenous CD44 or exogenous CD44-GFP at the ends of pseudopodial cell extensions. These results support the hypothesis that one role of AP-1 in transformation is to activate a multigenic invasion program. PMID:9001250

  20. Expression of CD44v6 and integrin-β1 for the prognosis evaluation of pancreatic cancer patients after cryosurgery

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many previous studies demonstrated that cell adhesion molecules CD44v6 and integrin-β1 had been extensively investigated as potential prognostic markers of various cancers. However, data in PC are scarce. Methods We now investigate CD44v6 and integrin-β1 mRNA expression in PBMC by a triplex real-time RT-PCR assay and protein expression in plasma by ELISA. All specimens were collected from 54 PC patients who received the treatment of cryosurgery as well as 20 healthy individuals (control). Results The mRNA and protein expression levels of CD44v6 and integrin-β1 in patients were significantly increased compared with control group (P<0.05). The high CD44v6 mRNA and protein expression were significantly correlated with clinical stage, tumor differentiation, LNM, liver metastasis and decreased median DFS (P<0.05), while the high integrin-β1 mRNA and protein expression were significantly correlated with clinical stage, LNM, liver metastasis and decreased median DFS (P<0.05). Clinical stage, LNM, liver metastasis, CD44v6 mRNA and protein expression were the independent predictors of survival in PC patients (P<0.05). Moreover, CD44v6 and integrin-β1 mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly decreased in patients in 3 months after cryosurgery (P<0.05). No significant difference was found in CD44v6 mRNA and protein expression between patients in 3 months after cryosurgery and control group (P>0.05). Conclusion CD44v6 and integrin-β1 mRNA and protein expression in blood may serve as biomarkers for the development and metastasis of PC, and as prognostic indicators for PC. They may become useful predictors in assessing outcome of PC patients after cryosurgery. Virtual slides The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/4035308681009006. PMID:24004467

  1. CD44-related chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, a cell surface receptor implicated with tumor cell invasion, mediates endothelial cell migration on fibrinogen and invasion into a fibrin matrix.

    PubMed Central

    Henke, C A; Roongta, U; Mickelson, D J; Knutson, J R; McCarthy, J B

    1996-01-01

    Microvascular endothelial cell invasion into the fibrin provisional matrix is an integral component of angiogenesis during wound repair. Cell surface receptors which interact with extracellular matrix proteins participate in cell migration and invasion. Malignant cells use CD44-related chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) as a matrix receptor to mediate migration and invasion. In this study, we examine whether cell surface CSPG can mediate similar events in nonmalignant wound microvascular endothelial cells or whether use of CSPG for migration and invasion is a property largely restricted to malignant cells. After inhibiting CSPG synthesis with p-nitrophenyl beta-d xylopyranoside (beta-d xyloside), wound microvascular endothelial cells were capable of attaching and spreading on the surface of a fibrin gel; however, their ability to invade the fibrin matrix was virtually eliminated. To begin to examine the mechanism by which endothelial cells use CSPG to invade fibrin matrices, cell adhesion and migration on fibrinogen was examined. Endothelial cell adhesion and migration on fibrinogen were inhibited by both beta-d xyloside and after cleavage of chondroitin sulfate from the core protein by chondroitinase ABC. We have determined that wound microvascular endothelial cells express the majority of their proteoglycan as CSPG and that the CSPG core protein is immunologically related to CD44. PCR studies show that these cells express both the "standard" (CD44H) isoform and an isoform containing the variably spliced exon V3. In addition, anti-CD44 antibody blocks endothelial cell migration on fibrinogen. Affinity chromatography studies reveal that partially purified microvascular endothelial cell CSPG binds fibrinogen. These findings suggest that CD44-related CSPG, a molecule implicated in the invasive behavior of tumor cells, is capable of binding fibrinogen/fibrin, thereby mediating endothelial cell migration and invasion into the fibrin provisional matrix during wound

  2. Conserved miR-26b enhances ovarian granulosa cell apoptosis through HAS2-HA-CD44-Caspase-3 pathway by targeting HAS2

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiying; Tu, Fei; Yao, Wang; Li, Xinyu; Xie, Zhuang; Liu, Honglin; Li, Qifa; Pan, Zengxiang

    2016-01-01

    The hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2)-hyaluronic acid (HA)-CD44-Caspase-3 pathway is involved in ovarian granulosa cell (GC) functions in mammals. HAS2 is a key enzyme required for HA synthesis and is the key factor in this pathway. However, the regulation of HAS2 and the HAS2-mediated pathway by microRNAs in GCs is poorly understood. Here, we report that miR-26b regulates porcine GC (pGC) apoptosis through the HAS2-HA-CD44-Caspase-3 pathway by binding directly to the 3′- untranslated region of HAS2 mRNA. Knockdown of miR-26b reduced pGC apoptosis. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that HAS2 is a direct target of miR-26b in pGCs. Knockdown and overexpression of miR-26b increased and decreased, respectively, HA content, and HAS2 and CD44 expression in pGCs. At the same time, inhibition and overexpression of miR-26b decreased and increased the expression of Caspase-3, a downstream factor in the HAS2-HA-CD44 pathway. Moreover, knockdown of HAS2 enhanced pGC apoptosis, reduced the inhibitory effects of a miR-26b inhibitor on pGC apoptosis, repressed HA content and CD44 expression, and promoted Caspase-3 expression. In addition, overexpression of HAS2 has a opposite effect. Collectively, miR-26b positively regulates pGC apoptosis via a novel HAS2-HA-CD44-Caspase-3 pathway by targeting the HAS2 gene. PMID:26887530

  3. CD44, α4 integrin, and fucoidin receptor-mediated phagocytosis of apoptotic leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jacob D.; Hess, Krista L.; Cook-Mills, Joan M.

    2011-01-01

    Various types of phagocytes mediate the clearance of apoptotic cells. We previously reported that human and murine high endothelial venule (HEV) cells ingest apoptotic cells. In this report, we examined endothelial cell fucoidin receptor-mediated phagocytosis using a murine endothelial cell model mHEV. mHEV cell recognition of apoptotic leukocytes was blocked by fucoidin but not by other phagocytic receptor inhibitors such as mannose, fucose, N-acetylglucosamine, phosphatidylserine (PS), or blocking anti-PS receptor antibodies. Thus, the mHEV cells used fucoidin receptors for recognition and phagocytosis of apoptotic leukocytes. The fucoidin receptor-mediated endothelial cell phagocytosis was specific for apoptotic leukocytes, as necrotic cells were not ingested. This is in contrast to macrophages, which ingest apoptotic and necrotic cells. Endothelial cell phagocytosis of apoptotic cells did not alter viable lymphocyte migration across these endothelial cells. Antibody blocking of CD44 and α4 integrin on the apoptotic leukocyte inhibited this endothelial cell phagocytosis, suggesting a novel function for these adhesion molecules in the removal of apoptotic targets. The removal of apoptotic leukocytes by endothelial cells may protect the microvasculature, thus ensuring that viable lymphocytes can successfully migrate into tissues. PMID:12960273

  4. Clinicopathological analysis of CD44 and CD24 expression in invasive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Min Hye; Kang, Hyun Jong; Jang, Ki Seok; Paik, Seung Sam; Kim, Wan Seop

    2016-01-01

    A subpopulation of breast cancer cells with cluster of differentiation (CD)44-positive and CD24-negative expression has been reported to have stem cell properties and to have a higher tumorigenic capacity than other cells. However, the clinicopathological characteristics of this subpopulation are not fully understood. In this study, we aimed to identify the correlations between the expression of CD44 and CD24 and clinicopathological parameters and overall survival. We studied specimens from 262 patients with invasive breast cancer. Immunohistochemical staining for CD44 and CD24 was performed using tissue microarrays. The clinicopathological factors were evaluated from the patients' medical records. In correlation analysis, CD44 expression was significantly associated with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative status (P<0.001). Conversely, CD24 expression was significantly associated with HER2-positive status (P<0.001). CD44 and CD24 expression did not demonstrate any correlation with the age, tumor size, axillary lymph node metastasis status, tumor stage, histological grade, estrogen receptor status and progesterone receptor status of patients. Upon survival analysis, there was no statistical difference in overall survival according to the expression of CD44 and CD24. The results from this study suggest that CD44 and CD24 are clinically significant markers associated with breast tumorigenesis, but not sufficient factors in determining the prognosis of invasive breast cancer.

  5. Ligand binding to anti-cancer target CD44 investigated by molecular simulations.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tin Trung; Tran, Duy Phuoc; Pham Dinh Quoc Huy; Hoang, Zung; Carloni, Paolo; Van Pham, Phuc; Nguyen, Chuong; Li, Mai Suan

    2016-07-01

    CD44 is a cell-surface glycoprotein and receptor for hyaluronan, one of the major components of the tumor extracellular matrix. There is evidence that the interaction between CD44 and hyaluronan promotes breast cancer metastasis. Recently, the molecule F-19848A was shown to inhibit hyaluronan binding to receptor CD44 in a cell-based assay. In this study, we investigated the mechanism and energetics of F-19848A binding to CD44 using molecular simulation. Using the molecular mechanics/Poisson Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) method, we obtained the binding free energy and inhibition constant of the complex. The van der Waals (vdW) interaction and the extended portion of F-19848A play key roles in the binding affinity. We screened natural products from a traditional Chinese medicine database to search for CD44 inhibitors. From combining pharmaceutical requirements with docking and molecular dynamics simulations, we found ten compounds that are potentially better or equal to the F-19848A ligand at binding to CD44 receptor. Therefore, we have identified new candidates of CD44 inhibitors, based on molecular simulation, which may be effective small molecules for the therapy of breast cancer. PMID:27342250

  6. CD44 Promotes Intoxication by the Clostridial Iota-Family Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Wigelsworth, Darran J.; Ruthel, Gordon; Schnell, Leonie; Herrlich, Peter; Blonder, Josip; Veenstra, Timothy D.; Carman, Robert J.; Wilkins, Tracy D.; Van Nhieu, Guy Tran; Pauillac, Serge; Gibert, Maryse; Sauvonnet, Nathalie; Stiles, Bradley G.; Popoff, Michel R.; Barth, Holger

    2012-01-01

    Various pathogenic clostridia produce binary protein toxins associated with enteric diseases of humans and animals. Separate binding/translocation (B) components bind to a protein receptor on the cell surface, assemble with enzymatic (A) component(s), and mediate endocytosis of the toxin complex. Ultimately there is translocation of A component(s) from acidified endosomes into the cytosol, leading to destruction of the actin cytoskeleton. Our results revealed that CD44, a multifunctional surface protein of mammalian cells, facilitates intoxication by the iota family of clostridial binary toxins. Specific antibody against CD44 inhibited cytotoxicity of the prototypical Clostridium perfringens iota toxin. Versus CD44+ melanoma cells, those lacking CD44 bound less toxin and were dose-dependently resistant to C. perfringens iota, as well as Clostridium difficile and Clostridium spiroforme iota-like, toxins. Purified CD44 specifically interacted in vitro with iota and iota-like, but not related Clostridium botulinum C2, toxins. Furthermore, CD44 knockout mice were resistant to iota toxin lethality. Collective data reveal an important role for CD44 during intoxication by a family of clostridial binary toxins. PMID:23236484

  7. Design and syntheses of hyaluronan oligosaccharide conjugates as inhibitors of CD44-Hyaluronan binding

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xuefei

    2016-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is an integral component of the extracellular matrix. Its interactions with a cell surface receptor CD44 has been shown to play important roles in a variety of biological events including cell proliferation and metastasis. As multivalent CD44-HA binding is critical for downstream signaling, compounds that can selectively disrupt the complex formation of HA polysaccharide with CD44 can serve as useful probes of CD44 mediated cellular events as well as potential leads for novel therapeutics. Herein, we report the synthesis of several series of HA conjugates to target the HA binding pocket of CD44. As a small library of HA disaccharide derivatives failed to exhibit any inhibitory activities, we focused on HA tetrasaccharide based analogs. Traditional synthetic strategies towards HA oligosaccharides involve the construction of backbone from the corresponding monosaccharide building blocks, which can be quite tedious. In order to expedite the synthesis, we designed a new synthetic route taking advantage of the ability of hyaluronidase to generate large quantities of HA tetrasaccharide through digestion of HA polysaccharides. The HA tetrasaccharide obtained was utilized to prepare multiple S-linked HA analogs bearing aromatic groups at the reducing end glycan. One such compound containing an m-benzyl phenyl moiety exhibited significant inhibition of CD44-HA binding. Our approach provides a new direction towards the design of HA based CD44 antagonists. PMID:25997408

  8. CD44 correlates with clinicopathological characteristics and is upregulated by EGFR in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hanxiao; Wu, Kongju; Tian, Yijun; Liu, Qian; Han, Na; Yuan, Xun; Zhang, Lu; Wu, Gen Sheng; Wu, Kongming

    2016-01-01

    Cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), a well-known transmembrane glycoprotein, serves as a promoting factor in the carcinogenesis and progression of a variety of neoplasms. Previous studies have demonstrated that aberrant expression of CD44 was associated with the initiation, invasion, metastasis, and therapy-resistance of breast cancer, but whether there was any association between CD44 and pathological characteristics of breast cancer or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has not been clearly elucidated. In this study, we utilized public microarray data analysis and tissue microarray technologies to display that CD44 level was enhanced in breast cancer and was significantly correlated with histological grade and the status of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) and EGFR. Furthermore, mRNA expression of CD44 in breast tumors was positively correlated with basal cytokeratin markers KRT5 and KRT17, but inversely associated with luminal marker FOXA1. Besides, Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that high CD44 mRNA level had adverse impact on the progression-free survival of patients with HER2-expressing or basal-like breast cancer. Functionally, inhibition of EGFR activity by erlotinib impaired the invasion and migration ability of breast cancer cell lines. Western blot assays demonstrated that erlotinib treatment decreased the expression of CD44, accompanied with the reduced protein levels of mesenchymal and cancer stem cell markers. Collectively, this study suggested that the expression of CD44 was upregulated by EGFR pathway and CD44 had a robust impact on the development of breast cancer. PMID:27499099

  9. Mussel adhesion is dictated by time-regulated secretion and molecular conformation of mussel adhesive proteins

    PubMed Central

    Petrone, Luigi; Kumar, Akshita; Sutanto, Clarinda N.; Patil, Navinkumar J.; Kannan, Srinivasaraghavan; Palaniappan, Alagappan; Amini, Shahrouz; Zappone, Bruno; Verma, Chandra; Miserez, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Interfacial water constitutes a formidable barrier to strong surface bonding, hampering the development of water-resistant synthetic adhesives. Notwithstanding this obstacle, the Asian green mussel Perna viridis attaches firmly to underwater surfaces via a proteinaceous secretion (byssus). Extending beyond the currently known design principles of mussel adhesion, here we elucidate the precise time-regulated secretion of P. viridis mussel adhesive proteins. The vanguard 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (Dopa)-rich protein Pvfp-5 acts as an adhesive primer, overcoming repulsive hydration forces by displacing surface-bound water and generating strong surface adhesion. Using homology modelling and molecular dynamics simulations, we find that all mussel adhesive proteins are largely unordered, with Pvfp-5 adopting a disordered structure and elongated conformation whereby all Dopa residues reside on the protein surface. Time-regulated secretion and structural disorder of mussel adhesive proteins appear essential for optimizing extended nonspecific surface interactions and byssus' assembly. Our findings reveal molecular-scale principles to help the development of wet-resistant adhesives. PMID:26508080

  10. Mussel adhesion is dictated by time-regulated secretion and molecular conformation of mussel adhesive proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrone, Luigi; Kumar, Akshita; Sutanto, Clarinda N.; Patil, Navinkumar J.; Kannan, Srinivasaraghavan; Palaniappan, Alagappan; Amini, Shahrouz; Zappone, Bruno; Verma, Chandra; Miserez, Ali

    2015-10-01

    Interfacial water constitutes a formidable barrier to strong surface bonding, hampering the development of water-resistant synthetic adhesives. Notwithstanding this obstacle, the Asian green mussel Perna viridis attaches firmly to underwater surfaces via a proteinaceous secretion (byssus). Extending beyond the currently known design principles of mussel adhesion, here we elucidate the precise time-regulated secretion of P. viridis mussel adhesive proteins. The vanguard 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (Dopa)-rich protein Pvfp-5 acts as an adhesive primer, overcoming repulsive hydration forces by displacing surface-bound water and generating strong surface adhesion. Using homology modelling and molecular dynamics simulations, we find that all mussel adhesive proteins are largely unordered, with Pvfp-5 adopting a disordered structure and elongated conformation whereby all Dopa residues reside on the protein surface. Time-regulated secretion and structural disorder of mussel adhesive proteins appear essential for optimizing extended nonspecific surface interactions and byssus' assembly. Our findings reveal molecular-scale principles to help the development of wet-resistant adhesives.

  11. miR-199a-3p targets CD44 and reduces proliferation of CD44 positive hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, Jon C.; Park, Jong-Kook; Jiang, Jinmai; Kim, Ji Hye; Nagorney, David M.; Roberts, Lewis R.; Banerjee, Soma; Schmittgen, Thomas D.

    2010-12-03

    Research highlights: {yields} miR-199a-3p targets CD44 in HCC. {yields} Proliferation and invasion are reduced by miR-199a-3p in CD44+ HCC. {yields} miR-199a-3p is reduced and CD44 protein is increased in HCC tissues. {yields} The duplex form of miR-199a-3p mimetic is required for activity. -- Abstract: Previous work by us and others reported decreased expression of miR-199a-3p in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues compared to adjacent benign tissue. We report here a significant reduction of miR-199a-3p expression in 7 HCC cell lines. To determine if miR-199a-3p has a tumor suppressive role, pre-miR-199a-3p oligonucleotides were transfected into the HCC cell lines. Pre-miR-199a-3p oligonucleotide reduced cell proliferation by approximately 60% compared to control oligonucleotide in only two cell lines (SNU449 and SNU423); the proliferation of the other 5 treated cell lines was similar to control oligonucleotide. A pre-miR-199a-3p oligonucleotide formulated with chemical modifications to enhance stability while preserving processing, reduced cell proliferation in SNU449 and SNU423 to the same extent as the commercially available pre-miR-199a-3p oligonucleotide. Furthermore, only the duplex miR-199a-3p oligonucleotide, and not the guide strand alone, was effective at reducing cell viability. Since a CD44 variant was essential for c-Met signaling [V. Orian-Rousseau, L. Chen, J.P. Sleeman, P. Herrlich, H. Ponta, CD44 is required for two consecutive steps in HGF/c-Met signaling, Genes Dev. 16 (2002) 3074-3086] and c-Met is a known miR-199a-3p target, we hypothesized that miR-199a-3p may also target CD44. Immunoblotting confirmed that only the two HCC lines that were sensitive to the effects of pre-miR-199a-3p were CD44+. Direct targeting of CD44 by miR-199a-3p was confirmed using luciferase reporter assays and immunoblotting. Transfection of miR-199a-3p into SNU449 cells reduced in vitro invasion and sensitized the cells to doxorubicin; both effects were enhanced

  12. An Osteopontin/CD44 Axis in RhoGDI2-Mediated Metastasis Suppression.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mansoor; Sottnik, Joseph L; Dancik, Garrett M; Sahu, Divya; Hansel, Donna E; Theodorescu, Dan; Schwartz, Martin A

    2016-09-12

    RhoGDI2 specifically suppresses bladder cancer metastasis but not primary tumor growth, which involves tumor-associated macrophages. We report that macrophage-secreted osteopontin binds to CD44s on the tumor cells and promotes invasion and clonal growth. These effects are RhoGDI2-sensitive and require CD44s binding to the Rac GEF TIAM1. Osteopontin expression correlates with tumor aggressiveness and poor clinical outcome in patients. Inhibiting this pathway potently blocked lung and lymph node metastasis; however, primary tumors and established metastasis were less sensitive. Osteopontin-CD44s-TIAM1 promotes clonal growth in vitro but not at high cell density. These data identify osteopontin-CD44-TIAM1-Rac1 axis as a RhoGDI2-sensitive pathway and potential therapeutic target in bladder cancer metastasis. They also elucidate the mechanism behind RhoGDI2 specificity for metastasis over established tumors. PMID:27593345

  13. CD44 Splice Variant v8-10 as a Marker of Serous Ovarian Cancer Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Sosulski, Amanda; Horn, Heiko; Zhang, Lihua; Coletti, Caroline; Vathipadiekal, Vinod; Castro, Cesar M; Birrer, Michael J; Nagano, Osamu; Saya, Hideyuki; Lage, Kasper; Donahoe, Patricia K; Pépin, David

    2016-01-01

    CD44 is a transmembrane hyaluronic acid receptor gene that encodes over 100 different tissue-specific protein isoforms. The most ubiquitous, CD44 standard, has been used as a cancer stem cell marker in ovarian and other cancers. Expression of the epithelial CD44 variant containing exons v8-10 (CD44v8-10) has been associated with more chemoresistant and metastatic tumors in gastrointestinal and breast cancers, but its role in ovarian cancer is unknown; we therefore investigated its use as a prognostic marker in this disease. The gene expression profiles of 254 tumor samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas RNAseqV2 were analyzed for the presence of CD44 isoforms. A trend for longer survival was observed in patients with high expression of CD44 isoforms that include exons v8-10. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of tumors for presence of CD44v8-10 was performed on an independent cohort of 210 patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer using a tumor tissue microarray. Patient stratification based on software analysis of staining revealed a statistically significant increase in survival in patients with the highest levels of transmembrane protein expression (top 10 or 20%) compared to those with the lowest expression (bottom 10 and 20%) (p = 0.0181, p = 0.0262 respectively). Expression of CD44v8-10 in primary ovarian cancer cell lines was correlated with a predominantly epithelial phenotype characterized by high expression of epithelial markers and low expression of mesenchymal markers by qPCR, Western blot, and IHC. Conversely, detection of proteolytically cleaved and soluble extracellular domain of CD44v8-10 in patient ascites samples was correlated with significantly worse prognosis (p<0.05). Therefore, presence of transmembrane CD44v8-10 on the surface of primary tumor cells may be a marker of a highly epithelial tumor with better prognosis while enzymatic cleavage of CD44v8-10, as detected by presence of the soluble extracellular domain in ascites fluid, may be

  14. Characterization of CD44v3-containing isoforms in head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Reategui, Erika P; de Mayolo, Adriana Antúnez; Das, Parpha M; Astor, Frank C; Singal, Rakesh; Hamilton, Kara L; Goodwin, W Jarrard; Carraway, Kermit L; Franzmann, Elizabeth J

    2006-09-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a debilitating and deadly disease that is only cured 50% of the time. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in HNSCC progression may lead to earlier detection and improved cure rates. CD44 is a ubiquitous transmembrane glycoprotein comprising a family of alternatively spliced isoforms involved in cell migration and cell proliferation. CD44 isoforms containing the variant 3 (v3) exon include a growth factor binding site and may be involved in tumor progression. To characterize CD44v3-containing isoforms expression in HNSCC we purified RNA from four HNSCC cell lines and performed RT-PCR using junction primer strategies followed by gel elecrophoresis. Cloning and sequencing of HNSCC cell line PCR products revealed two isoforms. One of these, CD44v3-10, has been previously described. The other isoform, CD44v3, has not been characterized in HNSCC tissues. To further study this isoform, we purified RNA from 19 HNSCC tissues, 7 normal margin tissues and 5 true normal tissues. Following reverse-transcription, we performed quantitative PCR using junction primers specific for CD44v3. Results show that HNSCC tumor tissues expressed mean CD44v3 levels that were elevated 4.5 times more than true normal tissues (p < 0.01). Mean CD44v3 values for HNSCC tumors were 0.43 +/- 0.44 while mean levels for true normal tissues were 0.10 +/- 0.11. Levels in tumor tissue did not vary significantly with tumor characteristics such as site, stage, prior treatment, or nodal status. In addition, to characterize the role of this molecule plays in tumor progression, we overexpressed CD44v3 in a HNSCC cell line. Our results indicate that although higher levels of CD44v3 did not affect the rate of proliferation, a significant increase in migration was observed. CD44v3 may provide a target for future diagnostic and therapeutic interventions for HNSCC. PMID:16855392

  15. CD44 Splice Variant v8-10 as a Marker of Serous Ovarian Cancer Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lihua; Coletti, Caroline; Vathipadiekal, Vinod; Castro, Cesar M.; Birrer, Michael J.; Nagano, Osamu; Saya, Hideyuki; Lage, Kasper; Donahoe, Patricia K.; Pépin, David

    2016-01-01

    CD44 is a transmembrane hyaluronic acid receptor gene that encodes over 100 different tissue-specific protein isoforms. The most ubiquitous, CD44 standard, has been used as a cancer stem cell marker in ovarian and other cancers. Expression of the epithelial CD44 variant containing exons v8-10 (CD44v8-10) has been associated with more chemoresistant and metastatic tumors in gastrointestinal and breast cancers, but its role in ovarian cancer is unknown; we therefore investigated its use as a prognostic marker in this disease. The gene expression profiles of 254 tumor samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas RNAseqV2 were analyzed for the presence of CD44 isoforms. A trend for longer survival was observed in patients with high expression of CD44 isoforms that include exons v8-10. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of tumors for presence of CD44v8-10 was performed on an independent cohort of 210 patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer using a tumor tissue microarray. Patient stratification based on software analysis of staining revealed a statistically significant increase in survival in patients with the highest levels of transmembrane protein expression (top 10 or 20%) compared to those with the lowest expression (bottom 10 and 20%) (p = 0.0181, p = 0.0262 respectively). Expression of CD44v8-10 in primary ovarian cancer cell lines was correlated with a predominantly epithelial phenotype characterized by high expression of epithelial markers and low expression of mesenchymal markers by qPCR, Western blot, and IHC. Conversely, detection of proteolytically cleaved and soluble extracellular domain of CD44v8-10 in patient ascites samples was correlated with significantly worse prognosis (p<0.05). Therefore, presence of transmembrane CD44v8-10 on the surface of primary tumor cells may be a marker of a highly epithelial tumor with better prognosis while enzymatic cleavage of CD44v8-10, as detected by presence of the soluble extracellular domain in ascites fluid, may be

  16. Transforming growth factor-β1 induces EMT by the transactivation of epidermal growth factor signaling through HA/CD44 in lung and breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Lingmei; Qi, Lisha; Liang, Zhijie; Song, Wangzhao; Liu, Yanxue; Wang, Yalei; Sun, Baocun; Zhang, Bin; Cao, Wenfeng

    2015-07-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process closely related to tumor development, is regulated by a variety of signaling pathways and growth factors, such as transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). Hyaluronan (HA) has been shown to induce EMT through either TGF-β1 or EGF signaling and to be a regulator of the crosstalk between these two pathways in fibroblasts. In this study, in order to clarify whether HA has the same effect in tumor cells, we utilized the lung cancer cell line, A549, and the breast cancer cell line, MCF-7, and found that the effects of stimulation with TGF-β1 were more potent than those of EGF in regulating the expression of EMT-associated proteins and in enhancing cell migration and invasion. In addition, we observed that TGF-β1 activated EGF receptor (EGFR) and its downstream AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways. Furthermore, we found that TGF-β1 upregulated the expression of hyaluronan synthases (HAS1, HAS2 and HAS3) and promoted the expression of CD44, a cell surface receptor for HA, which interacts with EGFR, resulting in the activation of the downstream AKT and ERK pathways. Conversely, treatment with 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU; an inhibitor of HAS) prior to stimulation with TGF-β1, inhibited the expression of CD44 and EGFR, abolished the interaction between CD44 and EGFR. Furthermore, the use of shRNA targeting CD44 impaired the expression of EGFR, deactivated the AKT and ERK pathways, reversed EMT and decreased the migration and invasion ability of cells. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that TGF-β1 induces EMT by the transactivation of EGF signaling through HA/CD44 in lung and breast cancer cells.

  17. Monoclonal antibodies to CD44 and their influence on hyaluronan recognition

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Antibodies to CD44 have been used to inhibit a variety of processes which include lymphohemopoiesis, lymphocyte migration, and tumor metastasis. Some, but not all, CD44-mediated functions derive from its ability to serve as a receptor for hyaluronan (HA). However, sites on CD44 that interact with either ligands or antibodies are poorly understood. Interspecies rat/mouse CD44 chimeras were used to analyze the specificity of 25 mAbs and to determine that they recognize at least seven epitopes. Amino acid substitutions that resulted in loss of antibody recognition were all located in the region of homology to other cartilage link family proteins. While at least five epitopes were eliminated by single amino acid replacements, multiple residues had to be changed to destroy binding by other antibodies. One antibody was sensitive to changes in any of three separate parts of the molecule and some antibodies to distinct epitopes cross-blocked each other. Certain antibodies had the ability to increase HA binding by lymphocytes but this did not correlate absolutely with antibody specificity and was only partially attributable to CD44 cross-linking. Antibodies that consistently blocked HA recognition were all sensitive to amino acid changes within a short stretch of CD44. Such blocking antibodies interacted with CD44 more strongly than ligand in competition experiments. One large group of antibodies blocked ligand binding, but only with a particular cell line. This detailed analysis adds to our understanding of functional domains within CD44 and requirements for antibodies to influence recognition of one ligand. PMID:7542251

  18. Functionalizing Liposomes with anti-CD44 Aptamer for Selective Targeting of Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Alshaer, Walhan; Hillaireau, Hervé; Vergnaud, Juliette; Ismail, Said; Fattal, Elias

    2015-07-15

    CD44 receptor protein is found to be overexpressed by many tumors and is identified as one of the most common cancer stem cell surface markers including tumors affecting colon, breast, pancreas, and head and neck, making this an attractive receptor for therapeutic targeting. In this study, 2'-F-pyrimidine-containing RNA aptamer (Apt1), previously selected against CD44, was successfully conjugated to the surface of PEGylated liposomes using the thiol-maleimide click reaction. The conjugation of Apt1 to the surface of liposomes was confirmed by the change in size and zeta potential and by migration on agarose gel electrophoresis. The binding affinity of Apt1 was improved after conjugation compared to free-Apt1. The cellular uptake for Apt1-Lip was tested by flow cytometry and confocal imaging using the two CD44(+) cell lines, human lung cancer cells (A549) and human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231), and the CD44(-) cell line, mouse embryonic fibroblast cells (NIH/3T3). The results showed higher sensitivity and selectivity for Apt1-Lip compared to the blank liposomes (Mal-Lip). In conclusion, we demonstrate a successful conjugation of anti-CD44 aptamer to the surface of liposome and binding preference of Apt1-Lip to CD44-expressing cancer cells and conclude to a promising potency of Apt1-Lip as a specific drug delivery system.

  19. The inhibition of autoreactive T cell functions by a peptide based on the CDR1 of an anti-DNA autoantibody is via TGF-beta-mediated suppression of LFA-1 and CD44 expression and function.

    PubMed

    Sela, Uri; Mauermann, Nora; Hershkoviz, Rami; Zinger, Heidy; Dayan, Molly; Cahalon, Liora; Liu, Jian Ping; Mozes, Edna; Lider, Ofer

    2005-12-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), which is characterized by the increased production of autoantibodies and defective T cell responses, can be induced in mice by immunization with a human anti-DNA mAb that expresses a major Id, designated 16/6Id. A peptide based on the sequence of the CDR1 of the 16/6Id (human CDR1 (hCDR1)) ameliorated the clinical manifestations of SLE and down-regulated, ex vivo, the 16/6Id-induced T cell proliferation. In this study, we examined the mechanism responsible for the hCDR1-induced modulation of T cell functions related to the pathogenesis of SLE. We found that injection of hCDR1 into BALB/c mice concomitant with their immunization with 16/6Id resulted in a marked elevation of TGF-beta secretion 10 days later. Addition of TGF-beta suppressed the 16/6Id-stimulated T cell proliferation similarly to hCDR1. In addition, we provide evidence that one possible mechanism underlying the hCDR1- and TGFbeta-induced inhibition of T cell proliferation is by down-regulating the expression, and therefore the functions, of a pair of key cell adhesion receptors, LFA-1 (alphaLbeta2) and CD44, which operate as accessory molecules in mediating APC-T cell interactions. Indeed, T cells of mice treated with hCDR1 showed a TGF-beta-induced suppression of adhesion to the LFA-1 and CD44 ligands, hyaluronic acid and ICAM-1, respectively, induced by stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha and PMA. The latter suppression is through the inhibition of ERK phosphorylation. Thus, the down-regulation of SLE-associated responses by hCDR1 treatment may be due to the effect of the up-regulated TGF-beta on the expression and function of T cell adhesion receptors and, consequently, on T cell stimulation, adhesion, and proliferation. PMID:16301630

  20. Synergistic effects of CD44 and TGF-β1 through AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling during epithelial-mesenchymal transition in liver cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Na Ri; Cha, Jung Hoon; Jang, Jeong Won; Bae, Si Hyun; Jang, Bohyun; Kim, Jung-Hee; Hur, Wonhee; Choi, Jong Young; Yoon, Seung Kew

    2016-09-01

    Cancer metastasis is strongly correlated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), in which transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling plays a central role. CD44 has emerged as a cancer stem cell (CSC) marker that strongly induces EMT together with TGF-β1. This study aimed to investigate the link between high CD44 and TGF-β1 levels during EMT in HCC cell lines. FACS analysis showed high expression of CD44 in TGF-β1-positive SNU-368 cells and TGF-β1-negative SNU-354 cells. SNU-368 CD44(+) cells showed EMT through up-regulation of the AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway. By comparison, SNU-354 CD44(+) cells showed only increased N-cadherin expression, which was not accompanied by a decrease in E-cadherin expression, and also down-regulated the AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway. However, TGF-β1-stimulated SNU-354 cells (CD44/TGF-β1(+)) exhibited lower E-cadherin and higher N-cadherin expression with increased AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway activity. CD44/TGF-β1(+) SNU-354 cells also showed enhanced migration and formed larger spheres, while the TGF-β1-induced stem cell properties returned to their original state with the TGF-β1 inhibitor SB431542. SB431542-treated SNU-368 (CD44/TGF-β1(-)) cells also showed diminished N-cadherin and AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway activity and further decreased cell motility in a wound healing assay. However, CD44 knockdown in SNU-354 cells did not induce EMT even after treatment with TGF-β1. Finally, double inhibition of both CD44 and TGF-β1 further decreased migration and sphere formation more strongly than a single inhibition in SNU-368 cells. In conclusion, the current study demonstrated the synergistic interactions between CD44 and TGF-β1 in EMT induction and CSC properties through the AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway in HCC cells.

  1. ALDH/CD44 identifies uniquely tumorigenic cancer stem cells in salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Adams, April; Warner, Kristy; Pearson, Alexander T; Zhang, Zhaocheng; Kim, Hong Sun; Mochizuki, Daiki; Basura, Gregory; Helman, Joseph; Mantesso, Andrea; Castilho, Rogério M; Wicha, Max S; Nör, Jacques E

    2015-09-29

    A small sub-population of cells characterized by increased tumorigenic potential, ability to self-renew and to differentiate into cells that make up the tumor bulk, has been characterized in some (but not all) tumor types. These unique cells, namedcancer stem cells, are considered drivers of tumor progression in these tumors. The purpose of this work is to understand if cancer stem cells play a functional role in the tumorigenesis of salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinomas. Here, we investigated the expression of putative cancer stem cell markers (ALDH, CD10, CD24, CD44) in primary human mucoepidermoid carcinomas by immunofluorescence, in vitro salisphere assays, and in vivo tumorigenicity assays in immunodeficient mice. Human mucoepidermoid carcinoma cells (UM-HMC-1, UM-HMC-3A, UM-HMC-3B) sorted for high levels of ALDH activity and CD44 expression (ALDHhighCD44high) consistently formed primary and secondary salispheres in vitro, and showed enhanced tumorigenic potential in vivo (defined as time to tumor palpability, tumor growth after palpability), when compared to ALDHlowCD44low cells. Cells sorted for CD10/CD24, and CD10/CD44 showed varying trends of salisphere formation, but consistently low in vivo tumorigenic potential. And finally, cells sorted for CD44/CD24 showed inconsistent results in salisphere formation and tumorigenic potential assays when different cell lines were evaluated. Collectively, these data demonstrate that salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinomas contain a small population of cancer stem cells with enhanced tumorigenic potential and that are characterized by high ALDH activity and CD44 expression. These results suggest that patients with mucoepidermoid carcinoma might benefit from therapies that ablate these highly tumorigenic cells.

  2. ALDH/CD44 identifies uniquely tumorigenic cancer stem cells in salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Adams, April; Warner, Kristy; Pearson, Alexander T.; Zhang, Zhaocheng; Kim, Hong Sun; Mochizuki, Daiki; Basura, Gregory; Helman, Joseph; Mantesso, Andrea; Castilho, Rogério M.; Wicha, Max S.; Nör, Jacques E.

    2015-01-01

    A small sub-population of cells characterized by increased tumorigenic potential, ability to self-renew and to differentiate into cells that make up the tumor bulk, has been characterized in some (but not all) tumor types. These unique cells, namedcancer stem cells, are considered drivers of tumor progression in these tumors. The purpose of this work is to understand if cancer stem cells play a functional role in the tumorigenesis of salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinomas. Here, we investigated the expression of putative cancer stem cell markers (ALDH, CD10, CD24, CD44) in primary human mucoepidermoid carcinomas by immunofluorescence, in vitro salisphere assays, and in vivo tumorigenicity assays in immunodeficient mice. Human mucoepidermoid carcinoma cells (UM-HMC-1, UM-HMC-3A, UM-HMC-3B) sorted for high levels of ALDH activity and CD44 expression (ALDHhighCD44high) consistently formed primary and secondary salispheres in vitro, and showed enhanced tumorigenic potential in vivo (defined as time to tumor palpability, tumor growth after palpability), when compared to ALDHlowCD44low cells. Cells sorted for CD10/CD24, and CD10/CD44 showed varying trends of salisphere formation, but consistently low in vivo tumorigenic potential. And finally, cells sorted for CD44/CD24 showed inconsistent results in salisphere formation and tumorigenic potential assays when different cell lines were evaluated. Collectively, these data demonstrate that salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinomas contain a small population of cancer stem cells with enhanced tumorigenic potential and that are characterized by high ALDH activity and CD44 expression. These results suggest that patients with mucoepidermoid carcinoma might benefit from therapies that ablate these highly tumorigenic cells. PMID:26449187

  3. Cell membrane CD44v6 levels in squamous cell carcinoma of the lung: association with high cellular proliferation and high concentrations of EGFR and CD44v5.

    PubMed

    Ruibal, Álvaro; Aguiar, Pablo; Del Río, María Carmen; Nuñez, Matilde Isabel; Pubul, Virginia; Herranz, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Membranous CD44v6 levels in tumors and surrounding samples obtained from 94 patients with squamous cell lung carcinomas were studied and compared to clinical stage, cellular proliferation, membranous CD44v5 levels, epidermal growth factor receptor EGFR and cytoplasmatic concentrations of CYFRA 21.1. CD44v6 positive values were observed in 33/38 non-tumor samples and in 76/94 tumor samples, but there were not statistically significant differences between both subgroups. In CD44v6 positive tumor samples, CD44v6 was not associated with clinical stage, histological grade, ploidy and lymph node involvement, but significant association was found with high cellular proliferation. Likewise, CD44v6 positive tumors had significantly higher levels of EGFR and CD44v5. In patients with squamous cell lung carcinomas and clinical stage I, positive CD44v6 cases were associated with the same parameters. Furthermore, positive CD44v5 squamous tumors were associated significantly with histological grade III and lower levels of CYFRA21.1. Our findings support the value of CD44v6 as a possible indicator of poor outcome in patients with squamous lung carcinomas. PMID:25809603

  4. The Roles of Hyaluronan/RHAMM/CD44 and Their Respective Interactions along the Insidious Pathways of Fibrosarcoma Progression

    PubMed Central

    Nikitovic, Dragana; Kouvidi, Katerina; Karamanos, Nikos K.; Tzanakakis, George N.

    2013-01-01

    Fibrosarcomas are rare malignant mesenchymal tumors originating from fibroblasts. Importantly, fibrosarcoma cells were shown to have a high content and turnover of extracellular matrix (ECM) components including hyaluronan (HA), proteoglycans, collagens, fibronectin, and laminin. ECMs are complicated structures that surround and support cells within tissues. During cancer progression, significant changes can be observed in the structural and mechanical properties of the ECM components. Importantly, hyaluronan deposition is usually higher in malignant tumors as compared to benign tissues, predicting tumor progression in some tumor types. Furthermore, activated stromal cells are able to produce tissue structure rich in hyaluronan in order to promote tumor growth. Key biological roles of HA result from its interactions with its specific CD44 and RHAMM (receptor for HA-mediated motility) cell-surface receptors. HA-receptor downstream signaling pathways regulate in turn cellular processes implicated in tumorigenesis. Growth factors, including PDGF-BB, TGFβ2, and FGF-2, enhanced hyaluronan deposition to ECM and modulated HA-receptor expression in fibrosarcoma cells. Indeed, FGF-2 through upregulation of specific HAS isoforms and hyaluronan synthesis regulated secretion and net hyaluronan deposition to the fibrosarcoma pericellular matrix modulating these cells' migration capability. In this paper we discuss the involvement of hyaluronan/RHAMM/CD44 mediated signaling in the insidious pathways of fibrosarcoma progression. PMID:24083250

  5. Group A Streptococcus tissue invasion by CD44-mediated cell signalling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cywes, Colette; Wessels, Michael R.

    2001-12-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (also known as group A Streptococcus, GAS), the agent of streptococcal sore throat and invasive soft-tissue infections, attaches to human pharyngeal or skin epithelial cells through specific recognition of its hyaluronic acid capsular polysaccharide by the hyaluronic-acid-binding protein CD44 (refs 1, 2). Because ligation of CD44 by hyaluronic acid can induce epithelial cell movement on extracellular matrix, we investigated whether molecular mimicry by the GAS hyaluronic acid capsule might induce similar cellular responses. Here we show that CD44-dependent GAS binding to polarized monolayers of human keratinocytes induced marked cytoskeletal rearrangements manifested by membrane ruffling and disruption of intercellular junctions. Transduction of the signal induced by GAS binding to CD44 on the keratinocyte surface involved Rac1 and the cytoskeleton linker protein ezrin, as well as tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins. Studies of bacterial translocation in two models of human skin indicated that cell signalling triggered by interaction of the GAS capsule with CD44 opened intercellular junctions and promoted tissue penetration by GAS through a paracellular route. These results support a model of host cytoskeleton manipulation and tissue invasion by an extracellular bacterial pathogen.

  6. CD44 is required for spatial memory retention and sensorimotor functions

    PubMed Central

    Raber, Jacob; Olsen, Reid H. J.; Su, Weiping; Foster, Scott; Xing, Rubing; Acevedo, Summer F.; Sherman, Larry S.

    2014-01-01

    CD44 is a transmembrane receptor for the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan, a component of the extracellular matrix. CD44 is expressed by neural stem/progenitor cells, astrocytes, and some neurons but its function in the central nervous system is unknown. To determine the role of CD44 in brain function, we behaviorally analyzed CD44-null (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. KO mice showed increased activity levels in the light-dark test and a trend towards increased activity in the open field. In addition, KO mice showed impaired hippocampus-dependent spatial memory retention in the probe trial following the first hidden-platform training day in the Morris water maze: WT mice showed spatial memory retention and spent more time in the target quadrant than any other quadrant, while KO mice did not. Although there were no genotype differences in swim speeds during the water maze training sessions with the visible or hidden platform, sensorimotor impairments were seen in other behavioral tests. In the inclined screen and balance beam tests, KO mice moved less than WT mice. In the wire hang test, KO mice also fell off of the wire faster than WT mice. In contrast, there was no genotype difference when emotional learning and memory were assessed in the passive avoidance test. These data support an important role for CD44 in locomotor and sensorimotor functions, and in spatial memory retention. PMID:25219362

  7. CD44 is required for spatial memory retention and sensorimotor functions.

    PubMed

    Raber, Jacob; Olsen, Reid H J; Su, Weiping; Foster, Scott; Xing, Rubing; Acevedo, Summer F; Sherman, Larry S

    2014-12-15

    CD44 is a transmembrane receptor for the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan, a component of the extracellular matrix. CD44 is expressed by neural stem/progenitor cells, astrocytes, and some neurons but its function in the central nervous system is unknown. To determine the role of CD44 in brain function, we behaviorally analyzed CD44-null (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. KO mice showed increased activity levels in the light-dark test and a trend toward increased activity in the open field. In addition, KO mice showed impaired hippocampus-dependent spatial memory retention in the probe trial following the first hidden-platform training day in the Morris water maze: WT mice showed spatial memory retention and spent more time in the target quadrant than any other quadrant, while KO mice did not. Although there were no genotype differences in swim speeds during the water maze training sessions with the visible or hidden platform, sensorimotor impairments were seen in other behavioral tests. In the inclined screen and balance beam tests, KO mice moved less than WT mice. In the wire hang test, KO mice also fell off of the wire faster than WT mice. In contrast, there was no genotype difference when emotional learning and memory were assessed in the passive avoidance test. These data support an important role for CD44 in locomotor and sensorimotor functions, and in spatial memory retention.

  8. CD44-Tropic Polymeric Nanocarrier for Breast Cancer Targeted Rapamycin Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yunqi; Zhang, Ti; Duan, Shaofeng; Davies, Neal M.; Forrest, M. Laird

    2014-01-01

    In contrast with the conventional targeting of nanoparticles to cancer cells with antibody or peptide conjugates, a hyaluronic acid (HA) matrix nanoparticle with intrinsic-CD44-tropism was developed to deliver rapamycin for localized CD44-positive breast cancer treatment. Rapamycin was chemically conjugated to the particle surface via a novel sustained-release linker, 3-amino-4-methoxy-benzoic acid. The release of the drug from the HA nanoparticle was improved by 42-fold compared to HA-temsirolimus in buffered saline. In CD44 positive MDA-MB-468 cells, using HA as drug delivery carrier, the cell-viability was significantly decreased compared to free rapamycin and CD44-blocked controls. Rat pharmacokinetics showed that the area-under-the-curve of HA nanoparticle formulation was 2.96-fold greater than that of the free drug, and the concomitant total body clearance was 8.82-fold slower. Moreover, in immunocompetent BALB/c mice bearing CD44-positive 4T1.2neu breast cancer, the rapamycin1loaded HA particles significantly improved animal survival, suppressed tumor growth and reduced the prevalence of lung metastasis. PMID:24637218

  9. Calreticulin modulates cell adhesiveness via regulation of vinculin expression

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Calreticulin is an ubiquitous and highly conserved high capacity Ca(2+)- binding protein that plays a major role in Ca2+ storage within the lumen of the ER. Here, using L fibroblast cell lines expressing different levels of calreticulin, we show that calreticulin plays a role in the control of cell adhesiveness via regulation of expression of vinculin, a cytoskeletal protein essential for cell-substratum and cell-cell attachments. Both vinculin protein and mRNA levels are increased in cells overexpressing calreticulin and are downregulated in cells expressing reduced level of calreticulin. Abundance of actin, talin, alpha 5 and beta 1 integrins, pp125 focal adhesion kinase, and alpha-catenin is not affected by the differential calreticulin expression. Overexpression of calreticulin increases both cell- substratum and cell-cell adhesiveness of L fibroblasts that, most surprisingly, establish vinculin-rich cell-cell junctions. Upregulation of calreticulin also affects adhesion-dependent phenomena such as cell motility (which decreases) and cell spreading (which increases). Downregulation of calreticulin brings about inverse effects. Cell adhesiveness is Ca2+ regulated. The level of calreticulin expression, however, has no effect on either the resting cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration or the magnitude of FGF-induced Ca2+ transients. Calreticulin, however, participates in Ca2+ homeostasis as its level of expression affects cell viability at low concentrations of extracellular Ca2+. Consequently, we infer that it is not the Ca2+ storage function of calreticulin that affects cell adhesiveness. Neither endogenous calreticulin nor overexpressed green fluorescent protein-calreticulin construct can be detected outside of the ER. Since all of the adhesion-related effects of differential calreticulin expression can be explained by its regulation of vinculin expression, we conclude that it is the ER-resident calreticulin that affects cellular adhesiveness. PMID:8991101

  10. High serum levels of soluble CD44 variant isoform v5 are associated with favourable clinical outcome in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Zeimet, A. G.; Widschwendter, M.; Uhl-Steidl, M.; Müller-Holzner, E.; Daxenbichler, G.; Marth, C.; Dapunt, O.

    1997-01-01

    In 96 ovarian cancer patients, the present study investigates the clinical significance of pretreatment concentrations of soluble CD44 standard (CD44s) and its isoforms v5 and v6 determined in the serum and the ascitic fluid by means of recently developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Furthermore, CD44 serum concentrations in the ovarian cancer patients were compared with circulating CD44 levels in 50 healthy age-matched female blood donors. Whereas CD44s was found to be higher and CD44v5 to be lower in ovarian cancer patients than healthy control subjects, no statistical difference between the two cohorts was revealed for CD44 isoform v6. In the ascitic fluid samples, variant isoform v5 and v6 were demonstrated at lower concentrations than serum. Multivariate analysis of overall survival demonstrated that a high pretreatment serum level of soluble CD44 isoform v5 is independently associated with favourable clinical outcome in ovarian cancer. When circulating CD44 isoforms were compared with a panel of serum parameters known to be involved in the immunological network, an inverse correlation between serum CD44v5 levels and indicators of cellular immune system activation, such as soluble interleukin 2 receptor, immunostimulatory protein 90K and neopterin, became apparent. PMID:9413956

  11. IMMUNOREGULATORY PROPERTIES OF CD44+ CANCER STEM-LIKE CELLS IN SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA OF THE HEAD AND NECK

    PubMed Central

    Chikamatsu, Kazuaki; Takahashi, Goro; Sakakura, Koichi; Ferrone, Soldano; Masuyama, Keisuke

    2012-01-01

    Background CD44 was found as a surface marker in cancer stem cell (CSC) of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN); however, the immunologic properties of such CSCs have not yet been elucidated. Methods The immunologic properties of CD44+ cancer stem-like cells were compared with those of CD44− cells using flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results CD44+ cells exhibited weak HLA-A2 and class II expression. Interestingly, downregulation of transporter antigen processing (TAP)2 was found in CD44+ cells. The CD44+ cell population produced significantly higher levels of interleukin (IL)-8, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β than the CD44− cell population. Moreover, CD44+ cells have been shown to not only more strongly inhibit T-cell proliferation, but also to more efficiently inhibit regulatory T cells (Treg cells) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) as compared with CD44− cells. Additionally, CD44+ cells suppressed Th1 responses and enhanced regulatory T cell responses. Conclusion CSCs might have higher malignant potential with numerous escape strategies from immune attack. PMID:20848440

  12. Regulation of Embryonic Cell Adhesion by the Prion Protein

    PubMed Central

    Schrock, Yvonne; Geiss, Corinna; Luncz, Lydia; Thomanetz, Venus; Stuermer, Claudia A. O

    2009-01-01

    Prion proteins (PrPs) are key players in fatal neurodegenerative disorders, yet their physiological functions remain unclear, as PrP knockout mice develop rather normally. We report a strong PrP loss-of-function phenotype in zebrafish embryos, characterized by the loss of embryonic cell adhesion and arrested gastrulation. Zebrafish and mouse PrP mRNAs can partially rescue this knockdown phenotype, indicating conserved PrP functions. Using zebrafish, mouse, and Drosophila cells, we show that PrP: (1) mediates Ca+2-independent homophilic cell adhesion and signaling; and (2) modulates Ca+2-dependent cell adhesion by regulating the delivery of E-cadherin to the plasma membrane. In vivo time-lapse analyses reveal that the arrested gastrulation in PrP knockdown embryos is due to deficient morphogenetic cell movements, which rely on E-cadherin–based adhesion. Cell-transplantation experiments indicate that the regulation of embryonic cell adhesion by PrP is cell-autonomous. Moreover, we find that the local accumulation of PrP at cell contact sites is concomitant with the activation of Src-related kinases, the recruitment of reggie/flotillin microdomains, and the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, consistent with a role of PrP in the modulation of cell adhesion via signaling. Altogether, our data uncover evolutionarily conserved roles of PrP in cell communication, which ultimately impinge on the stability of adherens cell junctions during embryonic development. PMID:19278297

  13. Cancer Stem Cell Markers CD44, CD133 in Primary Gastric Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nosrati, Anahita; Naghshvar, Farshad; Khanari, Somaieh

    2014-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are unique subpopulations that have the capacity to drive malignant progression with renewal abilities. Recently the role of some of CSCs in gastric adenocarcinoma has been studied. This study was performed in order to evaluate CD44 and CD133 expressions by immunohistochemistry in 95 primary gastric adenocarcinoma and their relation to clinical and pathological parameters of these tumors. There was a significant correlation between CD44 expression and cancer subtype (intestinal), tumor size (4-8 cm), depth of invasion, no lymphatic/vascular invasion and moderate differentiation. There was a significant correlation between CD133 expression and patient's age (> 65 years), cancer subtype (intestinal), tumor size (4-8 cm), depth of invasion and moderate differentiation. CSC markers like CD 44 and CD133 had high expression in primary gastric adenocarcinoma and had some relations to clinical and pathological parameters of tumors. PMID:25635255

  14. Cancer Stem Cell Markers CD44, CD133 in Primary Gastric Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nosrati, Anahita; Naghshvar, Farshad; Khanari, Somaieh

    2014-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are unique subpopulations that have the capacity to drive malignant progression with renewal abilities. Recently the role of some of CSCs in gastric adenocarcinoma has been studied. This study was performed in order to evaluate CD44 and CD133 expressions by immunohistochemistry in 95 primary gastric adenocarcinoma and their relation to clinical and pathological parameters of these tumors. There was a significant correlation between CD44 expression and cancer subtype (intestinal), tumor size (4-8 cm), depth of invasion, no lymphatic/vascular invasion and moderate differentiation. There was a significant correlation between CD133 expression and patient's age (> 65 years), cancer subtype (intestinal), tumor size (4-8 cm), depth of invasion and moderate differentiation. CSC markers like CD 44 and CD133 had high expression in primary gastric adenocarcinoma and had some relations to clinical and pathological parameters of tumors. PMID:25635255

  15. Adhesive interactions regulate transcriptional diversity in malignant B cells.

    PubMed

    Nadav-Dagan, Liat; Shay, Tal; Dezorella, Nili; Naparstek, Elizabeth; Domany, Eytan; Katz, Ben-Zion; Geiger, Benjamin

    2010-04-01

    The genetic profiling of B-cell malignancies is rapidly expanding, providing important information on the tumorigenic potential, response to treatment, and clinical outcome of these diseases. However, the relative contributions of inherent gene expression versus microenvironmental effects are poorly understood. The regulation of gene expression programs by means of adhesive interactions was studied here in ARH-77 human malignant B-cell variants, derived from the same cell line by selective adhesion to a fibronectin matrix. The populations included cells that adhere to fibronectin and are highly tumorigenic (designated "type A" cells) and cells that fail to adhere to fibronectin and fail to develop tumors in vivo ("type F" cells). To identify genes directly affected by cell adhesion to fibronectin, type A cells deprived of an adhesive substrate (designated "AF cells") were also examined. Bioinformatic analyses revealed a remarkable correlation between cell adhesion and both B-cell differentiation state and the expression of multiple myeloma (MM)-associated genes. The highly adherent type A cells expressed higher levels of NFkappaB-regulated genes, many of them associated with MM. Moreover, we found that the transcription of several MM-related proto-oncogenes is stimulated by adhesion to fibronectin. In contrast, type F cells, which display poor adhesive and tumorigenic properties, expressed genes associated with higher levels of B-cell differentiation. Our findings indicate that B-cell differentiation, as manifested by gene expression profiles, is attenuated by cell adhesion to fibronectin, leading to upregulation of specific genes known to be associated with the pathogenesis of MM.

  16. Extracellular matrix hyaluronan signals via its CD44 receptor in the increased responsiveness to mechanical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, L F; Araldi, D; Bogen, O; Levine, J D

    2016-06-01

    We propose that the extracellular matrix (ECM) signals CD44, a hyaluronan receptor, to increase the responsiveness to mechanical stimulation in the rat hind paw. We report that intradermal injection of hyaluronidase induces mechanical hyperalgesia, that is inhibited by co-administration of a CD44 receptor antagonist, A5G27. The intradermal injection of low (LMWH) but not high (HMWH) molecular weight hyaluronan also induces mechanical hyperalgesia, an effect that was attenuated by pretreatment with HMWH or A5G27. Pretreatment with HMWH also attenuated the hyperalgesia induced by hyaluronidase. Similarly, intradermal injection of A6, a CD44 receptor agonist, produced hyperalgesia that was inhibited by HMWH and A5G27. Inhibitors of protein kinase A (PKA) and Src, but not protein kinase C (PKC), significantly attenuated the hyperalgesia induced by both A6 and LMWH. Finally, to determine if CD44 receptor signaling is involved in a preclinical model of inflammatory pain, we evaluated the effect of A5G27 and HMWH on the mechanical hyperalgesia associated with the inflammation induced by carrageenan. Both A5G27 and HMWH attenuated carrageenan-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. Thus, while LMWH acts at its cognate receptor, CD44, to induce mechanical hyperalgesia, HMWH acts at the same receptor as an antagonist. That the local administration of HMWH or A5G27 inhibits carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia supports the suggestion that carrageenan produces changes in the ECM that contributes to inflammatory pain. These studies define a clinically relevant role for signaling by the hyaluronan receptor, CD44, in increased responsiveness to mechanical stimulation. PMID:26996509

  17. Cellular CD44S as a determinant of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection and cellular tropism.

    PubMed Central

    Dukes, C S; Yu, Y; Rivadeneira, E D; Sauls, D L; Liao, H X; Haynes, B F; Weinberg, J B

    1995-01-01

    CD4 is the predominant cell membrane protein that binds human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120 and facilitates HIV-1 infection, but other membrane-associated molecules may be involved in determining HIV-1 cellular infection. Our prior work had suggested that CD44, the transmembrane receptor for hyaluronan, might play a role in the infection of mononuclear phagocytes with HIV-1. In the present work, we have used cells of the CD4-positive, CD44-negative human T-lymphoblast cell line Jurkat to study the role of CD44 in HIV-1 infection and tropism. Cells were transfected with cDNA for the standard (S, or hematopoietic) CD44 isoform CD44S or the epithelial isoform CD44E. The resultant lines expressed appropriate CD44S or CD44E mRNA and protein. While the parent Jurkat cells, those transfected with vector alone, and those transfected with CD44E could be productively infected with only the lymphocytotropic strain HIV-1-LAI, cells transfected with CD44S were rendered susceptible to productive infection with the monocytotropic strains HIV-1-BaL and HIV-1-ADA. Also, CD44S-transfected cells displayed higher levels of infection with HIV-1-LAI than did the other transfected Jurkat cells. The transfected cell line cells all had comparable growth rates and expressed similar levels of the membrane antigens CD4, CD7, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I, MHC class II, and CD11a, while levels of CD3 were slightly higher in cells transfected with vector alone and in one of the clones transfected with CD44S. Hyaluronan binding was increased in cells transfected with either CD44S or CD44E. Mouse NIH 3T3 fibroblasts transfected with human CD4, human CD44S, or both human CD4 and CD44S displayed the appropriate antigens, but they could not be productively infected with lymphocytotropic or monocytotropic strains of HIV-1. The results indicate that in human leukocytes, CD44S is an important determinant of HIV-1 productive infection and may be involved in viral cellular

  18. Hybrid inverse opals for regulating cell adhesion and orientation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jie; Zheng, Fuyin; Cheng, Yao; Ding, Haibo; Zhao, Yuanjin; Gu, Zhongze

    2014-09-21

    Cell adhesion and alignment are two important considerations in tissue engineering applications as they can regulate the subsequent cell proliferation activity and differentiation program. Although many effects have been applied to regulate the adhesion or alignment of cells by using physical and chemical methods, it is still a challenge to regulate these cell behaviors simultaneously. Here, we present novel substrates with tunable nanoscale patterned structures for regulating the adhesion and alignment of cells. The substrates with different degrees of pattern orientation were achieved by customizing the amount of stretching applied to polymer inverse opal films. Cells cultured on these substrates showed an adjustable morphology and alignment. Moreover, soft hydrogels, which have poor plasticity and are difficult to cast into patterned structures, were applied to infiltrate the inverse opal structure. We demonstrated that the adhesion ratio of cells could be regulated by these hybrid substrates, as well as adjusting the cell morphology and alignment. These features of functional inverse opal substrates make them suitable for important applications in tissue engineering. PMID:25088946

  19. Hybrid inverse opals for regulating cell adhesion and orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jie; Zheng, Fuyin; Cheng, Yao; Ding, Haibo; Zhao, Yuanjin; Gu, Zhongze

    2014-08-01

    Cell adhesion and alignment are two important considerations in tissue engineering applications as they can regulate the subsequent cell proliferation activity and differentiation program. Although many effects have been applied to regulate the adhesion or alignment of cells by using physical and chemical methods, it is still a challenge to regulate these cell behaviors simultaneously. Here, we present novel substrates with tunable nanoscale patterned structures for regulating the adhesion and alignment of cells. The substrates with different degrees of pattern orientation were achieved by customizing the amount of stretching applied to polymer inverse opal films. Cells cultured on these substrates showed an adjustable morphology and alignment. Moreover, soft hydrogels, which have poor plasticity and are difficult to cast into patterned structures, were applied to infiltrate the inverse opal structure. We demonstrated that the adhesion ratio of cells could be regulated by these hybrid substrates, as well as adjusting the cell morphology and alignment. These features of functional inverse opal substrates make them suitable for important applications in tissue engineering.

  20. Hybrid inverse opals for regulating cell adhesion and orientation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jie; Zheng, Fuyin; Cheng, Yao; Ding, Haibo; Zhao, Yuanjin; Gu, Zhongze

    2014-09-21

    Cell adhesion and alignment are two important considerations in tissue engineering applications as they can regulate the subsequent cell proliferation activity and differentiation program. Although many effects have been applied to regulate the adhesion or alignment of cells by using physical and chemical methods, it is still a challenge to regulate these cell behaviors simultaneously. Here, we present novel substrates with tunable nanoscale patterned structures for regulating the adhesion and alignment of cells. The substrates with different degrees of pattern orientation were achieved by customizing the amount of stretching applied to polymer inverse opal films. Cells cultured on these substrates showed an adjustable morphology and alignment. Moreover, soft hydrogels, which have poor plasticity and are difficult to cast into patterned structures, were applied to infiltrate the inverse opal structure. We demonstrated that the adhesion ratio of cells could be regulated by these hybrid substrates, as well as adjusting the cell morphology and alignment. These features of functional inverse opal substrates make them suitable for important applications in tissue engineering.

  1. Hydrogen peroxide regulates cell adhesion through the redox sensor RPSA.

    PubMed

    Vilas-Boas, Filipe; Bagulho, Ana; Tenente, Rita; Teixeira, Vitor H; Martins, Gabriel; da Costa, Gonçalo; Jerónimo, Ana; Cordeiro, Carlos; Machuqueiro, Miguel; Real, Carla

    2016-01-01

    To become metastatic, a tumor cell must acquire new adhesion properties that allow migration into the surrounding connective tissue, transmigration across endothelial cells to reach the blood stream and, at the site of metastasis, adhesion to endothelial cells and transmigration to colonize a new tissue. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a redox signaling molecule produced in tumor cell microenvironment with high relevance for tumor development. However, the molecular mechanisms regulated by H2O2 in tumor cells are still poorly known. The identification of H2O2-target proteins in tumor cells and the understanding of their role in tumor cell adhesion are essential for the development of novel redox-based therapies for cancer. In this paper, we identified Ribosomal Protein SA (RPSA) as a target of H2O2 and showed that RPSA in the oxidized state accumulates in clusters that contain specific adhesion molecules. Furthermore, we showed that RPSA oxidation improves cell adhesion efficiency to laminin in vitro and promotes cell extravasation in vivo. Our results unravel a new mechanism for H2O2-dependent modulation of cell adhesion properties and identify RPSA as the H2O2 sensor in this process. This work indicates that high levels of RPSA expression might confer a selective advantage to tumor cells in an oxidative environment.

  2. HDAC inhibitor AR-42 decreases CD44 expression and sensitizes myeloma cells to lenalidomide

    PubMed Central

    Sborov, Douglas W.; Cascione, Luciano; Radomska, Hanna S.; Smith, Emily; Stiff, Andrew; Consiglio, Jessica; Caserta, Enrico; Rizzotto, Lara; Zanesi, Nicola; Stefano, Volinia; Kaur, Balveen; Mo, Xiaokui; Byrd, John C.; Efebera, Yvonne A.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematological malignancy of plasma cells in the bone marrow. Despite multiple treatment options, MM is inevitably associated with drug resistance and poor outcomes. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi's) are promising novel chemotherapeutics undergoing evaluation in clinical trials for the potential treatment of patients with MM. Although in preclinical studies HDACi's have proven anti-myeloma activity, but in the clinic single-agent HDACi treatments have been limited due to low tolerability. Improved clinical outcomes were reported only when HDACi's were combined with other drugs. Here, we show that a novel pan-HDACi AR-42 downregulates CD44, a glycoprotein that has been associated with lenalidomide and dexamethasone resistance in myeloma both in vitro and in vivo. We also show that this CD44 downregulation is in part mediated by miR-9–5p, targeting insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 3 (IGF2BP3), which directly binds to CD44 mRNA and increases its stability. Importantly, we also demonstrate that AR-42 enhances anti-myeloma activity of lenalidomide in primary MM cells isolated from lenalidomide resistant patients and in in vivo MM mouse model. Thus, our findings shed light on potential novel combinatorial therapeutic approaches modulating CD44 expression, which may help overcome lenalidomide resistance in myeloma patients. PMID:26429859

  3. Hyaluronic acid-conjugated liposome nanoparticles for targeted delivery to CD44 overexpressing glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, Stephen L.; Wilson, Christina L.; Kidambi, Srivatsan

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is a highly prevalent and deadly brain malignancy characterized by poor prognosis and restricted disease management potential. Despite the success of nanocarrier systems to improve drug/gene therapy for cancer, active targeting specificity remains a major hurdle for GBM. Additionally, since the brain is a multi-cell type organ, there is a critical need to develop an approach to distinguish between GBM cells and healthy brain cells for safe and successful treatment. In this report, we have incorporated hyaluronic acid (HA) as an active targeting ligand for GBM. To do so, we employed HA conjugated liposomes (HALNPs) to study the uptake pathway in key cells in the brain including primary astrocytes, microglia, and human GBM cells. We observed that the HALNPs specifically target GBM cells over other brain cells due to higher expression of CD44 in tumor cells. Furthermore, CD44 driven HALNP uptake into GBM cells resulted in lysosomal evasion and increased efficacy of Doxorubicin, a model anti-neoplastic agent, while the astrocytes and microglia cells exhibited extensive HALNP-lysosome co-localization and decreased antineoplastic potency. In summary, novel CD44 targeted lipid based nanocarriers appear to be proficient in mediating site-specific delivery of drugs via CD44 receptors in GBM cells, with an improved therapeutic margin and safety. PMID:27120809

  4. Characterization of CD44-Mediated Cancer Cell Uptake and Intracellular Distribution of Hyaluronan-Grafted Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Qhattal, Hussaini Syed Sha; Liu, Xinli

    2011-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is a biocompatible and biodegradable linear polysaccharide which is of interest for tumor targeting through cell surface CD44 receptors. HA binds with high affinity to CD44 receptors, which are overexpressed in many tumors and involved in cancer metastasis. In the present study, we investigated the impact of HA molecular weight (MW), grafting density, and CD44 receptor density on endocytosis of HA-grafted liposomes (HA-liposomes) by cancer cells. Additionally, the intracellular localization of the HA-liposomes was determined. HAs of different MWs (5-8, 10-12, 175-350, and 1600 kDa) were conjugated to liposomes with varying degrees of grafting density. HA surface density was quantified using the hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide turbidimetric method. Cellular uptake and subcellular localization of HA-liposomes were evaluated by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Mean particle sizes of HA-liposomes ranged from 120 to 180 nm and increased with the bigger size of HA. HA-liposome uptake correlated with HA MW (5-8 < 10-12 < 175-350 kDa), grafting density, and CD44 receptor density and exceeded that obtained with unconjugated plain liposomes. HA-liposomes were taken up into cells via lipid raft-mediated endocytosis, which is both energy- and cholesterol-dependent. Once within cells, HA-liposomes localized primarily to endosomes and lysosomes. The results demonstrate that cellular targeting efficiency of HA-liposomes depends strongly upon HA MW, grafting density, and cell surface receptor CD44 density. The results support a role of HA-liposomes for targeted drug delivery. PMID:21696190

  5. Potential of sulfasalazine as a therapeutic sensitizer for CD44 splice variant 9-positive urogenital cancer.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Tatsuya; Kubo, Taro; Morikawa, Ai; Morita, Tatsuo; Nagano, Osamu; Saya, Hideyuki

    2016-05-01

    Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) with high expression of CD44 splice variant (CD44v) have an enhanced capacity for intracellular reduced glutathione synthesis and defense against reactive oxygen species, resulting in resistance to various therapeutic stresses. Sulfasalazine (SSZ), a drug used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), inhibits glutamate-cystine transport, and suppressed CD44v-dependent tumor growth and increased sensitivity to cytotoxic drugs in an in vivo study. Here, we present two cases of CD44v9-positive urogenital cancer with concomitant treatment with SSZ for RA. Patient 1 was a 62-year-old man who had received SSZ for RA beginning 2 months before the diagnosis of urinary bladder cancer. Although he had multiple metastases to the bladder, abdominal, left cervical and left axillary lymph nodes, and brain, complete response with multidisciplinary therapy was maintained for more than 2 years. Patient 2 was a 74-year-old man with castration-resistant prostate cancer who was diagnosed with RA during chemotherapy and a gradual increase in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level. When SSZ was added, his PSA value (ng/mL) decreased from 12.93 to 5.58 in only 2 weeks and then quickly rebounded, whereas levels of neuron-specific enolase, a neuroendocrine differentiator and CSC marker, remained almost unchanged. We therefore speculate that SSZ treatment may represent a new adjuvant treatment option for patients with CD44v9-positive urogenital cancer. PMID:27044355

  6. Platelet adhesion signalling and the regulation of thrombus formation.

    PubMed

    Gibbins, Jonathan M

    2004-07-15

    Platelets perform a central role in haemostasis and thrombosis. They adhere to subendothelial collagens exposed at sites of blood vessel injury via the glycoprotein (GP) Ib-V-IX receptor complex, GPVI and integrin alpha(2)beta(1). These receptors perform distinct functions in the regulation of cell signalling involving non-receptor tyrosine kinases (e.g. Src, Fyn, Lyn, Syk and Btk), adaptor proteins, phospholipase C and lipid kinases such as phosphoinositide 3-kinase. They are also coupled to an increase in cytosolic calcium levels and protein kinase C activation, leading to the secretion of paracrine/autocrine platelet factors and an increase in integrin receptor affinities. Through the binding of plasma fibrinogen and von Willebrand Factor to integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3), a platelet thrombus is formed. Although increasing evidence indicates that each of the adhesion receptors GPIb-V-IX and GPVI and integrins alpha(2)beta(1) and alpha(IIb)beta(3) contribute to the signalling that regulates this process, the individual roles of each are only beginning to be dissected. By contrast, adhesion receptor signalling through platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1) is implicated in the inhibition of platelet function and thrombus formation in the healthy circulation. Recent studies indicate that understanding of platelet adhesion signalling mechanisms might enable the development of new strategies to treat and prevent thrombosis. PMID:15252124

  7. Epac Activation Regulates Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Migration and Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiao-Le; Deng, Ruixia; Chung, Sookja K; Chan, Godfrey Chi-Fung

    2016-04-01

    How to enhance the homing of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to the target tissues remains a clinical challenge nowadays. To overcome this barrier, the mechanism responsible for the hMSCs migration and engraftment has to be defined. Currently, the exact mechanism involved in migration and adhesion of hMSCs remains unknown. Exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac), a novel protein discovered in cAMP signaling pathway, may have a potential role in regulating cells adhesion and migration by triggering the downstream Rap family signaling cascades. However, the exact role of Epac in cells homing is elusive. Our study evaluated the role of Epac in the homing of hMSCs. We confirmed that hMSCs expressed functional Epac and its activation enhanced the migration and adhesion of hMSCs significantly. The Epac activation was further found to be contributed directly to the chemotactic responses induced by stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1) which is a known chemokine in regulating hMSCs homing. These findings suggested Epac is connected to the SDF-1 signaling cascades. In conclusion, our study revealed that Epac plays a role in hMSCs homing by promoting adhesion and migration. Appropriate manipulation of Epac may enhance the homing of hMSCs and facilitate their future clinical applications. PMID:26727165

  8. Transcriptionally Regulated Cell Adhesion Network Dictates Distal Tip Cell Directionality

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Ming-Ching; Kennedy, William P.; Schwarzbauer, Jean E.

    2015-01-01

    Background The mechanisms that govern directional changes in cell migration are poorly understood. The migratory paths of two distal tip cells (DTC) determine the U-shape of the C. elegans hermaphroditic gonad. The morphogenesis of this organ provides a model system to identify genes necessary for the DTCs to execute two stereotyped turns. Results Using candidate genes for RNAi knockdown in a DTC-specific strain, we identified two transcriptional regulators required for DTC turning: cbp-1, the CBP/p300 transcriptional coactivator homologue, and let-607, a CREBH transcription factor homologue. Further screening of potential target genes uncovered a network of integrin adhesion-related genes that have roles in turning and are dependent on cbp-1 and let-607 for expression. These genes include src-1/Src kinase, tln-1/talin, pat-2/α integrin and nmy-2, a nonmuscle myosin heavy chain. Conclusions Transcriptional regulation by means of cbp-1 and let-607 is crucial for determining directional changes during DTC migration. These regulators coordinate a gene network that is necessary for integrin-mediated adhesion. Overall, these results suggest that directional changes in cell migration rely on the precise gene regulation of adhesion. PMID:24811939

  9. CD44, Sonic Hedgehog, and Gli1 Expression Are Prognostic Biomarkers in Gastric Cancer Patients after Radical Resection

    PubMed Central

    Jian-Hui, Chen; Er-Tao, Zhai; Si-Le, Chen; Hui, Wu; Kai-Ming, Wu; Xin-Hua, Zhang; Chuang-Qi, Chen; Shi-Rong, Cai; Yu-Long, He

    2016-01-01

    Aim. CD44 and Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling are important for gastric cancer (GC). However, the clinical impact, survival, and recurrence outcome of CD44, Shh, and Gli1 expressions in GC patients following radical resection have not been elucidated. Patients and Methods. CD44, Shh, and Gli1 protein levels were quantified by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The association between CD44, Shh, and Gli1 expression and clinicopathological features or prognosis of GC patients was determined. The biomarker risk score was calculated by the IHC staining score of CD44, Shh, and Gli1 protein. Results. The IHC positive staining of CD44, Shh, and Gli1 proteins was correlated with larger tumour size, worse gross type and histological type, and advanced TNM stage, which also predicted shorter overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) after radical resection. Multivariate analysis indicated the Gli1 protein and Gli1, CD44 proteins were predictive biomarkers for OS and DFS, respectively. If biomarker risk score was taken into analysis, it was the independent prognostic factor for OS and DFS. Conclusions. CD44 and Shh signaling are important biomarkers for tumour aggressiveness, survival, and recurrence in GC. PMID:26839535

  10. An Essential Role for CD44 Variant Isoforms in Epidermal Langerhans Cell and Blood Dendritic Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Johannes M.; Sleeman, Jonathan; Renkl, Andreas C.; Dittmar, Henning; Termeer, Christian C.; Taxis, Sabine; Howells, Norma; Hofmann, Martin; Köhler, Gabriele; Schöpf, Erwin; Ponta, Helmut; Herrlich, Peter; Simon, Jan C.

    1997-01-01

    Upon antigen contact, epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) and dendritic cells (DC) leave peripheral organs and home to lymph nodes via the afferent lymphatic vessels and then assemble in the paracortical T cell zone and present antigen to T lymphocytes. Since splice variants of CD44 promote metastasis of certain tumors to lymph nodes, we explored the expression of CD44 proteins on migrating LC and DC. We show that upon antigen contact, LC and DC upregulate pan CD44 epitopes and epitopes encoded by variant exons v4, v5, v6, and v9. Antibodies against CD44 epitopes inhibit the emigration of LC from the epidermis, prevent binding of activated LC and DC to the T cell zones of lymph nodes, and severely inhibit their capacity to induce a delayed type hypersensitivity reaction to a skin hapten in vivo. Our results demonstrate that CD44 splice variant expression is obligatory for the migration and function of LC and DC. PMID:9166413

  11. Aberrant Splicing of Estrogen Receptor, HER2, and CD44 Genes in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Kazushi; Fry, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cause of cancer-related death among women under the age of 50 years. Established biomarkers, such as hormone receptors (estrogen receptor [ER]/progesterone receptor) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), play significant roles in the selection of patients for endocrine and trastuzumab therapies. However, the initial treatment response is often followed by tumor relapse with intrinsic resistance to the first-line therapy, so it has been expected to identify novel molecular markers to improve the survival and quality of life of patients. Alternative splicing of pre-messenger RNAs is a ubiquitous and flexible mechanism for the control of gene expression in mammalian cells. It provides cells with the opportunity to create protein isoforms with different, even opposing, functions from a single genomic locus. Aberrant alternative splicing is very common in cancer where emerging tumor cells take advantage of this flexibility to produce proteins that promote cell growth and survival. While a number of splicing alterations have been reported in human cancers, we focus on aberrant splicing of ER, HER2, and CD44 genes from the viewpoint of BC development. ERα36, a splice variant from the ER1 locus, governs nongenomic membrane signaling pathways triggered by estrogen and confers 4-hydroxytamoxifen resistance in BC therapy. The alternative spliced isoform of HER2 lacking exon 20 (Δ16HER2) has been reported in human BC; this isoform is associated with transforming ability than the wild-type HER2 and recapitulates the phenotypes of endocrine therapy-resistant BC. Although both CD44 splice isoforms (CD44s, CD44v) play essential roles in BC development, CD44v is more associated with those with favorable prognosis, such as luminal A subtype, while CD44s is linked to those with poor prognosis, such as HER2 or basal cell subtypes that are often metastatic. Hence, the detection of splice variants from these loci will provide keys

  12. Expression of CD44 isoforms and beta 1,6-branched oligosaccharides in human malignant melanoma is correlated with tumor progression but not with metastatic potential.

    PubMed

    Seelentag, W K; Böni, R; Günthert, U; Futo, E; Burg, G; Heitz, P U; Roth, J

    1997-04-01

    CD44, a family of closely related glycoproteins generated by alternative splicing, as well as the increased beta 1,6-branching of Asn-linked oligosaccharides (beta 1,6-branches), have been implicated in tumor progression and metastasis. We have investigated the expression of CD44 standard (CD44s), various CD44 splice variants (CD44v3, -v4, -v5, -v6 and -v9), and of beta 1,6-branches in a total of 37 paraffin-embedded human primary melanomas and metastases. Out of the 28 studied primary melanomas, 27 were positive for CD44s, 21 for CD44v5 (cytoplasmic staining) and 26 for beta 1,6 branches. Furthermore, superficial spreading melanomas showed a significant (p = 0.004) stronger staining for CD44s than the thick (> 1.5 mm) nodular melanomas, whereas no significant difference was found with regard to staining for CD44v5 and beta 1,6-branches. Eight of the 9 studied melanoma metastases were positive for CD44s, 6 for CD44v5 (cytoplasmic staining) and 7 for beta 1,6-branches. No CD44v3, -v4, -v6 and -v9 could be detected in any of the tumors. On average, metastases as compared to primary tumors, exhibited a significant (p = 0.002) weaker staining for CD44s. However, metastasizing melanomas could not be distinguished from non-metastasizing ones based on CD44 immunostaining. PMID:9138110

  13. Adamts5 Deletion Blocks Murine Dermal Repair through CD44-mediated Aggrecan Accumulation and Modulation of Transforming Growth Factor β1 (TGFβ1) Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Velasco, Jennifer; Li, Jun; DiPietro, Luisa; Stepp, Mary Ann; Sandy, John D.; Plaas, Anna

    2011-01-01

    ADAMTS5 has been implicated in the degradation of cartilage aggrecan in human osteoarthritis. Here, we describe a novel role for the enzyme in the regulation of TGFβ1 signaling in dermal fibroblasts both in vivo and in vitro. Adamts5−/− mice, generated by deletion of exon 2, exhibit impaired contraction and dermal collagen deposition in an excisional wound healing model. This was accompanied by accumulation in the dermal layer of cell aggregates and fibroblastic cells surrounded by a pericellular matrix enriched in full-length aggrecan. Adamts5−/− wounds exhibit low expression (relative to wild type) of collagen type I and type III but show a persistently elevated expression of tgfbRII and alk1. Aggrecan deposition and impaired dermal repair in Adamts5−/− mice are both dependent on CD44, and Cd44−/−/Adamts5−/− mice display robust activation of TGFβ receptor II and collagen type III expression and the dermal regeneration seen in WT mice. TGFβ1 treatment of newborn fibroblasts from wild type mice results in Smad2/3 phosphorylation, whereas cells from Adamts5−/− mice phosphorylate Smad1/5/8. The altered TGFβ1 response in the Adamts5−/− cells is dependent on the presence of aggrecan and expression of CD44, because Cd44−/−/Adamts5−/− cells respond like WT cells. We propose that ADAMTS5 deficiency in fibrous tissues results in a poor repair response due to the accumulation of aggrecan in the pericellular matrix of fibroblast progenitor cells, which prevents their transition to mature fibroblasts. Thus, the capacity of ADAMTS5 to modulate critical tissue repair signaling events suggests a unique role for this enzyme, which sets it apart from other members of the ADAMTS family of proteases. PMID:21566131

  14. In vivo monitoring of CD44+ cancer stem-like cells by γ-irradiation in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    KIM, MI HYUN; KIM, MIN HWAN; KIM, KWANG SEOK; PARK, MYUNG-JIN; JEONG, JAE-HOON; PARK, SEUNG WOO; JI, YOUNG HOON; KIM, KWANG IL; LEE, TAE SUP; RYU, PHIL YOUL; KANG, JOO HYUN; LEE, YONG JIN

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that cancer contains cancer stem cells (CSCs) that are capable of regenerating a tumor following chemotherapy or radiotherapy. CD44 and CD133 are used to identify CSCs. This study investigated non-invasive in vivo monitoring of CD44-positive cancer stem-like cells in breast cancer by γ-irradiation using molecular image by fusing the firefly luciferase (fLuc) gene with the CD44 promoter. We generated a breast cancer cell line stably expressing fLuc gene by use of recombinant lentiviral vector controlled by CD44 promoter (MCF7-CL). Irradiated MCF7-CL spheres showed upregulated expression of CD44 and CD133, by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. Also, gene expression levels of CSCs markers in irradiated spheres were clearly increased. CD44+ CSCs increased fLuc expression and tumor growth in vivo and in vitro. When MCF7-CL was treated with siCD44 and irradiated, CD44 expression was inhibited and cell survival ratio was decreased. MCF7-CL subsets were injected into the mice and irradiated by using a cobalt-60 source. Then, in vivo monitoring was performed to observe the bioluminescence imaging (BLI). When breast cancer was irradiated, relative BLI signal was increased, but tumor volume was decreased compared to non-irradiated tumor. These results indicate that increased CD44 expression, caused by general feature of CSCs by irradiation and sphere formation, can be monitored by using bioluminescence imaging. This system could be useful to evaluate CD44-expressed CSCs in breast cancer by BLI in vivo as well as in vitro for radiotherapy. PMID:27098303

  15. In vivo monitoring of CD44+ cancer stem-like cells by γ-irradiation in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Hyun; Kim, Min Hwan; Kim, Kwang Seok; Park, Myung-Jin; Jeong, Jae-Hoon; Park, Seung Woo; Ji, Young Hoon; Kim, Kwang Il; Lee, Tae Sup; Ryu, Phil Youl; Kang, Joo Hyun; Lee, Yong Jin

    2016-06-01

    There is increasing evidence that cancer contains cancer stem cells (CSCs) that are capable of regenerating a tumor following chemotherapy or radiotherapy. CD44 and CD133 are used to identify CSCs. This study investigated non-invasive in vivo monitoring of CD44-positive cancer stem-like cells in breast cancer by γ-irradiation using molecular image by fusing the firefly luciferase (fLuc) gene with the CD44 promoter. We generated a breast cancer cell line stably expressing fLuc gene by use of recombinant lentiviral vector controlled by CD44 promoter (MCF7-CL). Irradiated MCF7-CL spheres showed upregulated expression of CD44 and CD133, by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. Also, gene expression levels of CSCs markers in irradiated spheres were clearly increased. CD44+ CSCs increased fLuc expression and tumor growth in vivo and in vitro. When MCF7-CL was treated with siCD44 and irradiated, CD44 expression was inhibited and cell survival ratio was decreased. MCF7-CL subsets were injected into the mice and irradiated by using a cobalt-60 source. Then, in vivo monitoring was performed to observe the bioluminescence imaging (BLI). When breast cancer was irradiated, relative BLI signal was increased, but tumor volume was decreased compared to non-irradiated tumor. These results indicate that increased CD44 expression, caused by general feature of CSCs by irradiation and sphere formation, can be monitored by using bioluminescence imaging. This system could be useful to evaluate CD44- expressed CSCs in breast cancer by BLI in vivo as well as in vitro for radiotherapy. PMID:27098303

  16. The CD44+ALDH+ Population of Human Keratinocytes Is Enriched for Epidermal Stem Cells with Long-Term Repopulating Ability

    PubMed Central

    Szabo, Akos Z.; Fong, Stephen; Yue, Lili; Zhang, Kai; Strachan, Lauren R.; Scalapino, Kenneth; Mancianti, Maria Laura; Ghadially, Ruby

    2014-01-01

    Like for other somatic tissues, isolation of a pure population of stem cells has been a primary goal in epidermal biology. We isolated discrete populations of freshly obtained human neonatal keratinocytes (HNKs) using previously untested candidate stem cell markers aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and CD44 as well as the previously studied combination of integrin α6 and CD71. An in vivo transplantation assay combined with limiting dilution analysis was used to quantify enrichment for long-term repopulating cells in the isolated populations. The ALDH+CD44+ population was enriched 12.6-fold for long-term repopulating epidermal stem cells (EpiSCs) and the integrin α6hiCD71lo population was enriched 5.6-fold, over unfractionated cells. In addition to long-term repopulation, CD44+ALDH+ keratinocytes exhibited other stem cell properties. CD44+ALDH+ keratinocytes had self-renewal ability, demonstrated by increased numbers of cells expressing nuclear Bmi-1, serial transplantation of CD44+ALDH+ cells, and holoclone formation in vitro. CD44+ALDH+ cells were multipotent, producing greater numbers of hair follicle-like structures than CD44−ALDH− cells. Furthermore, 58% ± 7% of CD44+ALDH+ cells exhibited label-retention. In vitro, CD44+ALDH+ cells showed enhanced colony formation, in both keratinocyte and embryonic stem cell growth media. In summary, the CD44+ALDH+ population exhibits stem cell properties including long-term epidermal regeneration, multipotency, label retention, and holoclone formation. This study shows that it is possible to quantify the relative number of EpiSCs in human keratinocyte populations using long-term repopulation as a functional test of stem cell nature. Future studies will combine isolation strategies as dictated by the results of quantitative transplantation assays, in order to achieve a nearly pure population of EpiSCs. PMID:23335266

  17. Hyaluronic acid modified mesoporous carbon nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery to CD44-overexpressing cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Long; Jiao, Jian; Cui, Yu; Guo, Jingwen; Han, Ning; Di, Donghua; Chang, Di; Wang, Pu; Jiang, Tongying; Wang, Siling

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, hyaluronic acid (HA) functionalized uniform mesoporous carbon spheres (UMCS) were synthesized for targeted enzyme responsive drug delivery using a facile electrostatic attraction strategy. This HA modification ensured stable drug encapsulation in mesoporous carbon nanoparticles in an extracellular environment while increasing colloidal stability, biocompatibility, cell-targeting ability, and controlled cargo release. The cellular uptake experiments of fluorescently labeled mesoporous carbon nanoparticles, with or without HA functionalization, demonstrated that HA-UMCS are able to specifically target cancer cells overexpressing CD44 receptors. Moreover, the cargo loaded doxorubicin (DOX) and verapamil (VER) exhibited a dual pH and hyaluronidase-1 responsive release in the tumor microenvironment. In addition, VER/DOX/HA-UMCS exhibited a superior therapeutic effect on an in vivo HCT-116 tumor in BALB/c nude mice. In summary, it is expected that HA-UMCS will offer a new method for targeted co-delivery of drugs to tumors overexpressing CD44 receptors.

  18. Hyperspectral darkfield microscopy of PEGylated gold nanoparticles targeting CD44-expressing cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Patskovsky, Sergiy; Bergeron, Eric; Meunier, Michel

    2015-01-01

    We present a new hyperspectral darkfield imaging system with a scanned broadband supercontinuum light source. We observed the specific attachment of the functionalized gold plasmonic nanoparticles (AuNPs) targeting CD44(+) human breast cancer cells by conventional and by proposed hyperspectral darkfield microscopy. This wide-field and low phototoxic hyperspectral imaging system has been successful for performing spectral three-dimensional (3D) localization and spectroscopic identification of CD44-targeted PEGylated AuNPs in fixed cell preparations. Such spatial and spectral information is essential for the improvement of nanoplasmonic-based imaging, disease detection and treatment in complex biological environment. Presented system capability for 3D NP tracking will also enable investigation of specific sub-cellular activity with the use of NPs as spectral sensors. PMID:24343875

  19. Preparation and reactivities of anti-porcine CD44 monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Yang, H; Hutchings, A; Binns, R M

    1993-04-01

    Five monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) were raised against porcine soluble CD44. The MoAbs recognized the same antigen on the surface of porcine lymphocytes as was recognized by anti-human CD44 MoAb Hermes-1, but identified five different epitopes. They bound to most porcine leucocytes but not to red cells. The epitopes were susceptible to treatment with papain or bromelain, whereas trypsinization of porcine leucocytes only reduced the antigen density. The epitopes seem to be co-expressed among various lymphoid tissues. The MoAbs also cross-reacted to various degrees with leucocytes of humans, dogs, sheep, cattle, goats and horses, suggesting that the corresponding epitopes are differentially conserved among species.

  20. Chondroprotective Effect of Kartogenin on CD44-Mediated Functions in Articular Cartilage and Chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Yohei; Ishizuka, Shinya; Knudson, Cheryl B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: A recent report identified the small molecule kartogenin as a chondrogenic and chondroprotective agent. Since changes in hyaluronan metabolism occur during cartilage degeneration in osteoarthritis, we began studies to determine whether there was a connection between extracellular hyaluronan, CD44–hyaluronan interactions and the effects of kartogenin on articular chondrocytes. Methods: Chondrocytes cultured in monolayers, bioengineered neocartilages, or cartilage explants were treated with kartogenin with or without stimulation by IL-1β. Accumulation of matrix was visualized by a particle exclusion assay or by safranin O staining and release of sulfated glycosaminoglycans was determined. Production of aggrecanases and aggrecan G1-ITEGE neoepitope, fragmentation of CD44 and the SMAD1/5/8 signaling pathway were evaluated by western blotting. Results: Kartogenin treatment enhanced chondrocyte pericellular matrix assembly and retention in the presence of IL-1β. The chondroprotective effects of kartogenin on IL-1β-induced release of sulfated glycosaminoglycans from articular cartilage explants, reduction in safranin O staining of neocartilage discs as well as a reduction in aggrecan G1-ITEGE neoepitope in chondrocyte and explant cartilage cultures were observed. Kartogenin partially blocked the IL-1β-induced increased expression of ADAMTS-5. Additionally, kartogenin-treated articular chondrocytes exhibited a decrease in CD44 proteolytic fragmentation. However, kartogenin treatment did not enhance proteoglycan in control, non-IL-1β-treated cultures. Similarly, kartogenin enhanced the SMAD1 phosphorylation but only following pretreatment with IL-1β. Conclusion: These studies provide novel information on the chondroprotective function of kartogenin in adult articular cartilage. The effects of kartogenin are significant after activation of chondrocytic chondrolysis, which may occur following disruption of homeostasis maintained by hyaluronan–CD44

  1. Osteopontin Deficiency Produces Osteoclast Dysfunction Due to Reduced CD44 Surface Expression

    PubMed Central

    Chellaiah, M. A.; Kizer, N.; Biswas, R.; Alvarez, U.; Strauss-Schoenberger, J.; Rifas, L.; Rittling, S. R.; Denhardt, D. T.; Hruska, K. A.

    2003-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) was expressed in murine wild-type osteoclasts, localized to the basolateral, clear zone, and ruffled border membranes, and deposited in the resorption pits during bone resorption. The lack of OPN secretion into the resorption bay of avian osteoclasts may be a component of their functional resorption deficiency in vitro. Osteoclasts deficient in OPN were hypomotile and exhibited decreased capacity for bone resorption in vitro. OPN stimulated CD44 expression on the osteoclast surface, and CD44 was shown to be required for osteoclast motility and bone resorption. Exogenous addition of OPN to OPN−/− osteoclasts increased the surface expression of CD44, and it rescued osteoclast motility due to activation of the αvβ3 integrin. Exogenous OPN only partially restored bone resorption because addition of OPN failed to produce OPN secretion into resorption bays as seen in wild-type osteoclasts. As expected with these in vitro findings of osteoclast dysfunction, a bone phenotype, heretofore unappreciated, was characterized in OPN-deficient mice. Delayed bone resorption in metaphyseal trabeculae and diminished eroded perimeters despite an increase in osteoclast number were observed in histomorphometric measurements of tibiae isolated from OPN-deficient mice. The histomorphometric findings correlated with an increase in bone rigidity and moment of inertia revealed by load-to-failure testing of femurs. These findings demonstrate the role of OPN in osteoclast function and the requirement for OPN as an osteoclast autocrine factor during bone remodeling. PMID:12529435

  2. Osteopontin deficiency produces osteoclast dysfunction due to reduced CD44 surface expression.

    PubMed

    Chellaiah, M A; Kizer, N; Biswas, R; Alvarez, U; Strauss-Schoenberger, J; Rifas, L; Rittling, S R; Denhardt, D T; Hruska, K A

    2003-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) was expressed in murine wild-type osteoclasts, localized to the basolateral, clear zone, and ruffled border membranes, and deposited in the resorption pits during bone resorption. The lack of OPN secretion into the resorption bay of avian osteoclasts may be a component of their functional resorption deficiency in vitro. Osteoclasts deficient in OPN were hypomotile and exhibited decreased capacity for bone resorption in vitro. OPN stimulated CD44 expression on the osteoclast surface, and CD44 was shown to be required for osteoclast motility and bone resorption. Exogenous addition of OPN to OPN-/- osteoclasts increased the surface expression of CD44, and it rescued osteoclast motility due to activation of the alpha(v)beta(3) integrin. Exogenous OPN only partially restored bone resorption because addition of OPN failed to produce OPN secretion into resorption bays as seen in wild-type osteoclasts. As expected with these in vitro findings of osteoclast dysfunction, a bone phenotype, heretofore unappreciated, was characterized in OPN-deficient mice. Delayed bone resorption in metaphyseal trabeculae and diminished eroded perimeters despite an increase in osteoclast number were observed in histomorphometric measurements of tibiae isolated from OPN-deficient mice. The histomorphometric findings correlated with an increase in bone rigidity and moment of inertia revealed by load-to-failure testing of femurs. These findings demonstrate the role of OPN in osteoclast function and the requirement for OPN as an osteoclast autocrine factor during bone remodeling.

  3. Phase I clinical study of RG7356, an anti-CD44 humanized antibody, in patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Vey, Norbert; Delaunay, Jacques; Martinelli, Giovanni; Fiedler, Walter; Raffoux, Emmanuel; Prebet, Thomas; Gomez-Roca, Carlos; Papayannidis, Cristina; Kebenko, Maxim; Paschka, Peter; Christen, Randolph; Guarin, Ernesto; Bröske, Ann-Marie; Baehner, Monika; Brewster, Michael; Walz, Antje-Christine; Michielin, Francesca; Runza, Valeria; Meresse, Valerie; Recher, Christian

    2016-05-31

    RG7356, a recombinant anti-CD44 immunoglobulin G1 humanized monoclonal antibody, inhibits cell adhesion and has been associated with macrophage activation in preclinical models. We report results of a phase I dose-escalation study of RG7356 in relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML).Eligible patients with refractory AML, relapsed AML after induction chemotherapy, or previously untreated AML not eligible for intensive chemotherapy were enrolled and received intravenous RG7356 at dosages ≤ 2400 mg every other week or ≤ 1200 mg weekly or twice weekly; dose escalation started at 300 mg.Forty-four patients (median age, 69 years) were enrolled. One dose-limiting toxicity occurred (grade 3 hemolysis exacerbation) after one 1200 mg dose (twice-weekly cohort). The majority of adverse events were mild/moderate. Infusion-related reactions occurred in 64% of patients mainly during cycle 1. Two patients experienced grade 3 drug-induced aseptic meningitis. Pharmacokinetics increased supraproportionally, suggesting a target-mediated drug disposition (TMDD) at ≥ 1200 mg. Two patients achieved complete response with incomplete platelet recovery or partial response, respectively. One patient had stable disease with hematologic improvement.RG7356 was generally safe and well tolerated. Maximum tolerated dose was not reached, but saturation of TMDD was achieved. The recommended dose for future AML evaluations is 2400 mg every other week. PMID:27081038

  4. Advances and advantages of nanomedicine in the pharmacological targeting of hyaluronan-CD44 interactions and signaling in cancer.

    PubMed

    Skandalis, Spyros S; Gialeli, Chrisostomi; Theocharis, Achilleas D; Karamanos, Nikos K

    2014-01-01

    Extensive experimental evidence in cell and animal tumor models show that hyaluronan-CD44 interactions are crucial in both malignancy and resistance to cancer therapy. Because of the intimate relationship between the hyaluronan-CD44 system and tumor cell survival and growth, it is an increasingly investigated area for applications to anticancer chemotherapeutics. Interference with the hyaluronan-CD44 interaction by targeting drugs to CD44, targeting drugs to the hyaluronan matrix, or interfering with hyaluronan matrix/tumor cell-associated CD44 interactions is a viable strategy for cancer treatment. Many of these methods can decrease tumor burden in animal models but have yet to show significant clinical utility. Recent advances in nanomedicine have offered new valuable tools for cancer detection, prevention, and treatment. The enhanced permeability and retention effect has served as key rationale for using nanoparticles to treat solid tumors. However, the targeted and uniform delivery of these particles to all regions of tumors in sufficient quantities requires optimization. An ideal nanocarrier should be equipped with selective ligands that are highly or exclusively expressed on target cells and thus endow the carriers with specific targeting capabilities. In this review, we describe how the hyaluronan-CD44 system may provide such an alternative in tumors expressing specific CD44 variants.

  5. CD44 deficiency improves healing tendon mechanics and increases matrix and cytokine expression in a mouse patellar tendon injury model.

    PubMed

    Ansorge, Heather L; Beredjiklian, Pedro K; Soslowsky, Louis J

    2009-10-01

    CD44 plays an important role in inflammation and healing. Previous studies investigated its role in inflammatory diseases and skin wounds; however, the role of CD44 in tendon healing is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effect of CD44 in the healing of the patellar tendon in a knockout mouse model. We hypothesized that in comparison to wild-type counterparts, CD44 knockout mice would have decreased material parameters, increased organization, decreased expression of proinflammatory cytokines, and increased expression of matrix components during healing. These hypotheses were tested through an in vivo surgical model and mechanical, organizational, and gene expression analyses. Material strength and tissue organization were significantly improved in the CD44 knockout mouse. This could be attributed to increased expression of cytokines and matrix components that are also elevated in regenerative healing. Our study showed that the absence of CD44 in a mouse patellar tendon injury creates an environment that is conducive to regenerative healing through altered gene expression, resulting in superior material properties and reduced cross-sectional area. Therefore, limiting the role of CD44 may improve healing parameters in adult tendon injury.

  6. Expression and Significance of CD44, CD47 and c-met in Ovarian Clear Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huimin; Tan, Mingzi; Zhang, Song; Li, Xiao; Gao, Jian; Zhang, Danye; Hao, Yingying; Gao, Song; Liu, Juanjuan; Lin, Bei

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The aim of the present study is to investigate the differential expression of CD44, CD47 and c-met in ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC), the correlation in their expression and their relationship with the biological behavior of OCCC. Methods: We used immunohistochemistry to examine the expression of CD44, CD47 and c-met in OCCC (86 cases) and investigated the effects of the expression and interaction of these molecules on the development of OCCC. Results: CD44, CD47 and c-met expression was significantly high in OCCC. Expression of CD44 and CD47 correlated with patient surgical stage, chemotherapy resistance and prognosis (all p < 0.05), and expression of c-met correlated with chemotherapy resistance and prognosis (all p < 0.05), but did not correlate with lymph node metastasis (all p > 0.05). The surgical stage, CD44, CD47 and c-met expression were independent risk factors for OCCC prognosis (all p < 0.05). Patients with low levels of CD44, CD47 and c-met showed better survival than those with high levels (all p < 0.05). There was a positive correlation between CD44 (or CD47) and c-met, as well as between CD44 and CD47 (the Spearman correlation coefficient rs was 0.783, 0.776 and 0.835, respectively, all p < 0.01). Additionally, pairwise correlation analysis of these three markers shows that the high expression of CD44/CD47, CD44/c-met and CD47/c-met were correlated with patient surgical stage, chemotherapy resistance and prognosis (all p < 0.05), but did not correlate with lymph node metastasis (all p > 0.05). Conclusions: Expression of CD44, CD47 and c-met was upregulated in OCCC and pairwise correlation. CD44, CD47 and c-met may have synergistic effects on the development of OCCC and are prognostic factors for ovarian cancer. PMID:25658794

  7. Essential role for focal adhesion kinase in regulating stress hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Ramdas, Baskar; Hanneman, Philip; Martin, Joseph; Beggs, Hilary E.

    2010-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase that has been extensively studied in fibroblasts; however its function in hematopoiesis remains an enigma. FAK is thought to be expressed in myeloid and erythroid progenitors, and its expression is enhanced in response to cytokines such as granu-locyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Furthermore, bone marrow cells cultured in granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor show active migration and chemoattractant-induced polarization, which correlates with FAK induction. While loss of FAK in mice results in embryonic lethality, we have deleted FAK in the adult bone marrow. We show an essential role for FAK in regulating hemolytic, myelotoxic, as well as acute inflammatory stress responses in vivo. In vitro, loss of FAK in erythroid and myeloid progenitor's results in impaired cytokine induced growth and survival, as well as defects in the activation and expression of antiapoptotic proteins caspase 3 and Bcl-xL. Additionally, reduced migration and adhesion of myeloid cells on extracellular matrix proteins, as well as impaired activation of Rac GTPase is also observed in the absence of FAK. Our studies reveal an essential role for FAK in integrating growth/survival and adhesion based functions in myeloid and erythroid cells predominantly under conditions of stress. PMID:20664055

  8. Neuropeptides, via specific receptors, regulate T cell adhesion to fibronectin.

    PubMed

    Levite, M; Cahalon, L; Hershkoviz, R; Steinman, L; Lider, O

    1998-01-15

    The ability of T cells to adhere to and interact with components of the blood vessel walls and the extracellular matrix is essential for their extravasation and migration into inflamed sites. We have found that the beta1 integrin-mediated adhesion of resting human T cells to fibronectin, a major glycoprotein component of the extracellular matrix, is induced by physiologic concentrations of three neuropeptides: calcitonin gene-related protein (CGRP), neuropeptide Y, and somatostatin; each acts via its own specific receptor on the T cell membrane. In contrast, substance P (SP), which coexists with CGRP in the majority of peripheral endings of sensory nerves, including those innervating the lymphoid organs, blocks T cell adhesion to fibronectin when induced by CGRP, neuropeptide Y, somatostatin, macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta, and PMA. Inhibition of T cell adhesion was obtained both by the intact SP peptide and by its 1-4 N-terminal and its 4-11, 5-11, and 6-11 C-terminal fragments, used at similar nanomolar concentrations. The inhibitory effects of the parent SP peptide and its fragments were abrogated by an SP NK-1 receptor antagonist, suggesting they all act through the same SP NK-1 receptor. These findings suggest that neuropeptides, by activating their specific T cell-expressed receptors, can provide the T cells with both positive (proadhesive) and negative (antiadhesive) signals and thereby regulate their function. Thus, neuropeptides may influence diverse physiologic processes involving integrins, including leukocyte-mediated migration and inflammation. PMID:9551939

  9. Adhesion

    MedlinePlus

    ... as the shoulder Eyes Inside the abdomen or pelvis Adhesions can become larger or tighter over time. ... Other causes of adhesions in the abdomen or pelvis include: Appendicitis , most often when the appendix breaks ...

  10. Development of a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of CD44v3 using exon v3- and v6-specific monoclonal antibody pairs.

    PubMed

    Jeoung, Mee Hyun; Kim, Taek-Keun; Shim, Hyunbo; Lee, Sukmook

    2016-09-01

    It has been suggested that soluble CD44 levels in cancer patient sera may be closely associated with tumor progression and metastasis. However, to date, there has been limited methodology for detecting the soluble CD44 variant 3 isoform (CD44v3). Herein, using phage display technology, we isolated monoclonal antibodies specific to exon v3 or v6 of CD44 (CD44-exonv3 or CD44-exonv6) from a human synthetic antibody library. We also confirmed the specificity of antibody binding to CD44-exonv3 or -exonv6. Label-free kinetic analysis using the Octet biolayer interferometry system showed that the Kd values of the anti-CD44-exonv3 and anti-CD44-exonv6 antibodies for CD44v3-10 are approximately 1.1nM and 1.5nM, respectively. Finally, we developed a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using the anti-CD44-exonv3 and anti-CD44-exonv6 antibody pairs. The minimum detection limit of the assay was 6.2ng/ml CD44v3-10 and the linear range was up to 125ng/ml. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 2.2% and 2.9%, respectively. The intra- and inter-assay recoveries were 99.3% and 105.3%, respectively. Taken together, these results suggest that this novel sandwich ELISA using the anti-CD44-exonv3 and anti-CD44-exonv6 antibody pairs will be useful for the detection of soluble CD44v3 in cancer patient sera. PMID:27288967

  11. Effect of Linomide on adhesion molecules, TNF-alpha, nitrogen oxide, and cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Hai, A; Hershkoviz, R; Weiss, L; Lider, O; Slavin, S

    2005-02-01

    Linomide (quinoline-3-carboxamide) is an immunomodulator with anti-inflammatory effects in rodents with autoimmune diseases. Its mode of action still remains to be elucidated. We hypothesized that an investigation of T cell interactions with the extracellular matrix (ECM), composed of glycoproteins such as fibronectin (FN) and laminin (LN), might provide better understanding of their in vivo mode of action in extravascular inflammatory sites. We examined the effect of Linomide on T cell adhesion to intact ECM, and separately to LN, and FN, and on the release and production of tumor necrosis factor (TNFalpha) and nitrogen oxide (NO) in relation to adhesive molecules in non-obese diabetic (NOD) female spleen cells, focusing on intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and CD44. NOD female mice that developed spontaneous autoimmune insulitis, which destroys pancreatic islets and subsequently leads to insulin-deficient diabetes mellitus, were studied. Linomide, given in the drinking water or added to tissue cultures in vitro, inhibited the beta1 integrin-mediated adhesion of T cells to ECM, FN and LN, as well as the production and release of TNFalpha and NO, which play a major role in the induction and propagation of T cell-mediated insulitis. In addition, exposure of T cells to Linomide resulted in increased expression of CD44 and ICAM-1 molecules on spleen cells of Linomide-treated mice; such an increase in adhesion molecule expression may lead to more effective arrest of T cell migration in vivo. The regulation of T-cell adhesion, adhesion receptor expression, and inhibition of TNFalpha and NO secretion by Linomide may explain its beneficial role and provide a new tool for suppressing self-reactive T cell-dependent autoimmune diseases. PMID:15652754

  12. Lipid-based nanosystems for CD44 targeting in cancer treatment: recent significant advances, ongoing challenges and unmet needs.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Thais Leite; Hillaireau, Hervé; Vergnaud, Juliette; Fattal, Elias

    2016-07-01

    Extensive experimental evidence demonstrates the important role of hyaluronic acid (HA)-CD44 interaction in cell proliferation and migration, inflammation and tumor growth. Taking advantage of this interaction, the design of HA-modified nanocarriers has been investigated for targeting CD44-overexpressing cells with the purpose of delivering drugs to cancer or inflammatory cells. The effect of such modification on targeting efficacy is influenced by several factors. In this review, we focus on the impact of HA-modification on the characteristics of lipid-based nanoparticles. We try to understand how these modifications influence particle physicochemical properties, interaction with CD44 receptors, intracellular trafficking pathways, toxicity, complement/macrophage activation and pharmacokinetics. Our aim is to provide insight in tailoring particle modification by HA in order to design more efficient CD44-targeting lipid nanocarriers.

  13. The role of CD44+/CD24-/low biomarker for screening, diagnosis and monitoring of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Camerlingo, Rosa; Ferraro, Giuseppe Andrea; De Francesco, Francesco; Romano, Maurizio; Nicoletti, Gianfranco; Di Bonito, Maurizio; Rinaldo, Massimo; D'Andrea, Francesco; Pirozzi, Giuseppe

    2014-03-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been defined as 'a cell within a tumor that possesses the capacity to self-renew and to cause the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise the tumor'. The CSC hypothesis postulates that a small subpopulation of cancer cells drives tumor initiation, growth and metastasis. CSCs have been isolated from breast cancer using CD44+/CD24-/low phenotype. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the expression of CD44+/CD24-/low in two diverse breast carcinomas (ductal and lobular), and to determine the correlation between expression of CD44+/CD24-/low, and clinicopathological characteristics starting from human fresh breast cancer specimens. We analyzed specimens from 57 patients using CD44 and CD24 markers by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry and correlated the CD44+/CD24-/low phenotype with clinicopathological characteristics. Moreover, mammosphere formation was tested. In all specimens tested, CD44+/CD24-/low phenotype was detectable with mean percentage of 4.73% as confirmed also by immunohistochemical analyses. A significant statistical association was found among these phenotypic groups and age, grade G3, estrogen and progesterone receptor, Ki-67 as well as lymph node metastasis. No correlation was found for histological type. In conclusion, our data showed that CD44+/CD24-/low phenotype was found at a high frequency in tumors pT2, G3, pN3, positive for Ki-67, and negative for estrogen and progesterone receptors highlighting the hypothesis that CD44+/CD24-/low profile correlates with the more aggressive clinical-pathological features of the disease. PMID:24366074

  14. Enrichment of CD44 in basal-type breast cancer correlates with EMT, cancer stem cell gene profile, and prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hanxiao; Tian, Yijun; Yuan, Xun; Liu, Yu; Wu, Hua; Liu, Qian; Wu, Gen Sheng; Wu, Kongming

    2016-01-01

    Cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that serves as the receptor for the extracellular matrix component hyaluronic acid. CD44 has been reported to play key roles in cell proliferation, motility, and survival, but its role in breast cancer remains controversial. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis. A total of 23 published Gene Expression Omnibus databases were included to evaluate the association between CD44 mRNA expression and clinicopathological characteristics or prognosis of the patients with breast cancer. Our analysis revealed that CD44 expression was associated with clinicopathological features, including the histological grade, estrogen receptor status, progesterone receptor status, and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 status. Higher levels of CD44 expression were observed in the basal subtype of breast cancer both at the mRNA and protein levels (odds ratio [OR] =2.08, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.72–2.52; OR =2.11, 95% CI: 1.67–2.68). Patients with CD44 overexpression exhibited significantly worse overall survival (hazard ratio =1.27; 95% CI: 1.04–1.55). Whole gene profile analysis revealed that CD44 expression was enriched in basal-type breast cancer and correlated with epithelial–mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cell gene profiles. In summary, our analyses indicated that CD44 potentially might be a prognostic marker for breast cancer and thus can serve as a therapeutic target for basal-type breast cancer. PMID:26855592

  15. The Interplay of Antigen Affinity, Internalization, and Pharmacokinetics on CD44-Positive Tumor Targeting of Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Glatt, Dylan M; Beckford Vera, Denis R; Parrott, Matthew C; Luft, J Christopher; Benhabbour, S Rahima; Mumper, Russell J

    2016-06-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) offer promise as effective tumor targeting and drug delivery agents for cancer therapy. However, comparative biological and clinical characteristics of mAbs targeting the same tumor-associated antigen (TAA) often differ widely. This study examined the characteristics of mAbs that impact tumor targeting using a panel of mAb clones specific to the cancer-associated cell-surface receptor and cancer stem cell marker CD44. CD44 mAbs were screened for cell-surface binding, antigen affinity, internalization, and CD44-mediated tumor uptake by CD44-positive A549 cells. It was hypothesized that high-affinity, rapidly internalizing CD44 mAbs would result in high tumor uptake and prolonged tumor retention. Although high-affinity clones rapidly bound and were internalized by A549 cells in vitro, an intermediate-affinity clone demonstrated significantly greater tumor uptake and retention than high-affinity clones in vivo. Systemic exposure, rather than high antigen affinity or rapid internalization, best associated with tumor targeting of CD44 mAbs in A549 tumor-bearing mice. PMID:27079967

  16. Dual CD44 and folate receptor-targeted nanoparticles for cancer diagnosis and anticancer drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Young; Termsarasab, Ubonvan; Park, Ju-Hwan; Lee, Song Yi; Ko, Seung-Hak; Shim, Jae-Seong; Chung, Suk-Jae; Cho, Hyun-Jong; Kim, Dae-Duk

    2016-08-28

    Dual CD44 and folate receptor targetable nanoparticles (NPs) based on hyaluronic acid-ceramide-folic acid (HACE-FA) were fabricated for improving tumor targetability. HACE-FA was synthesized via esterification between the carboxylic group of FA and hydroxyl group of HA. Doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded HACE-FA NPs, with a mean diameter of 120-130nm, narrow size distribution, and negative zeta potential, were prepared. The drug release from HACE-FA NPs were significantly increased in acidic pH (pH5.5) compared with physiological pH (7.4) (p<0.05). The cellular accumulation of the drug in HACE-FA NPs group was higher than that of HACE NPs group in SKOV-3 cells (human ovarian cancer cells; CD44 and folate receptor (FR)-positive cells). Dual targetability of HACE-FA NPs, compared to HACE NPs, was also verified in the SKOV-3 tumor-xenografted mouse model by near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging. Twenty-four hours after injection, HACE-FA NPs were accumulated mainly in tumor regions and their fluorescence intensity was 4.82-fold higher than that of HACE NPs (p<0.05). These findings suggest successful application of HACE-FA NPs for the accurate delivery of anticancer drugs to ovarian cancer. PMID:27320169

  17. Quantum dot labeling based on near-field optical imaging of CD44 molecules.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianan; Pei, Yin; Chen, Zhengwei; Cai, Jiye

    2010-04-01

    The lateral organization of membrane proteins and lipids domains has a direct impact on many cellular processes, but generally these domains are too small to be resolved by diffraction-limited resolution of fluorescence microscopy. Here, we use quantum dot (QD) labeling based on near-field optical imaging, to study the nanoscale organization of hyaluronan receptor CD44 molecules of fixed mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in air, with a optical resolution down to 50 nm. The photostability and high luminance of QD evidently improve the signal-to-noise ratio and reproducibility of near-field optical data. Importantly, the blinking-intensity analysis was proposed to identify single QD, providing a calibration to relate intensity to numbers of antibody for the first time. Additionally, the fluorescence-topographic imaging enables us to investigate the topographic location pattern. Our results demonstrate that CD44 molecules on MSCs are enriched into nanosized domain and they predominantly locate on the peak of the membrane protrusions, which may contribute to clarify the underlying mechanism of functions ascribed to these molecules.

  18. Hyaluronic acid modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery to CD44-overexpressing cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Meihua; Jambhrunkar, Siddharth; Thorn, Peter; Chen, Jiezhong; Gu, Wenyi; Yu, Chengzhong

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, a targeted drug delivery system has been developed based on hyaluronic acid (HA) modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs). HA-MSNs possess a specific affinity to CD44 over-expressed on the surface of a specific cancer cell line, HCT-116 (human colon cancer cells). The cellular uptake performance of fluorescently labelled MSNs with and without HA modification has been evaluated by confocal microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis. Compared to bare MSNs, HA-MSNs exhibit a higher cellular uptake via HA receptor mediated endocytosis. An anticancer drug, doxorubicin hydrochloride (Dox), has been loaded into MSNs and HA-MSNs as drug delivery vehicles. Dox loaded HA-MSNs show greater cytotoxicity to HCT-116 cells than free Dox and Dox-MSNs due to the enhanced cell internalization behavior of HA-MSNs. It is expected that HA-MSNs have a great potential in targeted delivery of anticancer drugs to CD44 over-expressing tumors.

  19. Light-triggered in vivo activation of adhesive peptides regulates cell adhesion, inflammation and vascularization of biomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ted T.; García, José R.; Paez, Julieta I.; Singh, Ankur; Phelps, Edward A.; Weis, Simone; Shafiq, Zahid; Shekaran, Asha; Del Campo, Aránzazu; García, Andrés J.

    2015-03-01

    Materials engineered to elicit targeted cellular responses in regenerative medicine must display bioligands with precise spatial and temporal control. Although materials with temporally regulated presentation of bioadhesive ligands using external triggers, such as light and electric fields, have recently been realized for cells in culture, the impact of in vivo temporal ligand presentation on cell-material responses is unknown. Here, we present a general strategy to temporally and spatially control the in vivo presentation of bioligands using cell-adhesive peptides with a protecting group that can be easily removed via transdermal light exposure to render the peptide fully active. We demonstrate that non-invasive, transdermal time-regulated activation of cell-adhesive RGD peptide on implanted biomaterials regulates in vivo cell adhesion, inflammation, fibrous encapsulation, and vascularization of the material. This work shows that triggered in vivo presentation of bioligands can be harnessed to direct tissue reparative responses associated with implanted biomaterials.

  20. Light-triggered in vivo Activation of Adhesive Peptides Regulates Cell Adhesion, Inflammation and Vascularization of Biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ted T.; García, José R.; Paez, Julieta; Singh, Ankur; Phelps, Edward A.; Weis, Simone; Shafiq, Zahid; Shekaran, Asha; del Campo, Aránzazu; García, Andrés J.

    2014-01-01

    Materials engineered to elicit targeted cellular responses in regenerative medicine must display bioligands with precise spatial and temporal control. Although materials with temporally regulated presentation of bioadhesive ligands using external triggers, such as light and electric fields, have been recently realized for cells in culture, the impact of in vivo temporal ligand presentation on cell-material responses is unknown. Here, we present a general strategy to temporally and spatially control the in vivo presentation of bioligands using cell adhesive peptides with a protecting group that can be easily removed via transdermal light exposure to render the peptide fully active. We demonstrate that non-invasive, transdermal time-regulated activation of cell-adhesive RGD peptide on implanted biomaterials regulates in vivo cell adhesion, inflammation, fibrous encapsulation, and vascularization of the material. This work shows that triggered in vivo presentation of bioligands can be harnessed to direct tissue reparative responses associated with implanted biomaterials. PMID:25502097

  1. Regulating Underwater Oil Adhesion on Superoleophobic Copper Films through Assembling n-Alkanoic Acids.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhongjun; Liu, Hongwei; Lai, Hua; Du, Ying; Fu, Kewei; Li, Chong; Yu, Jianxin; Zhang, Naiqing; Sun, Kening

    2015-09-16

    Controlling liquid adhesion on special wetting surface is significant in many practical applications. In this paper, an easy self-assembled monolayer technique was advanced to modify nanostructured copper substrates, and tunable adhesive underwater superoleophobic surfaces were prepared. The surface adhesion can be regulated by simply varying the chain length of the n-alkanoic acids, and the tunable adhesive properties can be ascribed to the combined action of surfaces nanostructures and related variation in surface chemistry. Meanwhile, the tunable ability is universal, and the oil-adhesion controllability is suitable to various oils including silicon oil, n-hexane, and chloroform. Finally, on the basis of the special tunable adhesive properties, some applications of our surfaces including droplet storage, transfer, mixing, and so on are also discussed. The paper offers a novel and simple method to prepare underwater superoleophobic surfaces with regulated adhesion, which can potentially be applied in numerous fields, for instance, biodetection, microreactors, and microfluidic devices.

  2. Tbx1 regulates oral epithelial adhesion and palatal development

    PubMed Central

    Funato, Noriko; Nakamura, Masataka; Richardson, James A.; Srivastava, Deepak; Yanagisawa, Hiromi

    2012-01-01

    Cleft palate, the most frequent congenital craniofacial birth defect, is a multifactorial condition induced by the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. In addition to complete cleft palate, a large number of human cases involve soft palate cleft and submucosal cleft palate. However, the etiology of these forms of cleft palate has not been well understood. T-box transcriptional factor (Tbx) family of transcriptional factors has distinct roles in a wide range of embryonic differentiation or response pathways. Here, we show that genetic disruption of Tbx1, a major candidate gene for the human congenital disorder 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (Velo-cardio-facial/DiGeorge syndrome), led to abnormal epithelial adhesion between the palate and mandible in mouse, resulting in various forms of cleft palate similar to human conditions. We found that hyperproliferative epithelium failed to undergo complete differentiation in Tbx1-null mice (Tbx1−/−). Inactivation of Tbx1 specifically in the keratinocyte lineage (Tbx1KCKO) resulted in an incomplete cleft palate confined to the anterior region of the palate. Interestingly, Tbx1 overexpression resulted in decreased cell growth and promoted cell-cycle arrest in MCF7 epithelial cells. These findings suggest that Tbx1 regulates the balance between proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes and is essential for palatal fusion and oral mucosal differentiation. The impaired adhesion separation of the oral epithelium together with compromised palatal mesenchymal growth is an underlying cause for various forms of cleft palate phenotypes in Tbx1−/− mice. Our present study reveals new pathogenesis of incomplete and submucous cleft palate during mammalian palatogenesis. PMID:22371266

  3. Synovial fluid pretreatment with hyaluronidase facilitates isolation of CD44+ extracellular vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Boere, Janneke; van de Lest, Chris H. A.; Libregts, Sten F. W. M.; Arkesteijn, Ger J. A.; Geerts, Willie J. C.; Nolte-'t Hoen, Esther N. M.; Malda, Jos; van Weeren, P. René; Wauben, Marca H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) in synovial fluid (SF) are gaining increased recognition as important factors in joint homeostasis, joint regeneration, and as biomarkers of joint disease. A limited number of studies have investigated EVs in SF samples of patients with joint disease, but knowledge on the role of EVs in healthy joints is lacking. In addition, no standardized protocol is available for isolation of EVs from SF. Based on the high viscosity of SF caused by high concentrations of hyaluronic acid (HA) – a prominent extracellular matrix component – it was hypothesized that EV recovery could be optimized by pretreatment with hyaluronidase (HYase). Therefore, the efficiency of EV isolation from healthy equine SF samples was tested by performing sequential ultracentrifugation steps (10,000g, 100,000g and 200,000g) in the presence or absence of HYase. Quantitative EV analysis using high-resolution flow cytometry showed an efficient recovery of EVs after 100,000g ultracentrifugation, with an increased yield of CD44+ EVs when SF samples were pretreated with HYase. Morphological analysis of SF-derived EVs with cryo-transmission-electron microscopy did not indicate damage by high-speed ultracentrifugation and revealed that most EVs are spherical with a diameter of 20–200 nm. Further protein characterization by Western blotting revealed that healthy SF-derived EVs contain CD9, Annexin-1, and CD90/Thy1.1. Taken together, these data suggest that EV isolation protocols for body fluids that contain relatively high amounts of HA, such as SF, could benefit from treatment of the fluid with HYase prior to ultracentrifugation. This method facilitates recovery and detection of CD44+ EVs within the HA-rich extracellular matrix. Furthermore, based on the findings presented here, it is recommended to sediment SF-derived EVs with at least 100,000g for optimal EV recovery. PMID:27511891

  4. Synovial fluid pretreatment with hyaluronidase facilitates isolation of CD44+ extracellular vesicles.

    PubMed

    Boere, Janneke; van de Lest, Chris H A; Libregts, Sten F W M; Arkesteijn, Ger J A; Geerts, Willie J C; Nolte-'t Hoen, Esther N M; Malda, Jos; van Weeren, P René; Wauben, Marca H M

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) in synovial fluid (SF) are gaining increased recognition as important factors in joint homeostasis, joint regeneration, and as biomarkers of joint disease. A limited number of studies have investigated EVs in SF samples of patients with joint disease, but knowledge on the role of EVs in healthy joints is lacking. In addition, no standardized protocol is available for isolation of EVs from SF. Based on the high viscosity of SF caused by high concentrations of hyaluronic acid (HA) - a prominent extracellular matrix component - it was hypothesized that EV recovery could be optimized by pretreatment with hyaluronidase (HYase). Therefore, the efficiency of EV isolation from healthy equine SF samples was tested by performing sequential ultracentrifugation steps (10,000g, 100,000g and 200,000g) in the presence or absence of HYase. Quantitative EV analysis using high-resolution flow cytometry showed an efficient recovery of EVs after 100,000g ultracentrifugation, with an increased yield of CD44+ EVs when SF samples were pretreated with HYase. Morphological analysis of SF-derived EVs with cryo-transmission-electron microscopy did not indicate damage by high-speed ultracentrifugation and revealed that most EVs are spherical with a diameter of 20-200 nm. Further protein characterization by Western blotting revealed that healthy SF-derived EVs contain CD9, Annexin-1, and CD90/Thy1.1. Taken together, these data suggest that EV isolation protocols for body fluids that contain relatively high amounts of HA, such as SF, could benefit from treatment of the fluid with HYase prior to ultracentrifugation. This method facilitates recovery and detection of CD44+ EVs within the HA-rich extracellular matrix. Furthermore, based on the findings presented here, it is recommended to sediment SF-derived EVs with at least 100,000g for optimal EV recovery. PMID:27511891

  5. The NF2 tumor suppressor gene product, merlin, mediates contact inhibition of growth through interactions with CD44

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Helen; Sherman, Larry S.; Legg, James; Banine, Fatima; Isacke, Clare; Haipek, Carrie A.; Gutmann, David H.; Ponta, Helmut; Herrlich, Peter

    2001-01-01

    The neurofibromatosis-2 (NF2) gene encodes merlin, an ezrin-radixin-moesin-(ERM)-related protein that functions as a tumor suppressor. We found that merlin mediates contact inhibition of growth through signals from the extracellular matrix. At high cell density, merlin becomes hypo-phosphorylated and inhibits cell growth in response to hyaluronate (HA), a mucopolysaccharide that surrounds cells. Merlin's growth-inhibitory activity depends on specific interaction with the cytoplasmic tail of CD44, a transmembrane HA receptor. At low cell density, merlin is phosphorylated, growth permissive, and exists in a complex with ezrin, moesin, and CD44. These data indicate that merlin and CD44 form a molecular switch that specifies cell growth arrest or proliferation. PMID:11316791

  6. A single molecule assay to probe monovalent and multivalent bonds between hyaluronan and its key leukocyte receptor CD44 under force

    PubMed Central

    Bano, Fouzia; Banerji, Suneale; Howarth, Mark; Jackson, David G.; Richter, Ralf P.

    2016-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), a category of linear, anionic polysaccharides, are ubiquitous in the extracellular space, and important extrinsic regulators of cell function. Despite the recognized significance of mechanical stimuli in cellular communication, however, only few single molecule methods are currently available to study how monovalent and multivalent GAG·protein bonds respond to directed mechanical forces. Here, we have devised such a method, by combining purpose-designed surfaces that afford immobilization of GAGs and receptors at controlled nanoscale organizations with single molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS). We apply the method to study the interaction of the GAG polymer hyaluronan (HA) with CD44, its receptor in vascular endothelium. Individual bonds between HA and CD44 are remarkably resistant to rupture under force in comparison to their low binding affinity. Multiple bonds along a single HA chain rupture sequentially and independently under load. We also demonstrate how strong non-covalent bonds, which are versatile for controlled protein and GAG immobilization, can be effectively used as molecular anchors in SMFS. We thus establish a versatile method for analyzing the nanomechanics of GAG·protein interactions at the level of single GAG chains, which provides new molecular-level insight into the role of mechanical forces in the assembly and function of GAG-rich extracellular matrices. PMID:27679982

  7. MDR1 siRNA loaded hyaluronic acid-based CD44 targeted nanoparticle systems circumvent paclitaxel resistance in ovarian cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaoqian; Lyer, Arun K.; Singh, Amit; Choy, Edwin; Hornicek, Francis J.; Amiji, Mansoor M.; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2015-02-01

    Development of multidrug resistance (MDR) is an almost universal phenomenon in patients with ovarian cancer, and this severely limits the ultimate success of chemotherapy in the clinic. Overexpression of the MDR1 gene and corresponding P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is one of the best known MDR mechanisms. MDR1 siRNA based strategies were proposed to circumvent MDR, however, systemic, safe, and effective targeted delivery is still a major challenge. Cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) targeted hyaluronic acid (HA) based nanoparticle has been shown to successfully deliver chemotherapy agents or siRNAs into tumor cells. The goal of this study is to evaluate the ability of HA-PEI/HA-PEG to deliver MDR1 siRNA and the efficacy of the combination of HA-PEI/HA-PEG/MDR1 siRNA with paclitaxel to suppress growth of ovarian cancer. We observed that HA-PEI/HA-PEG nanoparticles can efficiently deliver MDR1 siRNA into MDR ovarian cancer cells, resulting in down-regulation of MDR1 and Pgp expression. Administration of HA-PEI/HA-PEG/MDR1 siRNA nanoparticles followed by paclitaxel treatment induced a significant inhibitory effect on the tumor growth, decreased Pgp expression and increased apoptosis in MDR ovarian cancer mice model. Our findings suggest that CD44 targeted HA-PEI/HA-PEG/MDR1 siRNA nanoparticles can serve as a therapeutic tool with great potentials to circumvent MDR in ovarian cancer.

  8. Overexpression of CD44 is associated with the occurrence and migration of non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guanghu; Gao, Yufei; Cui, Yongsheng; Zhang, Tao; Cui, Rui; Jiang, Yang; Shi, Jingwei

    2016-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a potentially fatal disease and the incidence is increasing annually. In order to diagnose and treat NSCLC effectively, greater understanding of its molecular mechanism is required. In the present study, 36 NSCLC tissues and 10 normal tissues were selected. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to analyze the CD44 mRNA expression level in NSCLC tissue and DNA sequencing was performed to further verify the CD44 expression level. Differentially expressed genes between tumor tissues and controls were determined by DNA sequencing and the Gene_act_net between CD44 and its associated genes was constructed. Gene Ontology (GO) term enrichment analysis of the differentially expressed genes was performed by the Biological Networks Gene Ontology tool. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis was performed based on the Expression Analysis Systematic Explorer test applied in the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery. RT-qPCR results showed that CD34 was overexpressed in 21 of the 36 NSCLC tissues (58.3%). The Gene_act_net indicated that there were 20 differentially expressed genes with 17 upregulated and 3 downregulated. Among them, CD44, MET, ERBB2, EGFR, AKT1, IQGAP1 and STAT3 were associated with the occurrence and migration of NSCLC. In KEGG pathway analysis, extracellular matrix-receptor interaction and hematopoietic cell lineage pathways were the most affected by overexpressed CD44; and thus may be important in the development and migration of NSCLC. In conclusion, CD44 was overexpressed in NSCLC and the overexpression was associated with the occurrence of NSCLC and migration of NSCLC cells. PMID:27573351

  9. Overexpression of CD44 is associated with the occurrence and migration of non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Guanghu; Gao, Yufei; Cui, Yongsheng; Zhang, Tao; Cui, Rui; Jiang, Yang; Shi, Jingwei

    2016-10-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a potentially fatal disease and the incidence is increasing annually. In order to diagnose and treat NSCLC effectively, greater understanding of its molecular mechanism is required. In the present study, 36 NSCLC tissues and 10 normal tissues were selected. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) was used to analyze the CD44 mRNA expression level in NSCLC tissue and DNA sequencing was performed to further verify the CD44 expression level. Differentially expressed genes between tumor tissues and controls were determined by DNA sequencing and the Gene_act_net between CD44 and its associated genes was constructed. Gene Ontology (GO) term enrichment analysis of the differentially expressed genes was performed by the Biological Networks Gene Ontology tool. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis was performed based on the Expression Analysis Systematic Explorer test applied in the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery. RT‑qPCR results showed that CD34 was overexpressed in 21 of the 36 NSCLC tissues (58.3%). The Gene_act_net indicated that there were 20 differentially expressed genes with 17 upregulated and 3 downregulated. Among them, CD44, MET, ERBB2, EGFR, AKT1, IQGAP1 and STAT3 were associated with the occurrence and migration of NSCLC. In KEGG pathway analysis, extracellular matrix‑receptor interaction and hematopoietic cell lineage pathways were the most affected by overexpressed CD44; and thus may be important in the development and migration of NSCLC. In conclusion, CD44 was overexpressed in NSCLC and the overexpression was associated with the occurrence of NSCLC and migration of NSCLC cells. PMID:27573351

  10. Nomogram Incorporating CD44v6 and Clinicopathological Factors to Predict Lymph Node Metastasis for Early Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Bang Wool; Joo, Jungnam; Park, Boram; Jo, Min Jung; Choi, Seung Ho; Cho, Soo-Jeong; Ryu, Keun Won; Kim, Young-Woo; Kook, Myeong-Cherl

    2016-01-01

    Background Treatment strategy for early gastric cancer depends on the probability of lymph node metastasis. The aim of this study is to develop a nomogram predicting lymph node metastasis in early gastric cancer using clinicopathological factors and biomarkers. Methods A literature review was performed to identify biomarkers related to lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer. Seven markers were selected and immunohistochemistry was performed in 336 early gastric cancer tissues. Based on the multivariable analysis, a prediction model including clinicopatholgical factors and biomarkers was developed, and benefit of adding biomarkers was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating curve and net reclassification improvement. Functional study in gastric cancer cell line was performed to evaluate mechanism of biomarker. Results Of the seven biomarkers studied, α1 catenin and CD44v6 were significantly associated with lymph node metastasis. A conventional prediction model, including tumor size, histological type, lymphatic blood vessel invasion, and depth of invasion, was developed. Then, a new prediction model including both clinicopathological factors and CD44v6 was developed. Net reclassification improvement analysis revealed a significant improvement of predictive performance by the addition of CD44v6, and a similar result was shown in the internal validation using bootstrapping. Prediction nomograms were then constructed based on these models. In the functional study, CD44v6 was revealed to affect cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Conclusions Overexpression of CD44v6 was a significant predictor of lymph node metastasis in early gastric cancer. The prediction nomograms incorporating CD44v6 can be useful to determine treatment plans in patients with early gastric cancer. PMID:27482895

  11. Key Roles of Hyaluronan and Its CD44 Receptor in the Stemness and Survival of Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chanmee, Theerawut; Ontong, Pawared; Kimata, Koji; Itano, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a unique subpopulation of self-renewing oncogenic cells that drive cancer initiation and progression. CSCs often acquire multidrug and oxidative stress resistance and are thereby thought to be responsible for tumor recurrence following treatment and remission. Although the mechanisms responsible for CSC generation, maintenance, and expansion have become a major focus in cancer research, the molecular characteristics of CSCs remain poorly understood. The stemness and subsequent expansion of CSCs are believed to be highly influenced by changes in microenvironmental signals as well as genetic and epigenetic alterations. Hyaluronan (HA), a major component of the extracellular matrix, has recently been demonstrated to provide a favorable microenvironment for the self-renewal and maintenance of stem cells. HA directly and indirectly affects CSC self-renewal by influencing the behavior of both cancer and stromal cells. For instance, HA in the tumor microenvironment modulates the function of tumor-associated macrophages to support CSC self-renewal, and excessive HA production promotes the acquisition of CSC signatures through epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. The importance of HA in mediating CSC self-renewal has been strengthened by the finding that interactions between HA and its receptor, CD44, propagate the stemness of CSCs. HA–CD44 interactions evoke a wide range of signals required for CSC self-renewal and maintenance. CD44 also plays a critical role in the preservation and multidrug resistance (MDR) of CSCs by transmitting survival and anti-apoptotic signals. Thus, a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in HA and CD44 control of CSC stemness may help in the design of more effective therapies for cancer patients. In this review, we address the key roles of HA and CD44 in CSC self-renewal and maintenance. We also discuss the involvement of CD44 in the oxidative stress and MDR of CSCs. PMID:26322272

  12. Variable Nanoparticle-Cell Adhesion Strength Regulates Cellular Uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Hongyan; Li, Ju; Bao, Gang; Zhang, Sulin

    2010-09-01

    In receptor-mediated endocytosis, cells exercise biochemical control over the mechanics of adhesion to engulf foreign particles, featuring a variable adhesion strength. Here we present a thermodynamic model with which we elucidate that the variable adhesion strength critically governs the cellular uptake, yielding an uptake phase diagram in the space of ligand density and particle size. We identify from the diagram an endocytosed phase with markedly high uptake, encompassed by a lower and an upper phase boundary that are set, respectively, by the enthalpic and entropic limits of the adhesion strength. The phase diagram may provide useful guidance to the rational design of nanoparticle-based therapeutic and diagnostic agents.

  13. The Role of Lymphocyte to Monocyte Ratio, Microvessel Density and HiGH CD44 Tumor Cell Expression in Non Hodgkin Lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Jelicic, Jelena; Balint, Milena Todorovic; Jovanovic, Maja Perunicic; Boricic, Novica; Micev, Marjan; Stojsic, Jelena; Antic, Darko; Andjelic, Bosko; Bila, Jelena; Balint, Bela; Pavlovic, Sonja; Mihaljevic, Biljana

    2016-07-01

    Prognostic significance of immune microenvironment has been emphasized using the most advanced analysis, with consecutive attempts to reveal prognostic impact of this findings. The aim of this study was to compare and define prognostic significance of clinical parameters, microvessel density (MVD) in tumour tissue and expression of CD44s as adhesive molecule on tumour cells in diffuse large B cell lymphoma-DLBCL, primary central nervous system DLBCL-CNS DLBCL and follicular lymphoma-FL. A total of 202 histopathological samples (115 DLBCL/65 FL/22 CNS DLBCL) were evaluated. Overall response (complete/partial remission) was achieved in 81.3 % DLBCL patients, 81.8 % primary CNS DLBCL and 92.3 % FL. Absolute lymphocyte count-ALC/Absolute monocyte count-AMC >2.6 in DLBCL and ALC/AMC ≥ 4.7 in FL were associated with better event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) (p < 0.05). In DLBCL, MVD > 42 blood vessels/0.36 mm(2) correlated with primary resistant disease (p < 0.0001), poorer EFS and OS (p = 0.014). High CD44s expression in FL correlated with inferior EFS and OS (p < 0.01). In DLBCL, multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that ALC/AMC was independent parameter that affected OS (HR 3.27, 95 % CI 1.51-7.09, p = 0.003) along with the NCCN-IPI (HR 1.39, 95 % CI 1.08-1.79, p = 0.01). Furthermore, in FL, ALC/AMC mostly influenced OS (HR 5.21, 95 % CI 1.17-23.21, p = 0.03), followed with the FLIPI (HR 3.98, 95 % CI 1.06-14.95, p = 0.041). In DLBCL and FL, ALC/AMC is simple and robust tool that is, with current prognostic scores, able to define long-term survival and identify patients with inferior outcome. The introduction of immunochemotherapy might altered the prognostic significance of microenvionmental biomarkers (MVD and CD44s).

  14. Microtubules Regulate Focal Adhesion Dynamics through MAP4K4

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Jiping; Xie, Min; Gou, Xuewen; Lee, Philbert; Schneider, Michael D; Wu, Xiaoyang

    2014-01-01

    Disassembly of focal adhesions (FAs) allows cell retraction and integrin detachment from the ECM, processes critical for cell movement. Growth of MT (microtubule) can promote FA turnover by serving as tracks to deliver proteins essential for FA disassembly. The molecular nature of this FA “disassembly factor”, however, remains elusive. By quantitative proteomics, we identified MAP4K4 (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4) as a FA regulator that associates with MTs. Conditional knockout (cKO) of MAP4K4 in skin stabilizes FAs and impairs epidermal migration. By exploring underlying mechanisms, we further show that MAP4K4 associates with EB2, a MT binding protein, and IQSEC1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) specific for Arf6, whose activation promotes integrin internalization. Together, our findings provide critical insights into FA disassembly, suggesting that MTs can deliver MAP4K4 toward FAs through EB2, where MAP4K4 can in turn activate Arf6 via IQSEC1 and enhance FA dissolution. PMID:25490267

  15. Microtubules regulate focal adhesion dynamics through MAP4K4.

    PubMed

    Yue, Jiping; Xie, Min; Gou, Xuewen; Lee, Philbert; Schneider, Michael D; Wu, Xiaoyang

    2014-12-01

    Disassembly of focal adhesions (FAs) allows cell retraction and integrin detachment from the extracellular matrix, processes critical for cell movement. Growth of microtubules (MTs) can promote FA turnover by serving as tracks to deliver proteins essential for FA disassembly. The molecular nature of this FA "disassembly factor," however, remains elusive. By quantitative proteomics, we identified mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (MAP4K4) as an FA regulator that associates with MTs. Knockout of MAP4K4 stabilizes FAs and impairs cell migration. By exploring underlying mechanisms, we further show that MAP4K4 associates with ending binding 2 (EB2) and IQ motif and SEC7 domain-containing protein 1 (IQSEC1), a guanine nucleotide exchange factor specific for Arf6, whose activation promotes integrin internalization. Together, our findings provide critical insight into FA disassembly, suggesting that MTs can deliver MAP4K4 toward FAs through EB2, where MAP4K4 can, in turn, activate Arf6 via IQSEC1 and enhance FA dissolution. PMID:25490267

  16. Integrin adhesion in regulation of lacrimal gland acinar cell secretion.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Sofia V; Hamm-Alvarez, Sarah F; Gierow, J Peter

    2006-09-01

    The extracellular microenvironment regulates lacrimal gland acinar cell secretion. Culturing isolated rabbit lacrimal gland acinar cells on different extracellular matrix proteins revealed that laminin enhances carbachol-stimulated secretion to a greater extent than other extracellular matrix proteins investigated. Furthermore, immunofluorescence indicated that integrin subunits, potentially functioning as laminin receptors are present in acinar cells. Among these, the integrin alpha6 and beta1 subunit mRNA expression was also confirmed by RT-PCR and sequence analysis. Secretion assays, which measured beta-hexosaminidase activity released in the culture media, demonstrated that function-blocking integrin alpha6 and beta1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) induce a rapid, transient and dose-dependent secretory response in cultured cells. To determine the intracellular pathways by which integrin alpha6 and beta1 mAbs could induce secretion, selected second messenger molecules were inhibited. Although inhibitors of protein kinase C and IP(3)-induced Ca(2+) mobilization attenuated carbachol-stimulated secretion, no effect on integrin mAb-induced release was observed. In addition, protein tyrosine kinases do not appear to have a role in transducing signals arising from mAb interactions. Our data clearly demonstrate, though, that cell adhesion through integrins regulates secretion from lacrimal gland acinar cells. The fact that the integrin mAbs affect the cholinergic response differently and that the integrin beta1 mAb secretion, but not the alpha6, was attenuated by the phosphatase inhibitor, sodium orthovanadate, suggests that each subunit utilizes separate intracellular signaling pathways to induce exocytosis. The results also indicate that the secretory response triggered by the beta1 integrin mAb is generated through dephosphorylation events.

  17. Ultrastructural analysis of nanogold-labeled cell surface microvilli in liquid by atmospheric scanning electron microscopy and their relevance in cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Murai, Toshiyuki; Sato, Mari; Nishiyama, Hidetoshi; Suga, Mitsuo; Sato, Chikara

    2013-10-16

    The adhesion of leukocytes circulating in the blood to vascular endothelium is critical for their trafficking in the vasculature, and CD44 is an important cell surface receptor for rolling adhesion. In this study, we demonstrate the correlative observation of CD44 distribution at the lymphocyte cell surface in liquid by fluorescence optical microscopy and immuno-electron microscopy using an atmospheric scanning electron microscope (ASEM). The ultrastructure of the cell surface was clearly imaged by ASEM using positively charged Nanogold particles. ASEM analysis demonstrated microvilli projections around the cell surface and the localization of CD44 on the microvilli. Treatment of cells with cytochalasin D resulted in a loss of the microvilli projections and concomitantly abrogated CD44-mediated adhesion to its ligand hyaluronan. These results suggest the functional relevance of microvilli in CD44-mediated rolling adhesion under shear flow.

  18. Adhesions

    MedlinePlus

    ... surfaces so they can shift easily as the body moves. Adhesions cause tissues and organs to stick together. They might connect the loops of the intestines to each other, to nearby ... can occur anywhere in the body. But they often form after surgery on the ...

  19. LIN28B suppresses microRNA let-7b expression to promote CD44+/LIN28B+ human pancreatic cancer stem cell proliferation and invasion

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yebo; Zhang, Lei; Cui, Lei; Lou, Wenhui; Wang, Dansong; Lu, Weiqi; Jin, Dayong; Liu, Te

    2015-01-01

    Although the highly proliferative, migratory, and multi-drug resistant phenotype of human pancreatic cancer stem cells (PCSCs) is well characterized, knowledge of their biological mechanisms is limited. We used CD44 and LIN28B as markers to screen, isolate, and enrich CSCs from human primary pancreatic cancer. Using flow cytometry, we identified a human primary pancreatic cancer cell (PCC) subpopulation expressing high levels of both CD44 and LIN28B. CD44+/LIN28B+ PCSCs expressed high levels of stemness marker genes and possessed higher migratory and invasive ability than CD44-/LIN28B- PCCs. CD44+/LIN28B+ PCSCs were more resistant to growth inhibition induced by the chemotherapeutic drugs cisplatin and gemcitabine hydrochloride, and readily established tumors in vivo in a relatively short time. Moreover, microarray analysis revealed significant differences between the cDNA expression patterns of CD44+/LIN28B+ PCSCs and CD44-/LIN28B- PCCs. Following siRNA interference of endogenous LIN28B gene expression in CD44+/LIN28B+ PCSCs, not only was their proliferation decreased, there was also cell cycle arrest due to suppression of cyclin D1 expression following the stimulation of miRNA let-7b expression. In conclusion, CD44+/LIN28B+ cells, which possess CSC characteristics, can be reliably sorted from human primary PCCs and represent a valuable model for studying cancer cell physiology and multi-drug resistance. PMID:26609473

  20. Growth as a solid tumor or reduced glucose concentrations in culture reversibly induce CD44-mediated hyaluronan recognition by Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Z; Cummings, R D; Pummill, P E; Kincade, P W

    1997-01-01

    The density, molecular isoform, and posttranslational modifications of CD44 can markedly influence growth and metastatic behavior of tumors. Many CD44 functions, including some involving tumors, have been attributed to its ability to recognize hyaluronan (HA). However, only certain CD44-bearing cells bind soluble or immobilized HA. We now show that CD44 made by wild-type Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells and a ligand-binding subclone differ with respect to N-linked glycosylation. While both bear CD44 with highly branched, complex-type glycoforms, CD44 expressed by the wild type was more extensively sialylated. CHO-K1 cells which failed to recognize HA when grown in culture gained this ability when grown as a solid tumor and reverted to a non-HA-binding state when returned to culture. The ability of CHO-K1 cells to recognize HA was also reversibly induced when glucose concentrations in the medium were reduced. Glucose restriction influenced CD44-mediated HA binding by many but not all, of a series of murine tumors. Glucose concentrations and glycosylation inhibitors only partially influenced CD44 receptor function on resting murine B lymphocytes. These observations suggest that glucose levels or other local environmental conditions may markedly influence glycosylation pathways used by some tumor cells, resulting in dramatic alteration of CD44-mediated functions. PMID:9276740

  1. Intermediate filaments and the regulation of focal adhesion.

    PubMed

    Leube, Rudolf E; Moch, Marcin; Windoffer, Reinhard

    2015-02-01

    Focal adhesions are localized actin filament-anchoring signalling centres at the cell-extracellular matrix interface. The currently emerging view is that they fulfil an all-embracing coordinating function for the entire cytoskeleton. This review highlights the tight relationship between focal adhesions and the intermediate filament cytoskeleton. We summarize the accumulating evidence for direct binding of intermediate filaments to focal adhesion components and their mutual cross-talk through signalling molecules. Examples are presented to emphasize the high degree of complexity of these interactions equipping cells with a precisely controlled machinery for context-dependent adjustment of their biomechanical properties.

  2. Immunophenotypic characterization of myelopoiesis in early and late myelodysplastic syndromes: use of CD44 as an aid in early diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Karmon, Yuval; Manaster, J; Chezar, J

    2002-08-15

    We investigated the possibility that myeloid cells from the bone marrow (BM) of myelodysplastic patients differ in their expression of CD44 antigen compared with expression of the antigen in normal controls. In addition, two triple-surface marker assays incorporating, respectively, CD44/CD33/CD66 and CD33/CD34/HLA-DR were used to evaluate the degree of myeloid maturation and assess the number of blasts in BM by flow cytometry. Patients with early-stage myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS; RA [FAB classification]) have significantly decreased expression of CD44 on gated myeloid cells. In contrast, patients with late-stage MDS (RAEB and RAEB-T [FAB classification]) showed an elevated expression of CD44 and an increased number of CD34 blasts compared with early-stage MDS patients and normal controls. Late-stage MDS patients also had an increase in the immature myeloid compartment (CD66 weak expression) compared with early-stage MDS patients and normal controls. We have already included this assay as part of our MDS evaluation protocol alongside BM morphology and cytogenetics.

  3. Application of Collagen-Model Triple-Helical Peptide-Amphiphiles for CD44-Targeted Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ndinguri, Margaret W.; Zheleznyak, Alexander; Lauer, Janelle L.; Anderson, Carolyn J.; Fields, Gregg B.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer treatment by chemotherapy is typically accompanied by deleterious side effects, attributed to the toxic action of chemotherapeutics on proliferating cells from nontumor tissues. The cell surface proteoglycan CD44 has been recognized as a cancer stem cell marker. The present study has examined CD44 targeting as a way to selectively deliver therapeutic agents encapsulated inside colloidal delivery systems. CD44/chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan binds to a triple-helical sequence derived from type IV collagen, α1(IV)1263–1277. We have assembled a peptide-amphiphile (PA) in which α1(IV)1263–1277 was sandwiched between 4 repeats of Gly-Pro-4-hydroxyproline and conjugated to palmitic acid. The PA was incorporated into liposomes composed of DSPG, DSPC, cholesterol, and DSPE-PEG-2000 (1 : 4 : 5 : 0.5). Doxorubicin-(DOX-)loaded liposomes with and without 10% α1(IV)1263–1277 PA were found to exhibit similar stability profiles. Incubation of DOX-loaded targeted liposomes with metastatic melanoma M14#5 and M15#11 cells and BJ fibroblasts resulted in IC50 values of 9.8, 9.3, and >100 μM, respectively. Nontargeted liposomes were considerably less efficacious for M14#5 cells. In the CD44+ B16F10 mouse melanoma model, CD44-targeted liposomes reduced the tumor size to 60% of that of the untreated control, whereas nontargeted liposomes were ineffective. These results suggest that PA targeted liposomes may represent a new class of nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems. PMID:23213537

  4. Determining graphene adhesion via substrate-regulated morphology of graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhao; Li, Teng

    2011-10-01

    Understanding the adhesion between graphene and other materials is crucial for achieving more reliable graphene-based applications in electronic devices and nanocomposites. The ultra-thin profile of graphene, however, poses a significant challenge to direct measurement of its adhesion property using conventional approaches. We show that there is a strong correlation between the morphology of graphene on a compliant substrate with patterned surface and the graphene-substrate adhesion. We establish an analytic model to quantitatively determine such a strong correlation. Results show that, depending on the graphene-substrate adhesion, number of graphene layers, and substrate stiffness, graphene exhibits two distinct types of morphology: (I) graphene remains bonded to the substrate and corrugates to an amplitude up to that of the substrate surface patterns; (II) graphene debonds from the substrate and remains flat on top of the substrate surface patterns. The sharp transition between these two types of graphene morphology occurs at a critical adhesion between the graphene and the compliant substrate material. These results potentially open up a feasible pathway to measuring the adhesion property of graphene.

  5. Conformational and functional variants of CD44-targeted protein nanoparticles bio-produced in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pesarrodona, Mireia; Fernández, Yolanda; Foradada, Laia; Sánchez-Chardi, Alejandro; Conchillo-Solé, Oscar; Unzueta, Ugutz; Xu, Zhikun; Roldán, Mónica; Villegas, Sandra; Ferrer-Miralles, Neus; Schwartz, Simó; Rinas, Ursula; Daura, Xavier; Abasolo, Ibane; Vázquez, Esther; Villaverde, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    Biofabrication is attracting interest as a means to produce nanostructured functional materials because of its operational versatility and full scalability. Materials based on proteins are especially appealing, as the structure and functionality of proteins can be adapted by genetic engineering. Furthermore, strategies and tools for protein production have been developed and refined steadily for more than 30 years. However, protein conformation and therefore activity might be sensitive to production conditions. Here, we have explored whether the downstream strategy influences the structure and biological activities, in vitro and in vivo, of a self-assembling, CD44-targeted protein-only nanoparticle produced in Escherichia coli. This has been performed through the comparative analysis of particles built from soluble protein species or protein versions obtained by in vitro protein extraction from inclusion bodies, through mild, non-denaturing procedures. These methods have been developed recently as a convenient alternative to the use of toxic chaotropic agents for protein resolubilization from protein aggregates. The results indicate that the resulting material shows substantial differences in its physicochemical properties and its biological performance at the systems level, and that its building blocks are sensitive to the particular protein source. PMID:27078873

  6. Conformational and functional variants of CD44-targeted protein nanoparticles bio-produced in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pesarrodona, Mireia; Fernández, Yolanda; Foradada, Laia; Sánchez-Chardi, Alejandro; Conchillo-Solé, Oscar; Unzueta, Ugutz; Xu, Zhikun; Roldán, Mónica; Villegas, Sandra; Ferrer-Miralles, Neus; Schwartz, Simó; Rinas, Ursula; Daura, Xavier; Abasolo, Ibane; Vázquez, Esther; Villaverde, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    Biofabrication is attracting interest as a means to produce nanostructured functional materials because of its operational versatility and full scalability. Materials based on proteins are especially appealing, as the structure and functionality of proteins can be adapted by genetic engineering. Furthermore, strategies and tools for protein production have been developed and refined steadily for more than 30 years. However, protein conformation and therefore activity might be sensitive to production conditions. Here, we have explored whether the downstream strategy influences the structure and biological activities, in vitro and in vivo, of a self-assembling, CD44-targeted protein-only nanoparticle produced in Escherichia coli. This has been performed through the comparative analysis of particles built from soluble protein species or protein versions obtained by in vitro protein extraction from inclusion bodies, through mild, non-denaturing procedures. These methods have been developed recently as a convenient alternative to the use of toxic chaotropic agents for protein resolubilization from protein aggregates. The results indicate that the resulting material shows substantial differences in its physicochemical properties and its biological performance at the systems level, and that its building blocks are sensitive to the particular protein source.

  7. Differential surface expression of CD18 and CD44 by neutrophils in bone marrow and spleen contributed to the neutrophilia in thalidomide-treated female B6C3F1 mice

    SciTech Connect

    Auttachoat, Wimolnut; Zheng Jianfeng; Chi, Rui P.; Meng, Andrew; Guo, Tai L. . E-mail: tlguo@vcu.edu

    2007-02-01

    Previously, we have reported that thalidomide (Thd) can enhance neutrophil function in female B6C3F1 mice. The present study was intended to evaluate the mechanisms underlying the enhanced neutrophil responses following Thd treatment intraperitoneally (100 mg/kg) for 14 or 28 days. Treatment with Thd increased the numbers of neutrophils in the spleen, peripheral blood, bone marrow, peritoneal cavity and lungs of female B6C3F1 mice when compared to the vehicle control mice. Thd treatment for 14 days increased the percentage and the number of neutrophils in the spleen in the first 8 h (peaking at 2 h) after the last Thd treatment, and it returned to the baseline after 24 h. However, Thd treatment for 28 days increased the percentage and number of neutrophils in the spleen even at the 24-h time point after the last Thd treatment. These neutrophils were demonstrated to be functional by the myeloperoxidase activity assay. Further studies have ruled out the possibility of an increased bone marrow granulopoiesis following Thd treatment. Flow cytometric analysis of the surface expression of adhesion molecules suggested that Thd treatment for either 14 or 28 days decreased the surface expression of either CD18 or CD44 by bone marrow neutrophils. On the other hand, the surface expression of both CD18 and CD44 by splenic neutrophils was increased following Thd treatment for 28 days but not for 14 days. No effect was produced for other cell surface molecules such as CD62L and CD11a. It was possible that decreased surface expressions of CD18 and CD44 facilitated neutrophils' release from the bone marrow; increased surface expressions of CD44 and CD18 by splenic neutrophils after 28 days of Thd treatment increased their ability to remain in the periphery. Taken together, Thd treatment increased neutrophils in female B6C3F1 mice, at least partially, through differentially modulating the surface expression of CD18 and CD44 by the neutrophils in the bone marrow and spleen00.

  8. Immunohistochemical localization of metallothionein in human breast cancer in comparison with cathepsin D, stromelysin-1, CD44, extracellular matrix components, P53, Rb, C-erbB-2, EGFR, steroid receptor content and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Ioachim, E; Kamina, S; Demou, A; Kontostolis, M; Lolis, D; Agnantis, N J

    1999-01-01

    Metallothionein (MT) is a low molecular weight, cysteine-rich, zinc-binding protein that may have a function in cellular repair processes, growth and differentiation. Using a monoclonal antibody (E9) to metallothionein, we investigated the immunohistochemical expression of MT in routinely fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue from 98 cases of female breast carcinomas. The MT expression was studied in comparison with the expression of the basement membrane (BM) antigens (type IV collagen, laminin), fibronectin, cathepsin D, adhesion molecule CD44, p53 protein, the pRb, c-erbB-2 oncoprotein, EGFR, stromelysin-1, proliferation indices (Ki-67, PCNA), steroid receptor content as well as with other conventional clinicopathological parameters of breast cancer. Strong MT expression was observed in the majority of tumour cells in 18.4% of tumours, focal MT positivity in 13.3% and almost complete lack of MT expression in 68.4% of cases (mean value 33.36 +/- 26.36). The MT expression in carcinoma cells was strongly associated with the DCIS component of the tumour (p < 0.0001). High values of MT were correlated with low steroid receptor status (p = 0.08 for ER receptor and p = 0.019 for PgR receptor content). MT positive cases were correlated with stromelysin-1 expression (p = 0.059) and cathepsin D (p = 0.058). These findings suggest that MT expression is characteristic of the early phase of breast carcinogenesis, possibly regulated by hormones, and could be a new potential prognostic marker in breast cancer. PMID:10470161

  9. Quorum-Sensing Regulation of Adhesion in Serratia marcescens MG1 Is Surface Dependent▿

    PubMed Central

    Labbate, Maurizio; Zhu, Hua; Thung, Leena; Bandara, Rani; Larsen, Martin R.; Willcox, Mark D. P.; Givskov, Michael; Rice, Scott A.; Kjelleberg, Staffan

    2007-01-01

    Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic pathogen and a major cause of ocular infections. In previous studies of S. marcescens MG1, we showed that biofilm maturation and sloughing were regulated by N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-based quorum sensing (QS). Because of the importance of adhesion in initiating biofilm formation and infection, the primary goal of this study was to determine whether QS is important in adhesion to both abiotic and biotic surfaces, as assessed by determining the degree of attachment to hydrophilic tissue culture plates and human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells. Our results demonstrate that while adhesion to the abiotic surface was AHL regulated, adhesion to the HCE cell biotic surface was not. Type I fimbriae were identified as the critical adhesin for non-QS-mediated attachment to the biotic HCE cell surface but played no role in adhesion to the abiotic surface. While we were not able to identify a single QS-regulated adhesin essential for attachment to the abiotic surface, four AHL-regulated genes involved in adhesion to the abiotic surface were identified. Interestingly, two of these genes, bsmA and bsmB, were also shown to be involved in adhesion to the biotic surface in a non-QS-controlled fashion. Therefore, the expression of these two genes appears to be cocontrolled by regulators other than the QS system for mediation of attachment to HCE cells. We also found that QS in S. marcescens regulates other potential cell surface adhesins, including exopolysaccharide and the outer membrane protein OmpX. We concluded that S. marcescens MG1 utilizes different regulatory systems and adhesins in attachment to biotic and abiotic surfaces and that QS is a main regulatory pathway in adhesion to an abiotic surface but not in adhesion to a biotic surface. PMID:17237163

  10. Quorum-sensing regulation of adhesion in Serratia marcescens MG1 is surface dependent.

    PubMed

    Labbate, Maurizio; Zhu, Hua; Thung, Leena; Bandara, Rani; Larsen, Martin R; Willcox, Mark D P; Givskov, Michael; Rice, Scott A; Kjelleberg, Staffan

    2007-04-01

    Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic pathogen and a major cause of ocular infections. In previous studies of S. marcescens MG1, we showed that biofilm maturation and sloughing were regulated by N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-based quorum sensing (QS). Because of the importance of adhesion in initiating biofilm formation and infection, the primary goal of this study was to determine whether QS is important in adhesion to both abiotic and biotic surfaces, as assessed by determining the degree of attachment to hydrophilic tissue culture plates and human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells. Our results demonstrate that while adhesion to the abiotic surface was AHL regulated, adhesion to the HCE cell biotic surface was not. Type I fimbriae were identified as the critical adhesin for non-QS-mediated attachment to the biotic HCE cell surface but played no role in adhesion to the abiotic surface. While we were not able to identify a single QS-regulated adhesin essential for attachment to the abiotic surface, four AHL-regulated genes involved in adhesion to the abiotic surface were identified. Interestingly, two of these genes, bsmA and bsmB, were also shown to be involved in adhesion to the biotic surface in a non-QS-controlled fashion. Therefore, the expression of these two genes appears to be cocontrolled by regulators other than the QS system for mediation of attachment to HCE cells. We also found that QS in S. marcescens regulates other potential cell surface adhesins, including exopolysaccharide and the outer membrane protein OmpX. We concluded that S. marcescens MG1 utilizes different regulatory systems and adhesins in attachment to biotic and abiotic surfaces and that QS is a main regulatory pathway in adhesion to an abiotic surface but not in adhesion to a biotic surface.

  11. Nanotopographical modification: a regulator of cellular function through focal adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Biggs, Manus Jonathan Paul; Richards, R. Geoff; Dalby, Matthew J.

    2010-01-01

    As materials technology and the field of biomedical engineering advances, the role of cellular mechanisms, in particular adhesive interactions with implantable devices, becomes more relevant in both research and clinical practice. A key tenet of medical device design has evolved from the exquisite ability of biological systems to respond to topographical features or chemical stimuli, a process that has led to the development of next-generation biomaterials for a wide variety of clinical disorders. In vitro studies have identified nanoscale features as potent modulators of cellular behavior through the onset of focal adhesion formation. The focus of this review is on the recent developments concerning the role of nanoscale structures on integrin-mediated adhesion and cellular function with an emphasis on the generation of medical constructs with regenerative applications. PMID:20138244

  12. CD44v6 expression in human skin keratinocytes as a possible mechanism for carcinogenesis associated with chronic arsenic exposure

    PubMed Central

    Huang, S.; Guo, S.; Guo, F.; Yang, Q.; Xiao, X.; Murata, M.; Ohnishi, S.; Kawanishi, S.; Ma, N.

    2013-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic is a well-known human skin carcinogen. Chronic arsenic exposure results in various types of human skin lesions, including squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). To investigate whether mutant stem cells participate in arsenic-associated carcinogenesis, we repeatedly exposed the human spontaneously immortalized skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) cell line to an environmentally relevant level of arsenic (0.05 ppm) in vitrofor 18 weeks. Following sodium arsenite administration, cell cycle, colony-forming efficiency (CFE), cell tumorigenicity, and expression of CD44v6, NF-κB and p53, were analyzed at different time points (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 passages). We found that a chronic exposure of HaCaT cells to a low level of arsenic induced a cancer stem-like phenotype. Furthermore, arsenictreated HaCaT cells also became tumorigenic in nude mice, their growth cycle was predominantly in G2/M and S phases. Relative to nontreated cells, they exhibited a higher growth rate and a significant increase in CFE. Western blot analysis found that arsenic was capable of increasing cell proliferation and sprouting of cancer stem-like phenotype. Additionally, immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that CD44v6 expression was upregulated in HaCaT cells exposed to a low level of arsenic during early stages of induction. The expression of CD44v6 in arsenic-treated cells was positively correlated with their cloning efficiency in soft agar (r=0.949, P=0.01). Likewise, the expressions of activating transcription factor NF-κB and p53 genes in the arsenic-treated HaCaT cells were significantly higher than that in non-treated cells. Higher expressions of CD44v6, NF-κB and p53 were also observed in tumor tissues isolated from Balb/c nude mice. The present results suggest that CD44v6 may be a biomarker of arsenicinduced neoplastic transformation in human skin cells, and that arsenic promotes malignant transformation in human skin lesions through a NF-κB signaling pathway

  13. Local 3D matrix microenvironment regulates cell migration through spatiotemporal dynamics of contractility-dependent adhesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Andrew D.; Carvajal, Nicole; Jin, Albert; Matsumoto, Kazue; Yamada, Kenneth M.

    2015-11-01

    The physical properties of two-dimensional (2D) extracellular matrices (ECMs) modulate cell adhesion dynamics and motility, but little is known about the roles of local microenvironmental differences in three-dimensional (3D) ECMs. Here we generate 3D collagen gels of varying matrix microarchitectures to characterize their regulation of 3D adhesion dynamics and cell migration. ECMs containing bundled fibrils demonstrate enhanced local adhesion-scale stiffness and increased adhesion stability through balanced ECM/adhesion coupling, whereas highly pliable reticular matrices promote adhesion retraction. 3D adhesion dynamics are locally regulated by ECM rigidity together with integrin/ECM association and myosin II contractility. Unlike 2D migration, abrogating contractility stalls 3D migration regardless of ECM pore size. We find force is not required for clustering of activated integrins on 3D native collagen fibrils. We propose that efficient 3D migration requires local balancing of contractility with ECM stiffness to stabilize adhesions, which facilitates the detachment of activated integrins from ECM fibrils.

  14. Local 3D matrix microenvironment regulates cell migration through spatiotemporal dynamics of contractility-dependent adhesions.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Andrew D; Carvajal, Nicole; Jin, Albert; Matsumoto, Kazue; Yamada, Kenneth M

    2015-01-01

    The physical properties of two-dimensional (2D) extracellular matrices (ECMs) modulate cell adhesion dynamics and motility, but little is known about the roles of local microenvironmental differences in three-dimensional (3D) ECMs. Here we generate 3D collagen gels of varying matrix microarchitectures to characterize their regulation of 3D adhesion dynamics and cell migration. ECMs containing bundled fibrils demonstrate enhanced local adhesion-scale stiffness and increased adhesion stability through balanced ECM/adhesion coupling, whereas highly pliable reticular matrices promote adhesion retraction. 3D adhesion dynamics are locally regulated by ECM rigidity together with integrin/ECM association and myosin II contractility. Unlike 2D migration, abrogating contractility stalls 3D migration regardless of ECM pore size. We find force is not required for clustering of activated integrins on 3D native collagen fibrils. We propose that efficient 3D migration requires local balancing of contractility with ECM stiffness to stabilize adhesions, which facilitates the detachment of activated integrins from ECM fibrils. PMID:26548801

  15. Local 3D matrix microenvironment regulates cell migration through spatiotemporal dynamics of contractility-dependent adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Andrew D.; Carvajal, Nicole; Jin, Albert; Matsumoto, Kazue; Yamada, Kenneth M.

    2015-01-01

    The physical properties of two-dimensional (2D) extracellular matrices (ECMs) modulate cell adhesion dynamics and motility, but little is known about the roles of local microenvironmental differences in three-dimensional (3D) ECMs. Here we generate 3D collagen gels of varying matrix microarchitectures to characterize their regulation of 3D adhesion dynamics and cell migration. ECMs containing bundled fibrils demonstrate enhanced local adhesion-scale stiffness and increased adhesion stability through balanced ECM/adhesion coupling, whereas highly pliable reticular matrices promote adhesion retraction. 3D adhesion dynamics are locally regulated by ECM rigidity together with integrin/ECM association and myosin II contractility. Unlike 2D migration, abrogating contractility stalls 3D migration regardless of ECM pore size. We find force is not required for clustering of activated integrins on 3D native collagen fibrils. We propose that efficient 3D migration requires local balancing of contractility with ECM stiffness to stabilize adhesions, which facilitates the detachment of activated integrins from ECM fibrils. PMID:26548801

  16. Synergistic regulation of cell function by matrix rigidity and adhesive pattern

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Shinuo; Fu, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions play a critical role in regulating cellular behaviors. Recent studies of cell-ECM interactions have mainly focused on the actomyosin based and adhesion mediated mechanosensing pathways to understand how individual mechanical signals in the cell microenvironment, such as matrix rigidity and adhesive ECM pattern, are sensed by the cell and further trigger downstream intracellular signaling cascades and cellular responses. However, synergistic and collective regulation of cellular behaviors by matrix rigidity and adhesive ECM pattern are still elusive and largely uncharacterized. Here, we generated a library of microfabricated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micropost arrays to study the synergistic and independent effects of matrix rigidity and adhesive ECM pattern on mechanoresponsive behaviors of both NIH/3T3 fibroblasts and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We showed that both cell types were mechanosensitive and their cell spreading, FA formation, cytoskeletal contractility, and proliferation were all strongly dependent on both substrate rigidity and adhesive ECM pattern. We further showed that under the same substrate rigidity condition, smaller and closer adhesive ECM islands would cause both cells to spread out more, form more adhesion structures, and have a higher proliferation rate. The influence of adhesive ECM pattern on rigidity-mediated cytoskeletal contractility was cell type specific and was only significant for NIH/3T3. Morphometric analysis of cell populations revealed a strong correlation between focal adhesion and cell spreading, regardless of substrate rigidity and adhesive ECM pattern. We also observed a strong correlation between cellular traction force and cell spreading, with a substantially smaller independent effect of substrate rigidity on traction force. Our study here had determined key aspects of the biomechanical responses of adherent cells to independent and collective changes of

  17. PI3K{gamma} activation by CXCL12 regulates tumor cell adhesion and invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Monterrubio, Maria; Mellado, Mario; Carrera, Ana C.

    2009-10-16

    Tumor dissemination is a complex process, in which certain steps resemble those in leukocyte homing. Specific chemokine/chemokine receptor pairs have important roles in both processes. CXCL12/CXCR4 is the most commonly expressed chemokine/chemokine receptor pair in human cancers, in which it regulates cell adhesion, extravasation, metastatic colonization, angiogenesis, and proliferation. All of these processes require activation of signaling pathways that include G proteins, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K), JAK kinases, Rho GTPases, and focal adhesion-associated proteins. We analyzed these pathways in a human melanoma cell line in response to CXCL12 stimulation, and found that PI3K{gamma} regulates tumor cell adhesion through mechanisms different from those involved in cell invasion. Our data indicate that, following CXCR4 activation after CXCL12 binding, the invasion and adhesion processes are regulated differently by distinct downstream events in these signaling cascades.

  18. The hyaluronan receptors CD44 and RHAMM (CD168) form complexeswith ERK1,2, which sustain high basal motility in breast cancercells

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Sara R.; Fard, Shireen F.; Paiwand, Frouz F.; Tolg,Cornelia; Veiseh, Mandana; Wang, Chao; McCarthy, James B.; Bissell, MinaJ.; Koropatnick, James; Turley, Eva A.

    2007-03-28

    CD44 is an integral hyaluronan receptor that can promote or inhibit motogenic signaling in tumor cells. Rhamm is a non-integral cell surface hyaluronan receptor (CD168) and intracellular protein that promotes cell motility in culture and its expression is strongly upregulated in diseases like arthritis and aggressive cancers. Here we describe an autocrine mechanism utilizing cell surface Rhamm/CD44 interactions to sustain rapid basal motility in invasive breast cancer cell lines. This mechanism requires endogenous hyaluronan synthesis and the formation of Rhamm/CD44/ERK1, 2 complexes. Motile/ invasive MDA-MB-231 and Ras-MCF10A cells produce more endogenous hyaluronan, cell surface CD44 and Rhamm, an oncogenic Rhamm isoform, and exhibit elevated basal activation of ERK1, 2 than less invasive MCF7 and MCF10A breast cancer cells. Furthermore, CD44, Rhamm and ERK1, 2 uniquely co-immunoprecipitate and co-localize in MDA-MB-231 and Ras-MCF10A cells. Rapid motility of the invasive cell lines requires interaction of hyaluronan with cells, activation of ERK1, 2 and the participation of both cell surface CD44 and Rhamm. Combinations of anti-CD44, anti-Rhamm antibodies and a MEK1 inhibitor (PD098059) have less-than-additive blocking effects, suggesting action of all three proteins on a common motogenic signaling pathway. Collectively, these results show that cell surface Rhamm and CD44 act together in a hyaluronan-dependent, autocrine mechanism to coordinate sustained signaling through ERK1, 2 leading to high basal motility of invasive breast cancer cells. Since CD44/Rhamm complexes are not evident in less motile cells, an effect of CD44 on tumor cell motility may depend in part on its ability to partner with additional proteins, in this case cell surface Rhamm.

  19. Highly selective CD44-specific gold nanorods for photothermal ablation of tumorigenic subpopulations generated in MCF7 mammospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eugene; Hong, Yoochan; Choi, Jihye; Haam, Seungjoo; Suh, Jin-Suck; Huh, Yong-Min; Yang, Jaemoon

    2012-11-01

    Heterogeneous stem-like populations within tumor tissues are the primary suspects in causing cancer recurrence and malignancy. It is essential to selectively kill these tumorigenic populations. We created a novel system for photothermally ablating specific cells from three-dimensional mammospheres. A CD44-positive subpopulation, with tumorigenic and self-renewal potential, spontaneously arises in MCF7 breast cancer cell-engineered mammospheres. Using anti-CD44 antibody-linked gold nanorods, which strongly absorb near infrared light and increase local temperature, we effectively targeted and photo-ablated atypical cells. This biomarker-specific photothermal ablation model, using a smart nanoplatform, is a promising new strategy for selectively killing cancer cells, while sparing normal tissues.

  20. Targeting gemcitabine containing liposomes to CD44 expressing pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells causes an increase in the antitumoral activity.

    PubMed

    Dalla Pozza, Elisa; Lerda, Carlotta; Costanzo, Chiara; Donadelli, Massimo; Dando, Ilaria; Zoratti, Elisa; Scupoli, Maria Teresa; Beghelli, Stefania; Scarpa, Aldo; Fattal, Elias; Arpicco, Silvia; Palmieri, Marta

    2013-05-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is often diagnosed when metastatic events have occurred. The early spread of circulating cancer cells expressing the CD44 receptor may play a crucial role in this process. In this study, we have investigated the cellular delivery ability and both in vitro and in vivo anti-tumoral activity of liposomes conjugated with two different low molecular weight hyaluronic acids (HA 4.8kDa and HA 12kDa), the primary ligand of CD44, and containing a lipophilic gemcitabine (GEM) pro-drug. By confocal microscopy and flow cytometry analyses, we demonstrate that the cellular uptake into a highly CD44-expressing pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line is higher with HA-conjugated (12kDa>4.8kDa) than non-conjugated liposomes. Consistently, in vitro cytotoxic assays display an increased sensitivity towards GEM containing HA-liposomes, compared to non-conjugated liposomes. Conversely, CD44 non-expressing normal cells show a similar uptake and in vitro cytotoxicity with both HA-conjugated and non-conjugated liposomes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the HA-liposomes are taken up into the cells via lipid raft-mediated endocytosis. All the liposome formulations containing GEM show a higher antitumoral activity than free GEM in a mouse xenograft tumor model of human pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The 12kDa HA-liposomes have the strongest efficiency, while non-conjugated liposomes and the 4.8kDa HA-liposomes are similarly active. Taken together, our results provide a strong rationale for further development of HA-conjugated liposomes to treat pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

  1. Over expression of hyaluronan promotes progression of HCC via CD44-mediated pyruvate kinase M2 nuclear translocation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing-Huan; Wang, Ying-Cong; Qin, Cheng-Dong; Yao, Rong-Rong; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yan; Xie, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Lan; Wang, Yan-Hong; Ren, Zheng-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Hyaluronan is expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as HCC generally arises from a cirrhotic liver in which excessive production and accumulation of HA leads to developing cirrhosis. Though it has been suggested HA is involved in progression of HCC, the mechanisms underlying the connection between HA and HCC progression are unclear. Since increased aerobic glycolysis is a metabolic trait of malignant cells and HA-CD44 can modulate glucose metabolism, we aim to investigate the roles of PKM2, a key enzyme in glucose metabolism, in the HA-CD44 axis facilitated the progress of HCC. We shown PKM2 was required for HA-promoted HCC progression, which was not modulated by PKM2 kinase activity but by nuclear translocation of PKM2. PKM2 translocation was Erk (Thr202/Tyr204) phosphorylation dependent, which functioned at the downstream of HA-CD44 binding. Furthermore, elevated HA expression significantly correlated with PKM2 nuclear location and was an independent factors predicting poor HCC prognosis. In conclusions PKM2 nuclear translocation is required for mediating the described HA biological effects on HCC progression and our results imply that inhibition of HA may have therapeutic value in treating HCC. PMID:27186420

  2. Endoglin regulates mural cell adhesion in the circulatory system.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Elisa; Smadja, David M; Boscolo, Elisa; Langa, Carmen; Arevalo, Miguel A; Pericacho, Miguel; Gamella-Pozuelo, Luis; Kauskot, Alexandre; Botella, Luisa M; Gaussem, Pascale; Bischoff, Joyce; Lopez-Novoa, José M; Bernabeu, Carmelo

    2016-04-01

    The circulatory system is walled off by different cell types, including vascular mural cells and podocytes. The interaction and interplay between endothelial cells (ECs) and mural cells, such as vascular smooth muscle cells or pericytes, play a pivotal role in vascular biology. Endoglin is an RGD-containing counter-receptor for β1 integrins and is highly expressed by ECs during angiogenesis. We find that the adhesion between vascular ECs and mural cells is enhanced by integrin activators and inhibited upon suppression of membrane endoglin or β1-integrin, as well as by addition of soluble endoglin (SolEng), anti-integrin α5β1 antibody or an RGD peptide. Analysis of different endoglin mutants, allowed the mapping of the endoglin RGD motif as involved in the adhesion process. In Eng (+/-) mice, a model for hereditary hemorrhagic telangectasia type 1, endoglin haploinsufficiency induces a pericyte-dependent increase in vascular permeability. Also, transgenic mice overexpressing SolEng, an animal model for preeclampsia, show podocyturia, suggesting that SolEng is responsible for podocytes detachment from glomerular capillaries. These results suggest a critical role for endoglin in integrin-mediated adhesion of mural cells and provide a better understanding on the mechanisms of vessel maturation in normal physiology as well as in pathologies such as preeclampsia or hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. PMID:26646071

  3. Endoglin regulates mural cell adhesion in the circulatory system.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Elisa; Smadja, David M; Boscolo, Elisa; Langa, Carmen; Arevalo, Miguel A; Pericacho, Miguel; Gamella-Pozuelo, Luis; Kauskot, Alexandre; Botella, Luisa M; Gaussem, Pascale; Bischoff, Joyce; Lopez-Novoa, José M; Bernabeu, Carmelo

    2016-04-01

    The circulatory system is walled off by different cell types, including vascular mural cells and podocytes. The interaction and interplay between endothelial cells (ECs) and mural cells, such as vascular smooth muscle cells or pericytes, play a pivotal role in vascular biology. Endoglin is an RGD-containing counter-receptor for β1 integrins and is highly expressed by ECs during angiogenesis. We find that the adhesion between vascular ECs and mural cells is enhanced by integrin activators and inhibited upon suppression of membrane endoglin or β1-integrin, as well as by addition of soluble endoglin (SolEng), anti-integrin α5β1 antibody or an RGD peptide. Analysis of different endoglin mutants, allowed the mapping of the endoglin RGD motif as involved in the adhesion process. In Eng (+/-) mice, a model for hereditary hemorrhagic telangectasia type 1, endoglin haploinsufficiency induces a pericyte-dependent increase in vascular permeability. Also, transgenic mice overexpressing SolEng, an animal model for preeclampsia, show podocyturia, suggesting that SolEng is responsible for podocytes detachment from glomerular capillaries. These results suggest a critical role for endoglin in integrin-mediated adhesion of mural cells and provide a better understanding on the mechanisms of vessel maturation in normal physiology as well as in pathologies such as preeclampsia or hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.

  4. ADAMTS-10 and -6 differentially regulate cell-cell junctions and focal adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Cain, Stuart A.; Mularczyk, Ewa J.; Singh, Mukti; Massam-Wu, Teresa; Kielty, Cay M.

    2016-01-01

    ADAMTS10 and ADAMTS6 are homologous metalloproteinases with ill-defined roles. ADAMTS10 mutations cause Weill-Marchesani syndrome (WMS), implicating it in fibrillin microfibril biology since some fibrillin-1 mutations also cause WMS. However little is known about ADAMTS6 function. ADAMTS10 is resistant to furin cleavage, however we show that ADAMTS6 is effectively processed and active. Using siRNA, over-expression and mutagenesis, it was found ADAMTS6 inhibits and ADAMTS10 is required for focal adhesions, epithelial cell-cell junction formation, and microfibril deposition. Either knockdown of ADAMTS6, or disruption of its furin processing or catalytic sites restores focal adhesions, implicating its enzyme activity acts on targets in the focal adhesion complex. In ADAMTS10-depleted cultures, expression of syndecan-4 rescues focal adhesions and cell-cell junctions. Recombinant C-termini of ADAMTS10 and ADAMTS6, both of which induce focal adhesions, bind heparin and syndecan-4. However, cells overexpressing full-length ADAMTS6 lack heparan sulphate and focal adhesions, whilst depletion of ADAMTS6 induces a prominent glycocalyx. Thus ADAMTS10 and ADAMTS6 oppositely affect heparan sulphate-rich interfaces including focal adhesions. We previously showed that microfibril deposition requires fibronectin-induced focal adhesions, and cell-cell junctions in epithelial cultures. Here we reveal that ADAMTS6 causes a reduction in heparan sulphate-rich interfaces, and its expression is regulated by ADAMTS10. PMID:27779234

  5. Cross-Correlated Fluctuation Analysis Reveals Phosphorylation-Regulated Paxillin-FAK Complexes in Nascent Adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Colin K.; Zareno, Jessica; Digman, Michelle A.; Gratton, Enrico; Horwitz, Alan Rick

    2011-01-01

    We used correlation methods to detect and quantify interactions between paxillin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in migrating cells. Cross-correlation raster-scan image correlation spectroscopy revealed that wild-type paxillin and the phosphorylation-inhibiting paxillin mutant Y31F-Y118F do not interact with FAK in the cytosol but a phosphomimetic mutant of paxillin, Y31E-Y118E, does. By extending cross-correlation number and brightness analysis to the total internal reflection fluorescence modality, we were able to show that tetramers of paxillin and FAK form complexes in nascent adhesions with a 1:1 stoichiometry ratio. The phosphomimetic mutations on paxillin increase the size of the complex and the assembly rate of nascent adhesions, suggesting that the physical molecular aggregation of paxillin and FAK regulates adhesion formation. In contrast, when phosphorylation is inhibited, the interaction decreases and the adhesions tend to elongate rather than turn over. These direct in vivo data show that the phosphorylation of paxillin is specific to adhesions and leads to localized complex formation with FAK to regulate the dynamics of nascent adhesions. PMID:21281572

  6. Desmosomes: Regulators of Cellular Signaling and Adhesion in Epidermal Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jodi L.; Najor, Nicole A.; Green, Kathleen J.

    2014-01-01

    Desmosomes are intercellular junctions that mediate cell–cell adhesion and anchor the intermediate filament network to the plasma membrane, providing mechanical resilience to tissues such as the epidermis and heart. In addition to their critical roles in adhesion, desmosomal proteins are emerging as mediators of cell signaling important for proper cell and tissue functions. In this review we highlight what is known about desmosomal proteins regulating adhesion and signaling in healthy skin—in morphogenesis, differentiation and homeostasis, wound healing, and protection against environmental damage. We also discuss how human diseases that target desmosome molecules directly or interfere indirectly with these mechanical and signaling functions to contribute to pathogenesis. PMID:25368015

  7. Clinicopathological and prognostic significance of cancer stem cell markers CD44 and CD133 in patients with gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Li; Wu, Menglin; Sun, Longhao; Li, Weidong; Fu, Weihua; Zhang, Xuening; Liu, Tong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: In recent years, CD44 and CD133 have been identified as 2 common used cancer stem cell (CSC) markers in gastric cancer. However, the clinicopathological and prognostic value of these markers in gastric cancer remains controversial; moreover, there is lack of comparison of these 2 markers’ roles in clinical applications. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to elucidate these markers’ clinicopathological features and association with prognosis in patients with gastric cancer. Methods: Eligible studies were identified and odds ratios (ORs), hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. Heterogeneity and sensitivity were analyzed as well. Publication bias was assessed using funnel plots and Egger tests. Results: The meta-analysis included 26 studies involving 4729 patients. High expression of CD44 was associated with Lauren type (intestinal type) (OR, 1.53 [95% CI, 1.02–2.30]; P = 0.038) and lymphatic vessel invasion (OR, 1.36 [95% CI, 1.06–1.76]; P = 0.021). CD133 overexpression was related to high TNM stage (III/IV) (OR, 3.18 [95% CI, 2.48–4.07]; P = 0.000), high depth of invasion (T3/T4) (OR, 2.97 [95% CI, 2.20–4.03]; P = 0.000), lymph node metastasis (OR, 2.82 [95% CI, 2.16–3.69]; P = 0.000), vascular invasion (OR, 6.71 [95% CI, 1.63–27.63]; P = 0.008), and distant metastasis (OR, 2.32 [95% CI, 1.64–3.29]; P = 0.000). In addition, survival analysis demonstrated a significant association between CD44, as well as CD133 and poor 5-year overall survival (HR, 1.87 [95% CI, 1.55–2.26]; P = 0.000; HR, 2.07 [95% CI, 1.76–2.44]; P = 0.000, respectively). Conclusion: These data suggest that upregulated expression of CD44 and CD133 correlates with several clinicopathological features and poor prognosis. Since the related features do not overlap, combined detection of CD44 and CD133 expression can be an especially effective tool for pathological diagnosis

  8. PAK4: a pluripotent kinase that regulates prostate cancer cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Claire M.; Whale, Andrew D.; Parsons, Maddy; Masters, John R. W.; Jones, Gareth E.

    2010-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is associated with tumour progression and increases the invasiveness of prostate carcinoma cells. Migration and invasion require coordinated reorganisation of the actin cytoskeleton and regulation of cell-adhesion dynamics. Rho-family GTPases orchestrate both of these cellular processes. p21-activated kinase 4 (PAK4), a specific effector of the Rho GTPase Cdc42, is activated by HGF, and we have previously shown that activated PAK4 induces a loss of both actin stress fibres and focal adhesions. We now report that DU145 human prostate cancer cells with reduced levels of PAK4 expression are unable to successfully migrate in response to HGF, have prominent actin stress fibres, and an increase in the size and number of focal adhesions. Moreover, these cells have a concomitant reduction in cell-adhesion turnover rates. We find that PAK4 is localised at focal adhesions, is immunoprecipitated with paxillin and phosphorylates paxillin on serine 272. Furthermore, we demonstrate that PAK4 can regulate RhoA activity via GEF-H1. Our results suggest that PAK4 is a pluripotent kinase that can regulate both actin cytoskeletal rearrangement and focal-adhesion dynamics. PMID:20406887

  9. Lubricin/Proteoglycan 4 Binding to CD44 Receptor: A Mechanism of Lubricin’s suppression of Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Induced Synoviocyte Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sharif, Afnan; Jamal, Maha; Zhang, Ling; Larson, Katherine; Schmidt, Tannin; Jay, Gregory; Elsaid, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate recombinant human proteoglycan 4 (rhPRG4) binding to CD44 receptor and its consequence on cytokine induced synoviocyte proliferation. Methods rhPRG4 binding to CD44 and competition with high molecular weight hyaluronic acid (HMW HA) was evaluated using a direct enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and surface plasmon resonance. Sialidase-A and O-glycosidase digestion of rhPRG4 was performed and CD44 binding was evaluated using ELISA. Rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes (RA-FLS) were stimulated with interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) for 48 hours in the presence or absence of rhPRG4 or HMW HA at 20, 40 and 80μg/ml and cell proliferation was measured. CD44 contribution was assessed by co-incubation with a CD44 antibody (IM7). The anti-proliferative effect of rhPRG4 was investigated following treatment of Prg4−/− synoviocytes with IL-1β or TNF-α in the presence or absence of IM7. Results rhPRG4 binds CD44 and interferes with HMW HA CD44 binding. Removal of sialic acid and O-glycosylations significantly increased CD44 binding by rhPRG4 (p<0.001). rhPRG4 and HMW HA at 40 and 80μg/ml significantly suppressed IL-1β induced RA-FLS proliferation (p<0.05). rhPRG4 at 20, 40 and 80μg/ml significantly suppressed TNF-α induced RA-FLS proliferation (p<0.05). CD44 neutralization reversed the effect of rhPRG4 on IL-1β and TNF-α stimulated RA-FLS and the effect of HMW HA on IL-1β stimulated RA-FLS. rhPRG4 inhibited cytokine-induced proliferation of Prg4−/− synoviocytes which could be prevented by blocking CD44. Conclusion Lubricin is a novel putative ligand for CD44 and may control synoviocyte overgrowth in inflammatory arthropathies via a CD44-mediated mechanism. PMID:25708025

  10. Blocking the Adhesion Cascade at the Premetastatic Niche for Prevention of Breast Cancer Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Shin-Ae; Hasan, Nafis; Mann, Aman P; Zheng, Wei; Zhao, Lichao; Morris, Lynsie; Zhu, Weizhu; Zhao, Yan D; Suh, K Stephen; Dooley, William C; Volk, David; Gorenstein, David G; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Rui, Hallgeir; Tanaka, Takemi

    2015-01-01

    Shear-resistant adhesion and extravasation of disseminated cancer cells at the target organ is a crucial step in hematogenous metastasis. We found that the vascular adhesion molecule E-selectin preferentially promoted the shear-resistant adhesion and transendothelial migration of the estrogen receptor (ER)–/CD44+ hormone-independent breast cancer cells, but not of the ER+/CD44-/low hormone-dependent breast cancer cells. Coincidentally, CD44+ breast cancer cells were abundant in metastatic lung and brain lesions in ER– breast cancer, suggesting that E-selectin supports hematogenous metastasis of ER–/CD44+ breast cancer. In an attempt to prevent hematogenous metastasis through the inhibition of a shear-resistant adhesion of CD44+ cancer cells to E-selectin-expressing blood vessels on the premetastatic niche, an E-selectin targeted aptamer (ESTA) was developed. We demonstrated that a single intravenous injection of ESTA reduced metastases to a baseline level in both syngeneic and xenogeneic forced breast cancer metastasis models without relocating the site of metastasis. The effect of ESTA was absent in E-selectin knockout mice, suggesting that E-selectin is a molecular target of ESTA. Our data highlight the potential application of an E-selectin antagonist for the prevention of hematogenous metastasis of ER–/CD44+ breast cancer. PMID:25815697

  11. Neuropilin-2 regulates α6β1 integrin in the formation of focal adhesions and signaling.

    PubMed

    Goel, Hira Lal; Pursell, Bryan; Standley, Clive; Fogarty, Kevin; Mercurio, Arthur M

    2012-01-15

    The neuropilins (NRPs) contribute to the function of cancer cells in their capacity as VEGF receptors. Given that NRP2 is induced in breast cancer and correlates with aggressive disease, we examined the role of NRP2 in regulating the interaction of breast cancer cells with the ECM. Using epithelial cells from breast tumors, we defined NRP2(high) and NRP2(low) populations that differed in integrin expression and adhesion to laminin. Specifically, the NRP2(high) population adhered more avidly to laminin and expressed high levels of the α6β1 integrin than the NRP2(low) population. The NRP2(high) population formed numerous focal adhesions on laminin that were not seen in the NRP2(low) population. These results were substantiated using breast carcinoma cell lines that express NRP2 and α6β1 integrin. Depletion experiments revealed that adhesive strength on laminin but not collagen is dependent on NRP2, and that VEGF is needed for adhesion on laminin. A specific interaction between NRP2 and α6β1 integrin was detected by co-immunoprecipitation. NRP2 is necessary for focal adhesion formation on laminin and for the association of α6β1 integrin with the cytoskeleton. NRP2 also facilitates α6β1-integrin-mediated activation of FAK and Src. Unexpectedly, we discovered that NRP2 is located in focal adhesions on laminin. The mechanism by which NRP2 regulates the interaction of α6β1 integrin with laminin to form focal adhesions involves PKC activation. Together, our data reveal a new VEGF-NRP2 signaling pathway that activates the α6β1 integrin and enables it to form focal adhesions and signal. This pathway is important in the pathogenesis of breast cancer.

  12. Selective Hyaluronan-CD44 Signaling Promotes miRNA-21 Expression and Interacts with Vitamin D Function during Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinomas Progression Following UV Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Bourguignon, Lilly Y W; Bikle, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA), the major extracellular matrix component, is often anchored to CD44, a family of structurally/functionally important cell surface receptors. Recent results indicate that UV irradiation (UVR)-induced cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) overexpress a variety of CD44 variant isoforms (CD44v), with different CD44v isoforms appear to confer malignant SCC properties. UVR also stimulates HA degradation in epidermal keratinocytes. Both large HA polymers and their UVR-induced catabolic products (small HA) selectively activate CD44-mediated cellular signaling in normal keratinocytes and SCC cells, with all of the downstream processes being mediated by RhoGTPases (e.g., Rac1 and Rho). Importantly, we found that the hormonally active form of vitamin D 1,25(OH)2D3 not only prevents the UVR-induced small HA activation of abnormal keratinocyte behavior and SCC progression, but also enhances large HA stimulation of normal keratinocyte activities and epidermal function(s). The aim of this hypothesis and theory article is to question whether matrix HA and its UVR-induced catabolic products (e.g., large and small HA) can selectively activate CD44-mediated cellular signaling such as GTPase (Rac and RhA) activation. We suggested that large HA-CD44 interaction promotes Rac-signaling and normal keratinocyte differentiation (lipid synthesis), DNA repair, and keratinocyte survival function. Conversely, small HA-CD44 interaction stimulates RhoA activation, NFκB/Stat-3 signaling, and miR-21 production, resulting in inflammation and proliferation as well as SCC progression. We also question whether vitamin D treatment displays any effect on small HA-CD44v-mediated RhoA signaling, inflammation, and SCC progression, as well as large HA-CD44-mediated differentiation, DNA repair, keratinocyte survival, and normal keratinocyte function. In addition, we discussed that the topical application of signaling perturbation agents (e.g., Y27623, a ROK inhibitor) may be used to treat

  13. Hyaluronan-decorated polymer nanoparticles targeting the CD44 receptor for the combined photo/chemo-therapy of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiolino, Sara; Moret, Francesca; Conte, Claudia; Fraix, Aurore; Tirino, Pasquale; Ungaro, Francesca; Sortino, Salvatore; Reddi, Elena; Quaglia, Fabiana

    2015-03-01

    In the attempt to develop novel concepts in designing targeted nanoparticles for combination therapy of cancer, we propose here CD44-targeted hyaluronan-decorated double-coated nanoparticles (dcNPs) delivering the lipophilic chemotherapeutic docetaxel (DTX) and an anionic porphyrin (TPPS4). dcNPs are based on electrostatic interactions between a negative DTX-loaded nanoscaffold of poly(lactide-co-glycolide), a polycationic shell of polyethyleneimine entangling negatively-charged TPPS4 and finally decorated with hyaluronan (HA) to promote internalization through CD44 receptor-mediated endocytosis. DTX/TPPS4-dcNPs, prepared through layer-by-layer deposition, showed a hydrodynamic diameter of around 180 nm, negative zeta potential and efficient loading of both DTX and TPPS4. DTX/TPPS4-dcNPs were freeze-dried with trehalose giving a powder that could be easily dispersed in different media. Excellent stability of dcNPs in specific salt- and protein-containing media was found. Spectroscopic behavior of DTX/TPPS4-dcNPs demonstrated a face-to-face arrangement of the TPPS4 units in non-photoresponsive H-type aggregates accounting for an extensive aggregation of the porphyrin embedded in the shell. Experiments in MDA-MB-231 cells overexpressing the CD44 receptor demonstrated a 9.4-fold increase in the intracellular level of TPPS4 delivered from dcNPs as compared to free TPPS4. Light-induced death increased tremendously in cells that had been treated with a combination of TPPS4 and DTX delivered through dcNPs as compared with free drugs, presumably due to efficient uptake and co-localization inside the cells. In perspective, the strategy proposed here to target synergistic drug combinations through HA-decorated nanoparticles seems very attractive to improve the specificity and efficacy of cancer treatment.In the attempt to develop novel concepts in designing targeted nanoparticles for combination therapy of cancer, we propose here CD44-targeted hyaluronan-decorated double

  14. Intravenous Immunoglobulin Suppresses Abortion Relates to an Increase in the CD44bright NK Subset in Recurrent Pregnancy Loss Model Mice.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Jun; Kitashoji, Akira; Fukunaga, Yuki; Kashihara, Junichi; Nakano, Atsushi; Kamizono, Akihito

    2016-08-01

    Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), which mostly is of unknown etiology (unexplained RPL, uRPL), is defined as three or more consecutive spontaneous abortions. Some women with uRPL display a higher fraction and cytotoxicity of natural killer (NK) cells in the periphery and endometrium. Therefore, some uRPL cases have been explained by autoimmune abnormalities. The efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) for uRPL has been confirmed in several clinical trials; however, its mechanism remains unknown, mainly because the abortion mechanism remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we analyzed the mechanisms of both abortion and IVIg action using a uRPL mouse model in which abortion was induced by lipopolysaccharide injection. IVIg attenuated the abortion rate in the uRPL model mice. The suppressive effect of IVIg was maximized by high dose administration early after lipopolysaccharide injection. Specifically, we discovered the presence of two distinct uterine NK (uNK) subsets: CD44(bright) and CD44(mid) In uRPL model mice, we observed an increase in the number of CD44(bright) uNK cells, while the CD44(mid) uNK subset remained unchanged. Furthermore, when abortion was reduced by IVIg administration, the cell number of the CD44(bright) uNK subset did not increase, which might allow differentiating pathological from normal uNK cells based on CD44 expression. Based on these results, we propose not only an effective administration protocol of IVIg to the uRPL model mice, but also a novel mechanism of abortion related to the increase in the CD44(bright) subset and of IVIg, which suppresses the increase of the CD44(bright) subset.

  15. Effect of CD44 Binding Peptide Conjugated to an Engineered Inert Matrix on Maintenance of Breast Cancer Stem Cells and Tumorsphere Formation

    PubMed Central

    Moeinzadeh, Seyedsina; He, Xuezhong; Jabbari, Esmaiel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction As cancer cells are affected by many factors in their microenvironment, a major challenge is to isolate the effect of a specific factor on cancer stem cells (CSCs) while keeping other factors unchanged. We have developed a synthetic inert 3D polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) gel culture system as a unique tool to study the effect of microenvironmental factors on CSCs response. We have reported that CSCs formed in the inert PEGDA gel by encapsulation of breast cancer cells maintain their stemness within a certain range of gel stiffness. The objective was to investigate the effect of CD44 binding peptide (CD44BP) conjugated to the gel on the maintenance of breast CSCs. Methods 4T1 or MCF7 breast cancer cells were encapsulated in PEGDA gel with CD44BP conjugation. Control groups included dissolved CD44BP and the gel with mutant CD44BP conjugation. Tumorsphere size and density, and expression of CSC markers were determined after 9 days. For in vivo, cell encapsulated gels were inoculated in syngeneic Balb/C mice and tumor formation was determined after 4 weeks. Effect of CD44BP conjugation on breast CSC maintenance was compared with integrin binding RGD peptide (IBP) and fibronectin-derived heparin binding peptide (FHBP). Results Conjugation of CD44BP to the gel inhibited breast tumorsphere formation in vitro and in vivo. The ability of the encapsulated cells to form tumorspheres in the peptide-conjugated gels correlated with the expression of CSC markers. Tumorsphere formation in vitro was enhanced by FHBP while it was abolished by IBP. Conclusion CD44BP and IBP conjugated to the gel abolished tumorsphere formation by encapsulated 4T1 cells while FHBP enhanced tumorsphere formation compared to cells in the gel without peptide. The PEGDA hydrogel culture system provides a novel tool to investigate the individual effect of factors in the microenvironment on CSC maintenance without interference of other factors. PMID:23527117

  16. Selectively Sensitizing Malignant Cells to Photothermal Therapy Using a CD44-Targeting Heat Shock Protein 72 Depletion Nanosystem.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shouju; Tian, Ying; Tian, Wei; Sun, Jing; Zhao, Shuang; Liu, Ying; Wang, Chunyan; Tang, Yuxia; Ma, Xingqun; Teng, Zhaogang; Lu, Guangming

    2016-09-27

    Selectively enhance the therapeutic efficacy to malignancy is one of the most important issues for photothermal therapy (PTT). However, most solid tumors, such as triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), do not have identifiable surface markers to distinguish themselves from normal cells, thus it is challenging to selectively identify and eliminate those malignances by PTT. In this report, we hypothesized that, by targeting CD44 (one TNBC-overexpressed surface molecule) and depleting heat shock protein 72 (HSP72, one malignancy-specific-overexpressed thermotolerance-related chaperone) subsequently, the TNBC could be selectively sensitized to PTT and improve the accuracy of treatment. To this end, a rationally designed nanosystem gold nanostar (GNS)/siRNA against HSP72 (siHSP72)/hyaluronic acid (HA) was successfully constructed using a layer-by-layer method. Hydrodynamic diameter and zeta potential analysis demonstrated the formation of GNS/siHSP72/HA having a particle size of 73.2 ± 3.8 nm and a negative surface charge of -18.3 ± 1.6 mV. The CD44-targeting ability of GNS/siHSP72/HA was confirmed by the flow cytometer, confocal microscopic imaging, and competitive binding analysis. The HSP72 silencing efficacy of GNS/siHSP72/HA was ∼95% in complete culture medium. By targeting CD44 and depleting HSP72 sequentially, GNS/siHSP72/HA could selectively sensitize TNBC cells to hyperthermia and enhance the therapeutic efficacy to TNBC with minimal side effect both in vitro and in vivo. Other advantages of GNS/siHSP72/HA included easy synthesis, robust siRNA loading capacity, endosome/lysosome escaping ability, high photothermal conversion efficacy and superior hemo- and biocompatibility.

  17. Post-translational allosteric activation of the P2X7 receptor through glycosaminoglycan chains of CD44 proteoglycans

    PubMed Central

    Moura, GEDD; Lucena, SV; Lima, MA; Nascimento, FD; Gesteira, TF; Nader, HB; Paredes-Gamero, EJ; Tersariol, ILS

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present evidence for the positive allosteric modulation of the P2X7 receptor through glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in CHO (cell line derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster) cells. The marked potentiation of P2X7 activity through GAGs in the presence of non-saturating agonists concentrations was evident with the endogenous expression of the receptor in CHO cells. The presence of GAGs on the surface of CHO cells greatly increased the sensitivity to adenosine 5′-triphosphate and changed the main P2X7 receptor kinetic parameters EC50, Hill coefficient and Emax. GAGs decreased the allosteric inhibition of P2X7 receptor through Mg2+. GAGs activated P2X7 receptor-mediated cytoplasmic Ca2+ influx and pore formation. Consequently, wild-type CHO-K1 cells were 2.5-fold more sensitive to cell death induced through P2X7 agonists than mutant CHO-745 cells defective in GAGs biosynthesis. In the present study, we provide the first evidence that the P2X7 receptor interacts with CD44 on the CHO-K1 cell surface. Thus, these data demonstrated that GAGs positively modulate the P2X7 receptor, and sCD44 is a part of a regulatory positive feedback loop linking P2X7 receptor activation for the intracellular response mediated through P2X7 receptor stimulation. PMID:27551441

  18. AF1q is a novel TCF7 co-factor which activates CD44 and promotes breast cancer metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jino; Schlederer, Michaela; Schreiber, Martin; Ice, Ryan; Merkel, Olaf; Bilban, Martin; Hofbauer, Sebastian; Kim, Soojin; Addison, Joseph; Zou, Jie; Ji, Chunyan; Bunting, Silvia T.; Wang, Zhengqi; Shoham, Menachem; Huang, Gang; Bago-Horvath, Zsuzsanna; Gibson, Laura F.; Rojanasakul, Yon; Remick, Scot; Ivanov, Alexey; Pugacheva, Elena; Bunting, Kevin D.; Moriggl, Richard

    2015-01-01

    AF1q is an MLL fusion partner that was identified from acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with t (1; 11) (q21; q23) chromosomal abnormality. The function of AF1q is not yet fully known, however, elevated AF1q expression is associated with poor clinical outcomes in various malignancies. Here, we show that AF1q specifically binds to T-cell-factor-7 (TCF7) in the Wnt signaling pathway and results in transcriptional activation of CD44 as well as multiple downstream targets of the TCF7/LEF1. In addition, enhanced AF1q expression promotes breast cancer cell proliferation, migration, mammosphere formation, and chemo-resistance. In xenograft models, enforced AF1q expression in breast cancer cells also promotes liver metastasis and lung colonization. In a cohort of 63 breast cancer patients, higher percentages of AF1q-positive cancer cells in primary sites were associated with significantly poorer overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and brain metastasis-free survival (b-MFS). Using paired primary/metastatic samples from the same patients, we demonstrate that AF1q-positive breast cancer cells become dynamically dominant in the metastatic sites compared to the primary sites. Our findings indicate that breast cancer cells with a hyperactive AF1q/TCF7/CD44 regulatory axis in the primary sites may represent “metastatic founder cells” which have invasive properties. PMID:26079538

  19. LNA aptamer based multi-modal, Fe3O4-saturated lactoferrin (Fe3O4-bLf) nanocarriers for triple positive (EpCAM, CD133, CD44) colon tumor targeting and NIR, MRI and CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Roy, Kislay; Kanwar, Rupinder K; Kanwar, Jagat R

    2015-12-01

    This is the first ever attempt to combine anti-cancer therapeutic effects of emerging anticancer biodrug bovine lactoferrin (bLf), and multimodal imaging efficacy of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) together, as a saturated Fe3O4-bLf. For cancer stem cell specific uptake of nanocapsules/nanocarriers (NCs), Fe3O4-bLf was encapsulated in alginate enclosed chitosan coated calcium phosphate (AEC-CP) NCs targeted (Tar) with locked nucleic acid (LNA) modified aptamers against epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and nucleolin markers. The nanoformulation was fed orally to mice injected with triple positive (EpCAM, CD133, CD44) sorted colon cancer stem cells in the xenograft cancer stem cell mice model. The complete regression of tumor was observed in 70% of mice fed on non-targeted (NT) NCs, with 30% mice showing tumor recurrence after 30 days, while only 10% mice fed with Tar NCs showed tumor recurrence indicating a significantly higher survival rate. From tumor tissue analyses of 35 apoptotic markers, 55 angiogenesis markers, 40 cytokines, 15 stem cell markers and gene expression studies of important signaling molecules, it was revealed that the anti-cancer mechanism of Fe3O4-bLf was intervened through TRAIL, Fas, Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD) mediated phosphorylation of p53, to induce activation of second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (SMAC)/DIABLO (inhibiting survivin) and mitochondrial depolarization leading to release of cytochrome C. Induction of apoptosis was observed by inhibition of the Akt pathway and activation of cytokines released from monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells (interleukin (IL) 27, keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC)). On the other hand, the recurrence of tumor in AEC-CP-Fe3O4-bLf NCs fed mice mainly occurred due to activation of alternative pathways such as mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and Wnt signaling leading to an increase in expression of survivin

  20. Clinical and Prognostic Significance of HIF-1α, PTEN, CD44v6, and Survivin for Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qilun; Jiao, Haiyan; Yang, Wenjun; Liu, Xiaoxia; Huo, Zhenghao

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study was to quantitatively summarize published data for evaluating the clinical and prognostic significance of four proteins involved in hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1α) regulation of the metastasis cascade. Methods Searches were performed using the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Chinese Biomedicine databases without any language restrictions. Studies were pooled and either the summary risk ratio (RR) or odds ratio (OR) was calculated. Potential sources of heterogeneity were sought out via subgroup and sensitivity analyses, and publication bias was also performed. Results Seventeen studies evaluated HIF-1α, 20 studies evaluated phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), 20 studies evaluated Survivin, and 16 studies evaluated CD44v6. Our results showed that increased HIF-1α expression was linked to a poor 5-year overall survival (RR = 1.508; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.318–1.725; P<0.001). Decreased survival was heavily influenced by advanced tumor invasion (OR = 3.050; 95% CI 2.067–4.501; P<0.001), lymph node metastasis (1415 patients; OR = 3.486, 95% CI 2.737–4.440; P<0.001), distant metastasis (OR = 6.635; 95% CI 1.855–23.738; P = 0.004), vascular invasion (OR = 2.368; 95% CI 1.725–3.252; P<0.001), dedifferentiation (OR = 2.112; 95% CI 1.410–3.163; P<0.001), tumor size (OR = 1.921; 95% CI 1.395–2.647; P<0.001), and a higher TNM stage (OR =  2.762; 95% CI 1.941–3.942; P<0.001). Similarly, aberrant expression of PTEN, CD44v6, and Survivin were also observed in tumors that correlated with poor OS. The higher ORs of death at 5 years were 1.637 (95% CI = 1.452–1.845; P<0.001), 1.901 (95% CI = 1.432–2.525; P<0.001), and 1.627 (95% CI = 1.384–1.913; P<0.001), respectively, with an OR>2 for the main stratified meta-analyses of clinical factors. Conclusions Our findings indicate that HIF-1α/PTEN/CD44v6/Survivin, as measured by immunohistochemistry, can be used to predict the

  1. Adhesion-mediated self-renewal abilities of Ph+ blastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Funayama, Keiji; Saito-Kurimoto, Yumi; Ebihara, Yasuhiro; Shimane, Miyuki; Nomura, Hitoshi; Tsuji, Ko-ichiro; Asano, Shigetaka

    2010-05-28

    The Philadelphia chromosome-positive blastoma, maintained by serial subcutaneous transplantation in nude mice, is a highly proliferating biological mass consisting of homogenous CD34{sup +}CD38{sup -} myeloblastoid cells. These cells newly evolved from pluripotent leukemia stem cells of chronic myeloid leukemia in the chronic phase. Therefore, this mass may provide a unique tool for better understanding cellular and molecular mechanisms of self-renewal of leukemia stem cells. In this paper, we demonstrated that intravenously injected blastoma cells can cause Ph+ blastic leukemia with multiple invasive foci in NOD/SCID mice but not in nude mice. In addition, using an in vitro culture system, we clearly showed that blastoma cell adhesion to OP9 stromal cells accelerates blastoma cell proliferation that is associated with up-regulation of BMI1 gene expression; increased levels of {beta}-catenin and the Notch1 intra-cellular domain; and changed the expression pattern of variant CD44 forms, which are constitutively expressed in these blastoma cells. These findings strongly suggest that adhesion of leukemic stem cells to stromal cells via CD44 might be indispensable for their cellular defense against attack by immune cells and for maintenance of their self-renewal ability.

  2. Siah regulation of Pard3A controls neuronal cell adhesion during germinal zone exit.

    PubMed

    Famulski, Jakub K; Trivedi, Niraj; Howell, Danielle; Yang, Yuan; Tong, Yiai; Gilbertson, Richard; Solecki, David J

    2010-12-24

    The brain's circuitry is established by directed migration and synaptogenesis of neurons during development. Although neurons mature and migrate in specific patterns, little is known about how neurons exit their germinal zone niche. We found that cerebellar granule neuron germinal zone exit is regulated by proteasomal degradation of Pard3A by the Seven in Absentia homolog (Siah) E3 ubiquitin ligase. Pard3A gain of function and Siah loss of function induce precocious radial migration. Time-lapse imaging using a probe to measure neuronal cell contact reveals that Pard3A promotes adhesive interactions needed for germinal zone exit by recruiting the epithelial tight junction adhesion molecule C to the neuronal cell surface. Our findings define a Siah-Pard3A signaling pathway that controls adhesion-dependent exit of neuronal progenitors or immature neurons from a germinal zone niche.

  3. Alpha actinin-1 regulates cell-matrix adhesion organization in keratinocytes: consequences for skin cell motility.

    PubMed

    Hamill, Kevin J; Hiroyasu, Sho; Colburn, Zachary T; Ventrella, Rosa V; Hopkinson, Susan B; Skalli, Omar; Jones, Jonathan C R

    2015-04-01

    The migration of keratinocytes in wound healing requires coordinated activities of the motility machinery of a cell, the cytoskeleton, and matrix adhesions. In this study, we assessed the role of alpha actinin-1 (ACTN1), one of the two alpha actinin isoforms expressed in keratinocytes, in skin cell migration via a small hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown approach. Keratinocytes deficient in ACTN1 exhibit changes in their actin cytoskeleton organization, a loss in front-rear polarity, and impaired lamellipodial dynamics. They also display aberrant directed motility and move slower compared with their wild-type counterparts. Moreover, they have abnormally arranged matrix adhesion sites. Specifically, the focal adhesions in ACTN1 knockdown keratinocytes are not organized as distinct entities. Rather, focal adhesion proteins are arranged in a circle subjacent to cortical fibers of actin. In the same cells, hemidesmosome proteins arrange in cat paw patterns, more typical of confluent, stationary cells, and β4 integrin dynamics are reduced in knockdown cells compared with control keratinocytes. In summary, our data suggest a mechanism by which ACTN1 determines the motility of keratinocytes by regulating the organization of the actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesion, and hemidesmosome proteins complexes, thereby modulating cell speed, lamellipodial dynamics, and directed migration. PMID:25431851

  4. Arachidonic Acid Randomizes Endothelial Cell Motion and Regulates Adhesion and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Rossen, Ninna Struck; Hansen, Anker Jon; Selhuber-Unkel, Christine; Oddershede, Lene Broeng

    2011-01-01

    Cell adhesion and migration are essential for the evolution, organization, and repair of living organisms. An example of a combination of these processes is the formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis), which is mediated by a directed migration and adhesion of endothelial cells (ECs). Angiogenesis is an essential part of wound healing and a prerequisite of cancerous tumor growth. We investigated the effect of the amphiphilic compound arachidonic acid (AA) on EC adhesion and migration by combining live cell imaging with biophysical analysis methods. AA significantly influenced both EC adhesion and migration, in either a stimulating or inhibiting fashion depending on AA concentration. The temporal evolution of cell adhesion area was well described by a two-phase model. In the first phase, the spreading dynamics were independent of AA concentration. In the latter phase, the spreading dynamics increased at low AA concentrations and decreased at high AA concentrations. AA also affected EC migration; though the instantaneous speed of individual cells remained independent of AA concentration, the individual cells lost their sense of direction upon addition of AA, thus giving rise to an overall decrease in the collective motion of a confluent EC monolayer into vacant space. Addition of AA also caused ECs to become more elongated, this possibly being related to incorporation of AA in the EC membrane thus mediating a change in the viscosity of the membrane. Hence, AA is a promising non-receptor specific regulator of wound healing and angiogenesis. PMID:21966453

  5. IL-12 and IL-18 induce MAP kinase-dependent adhesion of T cells to extracellular matrix components.

    PubMed

    Ariel, Amiram; Novick, Daniela; Rubinstein, Menachem; Dinarello, Charles A; Lider, Ofer; Hershkoviz, Rami

    2002-07-01

    Cytokines and chemokines play an essential role in recruiting leukocytes from the circulation to the peripheral sites of inflammation by modulating cellular interactions with endothelial cell ligands and extracellular matrix (ECM). Herein, we examined regulation of T cell adhesion to ECM ligands by two major proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-18. IL-12 and IL-18 induced T cell adhesion to fibronectin (FN) and hyaluronic acid at low (pM) concentrations that were mediated by specific adhesion molecules expressed on the T cell surface, namely, beta(1) integrins and CD44, respectively. The induction of adhesion by IL-12 and IL-18 was inhibited by extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors (PD098059 and SB203580, respectively). In contrast, IL-12- and IL-18-induced interferon-gamma (INF-gamma) secretion from T cells was inhibited by SB203580, but not by PD098059. It is interesting that low concentrations of IL-12 and IL-18 induced T cell adhesion to FN in a synergistic manner. Thus, in addition to the regulation of late inflammatory functions such as INF-gamma production, IL-12 and IL-18, alone or in combination, regulate early inflammatory events such as T cell adhesion to inflamed sites. PMID:12101280

  6. Anti-CD44 antibody treatment lowers hyperglycemia and improves insulin resistance, adipose inflammation, and hepatic steatosis in diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Keiichi; Toda, Kyoko; Morinaga, Shojiroh; Yamada, Satoru; Butte, Atul J

    2015-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a metabolic disease affecting >370 million people worldwide. It is characterized by obesity-induced insulin resistance, and growing evidence has indicated that this causative link between obesity and insulin resistance is associated with visceral adipose tissue inflammation. However, using anti-inflammatory drugs to treat insulin resistance and T2D is not a common practice. We recently applied a bioinformatics methodology to open public data and found that CD44 plays a critical role in the development of adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance. In this report, we examined the role of CD44 in T2D by administering daily injections of anti-CD44 monoclonal antibody (mAb) in a high-fat-diet mouse model. Four weeks of therapy with CD44 mAb suppressed visceral adipose tissue inflammation compared with controls and reduced fasting blood glucose levels, weight gain, liver steatosis, and insulin resistance to levels comparable to or better than therapy with the drugs metformin and pioglitazone. These findings suggest that CD44 mAb may be useful as a prototype drug for therapy of T2D by breaking the links between obesity and insulin resistance.

  7. The homing receptor CD44 is involved in the progression of precancerous gastric lesions in patients infected with Helicobacter pylori and in development of mucous metaplasia in mice.

    PubMed

    Garay, Jone; Piazuelo, M Blanca; Majumdar, Sumana; Li, Li; Trillo-Tinoco, Jimena; Del Valle, Luis; Schneider, Barbara G; Delgado, Alberto G; Wilson, Keith T; Correa, Pelayo; Zabaleta, Jovanny

    2016-02-01

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) leads to inflammatory events that can promote gastric cancer development. Immune cells transition from the circulation into the infected mucosa through the interaction of their receptors and ligands in the endothelial compartment. CD44 expression is increased in advanced gastric lesions. However, the association of this molecule with the progression of these lesions over time has not been investigated. In addition, there is a lack of understanding of the CD44-dependent cellular processes that lead to gastritis, and possibly to gastric cancer. Here we studied H. pylori-positive subjects with gastric lesions that ranged from multifocal atrophic gastritis to dysplasia to determine gene expression changes associated with disease progression over a period of 6 years. We report that CD44 expression is significantly increased in individuals whose gastric lesions progressed along the gastric precancerous cascade. We also show that CD44-/- mice develop less severe and less extensive H. pylori-induced metaplasia, and show fewer infiltrating Gr1+ cells compared to wild type mice. We present data suggesting that CD44 is associated with disease progression. Mechanisms associated with these effects include induction of interferon gamma responses.

  8. Efficient CD44-targeted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of breast cancer cells using hyaluronic acid (HA)-modified MnFe2O4 nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Taeksu; Lim, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Jaemin; Kang, Byunghoon; Choi, Jihye; Park, Hyo Seon; Suh, Jin-Suck; Huh, Yong-Min; Haam, Seungjoo

    2013-04-01

    Targeted molecular imaging with hyaluronic acid (HA) has been highlighted in the diagnosis and treatment of CD44-overexpressing cancer. CD44, a receptor for HA, is closely related to the growth of cancer including proliferation, metastasis, invasion, and angiogenesis. For the efficient detection of CD44, we fabricated a few kinds of HA-modified MnFe2O4 nanocrystals (MNCs) to serve as specific magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agents (HA-MRCAs) and compared physicochemical properties, biocompatibility, and the CD44 targeting efficiency. Hydrophobic MNCs were efficiently phase-transferred using aminated polysorbate 80 (P80) synthesized by introducing spermine molecules on the hydroxyl groups of P80. Subsequently, a few kinds of HA-MRCAs were fabricated, conjugating different ratios of HA on the equal amount of phase-transferred MNCs. The optimized conjugation ratio of HA against magnetic content was identified to exhibit not only effective CD44 finding ability but also high cell viability through in vitro experiments. The results of this study demonstrate that the suggested HA-MRCA shows strong potential to be used for accurate tumor diagnosis.

  9. Oropharyngeal malignant epithelial cell, lymphocyte and macrophage CD44 surface receptors for hyaluronate are expressed in sustained EBV infection: immunohistochemical data and EBV DNA tissue indices.

    PubMed

    Groma, Valerija; Kazanceva, Anna; Nora-Krukle, Zaiga; Murovska, Modra

    2012-09-15

    The role of CD44 in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related epithelial tumors is poorly understood. We studied the expression of CD44 in EBV infection in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and measured the EBV DNA. Whole blood, plasma and tissue samples from 8 male and 2 female patients with oral SCC, NPC, salivary gland lymphoepithelioma, normal salivary gland and buccal mucosa were assayed for EBV DNA. Expression of CD44, latent membrane protein (LMP), and labeling of lymphocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells were estimated by immunohistochemistry. Tissue EBV DNA was detected in 7 of 8 cases (87.5%) of oral malignant, benign and border-line lesions. LMP expression levels in tumors varied from absence and minimal to moderate - 50.3, 43.6, 6.0% and 91.1, 6.7, 2.2% for SCC and NPC, respectively. Levels of CD44 positivity in neoplasms were minimal (15.5 and 16.7%), moderate (30.3 and 47.8%), and diffuse (54.2 and 35.5%) for SCC and NPC, respectively, thus deviating from normal oral mucosa revealing heavily stained (100.0%) epithelial contours. CD19-positive B lymphocytes and S100-positive dendritic cells were intermixed with neoplastic cells. Collectively, CD44 mediated signaling may be implicated in EBV infection associated with the pathogenesis of oral SCC and NPC.

  10. Moesin Interacts with the Cytoplasmic Region of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-3 and Is Redistributed to the Uropod of T Lymphocytes during Cell Polarization

    PubMed Central

    Serrador, Juan M.; Alonso-Lebrero, José L.; Pozo, Miguel A. del; Furthmayr, Heinz; Schwartz-Albiez, Reinhard; Calvo, Javier; Lozano, Francisco; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco

    1997-01-01

    During activation, T lymphocytes become motile cells, switching from a spherical to a polarized shape. Chemokines and other chemotactic cytokines induce lymphocyte polarization with the formation of a uropod in the rear pole, where the adhesion receptors intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), ICAM-3, and CD44 redistribute. We have investigated membrane–cytoskeleton interactions that play a key role in the redistribution of adhesion receptors to the uropod. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that the ERM proteins radixin and moesin localized to the uropod of human T lymphoblasts treated with the chemokine RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed, and secreted), a polarization-inducing agent; radixin colocalized with arrays of myosin II at the neck of the uropods, whereas moesin decorated the most distal part of the uropod and colocalized with ICAM-1, ICAM-3, and CD44 molecules. Two other cytoskeletal proteins, β-actin and α-tubulin, clustered at the cell leading edge and uropod, respectively, of polarized lymphocytes. Biochemical analysis showed that moesin coimmunoprecipitates with ICAM-3 in T lymphoblasts stimulated with either RANTES or the polarization- inducing anti–ICAM-3 HP2/19 mAb, as well as in the constitutively polarized T cell line HSB-2. In addition, moesin is associated with CD44, but not with ICAM-1, in polarized T lymphocytes. A correlation between the degree of moesin–ICAM-3 interaction and cell polarization was found as determined by immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation analysis done in parallel. The moesin–ICAM-3 interaction was specifically mediated by the cytoplasmic domain of ICAM-3 as revealed by precipitation of moesin with a GST fusion protein containing the ICAM-3 cytoplasmic tail from metabolically labeled Jurkat T cell lysates. The interaction of moesin with ICAM-3 was greatly diminished when RANTES-stimulated T lymphoblasts were pretreated with the myosin-disrupting drug butanedione monoxime, which

  11. Revealing the Mechanisms of Protein Disorder and N-Glycosylation in CD44-Hyaluronan Binding Using Molecular Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Guvench, Olgun

    2015-01-01

    The extracellular N-terminal hyaluronan binding domain (HABD) of CD44 is a small globular domain that confers hyaluronan (HA) binding functionality to this large transmembrane glycoprotein. When recombinantly expressed by itself, HABD exists as a globular water-soluble protein that retains the capacity to bind HA. This has enabled atomic-resolution structural biology experiments that have revealed the structure of HABD and its binding mode with oligomeric HA. Such experiments have also pointed to an order-to-disorder transition in HABD that is associated with HA binding. However, it had remained unclear how this structural transition was involved in binding since it occurs in a region of HABD distant from the HA-binding site. Furthermore, HABD is known to be N-glycosylated, and such glycosylation can diminish HA binding when the associated N-glycans are capped with sialic acid residues. The intrinsic flexibility of disordered proteins and of N-glycans makes it difficult to apply experimental structural biology approaches to probe the molecular mechanisms of how the order-to-disorder transition and N-glycosylation can modulate HA binding by HABD. We review recent results from molecular dynamics simulations that provide atomic-resolution mechanistic understanding of such modulation to help bridge gaps between existing experimental binding and structural biology data. Findings from these simulations include: Tyr42 may function as a molecular switch that converts the HA-binding site from a low affinity to a high affinity state; in the partially disordered form of HABD, basic amino acids in the C-terminal region can gain sufficient mobility to form direct contacts with bound HA to further stabilize binding; and terminal sialic acids on covalently attached N-glycans can form charge-paired hydrogen bonding interactions with basic amino acids that could otherwise bind to HA, thereby blocking HA binding to glycosylated CD44 HABD. PMID:26136744

  12. Endocytosis Regulates Cell Soma Translocation and the Distribution of Adhesion Proteins in Migrating Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Shieh, Jennifer C.; Schaar, Bruce T.; Srinivasan, Karpagam; Brodsky, Frances M.; McConnell, Susan K.

    2011-01-01

    Newborn neurons migrate from their birthplace to their final location to form a properly functioning nervous system. During these movements, young neurons must attach and subsequently detach from their substrate to facilitate migration, but little is known about the mechanisms cells use to release their attachments. We show that the machinery for clathrin-mediated endocytosis is positioned to regulate the distribution of adhesion proteins in a subcellular region just proximal to the neuronal cell body. Inhibiting clathrin or dynamin function impedes the movement of migrating neurons both in vitro and in vivo. Inhibiting dynamin function in vitro shifts the distribution of adhesion proteins to the rear of the cell. These results suggest that endocytosis may play a critical role in regulating substrate detachment to enable cell body translocation in migrating neurons. PMID:21445347

  13. Targeting Tumor Cells with Anti-CD44 Antibody Triggers Macrophage-Mediated Immune Modulatory Effects in a Cancer Xenograft Model

    PubMed Central

    Maisel, Daniela; Birzele, Fabian; Voss, Edgar; Nopora, Adam; Bader, Sabine; Friess, Thomas; Goller, Bernhard; Laifenfeld, Daphna; Weigand, Stefan; Runza, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    CD44, a transmembrane receptor reported to be involved in various cellular functions, is overexpressed in several cancer types and supposed to be involved in the initiation, progression and prognosis of these cancers. Since the sequence of events following the blockage of the CD44-HA interaction has not yet been studied in detail, we profiled xenograft tumors by RNA Sequencing to elucidate the mode of action of the anti-CD44 antibody RG7356. Analysis of tumor and host gene-expression profiles led us to the hypothesis that treatment with RG7356 antibody leads to an activation of the immune system. Using cytokine measurements we further show that this activation involves the secretion of chemo-attractants necessary for the recruitment of immune cells (i.e. macrophages) to the tumor site. We finally provide evidence for antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) of the malignant cells by macrophages. PMID:27463372

  14. Gradient immobilization of a cell adhesion RGD peptide on thermal responsive surface for regulating cell adhesion and detachment.

    PubMed

    Li, Linhui; Wu, Jindan; Gao, Changyou

    2011-06-15

    Using surface initiated atomic transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and an injection method, a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-b-poly(acrylic acid)-g-RGD (PNIPAAm-b-PAA-g-RGD) gradient surface was prepared. First, a thermoresponsive surface with a constant thickness of PNIPAAm was fabricated, onto which the AA monomers were block copolymerized using the PNIPAAm macromolecules as initiators. During this process, a continuous injection method was employed to yield a molecular weight gradient of PAA on the underlying uniform PNIPAAm layer. RGD peptide was finally covalently immobilized onto the PAA gradient by carbodiimide chemistry. In vitro culture of HepG2 cells showed that immobilization of the RGD peptide could accelerate cell attachment, while the thermoresponsive layer beneath could effectively release the cells by simply lowering temperature. Thus, the PNIPAAm-b-PAA-g-RGD gradient surface, combining the thermal response with cell affinity properties, can well regulate the cell adhesion and detachment, which may thus be useful for investigation of cell-substrate interactions with a smaller number of samples.

  15. Synaptic adhesion molecule IgSF11 regulates synaptic transmission and plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyewon; van Riesen, Christoph; Whitcomb, Daniel; Warburton, Julia M.; Jo, Jihoon; Kim, Doyoun; Kim, Sun Gyun; Um, Seung Min; Kwon, Seok-kyu; Kim, Myoung-Hwan; Roh, Junyeop Daniel; Woo, Jooyeon; Jun, Heejung; Lee, Dongmin; Mah, Won; Kim, Hyun; Kaang, Bong-Kiun; Cho, Kwangwook; Rhee, Jeong-Seop; Choquet, Daniel; Kim, Eunjoon

    2016-01-01

    Summary Synaptic adhesion molecules regulate synapse development and plasticity through mechanisms including trans-synaptic adhesion and recruitment of diverse synaptic proteins. We report here that the immunoglobulin superfamily member 11 (IgSF11), a homophilic adhesion molecule preferentially expressed in the brain, is a novel and dual-binding partner of the postsynaptic scaffolding protein PSD-95 and AMPAR glutamate receptors (AMPARs). IgSF11 requires PSD-95 binding for its excitatory synaptic localization. In addition, IgSF11 stabilizes synaptic AMPARs, as shown by IgSF11 knockdown-induced suppression of AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission and increased surface mobility of AMPARs, measured by high-throughput, single-molecule tracking. IgSF11 deletion in mice leads to suppression of AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission in the dentate gyrus and long-term potentiation in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. IgSF11 does not regulate the functional characteristics of AMPARs, including desensitization, deactivation, or recovery. These results suggest that IgSF11 regulates excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity through its tripartite interactions with PSD-95 and AMPARs. PMID:26595655

  16. The Ret receptor regulates sensory neuron dendrite growth and integrin mediated adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Soba, Peter; Han, Chun; Zheng, Yi; Perea, Daniel; Miguel-Aliaga, Irene; Jan, Lily Yeh; Jan, Yuh Nung

    2015-01-01

    Neurons develop highly stereotyped receptive fields by coordinated growth of their dendrites. Although cell surface cues play a major role in this process, few dendrite specific signals have been identified to date. We conducted an in vivo RNAi screen in Drosophila class IV dendritic arborization (C4da) neurons and identified the conserved Ret receptor, known to play a role in axon guidance, as an important regulator of dendrite development. The loss of Ret results in severe dendrite defects due to loss of extracellular matrix adhesion, thus impairing growth within a 2D plane. We provide evidence that Ret interacts with integrins to regulate dendrite adhesion via rac1. In addition, Ret is required for dendrite stability and normal F-actin distribution suggesting it has an essential role in dendrite maintenance. We propose novel functions for Ret as a regulator in dendrite patterning and adhesion distinct from its role in axon guidance. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05491.001 PMID:25764303

  17. Targeted Nanomedicine for Suppression of CD44 and Simultaneous Cell Death Induction in Ovarian Cancer: an Optimal Delivery of siRNA and Anticancer Drug

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Vatsal; Taratula, Oleh; Garbuzenko, Olga B.; Taratula, Olena R.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna; Minko, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The proposed project is aimed at enhancing the efficiency of epithelial ovarian cancer treatment and reducing adverse side effects of chemotherapy using nanotechnology. Overexpression of the CD44 membrane receptor results in tumor initiation, growth, tumor stem cells specific behavior, development of drug resistance, and metastases. We hypothesize that a developed cancer targeted delivery system which combines CD44 siRNA with paclitaxel would successfully deliver its payload inside cancer cells, effectively induce cell death, and prevent metastases. Experimental Design: We synthesized, characterized, and tested a nanoscale-based drug delivery system containing a modified Polypropylenimine (PPI) dendrimer as a carrier; anticancer drug paclitaxel as a cell death inducer; a synthetic analog of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) peptide as a tumor targeting moiety, and siRNA targeted to CD44 mRNA. The proposed NDDS was tested in vitro and in vivo using metastatic ovarian cancer cells isolated from patients with malignant ascites. Results: We found that in contrast to cells isolated from primary tumors, CD44 was highly overexpressed in metastatic cancer cells. Treatment with the proposed tumor-targeted nanoscale-based nucleic acid and drug delivery system led to the suppression of CD44 mRNA and protein, efficient induction of cell death, effective tumor shrinkage, and prevention of adverse side effects on healthy organs. Conclusion: We show a high therapeutic potential for combinatorial treatment of ovarian carcinoma with a novel drug delivery system that effectively transports siRNA targeting to CD44 mRNA simultaneously with cytotoxic agents. PMID:24036854

  18. Combination of Cancer Stem Cell Markers CD44 and CD24 Is Superior to ALDH1 as a Prognostic Indicator in Breast Cancer Patients with Distant Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Horimoto, Yoshiya; Arakawa, Atsushi; Sasahara, Noriko; Tanabe, Masahiko; Sai, Sei; Himuro, Takanori; Saito, Mitsue

    2016-01-01

    The combination of CD44 and CD24, or aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) alone, is a widely used cancer stem cell marker in breast cancer. However, no conclusion has yet been reached as to which marker is the best for characterizing cancer stemness. Immunohistochemical evaluation using cancer stem cell markers is clearly less common clinically than in basic experiments and how the expressions of these markers relate to patient outcomes remains controversial. To investigate whether combining these markers might improve the prediction of patient outcomes, we immunohistochemically examined clinical samples. Primary invasive breast cancer samples from 61 patients who eventually developed distant metastases after curative surgery were immunohistochemically examined. All patients were free of metastatic disease at the time of surgery and received standard adjuvant systemic treatments. CD44+/24- and ALDH1-positive rates in primary tumors differed according to intrinsic subtype. ER-positive patients with CD44+/24- tumors had significantly longer disease-free-survival than all other ER-positive patients (p = 0.0047). On the other hand, CD44+/24- tumors were associated with poor outcomes of ER-negative patients (p = 0.038). Finally, expression patterns of CD44 and ALDH1 in single tumors were strikingly different and there were virtually no individual double-stained cells. Thus, this combination does not allow evaluation of relationships with patient outcomes. Our results raise the possibility of CD44+/24- being a good prognostic marker, one which would allow treatment effects and outcomes to be predicted in patients with recurrent breast cancer. PMID:27768764

  19. CD44 targeted chemotherapy for co-eradication of breast cancer stem cells and cancer cells using polymeric nanoparticles of salinomycin and paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Muntimadugu, Eameema; Kumar, Rajendra; Saladi, Shantikumar; Rafeeqi, Towseef Amin; Khan, Wahid

    2016-07-01

    This combinational therapy is mainly aimed for complete eradication of tumor by killing both cancer cells and cancer stem cells. Salinomycin (SLM) was targeted towards cancer stem cells whereas paclitaxel (PTX) was used to kill cancer cells. Drug loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles were prepared by emulsion solvent diffusion method using cationic stabilizer. Size of the nanoparticles (below 150nm) was determined by dynamic light scattering technique and transmission electron microscopy. In vitro release study confirmed the sustained release pattern of SLM and PTX from nanoparticles more than a month. Cytotoxicity studies on MCF-7 cells revealed the toxicity potential of nanoparticles over drug solutions. Hyaluronic acid (HA) was coated onto the surface of SLM nanoparticles for targeting CD44 receptors over expressed on cancer stem cells and they showed the highest cytotoxicity with minimum IC50 on breast cancer cells. Synergistic cytotoxic effect was also observed with combination of nanoparticles. Cell uptake studies were carried out using FITC loaded nanoparticles. These particles showed improved cellular uptake over FITC solution and HA coating further enhanced the effect by 1.5 folds. CD44 binding efficiency of nanoparticles was studied by staining MDA-MB-231 cells with anti CD44 human antibody and CD44(+) cells were enumerated using flow cytometry. CD44(+) cell count was drastically decreased when treated with HA coated SLM nanoparticles indicating their efficiency towards cancer stem cells. Combination of HA coated SLM nanoparticles and PTX nanoparticles showed the highest cytotoxicity against CD44(+) cells. Hence combinational therapy using conventional chemotherapeutic drug and cancer stem cell inhibitor could be a promising approach in overcoming cancer recurrence due to resistant cell population.

  20. Decreased expression of autophagy protein LC3 and stemness (CD44+/CD24-/low) indicate poor prognosis in triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shu-Jyuan; Ou-Yang, Fu; Tu, Hung-Pin; Lin, Chih-Hung; Huang, Shu-Hung; Kostoro, Joanna; Hou, Ming-Feng; Chai, Chee-Yin; Kwan, Aij-Lie

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the prognostic value of expression of autophagy protein light chain 3 (LC3) and the prognostic value of coexpression of LC3 and stemness markers CD44+/CD24-/low in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). LC3 and LC3/CD44+/CD24-/low immunophenotypes in tumor tissues were evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 67 TNBC patients. LC3- was expressed in 30 (44.78%) cases. The LC3- phenotype revealed a significant negative association with overall survival in both univariate (P = .0006) and multivariate (P = .0153) analyses. LC3-/CD44+/CD24-/low phenotype was observed in 24 (35.82%) of 67 TNBC patients. According to Kaplan-Meier analysis, prognosis was significantly worse in tumors with LC3-/CD44+/CD24-/low phenotype (P = .0280). Multivariate analysis indicated that LC3-/CD44+/CD24-/low phenotype was a significant independent prognostic indicator of overall survival. These results suggest that LC3 suppresses TNBC in mature tumor cells and cancer stem cells (CSCs). In conclusion, this study suggests that CSCs are linked to progression of autophagy in TNBC. During the progression and development of TNBC, autophagy of CSCs/progenitor cells is low. LC3-/CD44+/CD24-/low immunophenotype indicates a highly aggressive TNBC subgroup associated with a poor prognosis. This study investigated that LC3 deficiency may restrain TNBC in mature tumor cells and CSCs. Therefore, a reasonable inference is that inducing autophagy may be an effective therapeutic strategy in TNBC. PMID:26772398

  1. CD44 targeted chemotherapy for co-eradication of breast cancer stem cells and cancer cells using polymeric nanoparticles of salinomycin and paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Muntimadugu, Eameema; Kumar, Rajendra; Saladi, Shantikumar; Rafeeqi, Towseef Amin; Khan, Wahid

    2016-07-01

    This combinational therapy is mainly aimed for complete eradication of tumor by killing both cancer cells and cancer stem cells. Salinomycin (SLM) was targeted towards cancer stem cells whereas paclitaxel (PTX) was used to kill cancer cells. Drug loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles were prepared by emulsion solvent diffusion method using cationic stabilizer. Size of the nanoparticles (below 150nm) was determined by dynamic light scattering technique and transmission electron microscopy. In vitro release study confirmed the sustained release pattern of SLM and PTX from nanoparticles more than a month. Cytotoxicity studies on MCF-7 cells revealed the toxicity potential of nanoparticles over drug solutions. Hyaluronic acid (HA) was coated onto the surface of SLM nanoparticles for targeting CD44 receptors over expressed on cancer stem cells and they showed the highest cytotoxicity with minimum IC50 on breast cancer cells. Synergistic cytotoxic effect was also observed with combination of nanoparticles. Cell uptake studies were carried out using FITC loaded nanoparticles. These particles showed improved cellular uptake over FITC solution and HA coating further enhanced the effect by 1.5 folds. CD44 binding efficiency of nanoparticles was studied by staining MDA-MB-231 cells with anti CD44 human antibody and CD44(+) cells were enumerated using flow cytometry. CD44(+) cell count was drastically decreased when treated with HA coated SLM nanoparticles indicating their efficiency towards cancer stem cells. Combination of HA coated SLM nanoparticles and PTX nanoparticles showed the highest cytotoxicity against CD44(+) cells. Hence combinational therapy using conventional chemotherapeutic drug and cancer stem cell inhibitor could be a promising approach in overcoming cancer recurrence due to resistant cell population. PMID:27045981

  2. Regulation of promyogenic signal transduction by cell-cell contact and adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, Robert S.

    2010-11-01

    Skeletal myoblast differentiation involves acquisition of the muscle-specific transcriptional program and morphological changes, including fusion into multinucleated myofibers. Differentiation is regulated by extracellular signaling cues, including cell-cell contact and adhesion. Cadherin and Ig adhesion receptors have been implicated in distinct but overlapping stages of myogenesis. N-cadherin signals through the Ig receptor Cdo to activate p38 MAP kinase, while the Ig receptor neogenin signals to activate FAK; both processes promote muscle-specific gene expression and myoblast fusion. M-cadherin activates Rac1 to enhance fusion. Specific Ig receptors (Kirre and Sns) are essential for myoblast fusion in Drosophila, also signaling through Rac, and vertebrate orthologs of Kirre and Sns have partially conserved function. Mice lacking specific cytoplasmic signaling factors activated by multiple receptors (e.g., Rac1) have strong muscle phenotypes in vivo. In contrast, mice lacking individual adhesion receptors that lie upstream of these factors have modest phenotypes. Redundancy among receptors may account for this. Many of the mammalian Ig receptors and cadherins associate with each other, and multivalent interactions within these complexes may require removal of multiple components to reveal dramatic defects in vivo. Nevertheless, it is possible that the murine adhesion receptors rate-limiting in vivo have not yet been identified or fully assessed.

  3. The Focal Adhesion-Localized CdGAP Regulates Matrix Rigidity Sensing and Durotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Wormer, Duncan B.; Davis, Kevin A.; Henderson, James H.; Turner, Christopher E.

    2014-01-01

    Motile cells are capable of sensing the stiffness of the surrounding extracellular matrix through integrin-mediated focal adhesions and migrate towards regions of higher rigidity in a process known as durotaxis. Durotaxis plays an important role in normal development and disease progression, including tumor invasion and metastasis. However, the signaling mechanisms underlying focal adhesion-mediated rigidity sensing and durotaxis are poorly understood. Utilizing matrix-coated polydimethylsiloxane gels to manipulate substrate compliance, we show that cdGAP, an adhesion-localized Rac1 and Cdc42 specific GTPase activating protein, is necessary for U2OS osteosarcoma cells to coordinate cell shape changes and migration as a function of extracellular matrix stiffness. CdGAP regulated rigidity-dependent motility by controlling membrane protrusion and adhesion dynamics, as well as by modulating Rac1 activity. CdGAP was also found to be necessary for U2OS cell durotaxis. Taken together, these data identify cdGAP as an important component of an integrin-mediated signaling pathway that senses and responds to mechanical cues in the extracellular matrix in order to coordinate directed cell motility. PMID:24632816

  4. A dynamic cell adhesion surface regulates tissue architecture in growth plate cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Romereim, Sarah M.; Conoan, Nicholas H.; Chen, Baojiang; Dudley, Andrew T.

    2014-01-01

    The architecture and morphogenetic properties of tissues are founded in the tissue-specific regulation of cell behaviors. In endochondral bones, the growth plate cartilage promotes bone elongation via regulated chondrocyte maturation within an ordered, three-dimensional cell array. A key event in the process that generates this cell array is the transformation of disordered resting chondrocytes into clonal columns of discoid proliferative cells aligned with the primary growth vector. Previous analysis showed that column-forming chondrocytes display planar cell divisions, and the resulting daughter cells rearrange by ∼90° to align with the lengthening column. However, these previous studies provided limited information about the mechanisms underlying this dynamic process. Here we present new mechanistic insights generated by application of a novel time-lapse confocal microscopy method along with immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. We show that, during cell division, daughter chondrocytes establish a cell-cell adhesion surface enriched in cadherins and β-catenin. Rearrangement into columns occurs concomitant with expansion of this adhesion surface in a process more similar to cell spreading than to migration. Column formation requires cell-cell adhesion, as reducing cadherin binding via chelation of extracellular calcium inhibits chondrocyte rearrangement. Importantly, physical indicators of cell polarity, such as cell body alignment, are not prerequisites for oriented cell behavior. Our results support a model in which regulation of adhesive surface dynamics and cortical tension by extrinsic signaling modifies the thermodynamic landscape to promote organization of daughter cells in the context of the three-dimensional growth plate tissue. PMID:24764078

  5. Nuclear actin modulates cell motility via transcriptional regulation of adhesive and cytoskeletal genes

    PubMed Central

    Sharili, Amir S.; Kenny, Fiona N.; Vartiainen, Maria K.; Connelly, John T.

    2016-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is a classic biomechanical mediator of cell migration. While it is known that actin also shuttles in and out of the nucleus, its functions within this compartment remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated how nuclear actin regulates keratinocyte gene expression and cell behavior. Gene expression profiling of normal HaCaT keratinocytes compared to HaCaTs over-expressing wild-type β-actin or β-actin tagged with a nuclear localization sequence (NLS-actin), identified multiple adhesive and cytoskeletal genes, such as MYL9, ITGB1, and VCL, which were significantly down-regulated in keratinocytes with high levels of nuclear actin. In addition, genes associated with transcriptional regulation and apoptosis were up-regulated in cells over expressing NLS-actin. Functionally, accumulation of actin in the nucleus altered cytoskeletal and focal adhesion organization and inhibited cell motility. Exclusion of endogenous actin from the nucleus by knocking down Importin 9 reversed this phenotype and enhanced cell migration. Based on these findings, we conclude that the level of actin in the nucleus is a transcriptional regulator for tuning keratinocyte migration. PMID:27650314

  6. Nuclear actin modulates cell motility via transcriptional regulation of adhesive and cytoskeletal genes.

    PubMed

    Sharili, Amir S; Kenny, Fiona N; Vartiainen, Maria K; Connelly, John T

    2016-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is a classic biomechanical mediator of cell migration. While it is known that actin also shuttles in and out of the nucleus, its functions within this compartment remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated how nuclear actin regulates keratinocyte gene expression and cell behavior. Gene expression profiling of normal HaCaT keratinocytes compared to HaCaTs over-expressing wild-type β-actin or β-actin tagged with a nuclear localization sequence (NLS-actin), identified multiple adhesive and cytoskeletal genes, such as MYL9, ITGB1, and VCL, which were significantly down-regulated in keratinocytes with high levels of nuclear actin. In addition, genes associated with transcriptional regulation and apoptosis were up-regulated in cells over expressing NLS-actin. Functionally, accumulation of actin in the nucleus altered cytoskeletal and focal adhesion organization and inhibited cell motility. Exclusion of endogenous actin from the nucleus by knocking down Importin 9 reversed this phenotype and enhanced cell migration. Based on these findings, we conclude that the level of actin in the nucleus is a transcriptional regulator for tuning keratinocyte migration. PMID:27650314

  7. Feedback Regulation of Cell-Substratum Adhesion by Integrin-Mediated Intracellular Ca2+ Signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjaastad, Michael D.; Angres, Brigitte; Lewis, Richard S.; Nelson, W. James

    1994-08-01

    Integrin binding to extracellular matrix (ECM) regulates cell migration and gene expression in embryogenesis, metastasis, wound healing, and the inflammatory response. In many cases, binding of integrins to ECM triggers intracellular signaling pathways. The regulatory roles of intracellular signaling mechanisms in these events are poorly understood. Using single-cell analysis, we demonstrate that beads coated with peptide containing Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD), an integrin recognition motif found in many ECM proteins, elicit a rapid transient increase in intracellular calcium in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells. Also, significantly more beads bind to responding cells than to nonresponders. Several independent methods that inhibit RGD-induced Ca2+ signaling decrease both the number of beads bound and the strength of adhesion to an RGD-coated substratum. These results indicate that intracellular Ca2+ signaling participates in a positive feedback loop that enhances integrin-mediated cell adhesion

  8. Induced growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in CD133+/CD44+ prostate cancer stem cells by flavopiridol

    PubMed Central

    SONER, BURAK CEM; AKTUG, HUSEYIN; ACIKGOZ, EDA; DUZAGAC, FAHRIYE; GUVEN, UMMU; AYLA, SULE; CAL, CAG; OKTEM, GULPERI

    2014-01-01

    Flavopiridol is a flavone that inhibits several cyclin-dependent kinases and exhibits potent growth-inhibitory activity, apoptosis and G1-phase arrest in a number of human tumor cell lines. Flavopiridol is currently undergoing investigation in human clinical trials. The present study focused on the effect of flavopiridol in cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and apoptosis in prostate cancer stem cells (CSCs). Therefore, cluster of differentiation 133 (CD133)+high/CD44+high prostate CSCs were isolated from the DU145 human prostate cancer cell line. The cells were treated with flavopiridol in a dose- and time-dependent manner to determine the inhibitory effect. Cell viability and proliferation were analyzed and the efficiency of flavopiridol was assessed using the sphere-forming assay. Flavopiridol was applied to monolayer cultures of CD133high/CD44high human prostate CSCs at the following final concentrations: 100, 300, 500 and 1000 nM. The cultures were incubated for 24, 48 and 72 h. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of the drug was determined as 500 nM for monolayer cells. Dead cells were analyzed prior and subsequent to exposure to increasing flavopiridol doses. Annexin-V and immunofluorescence analyses were performed for the evaluation of apoptotic pathways. According to the results, flavopiridol treatment caused significant growth inhibition at 500 and 1000 nM when compared to the control at 24 h. G0/G1 analysis showed a statistically significant difference between 100 and 500 nM (P<0.005), 100 and 1000 nM (P<0.001), 300 and 1000 nM (P<0.001), and 500 and 1000 nM (P<0.001). Flavopiridol also significantly influenced the cells in the G2/M phase, particularly at high-dose treatments. Flavopiridol induced growth inhibition and apoptosis at the IC50 dose (500 nM), resulting in a significant increase in immunofluorescence staining of caspase-3, caspase-8 and p53. In conclusion, the present results indicated that flavopiridol could be a

  9. Mechanical force effect on the two-state equilibrium of the hyaluronan-binding domain of CD44 in cell rolling

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Takashi; Suzuki, Miho; Ogino, Shinji; Umemoto, Ryo; Nishida, Noritaka; Shimada, Ichio

    2015-01-01

    CD44 is the receptor for hyaluronan (HA) and mediates cell rolling under fluid shear stress. The HA-binding domain (HABD) of CD44 interconverts between a low-affinity, ordered (O) state and a high-affinity, partially disordered (PD) state, by the conformational change of the C-terminal region, which is connected to the plasma membrane. To examine the role of tensile force on CD44-mediated rolling, we used a cell-free rolling system, in which recombinant HABDs were attached to beads through a C-terminal or N-terminal tag. We found that the rolling behavior was stabilized only at high shear stress, when the HABD was attached through the C-terminal tag. In contrast, no difference was observed for the beads coated with HABD mutants that constitutively adopt either the O state or the PD state. Steered molecular dynamics simulations suggested that the force from the C terminus disrupts the interaction between the C-terminal region and the core of the domain, thus providing structural insights into how the mechanical force triggers the allosteric O-to-PD transition. Based on these results, we propose that the force applied from the C terminus enhances the HABD–HA interactions by inducing the conformational change to the high-affinity PD transition more rapidly, thereby enabling CD44 to mediate lymphocyte trafficking and hematopoietic progenitor cell homing under high-shear conditions. PMID:26038553

  10. Selective resistance of CD44hi T cells to p53-dependent cell death results in persistence of immunologic memory after total body irradiation.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zhenyu; Jones, Jennifer; Kohrt, Holbrook; Strober, Samuel

    2011-10-15

    Our previous studies showed that treatment of mice with total body irradiation (TBI) or total lymphoid tissue irradiation markedly changes the balance of residual T cell subsets to favor CD4(+)CD44(hi) NKT cells because of the differential resistance of the latter subset to cell death. The object of the current study was to further elucidate the changed balance and mechanisms of differential radioresistance of T cell subsets after graded doses of TBI. The experimental results showed that CD4(+) T cells were markedly more resistant than CD8(+) T cells, and CD44(hi) T cells, including NKT cells and memory T cells, were markedly more resistant than CD44(lo) (naive) T cells. The memory T cells immunized to alloantigens persisted even after myeloablative (1000 cGy) TBI and were able to prevent engraftment of bone marrow transplants. Although T cell death after 1000 cGy was prevented in p53(-/-) mice, there was progressive T cell death in p53(-/-) mice at higher doses. Although p53-dependent T cell death changed the balance of subsets, p53-independent T cell death did not. In conclusion, resistance of CD44(hi) T cells to p53-dependent cell death results in the persistence of immunological memory after TBI and can explain the immune-mediated rejection of marrow transplants in sensitized recipients.

  11. Relationship of PCNA, C-erbB2 and CD44s expression with tumor grade and stage in urothelial carcinomas of the bladder

    PubMed Central

    Yıldırım, Ayhan; Kösem, Mustafa; Sayar, İlyas; Gelincik, İbrahim; Yavuz, Alparslan; Bozkurt, Aliseydi; Erkorkmaz, Ünal; Bayram, İrfan

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the intention was to reveal the relationship of histological grade and stage with c-erbB2, CD44s, and PCNA immunoreactivity in bladder urothelial carcinomas (UC). In our study, we evaluated 46 items of transurethral resection material of patients submitted by YYU Faculty of Medicine, Main Department of Pathology, with a mass revealed in their bladder after clinical and radiological studies at our laboratories and who were diagnosed with urothelial carcinomas. PCNA, c-erbB2, and CD44s were applied in an immunohistochemical manner comprised from nine low-malignant potential papillary urothelial neoplasia, 23 low-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma, and 14 high-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma. Immunostaining was scored according to the percentage of positive cells. The immunohistochemical study demonstrated that the c-erbB2 and PCNA staining ratio increased when an increase occurred in stage and grade. The CD44s staining ratio decreased. C-erbB2, PCNA, and CD44s appear to be a useful marker in the assessment of the prognosis and treatment options in urothelial carcinomas. PMID:25035774

  12. CD44v6 Monoclonal Antibody-Conjugated Gold Nanostars for Targeted Photoacoustic Imaging and Plasmonic Photothermal Therapy of Gastric Cancer Stem-like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Shujing; Li, Chao; Zhang, Chunlei; Chen, Yunsheng; Xu, Liang; Bao, Chenchen; Wang, Xiaoyong; liu, Gang; zhang, Fengchun; Cui, Daxiang

    2015-01-01

    Developing safe and effective nanoprobes for targeted imaging and selective therapy of gastric cancer stem cells (GCSCs) has become one of the most promising anticancer strategies. Herein, gold nanostars-based PEGylated multifunctional nanoprobes were prepared with conjugated CD44v6 monoclonal antibodies (CD44v6-GNS) as the targeting ligands. It was observed that the prepared nanoprobes had high affinity towards GCSC spheroid colonies and destroyed them completely with a low power density upon near-infrared (NIR) laser treatment (790 nm, 1.5 W/cm2, 5 min) in vitro experiment. Orthotopic and subcutaneous xenografted nude mice models of human gastric cancer were established. Subsequently, biodistribution and photothermal therapeutic effects after being intravenously injected with the prepared nanoprobes were assessed. Photoacoustic imaging revealed that CD44v6-GNS nanoprobes could target the gastric cancer vascular system actively at 4 h post-injection, while the probes inhibited tumor growth remarkably upon NIR laser irradiation, and even extended survivability of the gastric cancer-bearing mice. The CD44v6-GNS nanoprobes exhibited great potential for applications of gastric cancer targeted imaging and photothermal therapy in the near future. PMID:26155313

  13. CD44v6 Monoclonal Antibody-Conjugated Gold Nanostars for Targeted Photoacoustic Imaging and Plasmonic Photothermal Therapy of Gastric Cancer Stem-like Cells.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shujing; Li, Chao; Zhang, Chunlei; Chen, Yunsheng; Xu, Liang; Bao, Chenchen; Wang, Xiaoyong; Liu, Gang; Zhang, Fengchun; Cui, Daxiang

    2015-01-01

    Developing safe and effective nanoprobes for targeted imaging and selective therapy of gastric cancer stem cells (GCSCs) has become one of the most promising anticancer strategies. Herein, gold nanostars-based PEGylated multifunctional nanoprobes were prepared with conjugated CD44v6 monoclonal antibodies (CD44v6-GNS) as the targeting ligands. It was observed that the prepared nanoprobes had high affinity towards GCSC spheroid colonies and destroyed them completely with a low power density upon near-infrared (NIR) laser treatment (790 nm, 1.5 W/cm(2), 5 min) in vitro experiment. Orthotopic and subcutaneous xenografted nude mice models of human gastric cancer were established. Subsequently, biodistribution and photothermal therapeutic effects after being intravenously injected with the prepared nanoprobes were assessed. Photoacoustic imaging revealed that CD44v6-GNS nanoprobes could target the gastric cancer vascular system actively at 4 h post-injection, while the probes inhibited tumor growth remarkably upon NIR laser irradiation, and even extended survivability of the gastric cancer-bearing mice. The CD44v6-GNS nanoprobes exhibited great potential for applications of gastric cancer targeted imaging and photothermal therapy in the near future. PMID:26155313

  14. Analysis of Post-Traumatic Brain Injury Gene Expression Signature Reveals Tubulins, Nfe2l2, Nfkb, Cd44, and S100a4 as Treatment Targets.

    PubMed

    Lipponen, Anssi; Paananen, Jussi; Puhakka, Noora; Pitkänen, Asla

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to define the chronically altered gene expression signature of traumatic brain injury (TBI-sig) to discover novel treatments to reverse pathologic gene expression or reinforce the expression of recovery-related genes. Genome-wide RNA-sequencing was performed at 3 months post-TBI induced by lateral fluid-percussion injury in rats. We found 4964 regulated genes in the perilesional cortex and 1966 in the thalamus (FDR < 0.05). TBI-sig was used for a LINCS analysis which identified 11 compounds that showed a strong connectivity with the TBI-sig in neuronal cell lines. Of these, celecoxib and sirolimus were recently reported to have a disease-modifying effect in in vivo animal models of epilepsy. Other compounds revealed by the analysis were BRD-K91844626, BRD-A11009626, NO-ASA, BRD-K55260239, SDZ-NKT-343, STK-661558, BRD-K75971499, ionomycin, and desmethylclomipramine. Network analysis of overlapping genes revealed the effects on tubulins (Tubb2a, Tubb3, Tubb4b), Nfe2l2, S100a4, Cd44, and Nfkb2, all of which are linked to TBI-relevant outcomes, including epileptogenesis and tissue repair. Desmethylclomipramine modulated most of the gene targets considered favorable for TBI outcome. Our data demonstrate long-lasting transcriptomics changes after TBI. LINCS analysis predicted that these changes could be modulated by various compounds, some of which are already in clinical use but never tested in TBI. PMID:27530814

  15. Analysis of Post-Traumatic Brain Injury Gene Expression Signature Reveals Tubulins, Nfe2l2, Nfkb, Cd44, and S100a4 as Treatment Targets

    PubMed Central

    Lipponen, Anssi; Paananen, Jussi; Puhakka, Noora; Pitkänen, Asla

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to define the chronically altered gene expression signature of traumatic brain injury (TBI-sig) to discover novel treatments to reverse pathologic gene expression or reinforce the expression of recovery-related genes. Genome-wide RNA-sequencing was performed at 3 months post-TBI induced by lateral fluid-percussion injury in rats. We found 4964 regulated genes in the perilesional cortex and 1966 in the thalamus (FDR < 0.05). TBI-sig was used for a LINCS analysis which identified 11 compounds that showed a strong connectivity with the TBI-sig in neuronal cell lines. Of these, celecoxib and sirolimus were recently reported to have a disease-modifying effect in in vivo animal models of epilepsy. Other compounds revealed by the analysis were BRD-K91844626, BRD-A11009626, NO-ASA, BRD-K55260239, SDZ-NKT-343, STK-661558, BRD-K75971499, ionomycin, and desmethylclomipramine. Network analysis of overlapping genes revealed the effects on tubulins (Tubb2a, Tubb3, Tubb4b), Nfe2l2, S100a4, Cd44, and Nfkb2, all of which are linked to TBI-relevant outcomes, including epileptogenesis and tissue repair. Desmethylclomipramine modulated most of the gene targets considered favorable for TBI outcome. Our data demonstrate long-lasting transcriptomics changes after TBI. LINCS analysis predicted that these changes could be modulated by various compounds, some of which are already in clinical use but never tested in TBI. PMID:27530814

  16. Analysis of anomalous CD44 gene expression in human breast, bladder, and colon cancer and correlation of observed mRNA and protein isoforms.

    PubMed Central

    Woodman, A. C.; Sugiyama, M.; Yoshida, K.; Sugino, T.; Borgya, A.; Goodison, S.; Matsumura, Y.; Tarin, D.

    1996-01-01

    Many studies have now demonstrated disorganized overexpression of the CD44 gene in various types of human malignant tumors, and this abnormality has emerged as an interesting candidate marker for early cancer diagnosis. The purpose of this work was to analyze and compare the patterns of transcription and translation of this gene in human breast (ZR75-1; MDAMB-435 clone 4A4) and colon (HT29) tumor cell lines and in tumors of the breast, bladder, and colon, with the aim of identifying the most suitable analyte for diagnostic purposes. Transcription was studied by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction using CD44-specific primers and probes complementary to exons in the standard (exons 3 to 5 and 16 to 18) and variably expressed regions of this gene (exons 7, 8, 10, 11, and 15). Translation was investigated by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies specific to the standard form of CD44 and to the products of the same variant exons. Southern blot hybridization analysis of the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction products showed a large number of CD44 transcripts in tumor cells. Direct comparison of these Southern blots with Western blots on matched tumor-cell-line extracts indicated that most of the diverse mRNA isoforms did not detectably translate into proteins. However, immunohistochemistry of normal and malignant breast (n = 17 and 23, respectively), bladder (n = 5 and 19), and colon (n = 19 and 19) tissue specimens showed increased staining of CD44 standard and CD44 variant proteins in the carcinoma cells. Combination of this information with the data from reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis indicates that the overexpression at the protein level involves only a minority of the aberrant RNA transcripts. We conclude that the development of methods for the accurate quantitation of over-abundant CD44 RNA species in clinical samples offers the most promising approach to

  17. Dual-targeting hybrid nanoparticles for the delivery of SN38 to Her2 and CD44 overexpressed human gastric cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhe; Luo, Huiyan; Cao, Zhong; Chen, Ya; Gao, Jinbiao; Li, Yingqin; Jiang, Qing; Xu, Ruihua; Liu, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Gastric cancer (GC), particularly of the type with high expression of both human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2) and cluster determinant 44 (CD44), is one of the most malignant human tumors which causes a high mortality rate due to rapid tumor growth and metastasis. To develop effective therapeutic treatments, a dual-targeting hybrid nanoparticle (NP) system was designed and constructed to deliver the SN38 agent specifically to human solid gastric tumors bearing excessive Her2 and CD44. The hybrid NPs consist of a particle core made of the biodegradable polymer PLGA and a lipoid shell prepared by conjugating the AHNP peptides and n-hexadecylamine (HDA) to the carboxyl groups of hyaluronic acid (HA). Upon encapsulation of the SN38 agent in the NPs, the AHNP peptides and HA on the NP surface allow preferential delivery of the drug to gastric cancer cells (e.g., HGC27 cells) by targeting Her2 and CD44. Cellular uptake and in vivo biodistribution experiments verified the active targeting and prolonged in vivo circulation properties of the dual-targeting hybrid NPs, leading to enhanced accumulation of the drug in tumors. Furthermore, the anti-proliferation mechanism studies revealed that the inhibition of the growth and invasive activity of HGC27 cells was not only attributed to the enhanced cellular uptake of dual-targeting NPs, but also benefited from the suppression of CD44 and Her2 expression by HA and AHNP moieties. Finally, intravenous administration of the SN38-loaded dual-targeting hybrid NPs induced significant growth inhibition of HGC27 tumor xenografted in nude mice compared with a clinical antitumor agent, Irinotecan (CPT-11), and the other NP formulations. These results demonstrate that the designed dual-targeting hybrid NPs are promising for targeted anti-cancer drug delivery to treat human gastric tumors over-expressing Her2 and CD44.Gastric cancer (GC), particularly of the type with high expression of both human epidermal growth factor receptor

  18. Focal adhesion kinase regulates expression of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ho, Baotran; Huang, Grace; Golubovskaya, Vita M

    2014-01-01

    Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) plays an important role in cancer cell survival. Previous microarray gene profiling study detected inverse regulation between expression of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) and FAK, where down-regulation of FAK by siRNA in MCF-7 cells caused up-regulation of TXNIP mRNA level, and in contrast up-regulation of doxycyclin- induced FAK caused repression of TXNIP. In the present report, we show that overexpression of FAK in MCF-7 cells repressed TXNIP promoter activity. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with 1alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) down-regulated endogenous FAK and up-regulated TXNIP protein level, and treatment with 5-FU decreased FAK protein expression and up-regulated TXNIP protein expression in 293 cells. Moreover, silencing of FAK with siRNA increased TXNIP protein expression, while overexpression of FAK inhibited TXNIP protein expression in 293 cells. In addition, treatment of DBTRG glioblastoma cells with FAK inhibitor Y15 increased TXNIP mRNA, decreased cancer cell viability and increased apoptosis. These results for the first time demonstrate FAK-regulated TXNIP expression which is important for apoptotic, survival and oxidative stress signaling pathways in cancer cells. PMID:23387972

  19. Secreted Frizzled-related protein 1 (sFRP1) regulates spermatid adhesion in the testis via dephosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase and the nectin-3 adhesion protein complex

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Elissa W. P.; Lee, Will M.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2013-01-01

    Development of spermatozoa in adult mammalian testis during spermatogenesis involves extensive cell migration and differentiation. Spermatogonia that reside at the basal compartment of the seminiferous epithelium differentiate into more advanced germ cell types that migrate toward the apical compartment until elongated spermatids are released into the tubule lumen during spermiation. Apical ectoplasmic specialization (ES; a testis-specific anchoring junction) is the only cell junction that anchors and maintains the polarity of elongating/elongated spermatids (step 8–19 spermatids) in the epithelium. Little is known regarding the signaling pathways that trigger the disassembly of the apical ES at spermiation. Here, we show that secreted Frizzled-related protein 1 (sFRP1), a putative tumor suppressor gene that is frequently down-regulated in multiple carcinomas, is a crucial regulatory protein for spermiation. The expression of sFRP1 is tightly regulated in adult rat testis to control spermatid adhesion and sperm release at spermiation. Down-regulation of sFRP1 during testicular development was found to coincide with the onset of the first wave of spermiation at approximately age 45 d postpartum, implying that sFRP1 might be correlated with elongated spermatid adhesion conferred by the apical ES before spermiation. Indeed, administration of sFRP1 recombinant protein to the testis in vivo delayed spermiation, which was accompanied by down-regulation of phosphorylated (p)-focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-Tyr397 and retention of nectin-3 adhesion protein at the apical ES. To further investigate the functional relationship between p-FAK-Tyr397 and localization of nectin-3, we overexpressed sFRP1 using lentiviral vectors in the Sertoli-germ cell coculture system. Consistent with the in vivo findings, overexpression of sFRP1 induced down-regulation of p-FAK-Tyr397, leading to a decline in phosphorylation of nectin-3. In summary, this report highlights the critical role of s

  20. Differential regulation of leukocyte function-associated antigen-1/ intercellular adhesion molecules-1-dependent adhesion and aggregation in HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, K; Kinashi, T; Irie, S; Katagiri, T

    1996-05-15

    Activation of integrin and organization of cytoskeletal proteins are highly regulated in cell adhesion and aggregation. The interaction of leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) and intercellular adhesion molecules-1 (ICAM-1) mediates cell adhesion and aggregation, which facilitate leukocyte trafficking to inflamed tissues and augment effector functions. We investigated how LFA-1/ICAM-1-mediated adhesion and aggregation are regulated in HL-60 cells induced to differentiate into neutrophils by retinoic acid (RA). Uninduced HL-60 cells did not bind to ICAM-1 even with stimulation by 12-0-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate, although they express LFA-1 on the cell surface. When cultured with RA for 24 hours, HL-60 cells were able to adhere to ICAM-1 constitutively. The induction of adhesion did not accompany any change in surface density of LFA-1, indicating that the avidity of LFA-1 was increased. The change in its avidity required de novo synthesis of proteins. Although ICAM-1 was intensely expressed on RA-induced HL-60 cells, these cells did not show any cellular aggregation. The HL-60 cells transfected with the active form of Ras (Val12) exhibited LFA-1/ICAM-1-dependent aggregation by RA stimulation without change in the avidity of LFA-1. In these Ras-transfectants, a cytoskeletal protein, paxillin, was tyrosine-phosphorylated, and the level of F-actin increased. Transforming growth factor (TGF) beta, as well as cytochalasin D, prevented both the tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin and the aggregation without any effects on the avidity of LFA-1. Thus, an increase in the avidity of LFA-1 was not sufficient for the induction of aggregation, which required activation of Ras and reorganization of cytoskeletal proteins. These results suggest that distinct regulatory mechanisms control LFA-1/ICAM-1-dependent adhesion and aggregation in HL-60 cells differentiating into neutrophils.

  1. Dual-targeting hybrid nanoparticles for the delivery of SN38 to Her2 and CD44 overexpressed human gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhe; Luo, Huiyan; Cao, Zhong; Chen, Ya; Gao, Jinbiao; Li, Yingqin; Jiang, Qing; Xu, Ruihua; Liu, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Gastric cancer (GC), particularly of the type with high expression of both human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2) and cluster determinant 44 (CD44), is one of the most malignant human tumors which causes a high mortality rate due to rapid tumor growth and metastasis. To develop effective therapeutic treatments, a dual-targeting hybrid nanoparticle (NP) system was designed and constructed to deliver the SN38 agent specifically to human solid gastric tumors bearing excessive Her2 and CD44. The hybrid NPs consist of a particle core made of the biodegradable polymer PLGA and a lipoid shell prepared by conjugating the AHNP peptides and n-hexadecylamine (HDA) to the carboxyl groups of hyaluronic acid (HA). Upon encapsulation of the SN38 agent in the NPs, the AHNP peptides and HA on the NP surface allow preferential delivery of the drug to gastric cancer cells (e.g., HGC27 cells) by targeting Her2 and CD44. Cellular uptake and in vivo biodistribution experiments verified the active targeting and prolonged in vivo circulation properties of the dual-targeting hybrid NPs, leading to enhanced accumulation of the drug in tumors. Furthermore, the anti-proliferation mechanism studies revealed that the inhibition of the growth and invasive activity of HGC27 cells was not only attributed to the enhanced cellular uptake of dual-targeting NPs, but also benefited from the suppression of CD44 and Her2 expression by HA and AHNP moieties. Finally, intravenous administration of the SN38-loaded dual-targeting hybrid NPs induced significant growth inhibition of HGC27 tumor xenografted in nude mice compared with a clinical antitumor agent, Irinotecan (CPT-11), and the other NP formulations. These results demonstrate that the designed dual-targeting hybrid NPs are promising for targeted anti-cancer drug delivery to treat human gastric tumors over-expressing Her2 and CD44. PMID:27203688

  2. Modulation of superantigen-induced T-cell deletion by antibody anti-Pgp-1 (CD44).

    PubMed Central

    Ayroldi, E; Cannarile, L; Ricardi, C

    1996-01-01

    We examined the effects of anti-Pgp-1 (CD44) antibody on the in vitro deletion of murine CD4 and CD8 single positive T cells induced by Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB). Soluble anti-Pgp-1 antibody enhanced the apoptosis and decreased the proliferation of SEB-responding T cells. In contrast, cross-linked anti-Pgp-1 antibody provided costimulatory signals for the T-cell activation induced by anti-CD3 antibody. Hyaluronic acid (HA), a ligand of Pgp-1, did not affect proliferation and deletion induced by SEB, whereas it mimicked the effects of the cross-linked antibody in anti-CD3-driven proliferation. T-cell Pgp-1 surface expression after 48 hr incubation with SEB was unchanged as compared to unstimulated cells. However, when the memory T cells were established, some V beta 8+ (SEB-specific) T cells Pgp-1low became Pgp-1high, displaying a bimodal character. Moreover, the Pgp-1 increased expression correlated with an increase of Pgp-1 soluble form in the supernatant. These findings suggested that signals following the triggering of the Pgp-1 molecule are important in controlling T-cell survival. Images Figure 7 PMID:8698379

  3. Secretagogin affects insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells by regulating actin dynamics and focal adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Seo-Yun; Lee, Jae-Jin; Lee, Jin-Hee; Lee, Kyungeun; Oh, Seung Hoon; Lim, Yu-Mi; Lee, Myung-Shik; Lee, Kong-Joo

    2016-01-01

    Secretagogin (SCGN), a Ca2+-binding protein having six EF-hands, is selectively expressed in pancreatic β-cells and neuroendocrine cells. Previous studies suggested that SCGN enhances insulin secretion by functioning as a Ca2+-sensor protein, but the underlying mechanism has not been elucidated. The present study explored the mechanism by which SCGN enhances glucose-induced insulin secretion in NIT-1 insulinoma cells. To determine whether SCGN influences the first or second phase of insulin secretion, we examined how SCGN affects the kinetics of insulin secretion in NIT-1 cells. We found that silencing SCGN suppressed the second phase of insulin secretion induced by glucose and H2O2, but not the first phase induced by KCl stimulation. Recruitment of insulin granules in the second phase of insulin secretion was significantly impaired by knocking down SCGN in NIT-1 cells. In addition, we found that SCGN interacts with the actin cytoskeleton in the plasma membrane and regulates actin remodelling in a glucose-dependent manner. Since actin dynamics are known to regulate focal adhesion, a critical step in the second phase of insulin secretion, we examined the effect of silencing SCGN on focal adhesion molecules, including FAK (focal adhesion kinase) and paxillin, and the cell survival molecules ERK1/2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2) and Akt. We found that glucose- and H2O2-induced activation of FAK, paxillin, ERK1/2 and Akt was significantly blocked by silencing SCGN. We conclude that SCGN controls glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and thus may be useful in the therapy of Type 2 diabetes. PMID:27095850

  4. Allosteric Regulation of Focal Adhesion Kinase by PIP2 and ATP

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jing; Bronowska, Agnieszka; Le Coq, Johanne; Lietha, Daniel; Gräter, Frauke

    2015-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase that regulates cell signaling, proliferation, migration, and development. A major mechanism of regulation of FAK activity is an intramolecular autoinhibitory interaction between two of its domains—the catalytic and FERM domains. Upon cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix, FAK is being translocated toward focal adhesion sites and activated. Interactions of FAK with phosphoinositide phosphatidylinsositol-4,5-bis-phosphate (PIP2) are required to activate FAK. However, the molecular mechanism of the activation remains poorly understood. Recent fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments revealed a closure of the FERM-kinase interface upon ATP binding, which is reversed upon additional binding of PIP2. Here, we addressed the allosteric regulation of FAK by performing all-atom molecular-dynamics simulations of a FAK fragment containing the catalytic and FERM domains, and comparing the dynamics in the absence or presence of ATP and PIP2. As a major conformational change, we observe a closing and opening motion upon ATP and additional PIP2 binding, respectively, in good agreement with the fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments. To reveal how the binding of the regulatory PIP2 to the FERM F2 lobe is transduced to the very distant F1/N-lobe interface, we employed force distribution analysis. We identified a network of mainly charged residue-residue interactions spanning from the PIP2 binding site to the distant interface between the kinase and FERM domains, comprising candidate residues for mutagenesis to validate the predicted mechanism of FAK activation. PMID:25650936

  5. Secretagogin affects insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells by regulating actin dynamics and focal adhesion.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seo-Yun; Lee, Jae-Jin; Lee, Jin-Hee; Lee, Kyungeun; Oh, Seung Hoon; Lim, Yu-Mi; Lee, Myung-Shik; Lee, Kong-Joo

    2016-06-15

    Secretagogin (SCGN), a Ca(2+)-binding protein having six EF-hands, is selectively expressed in pancreatic β-cells and neuroendocrine cells. Previous studies suggested that SCGN enhances insulin secretion by functioning as a Ca(2+)-sensor protein, but the underlying mechanism has not been elucidated. The present study explored the mechanism by which SCGN enhances glucose-induced insulin secretion in NIT-1 insulinoma cells. To determine whether SCGN influences the first or second phase of insulin secretion, we examined how SCGN affects the kinetics of insulin secretion in NIT-1 cells. We found that silencing SCGN suppressed the second phase of insulin secretion induced by glucose and H2O2, but not the first phase induced by KCl stimulation. Recruitment of insulin granules in the second phase of insulin secretion was significantly impaired by knocking down SCGN in NIT-1 cells. In addition, we found that SCGN interacts with the actin cytoskeleton in the plasma membrane and regulates actin remodelling in a glucose-dependent manner. Since actin dynamics are known to regulate focal adhesion, a critical step in the second phase of insulin secretion, we examined the effect of silencing SCGN on focal adhesion molecules, including FAK (focal adhesion kinase) and paxillin, and the cell survival molecules ERK1/2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2) and Akt. We found that glucose- and H2O2-induced activation of FAK, paxillin, ERK1/2 and Akt was significantly blocked by silencing SCGN. We conclude that SCGN controls glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and thus may be useful in the therapy of Type 2 diabetes. PMID:27095850

  6. Molecular association of CD98, CD29, and CD147 critically mediates monocytic U937 cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Yeon; Cho, Jae Youl

    2016-09-01

    Adhesion events of monocytes represent an important step in inflammatory responses induced by chemokines. The β1-integrin CD29 is a major adhesion molecule regulating leukocyte migration and extravasation. Although several adhesion molecules have been known as regulators of CD29, the molecular interactions between CD29 and its regulatory adhesion molecules (such as CD98 and CD147) have not been fully elucidated. Therefore, in this study, we examined whether these molecules are functionally, biochemically, and cell-biologically associated using monocytic U937 cells treated with aggregation-stimulating and blocking antibodies, as well as enzyme inhibitors. The surface levels of CD29, CD98, and CD147 (but not CD43, CD44, and CD82) were increased. The activation of CD29, CD98, and CD147 by ligation of them with aggregation-activating antibodies triggered the induction of cell-cell adhesion, and sensitivity to various enzyme inhibitors and aggregation-blocking antibodies was similar for CD29-, CD98-, and CD147-induced U937 cell aggregation. Molecular association between these molecules and the actin cytoskeleton was confirmed by confocal microscopy and immunoprecipitation. These results strongly suggest that CD29 might be modulated by its biochemical and cellular regulators, including CD98 and CD147, via the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:27610038

  7. Molecular association of CD98, CD29, and CD147 critically mediates monocytic U937 cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Adhesion events of monocytes represent an important step in inflammatory responses induced by chemokines. The β1-integrin CD29 is a major adhesion molecule regulating leukocyte migration and extravasation. Although several adhesion molecules have been known as regulators of CD29, the molecular interactions between CD29 and its regulatory adhesion molecules (such as CD98 and CD147) have not been fully elucidated. Therefore, in this study, we examined whether these molecules are functionally, biochemically, and cell-biologically associated using monocytic U937 cells treated with aggregation-stimulating and blocking antibodies, as well as enzyme inhibitors. The surface levels of CD29, CD98, and CD147 (but not CD43, CD44, and CD82) were increased. The activation of CD29, CD98, and CD147 by ligation of them with aggregation-activating antibodies triggered the induction of cell-cell adhesion, and sensitivity to various enzyme inhibitors and aggregation-blocking antibodies was similar for CD29-, CD98-, and CD147-induced U937 cell aggregation. Molecular association between these molecules and the actin cytoskeleton was confirmed by confocal microscopy and immunoprecipitation. These results strongly suggest that CD29 might be modulated by its biochemical and cellular regulators, including CD98 and CD147, via the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:27610038

  8. Molecular association of CD98, CD29, and CD147 critically mediates monocytic U937 cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Adhesion events of monocytes represent an important step in inflammatory responses induced by chemokines. The β1-integrin CD29 is a major adhesion molecule regulating leukocyte migration and extravasation. Although several adhesion molecules have been known as regulators of CD29, the molecular interactions between CD29 and its regulatory adhesion molecules (such as CD98 and CD147) have not been fully elucidated. Therefore, in this study, we examined whether these molecules are functionally, biochemically, and cell-biologically associated using monocytic U937 cells treated with aggregation-stimulating and blocking antibodies, as well as enzyme inhibitors. The surface levels of CD29, CD98, and CD147 (but not CD43, CD44, and CD82) were increased. The activation of CD29, CD98, and CD147 by ligation of them with aggregation-activating antibodies triggered the induction of cell-cell adhesion, and sensitivity to various enzyme inhibitors and aggregation-blocking antibodies was similar for CD29-, CD98-, and CD147-induced U937 cell aggregation. Molecular association between these molecules and the actin cytoskeleton was confirmed by confocal microscopy and immunoprecipitation. These results strongly suggest that CD29 might be modulated by its biochemical and cellular regulators, including CD98 and CD147, via the actin cytoskeleton.

  9. Regulation of platelet biology by platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1.

    PubMed

    Jones, Chris I; Moraes, Leonardo A; Gibbins, Jonathan M

    2012-01-01

    Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1), an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif containing receptor, plays diverse and apparently contradictory roles in regulating the response of platelets to stimuli; inhibiting platelet response to immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif and G protein-coupled receptor signalling following stimulation with collagen, adenosine diphosphate, and thrombin, as well as enhancing integrin outside-in signalling. These dual, and opposing, roles suggest an important and complex role for PECAM-1 in orchestrating platelet response to vascular damage. Indeed, during thrombus formation, the influence of PECAM-1 on the multiple signalling pathways combines leading to a relatively large inhibitory effect on thrombus formation. PMID:22035359

  10. PAK–PIX interactions regulate adhesion dynamics and membrane protrusion to control neurite outgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Santiago-Medina, Miguel; Gregus, Kelly A.; Gomez, Timothy M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The roles of P21-activated kinase (PAK) in the regulation of axon outgrowth downstream of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are poorly understood. Here we show that PAK1–3 and PIX are expressed in the developing spinal cord and differentially localize to point contacts and filopodial tips within motile growth cones. Using a specific interfering peptide called PAK18, we found that axon outgrowth is robustly stimulated on laminin by partial inhibition of PAK–PIX interactions and PAK function, whereas complete inhibition of PAK function stalls axon outgrowth. Furthermore, modest inhibition of PAK–PIX stimulates the assembly and turnover of growth cone point contacts, whereas strong inhibition over-stabilizes adhesions. Point mutations within PAK confirm the importance of PIX binding. Together our data suggest that regulation of PAK–PIX interactions in growth cones controls neurite outgrowth by influencing the activity of several important mediators of actin filament polymerization and retrograde flow, as well as integrin-dependent adhesion to laminin. PMID:23321640

  11. Calcium- and integrin-binding protein 1 regulates megakaryocyte ploidy, adhesion, and migration

    PubMed Central

    Kostyak, John C.; Naik, Meghna U.

    2012-01-01

    Megakaryocytes are large, polyploid cells that produce platelets. We have previously reported that calcium- and integrin-binding protein 1 (CIB1) regulates endomitosis in Dami cells. To further characterize the role of CIB1 in megakaryopoiesis, we used a Cib1−/− mouse model. Cib1−/− mice have more platelets and BM megakaryocytes than wild-type (WT) controls (P < .05). Furthermore, subsequent analysis of megakaryocyte-CFU production revealed an increase with Cib1 deletion compared with WT (P < .05). In addition, BM from Cib1−/− mice, cultured with thrombopoietin (TPO) for 24 hours, produced more highly polyploid megakaryocytes than WT BM (P < .05). Subsequent analysis of TPO signaling revealed enhanced Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, whereas FAKY925 phosphorylation was reduced in Cib1−/− megakaryocytes treated with TPO. Conversely, platelet recovery in Cib1−/− mice after platelet depletion was attenuated compared with WT (P < .05). This could be the result of impaired adhesion and migration, as adhesion to fibrinogen and fibronectin and migration toward an SDF-1α gradient were reduced in Cib1−/− megakaryocytes compared with WT (P < .05). In addition, Cib1−/− megakaryocytes formed fewer proplatelets compared with WT (P < .05), when plated on fibrinogen. These data suggest that CIB1 plays a dual role in megakaryopoiesis, initially by negatively regulating TPO signaling and later by augmenting proplatelet production. PMID:22128142

  12. Extracellular Matrix Rigidity-dependent Sphingosine-1-phosphate Secretion Regulates Metastatic Cancer Cell Invasion and Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Panseon; Kim, Daehwan; You, Eunae; Jung, Jangho; Oh, Somi; Kim, Jaehyun; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Rhee, Sangmyung

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic interaction between cancer cells and the surrounding microenvironment is critical for cancer progression via changes in cellular behavior including alteration of secreted molecules. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the influence exerted by the cancer microenvironment on secretion of molecules during cancer progression remain largely unknown. In this study, we report that secretion of spingsine-1-phosphate (S1P) and its regulator, SphK1 expression is dependent of the substrate rigidity, which is critical for the balance between cancer cell invasion and adhesion. Conditioned media (CM) of MDA-MB-231, an aggressive breast cancer cell obtained from soft substrate (~0.5 kPa) induced chemo-attractive invasion, while CM obtained from stiff substrate (~2.5 kPa) increased cell adhesion instead. We found that the expression of SphK1 is upregulated in the stiff substrate, resulting in an increase in S1P levels in the CM. We also found that upregulation of SphK1 expression in the stiff substrate is dominant in metastatic cancer cells but not in primary cancer cells. These results suggest that alterations in the mechanical environment of the ECM surrounding the tumor cells actively regulate cellular properties such as secretion, which in turn, may contribute to cancer progression. PMID:26877098

  13. SynCAM 1 Adhesion Dynamically Regulates Synapse Number and Impacts Plasticity and Learning

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Elissa M.; Krupp, Alexander J.; de Arce, Karen Perez; Ghosh, Ananda K.; Fogel, Adam I.; Boucard, Antony; Südhof, Thomas C.; Stein, Valentin; Biederer, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Summary Synaptogenesis is required for wiring neuronal circuits in the developing brain and continues to remodel adult networks. However, the molecules organizing synapse development and maintenance in vivo remain incompletely understood. We now demonstrate that the immunoglobulin adhesion molecule SynCAM 1 dynamically alters synapse number and plasticity. Overexpression of SynCAM 1 in transgenic mice promotes excitatory synapse number, while loss of SynCAM 1 results in fewer excitatory synapses. By turning off SynCAM 1 overexpression in transgenic brains, we show that it maintains the newly induced synapses. SynCAM 1 also functions at mature synapses to alter their plasticity by regulating long-term depression. Consistent with these effects on neuronal connectivity, SynCAM 1 expression affects spatial learning, with knock-out mice learning better. The reciprocal effects of increased SynCAM 1 expression and loss reveal that this adhesion molecule contributes to the regulation of synapse number and plasticity, and impacts how neuronal networks undergo activity-dependent changes. PMID:21145003

  14. Label-free proteomics uncovers energy metabolism and focal adhesion regulations responsive for endometrium receptivity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qian; Zhang, Aijun; Yu, Feng; Gao, Jing; Liu, Yue; Yu, Chengli; Zhou, Hu; Xu, Chen

    2015-04-01

    The menstrual cycle of the female uterus leads to periodic changes of the endometrium. These changes are important for developing the endometrial receptivity and for achieving competency of embryo implantation. However, the molecular events underlying the endometrial receptivity process remain poorly understood. Here we applied an LC-MS-based label-free quantitative proteomic approach to compare the endometrial tissues in the midsecretory (receptive) phase with the endometrial tissues in the proliferative phase from age-matched woman (n = 6/group). The proteomes of endometrial tissues were extracted using an SDS-based detergent, digested by the filter-aided sample preparation procedures, and subsequently analyzed by nano-LC-MS/MS (Orbitrap XL) with a 4 h gradient. Reliable protein expression profiles were reproducibly obtained from the endometrial tissues in the receptive and proliferative phases. A total of 2138 protein groups were quantified under highly stringent criteria with a false discovery rate of <1% for peptide and protein groups. Among these proteins, 317 proteins had differences in expression that were statistically significant between the receptive and proliferative phases. Direct protein-protein interaction network analyses of these significantly changed proteins showed that the up-regulation of creatine kinase B-type (CKB) in the receptive phase may be related to endometrium receptivity. The interaction network also showed that proteins related to cell-cell adhesion were down-regulated. Moreover, the results from KEGG pathway analyses are consistent with the protein-protein interaction results. The proteins, including alpha-actinin (ACTN), extracellular matrix proteins, integrin alpha-V, and so on, that are involved in the focal adhesion pathway were down-regulated in the receptive phase compared with the proliferative phase, which may facilitate the implantation of the fertilized ovum. Selected proteins were validated by Western blot analysis and

  15. Detection of exfoliated carcinoma cells in colonic luminal washings by identification of deranged patterns of expression of the CD44 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, K; Sugino, T; Bolodeoku, J; Warren, B F; Goodison, S; Woodman, A; Toge, T; Tahara, E; Tarin, D

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate whether colonic cancer cells exfoliated into the lumen of the organ can be detected by identification of their abnormal CD44 gene products. METHODS: Exfoliated cells were obtained by centrifugation of saline wash-outs of 27 surgically resected colon specimens obtained from 15 patients with carcinoma, seven with ulcerative colitis and five with Crohn's disease. After extracting cellular mRNA, amplification by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique and analysis by Southern blot hybridisation was carried out to examine the levels and patterns of transcription of exons 11(v6), and 12(v7) and intron 9 of the CD44 gene. The transcription of these CD44 components was also examined by RT-PCR of snap-frozen solid tissue specimens from 11 of the above patients with colorectal carcinoma, seven with ulcerative colitis and five with Crohn's disease. RESULTS: Abnormal expression of exons 11(v6) and 12(v7) was detected in exfoliated cells from 11 (73%) of 15 patients with carcinoma, but not in any patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The retention of intron 9 in CD44 mRNA transcripts was detected in washings from four (27%) carcinoma specimens but not in washings from non-malignant specimens. It was confirmed that in solid tissue samples from the same carcinomas there was abnormal over-expression of numerous alternatively spliced CD44 species containing transcripts of exons 11 and 12 and retention of intron 9. Low level expression of these exons was detected in tissue from inflammatory lesions from five of seven patients with ulcerative colitis and four of five with Crohn's disease. The retention of intron 9 was not seen in normal mucosa nor IBD. CONCLUSION: Abnormal expression of the variant exons and of intron 9 of the CD44 gene in tumour cells exfoliated into the colonic lumen may be helpful markers for the early, non-invasive, diagnosis of colorectal cancer. Images PMID:8655705

  16. Promyelocytic Leukemia (PML) Protein Plays Important Roles in Regulating Cell Adhesion, Morphology, Proliferation and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Mei Kuen; Liang, Yong Jia; Chan, John Yeuk Hon; Wong, Sing Wan; Chen, Elve; Yao, Yao; Gan, Jingyi; Xiao, Lihai; Leung, Hin Cheung; Kung, Hsiang Fu; Wang, Hua; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho

    2013-01-01

    PML protein plays important roles in regulating cellular homeostasis. It forms PML nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) that act like nuclear relay stations and participate in many cellular functions. In this study, we have examined the proteome of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from normal (PML+/+) and PML knockout (PML−/−) mice. The aim was to identify proteins that were differentially expressed when MEFs were incapable of producing PML. Using comparative proteomics, total protein were extracted from PML−/− and PML+/+ MEFs, resolved by two dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) gels and the differentially expressed proteins identified by LC-ESI-MS/MS. Nine proteins (PML, NDRG1, CACYBP, CFL1, RSU1, TRIO, CTRO, ANXA4 and UBE2M) were determined to be down-regulated in PML−/− MEFs. In contrast, ten proteins (CIAPIN1, FAM50A, SUMO2 HSPB1 NSFL1C, PCBP2, YWHAG, STMN1, TPD52L2 and PDAP1) were found up-regulated. Many of these differentially expressed proteins play crucial roles in cell adhesion, migration, morphology and cytokinesis. The protein profiles explain why PML−/− and PML+/+ MEFs were morphologically different. In addition, we demonstrated PML−/− MEFs were less adhesive, proliferated more extensively and migrated significantly slower than PML+/+ MEFs. NDRG1, a protein that was down-regulated in PML−/− MEFs, was selected for further investigation. We determined that silencing NDRG1expression in PML+/+ MEFs increased cell proliferation and inhibited PML expression. Since NDRG expression was suppressed in PML−/− MEFs, this may explain why these cells proliferate more extensively than PML+/+ MEFs. Furthermore, silencing NDRG1expression also impaired TGF-β1 signaling by inhibiting SMAD3 phosphorylation. PMID:23555679

  17. Regulation of ionizing radiation-induced adhesion of breast cancer cells to fibronectin by alpha5beta1 integrin.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shin Hee; Cheng, Huiwen; Yuan, Ye; Wu, Shiyong

    2014-06-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) is commonly used for cancer therapy, however, its potential influence on cancer metastatic potential remains controversial. In this study, we elucidated the role of integrins in regulation of IR-altered adhesion between breast cancer cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, which is a key step in the initial phase of metastasis. Our data suggest that the extent of effect that ionizing radiation had on cell adhesion depended on the genetic background of the breast cancer cells. Ionizing radiation was a better adhesion inducer for p53-mutated cells, such as MDA-MB-231 cells, than for p53 wild-type cells, such as MCF-7 cells. While IR-induced adhesions between MDA-MB-231 cells to fibronectin, laminin, collagen I and collagen IV, only blocking of the adhesion between α5β1 integrin and fibronectin using anti-α5β1 integrin antibody could completely inhibit the radiation-induced adhesion of the cells. A soluble Arg-Gly-Asp peptide, the binding motif for fibronectin binding integrins, could also reduce the adhesion of the cells to fibronectin with or without ionizing radiation exposure. The inhibition of the cell-fibronectin interaction also affected, but did not always correlate with, transwell migration of the cancer cells. In addition, our data showed that the total expression of α5 integrin and surface expression of α5β1 integrin were increased in the cells treated with ionizing radiation. The increased surface expression of α5β1 integrin, along with the adhesion between the cells and fibronectin, could be inhibited by both ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and Rad3-related (ATR) kinase inhibitors. These results suggested that ATM/ATR-mediated surface expression of α5β1 integrin might play a central role in regulation of ionizing radiation-altered adhesion. PMID:24785587

  18. The calcium ATPase SERCA2 regulates desmoplakin dynamics and intercellular adhesive strength through modulation of PKCα signaling

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, Ryan P.; Amargo, Evangeline V.; Somasundaram, Agila; Simpson, Cory L.; Prakriya, Murali; Denning, Mitchell F.; Green, Kathleen J.

    2011-01-01

    Darier's disease (DD) is an inherited autosomal-dominant skin disorder characterized histologically by loss of adhesion between keratinocytes. DD is typically caused by mutations in sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase isoform 2 (SERCA2), a major regulator of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis in the skin. However, a defined role for SERCA2 in regulating intercellular adhesion remains poorly understood. We found that diminution of SERCA2 function by pharmacological inhibition or siRNA silencing in multiple human epidermal-derived cell lines was sufficient to disrupt desmosome assembly and weaken intercellular adhesive strength. Specifically, SERCA2-deficient cells exhibited up to a 60% reduction in border translocation of desmoplakin (DP), the desmosomal cytolinker protein necessary for intermediate filament (IF) anchorage to sites of robust cell-cell adhesion. In addition, loss of SERCA2 impaired the membrane translocation of protein kinase C α (PKCα), a known regulator of DP-IF association and desmosome assembly, to the plasma membrane by up to 70%. Exogenous activation of PKCα in SERCA2-deficient cells was sufficient to rescue the defective DP localization, desmosome assembly, and intercellular adhesive strength to levels comparable to controls. Our findings indicate that SERCA2-deficiency is sufficient to impede desmosome assembly and weaken intercellular adhesive strength via a PKCα-dependent mechanism, implicating SERCA2 as a novel regulator of PKCα signaling.—Hobbs, R. P., Amargo, E. V., Somasundaram, A., Simpson, C. L., Prakriya, M., Denning, M. F., Green, K. J. The calcium ATPase SERCA2 regulates desmoplakin dynamics and intercellular adhesive strength through modulation of PKCα signaling. PMID:21156808

  19. Organ-selective regulation of vascular adhesion protein-1 expression in man.

    PubMed

    Arvilommi, A M; Salmi, M; Jalkanen, S

    1997-07-01

    Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) is an endothelial molecule which mediates lymphocyte binding to endothelium in peripheral lymph nodes and at certain sites of inflammation. The expression of VAP-1 in vivo is strongly up-regulated in inflamed tissues, such as gut and skin. The purpose of this work was to examine the factors responsible for this induction of VAP-1. Since the expression of VAP-1 could not be induced in cultured endothelial cells with a large panel of mediators, we used an organ culture technique for the investigation of the regulation of VAP-1 expression in a more physiological micromilieu. Indeed, we found that the expression of endothelial VAP-1 could be up-regulated in human tonsillar tissue with interleukin (IL)-1, IL-4, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha), interferon (IFN)-gamma and lipopolysaccharide, whereas histamine, thrombin, dibutyryl cAMP, N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) had no effect. The induced VAP-1 protein was similar in molecular weight to the non-induced VAP-1, suggesting that VAP-1 synthesized de novo carries appropriate carbohydrate moieties. In contrast to tonsil organ culture, similar inductions performed with human appendix showed no up-regulation of VAP-1 expression, indicating that the regulation of VAP-1 expression exhibits organ-selective characteristics. Furthermore, in these tissues the smooth muscle cells, which constitutively express VAP-1, could not be stimulated to alter their level of expression of this molecule. In conclusion, the expression of VAP-1 can be markedly up-regulated with several mediators in tonsil but not in appendix organ culture, whereas cultured endothelial cells cannot be induced to express VAP-1. These results indicate that the expression of VAP-1 is regulated in a tissue- and cell type-selective manner, and a correct micromilieu is required for the up-regulation to occur. PMID:9247594

  20. Vascular Endothelial-Cadherin Regulates Cytoskeletal Tension, Cell Spreading, and Focal Adhesions by Stimulating RhoAD⃞

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Celeste M.; Pirone, Dana M.; Tan, John L.; Chen, Christopher S.

    2004-01-01

    Changes in vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin–mediated cell-cell adhesion and integrin-mediated cell-matrix adhesion coordinate to affect the physical and mechanical rearrangements of the endothelium, although the mechanisms for such cross talk remain undefined. Herein, we describe the regulation of focal adhesion formation and cytoskeletal tension by intercellular VE-cadherin engagement, and the molecular mechanism by which this occurs. Increasing the density of endothelial cells to increase cell-cell contact decreased focal adhesions by decreasing cell spreading. This contact inhibition of cell spreading was blocked by disrupting VE-cadherin engagement with an adenovirus encoding dominant negative VE-cadherin. When changes in cell spreading were prevented by culturing cells on a micropatterned substrate, VE-cadherin–mediated cell-cell contact paradoxically increased focal adhesion formation. We show that VE-cadherin engagement mediates each of these effects by inducing both a transient and sustained activation of RhoA. Both the increase and decrease in cell-matrix adhesion were blocked by disrupting intracellular tension and signaling through the Rho-ROCK pathway. In all, these findings demonstrate that VE-cadherin signals through RhoA and the actin cytoskeleton to cross talk with cell-matrix adhesion and thereby define a novel pathway by which cell-cell contact alters the global mechanical and functional state of cells. PMID:15075376

  1. Protein Kinase D1 regulates focal adhesion dynamics and cell adhesion through Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase type-l γ

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Nisha; Bastea, Ligia I.; Long, Jason; Döppler, Heike; Ling, Kun; Storz, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Focal adhesions (FAs) are highly dynamic structures that are assembled and disassembled on a continuous basis. The balance between the two processes mediates various aspects of cell behavior, ranging from cell adhesion and spreading to directed cell migration. The turnover of FAs is regulated at multiple levels and involves a variety of signaling molecules and adaptor proteins. In the present study, we show that in response to integrin engagement, a subcellular pool of Protein Kinase D1 (PKD1) localizes to the FAs. PKD1 affects FAs by decreasing turnover and promoting maturation, resulting in enhanced cell adhesion. The effects of PKD1 are mediated through direct phosphorylation of FA-localized phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase type-l γ (PIP5Klγ) at serine residue 448. This phosphorylation occurs in response to Fibronectin-RhoA signaling and leads to a decrease in PIP5Klγs’ lipid kinase activity and binding affinity for Talin. Our data reveal a novel function for PKD1 as a regulator of FA dynamics and by identifying PIP5Klγ as a novel PKD1 substrate provide mechanistic insight into this process. PMID:27775029

  2. Aspects of VLA-4 and LFA-1 regulation that may contribute to rolling and firm adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Chigaev, Alexandre; Sklar, Larry A.

    2012-01-01

    Very Late Antigen-4 (CD49d/CD29, alpha4 beta1) and Lymphocyte Function-associated Antigen-1 (CD11a/CD18, alphaL beta2) integrins are representatives of a large family of adhesion receptors widely expressed on immune cells. They participate in cell recruitment to sites of inflammation, as well as multiple immune cell interactions. A unique feature of integrins is that integrin-dependent cell adhesion can be rapidly and reversibly modulated in response to cell signaling, because of a series of conformational changes within the molecule, which include changes in the affinity of the ligand binding pocket, molecular extension (unbending) and others. Here, we provide a concise comparative analysis of the conformational regulation of the two integrins with specific attention to the physiological differences between these molecules. We focus on recent data obtained using a novel technology, based on small fluorescent ligand-mimicking probes for the detection of integrin conformation in real-time on live cells at natural receptor abundance. PMID:22876249

  3. Anterior Gradient Protein-2 Is a Regulator of Cellular Adhesion in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chanda, Diptiman; Lee, Joo Hyoung; Sawant, Anandi; Hensel, Jonathan A.; Isayeva, Tatyana; Reilly, Stephanie D.; Siegal, Gene P.; Smith, Claire; Grizzle, William; Singh, Raj; Ponnazhagan, Selvarangan

    2014-01-01

    Anterior Gradient Protein (AGR-2) is reported to be over-expressed in many epithelial cancers and promotes metastasis. A clear-cut mechanism for its observed function(s) has not been previously identified. We found significant upregulation of AGR-2 expression in a bone metastatic prostate cancer cell line, PC3, following culturing in bone marrow-conditioned medium. Substantial AGR-2 expression was also confirmed in prostate cancer tissue specimens in patients with bone lesions. By developing stable clones of PC3 cells with varying levels of AGR-2 expression, we identified that abrogation of AGR-2 significantly reduced cellular attachment to fibronectin, collagen I, collagen IV, laminin I and fibrinogen. Loss of cellular adhesion was associated with sharp decrease in the expression of α4, α5, αV, β3 and β4 integrins. Failure to undergo apoptosis following detachment is a hallmark of epithelial cancer metastasis. The AGR-2-silenced PC3 cells showed higher resistance to Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis- inducing ligand (TRAIL) induced apoptosis in vitro. This observation was also supported by significantly reduced Caspase-3 expression in AGR-2-silenced PC3 cells, which is a key effector of both extrinsic and intrinsic death signaling pathways. These data suggest that AGR-2 influence prostate cancer metastasis by regulation of cellular adhesion and apoptosis. PMID:24587138

  4. Adhesive activity of Lu glycoproteins is regulated by interaction with spectrin

    SciTech Connect

    An, Xiuli; Gauthier, Emilie; Zhang, Xihui; Guo, Xinhua; Anstee, David; Mohandas, Narla; Anne Chasis, Joel

    2008-03-18

    The Lutheran (Lu) and Lu(v13) blood group glycoproteins function as receptors for extracellular matrix laminins. Lu and Lu(v13) are linked to the erythrocyte cytoskeleton through a direct interaction with spectrin. However, neither the molecular basis of the interaction nor its functional consequences have previously been delineated. In the present study, we defined the binding motifs of Lu and Lu(v13) on spectrin and identified a functional role for this interaction. We found that the cytoplasmic domains of both Lu and Lu(v13) bound to repeat 4 of the spectrin chain. The interaction of full-length spectrin dimer to Lu and Lu(v13) was inhibited by repeat 4 of {alpha}-spectrin. Further, resealing of this repeat peptide into erythrocytes led to weakened Lu-cytoskeleton interaction as demonstrated by increased detergent extractability of Lu. Importantly, disruption of the Lu-spectrin linkage was accompanied by enhanced cell adhesion to laminin. We conclude that the interaction of the Lu cytoplasmic tail with the cytoskeleton regulates its adhesive receptor function.

  5. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells regulate biased DNA segregation in response to cell adhesion asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Freida, Delphine; Lecourt, Severine; Cras, Audrey; Vanneaux, Valérie; Letort, Gaelle; Gidrol, Xavier; Guyon, Laurent; Larghero, Jerome; Thery, Manuel

    2013-11-14

    Biased DNA segregation is a mitotic event in which the chromatids carrying the original template DNA strands and those carrying the template copies are not segregated randomly into the two daughter cells. Biased segregation has been observed in several cell types, but not in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), and the factors affecting this bias have yet to be identified. Here, we have investigated cell adhesion geometries as a potential parameter by plating hMSCs from healthy donors on fibronectin-coated micropatterns. On symmetric micropatterns, the segregation of sister chromatids to the daughter cells appeared random. In contrast, on asymmetric micropatterns, the segregation was biased. This sensitivity to asymmetric extracellular cues was reproducible in cells from all donors but was not observed in human skin-derived fibroblasts or in a fibroblastic cell line used as controls. We conclude that the asymmetry of cell adhesion is a major factor in the regulation of biased DNA segregation in hMSCs.

  6. Regulation of the elastic modulus of polyurethane microarrays and its influence on gecko-inspired dry adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Zhao, Aiwu; Jiang, Rui; Wang, Dapeng; Li, Da; Guo, Hongyan; Tao, Wenyu; Gan, Zibao; Zhang, Maofeng

    2011-02-01

    We studied the influence of the elastic modulus on the gecko-inspired dry adhesion by regulating the elastic modulus of bulk polyurethane combined with changing the size of microarrays. Segmented polyurethane (PU) was utilized to fabricate micro arrays by the porous polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) membrane molding method. The properties of the micro arrays, such as the elastic modulus and adhesion, were investigated by Triboindenter. The study demonstrates that bulk surfaces show the highest elastic modulus, with similar values at around 175 MPa and decreasing the arrays radius causes a significant decrease in E, down to 0.62 MPa. The corresponding adhesion experiments show that decrease of the elastic modulus can enhance the adhesion which is consistent with the recent theoretical models.

  7. Isolation and characterisation of antibodies which specifically recognise the peptide encoded by exon 7 (v2) of the human CD44 gene

    PubMed Central

    Borgya, A; Woodman, A; Sugiyama, M; Donié, F; Kopetzki, E; Matsumura, Y; Tarin, D

    1995-01-01

    Aims—Exon 7 of the human CD44 gene is overexpressed in many commonly occurring carcinomas. The aim of the study was to explore the diagnostic and therapeutic potential of this frequent abnormality. Methods—A new monoclonal antibody (mAb, M-23.6.1) and a polyclonal antibody (pAb,S-6127) to the corresponding antigen were raised by immunising mice and sheep, respectively, with a specially constructed fusion protein HIV2 (gp32)-CD44 exon 7. Results—Characterisation of mAb, M-23.6.1 by ELISA, western blotting, immunocytochemistry, and FACS analysis confirmed that it specifically recognises an epitope in the region between amino acids 19 and 33 of the peptide encoded by this exon. Western blotting experiments with two cell lines, RT112 and ZR75-1, known from RT-PCR data to be overtranscribing the exon, yielded a monospecific band of approximately 220 kDa, and immunocytochemistry showed discrete membrane staining on the same cell lines. Fluorescent antibody cell sorting (FACS) revealed binding to greater than 90% of the cells of each of these lines. Specificity of recognition of the antigen was shown by inhibition of the precise immunoreactivity typically seen in ELISA and Western blots, by pre-incubation with synthetic exon 7 peptide or fragments of it. Conclusions—The new antibodies will be useful tools for the further analysis of abnormal CD44 isoforms and their clinical implications. Images PMID:16696015

  8. Functional interactions of the cystine/glutamate antiporter, CD44v and MUC1-C oncoprotein in triple-negative breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Masanori; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Rajabi, Hasan; Alam, Maroof; Suzuki, Yozo; Yin, Li; Tagde, Ashujit; Maeda, Takahiro; Hiraki, Masayuki; Sukhatme, Vikas P.; Kufe, Donald

    2016-01-01

    The xCT light chain of the cystine/glutamate transporter (system XC−) is of importance for the survival of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. The MUC1-C transmembrane oncoprotein is aberrantly overexpressed in TNBC and, like xCT, has been linked to maintaining glutathione (GSH) levels and redox balance. However, there is no known interaction between MUC1-C and xCT. Here we show that silencing MUC1-C is associated with decreases in xCT expression in TNBC cells. The results demonstrate that MUC1-C forms a complex with xCT and the CD44 variant (CD44v), which interacts with xCT and thereby controls GSH levels. MUC1-C binds directly with CD44v and in turn promotes stability of xCT in the cell membrane. The interaction between MUC1-C and xCT is further supported by the demonstration that targeting xCT with silencing or the inhibitor sulfasalazine suppresses MUC1 gene transcription by increasing histone and DNA methylation on the MUC1 promoter. In terms of the functional significance of the MUC1-C/xCT interaction, we show that MUC1-C protects against treatment with erastin, an inhibitor of XC− and inducer of ferroptosis, a form of non-apoptotic cell death. These findings indicate that targeting this novel MUC1-C/xCT pathway could represent a potential therapeutic approach for promoting TNBC cell death. PMID:26930718

  9. Registered report: the microRNA miR-34a inhibits prostate cancer stem cells and metastasis by directly repressing CD44

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jia; Lam, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology seeks to address growing concerns about reproducibility in scientific research by conducting replications of selected experiments from a number of high-profile papers in the field of cancer biology. The papers, which were published between 2010 and 2012, were selected on the basis of citations and Altimetric scores (Errington et al., 2014). This Registered report describes the proposed replication plan of key experiments from ‘The microRNA miR-34a inhibits prostate cancer stem cells and metastasis by directly repressing CD44’ by Liu and colleagues published in Nature Medicine in 2011 (Liu et al., 2011). Liu and colleagues first demonstrated that miR-34a levels were reduced in CD44+ prostate cancer cells (Figure 1B). They then showed that xenograft tumors from cells expressing exogenous miR-34a were smaller in size than control tumors (Supplemental Figure 5C). Tumors with exogenous miR-34a showed reduced levels of CD44 expression (Figure 4A), and mutation of two putative miR-34a binding sites in the CD33 3′ UTR partially abrogated signal repression in a luciferase assay (Figure 4D). The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology is a collaboration between the Center for Open Science and Science Exchange, and the results of the replications will be published by eLife. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06434.001 PMID:26231042

  10. Cancer cell glycocalyx mediates mechanotransduction and flow-regulated invasion.

    PubMed

    Qazi, Henry; Palomino, Rocio; Shi, Zhong-Dong; Munn, Lance L; Tarbell, John M

    2013-11-01

    Mammalian cells are covered by a surface proteoglycan (glycocalyx) layer, and it is known that blood vessel-lining endothelial cells use the glycocalyx to sense and transduce the shearing forces of blood flow into intracellular signals. Tumor cells in vivo are exposed to forces from interstitial fluid flow that may affect metastatic potential but are not reproduced by most in vitro cell motility assays. We hypothesized that glycocalyx-mediated mechanotransduction of interstitial flow shear stress is an un-recognized factor that can significantly enhance metastatic cell motility and play a role in augmentation of invasion. Involvement of MMP levels, cell adhesion molecules (CD44, α3 integrin), and glycocalyx components (heparan sulfate and hyaluronan) was investigated in a cell/collagen gel suspension model designed to mimic the interstitial flow microenvironment. Physiological levels of flow upregulated MMP levels and enhanced the motility of metastatic cells. Blocking the flow-enhanced expression of MMP activity or adhesion molecules (CD44 and integrins) resulted in blocking the flow-enhanced migratory activity. The presence of a glycocalyx-like layer was verified around tumor cells, and the degradation of this layer by hyaluronidase and heparinase blocked the flow-regulated invasion. This study shows for the first time that interstitial flow enhancement of metastatic cell motility can be mediated by the cell surface glycocalyx - a potential target for therapeutics.

  11. L1 adhesion molecule on mouse leukocytes: regulation and involvement in endothelial cell binding.

    PubMed

    Hubbe, M; Kowitz, A; Schirrmacher, V; Schachner, M; Altevogt, P

    1993-11-01

    L1 is a cell surface glycoprotein of the immunoglobulin superfamily which was initially shown to mediate adhesion between neural cells. Recently we have reported that L1 is expressed by bone marrow cells and the majority of mature lymphocytes (Kowitz et al., Eur. J. Immunol. 1992. 22: 1199-1205). To analyze the function of L1 on leukocytes we studied its regulation following cell activation. In vitro activation of B lymphocytes with lipopolysaccharide or T lymphocytes with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate/Ca2+ ionophore, concanavalin A or anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody as well as in vivo activation of V beta 8+ T cells with staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) revealed a down-regulation of L1 within 48 h. A rapid loss of L1 expression was seen when mouse neutrophils were activated with PMA alone. This rapid loss paralleled the shedding of L-selectin. We also studied a possible role of L1 in the binding of leukocytes to endothelial cells. ESb-MP lymphoma cells with a high expression of L1 (L1hi) could bind to bend3 endothelioma cells without prior activation with inflammatory cytokines. The interaction was inhibited by anti-L1 antibodies. In contrast, ESb-MP cells with low L1 expression (L1lo) were only marginally bound. Latex beads coated with affinity-isolated L1 antigen were also able to bind to the endothelioma cells in a specific fashion. The binding of ESb-MP lymphoma cells required Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions and was sensitive to cold temperature. Since the endothelioma cells did not express L1 the binding mechanism studied here is distinct from the established L1-L1 homotypic interaction. It is possible that the novel L1-mediated adhesion pathway involves an unidentified ligand and could play a role in leukocyte migration.

  12. L1 adhesion molecule on mouse leukocytes: regulation and involvement in endothelial cell binding.

    PubMed

    Hubbe, M; Kowitz, A; Schirrmacher, V; Schachner, M; Altevogt, P

    1993-11-01

    L1 is a cell surface glycoprotein of the immunoglobulin superfamily which was initially shown to mediate adhesion between neural cells. Recently we have reported that L1 is expressed by bone marrow cells and the majority of mature lymphocytes (Kowitz et al., Eur. J. Immunol. 1992. 22: 1199-1205). To analyze the function of L1 on leukocytes we studied its regulation following cell activation. In vitro activation of B lymphocytes with lipopolysaccharide or T lymphocytes with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate/Ca2+ ionophore, concanavalin A or anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody as well as in vivo activation of V beta 8+ T cells with staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) revealed a down-regulation of L1 within 48 h. A rapid loss of L1 expression was seen when mouse neutrophils were activated with PMA alone. This rapid loss paralleled the shedding of L-selectin. We also studied a possible role of L1 in the binding of leukocytes to endothelial cells. ESb-MP lymphoma cells with a high expression of L1 (L1hi) could bind to bend3 endothelioma cells without prior activation with inflammatory cytokines. The interaction was inhibited by anti-L1 antibodies. In contrast, ESb-MP cells with low L1 expression (L1lo) were only marginally bound. Latex beads coated with affinity-isolated L1 antigen were also able to bind to the endothelioma cells in a specific fashion. The binding of ESb-MP lymphoma cells required Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions and was sensitive to cold temperature. Since the endothelioma cells did not express L1 the binding mechanism studied here is distinct from the established L1-L1 homotypic interaction. It is possible that the novel L1-mediated adhesion pathway involves an unidentified ligand and could play a role in leukocyte migration. PMID:8223869

  13. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A up-regulated by progesterone promotes adhesion and proliferation of trophoblastic cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiao; Liu, Shuai; Qin, Hua-Min; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Xiao-Qi; Yan, Qiu

    2014-01-01

    Embryo implantation and development is a complex biological process for the establishment of the successful pregnancy. Progesterone is a critical factor in the regulation of embryo adhesion to uterine endometrium and proliferation. Although it has been reported that pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPPA) is increased in pregnant women, the relationship between progesterone and PAPPA, and the effects of PAPPA on embryo adhesion and proliferation are still not clear. The present results showed that the serum level of progesterone and PAPPA was closely correlated by ELISA assay (p<0.01). PAPPA was detected in the villi of early embryo by RT-PCR, Western blot, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescent staining. Moreover, PAPPA was significantly up-regulated by progesterone in trophoblastic (JAR) cells by Real-time PCR and ELISA assay (p<0.01); while the expression was decreased by the progesterone receptor inhibitor RU486. The down-regulation of PAPPA by siRNA transfection or up-regulation of PAPPA by progesterone treatment significantly decreased or increased the adhesion rate of trophoblastic cells to human uterine epithelial cell lines (RL95-2 and HEC-1A), respectively (p<0.01), as well as the proliferation of trophoblastic cells. In conclusion, PAPPA is up-regulated by progesterone, which promotes the adhesion and proliferation potential of trophoblastic cells. PMID:24817938

  14. Evaluation of a novel type of imaging probe based on a recombinant bivalent mini-antibody construct for detection of CD44v6-expressing squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Haylock, Anna-Karin; Spiegelberg, Diana; Mortensen, Anja C; Selvaraju, Ram K; Nilvebrant, Johan; Eriksson, Olof; Tolmachev, Vladimir; Nestor, Marika V

    2016-02-01

    We have developed the CD44v6-targeting human bivalent antibody fragment AbD19384, an engineered recombinant human bivalent Fab antibody formed via dimerization of dHLX (synthetic double helix loop helix motif) domains, for potential use in antibody-based molecular imaging of squamous cell carcinoma in the head and neck region. This is a unique construct that has, to the best of our knowledge, never been assessed for molecular imaging in vivo before. The objective of the present study was to evaluate for the first time the in vitro and in vivo binding properties of radio-iodinated AbD19384, and to assess its utility as a targeting agent for molecular imaging of CD44v6-expressing tumors. Antigen specificity and binding properties were assessed in vitro. In vivo specificity and biodistribution of 125I-AbD19384 were next evaluated in tumor-bearing mice using a dual-tumor setup. Finally, AbD19384 was labeled with 124I, and its imaging properties were assessed by small animal PET/CT in tumor bearing mice, and compared with 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG). In vitro studies demonstrated CD44v6-specific binding with slow off-rate for AbD19384. A favorable biodistribution profile was seen in vivo, with tumor-specific uptake. Small animal PET/CT images of 124I-AbD19384 supported the results through clearly visible high CD44v6-expressing tumors and faintly visible low expressing tumors, with superior imaging properties compared to 18F-FDG. Tumor-to-blood ratios increased with time for the conjugate (assessed up to 72 h p.i.), although 48 h p.i. proved best for imaging. Biodistribution and small-animal PET studies demonstrated that the recombinant Fab-dHLX construct AbD19384 is a promising tracer for imaging of CD44v6 antigen expression in vivo, with the future aim to be used for individualized diagnosis and early detection of squamous cell carcinomas in the head and neck region. Furthermore, this proof-of-concept research established the feasibility of using

  15. Evaluation of a novel type of imaging probe based on a recombinant bivalent mini-antibody construct for detection of CD44v6-expressing squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    HAYLOCK, ANNA-KARIN; SPIEGELBERG, DIANA; MORTENSEN, ANJA C.; SELVARAJU, RAM K.; NILVEBRANT, JOHAN; ERIKSSON, OLOF; TOLMACHEV, VLADIMIR; NESTOR, MARIKA V.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed the CD44v6-targeting human bivalent antibody fragment AbD19384, an engineered recombinant human bivalent Fab antibody formed via dimerization of dHLX (synthetic double helix loop helix motif) domains, for potential use in antibody-based molecular imaging of squamous cell carcinoma in the head and neck region. This is a unique construct that has, to the best of our knowledge, never been assessed for molecular imaging in vivo before. The objective of the present study was to evaluate for the first time the in vitro and in vivo binding properties of radio-iodinated AbD19384, and to assess its utility as a targeting agent for molecular imaging of CD44v6-expressing tumors. Antigen specificity and binding properties were assessed in vitro. In vivo specificity and biodistribution of 125I-AbD19384 were next evaluated in tumor-bearing mice using a dual-tumor setup. Finally, AbD19384 was labeled with 124I, and its imaging properties were assessed by small animal PET/CT in tumor bearing mice, and compared with 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG). In vitro studies demonstrated CD44v6-specific binding with slow off-rate for AbD19384. A favorable biodis-tribution profile was seen in vivo, with tumor-specific uptake. Small animal PET/CT images of 124I-AbD19384 supported the results through clearly visible high CD44v6-expressing tumors and faintly visible low expressing tumors, with superior imaging properties compared to 18F-FDG. Tumor-to-blood ratios increased with time for the conjugate (assessed up to 72 h p.i.), although 48 h p.i. proved best for imaging. Biodistribution and small-animal PET studies demonstrated that the recombinant Fab-dHLX construct AbD19384 is a promising tracer for imaging of CD44v6 antigen expression in vivo, with the future aim to be used for individualized diagnosis and early detection of squamous cell carcinomas in the head and neck region. Furthermore, this proof-of-concept research established the feasibility of using

  16. Melatonin Inhibits Embryonic Salivary Gland Branching Morphogenesis by Regulating Both Epithelial Cell Adhesion and Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Jiro; Sakai, Manabu; Uchida, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Wataru; Nohara, Kanji; Maruyama, Yusuke; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Sakai, Takayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Many organs, including salivary glands, lung, and kidney, are formed by epithelial branching during embryonic development. Branching morphogenesis occurs via either local outgrowths or the formation of clefts that subdivide epithelia into buds. This process is promoted by various factors, but the mechanism of branching morphogenesis is not fully understood. Here we have defined melatonin as a potential negative regulator or “brake” of branching morphogenesis, shown that the levels of it and its receptors decline when branching morphogenesis begins, and identified the process that it regulates. Melatonin has various physiological functions, including circadian rhythm regulation, free-radical scavenging, and gonadal development. Furthermore, melatonin is present in saliva and may have an important physiological role in the oral cavity. In this study, we found that the melatonin receptor is highly expressed on the acinar epithelium of the embryonic submandibular gland. We also found that exogenous melatonin reduces salivary gland size and inhibits branching morphogenesis. We suggest that this inhibition does not depend on changes in either proliferation or apoptosis, but rather relates to changes in epithelial cell adhesion and morphology. In summary, we have demonstrated a novel function of melatonin in organ formation during embryonic development. PMID:25876057

  17. Nav1.5 regulates breast tumor growth and metastatic dissemination in vivo.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Michaela; Yang, Ming; Millican-Slater, Rebecca; Brackenbury, William J

    2015-10-20

    Voltage-gated Na+ channels (VGSCs) mediate action potential firing and regulate adhesion and migration in excitable cells. VGSCs are also expressed in cancer cells. In metastatic breast cancer (BCa) cells, the Nav1.5 α subunit potentiates migration and invasion. In addition, the VGSC-inhibiting antiepileptic drug phenytoin inhibits tumor growth and metastasis. However, the functional activity of Nav1.5 and its specific contribution to tumor progression in vivo has not been delineated. Here, we found that Nav1.5 is up-regulated at the protein level in BCa compared with matched normal breast tissue. Na+ current, reversibly blocked by tetrodotoxin, was retained in cancer cells in tumor tissue slices, thus directly confirming functional VGSC activity in vivo. Stable down-regulation of Nav1.5 expression significantly reduced tumor growth, local invasion into surrounding tissue, and metastasis to liver, lungs and spleen in an orthotopic BCa model. Nav1.5 down-regulation had no effect on cell proliferation or angiogenesis within the in tumors, but increased apoptosis. In vitro, Nav1.5 down-regulation altered cell morphology and reduced CD44 expression, suggesting that VGSC activity may regulate cellular invasion via the CD44-src-cortactin signaling axis. We conclude that Nav1.5 is functionally active in cancer cells in breast tumors, enhancing growth and metastatic dissemination. These findings support the notion that compounds targeting Nav1.5 may be useful for reducing metastasis. PMID:26452220

  18. Arginylation-dependent regulation of a proteolytic product of talin is essential for cell–cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fangliang; Saha, Sougata

    2012-01-01

    Talin is a large scaffolding molecule that plays a major role in integrin-dependent cell–matrix adhesion. A role for talin in cell–cell attachment through cadherin has never been demonstrated, however. Here, we identify a novel calpain-dependent proteolytic cleavage of talin that results in the release of a 70-kD C-terminal fragment, which serves as a substrate of posttranslational arginylation. The intracellular levels of this fragment closely correlated with the formation of cell–cell adhesions, and this fragment localized to cadherin-containing cell–cell contacts. Moreover, reintroduction of this fragment rescued the cell–cell adhesion defects in arginyltransferase (Ate1) knockout cells, which normally have a very low level of this fragment. Arginylation of this fragment further enhanced its ability to rescue cell–cell adhesion formation. In addition, arginylation facilitated its turnover, suggesting a dual role of arginylation in its intracellular regulation. Thus, our work identifies a novel proteolytic product of talin that is regulated by arginylation and a new role of talin in cadherin-dependent cell–cell adhesion. PMID:22665520

  19. The reported clinical utility of taurine in ischemic disorders may reflect a down-regulation of neutrophil activation and adhesion.

    PubMed

    McCarty, M F

    1999-10-01

    The first publications regarding clinical use of taurine were Italian reports claiming therapeutic efficacy in angina, intermittent claudication and symptomatic cerebral arteriosclerosis. A down-regulation of neutrophil activation and endothelial adhesion might plausibly account for these observations. Endothelial platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a crucial stimulus to neutrophil adhesion and activation, whereas endothelial nitric oxide (NO) suppresses PAF production and acts in various other ways to antagonize binding and activation of neutrophils. Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a neutrophil product which avidly oxidizes many sulfhydryl-dependent proteins, can be expected to inhibit NO synthase while up-regulating PAF generation; thus, a vicious circle can be postulated whereby HOCl released by marginating neutrophils acts on capillary or venular endothelium to promote further neutrophil adhesion and activation. Taurine is the natural detoxicant of HOCl, and thus has the potential to intervene in this vicious circle, promoting a less adhesive endothelium and restraining excessive neutrophil activation. Agents which inhibit the action of PAF on neutrophils, such as ginkgolides and pentoxifylline, have documented utility in ischemic disorders and presumably would complement the efficacy of taurine in this regard. Fish oil, which inhibits endothelial expression of various adhesion factors and probably PAF as well, and which suppresses neutrophil leukotriene production, may likewise be useful in ischemia. These agents may additionally constitute a non-toxic strategy for treating inflammatory disorders in which activated neutrophils play a prominent pathogenic role. Double-blind studies to confirm the efficacy of taurine in symptomatic chronic ischemia are needed.

  20. Antigenic variation of pilin regulates adhesion of Neisseria meningitidis to human epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nassif, X; Lowy, J; Stenberg, P; O'Gaora, P; Ganji, A; So, M

    1993-05-01

    Pili have been shown to play an essential role in the adhesion of Neisseria meningitidis to epithelial cells. However, among piliated strains, both inter- and intrastrain variability exist with respect to their degree of adhesion to epithelial cells in vitro (Virji et al., 1992). This suggests that factors other than the presence of pili per se are involved in this process. The N. meningitidis pilin subunit undergoes extensive antigenic variation. Piliated low- and high-adhesive derivatives of the same N. meningitidis strain were selected and the nucleotide sequence of the pilin gene expressed in each was determined. The highly adhesive derivatives had the same pilin sequence. The alleles encoding the pilin subunit of the low-adhesive derivatives were completely different from the one found in the high-adhesive isolates. Using polyclonal antibodies raised against one hyperadhesive variant, it was confirmed that the low-adhesive piliated derivatives expressed pilin variants antigenically different from the highly adhesive strains. The role of antigenic variation in the adhesive process of N. meningitidis was confirmed by performing allelic exchanges of the pilE locus between low- and high-adhesive isolates. Antigenic variation has been considered a means by which virulent bacteria evade the host immune system. This work provides genetic proof that a bacterial pathogen, N. meningitidis, can use antigenic variation to modulate their degree of virulence.

  1. The skinny on Fat: an enormous cadherin that regulates cell adhesion, tissue growth, and planar cell polarity.

    PubMed

    Sopko, Richelle; McNeill, Helen

    2009-10-01

    Fat is an extremely large atypical cadherin involved in the regulation of cell adhesion, tissue growth, and planar cell polarity (PCP). Recent studies have begun to illuminate the mechanisms by which Fat performs these functions during development. Fat relays signals to the Hippo pathway to regulate tissue growth, and to PCP proteins to regulate tissue patterning. In this review we briefly cover the historical data demonstrating that Fat regulates tissue growth and tissue patterning, and then focus on advances in the past three years illuminating the mechanisms by which Fat controls growth and planar polarity in flies and mammals.

  2. Rsu1 contributes to regulation of cell adhesion and spreading by PINCH1-dependent and - independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Nieves, Reyda; Desantis, Akiko Iwahari; Cutler, Mary L

    2013-12-01

    Cell adhesion and migration are complex processes that require integrin activation, the formation and dissolution of focal adhesion (FAs), and linkage of actin cytoskeleton to the FAs. The IPP (ILK, PINCH, Parvin) complex regulates FA formation via binding of the adaptor protein ILK to β1 integrin, PINCH and parvin. The signaling protein Rsu1 is linked to the complex via binding PINCH1. The role of Rsu1 and PINCH1 in adhesion and migration was examined in non-transformed mammary epithelial cells. Confocal microscopy revealed that the depletion of either Rsu1 or PINCH1 by siRNA in MCF10A cells decreased the number of focal adhesions and altered the distribution and localization of β1 integrin, vinculin, talin and paxillin without affecting the levels of FA protein expression. This correlated with reduced adhesion, failure to spread or migrate in response to EGF and a loss of actin stress fibers and caveolae. In addition, constitutive phosphorylation of actin regulatory proteins occurred in the absence of PINCH1. The depletion of Rsu1 caused significant reduction in PINCH1 implying that Rsu1 may function by regulating levels of PINCH1. However, while both Rsu1- or PINCH1-depleted cells retained the ability to activate adhesion signaling in response to EGF stimulation, only Rsu1 was required for EGF-induced p38 Map Kinase phosphorylation and ATF2 activation, suggesting an Rsu1 function independent from the IPP complex. Reconstitution of Rsu1-depleted cells with an Rsu1 mutant that does not bind to PINCH1 failed to restore FAs or migration but did promote spreading and constitutive p38 activation. These data show that Rsu1-PINCH1 association with ILK and the IPP complex is required for regulation of adhesion and migration but that Rsu1 has a critical role in linking integrin-induced adhesion to activation of p38 Map kinase signaling and cell spreading. Moreover, it suggests that Rsu1 may regulate p38 signaling from the IPP complex affecting other functions including

  3. Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule NrCAM Regulates Semaphorin 3F-Induced Dendritic Spine Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Demyanenko, Galina P.; Mohan, Vishwa; Zhang, Xuying; Brennaman, Leann H.; Dharbal, Katherine E.S.; Tran, Tracy S.; Manis, Paul B.

    2014-01-01

    Neuron-glial related cell adhesion molecule (NrCAM) is a regulator of axon growth and repellent guidance, and has been implicated in autism spectrum disorders. Here a novel postsynaptic role for NrCAM in Semaphorin3F (Sema3F)-induced dendritic spine remodeling was identified in pyramidal neurons of the primary visual cortex (V1). NrCAM localized to dendritic spines of star pyramidal cells in postnatal V1, where it was coexpressed with Sema3F. NrCAM deletion in mice resulted in elevated spine densities on apical dendrites of star pyramidal cells at both postnatal and adult stages, and electron microscopy revealed increased numbers of asymmetric synapses in layer 4 of V1. Whole-cell recordings in cortical slices from NrCAM-null mice revealed increased frequency of mEPSCs in star pyramidal neurons. Recombinant Sema3F-Fc protein induced spine retraction on apical dendrites of wild-type, but not NrCAM-null cortical neurons in culture, while re-expression of NrCAM rescued the spine retraction response. NrCAM formed a complex in brain with Sema3F receptor subunits Neuropilin-2 (Npn-2) and PlexinA3 (PlexA3) through an Npn-2-binding sequence (TARNER) in the extracellular Ig1 domain. A trans heterozygous genetic interaction test demonstrated that Sema3F and NrCAM pathways interacted in vivo to regulate spine density in star pyramidal neurons. These findings reveal NrCAM as a novel postnatal regulator of dendritic spine density in cortical pyramidal neurons, and an integral component of the Sema3F receptor complex. The results implicate NrCAM as a contributor to excitatory/inhibitory balance in neocortical circuits. PMID:25143608

  4. Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase regulates fibronectin assembly and N-cadherin adhesion.

    PubMed

    Takino, Takahisa; Yoshimoto, Taisuke; Nakada, Mitsutoshi; Li, Zichen; Domoto, Takahiro; Kawashiri, Shuichi; Sato, Hiroshi

    2014-07-25

    Fibronectin matrix formation requires the increased cytoskeletal tension generated by cadherin adhesions, and is suppressed by membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP). In a co-culture of Rat1 fibroblasts and MT1-MMP-silenced HT1080 cells, fibronectin fibrils extended from Rat1 to cell-matrix adhesions in HT1080 cells, and N-cadherin adhesions were formed between Rat1 and HT1080 cells. In control HT1080 cells contacting with Rat1 fibroblasts, cell-matrix adhesions were formed in the side away from Rat1 fibroblasts, and fibronectin assembly and N-cadherin adhesions were not formed. The role of N-cadherin adhesions in fibronectin matrix formation was studied using MT1-MMP-silenced HT1080 cells. MT1-MMP knockdown promoted fibronectin matrix assembly and N-cadherin adhesions in HT1080 cells, which was abrogated by double knockdown with either integrin β1 or fibronectin. Conversely, inhibition of N-cadherin adhesions by its knockdown or treatment with its neutralizing antibody suppressed fibronectin matrix formation in MT1-MMP-silenced cells. These results demonstrate that fibronectin assembly initiated by MT1-MMP knockdown results in increase of N-cadherin adhesions, which are prerequisite for further fibronectin matrix formation.

  5. PBRM1 Regulates the Expression of Genes Involved in Metabolism and Cell Adhesion in Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Basudev; Porter, Elizabeth G.; Stewart, Jane C.; Ferreira, Christina R.; Schipma, Matthew J.; Dykhuizen, Emily C.

    2016-01-01

    Polybromo-1 (PBRM1) is a component of the PBAF (Polybromo-associated-BRG1- or BRM-associated factors) chromatin remodeling complex and is the second most frequently mutated gene in clear-cell renal cell Carcinoma (ccRCC). Mutation of PBRM1 is believed to be an early event in carcinogenesis, however its function as a tumor suppressor is not understood. In this study, we have employed Next Generation Sequencing to profile the differentially expressed genes upon PBRM1 re-expression in a cellular model of ccRCC. PBRM1 re-expression led to upregulation of genes involved in cellular adhesion, carbohydrate metabolism, apoptotic process and response to hypoxia, and a downregulation of genes involved in different stages of cell division. The decrease in cellular proliferation upon PBRM1 re-expression was confirmed, validating the functional role of PBRM1 as a tumor suppressor in a cell-based model. In addition, we identified a role for PBRM1 in regulating metabolic pathways known to be important for driving ccRCC, including the regulation of hypoxia response genes, PI3K signaling, glucose uptake, and cholesterol homeostasis. Of particular novelty is the identification of cell adhesion as a major downstream process uniquely regulated by PBRM1 expression. Cytoskeletal reorganization was induced upon PBRM1 reexpression as evidenced from the increase in the number of cells displaying cortical actin, a hallmark of epithelial cells. Genes involved in cell adhesion featured prominently in our transcriptional dataset and overlapped with genes uniquely regulated by PBRM1 in clinical specimens of ccRCC. Genes involved in cell adhesion serve as tumor suppressor and maybe involved in inhibiting cell migration. Here we report for the first time genes linked to cell adhesion serve as downstream targets of PBRM1, and hope to lay the foundation of future studies focusing on the role of chromatin remodelers in bringing about these alterations during malignancies. PMID:27100670

  6. Cyclophosphamide induces type I interferon and augments the number of CD44(hi) T lymphocytes in mice: implications for strategies of chemoimmunotherapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Schiavoni, G; Mattei, F; Di Pucchio, T; Santini, S M; Bracci, L; Belardelli, F; Proietti, E

    2000-03-15

    In a previous study, we reported that a single injection of cyclophosphamide (CTX) in tumor-bearing mice resulted in tumor eradication when the animals were subsequently injected with tumor-sensitized lymphocytes. Notably, CTX acted by inducing bystander effects on T cells, and the response to the combined CTX/adoptive immunotherapy regimen was inhibited in mice treated with antibodies to mouse interferon (IFN)-alpha/beta. In the present study, we have investigated whether CTX induced the expression of type I IFN, and we have characterized the CTX effects on the phenotype of T cells in normal mice. CTX injection resulted in an accumulation of type I IFN messenger RNA in the spleen of inoculated mice, at 24 to 48 hours, that was associated with IFN detection in the majority of the animals. CTX also enhanced the expression of the Ly-6C on spleen lymphocytes. This enhancement was inhibited in mice treated with anti-type I IFN antibodies. Moreover, CTX induced a long-lasting increase in in vivo lymphocyte proliferation and in the percentage of CD44(hi)CD4(+) and CD44(hi)CD8(+ )T lymphocytes. These results demonstrate that CTX is an inducer of type I IFN in vivo and enhances the number of T cells exhibiting the CD44(hi) memory phenotype. Since type I IFN has been recently recognized as the important cytokine for the in vivo expansion and long-term survival of memory T cells, we suggest that induction of this cytokine may explain at least part of the immunomodulatory effects observed after CTX treatment. Finally, these findings provide a new rationale for combined treatments with CTX and adoptive immunotherapy in cancer patients. (Blood. 2000;95:2024-2030) PMID:10706870

  7. Positive association between CD44 gene rs13347 C>T polymorphism and risk of cancer in Asians: a systemic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jinan; Duan, Yin; Pan, Lei; Zhou, Xiaoxi

    2016-01-01

    Background Cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) is an important surface marker of cancer stem cells in a variety of tumors. A number of previous studies have been conducted to investigate the association between CD44 gene rs13347 C>T polymorphism and cancer risk in humans; nevertheless, the results remain controversial. We therefore performed this meta-analysis to confirm the role of this polymorphism in susceptibility to human cancer. Materials and methods The studies published up to December 2015 were searched in PubMed, Web of Science, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases. Twelve eligible case–control studies were identified, involving a total of 6,982 cases and 7,430 controls. Pooled odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using a fixed or random-effect model to estimate the strength of the association. Results The results of the overall analyses indicated that CD44 gene rs13347 polymorphism was significantly associated with cancer risk in Asians (CT vs CC: OR =1.35, 95% CI =1.12–1.62; TT vs CC: OR =1.99, 95% CI =1.52–2.60; TT + CT vs CC: OR =1.41, 95% CI =1.16–1.71; and TT vs CC + CT: OR =1.74, 95% CI =1.41–2.14), especially in Chinese population (CT vs CC: OR =1.42, 95% CI =1.16–1.75; TT vs CC: OR =2.13, 95% CI =1.58–2.86; TT + CT vs CC: OR =1.50, 95% CI =1.21–1.87; and TT vs CC + CT: OR =1.80, 95% CI =1.43–2.26). In stratified analyses by cancer types, there was evidence for an association between this polymorphism and nasopharyngeal cancer and breast cancer, respectively. Conclusion The results of this meta-analysis suggest that the CD44 gene rs13347 C>T polymorphism is associated with elevated risk of human cancer in Asians, especially in Chinese population. Further well-designed studies on a larger population covering other ethnicities should be carried out to validate our results. PMID:27366086

  8. A New Hyaluronic Acid Derivative Obtained from Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization as a siRNA Vector for CD44 Receptor Tumor Targeting.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, Fabio Salvatore; Bavuso Volpe, Antonella; Bongiovì, Flavia; Pitarresi, Giovanna; Giammona, Gaetano

    2015-11-01

    Two derivatives of hyaluronic acid (HA) have been synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), starting from an ethylenediamino HA derivative (HA-EDA) and by using diethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DEAEMA) as a monomer for polymerization. Both samples, indicated as HA-EDA-pDEAEMA a and b, are able to condense siRNA, as determined by gel retardation assay and resulting complexes show a size and a zeta potential value dependent on polymerization number, as determined by dynamic light scattering measurements. In vitro studies performed on HCT 116 cell line, that over express CD44 receptor, demonstrate a receptor mediated uptake of complexes, regardless of their surface charge. PMID:26136372

  9. Intermediate filament–membrane attachments function synergistically with actin-dependent contacts to regulate intercellular adhesive strength

    PubMed Central

    Huen, Arthur C.; Park, Jung K.; Godsel, Lisa M.; Chen, Xuejun; Bannon, Leslie J.; Amargo, Evangeline V.; Hudson, Tracie Y.; Mongiu, Anne K.; Leigh, Irene M.; Kelsell, David P.; Gumbiner, Barry M.; Green, Kathleen J.

    2002-01-01

    By tethering intermediate filaments (IFs) to sites of intercellular adhesion, desmosomes facilitate formation of a supercellular scaffold that imparts mechanical strength to a tissue. However, the role IF–membrane attachments play in strengthening adhesion has not been directly examined. To address this question, we generated Tet-On A431 cells inducibly expressing a desmoplakin (DP) mutant lacking the rod and IF-binding domains (DPNTP). DPNTP localized to the plasma membrane and led to dissociation of IFs from the junctional plaque, without altering total or cell surface distribution of adherens junction or desmosomal proteins. However, a specific decrease in the detergent-insoluble pool of desmoglein suggested a reduced association with the IF cytoskeleton. DPNTP-expressing cell aggregates in suspension or substrate-released cell sheets readily dissociated when subjected to mechanical stress whereas controls remained largely intact. Dissociation occurred without lactate dehydrogenase release, suggesting that loss of tissue integrity was due to reduced adhesion rather than increased cytolysis. JD-1 cells from a patient with a DP COOH-terminal truncation were also more weakly adherent compared with normal keratinocytes. When used in combination with DPNTP, latrunculin A, which disassembles actin filaments and disrupts adherens junctions, led to dissociation up to an order of magnitude greater than either treatment alone. These data provide direct in vitro evidence that IF–membrane attachments regulate adhesive strength and suggest furthermore that actin- and IF-based junctions act synergistically to strengthen adhesion. PMID:12499357

  10. Deciphering the Combinatorial Roles of Geometric, Mechanical, and Adhesion Cues in Regulation of Cell Spreading

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Greg M.; Shazly, Tarek; Jabbarzadeh, Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    Significant effort has gone towards parsing out the effects of surrounding microenvironment on macroscopic behavior of stem cells. Many of the microenvironmental cues, however, are intertwined, and thus, further studies are warranted to identify the intricate interplay among the conflicting downstream signaling pathways that ultimately guide a cell response. In this contribution, by patterning adhesive PEG (polyethylene glycol) hydrogels using Dip Pen Nanolithography (DPN), we demonstrate that substrate elasticity, subcellular elasticity, ligand density, and topography ultimately define mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) spreading and shape. Physical characteristics are parsed individually with 7 kilopascal (kPa) hydrogel islands leading to smaller, spindle shaped cells and 105 kPa hydrogel islands leading to larger, polygonal cell shapes. In a parallel effort, a finite element model was constructed to characterize and confirm experimental findings and aid as a predictive tool in modeling cell microenvironments. Signaling pathway inhibition studies suggested that RhoA is a key regulator of cell response to the cooperative effect of the tunable substrate variables. These results are significant for the engineering of cell-extra cellular matrix interfaces and ultimately decoupling matrix bound cues presented to cells in a tissue microenvironment for regenerative medicine. PMID:24282570

  11. Bilirubin acts as an endogenous regulator of inflammation by disrupting adhesion molecule-mediated leukocyte migration

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Megan E.; Zucker, Stephen D.

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that bilirubin, which is generated during the physiological breakdown of heme, exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects. Previous work by our group suggests that bilirubin is able to suppress inflammatory responses by preventing the migration of leukocytes into target tissues through disruption of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1)-dependent cell signaling. As VCAM-1 is an important mediator of tissue injury in the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) murine model of inflammatory colitis, we examined whether bilirubin prevents colonic injury in DSS-treated mice. As anticipated, bilirubin-treated animals manifested significantly less colonic injury and reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells into colon tissues. We further observed that bilirubin administration was associated with a reduced number of eosinophils and monocytes in the small intestine, with a corresponding increase in peripheral blood eosinophilia, regardless of whether mice received DSS. These findings suggest that bilirubin impairs the normal migration of eosinophils into intestinal tissues, as supported by in vitro experiments showing that bilirubin blocks the VCAM-1-dependent movement of Jurkat cells across human endothelial cell monolayers. Taken together, our findings support that bilirubin ameliorates DSS-induced colitis and disrupts the physiological trafficking of leukocytes to the intestine by preventing transmigration across the vascular endothelium, potentially through the inhibition VCAM-1-mediated signaling. Our findings raise the possibility that bilirubin functions as an endogenous regulator of inflammatory responses. PMID:26925435

  12. Tetraspanin CD151 regulates alpha6beta1 integrin adhesion strengthening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lammerding, Jan; Kazarov, Alexander R.; Huang, Hayden; Lee, Richard T.; Hemler, Martin E.

    2003-01-01

    The tetraspanin CD151 molecule associates specifically with laminin-binding integrins, including alpha6beta1. To probe strength of alpha6beta1-dependent adhesion to laminin-1, defined forces (0-1.5 nN) were applied to magnetic laminin-coated microbeads bound to NIH 3T3 cells. For NIH 3T3 cells bearing wild-type CD151, adhesion strengthening was observed, as bead detachment became more difficult over time. In contrast, mutant CD151 (with the C-terminal region replaced) showed impaired adhesion strengthening. Static cell adhesion to laminin-1, and detachment of beads coated with fibronectin or anti-alpha6 antibody were all unaffected by CD151 mutation. Hence, CD151 plays a key role in selectively strengthening alpha6beta1 integrin-mediated adhesion to laminin-1.

  13. Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule regulates the interaction between pancreatic cancer cells and stellate cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei-Wei; Zhan, Shu-Hui; Geng, Chang-Xin; Sun, Xin; Erkan, Mert; Kleeff, Jörg; Xie, Xiang-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM/CD166) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is involved in tumor progression and metastasis. In the present study, the expression and functional role of ALCAM in pancreatic cancer cells and pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) was investigated. Tissue specimens were obtained from patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (n=56) or chronic pancreatitis (CP; n=10), who underwent pancreatic resection, and from normal pancreatic tissue samples (n=10). Immunohistochemistry was used to analyze the localization and expression of ALCAM in pancreatic tissues. Subsequently, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting were applied to assess the expression of ALCAM in pancreatic cancer Panc-1 and T3M4 cells, as well as in PSCs. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure ALCAM levels in cell culture medium stimulated by hypoxia, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and transforming growth factor-β. Silencing of ALCAM was performed using ALCAM small interfering (si)RNA and immunocytochemistry was used to analyze the inhibition efficiency. An invasion assay and a cell interaction assay were performed to assess the invasive ability and co-cultured adhesive potential of Panc-1 and T3M4 cells, as well as PSCs. Histologically, ALCAM expression was generally weak or absent in pancreatic cancer cells, but was markedly upregulated in PSCs in pancreatic cancer tissues. ALCAM was highly expressed in PSCs from CP tissues and PSCs surrounding pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias, as well as in pancreatic cancer cells. ALCAM mRNA was highly expressed in PSCs, with a low to moderate expression in T3M4 and Panc-1 cells. Similar to the mRNA expression, immunoblotting demonstrated that ALCAM protein levels were high in PSCs and T3M4 cells, but low in Panc-1 cells. The expression of TNF-α increased, while hypoxia decreased the secretion of ALCAM in pancreatic cancer Panc-1 and T3M4 cells, and also in

  14. Integrin-linked kinase regulates oligodendrocyte cytoskeleton, growth cone, and adhesion dynamics.

    PubMed

    Michalski, John-Paul; Cummings, Sarah E; O'Meara, Ryan W; Kothary, Rashmi

    2016-02-01

    Integrin-linked kinase (ILK), a focal adhesion protein, brokers the link between cytoskeleton, cell membrane, and extracellular environment. Here, we demonstrate a role for ILK in laminin-2-mediated adhesion in primary murine oligodendrocytes (OLs) - with ILK loss leading to severe defects in process branching and outgrowth. These defects were partially recovered when the ILK-depleted OLs were instead grown on the non-integrin-activating substrate poly-l-lysine. Intriguingly, ILK loss on the neutral poly-l-lysine substrate led to swelling at the tips of OL processes, which we identified as enlarged growth cones. Employing the bloated ILK-depleted growth cones as template, we demonstrate the appearance of distinct cytoskeletal domains within OL growth cones bearing classic neuronal growth cone architecture. Further, microtubule organization was severely perturbed following ILK loss, with centripetal microtubule looping and failure to bundle occurring in a laminin-2-independent manner. Together, our work highlights differences in specific aspects of OL biology as driven by laminin-2-dependent or independent ILK governed mechanisms. We also reinforce the idea of OLs as growth cone bearing cells and describe the neuronal-like cytoskeleton therein. Finally, we demonstrate a role for ILK in OL growth cone maturation through microtubule regulation, the loss of which translates to decreased process length and myelin production capacity. We describe herein how different substrates fundamentally alter the oligodendrocyte's response to loss of integrin-linked kinase (ILK). On laminin-2 (Ln-2), ILK-depleted oligodendrocytes appear stunted and malformed, while on the non-integrin-activating substrate PLL branching and membrane formation are restored. We also reinforce the idea of oligodendrocytes as growth cone-bearing cells, detailing the growth cone's cytoskeletal architecture. Strikingly, loss of ILK on poly-l-lysine leads to growth cone swelling, the structure's size and

  15. In Situ Identification of Putative Cancer Stem Cells by Multiplexing ALDH1, CD44, and Cytokeratin Identifies Breast Cancer Patients with Poor Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Neumeister, Veronique; Agarwal, Seema; Bordeaux, Jennifer; Camp, Robert L.; Rimm, David L.

    2010-01-01

    A subset of cells, tentatively called cancer stem cells (CSCs), in breast cancer have been associated with tumor initiation, drug resistance, and tumor persistence or aggressiveness. They are characterized by CD44 positivity, CD24 negativity, and/or ALDH1 positivity in flow cytometric studies. We hypothesized that the frequency or density of these cells may be associated with more aggressive tumor behavior. We borrowed these multiplexed, flow-based methods to develop an in situ method to define CSCs in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissue, with the goal of assessing the prognostic value of the presence of CSCs in breast cancer. Using a retrospective collection of 321 node-negative and 318 node-positive patients with a mean follow-up time of 12.6 years, we assessed TMAs using the AQUA method for quantitative immunofluorescence. Using a multiplexed assay for ALDH1, CD44, and cytokeratin to measure the coexpression of these proteins, putative CSCs appear in variable sized clusters and in 27 cases (of 490), which showed significantly worse outcome (log rank P = 0.0003). Multivariate analysis showed that this marker combination is independent of tumor size, histological grade, nodal status, ER-, PR,- and HER2-status. In this cohort, ALDH1 expression alone does not significantly predict outcome. We conclude that the multiplexed method of in situ identification of putative CSCs identifies high risk patients in breast cancer. PMID:20228222

  16. 4.1R-deficient human red blood cells have altered phosphatidylserine exposure pathways and are deficient in CD44 and CD47 glycoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Jeremy, Kris P.; Plummer, Zoe E.; Head, David J.; Madgett, Tracey E.; Sanders, Kelly L.; Wallington, Amanda; Storry, Jill R.; Gilsanz, Florinda; Delaunay, Jean; Avent, Neil D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Protein 4.1R is an important component of the red cell membrane skeleton. It imparts structural integrity and has transmembrane signaling roles by direct interactions with transmembrane proteins and other membrane skeletal components, notably p55 and calmodulin. Design and Methods Spontaneous and ligation-induced phosphatidylserine exposure on erythrocytes from two patients with 4.1R deficiency were studied, using CD47 glycoprotein and glycophorin C as ligands. We also looked for protein abnormalities in the 4.1R - based multiprotein complex. Results Phosphatidylserine exposure was significantly increased in 4.1R-deficient erythrocytes obtained from the two different individuals when ligands to CD47 glycoprotein were bound. Spontaneous phosphatidylserine exposure was normal. 4.1R, glycophorin C and p55 were missing or sharply reduced. Furthermore there was an alteration or deficiency of CD47 glycoprotein and a lack of CD44 glycoprotein. Based on a recent study in 4.1R-deficient mice, we found that there are clear functional differences between interactions of human red cell 4.1R and its murine counterpart. Conclusions Glycophorin C is known to bind 4.1R, and we have defined previously that it also binds CD47. From our evidence, we suggest that 4.1R plays a role in the phosphatidylserine exposure signaling pathway that is of fundamental importance in red cell turnover. The linkage of CD44 to 4.1R may be relevant to this process. PMID:19794081

  17. High-resolution crystal structures of alternate forms of the human CD44 hyaluronan-binding domain reveal a site for protein interaction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li-Kai; Finzel, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Two new crystal structures of the extracellular hyaluronan-binding domain of human CD44 are described at high resolution. A hexagonal crystal form at 1.60 Å resolution and a monoclinic form at 1.08 Å resolution both have two molecules in the asymmetric unit arranged about a similar noncrystallographic twofold axis of symmetry. These structures are compared with those previously reported at 2.20 Å resolution to show that the fold is quite resistant to structural deformation in different crystal environments. Unexpectedly, a short peptide is found in the monoclinic crystals at a site remote from the known hyaluronan-binding groove. The peptide with a valine at the carboxy-terminus must have co-purified from the bacterial expression host and binds on the opposite side of the domain from the known hyaluronan-binding groove. This opportunistic binding may identify a site of interaction used as CD44 assembles with other proteins to accomplish effective signaling regarding changes to the extracellular environment. PMID:25195884

  18. Salinomycin Promotes Anoikis and Decreases the CD44+/CD24- Stem-Like Population via Inhibition of STAT3 Activation in MDA-MB-231 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Eunhye; Lee, Nahyun; Cho, Youngkwan; Seo, Jae Hong

    2015-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive tumor subtype with an enriched CD44+/CD24- stem-like population. Salinomycin is an antibiotic that has been shown to target cancer stem cells (CSC); however, the mechanisms of action involved have not been well characterized. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of salinomycin on cell death, migration, and invasion, as well as CSC-like properties in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Salinomycin significantly induced anoikis-sensitivity, accompanied by caspase-3 and caspase-8 activation and PARP cleavage, during anchorage-independent growth. Salinomycin treatment also caused a marked suppression of cell migration and invasion with concomitant downregulation of MMP-9 and MMP-2 mRNA levels. Notably, salinomycin inhibited the formation of mammospheres and effectively reduced the CD44+/CD24- stem-like population during anchorage-independent growth. These observations were associated with the inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation (Tyr705). Furthermore, interleukin-6 (IL-6)-induced STAT3 activation was strongly suppressed by salinomycin challenge. These findings support the notion that salinomycin may be potentially efficacious for targeting breast cancer stem-like cells through the inhibition of STAT3 activation. PMID:26528725

  19. Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promote Breast Cancer Metastasis by Interleukin-8- and Interleukin-6-Dependent Induction of CD44(+)/CD24(-) Cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fengxia; Chen, Dandan; Chen, Fang; Chi, Ying; Han, Zhibo; Feng, Xiaoming; Li, Xue; Han, Zhongchao

    2015-01-01

    Although emerging evidence links mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with cancer metastasis, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In the present study, we found that human umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UC-MSCs) promoted MCF-7 cell migration in vitro and metastasis in vivo. To explore the mechanisms, the characteristics of MCF-7 cells cocultured with UC-MSCs were assessed. The expression and secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and IL-6 were induced in MCF-7 cells cocultured with UC-MSCs. However, neutralization of IL-8 or IL-6 secreted by UC-MSCs could attenuate the enhanced expression of IL-8 and IL-6 in MCF-7 cells cocultured with UC-MSCs, which subsequently alleviated the enhanced migration. Similar to UC-MSCs, exogenous human recombinant IL-8 or IL-6 also promoted IL-8 and IL-6 expression and MCF-7 cell migration. In addition to enhanced IL-8 and IL-6 expression, MCF-7 cells cocultured with UC-MSCs displayed enhanced mammosphere-forming ability and increased percentage of CD44(+)/CD24(-) cells. However, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was not observed in MCF-7 cells cocultured with UC-MSCs. Taken together, these results suggested that IL-8 and IL-6 secreted by UC-MSCs activated the autocrine IL-8 and IL-6 signaling in MCF-7 cells and induced CD44(+)/CD24(-) cells, which subsequently promoted MCF-7 cell migration in vitro and metastasis in vivo.

  20. A protein interaction map for cell-cell adhesion regulators identifies DUSP23 as a novel phosphatase for β-catenin

    PubMed Central

    Gallegos, Lisa Leon; Ng, Mei Rosa; Sowa, Mathew E.; Selfors, Laura M.; White, Anne; Zervantonakis, Ioannis K.; Singh, Pragya; Dhakal, Sabin; Harper, J. Wade; Brugge, Joan S.

    2016-01-01

    Cell-cell adhesion is central to morphogenesis and maintenance of epithelial cell state. We previously identified 27 candidate cell-cell adhesion regulatory proteins (CCARPs) whose down-regulation disrupts epithelial cell-cell adhesion during collective migration. Using a protein interaction mapping strategy, we found that 18 CCARPs link to core components of adherens junctions or desmosomes. We further mapped linkages between the CCARPs and other known cell-cell adhesion proteins, including hits from recent screens uncovering novel components of E-cadherin adhesions. Mechanistic studies of one novel CCARP which links to multiple cell-cell adhesion proteins, the phosphatase DUSP23, revealed that it promotes dephosphorylation of β-catenin at Tyr 142 and enhances the interaction between α- and β-catenin. DUSP23 knockdown specifically diminished adhesion to E-cadherin without altering adhesion to fibronectin matrix proteins. Furthermore, DUSP23 knockdown produced “zipper-like” cell-cell adhesions, caused defects in transmission of polarization cues, and reduced coordination during collective migration. Thus, this study identifies multiple novel connections between proteins that regulate cell-cell interactions and provides evidence for a previously unrecognized role for DUSP23 in regulating E-cadherin adherens junctions through promoting the dephosphorylation of β-catenin. PMID:27255161

  1. Metabolic regulation of neutrophil spreading, membrane tubulovesicular extensions (cytonemes) formation and intracellular pH upon adhesion to fibronectin

    SciTech Connect

    Galkina, Svetlana I. . E-mail: galkina@genebee.msu.su; Sud'ina, Galina F.; Klein, Thomas

    2006-08-01

    Circulating leukocytes have a round cell shape and roll along vessel walls. However, metabolic disorders can lead them to adhere to the endothelium and spread (flatten). We studied the metabolic regulation of adhesion, spreading and intracellular pH (pHi) of neutrophils (polymorphonuclear leukocytes) upon adhesion to fibronectin-coated substrata. Resting neutrophils adhered and spread on fibronectin. An increase in pHi accompanied neutrophil spreading. Inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation or inhibition of P- and F-type ATPases affected neither neutrophil spreading nor pHi. Inhibition of glucose metabolism or V-ATPase impaired neutrophil spreading, blocked the increase in the pHi and induced extrusion of membrane tubulovesicular extensions (cytonemes), anchoring cells to substrata. Omission of extracellular Na{sup +} and inhibition of chloride channels caused a similar effect. We propose that these tubulovesicular extensions represent protrusions of exocytotic trafficking, supplying the plasma membrane of neutrophils with ion exchange mechanisms and additional membrane for spreading. Glucose metabolism and V-type ATPase could affect fusion of exocytotic trafficking with the plasma membrane, thus controlling neutrophil adhesive state and pHi. Cl{sup -} efflux through chloride channels and Na{sup +} influx seem to be involved in the regulation of the V-ATPase by carrying out charge compensation for the proton-pumping activity and through V-ATPase in regulation of neutrophil spreading and pHi.

  2. Lung-Derived Factors Mediate Breast Cancer Cell Migration through CD44 Receptor-Ligand Interactions in a Novel Ex Vivo System for Analysis of Organ-Specific Soluble Proteins12

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Jenny E; Xia, Ying; Chin-Yee, Benjamin; Goodale, David; Croker, Alysha K; Allan, Alison L

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer preferentially metastasizes to lung, lymph node, liver, bone, and brain. However, it is unclear whether properties of cancer cells, properties of organ microenvironments, or a combination of both is responsible for this observed organ tropism. We hypothesized that breast cancer cells exhibit distinctive migration/growth patterns in organ microenvironments that mirror common clinical sites of breast cancer metastasis and that receptor-ligand interactions between breast cancer cells and soluble organ-derived factors mediate this behavior. Using an ex vivo model system composed of organ-conditioned media (CM), human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, SUM149, and SUM159) displayed cell line-specific and organ-specific patterns of migration/proliferation that corresponded to their in vivo metastatic behavior. Notably, exposure to lung-CM increased migration of all cell lines and increased proliferation in two of four lines (P < .05). Several cluster of differentiation (CD) 44 ligands including osteopontin (OPN) and L-selectin (SELL) were identified in lung-CM by protein arrays. Immunodepletion of SELL decreased migration of MDA-MB-231 cells, whereas depletion of OPN decreased both migration and proliferation. Pretreatment of cells with a CD44-blocking antibody abrogated migration effects (P < .05). “Stemlike” breast cancer cells with high aldehyde dehydrogenase and CD44 (ALDHhiCD44+) responded in a distinct chemotactic manner toward organ-CM, preferentially migrating toward lung-CM through CD44 receptor-ligand interactions (P < .05). In contrast, organ-specific changes in migration were not observed for ALDHlowCD44- cells. Our data suggest that interactions between CD44+ breast cancer cells and soluble factors present in the lung microenvironment may play an important role in determining organotropic metastatic behavior. PMID:24709425

  3. Lung-derived factors mediate breast cancer cell migration through CD44 receptor-ligand interactions in a novel ex vivo system for analysis of organ-specific soluble proteins.

    PubMed

    Chu, Jenny E; Xia, Ying; Chin-Yee, Benjamin; Goodale, David; Croker, Alysha K; Allan, Alison L

    2014-02-01

    Breast cancer preferentially metastasizes to lung, lymph node, liver, bone, and brain. However, it is unclear whether properties of cancer cells, properties of organ microenvironments, or a combination of both is responsible for this observed organ tropism. We hypothesized that breast cancer cells exhibit distinctive migration/growth patterns in organ microenvironments that mirror common clinical sites of breast cancer metastasis and that receptor-ligand interactions between breast cancer cells and soluble organ-derived factors mediate this behavior. Using an ex vivo model system composed of organ-conditioned media (CM), human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231,MDA-MB-468, SUM149, and SUM159) displayed cell line-specific and organ-specific patterns of migration/proliferation that corresponded to their in vivo metastatic behavior. Notably, exposure to lung-CM increased migration of all cell lines and increased proliferation in two of four lines (P < .05). Several cluster of differentiation (CD) 44 ligands including osteopontin (OPN) and L-selectin (SELL) were identified in lung-CM by protein arrays. Immunodepletion of SELL decreased migration of MDA-MB-231 cells, whereas depletion of OPN decreased both migration and proliferation. Pretreatment of cells with a CD44-blocking antibody abrogated migration effects (P < .05). "Stemlike" breast cancer cells with high aldehyde dehydrogenase and CD44 (ALDH(hi)CD44(+)) responded in a distinct chemotactic manner toward organ-CM, preferentially migrating toward lung-CM through CD44 receptor-ligand interactions (P < .05). In contrast, organ-specific changes in migration were not observed for ALDH(low)CD44(-) cells. Our data suggest that interactions between CD44(+) breast cancer cells and soluble factors present in the lung microenvironment may play an important role in determining organotropic metastatic behavior.

  4. Plasticity of hydrogen bond networks regulates mechanochemistry of cell adhesion complexes

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Shaon; Hinczewski, Michael; Thirumalai, D.

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical forces acting on cell adhesion receptor proteins regulate a range of cellular functions by formation and rupture of noncovalent interactions with ligands. Typically, force decreases the lifetimes of intact complexes (“slip bonds”), making the discovery that these lifetimes can also be prolonged (“catch bonds”) a surprise. We created a microscopic analytic theory by incorporating the structures of selectin and integrin receptors into a conceptual framework based on the theory of stochastic equations, which quantitatively explains a wide range of experimental data (including catch bonds at low forces and slip bonds at high forces). Catch bonds arise due to force-induced remodeling of hydrogen bond networks, a finding that also accounts for unbinding in structurally unrelated integrin–fibronectin and actomyosin complexes. For the selectin family, remodeling of hydrogen bond networks drives an allosteric transition resulting in the formation of the maximum number of hydrogen bonds determined only by the structure of the receptor and independent of the ligand. A similar transition allows us to predict the increase in the number of hydrogen bonds in a particular allosteric state of α5β1 integrin–fibronectin complex, a conformation which is yet to be crystallized. We also make a testable prediction that a single point mutation (Tyr51Phe) in the ligand associated with selectin should dramatically alter the nature of the catch bond compared with the wild type. Our work suggests that nature uses a ductile network of hydrogen bonds to engineer function over a broad range of forces. PMID:24927549

  5. Terminal regions of β-catenin are critical for regulating its adhesion and transcription functions.

    PubMed

    Dar, Mohd Saleem; Singh, Paramjeet; Singh, Gurjinder; Jamwal, Gayatri; Hussain, Syed Sajad; Rana, Aarti; Akhter, Yusuf; Monga, Satdarshan P; Dar, Mohd Jamal

    2016-09-01

    β-Catenin, the central molecule of canonical Wnt signaling pathway, has multiple binding partners and performs many roles in the cell. Apart from being a transcriptional activator, β-catenin acts as a crucial effector component of cadherin/catenin complex to physically interact with actin cytoskeleton along with α-catenin and E-cadherin for regulating cell-cell adhesion. Here, we have generated a library of β-catenin point and deletion mutants to delineate regions within β-catenin that are important for α-catenin-β-catenin interaction, nuclear localization, and transcriptional activity of β-catenin. We observed a unique mechanism for nuclear localization of β-catenin and its mutants and show that N-terminal exon-3 region and C-terminal domain of β-catenin are critical for this activity of β-catenin. Furthermore, we show HepG2 cells have high β-catenin mediated transcriptional activity due to the presence of an interstitial deletion at the N-terminal region of β-catenin. Due to this deletion mutant (hereupon called TM), GSK3β and HDAC inhibitors failed to show any impact whereas curcumin significantly inhibited β-catenin mediated transcriptional activity reiterating that TM is primarily responsible for the high transcriptional activity of HepG2 cells. Moreover, we show the recombinant TM does not physically interact with α-catenin, localizes predominantly in the nucleus, and has nearly two-fold higher transcriptional activity than the wildtype β-catenin. PMID:27368802

  6. Vascular endothelial platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1) regulates advanced metastatic progression

    PubMed Central

    DeLisser, Horace; Liu, Yong; Desprez, Pierre-Yves; Thor, Ann; Briasouli, Paraskevei; Handumrongkul, Chakrapong; Wilfong, Jonathon; Yount, Garret; Nosrati, Mehdi; Fong, Sylvia; Shtivelman, Emma; Fehrenbach, Melane; Cao, Gaoyuan; Moore, Dan H.; Nayak, Shruti; Liggitt, Denny; Kashani-Sabet, Mohammed; Debs, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Most patients who die from cancer succumb to treatment-refractory advanced metastatic progression. Although the early stages of tumor metastasis result in the formation of clinically silent micrometastatic foci, its later stages primarily reflect the progressive, organ-destructive growth of already advanced metastases. Early-stage metastasis is regulated by multiple factors within tumor cells as well as by the tumor microenvironment (TME). In contrast, the molecular determinants that control advanced metastatic progression remain essentially uncharacterized, precluding the development of therapies targeted against it. Here we show that the TME, functioning in part through platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1), drives advanced metastatic progression and is essential for progression through its preterminal end stage. PECAM-1–KO and chimeric mice revealed that its metastasis-promoting effects are mediated specifically through vascular endothelial cell (VEC) PECAM-1. Anti–PECAM-1 mAb therapy suppresses both end-stage metastatic progression and tumor-induced cachexia in tumor-bearing mice. It reduces proliferation, but not angiogenesis or apoptosis, within advanced tumor metastases. Because its antimetastatic effects are mediated by binding to VEC rather than to tumor cells, anti–PECAM-1 mAb appears to act independently of tumor type. A modified 3D coculture assay showed that anti–PECAM-1 mAb inhibits the proliferation of PECAM-1–negative tumor cells by altering the concentrations of secreted factors. Our studies indicate that a complex interplay between elements of the TME and advanced tumor metastases directs end-stage metastatic progression. They also suggest that some therapeutic interventions may target late-stage metastases specifically. mAb-based targeting of PECAM-1 represents a TME-targeted therapeutic approach that suppresses the end stages of metastatic progression, until now a refractory clinical entity. PMID:20926749

  7. Differential Cell Adhesion of Breast Cancer Stem Cells on Biomaterial Substrate with Nanotopographical Cues

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Kenneth K.B.; Giam, Christine S.Y.; Leow, Ming Yi; Chan, Ching Wan; Yim, Evelyn K.F.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells are speculated to have the capability of self-renewal and re-establishment of tumor heterogeneity, possibly involved in the potential relapse of cancer. CD44+CD24−/lowESA+ cells have been reported to possess tumorigenic properties, and these biomarkers are thought to be highly expressed in breast cancer stem cells. Cell behavior can be influenced by biomolecular and topographical cues in the natural microenvironment. We hypothesized that different cell populations in breast cancer tissue exhibit different adhesion characteristics on substrates with nanotopography. Adhesion characterizations were performed using human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC), breast cancer cell line MCF7 and primary invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) cells obtained from patients’ samples, on micro- and nano-patterned poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) films. Topography demonstrated a significant effect on cell adhesion, and the effect was cell type dependent. Cells showed elongation morphology on gratings. The CD44+CD24−/lowESA+ subpopulation in MCF7 and IDC cells showed preferential adhesion on 350-nm gratings. Flow cytometry analysis showed that 350-nm gratings captured a significantly higher percentage of CD44+CD24− in MCF7. A slightly higher percentage of CD44+CD24−/lowESA+ was captured on the 350-nm gratings, although no significant difference was observed in the CD44+CD24−ESA+ in IDC cells across patterns. Taken together, the study demonstrated that the cancer stem cell subpopulation could be enriched using different nanopatterns. The enriched population could subsequently aid in the isolation and characterization of cancer stem cells. PMID:25905435

  8. Differential and Cooperative Cell Adhesion Regulates Cellular Pattern in Sensory Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Togashi, Hideru

    2016-01-01

    Animal tissues are composed of multiple cell types arranged in complex and elaborate patterns. In sensory epithelia, including the auditory epithelium and olfactory epithelium, different types of cells are arranged in unique mosaic patterns. These mosaic patterns are evolutionarily conserved, and are thought to be important for hearing and olfaction. Recent progress has provided accumulating evidence that the cellular pattern formation in epithelia involves cell rearrangements, movements, and shape changes. These morphogenetic processes are largely mediated by intercellular adhesion systems. Differential adhesion and cortical tension have been proposed to promote cell rearrangements. Many different types of cells in tissues express various types of cell adhesion molecules. Although cooperative mechanisms between multiple adhesive systems are likely to contribute to the production of complex cell patterns, our current understanding of the cooperative roles between multiple adhesion systems is insufficient to entirely explain the complex mechanisms underlying cellular patterning. Recent studies have revealed that nectins, in cooperation with cadherins, are crucial for the mosaic cellular patterning in sensory organs. The nectin and cadherin systems are interacted with one another, and these interactions provide cells with differential adhesive affinities for complex cellular pattern formations in sensory epithelia, which cannot be achieved by a single mechanism.

  9. Differential and Cooperative Cell Adhesion Regulates Cellular Pattern in Sensory Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Togashi, Hideru

    2016-01-01

    Animal tissues are composed of multiple cell types arranged in complex and elaborate patterns. In sensory epithelia, including the auditory epithelium and olfactory epithelium, different types of cells are arranged in unique mosaic patterns. These mosaic patterns are evolutionarily conserved, and are thought to be important for hearing and olfaction. Recent progress has provided accumulating evidence that the cellular pattern formation in epithelia involves cell rearrangements, movements, and shape changes. These morphogenetic processes are largely mediated by intercellular adhesion systems. Differential adhesion and cortical tension have been proposed to promote cell rearrangements. Many different types of cells in tissues express various types of cell adhesion molecules. Although cooperative mechanisms between multiple adhesive systems are likely to contribute to the production of complex cell patterns, our current understanding of the cooperative roles between multiple adhesion systems is insufficient to entirely explain the complex mechanisms underlying cellular patterning. Recent studies have revealed that nectins, in cooperation with cadherins, are crucial for the mosaic cellular patterning in sensory organs. The nectin and cadherin systems are interacted with one another, and these interactions provide cells with differential adhesive affinities for complex cellular pattern formations in sensory epithelia, which cannot be achieved by a single mechanism. PMID:27695692

  10. Interface Immobilization Chemistry of cRGD-based Peptides Regulates Integrin Mediated Cell Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Pallarola, Diego; Bochen, Alexander; Boehm, Heike; Rechenmacher, Florian; Sobahi, Tariq R; Spatz, Joachim P; Kessler, Horst

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of specific surface receptors of the integrin family with different extracellular matrix-based ligands is of utmost importance for the cellular adhesion process. A ligand consists of an integrin-binding group, here cyclic RGDfX, a spacer molecule that lifts the integrin-binding group from the surface and a surface anchoring group. c(-RGDfX-) peptides are bound to gold nanoparticle structured surfaces via polyproline, polyethylene glycol or aminohexanoic acid containing spacers of different lengths. Although keeping the integrin-binding c(-RGDfX-) peptides constant for all compounds, changes of the ligand's spacer chemistry and length reveal significant differences in cell adhesion activation and focal adhesion formation. Polyproline-based peptides demonstrate improved cell adhesion kinetics and focal adhesion formation compared with common aminohexanoic acid or polyethylene glycol spacers. Binding activity can additionally be improved by applying ligands with two head groups, inducing a multimeric effect. This study gives insights into spacer-based differences in integrin-driven cell adhesion processes and remarkably highlights the polyproline-based spacers as suitable ligand-presenting templates for surface functionalization. PMID:25810710

  11. The Regulation of RhoA at Focal Adhesions by StarD13 is Important for Astrocytoma Cell Motility

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Bassem D.; Hanna, Samer; Saykali, Bechara A.; El-Sitt, Sally; Nasrallah, Anita; Marston, Daniel; El-Sabban, Marwan; Hahn, Klaus M.; Symons, Marc; El-Sibai, Mirvat

    2015-01-01

    Malignant astrocytomas are highly invasive into adjacent and distant regions of the normal brain. Rho GTPases are small monomeric G proteins that play important roles in cytoskeleton rearrangement, cell motility, and tumor invasion. In the present study, we show that the knock down of StarD13, a GTPase activating protein (GAP) for RhoA and Cdc42, inhibits astrocytoma cell migration through modulating focal adhesion dynamics and cell adhesion. This effect is mediated by the resulting constitutive activation of RhoA and the subsequent indirect inhibition of Rac. Using Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF)-based Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET), we show that RhoA activity localizes with focal adhesions at the basal surface of astrocytoma cells. Moreover, the knock down of StarD13 inhibits the cycling of RhoA activation at the rear edge of cells, which makes them defective in retracting their tail. This study highlights the importance of the regulation of RhoA activity in focal adhesions of astrocytoma cells and establishes StarD13 as a GAP playing a major role in this process. PMID:24333506

  12. N-Ethylmaleimide-sensitive Factor Attachment Protein α (αSNAP) Regulates Matrix Adhesion and Integrin Processing in Human Epithelial Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Naydenov, Nayden G.; Feygin, Alex; Wang, Lifu; Ivanov, Andrei I.

    2014-01-01

    Integrin-based adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM) plays critical roles in controlling differentiation, survival, and motility of epithelial cells. Cells attach to the ECM via dynamic structures called focal adhesions (FA). FA undergo constant remodeling mediated by vesicle trafficking and fusion. A soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) attachment protein α (αSNAP) is an essential mediator of membrane fusion; however, its roles in regulating ECM adhesion and cell motility remain unexplored. In this study, we found that siRNA-mediated knockdown of αSNAP induced detachment of intestinal epithelial cells, whereas overexpression of αSNAP increased ECM adhesion and inhibited cell invasion. Loss of αSNAP impaired Golgi-dependent glycosylation and trafficking of β1 integrin and decreased phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and paxillin resulting in FA disassembly. These effects of αSNAP depletion on ECM adhesion were independent of apoptosis and NSF. In agreement with our previous reports that Golgi fragmentation mediates cellular effects of αSNAP knockdown, we found that either pharmacologic or genetic disruption of the Golgi recapitulated all the effects of αSNAP depletion on ECM adhesion. Furthermore, our data implicates β1 integrin, FAK, and paxillin in mediating the observed pro-adhesive effects of αSNAP. These results reveal novel roles for αSNAP in regulating ECM adhesion and motility of epithelial cells. PMID:24311785

  13. The pro-adhesive and pro-survival effects of glucocorticoid in human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yin, Lijuan; Fang, Fang; Song, Xinglei; Wang, Yan; Huang, Gaoxiang; Su, Jie; Hui, Ning; Lu, Jian

    2016-07-01

    Cell adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) is controlled by multiple signaling molecules and intracellular pathways, and is pivotal for survival and growth of cells from most solid tumors. Our previous works demonstrated that dexamethasone (DEX) significantly enhances cell adhesion and cell resistance to chemotherapeutics by increasing the levels of integrin β1, α4, and α5 in human ovarian cancer cells. However, it is unclear whether the components of ECM or other membrane molecules are also involved in the pro-adhesive effect of DEX in ovarian cancer cells. In this study, we demonstrated that the treatment of cells with DEX did not change the expression of collagens (I, III, and IV), laminin, CD44, and its principal ligand hyaluronan (HA), but significantly increased the levels of intracellular and secreted fibronectin (FN). Inhibiting the expression of FN with FN1 siRNA or blocking CD44, another FN receptor, with CD44 blocking antibody significantly attenuated the pro-adhesion of DEX, indicating that upregulation of FN mediates the pro-adhesive effect of DEX by its interaction with CD44 besides integrin β1. Moreover, DEX significantly enhanced cell resistance to the chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel (PTX) by activating PI-3K-Akt pathway. Finally, we found that DEX also significantly upregulated the expression of MUC1, a transmembrane glycoprotein. Inhibiting the expression of MUC1 with MUC1 siRNA significantly attenuated the DEX-induced effects of pro-adhesion, Akt-activation, and pro-survival. In conclusion, these results provide new data that upregulation of FN and MUC1 by DEX contributes to DEX-induced pro-adhesion and protects ovarian cancer cells from chemotherapy. PMID:27151574

  14. Hyaluronan injection in murine osteoarthritis prevents TGFbeta 1-induced synovial neovascularization and fibrosis and maintains articular cartilage integrity by a CD44-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The mechanism by which intra-articular injection of hyaluronan (HA) ameliorates joint pathology is unknown. Animal studies have shown that HA can reduce synovial activation, periarticular fibrosis and cartilage erosion; however, its specific effects on the different cell types involved remain unclear. We have used the TTR (TGFbeta1 injection and Treadmill Running) model of murine osteoarthritis (OA), which exhibits many OA-like changes, including synovial activation, to examine in vivo tissue-specific effects of intra-articular HA. Methods The kinetics of clearance of fluorotagged HA from joints was examined with whole-body imaging. Naïve and treated knee joints were examined macroscopically for cartilage erosion, meniscal damage and fibrosis. Quantitative histopathology was done with Safranin O for cartilage and with Hematoxylin & Eosin for synovium. Gene expression in joint tissues for Acan, Col1a1, Col2a1, Col3a1, Col5a1, Col10a1, Adamts5 and Mmp13 was done by quantitative PCR. The abundance and distribution of aggrecan, collagen types I, II, III, V and X, ADAMTS5 and MMP13 were examined by immunohistochemistry. Results Injected HA showed a half-life of less than 2 h in the murine knee joint. At the tissue level, HA protected against neovascularization and fibrosis of the meniscus/synovium and maintained articular cartilage integrity in wild-type but not in Cd44 knockout mice. HA injection enhanced the expression of chondrogenic genes and proteins and blocked that of fibrogenic/degradative genes and proteins in cartilage/subchondral bone, whereas it blocked activation of both groups in meniscus/synovium. In all locations it reduced the expression/protein for Mmp13 and blocked Adamts5 expression but not its protein abundance in the synovial lining. Conclusions The injection of HA, 24 h after TGFbeta1 injection, inhibited the cascade of OA-like joint changes seen after treadmill use in the TTR model of OA. In terms of mechanism, tissue protection by

  15. Epidermis-Derived Semaphorin Promotes Dendrite Self-Avoidance by Regulating Dendrite-Substrate Adhesion in Drosophila Sensory Neurons.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Shan; Yadav, Smita; Lee, Jiae; Soba, Peter; Younger, Susan H; Jin, Peng; Zhang, Wei; Parrish, Jay; Jan, Lily Yeh; Jan, Yuh-Nung

    2016-02-17

    Precise patterning of dendritic arbors is critical for the wiring and function of neural circuits. Dendrite-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion ensures that the dendrites of Drosophila dendritic arborization (da) sensory neurons are properly restricted in a 2D space, and thereby facilitates contact-mediated dendritic self-avoidance and tiling. However, the mechanisms regulating dendrite-ECM adhesion in vivo are poorly understood. Here, we show that mutations in the semaphorin ligand sema-2b lead to a dramatic increase in self-crossing of dendrites due to defects in dendrite-ECM adhesion, resulting in a failure to confine dendrites to a 2D plane. Furthermore, we find that Sema-2b is secreted from the epidermis and signals through the Plexin B receptor in neighboring neurons. Importantly, we find that Sema-2b/PlexB genetically and physically interacts with TORC2 complex, Tricornered (Trc) kinase, and integrins. These results reveal a novel role for semaphorins in dendrite patterning and illustrate how epidermal-derived cues regulate neural circuit assembly.

  16. Exemestane blocks mesothelioma growth through downregulation of cAMP, pCREB and CD44 implicating new treatment option in patients affected by this disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent evidence suggests that aromatase may be involved in the pathogenesis of malignant mesothelioma. Here, we evaluated the effect of exemestane, an inhibitor of aromatase, in the treatment of mesothelioma using in vitro and in vivo preclinical models. Results We show a significant reduction of cell proliferation, survival, migration and block of cells in S phase of cell cycle in mesothelioma cells upon exemestane treatment. Moreover, we find that CD44, which is involved in mesothelioma cells migration, was modulated by exemestane via cAMP and pCREB. Most importantly, in mice mesothelioma xenograft exemestane causes a significant decrease in tumor size and the association pemetrexed/exemestane is more effective than pemetrexed/cisplatin. Conclusion The preclinical mesothelioma model suggests that exemestane might be beneficial in mesothelioma treatment. PMID:24655565

  17. The Surface Sensor NlpE of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Contributes to Regulation of the Type III Secretion System and Flagella by the Cpx Response to Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Takeshi; Ichimura, Kimitoshi; Noda, Masatoshi

    2016-02-01

    Although the adhesion of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is central to the EHEC-host interaction during infection, it remains unclear how such adhesion regulates virulence factors. Adhesion to abiotic surfaces by E. coli has been reported to be an outer membrane lipoprotein NlpE-dependent activation cue of the Cpx pathway. Therefore, we investigated the role of NlpE in EHEC on the adhesion-mediated expression of virulence genes. NlpE in EHEC contributed to upregulation of the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) genes encoded type III secretion system and to downregulated expression of the flagellin gene by activation of the Cpx pathway during adherence to hydrophobic glass beads and undifferentiated Caco-2 cells. Moreover, LysR homologue A (LrhA) in EHEC was involved in regulating the expression of the LEE genes and flagellin gene in response to adhesion. Gel mobility shift analysis revealed that response regulator CpxR bound to the lrhA promoter region and thereby regulated expressions of the LEE genes and flagellin gene via the transcriptional regulator LrhA in EHEC. Therefore, these results suggest that the sensing of adhesion signals via NlpE is important for regulation of the expression of the type III secretion system and flagella in EHEC during infection. PMID:26644384

  18. The Surface Sensor NlpE of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Contributes to Regulation of the Type III Secretion System and Flagella by the Cpx Response to Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Ichimura, Kimitoshi; Noda, Masatoshi

    2015-01-01

    Although the adhesion of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is central to the EHEC-host interaction during infection, it remains unclear how such adhesion regulates virulence factors. Adhesion to abiotic surfaces by E. coli has been reported to be an outer membrane lipoprotein NlpE-dependent activation cue of the Cpx pathway. Therefore, we investigated the role of NlpE in EHEC on the adhesion-mediated expression of virulence genes. NlpE in EHEC contributed to upregulation of the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) genes encoded type III secretion system and to downregulated expression of the flagellin gene by activation of the Cpx pathway during adherence to hydrophobic glass beads and undifferentiated Caco-2 cells. Moreover, LysR homologue A (LrhA) in EHEC was involved in regulating the expression of the LEE genes and flagellin gene in response to adhesion. Gel mobility shift analysis revealed that response regulator CpxR bound to the lrhA promoter region and thereby regulated expressions of the LEE genes and flagellin gene via the transcriptional regulator LrhA in EHEC. Therefore, these results suggest that the sensing of adhesion signals via NlpE is important for regulation of the expression of the type III secretion system and flagella in EHEC during infection. PMID:26644384

  19. The Dioxin Receptor Regulates the Constitutive Expression of the Vav3 Proto-Oncogene and Modulates Cell Shape and Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal-Gonzalez, Jose M.; Mulero-Navarro, Sonia; Roman, Angel Carlos; Sauzeau, Vincent; Merino, Jaime M.; Bustelo, Xose R.

    2009-01-01

    The dioxin receptor (AhR) modulates cell plasticity and migration, although the signaling involved remains unknown. Here, we report a mechanism that integrates AhR into these cytoskeleton-related functions. Immortalized and mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking AhR (AhR−/−) had increased cell area due to spread cytoplasms that reverted to wild-type morphology upon AhR re-expression. The AhR-null phenotype included increased F-actin stress fibers, depolarized focal adhesions, and enhanced spreading and adhesion. The cytoskeleton alterations of AhR−/− cells were due to down-regulation of constitutive Vav3 expression, a guanosine diphosphate/guanosine triphosphate exchange factor for Rho/Rac GTPases and a novel transcriptional target of AhR. AhR was recruited to the vav3 promoter and maintained constitutive mRNA expression in a ligand-independent manner. Consistently, AhR−/− fibroblasts had reduced Rac1 activity and increased activation of the RhoA/Rho kinase (Rock) pathway. Pharmacological inhibition of Rac1 shifted AhR+/+ fibroblasts to the null phenotype, whereas Rock inhibition changed AhR-null cells to the AhR+/+ morphology. Knockdown of vav3 transcripts by small interfering RNA induced cytoskeleton defects and changes in adhesion and spreading mimicking those of AhR-null cells. Moreover, vav3−/− MEFs, as AhR−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts, had increased cell area and enhanced stress fibers. By modulating Vav3-dependent signaling, AhR could regulate cell shape, adhesion, and migration under physiological conditions and, perhaps, in certain pathological states. PMID:19158396

  20. Targeting the Metastasis Suppressor, N-Myc Downstream Regulated Gene-1, with Novel Di-2-Pyridylketone Thiosemicarbazones: Suppression of Tumor Cell Migration and Cell-Collagen Adhesion by Inhibiting Focal Adhesion Kinase/Paxillin Signaling.

    PubMed

    Wangpu, Xiongzhi; Lu, Jiaoyang; Xi, Ruxing; Yue, Fei; Sahni, Sumit; Park, Kyung Chan; Menezes, Sharleen; Huang, Michael L H; Zheng, Minhua; Kovacevic, Zaklina; Richardson, Des R

    2016-05-01

    Metastasis is a complex process that is regulated by multiple signaling pathways, with the focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/paxillin pathway playing a major role in the formation of focal adhesions and cell motility. N-myc downstream regulated gene-1 (NDRG1) is a potent metastasis suppressor in many solid tumor types, including prostate and colon cancer. Considering the antimetastatic effect of NDRG1 and the crucial involvement of the FAK/paxillin pathway in cellular migration and cell-matrix adhesion, we assessed the effects of NDRG1 on this important oncogenic pathway. In the present study, NDRG1 overexpression and silencing models of HT29 colon cancer and DU145 prostate cancer cells were used to examine the activation of FAK/paxillin signaling and the formation of focal adhesions. The expression of NDRG1 resulted in a marked and significant decrease in the activating phosphorylation of FAK and paxillin, whereas silencing of NDRG1 resulted in an opposite effect. The expression of NDRG1 also inhibited the formation of focal adhesions as well as cell migration and cell-collagen adhesion. Incubation of cells with novel thiosemicarbazones, namely di-2-pyridylketone 4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone and di-2-pyridylketone 4-cyclohexyl-4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone, that upregulate NDRG1 also resulted in decreased phosphorylation of FAK and paxillin. The ability of these thiosemicarbazones to inhibit cell migration and metastasis could be mediated, at least in part, through the FAK/paxillin pathway. PMID:26895766

  1. Micrometer scale spacings between fibronectin nanodots regulate cell morphology and focal adhesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horzum, Utku; Ozdil, Berrin; Pesen-Okvur, Devrim

    2014-04-01

    Cell adhesion to extracellular matrix is an important process for both health and disease states. Surface protein patterns that are topographically flat, and do not introduce other chemical, topographical or rigidity related functionality and, more importantly, that mimic the organization of the in vivo extracellular matrix are desired. Previous work showed that vinculin and cytoskeletal organization are modulated by size and shape of surface nanopatterns. However, quantitative analysis on cell morphology and focal adhesions as a function of micrometer scale spacings of FN nanopatterns was absent. Here, electron beam lithography was used to pattern fibronectin nanodots with micrometer scale spacings on a K-casein background on indium tin oxide coated glass which, unlike silicon, is transparent and thus suitable for many light microscopy techniques. Exposure times were significantly reduced using the line exposure mode with micrometer scale step sizes. Micrometer scale spacings of 2, 4 and 8 μm between fibronectin nanodots proved to modulate cell adhesion through modification of cell area, focal adhesion number, size and circularity. Overall, cell behavior was shown to shift at the apparent threshold of 4 μm spacing. The findings presented here offer exciting new opportunities for cell biology research.

  2. How solid-liquid adhesive property regulates liquid slippage on solid surfaces?

    PubMed

    Xue, Yahui; Wu, Yang; Pei, Xiaowei; Duan, Huiling; Xue, Qunji; Zhou, Feng

    2015-01-13

    The influence of solid-liquid adhesive property on liquid slippage at solid surfaces has been investigated using experiment approach on well-defined model surfaces as well as theoretical analysis. Based on a classical molecular-kinetic description for molecular and hydrodynamic slip, we propose a simple theoretical model that directly relates the liquid slip length to the liquid adhesive force on solid surfaces, which yields an exponential decay function. Well-defined smooth surfaces with varied surface wettability/adhesion are fabricated by forming self-assembled monolayers on gold with different mole ratios of hydrophobic and hydrophilic thiols. The adhesive force of a water droplet and the molecular slippage on these surfaces are probed by surface force apparatus and quartz crystal microbalance measurements, respectively. The experiment results are well consistent with our theoretical prediction. Our finding benefits the understanding of the underlying mechanism of liquid slippage on solid surfaces at molecular level and the rational design of microfluidics with an aim to be frictionless or highly controllable. PMID:25511171

  3. Mechanical force mobilizes zyxin from focal adhesions to actin filaments and regulates cytoskeletal reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Yoshigi, Masaaki; Hoffman, Laura M; Jensen, Christopher C; Yost, H Joseph; Beckerle, Mary C

    2005-10-24

    Organs and tissues adapt to acute or chronic mechanical stress by remodeling their actin cytoskeletons. Cells that are stimulated by cyclic stretch or shear stress in vitro undergo bimodal cytoskeletal responses that include rapid reinforcement and gradual reorientation of actin stress fibers; however, the mechanism by which cells respond to mechanical cues has been obscure. We report that the application of either unidirectional cyclic stretch or shear stress to cells results in robust mobilization of zyxin from focal adhesions to actin filaments, whereas many other focal adhesion proteins and zyxin family members remain at focal adhesions. Mechanical stress also induces the rapid zyxin-dependent mobilization of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein from focal adhesions to actin filaments. Thickening of actin stress fibers reflects a cellular adaptation to mechanical stress; this cytoskeletal reinforcement coincides with zyxin mobilization and is abrogated in zyxin-null cells. Our findings identify zyxin as a mechanosensitive protein and provide mechanistic insight into how cells respond to mechanical cues. PMID:16247023

  4. Regulation mechanism of ERM (ezrin/radixin/moesin) protein/plasma membrane association: possible involvement of phosphatidylinositol turnover and Rho-dependent signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    The ERM proteins, ezrin, radixin, and moesin, are involved in the actin filament/plasma membrane interaction as cross-linkers. CD44 has been identified as one of the major membrane binding partners for ERM proteins. To examine the CD44/ERM protein interaction in vitro, we produced mouse ezrin, radixin, moesin, and the glutathione-S- transferase (GST)/CD44 cytoplasmic domain fusion protein (GST-CD44cyt) by means of recombinant baculovirus infection, and constructed an in vitro assay for the binding between ERM proteins and the cytoplasmic domain of CD44. In this system, ERM proteins bound to GST-CD44cyt with high affinity (Kd of moesin was 9.3 +/- 1.6nM) at a low ionic strength, but with low affinity at a physiological ionic strength. However, in the presence of phosphoinositides (phosphatidylinositol [PI], phosphatidylinositol 4-monophosphate [4-PIP], and phosphatidylinositol 4.5-bisphosphate [4,5-PIP2]), ERM proteins bound with a relatively high affinity to GST-CD44cyt even at a physiological ionic strength: 4,5- PIP2 showed a marked effect (Kd of moesin in the presence of 4,5-PIP2 was 9.3 +/- 4.8 nM). Next, to examine the regulation mechanism of CD44/ERM interaction in vivo, we reexamined the immunoprecipitated CD44/ERM complex from BHK cells and found that it contains Rho-GDP dissociation inhibitor (GDI), a regulator of Rho GTPase. We then evaluated the involvement of Rho in the regulation of the CD44/ERM complex formation. When recombinant ERM proteins were added and incubated with lysates of cultured BHK cells followed by centrifugation, a portion of the recombinant ERM proteins was recovered in the insoluble fraction. This binding was enhanced by GTP gamma S and markedly suppressed by C3 toxin, a specific inhibitor of Rho, indicating that the GTP form of Rho in the lysate is required for this binding. A mAb specific for the cytoplasmic domain of CD44 also markedly suppressed this binding, identifying most of the binding partners for exogenous ERM proteins in

  5. Functional Mineralocorticoid Receptors in Human Vascular Endothelial Cells Regulate ICAM-1 Expression and Promote Leukocyte Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Caprio, Massimiliano; Newfell, Brenna G.; la Sala, Andrea; Baur, Wendy; Fabbri, Andrea; Rosano, Giuseppe; Mendelsohn, Michael E.; Jaffe, Iris Z.

    2008-01-01

    In clinical trials, aldosterone antagonists decrease cardiovascular mortality and ischemia by unknown mechanisms. The steroid hormone aldosterone acts by binding to the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), a ligand-activated transcription factor. In humans, aldosterone causes MR-dependent endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction and in animal models, aldosterone increases vascular macrophage infiltration and atherosclerosis. MR antagonists inhibit these effects without changing blood pressure, suggesting a direct role for vascular MR in EC function and atherosclerosis. Whether human vascular EC express functional MR is not known. Here we show that human coronary artery and aortic EC express MR mRNA and protein and that EC MR mediates aldosterone-dependent gene transcription. Human EC also express the enzyme 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2(11βHSD2) and inhibition of 11βHSD2 in aortic EC enhances gene transactivation by cortisol, supporting that EC 11βHSD2 is functional. Furthermore, aldosterone stimulates transcription of the proatherogenic leukocyte-EC adhesion molecule Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1(ICAM1) gene and protein expression on human coronary artery EC, an effect inhibited by the MR antagonist spironolactone and by MR knock-down with siRNA. Cell adhesion assays demonstrate that aldosterone promotes leukocyte-EC adhesion, an effect that is inhibited by spironolactone and ICAM1 blocking antibody, supporting that aldosterone induction of EC ICAM1 surface expression via MR mediates leukocyte-EC adhesion. These data show that aldosterone activates endogenous EC MR and proatherogenic gene expression in clinically important human EC. These studies describe a novel mechanism by which aldosterone may influence ischemic cardiovascular events and support a new explanation for the decrease in ischemic events in patients treated with aldosterone antagonists. PMID:18467630

  6. Coexpression of CD44-positive/CD133-positive cancer stem cells and CD204-positive tumor-associated macrophages is a predictor of survival in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Ya-Chin; Chao, Ying-Jui; Tung, Hui-Ling; Wang, Hao-Chen; Shan, Yan-Shen

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The interactions between cancer stem cells (CSCs) and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) can promote tumor progression, maintain the CSCs population, and reduce therapeutic effects. The objective of this study was to investigate the coexpression of CSCs and TAMs and its clinical significance in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). METHODS Ninety-six patients with PDAC were included in this study. Tissue microarrays were constructed for immunostaining of the CSCs markers CD44 and CD133 and the TAMs marker CD204. Correlations between the expression of CSCs and TAMs markers and clinicopathologic characteristics or disease progression were analyzed. RESULTS Expression levels of CD44/CD133 and CD204 were significantly higher in tumor tissues than in normal tissues (P < .0001). The variables associated with survival were high coexpression of CD44/CD133 (P = .000), high expression of CD204 (P = .011), and tumor grade (P = .014). There was a positive correlation between CD44/CD133 and CD204 expression (r = 0.294; P = .004). Survival analysis indicated that high coexpression of CD44/CD133 and CD204 was associated significantly with shorter overall survival (P = .000) and disease-free survival (P = .003). Multivariate analysis revealed that high CD44/CD133 expression was an independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival, whereas high CD204 expression was an independent predictor for both overall and disease-free survival. CONCLUSIONS Coexpression of CD44/CD133 and CD204 is a useful survival prediction marker for patients with PDAC. Cancer 2014;120:2766–2777. © The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society. The clinical significance of pancreatic cancer stem cells and tumor-associated macrophages is explored in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. The results clearly demonstrate that coexpression of 2 cancer stem cell markers (CD44 and CD133) and a tumor

  7. Regulation of phosphorylation level and distribution of PTP36, a putative protein tyrosine phosphatase, by cell-substrate adhesion.

    PubMed

    Ogata, M; Takada, T; Mori, Y; Uchida, Y; Miki, T; Okuyama, A; Kosugi, A; Sawada, M; Oh-hora, M; Hamaoka, T

    1999-07-16

    Recently we have cloned a putative protein tyrosine phosphatase, PTP36/PTPD2/pez, which possesses a domain homologous to the N-terminal half of band 4.1 protein. In mouse fibroblasts adhered to substrates, PTP36 was phosphorylated on serine residues. PTP36 was found to make complexes with serine/threonine kinase(s), which phosphorylated PTP36 in vitro. PTP36 was dephosphorylated rapidly when the cell-substrate adhesion was disrupted and it was phosphorylated again along with the reattachment of the cells to fibronectin. Rephosphorylation of PTP36 seemed to depend on actin polymerization since it was inhibited by cytochalasin D. The cell detachment also induced the translocation of PTP36 into the membrane-associated cytoskeletal fraction. Staurosporine and ML-9, which inhibited the phosphorylation of PTP36 in vivo, induced the translocation of PTP36 too. On the contrary, when the dephosphorylation of PTP36 was inhibited by okadaic acid, no translocation of PTP36 was induced by the cell detachment. These results demonstrate that the cell-substrate adhesion and cell spreading regulates the intracellular localization of PTP36 most likely through its phosphorylation and therefore, PTP36 may play important roles in the signal transduction pathway of cell-adhesion. PMID:10400706

  8. Ezrin regulates focal adhesion and invadopodia dynamics by altering calpain activity to promote breast cancer cell invasion

    PubMed Central

    Hoskin, Victoria; Szeto, Alvin; Ghaffari, Abdi; Greer, Peter A.; Côté, Graham P.; Elliott, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    Up-regulation of the cytoskeleton linker protein ezrin frequently occurs in aggressive cancer types and is closely linked with metastatic progression. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms detailing how ezrin is involved in the invasive and metastatic phenotype remain unclear. Here we report a novel function of ezrin in regulating focal adhesion (FA) and invadopodia dynamics, two key processes required for efficient invasion to occur. We show that depletion of ezrin expression in invasive breast cancer cells impairs both FA and invadopodia turnover. We also demonstrate that ezrin-depleted cells display reduced calpain-mediated cleavage of the FA and invadopodia-associated proteins talin, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and cortactin and reduced calpain-1–specific membrane localization, suggesting a requirement for ezrin in maintaining proper localization and activity of calpain-1. Furthermore, we show that ezrin is required for cell directionality, early lung seeding, and distant organ colonization but not primary tumor growth. Collectively our results unveil a novel mechanism by which ezrin regulates breast cancer cell invasion and metastasis. PMID:26246600

  9. AND-34/BCAR3 Regulates Adhesion-Dependent p130Cas Serine Phosphorylation and Breast Cancer Cell Growth Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Makkinje, Anthony; Near, Richard I.; Infusini, Giuseppe; Borre, Pierre Vanden; Bloom, Alexander; Cai, Dongpo; Costello, Catherine E.; Lerner, Adam

    2009-01-01

    NSP protein family members associate with p130Cas, a focal adhesion adapter protein best known as a Src substrate that integrates adhesion-related signaling. Over-expression of AND-34/BCAR3/NSP2 (BCAR3), but not NSP1 or NSP3, induces anti-estrogen resistance in human breast cancer cell lines. BCAR3 over-expression in epithelial MCF-7 cells augments levels of a phosphorylated p130Cas species that migrates more slowly on SDS PAGE while NSP-1 and NSP3 induce modest or no phosphorylation, respectively. Conversely, reduction in BCAR3 expression in mesenchymal MDA-231 cells by inducible shRNA results in loss of such p130Cas phosphorylation. Replacement of NSP3's serine/proline-rich domain with that of AND-34/BCAR3 instills the ability to induce p130Cas phosphorylation. Phospho-amino acid analysis demonstrates that BCAR3 induces p130Cas serine phosphorylation. Mass spectrometry identified phosphorylation at p130Cas serines 139, 437 and 639. p130Cas serine phosphorylation accumulates for several hours after adhesion of MDA-231 cells to fibronectin and is dependent upon BCAR3 expression. BCAR3 knockdown alters p130Cas localization and converts MDA-231 growth to an epithelioid pattern characterized by striking cohesiveness and lack of cellular projections at colony borders. These studies demonstrate that BCAR3 regulates p130Cas serine phosphorylation that is adhesion-dependent, temporally distinct from previously well-characterized rapid Fak and Src kinase-mediated p130Cas tyrosine phosphorylation and that correlates with invasive phenotype. PMID:19454314

  10. The pulmonary endothelial glycocalyx regulates neutrophil adhesion and lung injury during experimental sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Eric P; Yang, Yimu; Janssen, William J; Gandjeva, Aneta; Perez, Mario J; Barthel, Lea; Zemans, Rachel L; Bowman, Joel C; Koyanagi, Dan E; Yunt, Zulma X; Smith, Lynelle P; Cheng, Sara S; Overdier, Katherine H; Thompson, Kathy R; Geraci, Mark W; Douglas, Ivor S; Pearse, David B; Tuder, Rubin M

    2013-01-01

    Sepsis, a systemic inflammatory response to infection, commonly progresses to acute lung injury (ALI), an inflammatory lung disease with high morbidity. We postulated that sepsis-associated ALI is initiated by degradation of the pulmonary endothelial glycocalyx, leading to neutrophil adherence and inflammation. Using intravital microscopy, we found that endotoxemia in mice rapidly induced pulmonary microvascular glycocalyx degradation via tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-dependent mechanisms. Glycocalyx degradation involved the specific loss of heparan sulfate and coincided with activation of endothelial heparanase, a TNF-α–responsive, heparan sulfate–specific glucuronidase. Glycocalyx degradation increased the availability of endothelial surface adhesion molecules to circulating microspheres and contributed to neutrophil adhesion. Heparanase inhibition prevented endotoxemia-associated glycocalyx loss and neutrophil adhesion and, accordingly, attenuated sepsis-induced ALI and mortality in mice. These findings are potentially relevant to human disease, as sepsis-associated respiratory failure in humans was associated with higher plasma heparan sulfate degradation activity; moreover, heparanase content was higher in human lung biopsies showing diffuse alveolar damage than in normal human lung tissue. PMID:22820644

  11. Dynamic Surfaces for the Study of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Growth through Adhesion Regulation.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jemma N; Sahoo, Jugal Kishore; McNamara, Laura E; Burgess, Karl V; Yang, Jingli; Alakpa, Enateri V; Anderson, Hilary J; Hay, Jake; Turner, Lesley-Anne; Yarwood, Stephen J; Zelzer, Mischa; Oreffo, Richard O C; Ulijn, Rein V; Dalby, Matthew J

    2016-07-26

    Out of their niche environment, adult stem cells, such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), spontaneously differentiate. This makes both studying these important regenerative cells and growing large numbers of stem cells for clinical use challenging. Traditional cell culture techniques have fallen short of meeting this challenge, but materials science offers hope. In this study, we have used emerging rules of managing adhesion/cytoskeletal balance to prolong MSC cultures by fabricating controllable nanoscale cell interfaces using immobilized peptides that may be enzymatically activated to change their function. The surfaces can be altered (activated) at will to tip adhesion/cytoskeletal balance and initiate differentiation, hence better informing biological mechanisms of stem cell growth. Tools that are able to investigate the stem cell phenotype are important. While large phenotypical differences, such as the difference between an adipocyte and an osteoblast, are now better understood, the far more subtle differences between fibroblasts and MSCs are much harder to dissect. The development of technologies able to dynamically navigate small differences in adhesion are critical in the race to provide regenerative strategies using stem cells. PMID:27322014

  12. Interphase adhesion geometry is transmitted to an internal regulator for spindle orientation via caveolin-1.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Shigeru; Kojidani, Tomoko; Kamioka, Yuji; Uchida, Seiichi; Haraguchi, Tokuko; Kimura, Akatsuki; Toyoshima, Fumiko

    2016-01-01

    Despite theoretical and physical studies implying that cell-extracellular matrix adhesion geometry governs the orientation of the cell division axis, the molecular mechanisms that translate interphase adhesion geometry to the mitotic spindle orientation remain elusive. Here, we show that the cellular edge retraction during mitotic cell rounding correlates with the spindle axis. At the onset of mitotic cell rounding, caveolin-1 is targeted to the retracting cortical region at the proximal end of retraction fibres, where ganglioside GM1-enriched membrane domains with clusters of caveola-like structures are formed in an integrin and RhoA-dependent manner. Furthermore, Gαi1-LGN-NuMA, a well-known regulatory complex of spindle orientation, is targeted to the caveolin-1-enriched cortical region to guide the spindle axis towards the cellular edge retraction. We propose that retraction-induced cortical heterogeneity of caveolin-1 during mitotic cell rounding sets the spindle orientation in the context of adhesion geometry. PMID:27292265

  13. The cell adhesion molecule Fasciclin2 regulates brush border length and organization in Drosophila renal tubules

    PubMed Central

    Halberg, Kenneth A.; Rainey, Stephanie M.; Veland, Iben R.; Neuert, Helen; Dornan, Anthony J.; Klämbt, Christian; Davies, Shireen-Anne; Dow, Julian A. T.

    2016-01-01

    Multicellular organisms rely on cell adhesion molecules to coordinate cell–cell interactions, and to provide navigational cues during tissue formation. In Drosophila, Fasciclin 2 (Fas2) has been intensively studied due to its role in nervous system development and maintenance; yet, Fas2 is most abundantly expressed in the adult renal (Malpighian) tubule rather than in neuronal tissues. The role Fas2 serves in this epithelium is unknown. Here we show that Fas2 is essential to brush border maintenance in renal tubules of Drosophila. Fas2 is dynamically expressed during tubule morphogenesis, localizing to the brush border whenever the tissue is transport competent. Genetic manipulations of Fas2 expression levels impact on both microvilli length and organization, which in turn dramatically affect stimulated rates of fluid secretion by the tissue. Consequently, we demonstrate a radically different role for this well-known cell adhesion molecule, and propose that Fas2-mediated intermicrovillar homophilic adhesion complexes help stabilize the brush border. PMID:27072072

  14. Interphase adhesion geometry is transmitted to an internal regulator for spindle orientation via caveolin-1

    PubMed Central

    Matsumura, Shigeru; Kojidani, Tomoko; Kamioka, Yuji; Uchida, Seiichi; Haraguchi, Tokuko; Kimura, Akatsuki; Toyoshima, Fumiko

    2016-01-01

    Despite theoretical and physical studies implying that cell-extracellular matrix adhesion geometry governs the orientation of the cell division axis, the molecular mechanisms that translate interphase adhesion geometry to the mitotic spindle orientation remain elusive. Here, we show that the cellular edge retraction during mitotic cell rounding correlates with the spindle axis. At the onset of mitotic cell rounding, caveolin-1 is targeted to the retracting cortical region at the proximal end of retraction fibres, where ganglioside GM1-enriched membrane domains with clusters of caveola-like structures are formed in an integrin and RhoA-dependent manner. Furthermore, Gαi1–LGN–NuMA, a well-known regulatory complex of spindle orientation, is targeted to the caveolin-1-enriched cortical region to guide the spindle axis towards the cellular edge retraction. We propose that retraction-induced cortical heterogeneity of caveolin-1 during mitotic cell rounding sets the spindle orientation in the context of adhesion geometry. PMID:27292265

  15. Dynamic Surfaces for the Study of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Growth through Adhesion Regulation.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jemma N; Sahoo, Jugal Kishore; McNamara, Laura E; Burgess, Karl V; Yang, Jingli; Alakpa, Enateri V; Anderson, Hilary J; Hay, Jake; Turner, Lesley-Anne; Yarwood, Stephen J; Zelzer, Mischa; Oreffo, Richard O C; Ulijn, Rein V; Dalby, Matthew J

    2016-07-26

    Out of their niche environment, adult stem cells, such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), spontaneously differentiate. This makes both studying these important regenerative cells and growing large numbers of stem cells for clinical use challenging. Traditional cell culture techniques have fallen short of meeting this challenge, but materials science offers hope. In this study, we have used emerging rules of managing adhesion/cytoskeletal balance to prolong MSC cultures by fabricating controllable nanoscale cell interfaces using immobilized peptides that may be enzymatically activated to change their function. The surfaces can be altered (activated) at will to tip adhesion/cytoskeletal balance and initiate differentiation, hence better informing biological mechanisms of stem cell growth. Tools that are able to investigate the stem cell phenotype are important. While large phenotypical differences, such as the difference between an adipocyte and an osteoblast, are now better understood, the far more subtle differences between fibroblasts and MSCs are much harder to dissect. The development of technologies able to dynamically navigate small differences in adhesion are critical in the race to provide regenerative strategies using stem cells.

  16. The cell adhesion molecule Fasciclin2 regulates brush border length and organization in Drosophila renal tubules.

    PubMed

    Halberg, Kenneth A; Rainey, Stephanie M; Veland, Iben R; Neuert, Helen; Dornan, Anthony J; Klämbt, Christian; Davies, Shireen-Anne; Dow, Julian A T

    2016-01-01

    Multicellular organisms rely on cell adhesion molecules to coordinate cell-cell interactions, and to provide navigational cues during tissue formation. In Drosophila, Fasciclin 2 (Fas2) has been intensively studied due to its role in nervous system development and maintenance; yet, Fas2 is most abundantly expressed in the adult renal (Malpighian) tubule rather than in neuronal tissues. The role Fas2 serves in this epithelium is unknown. Here we show that Fas2 is essential to brush border maintenance in renal tubules of Drosophila. Fas2 is dynamically expressed during tubule morphogenesis, localizing to the brush border whenever the tissue is transport competent. Genetic manipulations of Fas2 expression levels impact on both microvilli length and organization, which in turn dramatically affect stimulated rates of fluid secretion by the tissue. Consequently, we demonstrate a radically different role for this well-known cell adhesion molecule, and propose that Fas2-mediated intermicrovillar homophilic adhesion complexes help stabilize the brush border. PMID:27072072

  17. The pulmonary endothelial glycocalyx regulates neutrophil adhesion and lung injury during experimental sepsis.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Eric P; Yang, Yimu; Janssen, William J; Gandjeva, Aneta; Perez, Mario J; Barthel, Lea; Zemans, Rachel L; Bowman, Joel C; Koyanagi, Dan E; Yunt, Zulma X; Smith, Lynelle P; Cheng, Sara S; Overdier, Katherine H; Thompson, Kathy R; Geraci, Mark W; Douglas, Ivor S; Pearse, David B; Tuder, Rubin M

    2012-08-01

    Sepsis, a systemic inflammatory response to infection, commonly progresses to acute lung injury (ALI), an inflammatory lung disease with high morbidity. We postulated that sepsis-associated ALI is initiated by degradation of the pulmonary endothelial glycocalyx, leading to neutrophil adherence and inflammation. Using intravital microscopy, we found that endotoxemia in mice rapidly induced pulmonary microvascular glycocalyx degradation via tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-dependent mechanisms. Glycocalyx degradation involved the specific loss of heparan sulfate and coincided with activation of endothelial heparanase, a TNF-α-responsive, heparan sulfate-specific glucuronidase. Glycocalyx degradation increased the availability of endothelial surface adhesion molecules to circulating microspheres and contributed to neutrophil adhesion. Heparanase inhibition prevented endotoxemia-associated glycocalyx loss and neutrophil adhesion and, accordingly, attenuated sepsis-induced ALI and mortality in mice. These findings are potentially relevant to human disease, as sepsis-associated respiratory failure in humans was associated with higher plasma heparan sulfate degradation activity; moreover, heparanase content was higher in human lung biopsies showing diffuse alveolar damage than in normal human lung tissue.

  18. Kindlin-3 regulates integrin activation and adhesion reinforcement of effector T cells.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Federico A; Moser, Markus; Lyck, Ruth; Abadier, Michael; Ruppert, Raphael; Engelhardt, Britta; Fässler, Reinhard

    2013-10-15

    Activated T cells use very late antigen-4/α4β1 integrin for capture, rolling on, and firm adhesion to endothelial cells, and use leukocyte function-associated antigen-1/αLβ2 integrin for subsequent crawling and extravasation. Inhibition of α4β1 is sufficient to prevent extravasation of activated T cells and is successfully used to combat autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis. Here we show that effector T cells lacking the integrin activator Kindlin-3 extravasate and induce experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice immunized with autoantigen. In sharp contrast, adoptively transferred autoreactive T cells from Kindlin-3-deficient mice fail to extravasate into the naïve CNS. Mechanistically, autoreactive Kindlin-3-null T cells extravasate when the CNS is inflamed and the brain microvasculature expresses high levels of integrin ligands. Flow chamber assays under physiological shear conditions confirmed that Kindlin-3-null effector T cells adhere to high concentrations of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1, albeit less efficiently than WT T cells. Although these arrested T cells polarize and start crawling, only few remain firmly adherent over time. Our data demonstrate that the requirement of Kindlin-3 for effector T cells to induce α4β1 and αLβ2 integrin ligand binding and stabilization of integrin-ligand bonds is critical when integrin ligand levels are low, but of less importance when integrin ligand levels are high. PMID:24089451

  19. Dynamic Surfaces for the Study of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Growth through Adhesion Regulation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Out of their niche environment, adult stem cells, such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), spontaneously differentiate. This makes both studying these important regenerative cells and growing large numbers of stem cells for clinical use challenging. Traditional cell culture techniques have fallen short of meeting this challenge, but materials science offers hope. In this study, we have used emerging rules of managing adhesion/cytoskeletal balance to prolong MSC cultures by fabricating controllable nanoscale cell interfaces using immobilized peptides that may be enzymatically activated to change their function. The surfaces can be altered (activated) at will to tip adhesion/cytoskeletal balance and initiate differentiation, hence better informing biological mechanisms of stem cell growth. Tools that are able to investigate the stem cell phenotype are important. While large phenotypical differences, such as the difference between an adipocyte and an osteoblast, are now better understood, the far more subtle differences between fibroblasts and MSCs are much harder to dissect. The development of technologies able to dynamically navigate small differences in adhesion are critical in the race to provide regenerative strategies using stem cells. PMID:27322014

  20. PGC-1-related coactivator (PRC) negatively regulates endothelial adhesion of monocytes via inhibition of NF κB activity

    SciTech Connect

    Chengye, Zhan; Daixing, Zhou Qiang, Zhong; Shusheng, Li

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •First time to display that LPS downregulate the expression of PRC. •First time to show that PRC inhibits the induction of VCAM-1 and E-selectin. •First time to show that PRC inhibit monocytes attachment to endothelial cells. •First time to display that PRC inhibits transcriptional activity of NF-κB. •PRC protects the respiration rate and suppresses the glycolysis rate against LPS. -- Abstract: PGC-1-related coactivator (PRC) is a growth-regulated transcriptional cofactor known to activate many of the nuclear genes specifying mitochondrial respiratory function. Endothelial dysfunction is a prominent feature found in many inflammatory diseases. Adhesion molecules, such as VCAM-1, mediate the attachment of monocytes to endothelial cells, thereby playing an important role in endothelial inflammation. The effects of PRC in regards to endothelial inflammation remain unknown. In this study, our findings show that PRC can be inhibited by the inflammatory cytokine LPS in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In the presence of LPS, the expression of endothelial cell adhesion molecular, such as VCAM1 and E-selectin, is found to be increased. These effects can be negated by overexpression of PRC. Importantly, monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells caused by LPS is significantly attenuated by PRC. In addition, overexpression of PRC protects mitochondrial metabolic function and suppresses the rate of glycolysis against LPS. It is also found that overexpression of PRC decreases the transcriptional activity of NF-κB. These findings suggest that PRC is a negative regulator of endothelial inflammation.

  1. Human phosphatase CDC14A is recruited to the cell leading edge to regulate cell migration and adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Nan-Peng; Uddin, Borhan; Voit, Renate; Schiebel, Elmar

    2016-01-01

    Cell adhesion and migration are highly dynamic biological processes that play important roles in organ development and cancer metastasis. Their tight regulation by small GTPases and protein phosphorylation make interrogation of these key processes of great importance. We now show that the conserved dual-specificity phosphatase human cell-division cycle 14A (hCDC14A) associates with the actin cytoskeleton of human cells. To understand hCDC14A function at this location, we manipulated native loci to ablate hCDC14A phosphatase activity (hCDC14APD) in untransformed hTERT-RPE1 and colorectal cancer (HCT116) cell lines and expressed the phosphatase in HeLa FRT T-Rex cells. Ectopic expression of hCDC14A induced stress fiber formation, whereas stress fibers were diminished in hCDC14APD cells. hCDC14APD cells displayed faster cell migration and less adhesion than wild-type controls. hCDC14A colocalized with the hCDC14A substrate kidney- and brain-expressed protein (KIBRA) at the cell leading edge and overexpression of KIBRA was able to reverse the phenotypes of hCDC14APD cells. Finally, we show that ablation of hCDC14A activity increased the aggressive nature of cells in an in vitro tumor formation assay. Consistently, hCDC14A is down-regulated in many tumor tissues and reduced hCDC14A expression is correlated with poorer survival of patients with cancer, to suggest that hCDC14A may directly contribute to the metastatic potential of tumors. Thus, we have uncovered an unanticipated role for hCDC14A in cell migration and adhesion that is clearly distinct from the mitotic and cytokinesis functions of Cdc14/Flp1 in budding and fission yeast. PMID:26747605

  2. Mechanisms Regulating the Degradation of Dentin Matrices by Endogenous Dentin Proteases and their Role in Dental Adhesion. A Review

    PubMed Central

    Sabatini, Camila; Pashley, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This systematic review provides an overview of the different mechanisms proposed to regulate the degradation of dentin matrices bye host-derived dentin proteases, particularly as it relates to their role in dental adhesion. Methods Significant developments have taken place over the last few years that have contributed to a better understanding of all the factors affecting the durability of adhesive resin restorations. The complexity of dentin-resin interfaces mandates a thorough understanding of all the mechanical, physical and biochemical aspects that play a role in the formation of hybrid layers. The ionic and hydrophilic nature of current dental adhesives yields permeable, unstable hybrid layers susceptible to water sorption, hydrolytic degradation and resin leaching. The hydrolytic activity of host-derived proteases also contributes to the degradation of the resin-dentin bonds. Preservation of the collagen matrix is critical to the improvement of resin-dentin bond durability. Approaches to regulate collagenolytic activity of dentin proteases have been the subject of extensive research in the last few years. A shift has occurred from the use of proteases inhibitors to the use of collagen cross-linking agents. Data provided by fifty-one studies published in peer-reviewed journals between January 1999 and December 2013 was compiled in this systematic review. Results Appraisal of the data provided by the studies included in the present review yielded a summary of the mechanisms which have already proven to be clinically successful and those which need further investigation before new clinical protocols can be adopted. PMID:25831604

  3. C3G forms complexes with Bcr-Abl and p38α MAPK at the focal adhesions in chronic myeloid leukemia cells: implication in the regulation of leukemic cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies by our group and others have shown that C3G interacts with Bcr-Abl through its SH3-b domain. Results In this work we show that C3G and Bcr-Abl form complexes with the focal adhesion (FA) proteins CrkL, p130Cas, Cbl and Abi1 through SH3/SH3-b interactions. The association between C3G and Bcr-Abl decreased upon Abi1 or p130Cas knock-down in K562 cells, which suggests that Abi1 and p130Cas are essential partners in this interaction. On the other hand, C3G, Abi1 or Cbl knock-down impaired adhesion to fibronectin, while p130Cas silencing enhanced it. C3G, Cbl and p130Cas-SH3-b domains interact directly with common proteins involved in the regulation of cell adhesion and migration. Immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence studies revealed that C3G form complexes with the FA proteins paxillin and FAK and their phosphorylated forms. Additionally, C3G, Abi1, Cbl and p130Cas regulate the expression and phosphorylation of paxillin and FAK. p38α MAPK also participates in the regulation of adhesion in chronic myeloid leukemia cells. It interacts with C3G, CrkL, FAK and paxillin and regulates the expression of paxillin, CrkL and α5 integrin, as well as paxillin phosphorylation. Moreover, double knock-down of C3G/p38α decreased adhesion to fibronectin, similarly to the single silencing of one of these genes, either C3G or p38α. These suggest that C3G and p38α MAPK are acting through a common pathway to regulate cell adhesion in K562 cells, as previously described for the regulation of apoptosis. Conclusions Our results indicate that C3G-p38αMAPK pathway regulates K562 cell adhesion through the interaction with FA proteins and Bcr-Abl, modulating the formation of different protein complexes at FA. PMID:23343344

  4. Reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton via transcriptional regulation of cytoskeletal/focal adhesion genes by myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTFs/MAL/MKLs)

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, Tsuyoshi; Mayanagi, Taira; Sobue, Kenji

    2007-10-01

    RhoA is a crucial regulator of stress fiber and focal adhesion formation through the activation of actin nucleation and polymerization. It also regulates the nuclear translocation of myocardin-related transcription factor-A and -B (MRTF-A/B, MAL or MKL 1/2), which are co-activators of serum response factor (SRF). In dominant-negative MRTF-A (DN-MRTF-A)-expressing NIH 3T3 cell lines, the expressions of several cytoskeletal/focal adhesion genes were down-regulated, and the formation of stress fiber and focal adhesion was severely diminished. MRTF-A/B-knockdown cells also exhibited such cytoskeletal defects. In reporter assays, both RhoA and MRTF-A enhanced promoter activities of these genes in a CArG-box-dependent manner, and DN-MRTF-A inhibited the RhoA-mediated activation of these promoters. In dominant-negative RhoA (RhoA-N19)-expressing NIH 3T3 cell lines, the nuclear translocation of MRTF-A/B was predominantly prevented, resulting in the reduced expression of cytoskeletal/focal adhesion proteins. Further, constitutive-active MRTF-A/B increased the expression of endogenous cytoskeletal/focal adhesion proteins, and thereby rescued the defective phenotype of stress fibers and focal adhesions in RhoA-N19 expressing cells. These results indicate that MRTF-A/B act as pivotal mediators of stress fiber and focal adhesion formation via the transcriptional regulation of a subset of cytoskeletal/focal adhesion genes.

  5. The adhesion-GPCR BAI3, a gene linked to psychiatric disorders, regulates dendrite morphogenesis in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Lanoue, V; Usardi, A; Sigoillot, S M; Talleur, M; Iyer, K; Mariani, J; Isope, P; Vodjdani, G; Heintz, N; Selimi, F

    2013-01-01

    Adhesion-G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a poorly studied subgroup of the GPCRs, which have diverse biological roles and are major targets for therapeutic intervention. Among them, the Brain Angiogenesis Inhibitor (BAI) family has been linked to several psychiatric disorders, but despite their very high neuronal expression, the function of these receptors in the central nervous system has barely been analyzed. Our results, obtained using expression knockdown and overexpression experiments, reveal that the BAI3 receptor controls dendritic arborization growth and branching in cultured neurons. This role is confirmed in Purkinje cells in vivo using specific expression of a deficient BAI3 protein in transgenic mice, as well as lentivirus driven knockdown of BAI3 expression. Regulation of dendrite morphogenesis by BAI3 involves activation of the RhoGTPase Rac1 and the binding to a functional ELMO1, a critical Rac1 regulator. Thus, activation of the BAI3 signaling pathway could lead to direct reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton through RhoGTPase signaling in neurons. Given the direct link between RhoGTPase/actin signaling pathways, neuronal morphogenesis and psychiatric disorders, our mechanistic data show the importance of further studying the role of the BAI adhesion-GPCRs to understand the pathophysiology of such brain diseases. PMID:23628982

  6. MicroRNA-8 promotes robust motor axon targeting by coordinate regulation of cell adhesion molecules during synapse development

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Cecilia S.; Zhai, Bo; Mauss, Alex; Landgraf, Matthias; Gygi, Stephen; Van Vactor, David

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal connectivity and specificity rely upon precise coordinated deployment of multiple cell-surface and secreted molecules. MicroRNAs have tremendous potential for shaping neural circuitry by fine-tuning the spatio-temporal expression of key synaptic effector molecules. The highly conserved microRNA miR-8 is required during late stages of neuromuscular synapse development in Drosophila. However, its role in initial synapse formation was previously unknown. Detailed analysis of synaptogenesis in this system now reveals that miR-8 is required at the earliest stages of muscle target contact by RP3 motor axons. We find that the localization of multiple synaptic cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) is dependent on the expression of miR-8, suggesting that miR-8 regulates the initial assembly of synaptic sites. Using stable isotope labelling in vivo and comparative mass spectrometry, we find that miR-8 is required for normal expression of multiple proteins, including the CAMs Fasciclin III (FasIII) and Neuroglian (Nrg). Genetic analysis suggests that Nrg and FasIII collaborate downstream of miR-8 to promote accurate target recognition. Unlike the function of miR-8 at mature larval neuromuscular junctions, at the embryonic stage we find that miR-8 controls key effectors on both sides of the synapse. MiR-8 controls multiple stages of synapse formation through the coordinate regulation of both pre- and postsynaptic cell adhesion proteins. PMID:25135978

  7. MicroRNA-8 promotes robust motor axon targeting by coordinate regulation of cell adhesion molecules during synapse development.

    PubMed

    Lu, Cecilia S; Zhai, Bo; Mauss, Alex; Landgraf, Matthias; Gygi, Stephen; Van Vactor, David

    2014-09-26

    Neuronal connectivity and specificity rely upon precise coordinated deployment of multiple cell-surface and secreted molecules. MicroRNAs have tremendous potential for shaping neural circuitry by fine-tuning the spatio-temporal expression of key synaptic effector molecules. The highly conserved microRNA miR-8 is required during late stages of neuromuscular synapse development in Drosophila. However, its role in initial synapse formation was previously unknown. Detailed analysis of synaptogenesis in this system now reveals that miR-8 is required at the earliest stages of muscle target contact by RP3 motor axons. We find that the localization of multiple synaptic cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) is dependent on the expression of miR-8, suggesting that miR-8 regulates the initial assembly of synaptic sites. Using stable isotope labelling in vivo and comparative mass spectrometry, we find that miR-8 is required for normal expression of multiple proteins, including the CAMs Fasciclin III (FasIII) and Neuroglian (Nrg). Genetic analysis suggests that Nrg and FasIII collaborate downstream of miR-8 to promote accurate target recognition. Unlike the function of miR-8 at mature larval neuromuscular junctions, at the embryonic stage we find that miR-8 controls key effectors on both sides of the synapse. MiR-8 controls multiple stages of synapse formation through the coordinate regulation of both pre- and postsynaptic cell adhesion proteins.

  8. The adhesion GPCR Gpr56 regulates oligodendrocyte development via interactions with Gα12/13 and RhoA

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Sarah D.; Garcia, Cynthia; Piao, Xianhua; Gutmann, David H.; Monk, Kelly R.

    2014-01-01

    In the vertebrate central nervous system, myelinating oligodendrocytes are postmitotic and derive from proliferative oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). The molecular mechanisms that govern oligodendrocyte development are incompletely understood, but recent studies implicate the adhesion class of G protein-coupled receptors (aGPCRs) as important regulators of myelination. Here, we use zebrafish and mouse models to dissect the function of the aGPCR Gpr56 in oligodendrocyte development. We show that gpr56 is expressed during early stages of oligodendrocyte development. Additionally, we observe a significant reduction of mature oligodendrocyte number and of myelinated axons in gpr56 zebrafish mutants. This reduction results from decreased OPC proliferation, rather than increased cell death or altered neural precursor differentiation potential. Finally, we show that these functions are mediated by Gα12/13 proteins and Rho activation. Together, our data establish Gpr56 as a regulator of oligodendrocyte development. PMID:25607772

  9. Liprin-α1 is a regulator of vimentin intermediate filament network in the cancer cell adhesion machinery

    PubMed Central

    Pehkonen, Henna; von Nandelstadh, Pernilla; Karhemo, Piia-Riitta; Lepikhova, Tatiana; Grenman, Reidar; Lehti, Kaisa; Monni, Outi

    2016-01-01

    PPFIA1 is located at the 11q13 region, which is one of the most commonly amplified regions in several epithelial cancers including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and breast carcinoma. Considering the location of PPFIA1 in this amplicon, we examined whether protein encod