Science.gov

Sample records for regulated insulin secretion

  1. Insulin: pancreatic secretion and adipocyte regulation.

    PubMed

    Baumgard, L H; Hausman, G J; Sanz Fernandez, M V

    2016-01-01

    Insulin is the primary acute anabolic coordinator of nutrient partitioning. Hyperglycemia is the main stimulant of insulin secretion, but other nutrients such as specific amino acids, fatty acids, and ketoacids can potentiate pancreatic insulin release. Incretins are intestinal hormones with insulinotropic activity and are secreted in response to food ingestion, thus integrating diet chemical composition with the regulation of insulin release. In addition, prolactin is required for proper islet development, and it stimulates β-cell proliferation. Counterintuitively, bacterial components appear to signal insulin secretion. In vivo lipopolysaccharide infusion acutely increases circulating insulin, which is paradoxical as endotoxemia is a potent catabolic condition. Insulin is a potent anabolic orchestrator of nutrient partitioning, and this is particularly true in adipocytes. Insulin dictates lipid accretion in a dose-dependent manner during preadipocyte development in adipose tissue-derived stromal vascular cell culture. However, in vivo studies focused on insulin's role in regulating adipose tissue metabolism from growing, and market weight pigs are sometimes inconsistent, and this variability appears to be animal, age and depot dependent. Additionally, porcine adipose tissue synthesizes and secretes a number of adipokines (leptin, adiponectin, and so forth) that directly or indirectly influence insulin action. Therefore, because insulin has an enormous impact on agriculturally important phenotypes, it is critical to have a better understanding of how insulin homeostasis is governed.

  2. The bile acid sensor FXR regulates insulin transcription and secretion.

    PubMed

    Renga, Barbara; Mencarelli, Andrea; Vavassori, Piero; Brancaleone, Vincenzo; Fiorucci, Stefano

    2010-03-01

    Farnesoid X Receptor plays an important role in maintaining bile acid, cholesterol homeostasis and glucose metabolism. Here we investigated whether FXR is expressed by pancreatic beta-cells and regulates insulin signaling in pancreatic beta-cell line and human islets. We found that FXR activation induces positive regulatory effects on glucose-induced insulin transcription and secretion by genomic and non-genomic activities. Genomic effects of FXR activation relay on the induction of the glucose regulated transcription factor KLF11. Indeed, results from silencing experiments of KLF11 demonstrate that this transcription factor is essential for FXR activity on glucose-induced insulin gene transcription. In addition FXR regulates insulin secretion by non-genomic effects. Thus, activation of FXR in betaTC6 cells increases Akt phosphorylation and translocation of the glucose transporter GLUT2 at plasma membrane, increasing the glucose uptake by these cells. In vivo experiments on Non Obese Diabetic (NOD) mice demonstrated that FXR activation delays development of signs of diabetes, hyperglycemia and glycosuria, by enhancing insulin secretion and by stimulating glucose uptake by the liver. These data established that an FXR-KLF11 regulated pathway has an essential role in the regulation of insulin transcription and secretion induced by glucose.

  3. Minireview: Dopaminergic Regulation of Insulin Secretion from the Pancreatic Islet

    PubMed Central

    Ustione, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Exogenous dopamine inhibits insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells, but the lack of dopaminergic neurons in pancreatic islets has led to controversy regarding the importance of this effect. Recent data, however, suggest a plausible physiologic role for dopamine in the regulation of insulin secretion. We review the literature underlying our current understanding of dopaminergic signaling that can down-regulate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic islets. In this negative feedback loop, dopamine is synthesized in the β-cells from circulating l-dopa, serves as an autocrine signal that is cosecreted with insulin, and causes a tonic inhibition on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. On the whole animal scale, l-dopa is produced by cells in the gastrointestinal tract, and its concentration in the blood plasma increases following a mixed meal. By reviewing the outcome of certain types of bariatric surgery that result in rapid amelioration of glucose tolerance, we hypothesize that dopamine serves as an “antiincretin” signal that counterbalances the stimulatory effect of glucagon-like peptide 1. PMID:23744894

  4. Dynamin 2 regulates biphasic insulin secretion and plasma glucose homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Fan; Ji, Chen; Wu, Yumei; Ferguson, Shawn M.; Tamarina, Natalia; Philipson, Louis H.; Lou, Xuelin

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in insulin granule exocytosis and endocytosis are paramount to pancreatic β cell dysfunction in diabetes mellitus. Here, using temporally controlled gene ablation specifically in β cells in mice, we identified an essential role of dynamin 2 GTPase in preserving normal biphasic insulin secretion and blood glucose homeostasis. Dynamin 2 deletion in β cells caused glucose intolerance and substantial reduction of the second phase of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS); however, mutant β cells still maintained abundant insulin granules, with no signs of cell surface expansion. Compared with control β cells, real-time capacitance measurements demonstrated that exocytosis-endocytosis coupling was less efficient but not abolished; clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) was severely impaired at the step of membrane fission, which resulted in accumulation of clathrin-coated endocytic intermediates on the plasma membrane. Moreover, dynamin 2 ablation in β cells led to striking reorganization and enhancement of actin filaments, and insulin granule recruitment and mobilization were impaired at the later stage of GSIS. Together, our results demonstrate that dynamin 2 regulates insulin secretory capacity and dynamics in vivo through a mechanism depending on CME and F-actin remodeling. Moreover, this study indicates a potential pathophysiological link between endocytosis and diabetes mellitus. PMID:26413867

  5. A Genetic Strategy to Measure Circulating Drosophila Insulin Reveals Genes Regulating Insulin Production and Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sangbin; Alfa, Ronald W.; Topper, Sydni M.; Kim, Grace E. S.; Kockel, Lutz; Kim, Seung K.

    2014-01-01

    Insulin is a major regulator of metabolism in metazoans, including the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) suggest a genetic basis for reductions of both insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion, phenotypes commonly observed in humans with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). To identify molecular functions of genes linked to T2DM risk, we developed a genetic tool to measure insulin-like peptide 2 (Ilp2) levels in Drosophila, a model organism with superb experimental genetics. Our system permitted sensitive quantification of circulating Ilp2, including measures of Ilp2 dynamics during fasting and re-feeding, and demonstration of adaptive Ilp2 secretion in response to insulin receptor haploinsufficiency. Tissue specific dissection of this reduced insulin signaling phenotype revealed a critical role for insulin signaling in specific peripheral tissues. Knockdown of the Drosophila orthologues of human T2DM risk genes, including GLIS3 and BCL11A, revealed roles of these Drosophila genes in Ilp2 production or secretion. Discovery of Drosophila mechanisms and regulators controlling in vivo insulin dynamics should accelerate functional dissection of diabetes genetics. PMID:25101872

  6. Glucagon Regulates Hepatic Kisspeptin1 to Impair Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Song, Woo-Jin; Mondal, Prosenjit; Wolfe, Andrew; Alonso, Laura C.; Stamateris, Rachel; Ong, Benny W. T.; Lim, Owen C.; Yang, Kil S.; Radovick, Sally; Novaira, Horacio F.; Farber, Emily A.; Farber, Charles R.; Turner, Stephen D.; Hussain, Mehboob A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Early in the pathogenesis of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), dysregulated glucagon secretion from pancreatic α-cells occurs prior to impaired glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from β-cells. However, whether hyperglucagonemia is causally linked to β-cell dysfunction remains unclear. Here we show that glucagon stimulates via cAMP-PKA-CREB signaling hepatic production of the neuropeptide kisspeptin1, which acts on β-cells to suppress GSIS. Synthetic kisspeptin suppresses GSIS in vivo in mice and from isolated islets in a kisspeptin1 receptor-dependent manner. Kisspeptin1 is increased in livers and in serum from humans with T2DM and from mouse models of diabetes mellitus. Importantly, liver Kiss1 knockdown in hyperglucagonemic, glucose intolerant high fat diet fed and Leprdb/db mice augments GSIS and improves glucose tolerance. These observations indicate a hormonal circuit between the liver and the endocrine pancreas in glycemia regulation and suggest in T2DM a sequential link between hyperglucagonemia via hepatic kisspeptin1 to impaired insulin secretion. PMID:24703698

  7. Drosophila Adiponectin Receptor in Insulin Producing Cells Regulates Glucose and Lipid Metabolism by Controlling Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Su-Jin; Hong, Seung-Hyun; Bajracharya, Rijan; Yang, Se-Yeol; Lee, Kyu-Sun; Yu, Kweon

    2013-01-01

    Adipokines secreted from adipose tissue are key regulators of metabolism in animals. Adiponectin, one of the adipokines, modulates pancreatic beta cell function to maintain energy homeostasis. Recently, significant conservation between Drosophila melanogaster and mammalian metabolism has been discovered. Drosophila insulin like peptides (Dilps) regulate energy metabolism similarly to mammalian insulin. However, in Drosophila, the regulatory mechanism of insulin producing cells (IPCs) by adipokine signaling is largely unknown. Here, we describe the discovery of the Drosophila adiponectin receptor and its function in IPCs. Drosophila adiponectin receptor (dAdipoR) has high homology with the human adiponectin receptor 1. The dAdipoR antibody staining revealed that dAdipoR was expressed in IPCs of larval and adult brains. IPC- specific dAdipoR inhibition (Dilp2>dAdipoR-Ri) showed the increased sugar level in the hemolymph and the elevated triglyceride level in whole body. Dilps mRNA levels in the Dilp2>dAdipoR-Ri flies were similar with those of controls. However, in the Dilp2>dAdipoR-Ri flies, Dilp2 protein was accumulated in IPCs, the level of circulating Dilp2 was decreased, and insulin signaling was reduced in the fat body. In ex vivo fly brain culture with the human adiponectin, Dilp2 was secreted from IPCs. These results indicate that adiponectin receptor in insulin producing cells regulates insulin secretion and controls glucose and lipid metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster. This study demonstrates a new adipokine signaling in Drosophila and provides insights for the mammalian adiponectin receptor function in pancreatic beta cells, which could be useful for therapeutic application. PMID:23874700

  8. Prkar1a in the regulation of insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Hussain, M A; Stratakis, C; Kirschner, L

    2012-09-01

    The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is rapidly increasing worldwide with significant consequences on individual quality of life as well as economic burden on states' healthcare costs. While origins of the pathogenesis of T2DM are poorly understood, an early defect in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic β-cells is considered a hallmark of T2DM. Upon a glucose stimulus, insulin is secreted in a biphasic manner with an early first-phase burst of insulin, which is followed by a second, more sustained phase of insulin output. First phase insulin secretion is diminished early in T2DM as well is in subjects who are at risk of developing T2DM. An effective treatment of T2DM with incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) or its long acting peptide analogue exendin-4 (E4), restores first-phase and augments second-phase glucose stimulated insulin secretion. This effect of incretin action occurs within minutes of GLP-1/E4 infusion in T2DM humans. An additional important consideration is that incretin hormones augment GSIS only above a certain glucose threshold, which is slightly above the normal glucose range. This ensures that incretin hormones stimulate GSIS only when glucose levels are high, while they are ineffective when insulin levels are below a certain threshold. Activation of the GLP-1 receptor, which is highly expressed on pancreatic β-cells, stimulates 2 -distinct intracellular signaling pathways: a) the cAMP-protein kinase A branch and b) the cAMP-EPAC2 (EPAC=exchange protein activated by cAMP) branch. While the EPAC2 branch is considered to mediate GLP-1 effects on first-phase GSIS, the PKA branch is necessary for the former branch to be active. However, how these 2 branches interplay and converge and how their effects on insulin secretion and insulin vesicle exocytosis are coordinated is poorly understood.Thus, at the outset of our studies we have a poorly understood intracellular interplay of cAMP-dependent signaling

  9. Mitochondrial metabolism of pyruvate is essential for regulating glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Jessica N; Cousteils, Katelyn; Lou, Jennifer W; Manning Fox, Jocelyn E; MacDonald, Patrick E; Joseph, Jamie W

    2014-05-01

    It is well known that mitochondrial metabolism of pyruvate is critical for insulin secretion; however, we know little about how pyruvate is transported into mitochondria in β-cells. Part of the reason for this lack of knowledge is that the carrier gene was only discovered in 2012. In the current study, we assess the role of the recently identified carrier in the regulation of insulin secretion. Our studies show that β-cells express both mitochondrial pyruvate carriers (Mpc1 and Mpc2). Using both pharmacological inhibitors and siRNA-mediated knockdown of the MPCs we show that this carrier plays a key role in regulating insulin secretion in clonal 832/13 β-cells as well as rat and human islets. We also show that the MPC is an essential regulator of both the ATP-regulated potassium (KATP) channel-dependent and -independent pathways of insulin secretion. Inhibition of the MPC blocks the glucose-stimulated increase in two key signaling molecules involved in regulating insulin secretion, the ATP/ADP ratio and NADPH/NADP(+) ratio. The MPC also plays a role in in vivo glucose homeostasis as inhibition of MPC by the pharmacological inhibitor α-cyano-β-(1-phenylindol-3-yl)-acrylate (UK5099) resulted in impaired glucose tolerance. These studies clearly show that the newly identified mitochondrial pyruvate carrier sits at an important branching point in nutrient metabolism and that it is an essential regulator of insulin secretion. PMID:24675076

  10. Secretagogin affects insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells by regulating actin dynamics and focal adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Seo-Yun; Lee, Jae-Jin; Lee, Jin-Hee; Lee, Kyungeun; Oh, Seung Hoon; Lim, Yu-Mi; Lee, Myung-Shik; Lee, Kong-Joo

    2016-01-01

    Secretagogin (SCGN), a Ca2+-binding protein having six EF-hands, is selectively expressed in pancreatic β-cells and neuroendocrine cells. Previous studies suggested that SCGN enhances insulin secretion by functioning as a Ca2+-sensor protein, but the underlying mechanism has not been elucidated. The present study explored the mechanism by which SCGN enhances glucose-induced insulin secretion in NIT-1 insulinoma cells. To determine whether SCGN influences the first or second phase of insulin secretion, we examined how SCGN affects the kinetics of insulin secretion in NIT-1 cells. We found that silencing SCGN suppressed the second phase of insulin secretion induced by glucose and H2O2, but not the first phase induced by KCl stimulation. Recruitment of insulin granules in the second phase of insulin secretion was significantly impaired by knocking down SCGN in NIT-1 cells. In addition, we found that SCGN interacts with the actin cytoskeleton in the plasma membrane and regulates actin remodelling in a glucose-dependent manner. Since actin dynamics are known to regulate focal adhesion, a critical step in the second phase of insulin secretion, we examined the effect of silencing SCGN on focal adhesion molecules, including FAK (focal adhesion kinase) and paxillin, and the cell survival molecules ERK1/2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2) and Akt. We found that glucose- and H2O2-induced activation of FAK, paxillin, ERK1/2 and Akt was significantly blocked by silencing SCGN. We conclude that SCGN controls glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and thus may be useful in the therapy of Type 2 diabetes. PMID:27095850

  11. Secretagogin affects insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells by regulating actin dynamics and focal adhesion.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seo-Yun; Lee, Jae-Jin; Lee, Jin-Hee; Lee, Kyungeun; Oh, Seung Hoon; Lim, Yu-Mi; Lee, Myung-Shik; Lee, Kong-Joo

    2016-06-15

    Secretagogin (SCGN), a Ca(2+)-binding protein having six EF-hands, is selectively expressed in pancreatic β-cells and neuroendocrine cells. Previous studies suggested that SCGN enhances insulin secretion by functioning as a Ca(2+)-sensor protein, but the underlying mechanism has not been elucidated. The present study explored the mechanism by which SCGN enhances glucose-induced insulin secretion in NIT-1 insulinoma cells. To determine whether SCGN influences the first or second phase of insulin secretion, we examined how SCGN affects the kinetics of insulin secretion in NIT-1 cells. We found that silencing SCGN suppressed the second phase of insulin secretion induced by glucose and H2O2, but not the first phase induced by KCl stimulation. Recruitment of insulin granules in the second phase of insulin secretion was significantly impaired by knocking down SCGN in NIT-1 cells. In addition, we found that SCGN interacts with the actin cytoskeleton in the plasma membrane and regulates actin remodelling in a glucose-dependent manner. Since actin dynamics are known to regulate focal adhesion, a critical step in the second phase of insulin secretion, we examined the effect of silencing SCGN on focal adhesion molecules, including FAK (focal adhesion kinase) and paxillin, and the cell survival molecules ERK1/2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2) and Akt. We found that glucose- and H2O2-induced activation of FAK, paxillin, ERK1/2 and Akt was significantly blocked by silencing SCGN. We conclude that SCGN controls glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and thus may be useful in the therapy of Type 2 diabetes. PMID:27095850

  12. Insulin Regulates Hepatic Triglyceride Secretion and Lipid Content via Signaling in the Brain.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Thomas; Lindtner, Claudia; O'Hare, James; Hackl, Martina; Zielinski, Elizabeth; Freudenthaler, Angelika; Baumgartner-Parzer, Sabina; Tödter, Klaus; Heeren, Joerg; Krššák, Martin; Scheja, Ludger; Fürnsinn, Clemens; Buettner, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    Hepatic steatosis is common in obesity and insulin resistance and results from a net retention of lipids in the liver. A key mechanism to prevent steatosis is to increase secretion of triglycerides (TG) packaged as VLDLs. Insulin controls nutrient partitioning via signaling through its cognate receptor in peripheral target organs such as liver, muscle, and adipose tissue and via signaling in the central nervous system (CNS) to orchestrate organ cross talk. While hepatic insulin signaling is known to suppress VLDL production from the liver, it is unknown whether brain insulin signaling independently regulates hepatic VLDL secretion. Here, we show that in conscious, unrestrained male Sprague Dawley rats the infusion of insulin into the third ventricle acutely increased hepatic TG secretion. Chronic infusion of insulin into the CNS via osmotic minipumps reduced the hepatic lipid content as assessed by noninvasive (1)H-MRS and lipid profiling independent of changes in hepatic de novo lipogenesis and food intake. In mice that lack the insulin receptor in the brain, hepatic TG secretion was reduced compared with wild-type littermate controls. These studies identify brain insulin as an important permissive factor in hepatic VLDL secretion that protects against hepatic steatosis. PMID:26861781

  13. pVHL is a regulator of glucose metabolism and insulin secretion in pancreatic β cells

    PubMed Central

    Zehetner, Jens; Danzer, Carsten; Collins, Stephan; Eckhardt, Katrin; Gerber, Philipp A.; Ballschmieter, Pia; Galvanovskis, Juris; Shimomura, Kenju; Ashcroft, Frances M.; Thorens, Bernard; Rorsman, Patrik; Krek, Wilhelm

    2008-01-01

    Insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells is stimulated by glucose metabolism. However, the relative importance of metabolizing glucose via mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation versus glycolysis for insulin secretion remains unclear. von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor protein, pVHL, negatively regulates hypoxia-inducible factor HIF1α, a transcription factor implicated in promoting a glycolytic form of metabolism. Here we report a central role for the pVHL–HIF1α pathway in the control of β-cell glucose utilization, insulin secretion, and glucose homeostasis. Conditional inactivation of Vhlh in β cells promoted a diversion of glucose away from mitochondria into lactate production, causing cells to produce high levels of glycolytically derived ATP and to secrete elevated levels of insulin at low glucose concentrations. Vhlh-deficient mice exhibited diminished glucose-stimulated changes in cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration, electrical activity, and insulin secretion, which culminate in impaired systemic glucose tolerance. Importantly, combined deletion of Vhlh and Hif1α rescued these phenotypes, implying that they are the result of HIF1α activation. Together, these results identify pVHL and HIF1α as key regulators of insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells. They further suggest that changes in the metabolic strategy of glucose metabolism in β cells have profound effects on whole-body glucose homeostasis. PMID:19056893

  14. Kin of IRRE-like Protein 2 Is a Phosphorylated Glycoprotein That Regulates Basal Insulin Secretion*

    PubMed Central

    Yesildag, Burcak; Bock, Thomas; Herrmanns, Karolin; Wollscheid, Bernd; Stoffel, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Direct interactions among pancreatic β-cells via cell surface proteins inhibit basal and enhance stimulated insulin secretion. Here, we functionally and biochemically characterized Kirrel2, an immunoglobulin superfamily protein with β-cell-specific expression in the pancreas. Our results show that Kirrel2 is a phosphorylated glycoprotein that co-localizes and interacts with the adherens junction proteins E-cadherin and β-catenin in MIN6 cells. We further demonstrate that the phosphosites Tyr595–596 are functionally relevant for the regulation of Kirrel2 stability and localization. Analysis of the extracellular and intracellular domains of Kirrel2 revealed that it is cleaved and shed from MIN6 cells and that the remaining membrane spanning cytoplasmic domain is processed by γ-secretase complex. Kirrel2 knockdown with RNA interference in MIN6 cells and ablation of Kirrel2 from mice with genetic deletion resulted in increased basal insulin secretion from β-cells, with no immediate influence on stimulated insulin secretion, total insulin content, or whole body glucose metabolism. Our results show that in pancreatic β-cells Kirrel2 localizes to adherens junctions, is regulated by multiple post-translational events, including glycosylation, extracellular cleavage, and phosphorylation, and engages in the regulation of basal insulin secretion. PMID:26324709

  15. p53- and ERK7-Dependent Ribosome Surveillance Response Regulates Drosophila Insulin-Like Peptide Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Hasygar, Kiran; Hietakangas, Ville

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-like signalling is a conserved mechanism that coordinates animal growth and metabolism with nutrient status. In Drosophila, insulin-producing median neurosecretory cells (IPCs) regulate larval growth by secreting insulin-like peptides (dILPs) in a diet-dependent manner. Previous studies have shown that nutrition affects dILP secretion through humoral signals derived from the fat body. Here we uncover a novel mechanism that operates cell autonomously in the IPCs to regulate dILP secretion. We observed that impairment of ribosome biogenesis specifically in the IPCs strongly inhibits dILP secretion, which consequently leads to reduced body size and a delay in larval development. This response is dependent on p53, a known surveillance factor for ribosome biogenesis. A downstream effector of this growth inhibitory response is an atypical MAP kinase ERK7 (ERK8/MAPK15), which is upregulated in the IPCs following impaired ribosome biogenesis as well as starvation. We show that ERK7 is sufficient and essential to inhibit dILP secretion upon impaired ribosome biogenesis, and it acts epistatically to p53. Moreover, we provide evidence that p53 and ERK7 contribute to the inhibition of dILP secretion upon starvation. Thus, we conclude that a cell autonomous ribosome surveillance response, which leads to upregulation of ERK7, inhibits dILP secretion to impede tissue growth under limiting dietary conditions. PMID:25393288

  16. Molecular Mechanisms of Insulin Secretion and Insulin Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flatt, Peter R.; Bailey, Clifford J.

    1991-01-01

    Information and current ideas on the factors regulating insulin secretion, the mechanisms underlying the secretion and biological actions of insulin, and the main characteristics of diabetes mellitus are presented. (Author)

  17. Role of prolyl hydroxylase domain proteins in the regulation of insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mei; Paglialunga, Sabina; Wong, Julia M-K; Hoang, Monica; Pillai, Renjitha; Joseph, Jamie W

    2016-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes is associated with impaired nutrient-regulated anaplerosis and insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. One key anaplerotic substrate that may be involved in regulating insulin release is α-ketoglutarate (αKG). Since prolyl hydroxylase domain proteins (PHDs) can metabolize cytosolic αKG, we sought to explore the role of this enzyme in the regulation of β-cell function. The oxygen-sensing PHDs regulate the stability of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) as well as other proline-containing proteins by catalyzing the hydroxylation of proline residues. This reaction is dependent on sufficient levels of oxygen, iron, and αKG. In the present study, we utilized both pharmacological and genetic approaches to assess the impact of inhibiting PHD activity on β-cell function. We demonstrate that ethyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (EDHB), a PHD inhibitor, significantly blunted glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from 832/13 clonal cells, rat, and human islets. EDHB reduced glucose utilization, ATP/ADP ratio, and key TCA cycle intermediates such as pyruvate, citrate, fumarate, and malate. siRNA-mediated knockdown of PHD1 and PHD3 inhibited GSIS, whereas siRNA-mediated knockdown of PHD2 had no effect on GSIS. Taken together, the current results demonstrate an important role for PHDs as mediators of islet insulin secretion. PMID:26997627

  18. Growth-Blocking Peptides As Nutrition-Sensitive Signals for Insulin Secretion and Body Size Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Takashi; Mirth, Christen K.

    2016-01-01

    In Drosophila, the fat body, functionally equivalent to the mammalian liver and adipocytes, plays a central role in regulating systemic growth in response to nutrition. The fat body senses intracellular amino acids through Target of Rapamycin (TOR) signaling, and produces an unidentified humoral factor(s) to regulate insulin-like peptide (ILP) synthesis and/or secretion in the insulin-producing cells. Here, we find that two peptides, Growth-Blocking Peptide (GBP1) and CG11395 (GBP2), are produced in the fat body in response to amino acids and TOR signaling. Reducing the expression of GBP1 and GBP2 (GBPs) specifically in the fat body results in smaller body size due to reduced growth rate. In addition, we found that GBPs stimulate ILP secretion from the insulin-producing cells, either directly or indirectly, thereby increasing insulin and insulin-like growth factor signaling activity throughout the body. Our findings fill an important gap in our understanding of how the fat body transmits nutritional information to the insulin producing cells to control body size. PMID:26928023

  19. Hypothalamic prolyl endopeptidase (PREP) regulates pancreatic insulin and glucagon secretion in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Dae; Toda, Chitoku; D'Agostino, Giuseppe; Zeiss, Caroline J; DiLeone, Ralph J; Elsworth, John D; Kibbey, Richard G; Chan, Owen; Harvey, Brandon K; Richie, Christopher T; Savolainen, Mari; Myöhänen, Timo; Jeong, Jin Kwon; Diano, Sabrina

    2014-08-12

    Prolyl endopeptidase (PREP) has been implicated in neuronal functions. Here we report that hypothalamic PREP is predominantly expressed in the ventromedial nucleus (VMH), where it regulates glucose-induced neuronal activation. PREP knockdown mice (Prep(gt/gt)) exhibited glucose intolerance, decreased fasting insulin, increased fasting glucagon levels, and reduced glucose-induced insulin secretion compared with wild-type controls. Consistent with this, central infusion of a specific PREP inhibitor, S17092, impaired glucose tolerance and decreased insulin levels in wild-type mice. Arguing further for a central mode of action of PREP, isolated pancreatic islets showed no difference in glucose-induced insulin release between Prep(gt/gt) and wild-type mice. Furthermore, hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp studies showed no difference between Prep(gt/gt) and wild-type control mice. Central PREP regulation of insulin and glucagon secretion appears to be mediated by the autonomic nervous system because Prep(gt/gt) mice have elevated sympathetic outflow and norepinephrine levels in the pancreas, and propranolol treatment reversed glucose intolerance in these mice. Finally, re-expression of PREP by bilateral VMH injection of adeno-associated virus-PREP reversed the glucose-intolerant phenotype of the Prep(gt/gt) mice. Taken together, our results unmask a previously unknown player in central regulation of glucose metabolism and pancreatic function.

  20. Regulation of mesenchymal stem cell differentiation and insulin secretion by differential expression of Pdx-1.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Huijuan; Liu, Hongmei; Tian, Rui; Li, Jie; Zhao, Zhigang

    2012-07-01

    In recent years, major effort has been made to differentiate embryonic stem cells, pancreatic ductal epithelial multipotent progenitor cells, and bone marrow stem cells into insulin secreting cells. Our previous work has also demonstrated the feasibility of inducing mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to insulin secreting cells through overexpression of Pdx-1, a pancreas and islet-specific transcription factor that plays a major role in differentiation of islet β-cells during development (Yuan et al. in Mol Biol Rep 37:4023-4031, 2010). However, the levels of insulin secretion among these differentiated MSC were quite variable. The purpose of this study is to address the issue whether the insulin secretion level from the differentiated MSC lines are determined by the expression level of the Pdx-1 transgene. To do so, we have generated several differentiated MSC lines with stable transfection of the Pdx-1 gene. Using RT-PCR analysis and insulin secretion assay, we have analyzed Pdx-1 mRNA levels and insulin secretion from these stable MSC lines. Our results showed that Pdx-1 expression is absolutely required for the differentiation of MSC lines to insulin secreting cell lines. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the level of Pdx-1 expression is closely correlated with level of insulin mRNA and insulin secretion level in differentiated MSC stable cell lines. These findings suggest that the level of Pdx-1 expression plays a key role in induction of MSCs to insulin secreting cells.

  1. Interaction of Munc18 and Syntaxin in the regulation of insulin secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Yongming; Wan, Qunfang; Yang, Xiaofei; Bai, Li; Xu, Pingyong . E-mail: pyxu@moon.ibp.ac.cn

    2007-08-31

    Syntaxin1A and Munc18-1 play essential roles in exocytosis. However, the molecular mechanism and the functional roles of their interaction in insulin secretion remain to be explored. Using membrane capacitance measurement, we examine effect of overexpressing Munc18-1 on exocytosis in pancreatic {beta} cells. The results show that Munc18-1 negatively regulates vesicle fusion. To probe the interaction between Munc18-1 and Syntaxin1A, Munc18-1-Tdimer2 and EGFP-Syntaxin1A were co-transfected into INS-1 cells. FRET measurement confirmed that Munc18-1 interacted with wild type Syntaxin 1A, but not the constitutively open form (DM) of Syntaxin1A. Overexpressing DM in primary pancreatic {beta} cells augmented insulin secretion, and this effect can overcome the inhibitory effect of Munc18-1 overexpression. We propose that Munc18-1 inhibitis the SNARE complex assembly by stabilizing Syntaxin1A in a closed conformation in vesicle priming process, therefore negatively regulates insulin secretion.

  2. Pathophysiology of insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Scheen, A J

    2004-02-01

    Defects in pancreatic islet beta-cell function play a major role in the development of diabetes mellitus. Type 1 diabetes is caused by a more or less rapid destruction of pancreatic beta cells, and the autoimmune process begins years before the beta-cell destruction becomes complete, thereby providing a window of opportunity for intervention. During the preclinical period and early after diagnosis, much of the insulin deficiency may be the result of functional inhibition of insulin secretion that may be at least partially and transiently reversible. Type 2 diabetes is characterized by a progressive loss of beta-cell function throughout the course of the disease. The pattern of loss is an initial (probably of genetic origin) defect in acute or first-phase insulin secretion, followed by a decreasing maximal capacity of insulin secretion. Last, a defective steady-state and basal insulin secretion develops, leading to almost complete beta-cell failure requiring insulin treatment. Because of the reciprocal relation between insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity, valid representation of beta-cell function requires interpretation of insulin responses in the context of the prevailing degree of insulin sensitivity. This appropriate approach highlights defects in insulin secretion at the various stages of the natural history of type 2 diabetes and already present in individuals at risk to develop the disease. To date none of the available therapies can stop the progressive beta-cell defect and the progression of the metabolic disorder. The better understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease should lead to the development of new strategies to preserve beta-cell function in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  3. Gap junctions and other mechanisms of cell-cell communication regulate basal insulin secretion in the pancreatic islet.

    PubMed

    Benninger, R K P; Head, W Steven; Zhang, Min; Satin, Leslie S; Piston, David W

    2011-11-15

    Cell-cell communication in the islet of Langerhans is important for the regulation of insulin secretion. Gap-junctions coordinate oscillations in intracellular free-calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) and insulin secretion in the islet following elevated glucose. Gap-junctions can also ensure that oscillatory [Ca(2+)](i) ceases when glucose is at a basal levels. We determine the roles of gap-junctions and other cell-cell communication pathways in the suppression of insulin secretion under basal conditions. Metabolic, electrical and insulin secretion levels were measured from islets lacking gap-junction coupling following deletion of connexion36 (Cx36(-/-)), and these results were compared to those obtained using fully isolated β-cells. K(ATP) loss-of-function islets provide a further experimental model to specifically study gap-junction mediated suppression of electrical activity. In isolated β-cells or Cx36(-/-) islets, elevations in [Ca(2+)](i) persisted in a subset of cells even at basal glucose. Isolated β-cells showed elevated insulin secretion at basal glucose; however, insulin secretion from Cx36(-/-) islets was minimally altered. [Ca(2+)](i) was further elevated under basal conditions, but insulin release still suppressed in K(ATP) loss-of-function islets. Forced elevation of cAMP led to PKA-mediated increases in insulin secretion from islets lacking gap-junctions, but not from islets expressing Cx36 gap junctions. We conclude there is a redundancy in how cell-cell communication in the islet suppresses insulin release. Gap junctions suppress cellular heterogeneity and spontaneous [Ca(2+)](i) signals, while other juxtacrine mechanisms, regulated by PKA and glucose, suppress more distal steps in exocytosis. Each mechanism is sufficiently robust to compensate for a loss of the other and still suppress basal insulin secretion.

  4. RFX6 regulates insulin secretion by modulating Ca2+ homeostasis in human β cells.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Vikash; Albagli-Curiel, Olivier; Hastoy, Benoit; Piccand, Julie; Randriamampita, Clotilde; Vaillant, Emmanuel; Cavé, Hélène; Busiah, Kanetee; Froguel, Philippe; Vaxillaire, Martine; Rorsman, Patrik; Polak, Michel; Scharfmann, Raphael

    2014-12-24

    Development and function of pancreatic β cells involve the regulated activity of specific transcription factors. RFX6 is a transcription factor essential for mouse β cell differentiation that is mutated in monogenic forms of neonatal diabetes. However, the expression and functional roles of RFX6 in human β cells, especially in pathophysiological conditions, are poorly explored. We demonstrate the presence of RFX6 in adult human pancreatic endocrine cells. Using the recently developed human β cell line EndoC-βH2, we show that RFX6 regulates insulin gene transcription, insulin content, and secretion. Knockdown of RFX6 causes downregulation of Ca(2+)-channel genes resulting in the reduction in L-type Ca(2+)-channel activity that leads to suppression of depolarization-evoked insulin exocytosis. We also describe a previously unreported homozygous missense RFX6 mutation (p.V506G) that is associated with neonatal diabetes, which lacks the capacity to activate the insulin promoter and to increase Ca(2+)-channel expression. Our data therefore provide insights for understanding certain forms of neonatal diabetes. PMID:25497100

  5. IL-1β reciprocally regulates chemokine and insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells via NF-κB.

    PubMed

    Burke, Susan J; Stadler, Krisztian; Lu, Danhong; Gleason, Evanna; Han, Anna; Donohoe, Dallas R; Rogers, Richard C; Hermann, Gerlinda E; Karlstad, Michael D; Collier, J Jason

    2015-10-15

    Proinflammatory cytokines impact islet β-cell mass and function by altering the transcriptional activity within pancreatic β-cells, producing increases in intracellular nitric oxide abundance and the synthesis and secretion of immunomodulatory proteins such as chemokines. Herein, we report that IL-1β, a major mediator of inflammatory responses associated with diabetes development, coordinately and reciprocally regulates chemokine and insulin secretion. We discovered that NF-κB controls the increase in chemokine transcription and secretion as well as the decrease in both insulin secretion and proliferation in response to IL-1β. Nitric oxide production, which is markedly elevated in pancreatic β-cells exposed to IL-1β, is a negative regulator of both glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and glucose-induced increases in intracellular calcium levels. By contrast, the IL-1β-mediated production of the chemokines CCL2 and CCL20 was not influenced by either nitric oxide levels or glucose concentration. Instead, the synthesis and secretion of CCL2 and CCL20 in response to IL-1β were dependent on NF-κB transcriptional activity. We conclude that IL-1β-induced transcriptional reprogramming via NF-κB reciprocally regulates chemokine and insulin secretion while also negatively regulating β-cell proliferation. These findings are consistent with NF-κB as a major regulatory node controlling inflammation-associated alterations in islet β-cell function and mass. PMID:26306596

  6. Pancreatic β-cell Enhancers Regulate Rhythmic Transcription of Genes Controlling Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Perelis, Mark; Marcheva, Biliana; Ramsey, Kathryn Moynihan; Schipma, Matthew J.; Hutchison, Alan L.; Taguchi, Akihiko; Peek, Clara Bien; Hong, Heekyung; Huang, Wenyu; Omura, Chiaki; Allred, Amanda L.; Bradfield, Christopher A.; Dinner, Aaron R.; Barish, Grant D.; Bass, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian transcription factors CLOCK and BMAL1 are essential components of the molecular clock that coordinate behavior and metabolism with the solar cycle. Genetic or environmental perturbation of circadian cycles contributes to metabolic disorders including type 2 diabetes. To study the impact of the cell-autonomous clock on pancreatic β-cell function, we examined islets from mice with either intact or disrupted BMAL1 expression both throughout life and limited to adulthood. We found pronounced oscillation of insulin secretion that was synchronized with the expression of genes encoding secretory machinery and signaling factors that regulate insulin release. CLOCK/BMAL1 co-localized with the pancreatic transcription factor PDX1 within active enhancers distinct from those controlling rhythmic metabolic gene networks in liver. β-cell clock ablation in adult mice caused severe glucose intolerance. Thus cell-type specific enhancers underlie the circadian control of peripheral metabolism throughout life and may help explain its deregulation in diabetes. PMID:26542580

  7. Pancreatic β cell enhancers regulate rhythmic transcription of genes controlling insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Perelis, Mark; Marcheva, Biliana; Ramsey, Kathryn Moynihan; Schipma, Matthew J; Hutchison, Alan L; Taguchi, Akihiko; Peek, Clara Bien; Hong, Heekyung; Huang, Wenyu; Omura, Chiaki; Allred, Amanda L; Bradfield, Christopher A; Dinner, Aaron R; Barish, Grant D; Bass, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    The mammalian transcription factors CLOCK and BMAL1 are essential components of the molecular clock that coordinate behavior and metabolism with the solar cycle. Genetic or environmental perturbation of circadian cycles contributes to metabolic disorders including type 2 diabetes. To study the impact of the cell-autonomous clock on pancreatic β cell function, we examined pancreatic islets from mice with either intact or disrupted BMAL1 expression both throughout life and limited to adulthood. We found pronounced oscillation of insulin secretion that was synchronized with the expression of genes encoding secretory machinery and signaling factors that regulate insulin release. CLOCK/BMAL1 colocalized with the pancreatic transcription factor PDX1 within active enhancers distinct from those controlling rhythmic metabolic gene networks in liver. We also found that β cell clock ablation in adult mice caused severe glucose intolerance. Thus, cell type-specific enhancers underlie the circadian control of peripheral metabolism throughout life and may help to explain its dysregulation in diabetes.

  8. Nutrient regulation of insulin secretion and beta-cell functional integrity.

    PubMed

    Newsholme, Philip; Gaudel, Celine; McClenaghan, Neville H

    2010-01-01

    Pancreatic beta-cells are often referred to as "fuel sensors" as they continually monitor and respond to dietary nutrients, under the modulation of additional neurohormonal signals, in order to secrete insulin to best meet the needs of the organism. beta-cell nutrient sensing requires metabolic activation, resulting in production of stimulus-secretion coupling signals that promote insulin biosynthesis and release. The primary stimulus for insulin secretion is glucose, and islet beta-cells are particularly responsive to this important nutrient secretagogue, It is important to consider individual effects of different classes of nutrient or other physiological or pharmacological agents on metabolism and insulin secretion. However, given that beta-cells are continually exposed to a complex milieu of nutrients and other circulating factors, it is important to also acknowledge and examine the interplay between glucose metabolism and that of the two other primary nutrient classes, the amino acids and fatty acids. It is the mixed nutrient sensing and outputs of glucose, amino and fatty acid metabolism that generate the metabolic coupling factors (MCFs) involved in signaling for insulin exocytosis. Primary MCFs in the beta-cell include ATP, NADPH, glutamate, long chain acyl-CoA and diacylglycerol and are discussed in detail in this article.

  9. The voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 is expressed in pancreatic islet β-cells and regulates insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing; Che, Yongzhe; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Shangrong; Gao, Ying-Tang; Wang, Yifan; Wang, Xudong; Xi, Wang; Zuo, Weiyan; Li, Shu Jie

    2015-12-25

    The voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 is a potent acid extruder that participates in the extrusion of the intracellular acid. Here, we showed for the first time, Hv1 is highly expressed in mouse and human pancreatic islet β-cells, as well as β-cell lines. Imaging studies demonstrated that Hv1 resides in insulin-containing granules in β-cells. Knockdown of Hv1 with RNA interference significantly reduces glucose- and K(+)-induced insulin secretion in isolated islets and INS-1 (832/13) β-cells and has an impairment on glucose- and K(+)-induced intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. Our data demonstrated that the expression of Hv1 in pancreatic islet β-cells regulates insulin secretion through regulating Ca(2+) homeostasis. PMID:26559003

  10. Insulin signaling pathways in lepidopteran ecdysone secretion

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Wendy A.; Lamattina, Anthony; Collins, McKensie

    2014-01-01

    Molting and metamorphosis are stimulated by the secretion of ecdysteroid hormones from the prothoracic glands. Insulin-like hormones have been found to enhance prothoracic gland activity, providing a mechanism to link molting to nutritional state. In silk moths (Bombyx mori), the prothoracic glands are directly stimulated by insulin and the insulin-like hormone bombyxin. Further, in Bombyx, the neuropeptide prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) appears to act at least in part through the insulin-signaling pathway. In the prothoracic glands of Manduca sexta, while insulin stimulates the phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and Akt, neither insulin nor bombyxin II stimulate ecdysone secretion. Involvement of the insulin-signaling pathway in Manduca prothoracic glands was explored using two inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), LY294002 and wortmannin. PI3K inhibitors block the phosphorylation of Akt and 4EBP but have no effect on ecdysone secretion, or on the phosphorylation of the MAPkinase, ERK. Inhibitors that block phosphorylation of ERK, including the MEK inhibitor U0126, and high doses of the RSK inhibitor SL0101, effectively inhibit ecdysone secretion. The results highlight differences between the two lepidopteran insects most commonly used to directly study ecdysteroid secretion. In Bombyx, the PTTH and insulin-signaling pathways intersect; both insulin and PTTH enhance the phosphorylation of Akt and stimulate ecdysteroid secretion, and inhibition of PI3K reduces ecdysteroid secretion. By contrast, in Manduca, the action of PTTH is distinct from insulin. The results highlight species differences in the roles of translational regulators such as 4EBP, and members of the MAPkinase pathway such as ERK and RSK, in the regulation of insect ecdysone secretion, and in the impact of nutritionally-sensitive hormones such as insulin in the control of ecdysone secretion and molting. PMID:24550835

  11. Pericentrin Is Related to Abnormal β-Cell Insulin Secretion through F-Actin Regulation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Lijuan; Lv, Yang; Cui, Shaoyuan; Jin, Xinye; Li, Chunlin; Chen, Xiangmei

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the regulating effect of pericentrin (PCNT) on insulin secretion in the development of insulin resistance and to determine the underlying mechanism. PCNT expression was studied in different tissues of C57/B6 mice by reverse transcriptase-PCR and immunofluorescence. PCNT was highly expressed in organs involved in the regulation of metabolism, while cytoplasmic expression was only enriched in islet cells. PCNT expression was significantly lower in the central regions of insulin resistance (IR) mouse islets than in those of control mouse islets. PCNT expression was further studied in mouse MIN6 cells exposed to glucose stimulation, small interfering RNA (siRNA) against PCNT, and an ERK inhibitor (PD98095). The results revealed that PCNT expression in glucose-stimulated MIN6 cells reduced linearly with cytoplasmic insulin levels. MIN6 cells transfected with PCNT siRNA showed significantly decreased intracellular insulin and F-actin expression. The change in F-actin expression in MIN6 cells during PCNT siRNA interference showed a linear relationship with PCNT expression at different time points. The ERK inhibitor affected PCNT expression and F-actin expression linearly. The abnormal insulin secretion observed both in vivo and in vitro was associated with decreased PCNT expression, and F-actin was found to be the target of PCNT regulation. PMID:26083368

  12. Stimulation of leptin secretion by insulin

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Minglun; Asakawa, Akihiro; Amitani, Haruka; Inui, Akio

    2012-01-01

    Leptin has a crucial role in regulating food intake and maintaining metabolic homeostasis. Although little is known about the process of leptin secretion, insulin, which has an important role in the metabolism of glucose and lipids, is believed to regulate leptin secretion through a posttranscriptional mechanism in the short term, and via glucose metabolism in the long term. The gastric mucosa secretes leptin, but this mechanism has not been completely elucidated. Understanding the mechanism of insulin-regulated leptin secretion could lead to the development of new treatment methods for obesity and its comorbidities, which are serious public health concerns. PMID:23565488

  13. Diacylglycerol Signaling Pathway in Pancreatic β-Cells: An Essential Role of Diacylglycerol Kinase in the Regulation of Insulin Secretion.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Yukiko K; Ishikawa, Tomohisa

    2015-01-01

    Diacylglycerol (DAG) is a lipid signal messenger and plays a physiological role in β-cells. Since defective glucose homeostasis increases de novo DAG synthesis, DAG may also contribute to β-cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. Although the primary function of DAG is to activate protein kinase C (PKC), the role of PKC in insulin secretion is controversial: PKC has been reported to act as both a positive and negative regulator of insulin secretion. In addition to the PKC pathway, DAG has also been shown to mediate other pathways such as the Munc-13-dependent pathway in β-cells. The intracellular levels of DAG are strictly regulated by diacylglycerol kinase (DGK); however, the role of DGK in β-cells and their involvement in β-cell failure in type 2 diabetes remain to be fully elucidated. We have recently reported the roles of type I DGK, DGKα and γ, in insulin secretion from β-cells. DGKα and γ were activated by glucose or high K(+) stimulation in β-cells, and the inhibition of the DGKs by a type I DGK inhibitor or by knockdown with small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreased insulin secretion. Thus, DGKα and γ are suggested to be activated in response to elevated [Ca(2+)]i in β-cells and to act as positive regulators of insulin secretion. In this article, we review the current understanding of the roles of DAG and DGK in β-cell function and their involvement in the development of β-cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes.

  14. A peroxiredoxin, PRDX-2, is required for insulin secretion and insulin/IIS-dependent regulation of stress resistance and longevity.

    PubMed

    Oláhová, Monika; Veal, Elizabeth A

    2015-08-01

    Peroxiredoxins (Prx) are abundant thiol peroxidases with a conserved anti-ageing role. In contrast to most animals, the nematode worm, Caenorhabditis elegans, encodes a single cytosolic 2-Cys Prx, PRDX-2, rendering it an excellent model for examining how peroxiredoxins affect animal physiology and ageing. Our previous work revealed that, although PRDX-2 protects against the toxicity of peroxides, enigmatically, prdx-2-mutant animals are hyper-resistant to other forms of oxidative stress. Here, we have investigated the basis for this increased resistance. Mammalian FOXO and Nrf2 transcription factors directly promote the expression of a range of detoxification enzymes. We show that the FOXO orthologue, DAF-16, and the Nrf2 orthologue, SKN-1, are required for the increased stress resistance of prdx-2-mutant worms. Our data suggest that PRDX-2 is required for normal levels of insulin secretion and hence the inhibition of DAF-16 and SKN-1 by insulin/IGF-1-like signalling (IIS) under nutrient-rich conditions. Intriguingly, loss of PRDX-2 increases DAF-16 and SKN-1 activities sufficiently to increase arsenite resistance without initiating other IIS-inhibited processes. Together, these data suggest that loss of peroxiredoxin function may increase stress resistance by reducing insulin secretion, but that further changes in insulin signalling are required for the reprogramming of development and fat metabolism. In addition, we reveal that the temperature-dependent prolongevity function of PRDX-2 is required for the extended lifespan associated with several pathways, including further reductions in IIS.

  15. A peroxiredoxin, PRDX-2, is required for insulin secretion and insulin/IIS-dependent regulation of stress resistance and longevity

    PubMed Central

    Oláhová, Monika; Veal, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Peroxiredoxins (Prx) are abundant thiol peroxidases with a conserved anti-ageing role. In contrast to most animals, the nematode worm, Caenorhabditis elegans, encodes a single cytosolic 2-Cys Prx, PRDX-2, rendering it an excellent model for examining how peroxiredoxins affect animal physiology and ageing. Our previous work revealed that, although PRDX-2 protects against the toxicity of peroxides, enigmatically, prdx-2-mutant animals are hyper-resistant to other forms of oxidative stress. Here, we have investigated the basis for this increased resistance. Mammalian FOXO and Nrf2 transcription factors directly promote the expression of a range of detoxification enzymes. We show that the FOXO orthologue, DAF-16, and the Nrf2 orthologue, SKN-1, are required for the increased stress resistance of prdx-2-mutant worms. Our data suggest that PRDX-2 is required for normal levels of insulin secretion and hence the inhibition of DAF-16 and SKN-1 by insulin/IGF-1-like signalling (IIS) under nutrient-rich conditions. Intriguingly, loss of PRDX-2 increases DAF-16 and SKN-1 activities sufficiently to increase arsenite resistance without initiating other IIS-inhibited processes. Together, these data suggest that loss of peroxiredoxin function may increase stress resistance by reducing insulin secretion, but that further changes in insulin signalling are required for the reprogramming of development and fat metabolism. In addition, we reveal that the temperature-dependent prolongevity function of PRDX-2 is required for the extended lifespan associated with several pathways, including further reductions in IIS. PMID:25808059

  16. Mitochondrial function and insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Maechler, Pierre

    2013-10-15

    In the endocrine fraction of the pancreas, the β-cell rapidly reacts to fluctuations in blood glucose concentrations by adjusting the rate of insulin secretion. Glucose-sensing coupled to insulin exocytosis depends on transduction of metabolic signals into intracellular messengers recognized by the secretory machinery. Mitochondria play a central role in this process by connecting glucose metabolism to insulin release. Mitochondrial activity is primarily regulated by metabolic fluxes, but also by dynamic morphology changes and free Ca(2+) concentrations. Recent advances of mitochondrial Ca(2+) homeostasis are discussed; in particular the roles of the newly-identified mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter MCU and its regulatory partner MICU1, as well as the mitochondrial Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger. This review describes how mitochondria function both as sensors and generators of metabolic signals; such as NADPH, long chain acyl-CoA, glutamate. The coupling factors are additive to the Ca(2+) signal and participate to the amplifying pathway of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.

  17. Insulin and Glucagon Secretion In Vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajan, Arun S.

    1998-01-01

    Long-duration space flight is associated with many physiological abnormalities in astronauts. In particular, altered regulation of the hormones insulin and glucagon may contribute to metabolic disturbances such as increased blood sugar levels, which if persistently elevated result in toxic effects. These changes are also observed in the highly prevalent disease diabetes, which affects 16 million Americans and consumes over $100 billion in annual healthcare costs. By mimicking the microgravity environment of space in the research laboratory using a NASA-developed bioreactor, one can study the physiology of insulin and glucagon secretion and determine if there are alterations in these cellular processes. The original specific objectives of the project included: (1) growing ('cell culture') of pancreatic islet beta and alpha cells that secrete insulin and glucagon respectively, in the NASA bioreactor; (2) examination of the effects of microgravity on insulin and glucagon secretion; and (3) study of molecular mechanisms of insulin and glucagon secretion if altered by microgravity.

  18. B-cell translocation gene 2 positively regulates GLP-1-stimulated insulin secretion via induction of PDX-1 in pancreatic β-cells.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Seung-Lark; Kwon, Okyun; Kim, Sun-Gyun; Lee, In-Kyu; Kim, Yong Deuk

    2013-05-24

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a potent glucoincretin hormone and an important agent for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Here we demonstrate that B-cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2) is a crucial regulator in GLP-1-induced insulin gene expression and insulin secretion via upregulation of pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX-1) in pancreatic β-cells. GLP-1 treatment significantly increased BTG2, PDX-1 and insulin gene expression in pancreatic β-cells. Notably, adenovirus-mediated overexpression of BTG2 significantly elevated insulin secretion, as well as insulin and PDX-1 gene expression. Physical interaction studies showed that BTG2 is associated with increased PDX-1 occupancy on the insulin gene promoter via a direct interaction with PDX-1. Exendin-4 (Ex-4), a GLP-1 agonist, and GLP-1 in pancreatic β-cells increased insulin secretion through the BTG2-PDX-1-insulin pathway, which was blocked by endogenous BTG2 knockdown using a BTG2 small interfering RNA knockdown system. Finally, we revealed that Ex-4 and GLP-1 significantly elevated insulin secretion via upregulation of the BTG2-PDX-1 axis in pancreatic islets, and this phenomenon was abolished by endogenous BTG2 knockdown. Collectively, our current study provides a novel molecular mechanism by which GLP-1 positively regulates insulin gene expression via BTG2, suggesting that BTG2 has a key function in insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells.

  19. Characterization of Zinc Influx Transporters (ZIPs) in Pancreatic β Cells: ROLES IN REGULATING CYTOSOLIC ZINC HOMEOSTASIS AND INSULIN SECRETION.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Batchuluun, Battsetseg; Ho, Louisa; Zhu, Dan; Prentice, Kacey J; Bhattacharjee, Alpana; Zhang, Ming; Pourasgari, Farzaneh; Hardy, Alexandre B; Taylor, Kathryn M; Gaisano, Herbert; Dai, Feihan F; Wheeler, Michael B

    2015-07-24

    Zinc plays an essential role in the regulation of pancreatic β cell function, affecting important processes including insulin biosynthesis, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, and cell viability. Mutations in the zinc efflux transport protein ZnT8 have been linked with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, further supporting an important role for zinc in glucose homeostasis. However, very little is known about how cytosolic zinc is controlled by zinc influx transporters (ZIPs). In this study, we examined the β cell and islet ZIP transcriptome and show consistent high expression of ZIP6 (Slc39a6) and ZIP7 (Slc39a7) genes across human and mouse islets and MIN6 β cells. Modulation of ZIP6 and ZIP7 expression significantly altered cytosolic zinc influx in pancreatic β cells, indicating an important role for ZIP6 and ZIP7 in regulating cellular zinc homeostasis. Functionally, this dysregulated cytosolic zinc homeostasis led to impaired insulin secretion. In parallel studies, we identified both ZIP6 and ZIP7 as potential interacting proteins with GLP-1R by a membrane yeast two-hybrid assay. Knock-down of ZIP6 but not ZIP7 in MIN6 β cells impaired the protective effects of GLP-1 on fatty acid-induced cell apoptosis, possibly via reduced activation of the p-ERK pathway. Therefore, our data suggest that ZIP6 and ZIP7 function as two important zinc influx transporters to regulate cytosolic zinc concentrations and insulin secretion in β cells. In particular, ZIP6 is also capable of directly interacting with GLP-1R to facilitate the protective effect of GLP-1 on β cell survival.

  20. NAD kinase regulates the size of the NADPH pool and insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells.

    PubMed

    Gray, Joshua P; Alavian, Kambiz N; Jonas, Elizabeth A; Heart, Emma A

    2012-07-15

    NADPH is an important component of the antioxidant defense system and a proposed mediator in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic β-cells. An increase in the NADPH/NADP(+) ratio has been reported to occur within minutes following the rise in glucose concentration in β-cells. However, 30 min following the increase in glucose, the total NADPH pool also increases through a mechanism not yet characterized. NAD kinase (NADK) catalyzes the de novo formation of NADP(+) by phosphorylation of NAD(+). NAD kinases have been shown to be essential for redox regulation, oxidative stress defense, and survival in bacteria and yeast. However, studies on NADK in eukaryotic cells are scarce, and the function of this enzyme has not been described in β-cells. We employed INS-1 832/13 cells, an insulin-secreting rat β-cell line, and isolated rodent islets to investigate the role of NADK in β-cell metabolic pathways. Adenoviral-mediated overexpression of NADK resulted in a two- to threefold increase in the total NADPH pool and NADPH/NADP(+) ratio, suggesting that NADP(+) formed by the NADK-catalyzed reaction is rapidly reduced to NADPH via cytosolic reductases. This increase in the NADPH pool was accompanied by an increase in GSIS in NADK-overexpressing cells. Furthermore, NADK overexpression protected β-cells against oxidative damage by the redox cycling agent menadione and reversed menadione-mediated inhibition of GSIS. Knockdown of NADK via shRNA exerted the opposite effect on all these parameters. These data suggest that NADK kinase regulates intracellular redox and affects insulin secretion and oxidative defense in the β-cell.

  1. NAD kinase regulates the size of the NADPH pool and insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells.

    PubMed

    Gray, Joshua P; Alavian, Kambiz N; Jonas, Elizabeth A; Heart, Emma A

    2012-07-15

    NADPH is an important component of the antioxidant defense system and a proposed mediator in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic β-cells. An increase in the NADPH/NADP(+) ratio has been reported to occur within minutes following the rise in glucose concentration in β-cells. However, 30 min following the increase in glucose, the total NADPH pool also increases through a mechanism not yet characterized. NAD kinase (NADK) catalyzes the de novo formation of NADP(+) by phosphorylation of NAD(+). NAD kinases have been shown to be essential for redox regulation, oxidative stress defense, and survival in bacteria and yeast. However, studies on NADK in eukaryotic cells are scarce, and the function of this enzyme has not been described in β-cells. We employed INS-1 832/13 cells, an insulin-secreting rat β-cell line, and isolated rodent islets to investigate the role of NADK in β-cell metabolic pathways. Adenoviral-mediated overexpression of NADK resulted in a two- to threefold increase in the total NADPH pool and NADPH/NADP(+) ratio, suggesting that NADP(+) formed by the NADK-catalyzed reaction is rapidly reduced to NADPH via cytosolic reductases. This increase in the NADPH pool was accompanied by an increase in GSIS in NADK-overexpressing cells. Furthermore, NADK overexpression protected β-cells against oxidative damage by the redox cycling agent menadione and reversed menadione-mediated inhibition of GSIS. Knockdown of NADK via shRNA exerted the opposite effect on all these parameters. These data suggest that NADK kinase regulates intracellular redox and affects insulin secretion and oxidative defense in the β-cell. PMID:22550069

  2. Beta Cells Secrete Significant and Regulated Levels of Insulin for Long Periods when Seeded onto Acellular Micro-Scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Sionov, Ronit Vogt; Finesilver, Gershon; Sapozhnikov, Lena; Soroker, Avigail; Zlotkin-Rivkin, Efrat; Saad, Yocheved; Kahana, Meygal; Bodaker, Matan; Alpert, Evgenia; Mitrani, Eduardo

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this work is to obtain significant and regulated insulin secretion from human beta cells ex vivo. Long-term culture of human pancreatic islets and attempts at expanding human islet cells normally result in loss of beta-cell phenotype. We propose that to obtain proper ex vivo beta cell function, there is a need to develop three-dimensional structures that mimic the natural islet tissue microenvironment. We here describe the preparation of endocrine micro-pancreata (EMPs) that are made up of acellular organ-derived micro-scaffolds seeded with human intact or enzymatically dissociated islets. We show that EMPs constructed by seeding whole islets, freshly enzymatically-dissociated islets or even dissociated islets grown first in standard monolayer cultures express high levels of key beta-cell specific genes and secrete quantities of insulin per cell similar to freshly isolated human islets in a glucose-regulated manner for more than 3 months in vitro. PMID:26416226

  3. PGC-1 coactivators in β-cells regulate lipid metabolism and are essential for insulin secretion coupled to fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Oropeza, Daniel; Jouvet, Nathalie; Bouyakdan, Khalil; Perron, Gabrielle; Ringuette, Lea-Jeanne; Philipson, Louis H.; Kiss, Robert S.; Poitout, Vincent; Alquier, Thierry; Estall, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1 (PPARGCA1, PGC-1) transcriptional coactivators control gene programs important for nutrient metabolism. Islets of type 2 diabetic subjects have reduced PGC-1α expression and this is associated with decreased insulin secretion, yet little is known about why this occurs or what role it plays in the development of diabetes. Our goal was to delineate the role and importance of PGC-1 proteins to β-cell function and energy homeostasis. Methods We investigated how nutrient signals regulate coactivator expression in islets and the metabolic consequences of reduced PGC-1α and PGC-1β in primary and cultured β-cells. Mice with inducible β-cell specific double knockout of Pgc-1α/Pgc-1β (βPgc-1 KO) were created to determine the physiological impact of reduced Pgc1 expression on glucose homeostasis. Results Pgc-1α and Pgc-1β expression was increased in primary mouse and human islets by acute glucose and palmitate exposure. Surprisingly, PGC-1 proteins were dispensable for the maintenance of mitochondrial mass, gene expression, and oxygen consumption in response to glucose in adult β-cells. However, islets and mice with an inducible, β-cell-specific PGC-1 knockout had decreased insulin secretion due in large part to loss of the potentiating effect of fatty acids. Consistent with an essential role for PGC-1 in lipid metabolism, β-cells with reduced PGC-1s accumulated acyl-glycerols and PGC-1s controlled expression of key enzymes in lipolysis and the glycerolipid/free fatty acid cycle. Conclusions These data highlight the importance of PGC-1s in coupling β-cell lipid metabolism to promote efficient insulin secretion. PMID:26629405

  4. PI3K regulates endocytosis after insulin secretion by mediating signaling crosstalk between Arf6 and Rab27a.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Mami; Ando, Tomomi; Terabayashi, Takeshi; Okamoto, Mitsuhiro; Takei, Masahiro; Nishioka, Tomoki; Kaibuchi, Kozo; Matsunaga, Kohichi; Ishizaki, Ray; Izumi, Tetsuro; Niki, Ichiro; Ishizaki, Toshimasa; Kimura, Toshihide

    2016-02-01

    In secretory cells, endocytosis is coupled to exocytosis to enable proper secretion. Although endocytosis is crucial to maintain cellular homeostasis before and after secretion, knowledge about secretagogue-induced endocytosis in secretory cells is still limited. Here, we searched for proteins that interacted with the Rab27a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) EPI64 (also known as TBC1D10A) and identified the Arf6 guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor (GEF) ARNO (also known as CYTH2) in pancreatic β-cells. We found that the insulin secretagogue glucose promotes phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) generation through phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), thereby recruiting ARNO to the intracellular side of the plasma membrane. Peripheral ARNO promotes clathrin assembly through its GEF activity for Arf6 and regulates the early stage of endocytosis. We also found that peripheral ARNO recruits EPI64 to the same area and that the interaction requires glucose-induced endocytosis in pancreatic β-cells. Given that GTP- and GDP-bound Rab27a regulate exocytosis and the late stage of endocytosis, our results indicate that the glucose-induced activation of PI3K plays a pivotal role in exocytosis-endocytosis coupling, and that ARNO and EPI64 regulate endocytosis at distinct stages.

  5. Opiate-prostaglandin interactions in the regulation of insulin secretion from rat islets of Langerhans in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Green, I.C.; Tadayyon, M.

    1988-01-01

    The inadequate insulin secretory response to glucose stimulation in non-insulin dependent diabetes has been attributed to many factors including high PGE/sub 2/ levels blunting the secretory response, and to the existence of inhibitory opiate activity in vivo. The purpose of the present work was to see if there was a connection between these two independent theories. Radioimmunoassayable PGE/sub 2/ in islets of Langerhans was found to be proportional to islet number and protein content and was typically 4 to 5pg/..mu..g islet protein. Indomethacin sodium salicylate and chlorpropamide all lowered islet PGE/sub 2/ levels and stimulated insulin release in vitro. Dynorphin stimulated insulin release at a concentration of 6 x 10/sup -9/M, while lowering islet PGE/sub 2/. Conversely, at a higher concentration, dynorphin had no stimulatory effect on insulin secretion and did not lower PGE/sub 2/ levels in islets or in the incubation media. The stimulatory effects of dynorphin and sodium salicylate on insulin secretion were blocked by exogenous PGE/sub 2/. PGE/sub 2/ at a lower concentration did not exert any inhibitory effect on dynorphin- or sodium salicylate-induced insulin release. This concentration of exogenous PGE/sub 2/ stimulated insulin release in the presence of 6mM glucose.

  6. The circular RNA Cdr1as, via miR-7 and its targets, regulates insulin transcription and secretion in islet cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huanyu; Guo, Sen; Li, Wei; Yu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Among the identified thousands of circular RNAs (circRNA) in humans and animals, Cdr1as (also known as CiRS-7) was recently demonstrated to act as a powerful miR-7 sponge/inhibitor in developing midbrain of zebrafish, suggesting a novel mechanism for regulating microRNA functions. MiR-7 is abundantly expressed in islet cells, but overexpressing miR-7 in transgenic mouse β cells causes diabetes. Therefore, we infer that Cdr1as expression may inhibit miR-7 function in islet cells, which in turn improves insulin secretion. Here, we show the first characterization of Cdr1as expression in islet cells, which was upregulated by long-term forskolin and PMA stimulation, but not high glucose, indicating the involvement of cAMP and PKC pathways. Remarkably, both insulin content and secretion were significantly increased by overexpression of Cdr1as in islet cells. We further identified a new target Myrip in the Cdr1as/miR-7 pathway that regulates insulin granule secretion, and also another target Pax6 that enhances insulin transcription. Taken together, our findings revealed the effects of the strongly interacting pair of Cdr1as/miR-7 on insulin secretion, which may become a new target for improving β cell function in diabetes. PMID:26211738

  7. α/β-Hydrolase domain-6 and saturated long chain monoacylglycerol regulate insulin secretion promoted by both fuel and non-fuel stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shangang; Poursharifi, Pegah; Mugabo, Yves; Levens, Emily J.; Vivot, Kevin; Attane, Camille; Iglesias, Jose; Peyot, Marie-line; Joly, Erik; Madiraju, S.R. Murthy; Prentki, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Objective α/β-Hydrolase domain-6 (ABHD6) is a newly identified monoacylglycerol (MAG) lipase. We recently reported that it negatively regulates glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in the β cells by hydrolyzing lipolysis-derived MAG that acts as a metabolic coupling factor and signaling molecule via exocytotic regulator Munc13-1. Whether ABHD6 and MAG play a role in response to all classes of insulin secretagogues, in particular various fuel and non-fuel stimuli, is unknown. Methods Insulin secretion in response to various classes of secretagogues, exogenous MAG and pharmacological agents was measured in islets of mice deficient in ABHD6 specifically in the β cell (BKO). Islet perifusion experiments and determinations of glucose and fatty acid metabolism, cytosolic Ca2+ and MAG species levels were carried out. Results Deletion of ABHD6 potentiated insulin secretion in response to the fuels glutamine plus leucine and α-ketoisocaproate and to the non-fuel stimuli glucagon-like peptide 1, carbamylcholine and elevated KCl. Fatty acids amplified GSIS in control and BKO mice to the same extent. Exogenous 1-MAG amplified insulin secretion in response to fuel and non-fuel stimuli. MAG hydrolysis activity was greatly reduced in BKO islets without changes in total diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol lipase activity. ABHD6 deletion induced insulin secretion independently from KATP channels and did not alter the glucose induced rise in intracellular Ca2+. Perifusion studies showed elevated insulin secretion during second phase of GSIS in BKO islets that was not due to altered cytosolic Ca2+ signaling or because of changes in glucose and fatty acid metabolism. Glucose increased islet saturated long chain 1-MAG species and ABHD6 deletion caused accumulation of these 1-MAG species at both low and elevated glucose. Conclusion ABHD6 regulates insulin secretion in response to fuel stimuli at large and some non-fuel stimuli by controlling long chain saturated 1-MAG levels

  8. Regulation of gene expression by glucose in pancreatic beta -cells (MIN6) via insulin secretion and activation of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase.

    PubMed

    da Silva Xavier, G; Varadi, A; Ainscow, E K; Rutter, G A

    2000-11-17

    Increases in glucose concentration control the transcription of the preproinsulin (PPI) gene and several other genes in the pancreatic islet beta-cell. Although recent data have demonstrated that secreted insulin may regulate the PPI gene (Leibiger, I. B., Leibiger, B., Moede, T., and Berggren, P. O. (1998) Mol. Cell 1, 933-938), the role of insulin in the control of other beta-cell genes is unexplored. To study the importance of insulin secretion in the regulation of the PPI and liver-type pyruvate kinase (L-PK) genes by glucose, we have used intranuclear microinjection of promoter-luciferase constructs into MIN6 beta-cells and photon-counting imaging. The activity of each promoter was increased either by 30 (versus 3) mm glucose or by 1-20 nm insulin. These effects of insulin were not due to enhanced glucose metabolism since culture with the hormone had no impact on the stimulation of increases in intracellular ATP concentration caused by 30 mm glucose. Furthermore, the islet-specific glucokinase promoter and cellular glucokinase immunoreactivity were unaffected by 30 mm glucose or 20 nm insulin. Inhibition of insulin secretion with the Ca(2+) channel blocker verapamil, the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel opener diazoxide, or the alpha(2)-adrenergic agonist clonidine blocked the effects of glucose on L-PK gene transcription. Similarly, 30 mm glucose failed to induce the promoter after inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase activity with LY294002 and the expression of dominant negative-acting phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (Deltap85) or the phosphoinositide 3'-phosphatase PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue). LY294002 also diminished the activation of the L-PK gene caused by inhibition of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase with anti-5'-AMP-activated protein kinase alpha2 antibodies. Conversely, stimulation of insulin secretion with 13 mm KCl or 10 microm tolbutamide strongly activated the PPI and L-PK promoters. These data indicate that, in MIN6 beta

  9. Islet Insulin Secretion Measurements in the Mouse.

    PubMed

    Hugill, Alison; Shimomura, Kenju; Cox, Roger D

    2016-01-01

    This article describes detailed protocols for in vitro measurements of insulin function and secretion in isolated mouse islets for the analysis of glucose homeostasis. We specify a method of enzyme digestion and hand picking to isolate and release the greatest number of high quality islets from the pancreas of the mouse. We describe an effective method for generating dynamic measurements of insulin secretion using a perifusion assay including a detailed protocol for constructing a peristaltic pump and tubing assembly. In addition we describe an alternative and simple technique for measuring insulin secretion using static incubation of isolated islets. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27584553

  10. Insulin secretion at high altitude in man

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawhney, R. C.; Malhotra, A. S.; Singh, T.; Rai, R. M.; Sinha, K. C.

    1986-09-01

    The effect of hypoxia on circulatory levels of insulin, its response to oral glucose administration (100 g) and changes in circadian rhythms of glucose as well as insulin were evaluated in euglycemic males at sea level (SL, 220 m) during their stay at high altitude (3500 m, SJ) and in high altitude natives (HAN). Basal glucose levels were not altered at high altitude but the rise in glucose (δ glucose) after glucose load was significantly higher in SJ and HAN (p<0.01) as compared to SL values. An increase (p<0.01) both in basal as well as glucose induced rise in insulin secretioninsulin) was observed at HA. The rise in insulin in SJ was significantly higher (p<0.01) than in HAN. This elevation in glucose and insulin levels was also evident at different times of the day. The circadian rhythmicity of glucose as well as insulin was altered by the altitude stress. The findings of the study show a rise in insulin level at HA but the hyperglycemia in the face of hyper-insulinism require the presumption of a simultaneous and dispropotionate rise of insulin antagonistic hormones upsetting the effect of insulin on glucose metabolism.

  11. Transcription factor Ets-1 inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion of pancreatic β-cells partly through up-regulation of COX-2 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiong-Fei; Zhu, Yi; Liang, Wen-Biao; Zhang, Jing-Jing

    2014-08-01

    Increased cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression is associated with pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. We previously demonstrated that the transcription factor Ets-1 significantly up-regulated COX-2 gene promoter activity. In this report, we used the pancreatic β-cell line INS-1 and isolated rat islets to investigate whether Ets-1 could induce β-cell dysfunction through up-regulating COX-2 gene expression. We investigated the effects of ETS-1 overexpression and the effects of ETS-1 RNA interference on endogenous COX-2 expression in INS-1 cells. We used site-directed mutagenesis and a dual luciferase reporter assay to study putative Ets-1 binding sites in the COX-2 promoter. The effect of ETS-1 1 overexpression on the insulin secretion function of INS-1 cells and rat islets and the potential reversal of these effects by a COX-2 inhibitor were determined in a glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) assay. ETS-1 overexpression significantly induces endogenous COX-2 expression, but ETS-1 RNA interference has no effect on basal COX-2 expression in INS-1 cells. Ets-1 protein significantly increases COX-2 promoter activity through the binding site located in the -195/-186 region of the COX-2 promoter. ETS-1 overexpression significantly inhibited the GSIS function of INS-1 cells and islet cells and COX-2 inhibitor treatment partly reversed this effect. These findings indicated that ETS-1 overexpression induces β-cell dysfunction partly through up-regulation of COX-2 gene expression. Moreover, Ets-1, the transcriptional regulator of COX-2 expression, may be a potential target for the prevention of β-cell dysfunction mediated by COX-2.

  12. MicroRNA-29a is up-regulated in beta-cells by glucose and decreases glucose-stimulated insulin secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Bagge, Annika; Clausen, Trine R.; Larsen, Sylvester; Ladefoged, Mette; Rosenstierne, Maiken W.; Larsen, Louise; Vang, Ole; Nielsen, Jens H.; Dalgaard, Louise T.

    2012-09-21

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MicroRNA-29a (miR-29a) levels are increased by glucose in human and rat islets and INS-1E cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-29a increases proliferation of INS-1E beta-cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Forced expression of miR-29a decreases glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Depletion of beta-cell miR-29a improves GSIS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-29a may be a mediator of glucose toxicity in beta-cells. -- Abstract: Chronically elevated levels of glucose impair pancreatic beta-cell function while inducing beta-cell proliferation. MicroRNA-29a (miR-29a) levels are increased in several tissues in diabetic animals and mediate decreased insulin-stimulated glucose-transport of adipocytes. The aim was to investigate the impact of glucose on miR-29a levels in INS-1E beta-cells and in human islets of Langerhans and furthermore to evaluate the impact of miR-29a on beta-cell function and proliferation. Increased glucose levels up-regulated miR-29a in beta-cells and human and rat islets of Langerhans. Glucose-stimulated insulin-secretion (GSIS) of INS-1E beta-cells was decreased by forced expression of miR-29a, while depletion of endogenous miR-29a improved GSIS. Over-expression of miR-29a increased INS-1E proliferation. Thus, miR-29a up-regulation is involved in glucose-induced proliferation of beta-cells. Furthermore, as depletion of miR-29a improves beta-cell function, miR-29a is a mediator of glucose-induced beta-cell dysfunction. Glucose-induced up-regulation of miR-29a in beta-cells could be implicated in progression from impaired glucose tolerance to type 2 diabetes.

  13. A role for cytosolic isocitrate dehydrogenase as a negative regulator of glucose signaling for insulin secretion in pancreatic ß-cells.

    PubMed

    Guay, Claudiane; Joly, Erik; Pepin, Emilie; Barbeau, Annie; Hentsch, Lisa; Pineda, Marco; Madiraju, S R Murthy; Brunengraber, Henri; Prentki, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Cytosolic NADPH may act as one of the signals that couple glucose metabolism to insulin secretion in the pancreatic ß-cell. NADPH levels in the cytoplasm are largely controlled by the cytosolic isoforms of malic enzyme and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDHc). Some studies have provided evidence for a role of malic enzyme in glucose-induced insulin secretion (GIIS) via pyruvate cycling, but the role of IDHc in ß-cell signaling is unsettled. IDHc is an established component of the isocitrate/α-ketoglutarate shuttle that transfers reducing equivalents (NADPH) from the mitochondrion to the cytosol. This shuttle is energy consuming since it is coupled to nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase that uses the mitochondrial proton gradient to produce mitochondrial NADPH and NAD(+) from NADP(+) and NADH. To determine whether flux through IDHc is positively or negatively linked to GIIS, we performed RNAi knockdown experiments in ß-cells. Reduced IDHc expression in INS 832/13 cells and isolated rat islet ß-cells resulted in enhanced GIIS. This effect was mediated at least in part via the KATP-independent amplification arm of GIIS. IDHc knockdown in INS 832/13 cells did not alter glucose oxidation but it reduced fatty acid oxidation and increased lipogenesis from glucose. Metabolome profiling in INS 832/13 cells showed that IDHc knockdown increased isocitrate and NADP(+) levels. It also increased the cellular contents of several metabolites linked to GIIS, in particular some Krebs cycle intermediates, acetyl-CoA, glutamate, cAMP and ATP. The results identify IDHc as a component of the emerging pathways that negatively regulate GIIS.

  14. Paliperidone Induced Hypoglycemia by Increasing Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Riku, Keisen; Fukumoto, Motoyuki; Kanai, Koji; Omura, Yumi; Matunaga, Hidenori

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 41-year-old woman with schizophrenia who developed persistent hypoglycemia following paliperidone administration. After discontinuing paliperidone, the hypoglycemia resolved, but symptoms of diabetes emerged. Therefore, it appears that the hypoglycemia induced by paliperidone may mask symptoms of diabetes. Paliperidone may induce hypoglycemia by increasing insulin secretion. This report could help elucidate the relationship between atypical antipsychotics and glucose metabolism. PMID:27478670

  15. Paliperidone Induced Hypoglycemia by Increasing Insulin Secretion.

    PubMed

    Omi, Tsubasa; Riku, Keisen; Fukumoto, Motoyuki; Kanai, Koji; Omura, Yumi; Takada, Hiromune; Matunaga, Hidenori

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 41-year-old woman with schizophrenia who developed persistent hypoglycemia following paliperidone administration. After discontinuing paliperidone, the hypoglycemia resolved, but symptoms of diabetes emerged. Therefore, it appears that the hypoglycemia induced by paliperidone may mask symptoms of diabetes. Paliperidone may induce hypoglycemia by increasing insulin secretion. This report could help elucidate the relationship between atypical antipsychotics and glucose metabolism. PMID:27478670

  16. β-Cell Insulin Secretion Requires the Ubiquitin Ligase COP1.

    PubMed

    Suriben, Rowena; Kaihara, Kelly A; Paolino, Magdalena; Reichelt, Mike; Kummerfeld, Sarah K; Modrusan, Zora; Dugger, Debra L; Newton, Kim; Sagolla, Meredith; Webster, Joshua D; Liu, Jinfeng; Hebrok, Matthias; Dixit, Vishva M

    2015-12-01

    A variety of signals finely tune insulin secretion by pancreatic β cells to prevent both hyper-and hypoglycemic states. Here, we show that post-translational regulation of the transcription factors ETV1, ETV4, and ETV5 by the ubiquitin ligase COP1 (also called RFWD2) in β cells is critical for insulin secretion. Mice lacking COP1 in β cells developed diabetes due to insulin granule docking defects that were fully rescued by genetic deletion of Etv1, Etv4, and Etv5. Genes regulated by ETV1, ETV4, or ETV5 in the absence of mouse COP1 were enriched in human diabetes-associated genes, suggesting that they also influence human β-cell pathophysiology. In normal β cells, ETV4 was stabilized upon membrane depolarization and limited insulin secretion under hyperglycemic conditions. Collectively, our data reveal that ETVs negatively regulate insulin secretion for the maintenance of normoglycemia.

  17. A Unifying Organ Model of Pancreatic Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    De Gaetano, Andrea; Gaz, Claudio; Palumbo, Pasquale; Panunzi, Simona

    2015-01-01

    The secretion of insulin by the pancreas has been the object of much attention over the past several decades. Insulin is known to be secreted by pancreatic β-cells in response to hyperglycemia: its blood concentrations however exhibit both high-frequency (period approx. 10 minutes) and low-frequency oscillations (period approx. 1.5 hours). Furthermore, characteristic insulin secretory response to challenge maneuvers have been described, such as frequency entrainment upon sinusoidal glycemic stimulation; substantial insulin peaks following minimal glucose administration; progressively strengthened insulin secretion response after repeated administration of the same amount of glucose; insulin and glucose characteristic curves after Intra-Venous administration of glucose boli in healthy and pre-diabetic subjects as well as in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Previous modeling of β-cell physiology has been mainly directed to the intracellular chain of events giving rise to single-cell or cell-cluster hormone release oscillations, but the large size, long period and complex morphology of the diverse responses to whole-body glucose stimuli has not yet been coherently explained. Starting with the seminal work of Grodsky it was hypothesized that the population of pancreatic β-cells, possibly functionally aggregated in islets of Langerhans, could be viewed as a set of independent, similar, but not identical controllers (firing units) with distributed functional parameters. The present work shows how a single model based on a population of independent islet controllers can reproduce very closely a diverse array of actually observed experimental results, with the same set of working parameters. The model’s success in reproducing a diverse array of experiments implies that, in order to understand the macroscopic behaviour of the endocrine pancreas in regulating glycemia, there is no need to hypothesize intrapancreatic pacemakers, influences between different islets of Langerhans

  18. Insight into Insulin Secretion from Transcriptome and Genetic Analysis of Insulin-Producing Cells of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Jian; Ni, Julie; Ma, Wenxiu; Shiu, Vanessa; Milla, Luis A.; Park, Sangbin; Spletter, Maria L.; Tang, Sheng; Zhang, Jun; Wei, Xing; Kim, Seung K.; Scott, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-producing cells (IPCs) in the Drosophila brain produce and release insulin-like peptides (ILPs) to the hemolymph. ILPs are crucial for growth and regulation of metabolic activity in flies, functions analogous to those of mammalian insulin and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). To identify components functioning in IPCs to control ILP production, we employed genomic and candidate gene approaches. We used laser microdissection and messenger RNA sequencing to characterize the transcriptome of larval IPCs. IPCs highly express many genes homologous to genes active in insulin-producing β-cells of the mammalian pancreas. The genes in common encode ILPs and proteins that control insulin metabolism, storage, secretion, β-cell proliferation, and some not previously linked to insulin production or β-cell function. Among these novelties is unc-104, a kinesin 3 family gene, which is more highly expressed in IPCs compared to most other neurons. Knockdown of unc-104 in IPCs impaired ILP secretion and reduced peripheral insulin signaling. Unc-104 appears to transport ILPs along axons. As a complementary approach, we tested dominant-negative Rab genes to find Rab proteins required in IPCs for ILP production or secretion. Rab1 was identified as crucial for ILP trafficking in IPCs. Inhibition of Rab1 in IPCs increased circulating sugar levels, delayed development, and lowered weight and body size. Immunofluorescence labeling of Rab1 showed its tight association with ILP2 in the Golgi of IPCs. Unc-104 and Rab1 join other proteins required for ILP transport in IPCs. PMID:24558258

  19. Thymoquinone, a bioactive component of Nigella sativa, normalizes insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells under glucose overload via regulation of malonyl-CoA.

    PubMed

    Gray, Joshua P; Burgos, Delaine Zayasbazan; Yuan, Tao; Seeram, Navindra; Rebar, Rebecca; Follmer, Rebecca; Heart, Emma A

    2016-03-15

    Thymoquinone (2-isopropyl-5-methylbenzo-1,4-quinone) is a major bioactive component of Nigella sativa, a plant used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of symptoms, including elevated blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetic patients. Normalization of elevated blood glucose depends on both glucose disposal by peripheral tissues and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic β-cells. We employed clonal β-cells and rodent islets to investigate the effects of thymoquinone (TQ) and Nigella sativa extracts (NSEs) on GSIS and cataplerotic metabolic pathways implicated in the regulation of GSIS. TQ and NSE regulated NAD(P)H/NAD(P)(+) ratios via a quinone-dependent redox cycling mechanism. TQ content was positively correlated with the degree of redox cycling activity of NSE extracts, suggesting that TQ is a major component engaged in mediating NSE-dependent redox cycling. Both acute and chronic exposure to TQ and NSE enhanced GSIS and were associated with the ability of TQ and NSE to increase the ATP/ADP ratio. Furthermore, TQ ameliorated the impairment of GSIS following chronic exposure of β-cells to glucose overload. This protective action was associated with the TQ-dependent normalization of chronic accumulation of malonyl-CoA, elevation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase, and fatty acid-binding proteins following chronic glucose overload. Together, these data suggest that TQ modulates the β-cell redox circuitry and enhances the sensitivity of β-cell metabolic pathways to glucose and GSIS under normal conditions as well as under hyperglycemia. This action is associated with the ability of TQ to regulate carbohydrate-to-lipid flux via downregulation of ACC and malonyl-CoA.

  20. Thymoquinone, a bioactive component of Nigella sativa, normalizes insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells under glucose overload via regulation of malonyl-CoA.

    PubMed

    Gray, Joshua P; Burgos, Delaine Zayasbazan; Yuan, Tao; Seeram, Navindra; Rebar, Rebecca; Follmer, Rebecca; Heart, Emma A

    2016-03-15

    Thymoquinone (2-isopropyl-5-methylbenzo-1,4-quinone) is a major bioactive component of Nigella sativa, a plant used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of symptoms, including elevated blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetic patients. Normalization of elevated blood glucose depends on both glucose disposal by peripheral tissues and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic β-cells. We employed clonal β-cells and rodent islets to investigate the effects of thymoquinone (TQ) and Nigella sativa extracts (NSEs) on GSIS and cataplerotic metabolic pathways implicated in the regulation of GSIS. TQ and NSE regulated NAD(P)H/NAD(P)(+) ratios via a quinone-dependent redox cycling mechanism. TQ content was positively correlated with the degree of redox cycling activity of NSE extracts, suggesting that TQ is a major component engaged in mediating NSE-dependent redox cycling. Both acute and chronic exposure to TQ and NSE enhanced GSIS and were associated with the ability of TQ and NSE to increase the ATP/ADP ratio. Furthermore, TQ ameliorated the impairment of GSIS following chronic exposure of β-cells to glucose overload. This protective action was associated with the TQ-dependent normalization of chronic accumulation of malonyl-CoA, elevation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase, and fatty acid-binding proteins following chronic glucose overload. Together, these data suggest that TQ modulates the β-cell redox circuitry and enhances the sensitivity of β-cell metabolic pathways to glucose and GSIS under normal conditions as well as under hyperglycemia. This action is associated with the ability of TQ to regulate carbohydrate-to-lipid flux via downregulation of ACC and malonyl-CoA. PMID:26786775

  1. Standardized extract of Ficus deltoidea stimulates insulin secretion and blocks hepatic glucose production by regulating the expression of glucose-metabolic genes in streptozitocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, there has been increasing interest in Ficus deltoidea Jack. (Moraceae) due to its chemical composition and the potential health benefits. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of extracts of F. deltoidea leaves on diabetes. Methods The petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts of F. deltoidea were prepared and subjected to standardization using preliminary phytochemical and HPLC analysis. Dose selection was made on the basis of acute oral toxicity study (50–5000 mg/kg b. w.) as per OECD guidelines. Diabetes mellitus was induced with streptozotocin and rats found diabetic were orally administered with the extract (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg) for 14 days. Levels of blood glucose and insulin were measured in control as well as diabetic rats on 0, 7 and 14th day. In addition, glucose metabolism regulating gene expression was assessed using RT-PCR. Results HPLC analysis revealed that the methanol extract is enriched with C-glycosylflavones particularly, vitexin and isovitexin. In oral glucose tolerance test, oral administration of the methanol extract increased the glucose tolerance. The methanol extract showed significant (P < 0.01) antidiabetic activity. The extract treatment caused significant reduction (p < 0.01) in elevated fasting blood glucose level in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The streptozotocin-related weight loss in rats was noticeably reversed by the extract treatment. Finally, RT-PCR analysis revealed a novel mechanisms for the anti-diabetic action of methanol extract of F. deltoidea. The extract exerted its effect via an increase of insulin secretion which impeded the hepatic glucose production, via down-regulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase genes expression on one hand, and up-regulation of hepatic GK and PPARγ genes expression on the other hand. The extract caused an increased expression of GLUT-4 gene expression in skeletal muscles which leads to

  2. Apolipoprotein A-IV improves glucose homeostasis by enhancing insulin secretion

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Kohan, Alison B.; Kindel, Tammy L.; Corbin, Kathryn L.; Nunemaker, Craig S.; Obici, Silvana; Woods, Stephen C.; Davidson, W. Sean; Tso, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) is secreted by the small intestine in response to fat absorption. Here we demonstrate a potential role for apoA-IV in regulating glucose homeostasis. ApoA-IV–treated isolated pancreatic islets had enhanced insulin secretion under conditions of high glucose but not of low glucose, suggesting a direct effect of apoA-IV to enhance glucose-stimulated insulin release. This enhancement involves cAMP at a level distal to Ca2+ influx into the β cells. Knockout of apoA-IV results in compromised insulin secretion and impaired glucose tolerance compared with WT mice. Challenging apoA-IV−/− mice with a high-fat diet led to fasting hyperglycemia and more severe glucose intolerance associated with defective insulin secretion than occurred in WT mice. Administration of exogenous apoA-IV to apoA-IV−/− mice improved glucose tolerance by enhancing insulin secretion in mice fed either chow or a high-fat diet. Finally, we demonstrate that exogenous apoA-IV injection decreases blood glucose levels and stimulates a transient increase in insulin secretion in KKAy diabetic mice. These results suggest that apoA-IV may provide a therapeutic target for the regulation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and treatment of diabetes. PMID:22619326

  3. Actin dynamics regulated by the balance of neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) and cofilin activities determines the biphasic response of glucose-induced insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Uenishi, Eita; Shibasaki, Tadao; Takahashi, Harumi; Seki, Chihiro; Hamaguchi, Hitomi; Yasuda, Takao; Tatebe, Masao; Oiso, Yutaka; Takenawa, Tadaomi; Seino, Susumu

    2013-09-01

    Actin dynamics in pancreatic β-cells is involved in insulin secretion. However, the molecular mechanisms of the regulation of actin dynamics by intracellular signals in pancreatic β-cells and its role in phasic insulin secretion are largely unknown. In this study, we elucidate the regulation of actin dynamics by neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) and cofilin in pancreatic β-cells and demonstrate its role in glucose-induced insulin secretion (GIIS). N-WASP, which promotes actin polymerization through activation of the actin nucleation factor Arp2/3 complex, was found to be activated by glucose stimulation in insulin-secreting clonal pancreatic β-cells (MIN6-K8 β-cells). Introduction of a dominant-negative mutant of N-WASP, which lacks G-actin and Arp2/3 complex-binding region VCA, into MIN6-K8 β-cells or knockdown of N-WASP suppressed GIIS, especially the second phase. We also found that cofilin, which severs F-actin in its dephosphorylated (active) form, is converted to the phosphorylated (inactive) form by glucose stimulation in MIN6-K8 β-cells, thereby promoting F-actin remodeling. In addition, the dominant-negative mutant of cofilin, which inhibits activation of endogenous cofilin, or knockdown of cofilin reduced the second phase of GIIS. However, the first phase of GIIS occurs in the G-actin predominant state, in which cofilin activity predominates over N-WASP activity. Thus, actin dynamics regulated by the balance of N-WASP and cofilin activities determines the biphasic response of GIIS.

  4. Sympathetic regulation of estradiol secretion from the ovary.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Sae

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that hormone secretion from endocrine glands is regulated by hierarchical feedback mechanisms. However, although Cannon revealed in the 1920s that sympathoadrenal medullary function increased during emergency situations, no studies on the autonomic nervous regulation of hormone secretion have been undertaken for many years. In the past 40 years, the autonomic nervous regulation of insulin secretion from the pancreas, gastrin secretion from the stomach, glucocorticoid secretion from the adrenal cortex, etc., has been demonstrated. Estradiol secretion from the ovary is strongly controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, and its possible regulation by autonomic nerves has been largely unnoticed. Some histological studies have revealed rich adrenergic sympathetic innervation in the ovary. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the activation of the sympathetic nerves to the ovary directly reduces estradiol secretion from the ovary. This article reviews physiological and morphological studies, primarily in rats, on the sympathetic regulation of estradiol secretion from the ovary.

  5. Measuring phospholipase D activity in insulin-secreting pancreatic beta-cells and insulin-responsive muscle cells and adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Cazzolli, Rosanna; Huang, Ping; Teng, Shuzhi; Hughes, William E

    2009-01-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) is an enzyme producing phosphatidic acid and choline through hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine. The enzyme has been identified as a member of a variety of signal transduction cascades and as a key regulator of numerous intracellular vesicle trafficking processes. A role for PLD in regulating glucose homeostasis is emerging as the enzyme has recently been identified in events regulating exocytosis of insulin from pancreatic beta-cells and also in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake through controlling GLUT4 vesicle exocytosis in muscle and adipose tissue. We present methodologies for assessing cellular PLD activity in secretagogue-stimulated insulin-secreting pancreatic beta-cells and also insulin-stimulated adipocyte and muscle cells, two of the principal insulin-responsive cell types controlling blood glucose levels. PMID:19160674

  6. Measuring phospholipase D activity in insulin-secreting pancreatic beta-cells and insulin-responsive muscle cells and adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Cazzolli, Rosanna; Huang, Ping; Teng, Shuzhi; Hughes, William E

    2009-01-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) is an enzyme producing phosphatidic acid and choline through hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine. The enzyme has been identified as a member of a variety of signal transduction cascades and as a key regulator of numerous intracellular vesicle trafficking processes. A role for PLD in regulating glucose homeostasis is emerging as the enzyme has recently been identified in events regulating exocytosis of insulin from pancreatic beta-cells and also in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake through controlling GLUT4 vesicle exocytosis in muscle and adipose tissue. We present methodologies for assessing cellular PLD activity in secretagogue-stimulated insulin-secreting pancreatic beta-cells and also insulin-stimulated adipocyte and muscle cells, two of the principal insulin-responsive cell types controlling blood glucose levels.

  7. NADPH oxidase NOX2 defines a new antagonistic role for reactive oxygen species and cAMP/PKA in the regulation of insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Li, Bin; Brun, Thierry; Deffert-Delbouille, Christine; Mahiout, Zahia; Daali, Youssef; Ma, Xiao-Juan; Krause, Karl-Heinz; Maechler, Pierre

    2012-11-01

    In insulin-secreting cells, expression of NADPH oxidase (NOX), a potent source of ROS, has been reported, along with controversial findings regarding its function. Here, the role of NOXs was investigated: first by expression and cellular localization in mouse and human pancreatic islets, and then by functional studies in islets isolated from Nox isoform-specific knockout mice. Both human and mouse β-cells express NOX, in particular NOX2. With use of Nox isoform-specific knockout mice, functional analysis revealed Nox2 as the predominant isoform. In human islets, NOX2 colocalized with both insulin granules and endosome/lysosome membranes. Nox2-deficient islets stimulated with 22.8 mmol/L glucose exhibited potentiation of insulin release compared with controls, an effect confirmed with in vitro knockdown of Nox2. The enhanced secretory function in Nox2-deficient islets was associated with both lower superoxide levels and elevated cAMP concentrations. In control islets, GLP-1 and other cAMP inducers suppressed glucose-induced ROS production similarly to Nox2 deficiency. Inhibiting cAMP-dependent protein kinase reduced the secretory response in Nox2-null islets, although not in control islets. This study ascribes a new role for NOX2 in pancreatic β-cells as negative modulator of the secretory response, reducing cAMP/PKA signaling secondary to ROS generation. Results also show reciprocal inhibition between the cAMP/PKA pathway and ROS.

  8. NADPH Oxidase NOX2 Defines a New Antagonistic Role for Reactive Oxygen Species and cAMP/PKA in the Regulation of Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ning; Li, Bin; Brun, Thierry; Deffert-Delbouille, Christine; Mahiout, Zahia; Daali, Youssef; Ma, Xiao-Juan; Krause, Karl-Heinz; Maechler, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    In insulin-secreting cells, expression of NADPH oxidase (NOX), a potent source of ROS, has been reported, along with controversial findings regarding its function. Here, the role of NOXs was investigated: first by expression and cellular localization in mouse and human pancreatic islets, and then by functional studies in islets isolated from Nox isoform–specific knockout mice. Both human and mouse β-cells express NOX, in particular NOX2. With use of Nox isoform–specific knockout mice, functional analysis revealed Nox2 as the predominant isoform. In human islets, NOX2 colocalized with both insulin granules and endosome/lysosome membranes. Nox2-deficient islets stimulated with 22.8 mmol/L glucose exhibited potentiation of insulin release compared with controls, an effect confirmed with in vitro knockdown of Nox2. The enhanced secretory function in Nox2-deficient islets was associated with both lower superoxide levels and elevated cAMP concentrations. In control islets, GLP-1 and other cAMP inducers suppressed glucose-induced ROS production similarly to Nox2 deficiency. Inhibiting cAMP-dependent protein kinase reduced the secretory response in Nox2-null islets, although not in control islets. This study ascribes a new role for NOX2 in pancreatic β-cells as negative modulator of the secretory response, reducing cAMP/PKA signaling secondary to ROS generation. Results also show reciprocal inhibition between the cAMP/PKA pathway and ROS. PMID:22933115

  9. Human Insulinomas Show Distinct Patterns of Insulin Secretion In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Henquin, Jean-Claude; Nenquin, Myriam; Guiot, Yves; Rahier, Jacques; Sempoux, Christine

    2015-10-01

    Insulinomas are β-cell tumors that cause hypoglycemia through inappropriate secretion of insulin. Characterization of the in vitro dynamics of insulin secretion by perifused fragments of 10 human insulinomas permitted their subdivision into three functional groups with similar insulin content. Group A (four patients with fasting and/or postprandial hypoglycemic episodes) showed qualitatively normal responses to glucose, leucine, diazoxide, tolbutamide, and extracellular CaCl2 omission or excess. The effect of glucose was concentration dependent, but, compared with normal islets, insulin secretion was excessive in both low- and high-glucose conditions. Group B (three patients with fasting hypoglycemic episodes) was mainly characterized by large insulin responses to 1 mmol/L glucose, resulting in very high basal secretion rates that were inhibited by diazoxide and restored by tolbutamide but were not further augmented by other agents except for high levels of CaCl2. Group C (three patients with fasting hypoglycemic episodes) displayed very low rates of insulin secretion and virtually no response to stimuli (including high CaCl2 concentration) and inhibitors (CaCl2 omission being paradoxically stimulatory). In group B, the presence of low-Km hexokinase-I in insulinoma β-cells (not in adjacent islets) was revealed by immunohistochemistry. Human insulinomas thus show distinct, though not completely heterogeneous, defects in insulin secretion that are attributed to the undue expression of hexokinase-I in 3 of 10 patients. PMID:26116696

  10. Insulin and glucose regulation.

    PubMed

    Ralston, Sarah L

    2002-08-01

    Abnormally high or low blood glucose and insulin concentrations after standardized glucose tolerance tests can reflect disorders such as pituitary dysfunction, polysaccharide storage myopathies, and other clinical disorders. Glucose and insulin responses, however, are modified by the diet to which the animal has adapted, time since it was last fed, and what it was fed. Body fat (obesity), fitness level, physiologic status, and stress also alter glucose and insulin metabolism. Therefore, it is important to consider these factors when evaluating glucose and insulin tests, especially if only one sample it taken. This article describes the factors affecting glucose and insulin metabolism in horses and how they might influence the interpretation of standardized tests of glucose tolerance.

  11. Do pancreatic β cells "taste" nutrients to secrete insulin?

    PubMed

    Henquin, Jean-Claude

    2012-08-28

    Insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells is controlled by nutrients, hormones, and neurotransmitters. Unlike the latter, which work through classic receptors, glucose and most other nutrients do not interact with membrane receptors but must be metabolized by β cells to induce insulin secretion. Studies have revealed the presence of umami and sweet taste receptors and their downstream effectors in β cells. That the receptors are functional was established by the effects of fructose and artificial sweeteners, which induced signals similar to those produced in taste buds of the tongue. These signals mediated an increase in insulin secretion in the presence of glucose. However, the physiological implications of these pathways in insulin secretion are unclear because of the large differences between plasma concentrations of fructose or sweeteners and their effective concentrations in vitro.

  12. Elevated Basal Insulin Secretion in Type 2 Diabetes Caused by Reduced Plasma Membrane Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraj, Vini; Kazim, Abdulla S.; Helgeson, Johan; Lewold, Clemens; Barik, Satadal; Buda, Pawel; Reinbothe, Thomas M.; Wennmalm, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Elevated basal insulin secretion under fasting conditions together with insufficient stimulated insulin release is an important hallmark of type 2 diabetes, but the mechanisms controlling basal insulin secretion remain unclear. Membrane rafts exist in pancreatic islet cells and spatially organize membrane ion channels and proteins controlling exocytosis, which may contribute to the regulation of insulin secretion. Membrane rafts (cholesterol and sphingolipid containing microdomains) were dramatically reduced in human type 2 diabetic and diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat islets when compared with healthy islets. Oxidation of membrane cholesterol markedly reduced microdomain staining intensity in healthy human islets, but was without effect in type 2 diabetic islets. Intriguingly, oxidation of cholesterol affected glucose-stimulated insulin secretion only modestly, whereas basal insulin release was elevated. This was accompanied by increased intracellular Ca2+ spike frequency and Ca2+ influx and explained by enhanced single Ca2+ channel activity. These results suggest that the reduced presence of membrane rafts could contribute to the elevated basal insulin secretion seen in type 2 diabetes. PMID:27533789

  13. Insulin secretion after injuries of differing severity in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Frayn, K. N.

    1976-01-01

    The effects on insulin secretion of injuries of differing severity have been studied in the rat. The injuries used were dorsal scalds to 20% and 40% of the body surface area, and a 4-h period of bilateral hind-limb ischaemia. These injuries resulted in 48 h mortality rates of 0/10, 7/10 and 5/10 respectively. Rats were studied 1-5-2 h after scalding or removal of tourniquets. The blood glucose concentration was markedly raised after all these injuries, and the plasma insulin concentration was also raised, so that the insulin to glucose ratio in any group did not differ significantly from that in non-injured controls. Injection of glucose (0-5 g/kg i.v.) induced a rise in insulin concentration in all groups, although the insulin to glucose ratio after the lethal 40% scald was lower than in control rats. It was concluded that in the rat normal insulin secretion is maintained even after lethal injuries, although some suppression of the insulin response to exogenous glucose may occur. Insulin resistance is more important in the rat than impairment of insulin secretion even at an early stage after injury. PMID:782499

  14. Syntaxin-3 Binds and Regulates Both R- and L-Type Calcium Channels in Insulin-Secreting INS-1 832/13 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Li; Dolai, Subhankar; Kang, Youhou; Liang, Tao; Xie, Huanli; Qin, Tairan; Yang, Lu; Chen, Liangyi; Gaisano, Herbert Y.

    2016-01-01

    Syntaxin (Syn)-1A mediates exocytosis of predocked insulin-containing secretory granules (SGs) during first-phase glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in part via its interaction with plasma membrane (PM)-bound L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (Cav). In contrast, Syn-3 mediates exocytosis of newcomer SGs that accounts for second-phase GSIS. We now hypothesize that the newcomer SG Syn-3 preferentially binds and modulates R-type Cav opening, which was postulated to mediate second-phase GSIS. Indeed, glucose-stimulation of pancreatic islet β-cell line INS-1 induced a predominant increase in interaction between Syn-3 and Cavα1 pore-forming subunits of R-type Cav2.3 and to lesser extent L-type Cavs, while confirming the preferential interactions between Syn-1A with L-type (Cav1.2, Cav1.3) Cavs. Consistently, direct binding studies employing heterologous HEK cells confirmed that Syn-3 preferentially binds Cav2.3, whereas Syn-1A prefers L-type Cavs. We then used siRNA knockdown (KD) of Syn-3 in INS-1 to study the endogenous modulatory actions of Syn-3 on Cav channels. Syn-3 KD enhanced Ca2+ currents by 46% attributed mostly to R- and L-type Cavs. Interestingly, while the transmembrane domain of Syn-1A is the putative functional domain modulating Cav activity, it is the cytoplasmic domain of Syn-3 that appears to modulate Cav activity. We conclude that Syn-3 may mimic Syn-1A in the ability to bind and modulate Cavs, but preferring Cav2.3 to perhaps participate in triggering fusion of newcomer insulin SGs during second-phase GSIS. PMID:26848587

  15. Acute stimulation of brain mu opioid receptors inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion via sympathetic innervation.

    PubMed

    Tudurí, Eva; Beiroa, Daniel; Stegbauer, Johannes; Fernø, Johan; López, Miguel; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén

    2016-11-01

    Pancreatic insulin-secreting β-cells express opioid receptors, whose activation by opioid peptides modulates hormone secretion. Opioid receptors are also expressed in multiple brain regions including the hypothalamus, where they play a role in feeding behavior and energy homeostasis, but their potential role in central regulation of glucose metabolism is unknown. Here, we investigate whether central opioid receptors participate in the regulation of insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis in vivo. C57BL/6J mice were acutely treated by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection with specific agonists for the three main opioid receptors, kappa (KOR), delta (DOR) and mu (MOR) opioid receptors: activation of KOR and DOR did not alter glucose tolerance, whereas activation of brain MOR with the specific agonist DAMGO blunted glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), reduced insulin sensitivity, increased the expression of gluconeogenic genes in the liver and, consequently, impaired glucose tolerance. Pharmacological blockade of α2A-adrenergic receptors prevented DAMGO-induced glucose intolerance and gluconeogenesis. Accordingly, DAMGO failed to inhibit GSIS and to impair glucose tolerance in α2A-adrenoceptor knockout mice, indicating that the effects of central MOR activation on β-cells are mediated via sympathetic innervation. Our results show for the first time a new role of the central opioid system, specifically the MOR, in the regulation of insulin secretion and glucose metabolism. PMID:27511839

  16. Residual insulin secretion in adolescent diabetics after remission.

    PubMed Central

    Hocking, M D; Rayner, P W; Nattrass, M

    1987-01-01

    Twenty four hour blood glucose profiles were compared in two groups of insulin dependent adolescent diabetic patients who were beyond their initial partial remission phase. In the group with persistent endogenous insulin secretion, blood glucose profiles were significantly lower but the difference was small and not reflected in average 24 hour concentrations of glucose nor glycosylated haemoglobin. Endogenous insulin secretion must be considered in studies of metabolic control after the remission period but the effect on overall glucose control is probably clinically unimportant. PMID:3318713

  17. Mathematical modeling of insulin secretion and the role of glucose-dependent mobilization, docking, priming and fusion of insulin granules.

    PubMed

    Stamper, I Johanna; Wang, Xujing

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we develop a new mathematical model of glucose-induced insulin secretion from pancreatic islet β-cells, and we use this model to investigate the rate limiting factors. We assume that insulin granules reside in different pools inside each β-cell, and that all β-cells respond homogeneously to glucose with the same recruitment thresholds. Consistent with recent experimental observations, our model also accounts for the fusion of newcomer granules that are not pre-docked at the plasma membrane. In response to a single step increase in glucose concentration, our model reproduces the characteristic biphasic insulin release observed in multiple experimental systems, including perfused pancreata and isolated islets of rodent or human origin. From our model analysis we note that first-phase insulin secretion depends on rapid depletion of the primed, release-ready granule pools, while the second phase relies on granule mobilization from the reserve. Moreover, newcomers have the potential to contribute significantly to the second phase. When the glucose protocol consists of multiple changes in sequence (a so-called glucose staircase), our model predicts insulin spikes of increasing height, as has been seen experimentally. This increase stems from the glucose-dependent increase in the fusion rate of insulin granules at the plasma membrane of single β-cells. In contrast, previous mathematical models reproduced the staircase experiment by assuming heterogeneous β-cell activation. In light of experimental data indicating limited heterogeneous activation for β-cells within intact islets, our findings suggest that a graded, dose-dependent cell response to glucose may contribute to insulin secretion patterns observed in multiple experiments, and thus regulate in vivo insulin release. In addition, the strength of insulin granule mobilization, priming and fusion are critical limiting factors in determining the total amount of insulin release.

  18. Snapin mediates incretin action and augments glucose-dependent insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Song, Woo-Jin; Seshadri, Madhav; Ashraf, Uzair; Mdluli, Thembi; Mondal, Prosenjit; Keil, Meg; Azevedo, Monalisa; Kirschner, Lawrence S; Stratakis, Constantine A; Hussain, Mehboob A

    2011-03-01

    Impaired insulin secretion contributes to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Treatment with the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) potentiates insulin secretion and improves metabolic control in humans with T2DM. GLP-1 receptor-mediated signaling leading to insulin secretion occurs via cyclic AMP stimulated protein kinase A (PKA)- as well as guanine nucleotide exchange factor-mediated pathways. However, how these two pathways integrate and coordinate insulin secretion remains poorly understood. Here we show that these incretin-stimulated pathways converge at the level of snapin, and that PKA-dependent phosphorylation of snapin increases interaction among insulin secretory vesicle-associated proteins, thereby potentiating glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). In diabetic islets with impaired GSIS, snapin phosphorylation is reduced, and expression of a snapin mutant, which mimics site-specific phosphorylation, restores GSIS. Thus, snapin is a critical node in GSIS regulation and provides a potential therapeutic target to improve β cell function in T2DM. PMID:21356520

  19. Phospholipase C-related catalytically inactive protein (PRIP) controls KIF5B-mediated insulin secretion

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Satoshi; Nemoto, Tomomi; Kitayama, Tomoya; Harada, Kae; Zhang, Jun; Harada, Kana; Tanida, Isei; Hirata, Masato; Kanematsu, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT We previously reported that phospholipase C-related catalytically inactive protein (PRIP)-knockout mice exhibited hyperinsulinemia. Here, we investigated the role of PRIP in insulin granule exocytosis using Prip-knockdown mouse insulinoma (MIN6) cells. Insulin release from Prip-knockdown MIN6 cells was higher than that from control cells, and Prip knockdown facilitated movement of GFP-phogrin-labeled insulin secretory vesicles. Double-immunofluorescent staining and density step-gradient analyses showed that the KIF5B motor protein co-localized with insulin vesicles in Prip-knockdown MIN6 cells. Knockdown of GABAA-receptor-associated protein (GABARAP), a microtubule-associated PRIP-binding partner, by Gabarap silencing in MIN6 cells reduced the co-localization of insulin vesicles with KIF5B and the movement of vesicles, resulting in decreased insulin secretion. However, the co-localization of KIF5B with microtubules was not altered in Prip- and Gabarap-knockdown cells. The presence of unbound GABARAP, freed either by an interference peptide or by Prip silencing, in MIN6 cells enhanced the co-localization of insulin vesicles with microtubules and promoted vesicle mobility. Taken together, these data demonstrate that PRIP and GABARAP function in a complex to regulate KIF5B-mediated insulin secretion, providing new insights into insulin exocytic mechanisms. PMID:24812354

  20. Cell signalling in insulin secretion: the molecular targets of ATP, cAMP and sulfonylurea.

    PubMed

    Seino, S

    2012-08-01

    Clarification of the molecular mechanisms of insulin secretion is crucial for understanding the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of diabetes and for development of novel therapeutic strategies for the disease. Insulin secretion is regulated by various intracellular signals generated by nutrients and hormonal and neural inputs. In addition, a variety of glucose-lowering drugs including sulfonylureas, glinide-derivatives, and incretin-related drugs such as dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-4) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are used for glycaemic control by targeting beta cell signalling for improved insulin secretion. There has been a remarkable increase in our understanding of the basis of beta cell signalling over the past two decades following the application of molecular biology, gene technology, electrophysiology and bioimaging to beta cell research. This review discusses cell signalling in insulin secretion, focusing on the molecular targets of ATP, cAMP and sulfonylurea, an essential metabolic signal in glucose-induced insulin secretion (GIIS), a critical signal in the potentiation of GIIS, and the commonly used glucose-lowering drug, respectively.

  1. Macrophage-secreted factors induce adipocyte inflammation and insulin resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Permana, Paska A. . E-mail: Paska.Permana@med.va.gov; Menge, Christopher; Reaven, Peter D.

    2006-03-10

    Macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue increases with obesity, a condition associated with low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance. We investigated the direct effects of macrophage-secreted factors on adipocyte inflammation and insulin resistance. 3T3-L1 adipocytes incubated with media conditioned by RAW264.7 macrophages (RAW-CM) showed dramatically increased transcription of several inflammation-related genes, greater nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) activity, and enhanced binding of U937 monocytes. All of these effects were prevented by co-incubation with pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate, an NF-{kappa}B inhibitor. Adipocytes incubated with RAW-CM also released more non-esterified fatty acids and this increased lipolysis was not suppressed by insulin. In addition, RAW-CM treatment decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes. Taken together, these results indicate that macrophage-secreted factors induce inflammatory responses and reduce insulin responsiveness in adipocytes. These effects of macrophage-secreted factors on adipocytes may contribute significantly to the systemic inflammation and insulin resistance associated with obesity.

  2. Constitutively active heat shock factor 1 enhances glucose-driven insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Tsuyoshi; Tomono, Shoichi; Utsugi, Toshihiro; Ohyama, Yoshio; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Tomura, Hideaki; Kawazu, Shoji; Okajima, Fumikazu; Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2011-06-01

    Weak pancreatic β-cell function is a cause of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Glucokinase regulates insulin secretion via phosphorylation of glucose. The present study focused on a system for the self-protection of pancreatic cell by expressing heat shock factor (HSF) and heat shock protein (HSP) to improve insulin secretion without inducing hypoglycemia. We previously generated a constitutively active form of human HSF1 (CA-hHSF1). An adenovirus expressing CA-hHSF1 using the cytomegalovirus promoter was generated to infect mouse insulinoma cells (MIN6 cells). An adenovirus expressing CA-hHSF1 using a human insulin promoter (Ins-CA-hHSF1) was also generated to infect rats. We investigated whether CA-hHSF1 induces insulin secretion in MIN6 cells and whether Ins-CA-hHSF1 can improve blood glucose and serum insulin levels in healthy Wister rats and type 2 diabetes mellitus model rats. CA-hHSF1 expression increased insulin secretion 1.27-fold compared with the overexpression of wild-type hHSF1 in MIN6 cells via induction of HSP90 expression and subsequent activation of glucokinase. This mechanism is associated with activation of both glucokinase and neuronal nitric oxide synthase. Ins-CA-hHSF1 improved blood glucose levels in neonatal streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Furthermore, Ins-CA-hHSF1 reduced oral glucose tolerance testing results in healthy Wister rats because of an insulin spike at 15 minutes; however, it did not induce hypoglycemia. CA-hHSF1 induced insulin secretion both in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest that gene therapy with Ins-CA-hHSF1 will be able to be used to treat patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance without causing hypoglycemia at fasting. PMID:20817212

  3. Insulin secretion and sensitivity in space flight: diabetogenic effects.

    PubMed

    Tobin, Brian W; Uchakin, Peter N; Leeper-Woodford, Sandra K

    2002-10-01

    Nearly three decades of space flight research have suggested that there are subclinical diabetogenic changes that occur in microgravity. Alterations in insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, and metabolism of protein and amino acids support the hypothesis that insulin plays an essential role in the maintenance of muscle mass in extended-duration space flight. Experiments in flight and after flight and ground-based bedrest studies have associated microgravity and its experimental paradigms with manifestations similar to those of diabetes, physical inactivity, and aging. We propose that these manifestations are characterized best by an etiology that falls into the clinical category of "other" causes of diabetes, including, but not restricted to, genetic beta-cell defects, insulin action defects, diseases of the endocrine pancreas, endocrinopathies, drug or chemically induced diabetes, infections, immune-mediated metabolic alteration, and a host of genetic related diseases. We present data showing alterations in tumor necrosis factor-alpha production, insulin secretion, and amino acid metabolism in pancreatic islets of Langerhans cultured in a ground-based cell culture bioreactor that mimics some of the effects of microgravity. Taken together, space flight research, ground-based studies, and bioreactor studies of pancreatic islets of Langerhans support the hypothesis that the pancreas is unable to overcome peripheral insulin resistance and amino acid dysregulation during space flight. We propose that measures of insulin secretion and insulin action will be necessary to design effective countermeasures against muscle loss, and we advance the "disposition index" as an essential model to be used in the clinical management of space flight-induced muscle loss.

  4. Insulin secretion and sensitivity in space flight: diabetogenic effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobin, Brian W.; Uchakin, Peter N.; Leeper-Woodford, Sandra K.

    2002-01-01

    Nearly three decades of space flight research have suggested that there are subclinical diabetogenic changes that occur in microgravity. Alterations in insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, and metabolism of protein and amino acids support the hypothesis that insulin plays an essential role in the maintenance of muscle mass in extended-duration space flight. Experiments in flight and after flight and ground-based bedrest studies have associated microgravity and its experimental paradigms with manifestations similar to those of diabetes, physical inactivity, and aging. We propose that these manifestations are characterized best by an etiology that falls into the clinical category of "other" causes of diabetes, including, but not restricted to, genetic beta-cell defects, insulin action defects, diseases of the endocrine pancreas, endocrinopathies, drug or chemically induced diabetes, infections, immune-mediated metabolic alteration, and a host of genetic related diseases. We present data showing alterations in tumor necrosis factor-alpha production, insulin secretion, and amino acid metabolism in pancreatic islets of Langerhans cultured in a ground-based cell culture bioreactor that mimics some of the effects of microgravity. Taken together, space flight research, ground-based studies, and bioreactor studies of pancreatic islets of Langerhans support the hypothesis that the pancreas is unable to overcome peripheral insulin resistance and amino acid dysregulation during space flight. We propose that measures of insulin secretion and insulin action will be necessary to design effective countermeasures against muscle loss, and we advance the "disposition index" as an essential model to be used in the clinical management of space flight-induced muscle loss.

  5. Insulin Signaling in α-cells Modulates Glucagon Secretion in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kawamori, Dan; Kurpad, Amarnath J.; Hu, Jiang; Liew, Chong Wee; Shih, Judy L.; Ford, Eric L.; Herrera, Pedro L.; Polonsky, Kenneth S.; McGuinness, Owen P.; Kulkarni, Rohit N.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Glucagon plays an important role in glucose homeostasis by regulating hepatic glucose output in both normo- and hypo-glycemic conditions. In this study, we created and characterized α-cell specific insulin receptor knockout (αIRKO) mice to directly explore the role of insulin signaling in the regulation of glucagon secretion in vivo. Adult male αIRKO mice exhibited mild glucose intolerance, hyperglycemia and hyperglucagonemia in the fed state, and enhanced glucagon secretion in response to L-Arginine stimulation. Hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemic clamp studies revealed an enhanced glucagon secretory response and an abnormal norepinephrine response to hypoglycemia in αIRKO mice. The mutants also exhibited an age-dependent increase in β-cell mass. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated knockdown of insulin receptor in glucagon-secreting InR1G cells promoted enhanced glucagon secretion and complemented our in vivo findings. Together, these data indicate a significant role for intra-islet insulin signaling in the regulation of α-cell function in both normo- and hypo-glycemic conditions. PMID:19356716

  6. Effects of insulin-like growth factor-I on glucose tolerance, insulin levels, and insulin secretion.

    PubMed Central

    Zenobi, P D; Graf, S; Ursprung, H; Froesch, E R

    1992-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin interact with related receptors to lower plasma glucose and to exert mitogenic effects. Recombinant human IGF-I (rhIGF-I) was recently shown to decrease serum levels of insulin and C-peptide in fasted normal subjects without affecting plasma glucose levels. In this study we have investigated in six healthy volunteers the responses of glucose, insulin, and C-peptide levels to intravenous rhIGF-I infusions (7 and 14 micrograms/kg.h) during standard oral glucose tolerance tests (oGTT) and meal tolerance tests (MTT), respectively. Glucose tolerance remained unchanged during the rhIGF-I infusions in the face of lowered insulin and C-peptide levels. The decreased insulin/glucose-ratio presumably is caused by an enhanced tissue sensitivity to insulin. The lowered area under the insulin curve during oGTT and MTT as a result of the administration of rhIGF-I were related to the fasting insulin levels during saline infusion (oGTT: r = 0.825, P less than 0.05; MTT: r = 0.895, P less than 0.02). RhIGF-I, however, did not alter the ratio between C-peptide and insulin, suggesting that the metabolic clearance of endogenous insulin remained unchanged. In conclusion, rhIGF-I increased glucose disposal and directly suppressed insulin secretion. RhIGF-I probably increased insulin sensitivity as a result of decreased insulin levels and suppressed growth hormone secretion. RhIGF-I, therefore, may be therapeutically useful in insulin resistance of type 2 diabetes, obesity, and hyperlipidemia. PMID:1601998

  7. Methylated trivalent arsenicals are potent inhibitors of glucose stimulated insulin secretion by murine pancreatic islets

    SciTech Connect

    Douillet, Christelle; Currier, Jenna; Saunders, Jesse; Bodnar, Wanda M.; Matoušek, Tomáš; Stýblo, Miroslav

    2013-02-15

    Epidemiologic evidence has linked chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) with an increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus. Laboratory studies have identified several mechanisms by which iAs can impair glucose homeostasis. We have previously shown that micromolar concentrations of arsenite (iAs{sup III}) or its methylated trivalent metabolites, methylarsonite (MAs{sup III}) and dimethylarsinite (DMAs{sup III}), inhibit the insulin-activated signal transduction pathway, resulting in insulin resistance in adipocytes. Our present study examined effects of the trivalent arsenicals on insulin secretion by intact pancreatic islets isolated from C57BL/6 mice. We found that 48-hour exposures to low subtoxic concentrations of iAs{sup III}, MAs{sup III} or DMAs{sup III} inhibited glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), but not basal insulin secretion. MAs{sup III} and DMAs{sup III} were more potent than iAs{sup III} as GSIS inhibitors with estimated IC{sub 50} ≤ 0.1 μM. The exposures had little or no effects on insulin content of the islets or on insulin expression, suggesting that trivalent arsenicals interfere with mechanisms regulating packaging of the insulin transport vesicles or with translocation of these vesicles to the plasma membrane. Notably, the inhibition of GSIS by iAs{sup III}, MAs{sup III} or DMAs{sup III} could be reversed by a 24-hour incubation of the islets in arsenic-free medium. These results suggest that the insulin producing pancreatic β-cells are among the targets for iAs exposure and that the inhibition of GSIS by low concentrations of the methylated metabolites of iAs may be the key mechanism of iAs-induced diabetes. - Highlights: ► Trivalent arsenicals inhibit glucose stimulated insulin secretion by pancreatic islets. ► MAs{sup III} and DMAs{sup III} are more potent inhibitors than arsenite with IC{sub 50} ∼ 0.1 μM. ► The arsenicals have little or no effects on insulin expression in pancreatic islets. ► The inhibition of

  8. Zip4 Mediated Zinc Influx Stimulates Insulin Secretion in Pancreatic Beta Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Alexandre B.; Prentice, Kacey J.; Froese, Sean; Liu, Ying; Andrews, Glen K.; Wheeler, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Zinc has an important role in normal pancreatic beta cell physiology as it regulates gene transcription, insulin crystallization and secretion, and cell survival. Nevertheless, little is known about how zinc is transported through the plasma membrane of beta cells and which of the class of zinc influx transporters (Zip) is involved. Zip4 was previously shown to be expressed in human and mouse beta cells; however, its function there is still unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to define the zinc transport role of Zip4 in beta cells. To investigate this, Zip4 was over-expressed in MIN6 beta cells using a pCMV6-Zip4GFP plasmid. Organelle staining combined with confocal microscopy showed that Zip4 exhibits a widespread localization in MIN6 cells. Time-lapse zinc imaging experiments showed that Zip4 increases cytoplasmic zinc levels. This resulted in increased granular zinc content and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Interestingly, it is unlikely that the increased glucose stimulated insulin secretion was triggered by a modulation of mitochondrial function, as mitochondrial membrane potential remained unchanged. To define the role of Zip4 in-vivo, we generated a beta cell-specific knockout mouse model (Zip4BKO). Deletion of the Zip4 gene was confirmed in Zip4BKO islets by PCR, RT-PCR, and immuno-histochemistry. Zip4BKO mice showed slightly improved glucose homeostasis but no change in insulin secretion during an oral glucose tolerance test. While Zip4 was not found to be essential for proper glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion in vivo in mice, this study also found that Zip4 mediates increases in cytoplasmic and granular zinc pools and stimulates glucose dependant insulin secretion in-vitro. PMID:25806541

  9. Quantitative Phosphoproteomics Revealed Glucose-Stimulated Responses of Islet Associated with Insulin Secretion.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiaming; Li, Qingrun; Tang, Jiashu; Xia, Fangying; Wu, Jiarui; Zeng, Rong

    2015-11-01

    As central tissue of glucose homeostasis, islet has been an important focus of diabetes research. Phosphorylation plays pivotal roles in islet function, especially in islet glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. A systematic view on how phosphorylation networks were coordinately regulated in this process remains lacking, partially due to the limited amount of islets from an individual for a phosphoproteomic analysis. Here we optimized the in-tip and best-ratio phosphopeptide enrichment strategy and a SILAC-based workflow for processing rat islet samples. With limited islet lysates from each individual rat (20-47 μg), we identified 8539 phosphosites on 2487 proteins. Subsequent quantitative analyses uncovered that short-term (30 min) high glucose stimulation induced coordinate responses of islet phosphoproteome on multiple biological levels, including insulin secretion related pathways, cytoskeleton dynamics, protein processing in ER and Golgi, transcription and translation, and so on. Furthermore, three glucose-responsive phosphosites (Prkar1a pT75pS77 and Tagln2 pS163) from the data set were proved to be correlated with insulin secretion. Overall, we initially gave an in-depth map of islet phosphoproteome regulated by glucose on individual rat level. This was a significant addition to our knowledge about how phosphorylation networks responded in insulin secretion. Also, the list of changed phosphosites was a valuable resource for molecular researchers in diabetes field. PMID:26437020

  10. Blockade of cannabinoid 1 receptor improves GLP-1R mediated insulin secretion in mice.

    PubMed

    González-Mariscal, Isabel; Krzysik-Walker, Susan M; Kim, Wook; Rouse, Michael; Egan, Josephine M

    2016-03-01

    The cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1) is an important regulator of energy metabolism. Reports of in vivo and in vitro studies give conflicting results regarding its role in insulin secretion, possibly due to circulatory factors, such as incretins. We hypothesized that this receptor may be a regulator of the entero-insular axis. We found that despite lower food consumption and lower body weight postprandial GLP-1 plasma concentrations were increased in CB1(-/-) mice compared to CB1(+/+) mice administered a standard diet or high fat/sugar diet. Upon exogenous GLP-1 treatment, CB1(-/-) mice had increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. In mouse insulinoma cells, cannabinoids reduced GLP-1R-mediated intracellular cAMP accumulation and subsequent insulin secretion. Importantly, such effects were also evident in human islets, and were prevented by pharmacologic blockade of CB1. Collectively, these findings suggest a novel mechanism in which endocannabinoids are negative modulators of incretin-mediated insulin secretion. PMID:26724516

  11. Quantitative Phosphoproteomics Revealed Glucose-Stimulated Responses of Islet Associated with Insulin Secretion.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiaming; Li, Qingrun; Tang, Jiashu; Xia, Fangying; Wu, Jiarui; Zeng, Rong

    2015-11-01

    As central tissue of glucose homeostasis, islet has been an important focus of diabetes research. Phosphorylation plays pivotal roles in islet function, especially in islet glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. A systematic view on how phosphorylation networks were coordinately regulated in this process remains lacking, partially due to the limited amount of islets from an individual for a phosphoproteomic analysis. Here we optimized the in-tip and best-ratio phosphopeptide enrichment strategy and a SILAC-based workflow for processing rat islet samples. With limited islet lysates from each individual rat (20-47 μg), we identified 8539 phosphosites on 2487 proteins. Subsequent quantitative analyses uncovered that short-term (30 min) high glucose stimulation induced coordinate responses of islet phosphoproteome on multiple biological levels, including insulin secretion related pathways, cytoskeleton dynamics, protein processing in ER and Golgi, transcription and translation, and so on. Furthermore, three glucose-responsive phosphosites (Prkar1a pT75pS77 and Tagln2 pS163) from the data set were proved to be correlated with insulin secretion. Overall, we initially gave an in-depth map of islet phosphoproteome regulated by glucose on individual rat level. This was a significant addition to our knowledge about how phosphorylation networks responded in insulin secretion. Also, the list of changed phosphosites was a valuable resource for molecular researchers in diabetes field.

  12. Nilotinib exacerbates diabetes mellitus by decreasing secretion of endogenous insulin.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yoshikiyo; Miyamoto, Toshihiro; Chong, Yong; Maki, Toshinobu; Akashi, Koichi; Kamimura, Tomohiko

    2013-01-01

    We report a 74-year-old female with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in accelerated phase with pre-existing severe type 2 diabetes (T2D) and hemorrhagic gastric ulcers who was successfully treated with nilotinib. We first considered second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of this patient, as they elicit a superior response compared with imatinib. We next selected nilotinib, rather than dasatinib, since the increased risk of bleeding associated with dasatinib represented a greater risk of fatality than aggravation of T2D with nilotinib. After improvement of hemorrhagic gastric ulcers and T2D with exogenous insulin therapy, we began nilotinib administration; insulin dose was increased to maintain her glucose levels whereas urine C-peptide level decreased. Conversely, when nilotinib was discontinued due to liver dysfunction, the dosage of injected insulin was decreased and urine C-peptide levels increased. After re-starting nilotinib, the required dose of insulin gradually increased again, and urine C-peptide level decreased, indicating that nilotinib may have impaired secretion of endogenous insulin. The patient obtained a complete cytogenetic response after 3 months of nilotinib treatment. Her T2D has since been well controlled by insulin therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first report that nilotinib treatment for patients with severe T2D may induce a reversible decrease in endogenous insulin secretion, although the precise underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We highly recommend sufficient screening and early intervention with exogenous insulin therapy for diabetic CML patients who receive nilotinib.

  13. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 is a novel mediator of apoptosis in insulin-secreting cells ☆

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Melanie L.; Katz, Lorraine E. Levitt; Davis, Jason; Dotzler, Whittney C.; Cohen, Pinchas; Ferry, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) is emerging as a critical regulator of cell survival. There has been no study which directly examined the potential role for this major growth factor in the programmed cell death (apoptosis) of insulin-secreting cells. To determine whether IGFBP-3 mediates apoptosis in insulin-secreting cells, we performed a rigorous series of experiments with the rat insulinoma (RIN) cell line m5F and the hamster insulin-secreting tumor (HIT) T-15. Within 24 h exogenous IGFBP-3 induced significant DNA fragmentation in RIN and HIT cells, at doses ranging from 4.4 to 2000 ng/ml (P < 0.05) without a classic dose–response relationship (Fig. 3). DNA fragmentation induced by rhIGFBP-3 occurred in the presence of immunoglobulin to block the type 1 IGF receptor. As detected by flow cytometry for Annexin V exposure to the cell surface, rhIGFBP-3 treatment doubled the proportion of apoptotic HIT cells from 1.7 ± 0.4% (serum-free control) to 3.4 ± 0.2% (P < 0.02), an effect completely reversed by co-treatment with 1000 ng/ml rhIGF-I. Immunofluorescent microscopy disclosed that pro-inflammatory Th1 cytokines increased intranuclear aggregation of endogenous IGFBP-3. Cytokine-induced DNA fragmentation was completely blocked by relatively brief pre-treatment with antisense IGFBP-3 phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides. In conclusion, we have presented the first evidence that IGFBP-3 contributes to cytokine-mediated apoptosis in insulin-secreting cells. PMID:15125883

  14. Exercise Intensity Modulates Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion when Adjusted for Adipose, Liver and Skeletal Muscle Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Malin, Steven K.; Rynders, Corey A.; Weltman, Judy Y.; Barrett, Eugene J.; Weltman, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of exercise intensity on compensatory changes in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) when adjusted for adipose, liver and skeletal muscle insulin resistance (IR). Fifteen participants (8F, Age: 49.9±3.6yr; BMI: 31.0±1.5kg/m2; VO2peak: 23.2±1.2mg/kg/min) with prediabetes (ADA criteria, 75g OGTT and/or HbA1c) underwent a time-course matched Control, and isocaloric (200kcal) exercise at moderate (MIE; at lactate threshold (LT)), and high-intensity (HIE; 75% of difference between LT and VO2peak). A 75g OGTT was conducted 1 hour post-exercise/Control, and plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide and free fatty acids were determined for calculations of skeletal muscle (1/Oral Minimal Model; SMIR), hepatic (HOMAIR), and adipose (ADIPOSEIR) IR. Insulin secretion rates were determined by deconvolution modeling for GSIS, and disposition index (DI; GSIS/IR; DISMIR, DIHOMAIR, DIADIPOSEIR) calculations. Compared to Control, exercise lowered SMIR independent of intensity (P<0.05), with HIE raising HOMAIR and ADIPOSEIR compared with Control (P<0.05). GSIS was not reduced following exercise, but DIHOMAIR and DIADIPOSEIR were lowered more following HIE compared with Control (P<0.05). However, DISMIR increased in an intensity based manner relative to Control (P<0.05), which corresponded with lower post-prandial blood glucose levels. Taken together, pancreatic insulin secretion adjusts in an exercise intensity dependent manner to match the level of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, liver and adipose tissue. Further work is warranted to understand the mechanism by which exercise influences the cross-talk between tissues that regulate blood glucose in people with prediabetes. PMID:27111219

  15. Diapause is associated with a change in the polarity of secretion of insulin-like peptides

    PubMed Central

    Matsunaga, Yohei; Honda, Yoko; Honda, Shuji; Iwasaki, Takashi; Qadota, Hiroshi; Benian, Guy M.; Kawano, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    The insulin/IGF-1 signalling (IIS) pathway plays an important role in the regulation of larval diapause, the long-lived growth arrest state called dauer arrest, in Caenorhabditis elegans. In this nematode, 40 insulin-like peptides (ILPs) have been identified as putative ligands of the IIS pathway; however, it remains unknown how ILPs modulate larval diapause. Here we show that the secretory polarity of INS-35 and INS-7, which suppress larval diapause, is changed in the intestinal epithelial cells at larval diapause. These ILPs are secreted from the intestine into the body cavity during larval stages. In contrast, they are secreted into the intestinal lumen and degraded during dauer arrest, only to be secreted into the body cavity again when the worms return to developmental growth. The process that determines the secretory polarity of INS-35 and INS-7, thus, has an important role in the modulation of larval diapause. PMID:26838180

  16. Differences in insulin biosynthesis pathway between small and large islets do not correspond to insulin secretion

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Han-Hung; Stehno-Bittel, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    In a variety of mammalian species, small islets secrete more insulin per volume than large islets. This difference may be due to diffusional limitations of large islets, or inherent differences in the insulin production pathways. The purpose of this study was to identify possible differences in the early phase of glucose-stimulated insulin biosynthesis between large and small islets. Isolated small and large rat islets were challenged with 30 minutes of high glucose. The expression of insulin gene transcription factors (MafA, NeuroD/ Beta2, and PDX-1), preproinsulin mRNA, proinsulin and insulin were compared between large and small islets. Under basal (low glucose) conditions, MafA and NeuroD had higher mRNA levels and greater protein amounts in large islets compared to small when normalized to GAPDH levels. 30 minutes of high glucose stimulation failed to alter the mRNA or subsequent protein levels of either gene. However, 30 minutes of high glucose suppressed activated PDX-1 protein levels in both small and large islets. High glucose stimulation did not statistically alter the preproinsulin mRNA (insulin 1 and insulin 2) levels. At the translational level, high glucose increased the proinsulin levels, and large islets showed a higher proinsulin content per cell than small islets. Insulin content per cell was not significantly different between small and large islets under basal or high glucose levels. The results fail to explain the higher level of insulin secretion noted in small versus large islets and may suggest that possible differences lie downstream in the secretory pathway rather than insulin biosynthesis. PMID:26752360

  17. Deletion of GPR40 Impairs Glucose-Induced Insulin Secretion In Vivo in Mice Without Affecting Intracellular Fuel Metabolism in Islets

    SciTech Connect

    Alquier, Thierry; Peyot, Marie-Line; Latour, M. G.; Kebede, Melkam; Sorensen, Christina M.; Gesta, Stephane; Kahn, C. R.; Smith, Richard D.; Jetton, Thomas L.; Metz, Thomas O.; Prentki, Marc; Poitout, Vincent J.

    2009-11-01

    The G protein-coupled receptor GPR40 mediates fatty-acid potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, but its contribution to insulin secretion in vivo and mechanisms of action remain uncertain. This study was aimed to ascertain whether GPR40 controls insulin secretion in vivo and modulates intracellular fuel metabolism in islets. We observed that glucose- and arginine-stimulated insulin secretion, assessed by hyperglycemic clamps, was decreased by approximately 60% in GPR40 knock-out (KO) fasted and fed mice, without changes in insulin sensitivity assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps. Glucose and palmitate metabolism were not affected by GPR40 deletion. Lipid profiling revealed a similar increase in triglyceride and decrease in lysophosphatidylethanolamine species in WT and KO islets in response to palmitate. These results demonstrate that GPR40 regulates insulin secretion in vivo not only in response to fatty acids but also to glucose and arginine, without altering intracellular fuel metabolism.

  18. Excessive secretion of insulin precursors characterizes and predicts gestational diabetes.

    PubMed

    Swinn, R A; Wareham, N J; Gregory, R; Curling, V; Clark, P M; Dalton, K J; Edwards, O M; O'Rahilly, S

    1995-08-01

    Using assays that specifically measure insulin, intact proinsulin, and 32,33 split proinsulin, we examined the beta-cell secretory response to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in 64 women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and 154 pregnant normoglycemic control subjects of comparable age and body mass index. Women with GDM were characterized by a lower 30-min insulin increment (40.8 [34.9-47.6] vs. 58.6 [53.6-64] pmol insulin/mmol glucose, P < 0.001; geometric mean [95% confidence interval]) and a higher plasma insulin level at 120 min (702 [610-808] vs. 444 [400-492] pmol/l, P < 0.001). 32,33 split proinsulin levels were elevated in GDM patients in both fasting (9.1 [7.3-11.4] vs. 6.7 [6.0-7.5] pmol/l, P < 0.02) and 120-min (75.2 [62.9-90.0] vs. 52.2 [46.7-58.3] pmol/l, P < 0.001) samples, respectively. Intact proinsulin levels were significantly elevated at 120 min in the women with GDM (21.3 [18.1-25.1] vs. 14.8 [13.4-16.3] pmol/l, P < 0.001). Thus, the qualitative abnormalities of insulin secretion in GDM patients (low 30-min insulin increment, high 120-min plasma insulin, and elevated 32,33 split proinsulin) are similar to those seen in nonpregnant subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. To determine whether measures of proinsulin-like molecules (PLMs) might assist in the prediction of GDM, women who had a 1-h glucose level of > 7.7 mmol/l after a 50-g glucose challenge at 28-32 weeks' gestation had insulin and PLMs measured in the 1-h sample.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Regulation of Protein Secretion Through Controlled Aggregation in the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Victor M.; Wang, Xiurong; Wardwell, Scott; Courage, Nancy L.; Volchuk, Allen; Keenan, Terence; Holt, Dennis A.; Gilman, Michael; Orci, Lelio; Cerasoli, Frank; Rothman, James E.; Clackson, Tim

    2000-02-01

    A system for direct pharmacologic control of protein secretion was developed to allow rapid and pulsatile delivery of therapeutic proteins. A protein was engineered so that it accumulated as aggregates in the endoplasmic reticulum. Secretion was then stimulated by a synthetic small-molecule drug that induces protein disaggregation. Rapid and transient secretion of growth hormone and insulin was achieved in vitro and in vivo. A regulated pulse of insulin secretion resulted in a transient correction of serum glucose concentrations in a mouse model of hyperglycemia. This approach may make gene therapy a viable method for delivery of polypeptides that require rapid and regulated delivery.

  20. Regulation of protein secretion through controlled aggregation in the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Rivera, V M; Wang, X; Wardwell, S; Courage, N L; Volchuk, A; Keenan, T; Holt, D A; Gilman, M; Orci, L; Cerasoli, F; Rothman, J E; Clackson, T

    2000-02-01

    A system for direct pharmacologic control of protein secretion was developed to allow rapid and pulsatile delivery of therapeutic proteins. A protein was engineered so that it accumulated as aggregates in the endoplasmic reticulum. Secretion was then stimulated by a synthetic small-molecule drug that induces protein disaggregation. Rapid and transient secretion of growth hormone and insulin was achieved in vitro and in vivo. A regulated pulse of insulin secretion resulted in a transient correction of serum glucose concentrations in a mouse model of hyperglycemia. This approach may make gene therapy a viable method for delivery of polypeptides that require rapid and regulated delivery. PMID:10657290

  1. Plasma ghrelin and growth hormone regulation in response to metabolic state in hybrid striped bass: effects of feeding, ghrelin and insulin-like growth factor-I on in vivo and in vitro GH secretion.

    PubMed

    Picha, Matthew E; Strom, Christina N; Riley, Larry G; Walker, Alicia A; Won, Eugene T; Johnstone, William M; Borski, Russell J

    2009-05-01

    The regulation of growth hormone (GH) secretion by ghrelin during variable metabolic states is poorly understood. We examined plasma GH and ghrelin in hybrid striped bass (HSB) undergoing seasonally-based feeding and temperature manipulations. Fasting for 21 days (d) at 24 degrees C resulted in catabolism and up-regulation of plasma GH and ghrelin relative to fed controls. Continued fasting during cold-banking (14 degrees C, 90 d) resulted in a further 43-fold increase in ghrelin while GH remained elevated. A subsequent 19 day refeeding period at 24 degrees C elicited hyperphagic and compensatory growth responses, accompanied by declines in ghrelin and GH. We then tested the role of ghrelin in stimulating GH release in vivo and in vitro. Intraperitoneal injections of ghrelin resulted in dose-dependent increases in plasma GH after 6 hours (h). Ghrelin also increased GH release from HSB pituitaries during 6h incubations. Lastly, we assessed how metabolic state, ghrelin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) affect in vitro pituitary GH release. Spontaneous GH release was 5.2-fold higher from pituitaries of fasted compared with fed animals. Ghrelin was equally effective in stimulating GH release from pituitaries of fed and starved animals, while it was ineffective in enhancing GH release from pituitaries of starved (21 d) then refed (4d) HSB. Incubation with IGF-I inhibited GH release regardless of metabolic state. These studies are the first to show that seasonally-based periods of feed deprivation and low temperature yield sustained increases in GH secretion that are likely mediated, at least partially, through elevated ghrelin, reduced IGF-I negative feedback and fasting-induced spontaneous GH release.

  2. The role of taste in cephalic phase of insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Dušková, M; Macourek, M; Šrámková, M; Hill, M; Stárka, L

    2013-01-01

    The effect of a short gustatory signal of a sweet solution was tested on 15 young male volunteers. The experiment consisted of mouth rinsing with either a sucrose or aspartate solution or pure water as a placebo. Blood was then taken in short intervals of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 min. Blood glucose, C-peptide, insulin and cortisol were determined. While C-peptide and glucose were unaffected, a short-term increase in insulin was observed after the sucrose, but not after the aspartate or placebo. The increase in insulin was significant, though it amounted to only 0.5 mIU/l and lasted approx. 15 min reaching then the starting value. The decline of cortisol level within 20 min of the experiment was approx. 40 nmol/l, although it was also observed after aspartate or placebo mouth rinsing and was probably caused by stress factors or anticipation. In conclusion, the contribution of taste to the cephalic phase of insulin secretion is small yet significant, and mouth rinsing with 5% sucrose causes an insulin increase of just under 1 IU/l, which returns to starting level within 15 min.

  3. Overexpression of Insulin Degrading Enzyme could Greatly Contribute to Insulin Down-regulation Induced by Short-Term Swimming Exercise.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Sun; Goo, Jun Seo; Kim, Ji Eun; Nam, So Hee; Choi, Sun Il; Lee, Hye Ryun; Hwang, In Sik; Shim, Sun Bo; Jee, Seung Wan; Lee, Su Hae; Bae, Chang Joon; Cho, Jung Sik; Cho, Jun Yong; Hwang, Dae Youn

    2011-03-01

    Exercise training is highly correlated with the reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), although it enhanced insulin sensitivity, glucose uptake and glucose transporter expression to reduce severity of diabetic symptoms. This study investigated the impact of short-term swimming exercise on insulin regulation in the Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat as a non-obese model of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Wistar (W/S) and GK rats were trained 2 hours daily with the swimming exercise for 4 weeks, and then the changes in the metabolism of insulin and glucose were assessed. Body weight was markedly decreased in the exercised GK rats compare to their non-exercised counterpart, while W/S rats did not show any exercise-related changes. Glucose concentration was not changed by exercise, although impaired glucose tolerance was improved in GK rats 120 min after glucose injection. However, insulin concentration was decreased by swimming exercise as in the decrease of GSIS after running exercise. To identify the other cause for exercise-induced insulin down-regulation, the changes in the levels of key factors involved in insulin production (C-peptide) and clearance (insulin-degrading enzyme; IDE) were measured in W/S and GK rats. The C-peptide level was maintained while IDE expression increased markedly. Therefore, these results showed that insulin down-regulation induced by short-term swimming exercise likely attributes to enhanced insulin clearance via IDE over-expression than by altered insulin production.

  4. Insulin secretion as a determinant of pancreatic cancer risk.

    PubMed

    McCarty, M F

    2001-08-01

    New epidemiology confirms that glucose intolerance is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer, and that this association cannot be accounted for by an adverse impact of early pancreatic cancer on beta cell function. Previous reports indicate that risk for pancreatic cancer is increased in adult-onset diabetics. Since streptozotocin diabetes inhibits carcinogen-mediated induction of pancreatic cancer in hamsters, the most reasonable interpretation of these findings is that insulin (or some other beta cell product) acts as a promoter for pancreatic carcinogenesis. This view is consistent with a report that human pancreatic adenocarcinomas express insulin receptors that can stimulate mitosis; an additional possibility is that high insulin levels indirectly promote pancreatic carcinogenesis by boosting effective IGF-I activity via hepatic actions. In international ecologic epidemiology, pancreatic cancer rates correlate tightly with dietary intake of animal products; this may reflect the fact that vegan diets are associated with low diurnal insulin secretion. There is also suggestive evidence that macrobiotic vegan diets, which are low in glycemic index, may increase mean survival time in pancreatic cancer. However, other types of diets associated with decreased postprandial insulin response, such as high-protein diets or 'Mediterranean' diets high in oleic acid, may also have the potential for pancreatic cancer prevention. The huge increases of age-adjusted pancreatic cancer mortality in Japan and among African-Americans during the last century imply that pancreatic cancer is substantially preventable; a low-insulin-response diet coupled with exercise training, weight control, and smoking avoidance, commendable for a great many other reasons, may slash pancreatic cancer mortality dramatically. PMID:11461162

  5. Subthreshold α₂-adrenergic activation counteracts glucagon-like peptide-1 potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Pan, Minglin; Yang, Guang; Cui, Xiuli; Yang, Shao-Nian

    2011-01-01

    The pancreatic β cell harbors α₂-adrenergic and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors on its plasma membrane to sense the corresponding ligands adrenaline/noradrenaline and GLP-1 to govern glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. However, it is not known whether these two signaling systems interact to gain the adequate and timely control of insulin release in response to glucose. The present work shows that the α₂-adrenergic agonist clonidine concentration-dependently depresses glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from INS-1 cells. On the contrary, GLP-1 concentration-dependently potentiates insulin secretory response to glucose. Importantly, the present work reveals that subthreshold α₂-adrenergic activation with clonidine counteracts GLP-1 potentiation of glucose-induced insulin secretion. This counteractory process relies on pertussis toxin- (PTX-) sensitive Gi proteins since it no longer occurs following PTX-mediated inactivation of Gi proteins. The counteraction of GLP-1 potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by subthreshold α₂-adrenergic activation is likely to serve as a molecular mechanism for the delicate regulation of insulin release.

  6. Role of proteins in insulin secretion and glycemic control.

    PubMed

    Ranawana, Viren; Kaur, Bhupinder

    2013-01-01

    Dietary proteins are essential for the life of all animals and humans at all stages of the life cycle. They serve many structural and biochemical functions and have significant effects on health and wellbeing. Dietary protein consumption has shown an upward trend in developed countries in the past two decades primarily due to greater supply and affordability. Consumption is also on the rise in developing countries as affluence is increasing. Research shows that proteins have a notable impact on glucose homeostasis mechanisms, predominantly through their effects on insulin, incretins, gluconeogenesis, and gastric emptying. Since higher protein consumption and impaired glucose tolerance can be commonly seen in the same population demographics, a thorough understanding of the former's role in glucose homeostasis is crucial both toward the prevention and management of the latter. This chapter reviews the current state of the art on proteins, amino acids, and their effects on blood glucose and insulin secretion. PMID:23722093

  7. Molecular regulation of insulin granule biogenesis and exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Röder, Pia V; Wong, Xiuming; Hong, Wanjin; Han, Weiping

    2016-09-15

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia in early disease stages but a relative insulin insufficiency in later stages. Insulin, a peptide hormone, is produced in and secreted from pancreatic β-cells following elevated blood glucose levels. Upon its release, insulin induces the removal of excessive exogenous glucose from the bloodstream primarily by stimulating glucose uptake into insulin-dependent tissues as well as promoting hepatic glycogenesis. Given the increasing prevalence of T2DM worldwide, elucidating the underlying mechanisms and identifying the various players involved in the synthesis and exocytosis of insulin from β-cells is of utmost importance. This review summarizes our current understanding of the route insulin takes through the cell after its synthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum as well as our knowledge of the highly elaborate network that controls insulin release from the β-cell. This network harbors potential targets for anti-diabetic drugs and is regulated by signaling cascades from several endocrine systems. PMID:27621482

  8. Regulation of human growth hormone secretion and its disorders.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yuzuru; Murakami, Yoshio; Sohmiya, Motoi; Nishiki, Masateru

    2002-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) secretion from anterior pituitary is regulated by the hypothalamus and the mediators of GH actions. Major regulatory factors include GH releasing hormone (GHRH), somatostatin (SRIF), GH releasing peptide (ghrerin) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I). The principal physiological regulation mechanisms of GH secretion are neural endogenous rhythm, sleep, stress, exercise, and nutritional and metabolic signals. GH deficiency results from various hereditary or acquired causes, which may be isolated or combined with other pituitary hormone deficiencies. GH deficiency can be treated with recombinant human GH, which results in accelerating growth in children and normalization of intermediary metabolism in adults. GH hypersecretion mostly results from a pituitary tumor and causes acromegaly or gigantism. Hypersecretion of GH can be treated by transshenoidal surgery. Medical treatment with octreotide and analogs is also effective to reduce GH secretion in combination with or without the surgery. PMID:11838603

  9. Over-expression of ZnT7 increases insulin synthesis and secretion in pancreatic beta-cells by promoting insulin gene transcription

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mechanism by which zinc regulates insulin synthesis and secretion in pancreatic beta-cells is still unclear. Cellular zinc homeostasis is largely maintained by zinc transporters and intracellular zinc binding proteins. In this study, we demonstrated that zinc transporter 7 (ZnT7, Slc30a7) was co...

  10. Chronic sympathetic innervation of islets in transgenic mice results in differential desensitization of alpha-adrenergic inhibition of insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Grodsky, G M; Ma, Y H; Edwards, R H

    1997-01-01

    The effects of chronic sympathetic hyperinnervation on pancreatic beta-cell insulin secretion were investigated utilizing the in vitro perfused pancreas from transgenic mice. These mice exhibit islet hyperinnervation of sympathetic neurons resulting from overexpression of nerve growth factor in their beta-cells (1). The goal was to determine whether sympathetic hyperinnervation increased classic alpha-adrenergic inhibition of beta-cell insulin secretion or, in contrast, down-regulated beta-cell sensitivity to adrenergic input resulting in enhanced insulin secretion. Both fasting and fed blood sugars and pancreatic insulin content were normal in the transgenics. Response of the transgenic perfused pancreas to low glucose (7 mM) was primarily first phase and normal whereas high glucose (22 mM) caused enhanced, rather than reduced, insulin secretion of both first and second phases. The alpha-antagonist, phentolamine, caused a six-fold increase in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from the control pancreas, an effect that was blunted for the transgenic pancreas. A similarly blunted response to phentolamine occurred when this agent was superimposed on a combined glucose-forskolin stimulus. (The positive effect on insulin secretion by phentolamine in normal beta-cell preparations has arguably been ascribed to non-specific ionic effects.) Therefore, as a test of possible changes in the ATP regulated K+ channel or the linked Ca++ channels, glyburide was perfused during glucose stimulation. Insulin secretion in response to glyburide was increased two fold in the control pancreas. However, with the transgenic pancreas, in contrast to the enhanced response to glucose, the effect of glyburide was almost completely inhibited. It is concluded that: 1) chronic adrenergic hyperinnervation results in enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by desensitization of a major alpha-adrenergic inhibitory site(s); and 2) adrenergic hyperinnervation acts directly or indirectly on

  11. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide: effects on insulin and glucagon secretion in humans.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Mikkel Bring

    2016-04-01

    The hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are secreted by enteroendocrine cells in the intestinal mucosa in response to nutrient ingestion. They are called incretin hormones because of their ability to enhance insulin secretion. However, in recent years it has become clear that the incretin hormones also affect glucagon secretion. While GLP-1 decreases glucagon levels, the effect of GIP on glucagon levels has been unclear. The regulation of glucagon secretion is interesting, as the combination of inadequate insulin secretion and excessive glucagon secretion are essential contributors to the hyperglycaemia that characterise patients with type 2 diabetes. Moreover, the near absence of a well-timed glucagon response contributes to an increased risk of hypoglycaemia in patients with type 1 diabetes. The overall aim of this PhD thesis was to investigate how the blood glucose level affects the glucagon and insulin responses to GIP in healthy subjects (Study 1) and patients with Type 2 diabetes (Study 2), and more specifically to investigate the effects of GIP and GLP-1 at low blood glucose in patients with Type 1 diabetes without endogenous insulin secretion (Study 3). The investigations in the three mentioned study populations have been described in three original articles. The employed study designs were in randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover set-up, in which the same research subject is subjected to several study days thereby acting as his own control. Interventions were intravenous administration of hormones GIP, GLP-1 and placebo (saline) during different blood glucose levels maintained (clamped) at a certain level. The end-points were plasma concentrations of glucagon and insulin as well as the amount of glucose used to clamp the blood glucose levels. In Study 3, we also used stable glucose isotopes to estimate the endogenous glucose production and assessed symptoms and cognitive function during

  12. Effects of sleep restriction on glucose control and insulin secretion during diet-induced weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Nedeltcheva, A. V.; Imperial, J. G.; Penev, P. D.

    2012-01-01

    Insufficient sleep is associated with changes in glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, and insulin action. Despite widespread use of weight-loss diets for metabolic risk reduction, the effects of insufficient sleep on glucose regulation in overweight dieters are not known. To examine the consequences of recurrent sleep restriction on 24-hour blood glucose control during diet-induced weight loss, 10 overweight and obese adults (3F/7M; mean [SD] age 41 [5] y; BMI 27.4 [2.0] kg/m2) completed two 14-day treatments with hypocaloric diet and 8.5 or 5.5-h nighttime sleep opportunity in random order 7 [3] months apart. Oral and intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) data, fasting lipids and free-fatty acids (FFA), and 24-hour blood glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and counter-regulatory hormone measurements were collected after each treatment. Participants had comparable weight loss (1.0 [0.3] BMI units) during each treatment. Bedtime restriction reduced sleep by 131 [30] min/day. Recurrent sleep curtailment decreased 24-hour serum insulin concentrations (i.e. enhanced 24-hour insulin economy) without changes in oral glucose tolerance and 24-hour glucose control. This was accompanied by a decline in fasting blood glucose, increased fasting FFA which suppressed normally following glucose ingestion, and lower total and LDL cholesterol concentrations. Sleep-loss-related changes in counter-regulatory hormone secretion during the IVGTT limited the utility of the test in this study. In conclusion, sleep restriction enhanced 24-hour insulin economy without compromising glucose homeostasis in overweight individuals placed on a balanced hypocaloric diet. The changes in fasting blood glucose, insulin, lipid and FFA concentrations in sleep-restricted dieters resembled the pattern of human metabolic adaptation to reduced carbohydrate availability. PMID:22513492

  13. Absence of Shb impairs insulin secretion by elevated FAK activity in pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Alenkvist, Ida; Dyachok, Oleg; Tian, Geng; Li, Jia; Mehrabanfar, Saba; Jin, Yang; Birnir, Bryndis; Tengholm, Anders; Welsh, Michael

    2014-12-01

    The Src homology-2 domain containing protein B (SHB) has previously been shown to function as a pleiotropic adapter protein, conveying signals from receptor tyrosine kinases to intracellular signaling intermediates. The overexpression of Shb in β-cells promotes β-cell proliferation by increased insulin receptor substrate (IRS) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activity, whereas Shb deficiency causes moderate glucose intolerance and impaired first-peak insulin secretion. Using an array of techniques, including live-cell imaging, patch-clamping, immunoblotting, and semi-quantitative PCR, we presently investigated the causes of the abnormal insulin secretory characteristics in Shb-knockout mice. Shb-knockout islets displayed an abnormal signaling signature with increased activities of FAK, IRS, and AKT. β-catenin protein expression was elevated and it showed increased nuclear localization. However, there were no major alterations in the gene expression of various proteins involved in the β-cell secretory machinery. Nor was Shb deficiency associated with changes in glucose-induced ATP generation or cytoplasmic Ca(2+) handling. In contrast, the glucose-induced rise in cAMP, known to be important for the insulin secretory response, was delayed in the Shb-knockout compared with WT control. Inhibition of FAK increased the submembrane cAMP concentration, implicating FAK activity in the regulation of insulin exocytosis. In conclusion, Shb deficiency causes a chronic increase in β-cell FAK activity that perturbs the normal insulin secretory characteristics of β-cells, suggesting multi-faceted effects of FAK on insulin secretion depending on the mechanism of FAK activation.

  14. New and emerging regulators of intestinal lipoprotein secretion.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Changting; Dash, Satya; Morgantini, Cecilia; Lewis, Gary F

    2014-04-01

    Overproduction of hepatic apoB100-containing VLDL particles has been well documented in animal models and in humans with insulin resistance such as the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, and contributes to the typical dyslipidemia of these conditions. In addition, postprandial hyperlipidemia and elevated plasma concentrations of intestinal apoB48-containing chylomicron and chylomicron remnant particles have been demonstrated in insulin resistant states. Intestinal lipoprotein production is primarily determined by the amount of fat ingested and absorbed. Until approximately 10 years ago, however, relatively little attention was paid to the role of the intestine itself in regulating the production of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL) and its dysregulation in pathological states such as insulin resistance. We and others have shown that insulin resistant animal models and humans are characterized by overproduction of intestinal apoB48-containing lipoproteins. Whereas various factors are known to regulate hepatic lipoprotein particle production, less is known about factors that regulate the production of intestinal lipoprotein particles. Monosacharides, plasma free fatty acids (FFA), resveratrol, intestinal peptides (e.g. GLP-1 and GLP-2), and pancreatic hormones (e.g. insulin) have recently been shown to be important regulators of intestinal lipoprotein secretion. Available evidence in humans and animal models strongly supports the concept that the small intestine is not merely an absorptive organ but rather plays an active role in regulating the rate of production of chylomicrons in fed and fasting states. Metabolic signals in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes and in some cases an aberrant intestinal response to these factors contribute to the enhanced formation and secretion of TRL. Understanding the regulation of intestinal lipoprotein production is imperative for the development of new therapeutic strategies for the prevention and treatment of

  15. Naltrexone effects on insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in hyperandrogenic women.

    PubMed

    Sir-Petermann, T; López, G; Castillo, T; Calvillán, M; Rabenbauer, B; Wildt, L

    1998-01-01

    A total of 12 women (24.2 +/- 1.6 years old, BMI 36.7 +/- 1.5 Kg/m2) with hyperandrogenism (HA) and with normal glucose tolerance test were studied to evaluate the involvement of endogenous opioids in the pathophysiology of insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in HA by administering naltrexone, an oral opioid receptor antagonist. Six patients received naltrexone orally (75 mg daily) and another six received placebo for 12 weeks (double-blind study). Before and after therapy a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIVGTT) was performed. The insulin sensitivity index (SI) was determined by Bergman's program. SHBG, DHEAS, testosterone, free androgen index (FAI) and plasma concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-1 were determined in 3 basal samples, before and after therapy. Treatment with naltrexone in hyperandrogenic patients resulted in a decrease in fasting insulin concentrations of 40% and C-peptide concentrations of 50% (p < 0.05). Insulin and C-peptide from the FSIVGTT displayed a similar pattern with a fall in the area under the curve under naltrexone treatment of 34% for insulin and 35% for C-peptide. Insulin sensitivity did not change under naltrexone (1.26 +/- 0.19 vs 1.32 +/- 0.32 10(-4) x min(-1)/(uU/ml)) or placebo (0.95 +/- 0.19 vs 1.12 +/- 0.28 10(-4) x min(-1)/(uU/ml)) administration. However, glucose effectiveness increased significantly with naltrexone (2.231 +/- 0.002 vs 3.354 +/- 0.006 x 10(-2) min(-1)). Glucose (fasting and area under the curve) was not modified significantly after naltrexone administration. Baseline hormone levels were similar in the two groups, and they did not change after long-term treatment with naltrexone or placebo. In conclusion, these results support the hypothesis of elevated opioid tonus and increased insulin secretion as a possible mechanism of hyperinsulinism in a group of hyperandrogenic women of ovarian origin. This alteration could act as an additional factor in the pathogenesis of insulin

  16. Resveratrol supplementation restores high-fat diet-induced insulin secretion dysfunction by increasing mitochondrial function in islet

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Wen; Zheng, Juan; Zhang, Hao-hao; Hu, Xiang; Zeng, Tian-shu; Hu, Di

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol (RSV), a natural compound, is known for its effects on energy homeostasis. Here we investigated the effects of RSV and possible mechanism in insulin secretion of high-fat diet rats. Rats were randomly divided into three groups as follows: NC group (animals were fed ad libitum with normal chow for 8 weeks), HF group (animals were fed ad libitum with high-fat diet for 8 weeks), and HFR group (animals were treated with high-fat diet and administered with RSV for 8 weeks). Insulin secretion ability of rats was assessed by hyperglycemic clamp. Mitochondrial biogenesis genes, mitochondrial respiratory chain activities, reactive oxidative species (ROS), and several mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme activities were evaluated in islet. We found that HF group rats clearly showed low insulin secretion and mitochondrial complex dysfunction. Expression of silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog- 1 (SIRT1) and related mitochondrial biogenesis were significantly decreased. However, RSV administration group (HFR) showed a marked potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. This effect was associated with elevated SIRT1 protein expression and antioxidant enzyme activities, resulting in increased mitochondrial respiratory chain activities and decreased ROS level. This study suggests that RSV may increase islet mitochondrial complex activities and antioxidant function to restore insulin secretion dysfunction induced by high-fat diet. PMID:25228148

  17. PRMT4 is involved in insulin secretion via the methylation of histone H3 in pancreatic β cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joong Kwan; Lim, Yongchul; Lee, Jung Ok; Lee, Young-Sun; Won, Nam Hee; Kim, Hyun; Kim, Hyeon Soo

    2015-06-01

    The relationship between protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) and insulin synthesis in β cells is not yet well understood. In the present study, we showed that PRMT4 expression was increased in INS-1 and HIT-T15 pancreatic β cells under high-glucose conditions. In addition, asymmetric dimethylation of Arg17 in histone H3 was significantly increased in both cell lines in the presence of glucose. The inhibition or knockdown of PRMT4 suppressed glucose-induced insulin gene expression in INS-1 cells by 81.6 and 79% respectively. Additionally, the overexpression of mutant PRMT4 also significantly repressed insulin gene expression. Consistently, insulin secretion induced in response to high levels of glucose was decreased by both PRMT4 inhibition and knockdown. Moreover, the inhibition of PRMT4 blocked high-glucose-induced insulin gene expression and insulin secretion in primary pancreatic islets. These results indicate that PRMT4 might be a key regulator of high-glucose-induced insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells via H3R17 methylation. PMID:25917831

  18. cAMP mediators of pulsatile insulin secretion from glucose-stimulated single beta-cells.

    PubMed

    Idevall-Hagren, Olof; Barg, Sebastian; Gylfe, Erik; Tengholm, Anders

    2010-07-23

    Pulsatile insulin release from glucose-stimulated beta-cells is driven by oscillations of the Ca(2+) and cAMP concentrations in the subplasma membrane space ([Ca(2+)](pm) and [cAMP](pm)). To clarify mechanisms by which cAMP regulates insulin secretion, we performed parallel evanescent wave fluorescence imaging of [cAMP](pm), [Ca(2+)](pm), and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP(3)) in the plasma membrane. This lipid is formed by autocrine insulin receptor activation and was used to monitor insulin release kinetics from single MIN6 beta-cells. Elevation of the glucose concentration from 3 to 11 mm induced, after a 2.7-min delay, coordinated oscillations of [Ca(2+)](pm), [cAMP](pm), and PIP(3). Inhibitors of protein kinase A (PKA) markedly diminished the PIP(3) response when applied before glucose stimulation, but did not affect already manifested PIP(3) oscillations. The reduced PIP(3) response could be attributed to accelerated depolarization causing early rise of [Ca(2+)](pm) that preceded the elevation of [cAMP](pm). However, the amplitude of the PIP(3) response after PKA inhibition was restored by a specific agonist to the cAMP-dependent guanine nucleotide exchange factor Epac. Suppression of cAMP formation with adenylyl cyclase inhibitors reduced already established PIP(3) oscillations in glucose-stimulated cells, and this effect was almost completely counteracted by the Epac agonist. In cells treated with small interfering RNA targeting Epac2, the amplitudes of the glucose-induced PIP(3) oscillations were reduced, and the Epac agonist was without effect. The data indicate that temporal coordination of the triggering [Ca(2+)](pm) and amplifying [cAMP](pm) signals is important for glucose-induced pulsatile insulin release. Although both PKA and Epac2 partake in initiating insulin secretion, the cAMP dependence of established pulsatility is mediated by Epac2.

  19. Role of vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 in rodent insulin secretion and glucose metabolism revealed by its specific antagonist tetrabenazine

    PubMed Central

    Raffo, Anthony; Hancock, Kolbe; Polito, Teresa; Andan, Gordon; Witkowski, Piotr; Hardy, Mark; Barba, Pasquale; Ferrara, Caterina; Maffei, Antonella; Freeby, Matthew; Goland, Robin; Leibel, Rudolph L.; Sweet, Ian; Harris, Paul E.

    2009-01-01

    Despite different embryological origins, islet beta-cells and neurons share expression of many genes and display multiple functional similarities. One shared gene product, VMAT2, vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 (also known as SLC18A2), is highly expressed in human beta-cells relative to other cells in the endocrine and exocrine pancreas. Recent reports suggest that the monoamine dopamine is an important paracrine and/or autocrine regulator of insulin release by beta cells. Given the important role of VMAT2 in the economy of monoamines such as dopamine, we investigated the possible role of VMAT2 in insulin secretion and glucose metabolism. Using a VMAT2-specific antagonist, tetrabenazine (TBZ), we studied glucose homeostasis, insulin secretion in vivo and ex vivo in cultures of purified rodent islets. During intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests, control rats showed increased serum insulin concentrations and smaller glucose excursions relative to controls after a single intravenous dose of TBZ. One hour following TBZ administration we observed a significant depletion of total pancreas dopamine. Correspondingly, exogenous L-DOPA reversed the effects of TBZ on glucose clearance in vivo. In in vitro studies of rat islets, significantly enhanced glucose-dependent insulin secretion was observed in the presence of dihydrotetrabenazine, the active metabolite of TBZ. Together, these data suggest that VMAT2 regulates in vivo glucose homeostasis and insulin production, most likely via its role in vesicular transport and storage of monoamines in beta cells. PMID:18577569

  20. Environmental factors and dam characteristics associated with insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in newborn Holstein calves.

    PubMed

    Kamal, M M; Van Eetvelde, M; Bogaert, H; Hostens, M; Vandaele, L; Shamsuddin, M; Opsomer, G

    2015-09-01

    The objective of the present retrospective cohort study was to evaluate potential associations between environmental factors and dam characteristics, including level of milk production during gestation, and insulin traits in newborn Holstein calves. Birth weight and gestational age of the calves at delivery were determined. On the next day, heart girth, wither height and diagonal length of both the calves and their dams were measured. Parity, body condition score and age at calving were recorded for all dams. For the cows, days open before last gestation, lactation length (LL), length of dry period (DP) and calving interval were also calculated. The magnitude and shape of the lactation curve both quantified using the MilkBot model based on monthly milk weights, were used to calculate the amount of milk produced during gestation. Using the same procedure, cumulative milk production from conception to drying off (MGEST) was calculated. A blood sample was collected from all calves (n=481; 169 born to heifers and 312 born to cows) at least 5 h after a milk meal on day 3 of life to measure basal glucose and insulin levels. In addition, an intravenous glucose-stimulated insulin secretion test was performed in a subset of the calves (n=316). After descriptive analysis, generalized linear mixed models were used to identify factors that were significantly associated with the major insulin traits (Insb, basal insulin level; QUICKI, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index; AIR, acute insulin response; DI, disposition index) of the newborn calves. The overall average birth weight of the calves was 42.7 ± 5.92 kg. The insulin traits were significantly associated with gender and season of birth when data of all calves were analyzed. In addition, the insulin traits in calves born to cows were significantly associated with MGEST, DP and LL. The Insb was estimated to be higher in calves born to the cows having passed a higher MGEST (P=0.076) and longer DP (P=0.034). The

  1. Environmental factors and dam characteristics associated with insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in newborn Holstein calves.

    PubMed

    Kamal, M M; Van Eetvelde, M; Bogaert, H; Hostens, M; Vandaele, L; Shamsuddin, M; Opsomer, G

    2015-09-01

    The objective of the present retrospective cohort study was to evaluate potential associations between environmental factors and dam characteristics, including level of milk production during gestation, and insulin traits in newborn Holstein calves. Birth weight and gestational age of the calves at delivery were determined. On the next day, heart girth, wither height and diagonal length of both the calves and their dams were measured. Parity, body condition score and age at calving were recorded for all dams. For the cows, days open before last gestation, lactation length (LL), length of dry period (DP) and calving interval were also calculated. The magnitude and shape of the lactation curve both quantified using the MilkBot model based on monthly milk weights, were used to calculate the amount of milk produced during gestation. Using the same procedure, cumulative milk production from conception to drying off (MGEST) was calculated. A blood sample was collected from all calves (n=481; 169 born to heifers and 312 born to cows) at least 5 h after a milk meal on day 3 of life to measure basal glucose and insulin levels. In addition, an intravenous glucose-stimulated insulin secretion test was performed in a subset of the calves (n=316). After descriptive analysis, generalized linear mixed models were used to identify factors that were significantly associated with the major insulin traits (Insb, basal insulin level; QUICKI, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index; AIR, acute insulin response; DI, disposition index) of the newborn calves. The overall average birth weight of the calves was 42.7 ± 5.92 kg. The insulin traits were significantly associated with gender and season of birth when data of all calves were analyzed. In addition, the insulin traits in calves born to cows were significantly associated with MGEST, DP and LL. The Insb was estimated to be higher in calves born to the cows having passed a higher MGEST (P=0.076) and longer DP (P=0.034). The

  2. Effects of Tocotrienols on Insulin Secretion-Associated Genes Expression of Rat Pancreatic Islets in a Dynamic Culture.

    PubMed

    Chia, Ling L; Jantan, Ibrahim; Chua, Kien H; Lam, Kok W; Rullah, Kamal; Aluwi, Mohd F M

    2016-01-01

    Tocotrienols (T3) are well-known for their antioxidant properties besides showing therapeutic potential in clinical complications such as hyperlipidemia induced by diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of δ-T3, γ-T3, and α-T3 on insulin secretion-associated genes expression of rat pancreatic islets in a dynamic culture. Pancreatic islets freshly isolated from male Wistar rats were treated with T3 for 1 h at 37°C in a microfluidic system with continuous operation. The cells were collected for total RNA extraction and reverse-transcribed, followed by measurement of insulin secretion-associated genes expression using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Molecular docking experiments were performed to gain insights on how the T3 bind to the receptors. Short-term exposure of δ- and γ-T3 to pancreatic β cells in a stimulant glucose condition (16.7 mM) significantly regulated preproinsulin mRNA levels and insulin gene transcription. In contrast, α-T3 possessed less ability in the activation of insulin synthesis level. Essentially, potassium chloride (KCl), a β cell membrane depolarising agent added into the treatment further enhanced the insulin production. δ- and γ-T3 revealed significantly higher quantitative expression in most of the insulin secretion-associated genes groups containing 16.7 mM glucose alone and 16.7 mM glucose with 30 mM KCl ranging from 600 to 1200 μM (p < 0.05). The findings suggest the potential of δ-T3 in regulating insulin synthesis and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion through triggering pathway especially in the presence of KCl. PMID:27625609

  3. Effects of Tocotrienols on Insulin Secretion-Associated Genes Expression of Rat Pancreatic Islets in a Dynamic Culture

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Ling L.; Jantan, Ibrahim; Chua, Kien H.; Lam, Kok W.; Rullah, Kamal; Aluwi, Mohd F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Tocotrienols (T3) are well-known for their antioxidant properties besides showing therapeutic potential in clinical complications such as hyperlipidemia induced by diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of δ-T3, γ-T3, and α-T3 on insulin secretion-associated genes expression of rat pancreatic islets in a dynamic culture. Pancreatic islets freshly isolated from male Wistar rats were treated with T3 for 1 h at 37°C in a microfluidic system with continuous operation. The cells were collected for total RNA extraction and reverse-transcribed, followed by measurement of insulin secretion-associated genes expression using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Molecular docking experiments were performed to gain insights on how the T3 bind to the receptors. Short-term exposure of δ- and γ-T3 to pancreatic β cells in a stimulant glucose condition (16.7 mM) significantly regulated preproinsulin mRNA levels and insulin gene transcription. In contrast, α-T3 possessed less ability in the activation of insulin synthesis level. Essentially, potassium chloride (KCl), a β cell membrane depolarising agent added into the treatment further enhanced the insulin production. δ- and γ-T3 revealed significantly higher quantitative expression in most of the insulin secretion-associated genes groups containing 16.7 mM glucose alone and 16.7 mM glucose with 30 mM KCl ranging from 600 to 1200 μM (p < 0.05). The findings suggest the potential of δ-T3 in regulating insulin synthesis and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion through triggering pathway especially in the presence of KCl. PMID:27625609

  4. Effects of Tocotrienols on Insulin Secretion-Associated Genes Expression of Rat Pancreatic Islets in a Dynamic Culture

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Ling L.; Jantan, Ibrahim; Chua, Kien H.; Lam, Kok W.; Rullah, Kamal; Aluwi, Mohd F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Tocotrienols (T3) are well-known for their antioxidant properties besides showing therapeutic potential in clinical complications such as hyperlipidemia induced by diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of δ-T3, γ-T3, and α-T3 on insulin secretion-associated genes expression of rat pancreatic islets in a dynamic culture. Pancreatic islets freshly isolated from male Wistar rats were treated with T3 for 1 h at 37°C in a microfluidic system with continuous operation. The cells were collected for total RNA extraction and reverse-transcribed, followed by measurement of insulin secretion-associated genes expression using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Molecular docking experiments were performed to gain insights on how the T3 bind to the receptors. Short-term exposure of δ- and γ-T3 to pancreatic β cells in a stimulant glucose condition (16.7 mM) significantly regulated preproinsulin mRNA levels and insulin gene transcription. In contrast, α-T3 possessed less ability in the activation of insulin synthesis level. Essentially, potassium chloride (KCl), a β cell membrane depolarising agent added into the treatment further enhanced the insulin production. δ- and γ-T3 revealed significantly higher quantitative expression in most of the insulin secretion-associated genes groups containing 16.7 mM glucose alone and 16.7 mM glucose with 30 mM KCl ranging from 600 to 1200 μM (p < 0.05). The findings suggest the potential of δ-T3 in regulating insulin synthesis and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion through triggering pathway especially in the presence of KCl.

  5. Mechanisms of insulin secretion in malnutrition: modulation by amino acids in rodent models.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Camila Aparecida Machado; Latorraca, Márcia Queiroz; de Mello, Maria Alice Rostom; Carneiro, Everardo Magalhães

    2011-04-01

    Protein restriction at early stages of life reduces β-cell volume, number of insulin-containing granules, insulin content and release by pancreatic islets in response to glucose and other secretagogues, abnormalities similar to those seen in type 2 diabetes. Amino acids are capable to directly modulate insulin secretion and/or contribute to the maintenance of β-cell function, resulting in an improvement of insulin release. Animal models of protein malnutrition have provided important insights into the adaptive mechanisms involved in insulin secretion in malnutrition. In this review, we discuss studies focusing on the modulation of insulin secretion by amino acids, specially leucine and taurine, in rodent models of protein malnutrition. Leucine supplementation increases insulin secretion by pancreatic islets in malnourished mice. This effect is at least in part due to increase in the expression of proteins involved in the secretion process, and the activation of the PI3K/PKB/mTOR pathway seems also to contribute. Mice supplemented with taurine have increased insulin content and secretion as well as increased expression of genes essential for β-cell functionality. The knowledge of the mechanisms through which amino acids act on pancreatic β-cells to stimulate insulin secretion is of interest for clinical medicine. It can reveal new targets for the development of drugs toward the treatment of endocrine diseases, in special type 2 diabetes. PMID:20711845

  6. Simvastatin Impairs Insulin Secretion by Multiple Mechanisms in MIN6 Cells.

    PubMed

    Yaluri, Nagendra; Modi, Shalem; López Rodríguez, Maykel; Stančáková, Alena; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kokkola, Tarja; Laakso, Markku

    2015-01-01

    Statins are widely used in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and are efficient in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Molecular mechanisms explaining statin-induced impairment in insulin secretion remain largely unknown. In the current study, we show that simvastatin decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in mouse pancreatic MIN6 β-cells by 59% and 79% (p<0.01) at glucose concentration of 5.5 mmol/l and 16.7 mmol/l, respectively, compared to control, whereas pravastatin did not impair insulin secretion. Simvastatin induced decrease in insulin secretion occurred through multiple targets. In addition to its established effects on ATP-sensitive potassium channels (p = 0.004) and voltage-gated calcium channels (p = 0.004), simvastatin suppressed insulin secretion stimulated by muscarinic M3 or GPR40 receptor agonists (Tak875 by 33%, p = 0.002; GW9508 by 77%, p = 0.01) at glucose level of 5.5 mmol/l, and inhibited calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum. Impaired insulin secretion caused by simvastatin treatment were efficiently restored by GPR119 or GLP-1 receptor stimulation and by direct activation of cAMP-dependent signaling pathways with forskolin. The effects of simvastatin treatment on insulin secretion were not affected by the presence of hyperglycemia. Our observation of the opposite effects of simvastatin and pravastatin on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion is in agreement with previous reports showing that simvastatin, but not pravastatin, was associated with increased risk of incident diabetes.

  7. Insulin granule trafficking in beta-cells: mathematical model of glucose-induced insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Bertuzzi, Alessandro; Salinari, Serenella; Mingrone, Geltrude

    2007-07-01

    A mathematical model that represents the dynamics of intracellular insulin granules in beta-cells is proposed. Granule translocation and exocytosis are controlled by signals assumed to be essentially related to ATP-to-ADP ratio and cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration. The model provides an interpretation of the roles of the triggering and amplifying pathways of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Values of most of the model parameters were inferred from available experimental data. The numerical simulations represent a variety of experimental conditions, such as the stimulation by high K(+) and by different time courses of extracellular glucose, and the predicted responses agree with published experimental data. Model capacity to represent data measured in a hyperglycemic clamp was also tested. Model parameter changes that may reflect alterations of beta-cell function present in type 2 diabetes are investigated, and the action of pharmacological agents that bind to sulfonylurea receptors is simulated.

  8. Differences in Insulin Secretion and Sensitivity in Short-Sleep Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Vasisht, Kaveeta P.; Kessler, Lynn E.; Booth, John N.; Imperial, Jacqueline G.; Penev, Plamen D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Short-sleep insomnia is associated with increased risk of diabetes. The role of altered insulin secretion and action in this association is poorly understood. Design: Observational study. Setting: Academic clinical research center. Participants: Nondiabetic individuals with insomnia (mean [standard deviation] age 48 [9] y, body mass index 25.6 [3.9] kg/m2) with ≤ 6 h (short sleep, n = 14) and > 6 h of sleep (n = 14) during overnight laboratory polysomnography. Measurements and Results: Standard oral glucose testing was used to assess glucose tolerance, beta-cell function (homeostasis model assessment [HOMA-B]; second-phase insulin secretion) and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; insulin sensitivity index). There was no significant difference in hemoglobin A1C and fasting or 2-h blood glucose concentrations between sleep groups. Short-sleep insomnia sufferers had lower fasting and postchallenge serum insulin concentrations associated with lower estimates of fasting and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, and increased insulin sensitivity. Conclusions: Individuals with short-sleep insomnia appear to have higher indices of systemic insulin sensitivity and secrete less insulin without changes in overall glucose tolerance. Citation: Vasisht KP; Kessler LE; Booth JN; Imperial JG; Penev PD. Differences in insulin secretion and sensitivity in short-sleep insomnia. SLEEP 2013;36(6):955-957. PMID:23729940

  9. P2Y₁ receptor-dependent diacylglycerol signaling microdomains in β cells promote insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Wuttke, Anne; Idevall-Hagren, Olof; Tengholm, Anders

    2013-04-01

    Diacylglycerol (DAG) controls numerous cell functions by regulating the localization of C1-domain-containing proteins, including protein kinase C (PKC), but little is known about the spatiotemporal dynamics of the lipid. Here, we explored plasma membrane DAG dynamics in pancreatic β cells and determined whether DAG signaling is involved in secretagogue-induced pulsatile release of insulin. Single MIN6 cells, primary mouse β cells, and human β cells within intact islets were transfected with translocation biosensors for DAG, PKC activity, or insulin secretion and imaged with total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. Muscarinic receptor stimulation triggered stable, homogenous DAG elevations, whereas glucose induced short-lived (7.1 ± 0.4 s) but high-amplitude elevations (up to 109 ± 10% fluorescence increase) in spatially confined membrane regions. The spiking was mimicked by membrane depolarization and suppressed after inhibition of exocytosis or of purinergic P2Y₁, but not P2X receptors, reflecting involvement of autocrine purinoceptor activation after exocytotic release of ATP. Each DAG spike caused local PKC activation with resulting dissociation of its substrate protein MARCKS from the plasma membrane. Inhibition of spiking reduced glucose-induced pulsatile insulin secretion. Thus, stimulus-specific DAG signaling patterns appear in the plasma membrane, including distinct microdomains, which have implications for the kinetic control of exocytosis and other membrane-associated processes.

  10. Insulin-like and IGF-like peptides in the silkmoth Bombyx mori: discovery, structure, secretion, and function

    PubMed Central

    Mizoguchi, Akira; Okamoto, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    A quarter of a century has passed since bombyxin, the first insulin-like peptide identified in insects, was discovered in the silkmoth Bombyx mori. During these years, bombyxin has been studied for its structure, genes, distribution, hemolymph titers, secretion control, as well as physiological functions, thereby stimulating a wide range of studies on insulin-like peptides in other insects. Moreover, recent studies have identified a new class of insulin family peptides, IGF-like peptides, in B. mori and Drosophila melanogaster, broadening the base of the research area of the insulin-related peptides in insects. In this review, we describe the achievements of the studies on insulin-like and IGF-like peptides mainly in B. mori with short histories of their discovery. Our emphasis is that bombyxins, secreted by the brain neurosecretory cells, regulate nutrient-dependent growth and metabolism, whereas the IGF-like peptides, secreted by the fat body and other peripheral tissues, regulate stage-dependent growth of tissues. PMID:23966952

  11. Episodic hormone secretion: a comparison of the basis of pulsatile secretion of insulin and GnRH

    PubMed Central

    Satin, Leslie S.

    2015-01-01

    Rhythms govern many endocrine functions. Examples of such rhythmic systems include the insulin-secreting pancreatic beta-cell, which regulates blood glucose, and the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuron, which governs reproductive function. Although serving very different functions within the body, these cell types share many important features. Both GnRH neurons and beta-cells, for instance, are hypothesized to generate at least two rhythms endogenously: (1) a burst firing electrical rhythm and (2) a slower rhythm involving metabolic or other intracellular processes. This review discusses the importance of hormone rhythms to both physiology and disease and compares and contrasts the rhythms generated by each system. PMID:24610206

  12. Reduced insulin secretion and glucose intolerance are involved in the fasting susceptibility of common vampire bats.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Mariella B; Queiroz, Joicy F; Dias Gomes, Carolinne I; Collares-Buzato, Carla B; Barbosa, Helena C; Boschero, Antonio C; Gonçalves, Carlos A; Pinheiro, Eliana C

    2013-03-01

    Susceptibility during fasting has been reported for the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus), to the point of untimely deaths after only 2-3 nights of fasting. To investigate the underlying physiology of this critical metabolic condition, we analyzed serum insulin levels, pancreatic islets morphometry and immunocytochemistry (ICC), static insulin secretion in pancreas fragments, and insulin signaling mechanism in male vampire bats. A glucose tolerance test (ipGTT) was also performed. Serum insulin was found to be lower in fed vampires compared to other mammals, and was significantly reduced after 24h fasting. Morphometrical analyses revealed small irregular pancreatic islets with reduced percentage of β-cell mass compared to other bats. Static insulin secretion analysis showed that glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was impaired, as insulin levels did not reach significance under high glucose concentrations, whereas the response to the amino acid leucin was preserved. Results from ipGTT showed a failure on glucose clearance, indicating glucose intolerance due to diminished pancreatic insulin secretion and/or decreased β-cell response to glucose. In conclusion, data presented here indicate lower insulinemia and impaired insulin secretion in D. rotundus, which is consistent with the limited ability to store body energy reserves, previously reported in these animals. Whether these metabolic and hormonal features are associated with their blood diet remains to be determined. The peculiar food sharing through blood regurgitation, reported to this species, might be an adaptive mechanism overcoming this metabolic susceptibility. PMID:23262275

  13. Reduced insulin secretion and glucose intolerance are involved in the fasting susceptibility of common vampire bats.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Mariella B; Queiroz, Joicy F; Dias Gomes, Carolinne I; Collares-Buzato, Carla B; Barbosa, Helena C; Boschero, Antonio C; Gonçalves, Carlos A; Pinheiro, Eliana C

    2013-03-01

    Susceptibility during fasting has been reported for the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus), to the point of untimely deaths after only 2-3 nights of fasting. To investigate the underlying physiology of this critical metabolic condition, we analyzed serum insulin levels, pancreatic islets morphometry and immunocytochemistry (ICC), static insulin secretion in pancreas fragments, and insulin signaling mechanism in male vampire bats. A glucose tolerance test (ipGTT) was also performed. Serum insulin was found to be lower in fed vampires compared to other mammals, and was significantly reduced after 24h fasting. Morphometrical analyses revealed small irregular pancreatic islets with reduced percentage of β-cell mass compared to other bats. Static insulin secretion analysis showed that glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was impaired, as insulin levels did not reach significance under high glucose concentrations, whereas the response to the amino acid leucin was preserved. Results from ipGTT showed a failure on glucose clearance, indicating glucose intolerance due to diminished pancreatic insulin secretion and/or decreased β-cell response to glucose. In conclusion, data presented here indicate lower insulinemia and impaired insulin secretion in D. rotundus, which is consistent with the limited ability to store body energy reserves, previously reported in these animals. Whether these metabolic and hormonal features are associated with their blood diet remains to be determined. The peculiar food sharing through blood regurgitation, reported to this species, might be an adaptive mechanism overcoming this metabolic susceptibility.

  14. Endocrine Determinants of Changes in Insulin Sensitivity and Insulin Secretion during a Weight Cycle in Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Karschin, Judith; Lagerpusch, Merit; Enderle, Janna; Eggeling, Ben; Müller, Manfred J.; Bosy-Westphal, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Objective Changes in insulin sensitivity (IS) and insulin secretion occur with perturbations in energy balance and glycemic load (GL) of the diet that may precede the development of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. Determinants of changes in IS and insulin secretion with weight cycling in non-obese healthy subjects remain unclear. Methods In a 6wk controlled 2-stage randomized dietary intervention 32 healthy men (26±4y, BMI: 24±2kg/m2) followed 1wk of overfeeding (OF), 3wks of caloric restriction (CR) containing either 50% or 65% carbohydrate (CHO) and 2wks of refeeding (RF) with the same amount of CHO but either low or high glycaemic index at ±50% energy requirement. Measures of IS (basal: HOMA-index, postprandial: Matsuda-ISI), insulin secretion (early: Stumvoll-index, total: tAUC-insulin/tAUC-glucose) and potential endocrine determinants (ghrelin, leptin, adiponectin, thyroid hormone levels, 24h-urinary catecholamine excretion) were assessed. Results IS improved and insulin secretion decreased due to CR and normalized upon RF. Weight loss-induced improvements in basal and postprandial IS were associated with decreases in leptin and increases in ghrelin levels, respectively (r = 0.36 and r = 0.62, p<0.05). Weight regain-induced decrease in postprandial IS correlated with increases in adiponectin, fT3, TSH, GL of the diet and a decrease in ghrelin levels (r-values between -0.40 and 0.83, p<0.05) whereas increases in early and total insulin secretion were associated with a decrease in leptin/adiponectin-ratio (r = -0.52 and r = -0.46, p<0.05) and a decrease in fT4 (r = -0.38, p<0.05 for total insulin secretion only). After controlling for GL associations between RF-induced decrease in postprandial IS and increases in fT3 and TSH levels were no longer significant. Conclusion Weight cycling induced changes in IS and insulin secretion were associated with changes in all measured hormones, except for catecholamine excretion. While leptin, adiponectin and

  15. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion of various mesenchymal stem cells after insulin-producing cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su-Jung; Choi, Yong-Soo; Ko, Eun-Sun; Lim, Sang-Min; Lee, Chang-Woo; Kim, Dong-Il

    2012-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are capable of crossing germinative layer borders and are obtainable in high numbers via in vitro cultures. Therefore, many researchers have searched for diverse sources of MSCs. Recently the generation of glucose-responsive insulin-producing cells (IPCs) from MSCs has shown immense potential for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) due to a lack of pancreas donors. In this study, we compared the growth potency of four kinds of MSCs derived from bone marrow, Wharton's jelly, adipose tissue, and the periosteum. In addition, in vitro differentiation of these MSCs into IPCs was also investigated. After 2weeks of IPCs differentiation, we compared the expression of the insulin gene and protein using RT-qPCR and immunofluorescence staining. Only IPCs derived from periosteum-derived progenitor cells (PDPCs) showed a response to glucose concentration. Glucose stimulated insulin secretion was conclusive evidence of the potential functionality of IPCs. Therefore, PDPCs are a promising alternative stem cell source for IPCs differentiation.

  16. Relationship between whole-body macronutrient oxidative partitioning and pancreatic insulin secretion/β-cell function in non-diabetic humans

    PubMed Central

    Galgani, J. E.; Mizgier, M. L.; Mari, A.; Ravussin, E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion correlates inversely with the degree of whole-body insulin sensitivity suggesting a crosstalk between peripheral organs and pancreas. Such sensing mechanism could be mediated by changes in glucose flux (uptake, oxidation or storage) in peripheral tissues that may drive insulin secretion. Aim To relate whole-body non-protein respiratory quotient (npRQ), an index of macronutrient oxidative partitioning, with insulin secretion and β-cell function in non-diabetic individuals. Methods Macronutrient oxidation was measured after an overnight fast and for 4 hours after a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in 30 participants (15/15 males/females; 35±12 y; 27±4 kg/m2). Furthermore, npRQ was assessed for 24 hours in a metabolic chamber. Insulin secretion was estimated by deconvolution of serum C-peptide concentration (fasting and 4-h OGTT) and from 24-h urinary C-peptide excretion corrected for energy intake (metabolic chamber). β-cell function parameters were obtained by mathematical modelling, while insulin sensitivity was determined by a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp (120 mU·m−2·min). Results Insulin secretion (from 24-h urinary C-peptide) correlated inversely with 24-h npRQ (r=−0.61; p=0.001), even after controlling for insulin sensitivity, energy balance, age and body mass index (r=−0.52; p=0.01). In turn, insulin secretion (from serum C-peptide) was not associated with fasting or OGTT npRQ. However, fasting npRQ was positively correlated with rate sensitivity (r=0.40; p<0.05) and marginally with glucose sensitivity (r=0.34; p=0.08). Conclusion Macronutrient oxidative partitioning, specifically glucose oxidation, might play a role on the regulation of insulin secretion. Further studies should aim at identifying the signals linking these processes. PMID:25176602

  17. Dietary composition and its associations with insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in youth.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Mélanie; Benedetti, Andrea; Gray-Donald, Katherine

    2014-02-01

    The objectives of the present study were to examine the associations between macronutrient intake and insulin sensitivity (IS) and insulin secretion (ISct), taking into consideration moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), fitness and sedentary behaviour. Caucasian youth (n 630) aged 8-10 years at recruitment, with at least one obese biological parent, were studied (QUebec Adipose and Lifestyle InvesTigation in Youth cohort). IS was measured using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) of insulin resistance and Matsuda IS index. ISct was measured using HOMA2%-β, the ratio of the AUC of insulin:glucose over the first 30 min (AUC I/G(t= 30 min)) of the oral glucose tolerance test and AUC I/G(t= 120 min) over 2 h. Fitness was measured using VO₂(peak), percentage of fat mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and 7 d MVPA using accelerometry; screen time (ST) by average daily hours of self-reported television, video game or computer use. Dietary composition was measured using three non-consecutive dietary recalls. Non-parametric smoothing splines were used to model non-linear associations; all models were adjusted for age, sex, season, pubertal stage, MVPA, fitness, ST and adiposity. The percentage of total daily energy from dietary protein, fat, saturated fat and carbohydrate and the consumption of dietary vitamin D, sugar-sweetened beverages, fibre and portions of fruits and vegetables were taken into consideration. No dietary component was associated with any measure of IS after adjusting for MVPA, fitness, ST and adiposity. For every 1% increase in daily protein intake (%), AUC I/G(t= 30 min) decreased by 1·1% (P= 0·033). Otherwise, dietary composition was not associated with ISct. While long-term excess of energy intake has been shown to lead to overweight and obesity, dietary macronutrient composition is not independently correlated with IS or ISct in youth.

  18. [Participation of catecholamines in the inhibition of insulin secretion and stimulation of glucagon release during exercise and stress (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Leclercq-Meyer, V; Malaisse, W J

    1975-06-01

    The participation of catecholamines in the inhibition of insulin secretion and stimulation of glucagon release during exercise and stress is reviewed. In rats injected with guinea-pig anti-insulin serum and either compelled to swim or exposed to electrical shocks, the rate of insulin secretion is markedly inhibited, mimicking the situation found after administration of exogenous epinephrine. Prior injection of phentolamine abolishes the exercise-induced inhibition of insulin release. These findings support the concept that such an inhibition is due to activation of the alpha-adrenergic receptors of the beta-cell by endogenously released catecholamines. In addition to inhibiting insulin secretion, epinephrine is shown to stimulate glucagon release in vitro, using pieces of pancreas from duct-ligaturated rats incubated at both low and high glucose concentrations. Augmentation of glucagon release is also observed in vivo during exercise or stress. It is concluded that the hormonal regulation under the latter situations is opptimally oriented for the mobilization of energetic substrates such as glucose and fatty acids.dicale (INSERM), Hòpital des Enfants Malades, Paris.

  19. Serpine1 Mediates Porphyromonas gingivalis Induced Insulin Secretion in the Pancreatic Beta Cell Line MIN6

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Uppoor G.; Watanabe, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease resulting in destruction of gingiva and alveolar bone caused by an exuberant host immunological response to periodontal pathogens. Results from a number of epidemiological studies indicate a close association between diabetes and periodontitis. Results from cross-sectional studies indicate that subjects with periodontitis have a higher odds ratio of developing insulin resistance (IR). However, the mechanisms by which periodontitis influences the development of diabetes are not known. Results from our previous studies using an animal model of periodontitis suggest that periodontitis accelerates the onset of hyperinsulinemia and IR. In addition, LPS from a periodontal pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), stimulates Serpine1 expression in the pancreatic beta cell line MIN6. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that a periodontal pathogen induces hyperinsulinemia and Serpine1 may be involved in this process. To test this hypothesis, we co-incubated Pg with the pancreatic beta cell line MIN6 and measured the effect on insulin secretion by MIN6 cells. We further determined the involvement of Serpine1 in insulin secretion by downregulating Serpine1 expression. Our results indicated that Pg stimulated insulin secretion by approximately 3.0 fold under normoglycemic conditions. In a hyperglycemic state, Pg increased insulin secretion by 1.5 fold. Pg significantly upregulated expression of the Serpine1 gene and this was associated with increased secretion of insulin by MIN6 cells. However, cells with downregulated Serpine1 expression were resistant to Pg stimulated insulin secretion under normoglycemic conditions. We conclude that the periodontal pathogen, Pg, induced insulin secretion by MIN6 cells and this induction was, in part, Serpine1 dependent. Thus, Serpine1 may play a pivotal role in insulin secretion during the accelerated development of hyperinsulinemia and the resulting IR in the setting of periodontitis. PMID

  20. PWD/PhJ mice have a genetically determined increase in nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Ho, Maggie M; Johnson, James D; Clee, Susanne M

    2015-04-01

    PWD/PhJ (PWD) is a wild-derived inbred mouse strain unrelated to commonly studied strains, such as C57BL/6J (B6). A chromosome substitution panel with PWD chromosomes transferred into the B6 background is commercially available and will facilitate genetic analysis of this strain. We have previously shown that the PWD strain is a model of primary fasting hyperinsulinemia. To identify more specific phenotypes affected by the genetic variation in PWD compared to B6 mice, we examined physiological mechanisms that may contribute to their elevated insulin levels. PWD mice had increased nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion due to factors inherent to their pancreatic islets. Insulin secretion responses to glucose, palmitate, and the metabolic intermediate α-ketoisocaproate were increased ~2-fold in islets from PWD mice compared to B6 islets. In contrast, there were no strain differences in processes affecting insulin secretion downstream of β cell depolarization. PWD mice tended to have larger but fewer islets than B6 mice, resulting in similar insulin-staining areas and insulin content per unit of pancreatic tissue. However, pancreata of PWD mice were smaller, resulting in reduced total β cell mass and pancreatic insulin content compared to B6 mice. Combined, these data suggest that the elevated fasting insulin levels in PWD mice result from increased generation of metabolic signals leading to β cell depolarization and insulin secretion. Identification of the genetic differences underlying the enhanced nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion in this model may lead to new approaches to appropriately modulate insulin secretion for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  1. SORCS1 polymorphism and insulin secretion in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hrovat, Ana; Kravos, Nika Aleksandra; Goričar, Katja; Jensterle Sever, Mojca; Janež, Andrej; Dolžan, Vita

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the influence of SORCS1 polymorphisms on insulin secretion in obese women with PCOS. Metabolic status was recorded in 50 clinically well characterized PCOS patients. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed and laboratory parameters of insulin resistance measured. All patients were genotyped for SORCS1 rs1358030, rs1416406 and rs11192966 polymorphisms. Statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney test. SORCS1 rs1416406 significantly influenced stimulated glucose plasma levels (p = 0.006) and increased glucose stimulated insulin secretion (p = 0.034). None of the polymorphisms influenced insulin resistance as measured by homeostatic model assessment. We report for the first time the relevance of SORCS1 polymorphisms for glycemic control and glucose stimulated insulin secretion in obese women with PCOS. PMID:27052493

  2. Insulin signaling regulates neurite growth during metamorphic neuronal remodeling.

    PubMed

    Gu, Tingting; Zhao, Tao; Hewes, Randall S

    2014-01-15

    Although the growth capacity of mature neurons is often limited, some neurons can shift through largely unknown mechanisms from stable maintenance growth to dynamic, organizational growth (e.g. to repair injury, or during development transitions). During insect metamorphosis, many terminally differentiated larval neurons undergo extensive remodeling, involving elimination of larval neurites and outgrowth and elaboration of adult-specific projections. Here, we show in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen), that a metamorphosis-specific increase in insulin signaling promotes neuronal growth and axon branching after prolonged stability during the larval stages. FOXO, a negative effector in the insulin signaling pathway, blocked metamorphic growth of peptidergic neurons that secrete the neuropeptides CCAP and bursicon. RNA interference and CCAP/bursicon cell-targeted expression of dominant-negative constructs for other components of the insulin signaling pathway (InR, Pi3K92E, Akt1, S6K) also partially suppressed the growth of the CCAP/bursicon neuron somata and neurite arbor. In contrast, expression of wild-type or constitutively active forms of InR, Pi3K92E, Akt1, Rheb, and TOR, as well as RNA interference for negative regulators of insulin signaling (PTEN, FOXO), stimulated overgrowth. Interestingly, InR displayed little effect on larval CCAP/bursicon neuron growth, in contrast to its strong effects during metamorphosis. Manipulations of insulin signaling in many other peptidergic neurons revealed generalized growth stimulation during metamorphosis, but not during larval development. These findings reveal a fundamental shift in growth control mechanisms when mature, differentiated neurons enter a new phase of organizational growth. Moreover, they highlight strong evolutionarily conservation of insulin signaling in neuronal growth regulation.

  3. Pharmacological regulation of parathyroid hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, E F

    2002-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the key endocrine factor regulating systemic Ca(2+) homeostasis. Elevated levels of circulating PTH increase bone turnover and, depending on the duration of elevation, will result in net anabolic or catabolic effects on the skeleton. Secretion of PTH from the parathyroid glands is regulated by small changes in circulating levels of Ca(2+) which are detected by a Ca(2+) receptor on the surface of parathyroid cells. This G protein-coupled receptor is the primary molecular entity used by parathyroid cells to regulate secretion of PTH. As such, the Ca(2+) receptor is a unique molecular target for new drugs capable of increasing or decreasing circulating levels of PTH. Compounds which activate the Ca(2+) receptor are termed calcimimetics and they inhibit the secretion of PTH; a calcimimetic compound is in late stage clinical trials for the treatment of both primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Conversely, calcilytic compounds, which are Ca(2+) receptor antagonists, stimulate secretion of PTH; a calcilytic compound is in early clinical development for the treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:12171519

  4. Simvastatin Impairs Insulin Secretion by Multiple Mechanisms in MIN6 Cells

    PubMed Central

    López Rodríguez, Maykel; Stančáková, Alena; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kokkola, Tarja; Laakso, Markku

    2015-01-01

    Statins are widely used in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and are efficient in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Molecular mechanisms explaining statin-induced impairment in insulin secretion remain largely unknown. In the current study, we show that simvastatin decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in mouse pancreatic MIN6 β-cells by 59% and 79% (p<0.01) at glucose concentration of 5.5 mmol/l and 16.7 mmol/l, respectively, compared to control, whereas pravastatin did not impair insulin secretion. Simvastatin induced decrease in insulin secretion occurred through multiple targets. In addition to its established effects on ATP-sensitive potassium channels (p = 0.004) and voltage-gated calcium channels (p = 0.004), simvastatin suppressed insulin secretion stimulated by muscarinic M3 or GPR40 receptor agonists (Tak875 by 33%, p = 0.002; GW9508 by 77%, p = 0.01) at glucose level of 5.5 mmol/l, and inhibited calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum. Impaired insulin secretion caused by simvastatin treatment were efficiently restored by GPR119 or GLP-1 receptor stimulation and by direct activation of cAMP-dependent signaling pathways with forskolin. The effects of simvastatin treatment on insulin secretion were not affected by the presence of hyperglycemia. Our observation of the opposite effects of simvastatin and pravastatin on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion is in agreement with previous reports showing that simvastatin, but not pravastatin, was associated with increased risk of incident diabetes. PMID:26561346

  5. The Effect of Gastrin on Basal- and Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion in Man

    PubMed Central

    Rehfeld, Jens F.; Stadil, Flemming

    1973-01-01

    The effect of gastrin on basal- and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was studied in 32 normal, young subjects. The concentration of gastrin and insulin in serum was measured radioimmunochemically. Maximal physiologic limit for the concentration of gastrin in serum was of the order of 160 pmol per liter as observed during a protein-rich meal. Oral ingestion of 50 g glucose produced a small gastrin response from 28±3 to 39±5 pmol per liter (mean ±SEM, P < 0.01). Intravenous injection or prolonged infusion of gastrin increased the concentration of insulin in peripheral venous blood to a maximum within 2 min followed by a decline to basal levels after a further 10 min. The minimum dose required to induce a significant insulin response (31.2 ng gastrin per kg) increased the gastrin level in serum above the physiologic range. Maximum effect was obtained with 500 ng gastrin per kg. When 15.6 ng (7.1 pmol) gastrin per kg body weight and 25 g glucose were injected simultaneously, the glucose-induced insulin response was potentiated (from 2.32±0.33 to 4.33±0.98 nmol per liter per 20 min, P < 0.02), even though gastrin concentrations only increased to 71.2±6.6 pmol per liter. No effect, however, was noted on glucose disposal. 15.6 ng gastrin per kg given i.v. 30 min before an i.v. glucose tolerance test was without significant effect on the insulin response. The results indicate that gastrin can stimulate a rapid and short-lived release of insulin. In physiologic concentrations gastrin potentiates the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and is without effect on basal insulin secretion. A small release of gastrin during oral glucose ingestion may to a limited extent contribute to the nonglycemic insulin secretion. During protein ingestion, gastrin probably stimulates insulin secretion significantly. Images PMID:4703228

  6. Decreasing Cx36 Gap Junction Coupling Compensates for Overactive KATP Channels to Restore Insulin Secretion and Prevent Hyperglycemia in a Mouse Model of Neonatal Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Linda M.; Pozzoli, Marina; Hraha, Thomas H.; Benninger, Richard K.P.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations to the ATP-sensitive K+ channel (KATP channel) that reduce the sensitivity of ATP inhibition cause neonatal diabetes mellitus via suppression of β-cell glucose-stimulated free calcium activity ([Ca2+]i) and insulin secretion. Connexin-36 (Cx36) gap junctions also regulate islet electrical activity; upon knockout of Cx36, β-cells show [Ca2+]i elevations at basal glucose. We hypothesized that in the presence of overactive ATP-insensitive KATP channels, a reduction in Cx36 would allow elevations in glucose-stimulated [Ca2+]i and insulin secretion to improve glucose homeostasis. To test this, we introduced a genetic knockout of Cx36 into mice that express ATP-insensitive KATP channels and measured glucose homeostasis and islet metabolic, electrical, and insulin secretion responses. In the normal presence of Cx36, after expression of ATP-insensitive KATP channels, blood glucose levels rapidly rose to >500 mg/dL. Islets from these mice showed reduced glucose-stimulated [Ca2+]i and no insulin secretion. In mice lacking Cx36 after expression of ATP-insensitive KATP channels, normal glucose levels were maintained. Islets from these mice had near-normal glucose-stimulated [Ca2+]i and insulin secretion. We therefore demonstrate a novel mechanism by which islet function can be recovered in a monogenic model of diabetes. A reduction of gap junction coupling allows sufficient glucose-stimulated [Ca2+]i and insulin secretion to prevent the emergence of diabetes. PMID:24458355

  7. Free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFAR1/GPR40) signaling affects insulin secretion by enhancing mitochondrial respiration during palmitate exposure.

    PubMed

    Kristinsson, Hjalti; Bergsten, Peter; Sargsyan, Ernest

    2015-12-01

    Fatty acids affect insulin secretion via metabolism and FFAR1-mediated signaling. Recent reports indicate that these two pathways act synergistically. Still it remains unclear how they interrelate. Taking into account the key role of mitochondria in insulin secretion, we attempted to dissect the metabolic and FFAR1-mediated effects of fatty acids on mitochondrial function. One-hour culture of MIN6 cells with palmitate significantly enhanced mitochondrial respiration. Antagonism or silencing of FFAR1 prevented the palmitate-induced rise in respiration. On the other hand, in the absence of extracellular palmitate FFAR1 agonists caused a modest increase in respiration. Using an agonist of the M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor and PKC inhibitor we found that in the presence of the fatty acid mitochondrial respiration is regulated via Gαq protein-coupled receptor signaling. The increase in respiration in palmitate-treated cells was largely due to increased glucose utilization and oxidation. However, glucose utilization was not dependent on FFAR1 signaling. Collectively, these results indicate that mitochondrial respiration in palmitate-treated cells is enhanced via combined action of intracellular metabolism of the fatty acid and the Gαq-coupled FFAR1 signaling. Long-term palmitate exposure reduced ATP-coupling efficiency of mitochondria and deteriorated insulin secretion. The presence of the FFAR1 antagonist during culture did not improve ATP-coupling efficiency, however, it resulted in enhanced mitochondrial respiration and improved insulin secretion after culture. Taken together, our study demonstrates that during palmitate exposure, integrated actions of fatty acid metabolism and fatty acid-induced FFAR1 signaling on mitochondrial respiration underlie the synergistic action of the two pathways on insulin secretion.

  8. Indices of insulin secretion during a liquid mixed-meal test in obese youth with diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To compare indices of insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity (IS),and oral disposition index (oDI) during the liquid mixed-meal test in obese youth with clinically diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and negative autoantibodies (Ab-) versus those with T2DM and positive autoantibodies (Ab+) to ...

  9. Expansion and conversion of human pancreatic ductal cells into insulin-secreting endocrine cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jonghyeob; Sugiyama, Takuya; Liu, Yinghua; Wang, Jing; Gu, Xueying; Lei, Ji; Markmann, James F; Miyazaki, Satsuki; Miyazaki, Jun-Ichi; Szot, Gregory L; Bottino, Rita; Kim, Seung K

    2013-11-19

    Pancreatic islet β-cell insufficiency underlies pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus; thus, functional β-cell replacement from renewable sources is the focus of intensive worldwide effort. However, in vitro production of progeny that secrete insulin in response to physiological cues from primary human cells has proven elusive. Here we describe fractionation, expansion and conversion of primary adult human pancreatic ductal cells into progeny resembling native β-cells. FACS-sorted adult human ductal cells clonally expanded as spheres in culture, while retaining ductal characteristics. Expression of the cardinal islet developmental regulators Neurog3, MafA, Pdx1 and Pax6 converted exocrine duct cells into endocrine progeny with hallmark β-cell properties, including the ability to synthesize, process and store insulin, and secrete it in response to glucose or other depolarizing stimuli. These studies provide evidence that genetic reprogramming of expandable human pancreatic cells with defined factors may serve as a general strategy for islet replacement in diabetes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00940.001.

  10. Expansion and conversion of human pancreatic ductal cells into insulin-secreting endocrine cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jonghyeob; Sugiyama, Takuya; Liu, Yinghua; Wang, Jing; Gu, Xueying; Lei, Ji; Markmann, James F; Miyazaki, Satsuki; Miyazaki, Jun-ichi; Szot, Gregory L; Bottino, Rita; Kim, Seung K

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic islet β-cell insufficiency underlies pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus; thus, functional β-cell replacement from renewable sources is the focus of intensive worldwide effort. However, in vitro production of progeny that secrete insulin in response to physiological cues from primary human cells has proven elusive. Here we describe fractionation, expansion and conversion of primary adult human pancreatic ductal cells into progeny resembling native β-cells. FACS-sorted adult human ductal cells clonally expanded as spheres in culture, while retaining ductal characteristics. Expression of the cardinal islet developmental regulators Neurog3, MafA, Pdx1 and Pax6 converted exocrine duct cells into endocrine progeny with hallmark β-cell properties, including the ability to synthesize, process and store insulin, and secrete it in response to glucose or other depolarizing stimuli. These studies provide evidence that genetic reprogramming of expandable human pancreatic cells with defined factors may serve as a general strategy for islet replacement in diabetes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00940.001 PMID:24252877

  11. [Role of peripheral serotonin in the insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis].

    PubMed

    Cataldo, Luis Rodrigo; Cortés, Víctor Antonio; Galgani, José Eduardo; Olmos, Pablo Roberto; Santos, José Luis

    2014-09-01

    The most studied roles of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5HT) have been related to its action in the Central Nervous System (CNS). However, most of 5HT is produced outside the CNS, mainly in the enterochromaffin cells of the gut. Additionally, other tissues such as the endocrine pancreas, particularly β-cells, have its own serotonin system able to synthesize, secrete and respond to extracellular 5HT through cell surface receptors subtypes that have been grouped in 7 families (HTR1-7). Interestingly, 5HT is stored in granules and released together with insulin from β-cells and its biological significance is likely a combination of intra and extracellular actions. The expression of enzymes involved in 5HT synthesis and their receptors varied markedly in β-pancreatic cells during pregnancy, in parallel with an increase in their insulin secretion potential (probably through the action of Htr3a) and an increase in β-cell mass (through the action of Htr2b and Htr1d). In addition, it has been suggested that gut-derived 5HT may promote hepatic gluconeogenesis during prolonged fasting through Htr2b receptor. Taken together, these findings suggest that peripheral 5HT plays an important role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis through the differential expression and activation of 5-HT membrane receptors on the surface of hepatocytes, adipocytes and pancreatic β-cells.

  12. [Role of peripheral serotonin in the insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis].

    PubMed

    Cataldo, Luis Rodrigo; Cortés, Víctor Antonio; Galgani, José Eduardo; Olmos, Pablo Roberto; Santos, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    The most studied roles of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5HT) have been related to its action in the Central Nervous System (CNS). However, most of 5HT is produced outside the CNS, mainly in the enterochromaffin cells of the gut. Additionally, other tissues such as the endocrine pancreas, particularly β-cells, have its own serotonin system able to synthesize, secrete and respond to extracellular 5HT through cell surface receptors subtypes that have been grouped in 7 families (HTR1-7). Interestingly, 5HT is stored in granules and released together with insulin from β-cells and its biological significance is likely a combination of intra and extracellular actions. The expression of enzymes involved in 5HT synthesis and their receptors varied markedly in β-pancreatic cells during pregnancy, in parallel with an increase in their insulin secretion potential (probably through the action of Htr3a) and an increase in β-cell mass (through the action of Htr2b and Htr1d). In addition, it has been suggested that gut-derived 5HT may promote hepatic gluconeogenesis during prolonged fasting through Htr2b receptor. Taken together, these findings suggest that peripheral 5HT plays an important role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis through the differential expression and activation of 5-HT membrane receptors on the surface of hepatocytes, adipocytes and pancreatic β-cells. PMID:25238823

  13. Activin Signaling Targeted by Insulin/dFOXO Regulates Aging and Muscle Proteostasis in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Hua; Kang, Ping; Hernandez, Ana Maria; Tatar, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Reduced insulin/IGF signaling increases lifespan in many animals. To understand how insulin/IGF mediates lifespan in Drosophila, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing analysis with the insulin/IGF regulated transcription factor dFOXO in long-lived insulin/IGF signaling genotypes. Dawdle, an Activin ligand, is bound and repressed by dFOXO when reduced insulin/IGF extends lifespan. Reduced Activin signaling improves performance and protein homeostasis in muscles of aged flies. Activin signaling through the Smad binding element inhibits the transcription of Autophagy-specific gene 8a (Atg8a) within muscle, a factor controlling the rate of autophagy. Expression of Atg8a within muscle is sufficient to increase lifespan. These data reveal how insulin signaling can regulate aging through control of Activin signaling that in turn controls autophagy, representing a potentially conserved molecular basis for longevity assurance. While reduced Activin within muscle autonomously retards functional aging of this tissue, these effects in muscle also reduce secretion of insulin-like peptides at a distance from the brain. Reduced insulin secretion from the brain may subsequently reinforce longevity assurance through decreased systemic insulin/IGF signaling. PMID:24244197

  14. Protein deficiency and nutritional recovery modulate insulin secretion and the early steps of insulin action in rats.

    PubMed

    Latorraca, M Q; Reis, M A; Carneiro, E M; Mello, M A; Velloso, L A; Saad, M J; Boschero, A C

    1998-10-01

    Maternal malnutrition was shown to affect early growth and leads to permanent alterations in insulin secretion and sensitivity of offspring. In addition, epidemiological studies showed an association between low birth weight and glucose intolerance in adult life. To understand these interactions better, we investigated the insulin secretion by isolated islets and the early events related to insulin action in the hind-limb muscle of adult rats fed a diet of 17% protein (control) or 6% protein [low (LP) protein] during fetal life, suckling and after weaning, and in rats receiving 6% protein during fetal life and suckling followed by a 17% protein diet after weaning (recovered). The basal and maximal insulin secretion by islets from rats fed LP diet and the basal release by islets from recovered rats were significantly lower than that of control rats. The dose-response curves to glucose of islets from LP and recovered groups were shifted to the right compared to control islets, with the half-maximal response (EC50) occurring at 16.9 +/- 1.3, 12.4 +/- 0.5 and 8.4 +/- 0.1 mmol/L, respectively. The levels of insulin receptor, as well as insulin receptor substrate-1 and phosphorylation and the association between insulin receptor substrate-1 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase were greater in rats fed a LP diet than in control rats. In recovered rats, these variables were not significantly different from those of the other two groups. These results suggest that glucose homeostasis is maintained in LP and recovered rats by an increased sensitivity to insulin as a result of alterations in the early steps of the insulin signal transduction pathway. PMID:9772130

  15. Stress-impaired transcription factor expression and insulin secretion in transplanted human islets

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Chunhua; Kayton, Nora S.; Shostak, Alena; Poffenberger, Greg; Cyphert, Holly A.; Aramandla, Radhika; Thompson, Courtney; Papagiannis, Ioannis G.; Shiota, Masakazu; Stafford, John M.; Greiner, Dale L.; Herrera, Pedro L.; Shultz, Leonard D.; Stein, Roland; Powers, Alvin C.

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and progressive β cell dysfunction. Excess glucose and lipid impair β cell function in islet cell lines, cultured rodent and human islets, and in vivo rodent models. Here, we examined the mechanistic consequences of glucotoxic and lipotoxic conditions on human islets in vivo and developed and/or used 3 complementary models that allowed comparison of the effects of hyperglycemic and/or insulin-resistant metabolic stress conditions on human and mouse islets, which responded quite differently to these challenges. Hyperglycemia and/or insulin resistance impaired insulin secretion only from human islets in vivo. In human grafts, chronic insulin resistance decreased antioxidant enzyme expression and increased superoxide and amyloid formation. In human islet grafts, expression of transcription factors NKX6.1 and MAFB was decreased by chronic insulin resistance, but only MAFB decreased under chronic hyperglycemia. Knockdown of NKX6.1 or MAFB expression in a human β cell line recapitulated the insulin secretion defect seen in vivo. Contrary to rodent islet studies, neither insulin resistance nor hyperglycemia led to human β cell proliferation or apoptosis. These results demonstrate profound differences in how excess glucose or lipid influence mouse and human insulin secretion and β cell activity and show that reduced expression of key islet-enriched transcription factors is an important mediator of glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity. PMID:27064285

  16. Vibrio vulnificus Secretes an Insulin-degrading Enzyme That Promotes Bacterial Proliferation in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Kim, In Hwang; Kim, Ik-Jung; Wen, Yancheng; Park, Na-Young; Park, Jinyoung; Lee, Keun-Woo; Koh, Ara; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Koo, Seung-Hoi; Kim, Kun-Soo

    2015-07-24

    We describe a novel insulin-degrading enzyme, SidC, that contributes to the proliferation of the human bacterial pathogen Vibrio vulnificus in a mouse model. SidC is phylogenetically distinct from other known insulin-degrading enzymes and is expressed and secreted specifically during host infection. Purified SidC causes a significant decrease in serum insulin levels and an increase in blood glucose levels in mice. A comparison of mice infected with wild type V. vulnificus or an isogenic sidC-deletion strain showed that wild type bacteria proliferated to higher levels. Additionally, hyperglycemia leads to increased proliferation of V. vulnificus in diabetic mice. Consistent with these observations, the sid operon was up-regulated in response to low glucose levels through binding of the cAMP-receptor protein (CRP) complex to a region upstream of the operon. We conclude that glucose levels are important for the survival of V. vulnificus in the host, and that this pathogen uses SidC to actively manipulate host endocrine signals, making the host environment more favorable for bacterial survival and growth.

  17. An insulin signaling feedback loop regulates pancreas progenitor cell differentiation during islet development and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Lihua; Robertson, Morgan A.; Mastracci, Teresa L.; Anderson, Ryan M.

    2016-01-01

    As one of the key nutrient sensors, insulin signaling plays an important role in integrating environmental energy cues with organism growth. In adult organisms, relative insufficiency of insulin signaling induces compensatory expansion of insulin-secreting pancreatic beta (β) cells. However, little is known about how insulin signaling feedback might influence neogenesis of β cells during embryonic development. Using genetic approaches and a unique cell transplantation system in developing zebrafish, we have uncovered a novel role for insulin signaling in the negative regulation of pancreatic progenitor cell differentiation. Blocking insulin signaling in the pancreatic progenitors hastened the expression of the essential β cell genes insulin and pdx1, and promoted β cell fate at the expense of alpha cell fate. In addition, loss of insulin signaling promoted β cell regeneration and destabilization of alpha cell character. These data indicate that insulin signaling constitutes a tunable mechanism for β cell compensatory plasticity during early development. Moreover, using a novel blastomere-to-larva transplantation strategy, we found that loss of insulin signaling in endoderm-committed blastomeres drove their differentiation into β cells. Furthermore, the extent of this differentiation was dependent on the function of the β cell mass in the host. Altogether, our results indicate that modulation of insulin signaling will be crucial for the development of β cell restoration therapies for diabetics; further clarification of the mechanisms of insulin signaling in β cell progenitors will reveal therapeutic targets for both in vivo and in vitro β cell generation. PMID:26658317

  18. An insulin signaling feedback loop regulates pancreas progenitor cell differentiation during islet development and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Ye, Lihua; Robertson, Morgan A; Mastracci, Teresa L; Anderson, Ryan M

    2016-01-15

    As one of the key nutrient sensors, insulin signaling plays an important role in integrating environmental energy cues with organism growth. In adult organisms, relative insufficiency of insulin signaling induces compensatory expansion of insulin-secreting pancreatic beta (β) cells. However, little is known about how insulin signaling feedback might influence neogenesis of β cells during embryonic development. Using genetic approaches and a unique cell transplantation system in developing zebrafish, we have uncovered a novel role for insulin signaling in the negative regulation of pancreatic progenitor cell differentiation. Blocking insulin signaling in the pancreatic progenitors hastened the expression of the essential β cell genes insulin and pdx1, and promoted β cell fate at the expense of alpha cell fate. In addition, loss of insulin signaling promoted β cell regeneration and destabilization of alpha cell character. These data indicate that insulin signaling constitutes a tunable mechanism for β cell compensatory plasticity during early development. Moreover, using a novel blastomere-to-larva transplantation strategy, we found that loss of insulin signaling in endoderm-committed blastomeres drove their differentiation into β cells. Furthermore, the extent of this differentiation was dependent on the function of the β cell mass in the host. Altogether, our results indicate that modulation of insulin signaling will be crucial for the development of β cell restoration therapies for diabetics; further clarification of the mechanisms of insulin signaling in β cell progenitors will reveal therapeutic targets for both in vivo and in vitro β cell generation. PMID:26658317

  19. LPS-Enhanced Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion Is Normalized by Resveratrol

    PubMed Central

    Nøhr, Mark K.; Dudele, Anete; Poulsen, Morten M.; Ebbesen, Lene H.; Radko, Yulia; Christensen, Lars P.; Jessen, Niels; Richelsen, Bjørn; Lund, Sten; Pedersen, Steen B.

    2016-01-01

    Low-grade inflammation is seen with obesity and is suggested to be a mediator of insulin resistance. The eliciting factor of low-grade inflammation is unknown but increased permeability of gut bacteria-derived lipopolysaccharides (LPS) resulting in endotoxemia could be a candidate. Here we test the effect of LPS and the anti-inflammatory compound resveratrol on glucose homeostasis, insulin levels and inflammation. Mice were subcutaneously implanted with osmotic mini pumps infusing either low-dose LPS or saline for 28 days. Half of the mice were treated with resveratrol delivered through the diet. LPS caused increased inflammation of the liver and adipose tissue (epididymal and subcutaneous) together with enlarged spleens and increased number of leukocytes in the blood. Resveratrol specifically reduced the inflammatory status in epididymal fat (reduced expression of TNFa and Il1b, whereas the increased macrophage infiltration was unaltered) without affecting the other tissues investigated. By LC-MS, we were able to quantitate resveratrol metabolites in epididymal but not subcutaneous adipose tissue. LPS induced insulin resistance as the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion during an oral glucose tolerance test was increased despite similar plasma glucose level resulting in an increase in the insulinogenic index (IGI; delta0-15insulin / delta0-15glucose) from 13.73 to 22.40 pmol/mmol (P < 0.001). This aberration in insulin and glucose homeostasis was normalized by resveratrol. In conclusion: Low-dose LPS enhanced the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion without affecting the blood glucose suggesting increased insulin resistance. Resveratrol restored LPS-induced alteration of the insulin secretion and demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects specifically in epididymal adipose tissue possibly due to preferential accumulation of resveratrol metabolites pointing towards a possible important involvement of this tissue for the effects on insulin resistance and insulin

  20. Regulation of insect behavior via the insulin-signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Erion, Renske; Sehgal, Amita

    2013-01-01

    The insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) pathway is well-established as a critical regulator of growth and metabolic homeostasis across the animal kingdom. Insulin-like peptides (ILPs), the functional analogs of mammalian insulin, were initially discovered in the silkmoth Bombyx mori and subsequently identified in many other insect species. Initial research focused on the role of insulin signaling in metabolism, cell proliferation, development, reproduction and aging. More recently however, increasing attention has been given to the role of insulin in the regulation of neuronal function and behavior. Here we review the role of insulin signaling in two specific insect behaviors: feeding and locomotion. PMID:24348428

  1. Soybean diet improves insulin secretion through activation of cAMP/PKA pathway in rats.

    PubMed

    Veloso, Roberto V; Latorraca, Márcia Q; Arantes, Vanessa C; Reis, Marise A B; Ferreira, Fabiano; Boschero, Antonio C; Carneiro, Everardo M

    2008-11-01

    Maternal malnutrition leads to permanent alterations in insulin secretion of offspring and the soybean diet contributes to improve insulin release. At least a soy component, genistein, seems to increase the insulin secretion by activating the cAMP/PKA and PLC/PKC pathways. Here, we investigated the effect of the soybean diet on the expression of PKAalpha and PKCalpha, and insulin secretion in response to glucose and activators of adenylate cyclase and PKC in adult pancreatic rat islets. Rats from mothers fed with 17% or 6% protein (casein) during pregnancy and lactation were maintained with 17% casein (CC and CR groups) or soybean (SC and SR groups) diet until 90 days of life. The soybean diet improved the insulin response to a physiological concentration of glucose in control islets, but only in the presence of supra-physiological concentrations of glucose in islets from CR and SR groups. PMA also improved the insulin response in islets of SC and SR groups. The expression of PKCalpha was similar in all groups. Forskolin increased the insulin secretion; however, the magnitude of the increment was lower in islets from CR and SR groups than in control animals and in those from rats maintained with soybean diet than in rats fed with casein diet. The PKAalpha expression was similar between SR and CR groups and lower in SC than in CC islets. Thus, soybean diet improved the secretory pattern of beta cells, at least in part, by activating the cAMP/PKA-signaling cascade. PMID:18430554

  2. mTOR Inhibition: Reduced Insulin Secretion and Sensitivity in a Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rovira, Jordi; Ramírez-Bajo, María Jose; Banon-Maneus, Elisenda; Moya-Rull, Daniel; Ventura-Aguiar, Pedro; Hierro-Garcia, Natalia; Lazo-Rodriguez, Marta; Revuelta, Ignacio; Torres, Armando; Oppenheimer, Federico; Campistol, Josep M.; Diekmann, Fritz

    2016-01-01

    Background Sirolimus (SRL) has been associated with new-onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation. The aim was to determine the effect of SRL on development of insulin resistance and β-cell toxicity. Methods Lean Zucker rat (LZR) and obese Zucker rat (OZR) were distributed into groups: vehicle and SRL (0.25, 0.5, or 1.0 mg/kg) during 12 or 28 days. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) was evaluated at days 0, 12, 28, and 45. Islet morphometry, β-cell proliferation, and apoptosis were analyzed at 12 days. Islets were isolated to analyze insulin content, insulin secretion, and gene expression. Results After 12 days, SRL treatment only impaired IPGTT in a dose-dependent manner in OZR. Treatment prolongation induced increase of area under the curve of IPGTT in LZR and OZR; however, in contrast to OZR, LZR normalized glucose levels after 2 hours. The SRL reduced pancreas weight and islet proliferation in LZR and OZR as well as insulin content. Insulin secretion was only affected in OZR. Islets from OZR + SRL rats presented a downregulation of Neurod1, Pax4, and Ins2 gene. Genes related with insulin secretion remained unchanged or upregulated. Conclusions In conditions that require adaptive β-cell proliferation, SRL might reveal harmful effects by blocking β-cell proliferation, insulin production and secretion. These effects disappeared when removing the therapy. PMID:27500257

  3. Biological effects of strong static magnetic fields on insulin-secreting cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, T.; Miyakoshi, J.

    2009-03-01

    The magnetic flux density of MRI for clinical diagnosis has been increasing. However, there remains very little biological data regarding the effect of strong static magnetic fields (SMFs) on human health. To evaluate the biological effects of strong SMFs, we cultured INS-1 cells under exposure to sham and SMF conditions for 1 or 2 h, and analyzed insulin secretion, mRNA expression, cell proliferation and cell number. Exposure to SMF with a high magnetic field gradient for 1 h significantly increased insulin secretion and insulin 1 mRNA expression. Exposure to SMF did not affect cell proliferation and cell number. Our results suggested that MRI systems with a higher magnetic flux density might not cause cell proliferative or functional damages on insulin-secreting cells.

  4. Protein malnutrition potentiates the amplifying pathway of insulin secretion in adult obese mice.

    PubMed

    Leite, Nayara Carvalho; de Paula, Flávia; Borck, Patrícia Cristine; Vettorazzi, Jean Franciesco; Branco, Renato Chaves Souto; Lubaczeuski, Camila; Boschero, Antonio Carlos; Zoppi, Claudio Cesar; Carneiro, Everardo Magalhães

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic beta cell (β) dysfunction is an outcome of malnutrition. We assessed the role of the amplifying pathway (AMP PATH) in β cells in malnourished obese mice. C57Bl-6 mice were fed a control (C) or a low-protein diet (R). The groups were then fed a high-fat diet (CH and RH). AMP PATH contribution to insulin secretion was assessed upon incubating islets with diazoxide and KCl. CH and RH displayed increased glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Only RH showed a higher contribution of the AMP PATH. The mitochondrial membrane potential of RH was decreased, and ATP flux was unaltered. In RH islets, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) protein content and activity increased, and the AMP PATH contribution was reestablished when GDH was blunted. Thus, protein malnutrition induces mitochondrial dysfunction in β cells, leading to an increased contribution of the AMP PATH to insulin secretion through the enhancement of GDH content and activity.

  5. Protein malnutrition potentiates the amplifying pathway of insulin secretion in adult obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Nayara Carvalho; de Paula, Flávia; Borck, Patrícia Cristine; Vettorazzi, Jean Franciesco; Branco, Renato Chaves Souto; Lubaczeuski, Camila; Boschero, Antonio Carlos; Zoppi, Claudio Cesar; Carneiro, Everardo Magalhães

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic beta cell (β) dysfunction is an outcome of malnutrition. We assessed the role of the amplifying pathway (AMP PATH) in β cells in malnourished obese mice. C57Bl-6 mice were fed a control (C) or a low-protein diet (R). The groups were then fed a high-fat diet (CH and RH). AMP PATH contribution to insulin secretion was assessed upon incubating islets with diazoxide and KCl. CH and RH displayed increased glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Only RH showed a higher contribution of the AMP PATH. The mitochondrial membrane potential of RH was decreased, and ATP flux was unaltered. In RH islets, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) protein content and activity increased, and the AMP PATH contribution was reestablished when GDH was blunted. Thus, protein malnutrition induces mitochondrial dysfunction in β cells, leading to an increased contribution of the AMP PATH to insulin secretion through the enhancement of GDH content and activity. PMID:27633083

  6. Mitochondrial signals drive insulin secretion in the pancreatic β-cell.

    PubMed

    Wiederkehr, Andreas; Wollheim, Claes B

    2012-04-28

    β-Cell nutrient sensing depends on mitochondrial function. Oxidation of nutrient-derived metabolites in the mitochondria leads to plasma membrane depolarization, Ca(2+) influx and insulin granule exocytosis. Subsequent mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake further accelerates metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation. Nutrient activation also increases the mitochondrial matrix pH. This alkalinization is required to maintain elevated insulin secretion during prolonged nutrient stimulation. Together the mitochondrial Ca(2+) rise and matrix alkalinization assure optimal ATP synthesis necessary for efficient activation of the triggering pathway of insulin secretion. The sustained, amplifying pathway of insulin release also depends on mitochondrial Ca(2+) signals, which likely influence the generation of glucose-derived metabolites serving as coupling factors. Therefore, mitochondria are both recipients and generators of signals essential for metabolism-secretion coupling. Activation of these signaling pathways would be an attractive target for the improvement of β-cell function and the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  7. Protein malnutrition potentiates the amplifying pathway of insulin secretion in adult obese mice.

    PubMed

    Leite, Nayara Carvalho; de Paula, Flávia; Borck, Patrícia Cristine; Vettorazzi, Jean Franciesco; Branco, Renato Chaves Souto; Lubaczeuski, Camila; Boschero, Antonio Carlos; Zoppi, Claudio Cesar; Carneiro, Everardo Magalhães

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic beta cell (β) dysfunction is an outcome of malnutrition. We assessed the role of the amplifying pathway (AMP PATH) in β cells in malnourished obese mice. C57Bl-6 mice were fed a control (C) or a low-protein diet (R). The groups were then fed a high-fat diet (CH and RH). AMP PATH contribution to insulin secretion was assessed upon incubating islets with diazoxide and KCl. CH and RH displayed increased glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Only RH showed a higher contribution of the AMP PATH. The mitochondrial membrane potential of RH was decreased, and ATP flux was unaltered. In RH islets, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) protein content and activity increased, and the AMP PATH contribution was reestablished when GDH was blunted. Thus, protein malnutrition induces mitochondrial dysfunction in β cells, leading to an increased contribution of the AMP PATH to insulin secretion through the enhancement of GDH content and activity. PMID:27633083

  8. Sodium arsenite impairs insulin secretion and transcription in pancreatic {beta}-cells

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz-Villasenor, Andrea; Sanchez-Soto, M. Carmen; Cebrian, Mariano E.; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia; Hiriart, Marcia . E-mail: mhiriart@ifc.unam.mx

    2006-07-01

    Human studies have shown that chronic inorganic arsenic (iAs) exposure is associated with a high prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes. However, the mechanism(s) underlying this effect are not well understood, and practically, there is no information available on the effects of arsenic on pancreatic {beta}-cells functions. Thus, since insulin secreted by the pancreas plays a crucial role in maintaining glucose homeostasis, our aim was to determine if sodium arsenite impairs insulin secretion and mRNA expression in single adult rat pancreatic {beta}-cells. Cells were treated with 0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 10 {mu}M sodium arsenite and incubated for 72 and 144 h. The highest dose tested (10 {mu}M) decreased {beta}-cell viability, by 33% and 83%, respectively. Insulin secretion and mRNA expression were evaluated in the presence of 1 and 5 {mu}M sodium arsenite. Basal insulin secretion, in 5.6 mM glucose, was not significantly affected by 1 or 5 {mu}M treatment for 72 h, but basal secretion was reduced when cells were exposed to 5 {mu}M sodium arsenite for 144 h. On the other hand, insulin secretion in response to 15.6 mM glucose decreased with sodium arsenite in a dose-dependent manner in such a way that cells were no longer able to distinguish between different glucose concentrations. We also showed a significant decrease in insulin mRNA expression of cells exposed to 5 {mu}M sodium arsenite during 72 h. Our data suggest that arsenic may contribute to the development of diabetes mellitus by impairing pancreatic {beta}-cell functions, particularly insulin synthesis and secretion.

  9. Stimulation of Insulin Secretion by Long-Chain Free Fatty Acids. A DIRECT PANCREATIC EFFECT

    PubMed Central

    Crespin, Stephen R.; Greenough, William B.; Steinberg, Daniel

    1973-01-01

    A continuous-flow centrifuge was used to infuse sodium salts of oleic, linoleic, lauric, or palmitic acid into the pancreatic artery of anesthetized dogs. In these regional perfusion studies there was no increase in FFA levels in the general circulation. Elevation of pancreatic FFA levels produced an immediate increase in pancreatic venous immunoreactive insulin (IRI). After 10 min of FFA infusion. IRI levels declined somewhat from the initial peak response but soon rose again to high levels which were then sustained until the infusion was terminated. All four long-chain FFA tested produced a similar biphasic IRI response. Clearcut increases in IRI were associated with absolute FFA levels (measured in pancreaticoduodenal venous plasma) as low as 0.6-0.8 μeq/ml and with increments over basal levels of as little as 0.4-0.5 μeq/ml. At higher levels of FFA, absolute IRI levels in the pancreatic venous effluent exceeded 1,000 μU/ml in some experiments and 5- to 10-fold increases over basal values were observed. These studies indicate that long-chain FFA, in physiological concentrations, can markedly stimulate insulin secretion by a direct effect on the pancreas. The results lend support to the concept of insulin as a hormone that is importantly involved in regulating the metabolism of all three principal classes of metabolic substrates and whose release is in turn regulated by all of them. The relative importance and precise nature of its physiologic role in the regulation of lipolysis, lipid deposition, and ketone body formation remains to be established. Images PMID:4719673

  10. Insulin-degrading enzyme is exported via an unconventional protein secretion pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ji; Li, Lilin; Leissring, Malcolm A

    2009-01-01

    Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) is a ubiquitously expressed zinc-metalloprotease that degrades several pathophysiologically significant extracellular substrates, including insulin and the amyloid β-protein (Aβ), and accumulating evidence suggests that IDE dysfunction may be operative in both type 2 diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer disease (AD). Although IDE is well known to be secreted by a variety of cell types, the underlying trafficking pathway(s) remain poorly understood. To address this topic, we investigated the effects of known inhibitors or stimulators of protein secretion on the secretion of IDE from murine hepatocytes and HeLa cells. IDE secretion was found to be unaffected by the classical secretion inhibitors brefeldin A (BFA), monensin, or nocodazole, treatments that readily inhibited the secretion of α1-antitrypsin (AAT) overexpressed in the same cells. Using a novel cell-based Aβ-degradation assay, we show further that IDE secretion was similarly unaffected by multiple stimulators of protein secretion, including glyburide and 3'-O-(4-benzoyl)benzoyl-ATP (Bz-ATP). The calcium ionophore, A23187, increased extracellular IDE activity, but only under conditions that also elicited cytotoxicity. Our results provide the first biochemical evidence that IDE export is not dependent upon the classical secretion pathway, thereby identifying IDE as a novel member of the select class of unconventionally secreted proteins. Further elucidation of the mechanisms underlying IDE secretion, which would be facilitated by the assays described herein, promises to uncover processes that might be defective in disease or manipulated for therapeutic benefit. PMID:19144176

  11. One-year metreleptin improves insulin secretion in patients with diabetes linked to genetic lipodystrophic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Vatier, C; Fetita, S; Boudou, P; Tchankou, C; Deville, L; Riveline, Jp; Young, J; Mathivon, L; Travert, F; Morin, D; Cahen, J; Lascols, O; Andreelli, F; Reznik, Y; Mongeois, E; Madelaine, I; Vantyghem, Mc; Gautier, Jf; Vigouroux, C

    2016-07-01

    Recombinant methionyl human leptin (metreleptin) therapy was shown to improve hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia and insulin sensitivity in patients with lipodystrophic syndromes, but its effects on insulin secretion remain controversial. We used dynamic intravenous (i.v.) clamp procedures to measure insulin secretion, adjusted to insulin sensitivity, at baseline and after 1 year of metreleptin therapy, in 16 consecutive patients with lipodystrophy, diabetes and leptin deficiency. Patients, with a mean [± standard error of the mean (s.e.m.)] age of 39.2 (±4) years, presented with familial partial lipodystrophy (n = 11, 10 women) or congenital generalized lipodystrophy (n = 5, four women). Their mean (± s.e.m.) BMI (23.9 ± 0.7 kg/m(2) ), glycated haemoglobin levels (8.5 ± 0.4%) and serum triglycerides levels (4.6 ± 0.9 mmol/l) significantly decreased within 1 month of metreleptin therapy, then remained stable. Insulin sensitivity (from hyperglycaemic or euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamps, n = 4 and n = 12, respectively), insulin secretion during graded glucose infusion (n = 12), and acute insulin response to i.v. glucose adjusted to insulin sensitivity (disposition index, n = 12), significantly increased after 1 year of metreleptin therapy. The increase in disposition index was related to a decrease in percentage of total and trunk body fat. Metreleptin therapy improves not only insulin sensitivity, but also insulin secretion in patients with diabetes attributable to genetic lipodystrophies. PMID:26584826

  12. Changes in Insulin Secretion and Action in Adults With Familial Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Who Curtail Their Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Darukhanavala, Amy; Booth, John N.; Bromley, Lindsay; Whitmore, Harry; Imperial, Jacqueline; Penev, Plamen D.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Experimental sleep deprivation is accompanied by changes in glucose regulation. However, the effects of chronic sleep insufficiency on insulin secretion and action in populations at high risk for type 2 diabetes are not known. This study examined the relationship between objectively documented habitual sleep curtailment and measures of insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and oral glucose tolerance in free-living adults with parental history of type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 47 healthy participants with parental history of type 2 diabetes (26 female/21 male, mean [SD] age 26 [4] years and BMI 23.8 [2.5] kg/m2) completed 13 (SD = 2) days of sleep and physical activity monitoring by wrist actigraphy and waist accelerometry while following their usual lifestyle at home. Laboratory polysomnography was used to screen for sleep disorders. Indices of diabetes risk based on oral glucose tolerance tests were compared between participants with habitual short sleep and those with usual sleep duration >6 h/day. RESULTS Consistent with a behavioral pattern of habitual sleep curtailment, short sleepers obtained an average of 1.5 h less sleep per night and showed signs of increased sleep pressure. Participants who habitually curtailed their sleep had considerably higher indices of insulin resistance and increased insulin secretion but maintained normal glucose tolerance similar to that of subjects who slept more. CONCLUSIONS Young lean adults with parental history of type 2 diabetes who habitually curtail their sleep have increased insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia—a pattern that has been associated with higher risk of developing diabetes in such susceptible individuals. PMID:21836106

  13. DLK1 Regulates Whole-Body Glucose Metabolism: A Negative Feedback Regulation of the Osteocalcin-Insulin Loop.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Basem M; Ditzel, Nicholas; Laborda, Jorge; Karsenty, Gerard; Kassem, Moustapha

    2015-09-01

    The endocrine role of the skeleton in regulating energy metabolism is supported by a feed-forward loop between circulating osteoblast (OB)-derived undercarboxylated osteocalcin (Glu-OCN) and pancreatic β-cell insulin; in turn, insulin favors osteocalcin (OCN) bioactivity. These data suggest the existence of a negative regulation of this cross talk between OCN and insulin. Recently, we identified delta like-1 (DLK1) as an endocrine regulator of bone turnover. Because DLK1 is colocalized with insulin in pancreatic β-cells, we examined the role of DLK1 in insulin signaling in OBs and energy metabolism. We show that Glu-OCN specifically stimulates Dlk1 expression by the pancreas. Conversely, Dlk1-deficient (Dlk1(-/-) ) mice exhibited increased circulating Glu-OCN levels and increased insulin sensitivity, whereas mice overexpressing Dlk1 in OB displayed reduced insulin secretion and sensitivity due to impaired insulin signaling in OB and lowered Glu-OCN serum levels. Furthermore, Dlk1(-/-) mice treated with Glu-OC experienced significantly lower blood glucose levels than Glu-OCN-treated wild-type mice. The data suggest that Glu-OCN-controlled production of DLK1 by pancreatic β-cells acts as a negative feedback mechanism to counteract the stimulatory effects of insulin on OB production of Glu-OCN, a potential mechanism preventing OCN-induced hypoglycemia.

  14. The mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchanger upregulates glucose dependent Ca2+ signalling linked to insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Nita, Iulia I; Hershfinkel, Michal; Fishman, Daniel; Ozeri, Eyal; Rutter, Guy A; Sensi, Stefano L; Khananshvili, Daniel; Lewis, Eli C; Sekler, Israel

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondria mediate dual metabolic and Ca(2+) shuttling activities. While the former is required for Ca(2+) signalling linked to insulin secretion, the role of the latter in β cell function has not been well understood, primarily because the molecular identity of the mitochondrial Ca(2+) transporters were elusive and the selectivity of their inhibitors was questionable. This study focuses on NCLX, the recently discovered mitochondrial Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger that is linked to Ca(2+) signalling in MIN6 and primary β cells. Suppression either of NCLX expression, using a siRNA construct (siNCLX) or of its activity, by a dominant negative construct (dnNCLX), enhanced mitochondrial Ca(2+) influx and blocked efflux induced by glucose or by cell depolarization. In addition, NCLX regulated basal, but not glucose-dependent changes, in metabolic rate, mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial resting Ca(2+). Importantly, NCLX controlled the rate and amplitude of cytosolic Ca(2+) changes induced by depolarization or high glucose, indicating that NCLX is a critical and rate limiting component in the cross talk between mitochondrial and plasma membrane Ca(2+) signalling. Finally, knockdown of NCLX expression was followed by a delay in glucose-dependent insulin secretion. These findings suggest that the mitochondrial Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger, NCLX, shapes glucose-dependent mitochondrial and cytosolic Ca(2+) signals thereby regulating the temporal pattern of insulin secretion in β cells.

  15. Regulation of Pancreatic Beta Cell Stimulus-Secretion Coupling by microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Esguerra, Jonathan L. S.; Mollet, Inês G.; Salunkhe, Vishal A.; Wendt, Anna; Eliasson, Lena

    2014-01-01

    Increased blood glucose after a meal is countered by the subsequent increased release of the hypoglycemic hormone insulin from the pancreatic beta cells. The cascade of molecular events encompassing the initial sensing and transport of glucose into the beta cell, culminating with the exocytosis of the insulin large dense core granules (LDCVs) is termed “stimulus-secretion coupling.” Impairment in any of the relevant processes leads to insufficient insulin release, which contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The fate of the beta cell, when exposed to environmental triggers of the disease, is determined by the possibility to adapt to the new situation by regulation of gene expression. As established factors of post-transcriptional regulation, microRNAs (miRNAs) are well-recognized mediators of beta cell plasticity and adaptation. Here, we put focus on the importance of comprehending the transcriptional regulation of miRNAs, and how miRNAs are implicated in stimulus-secretion coupling, specifically those influencing the late stages of insulin secretion. We suggest that efficient beta cell adaptation requires an optimal balance between transcriptional regulation of miRNAs themselves, and miRNA-dependent gene regulation. The increased knowledge of the beta cell transcriptional network inclusive of non-coding RNAs such as miRNAs is essential in identifying novel targets for the treatment of T2D. PMID:25383562

  16. Regulation of renal potassium secretion: molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Welling, Paul A

    2013-05-01

    A new understanding of renal potassium balance has emerged as the molecular underpinnings of potassium secretion have become illuminated, highlighting the key roles of apical potassium channels, renal outer medullary potassium channel (ROMK) and Big Potassium (BK), in the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron and collecting duct. These channels act as the final-regulated components of the renal potassium secretory machinery. Their activity, number, and driving forces are precisely modulated to ensure potassium excretion matches dietary potassium intake. Recent identification of the underlying regulatory mechanisms at the molecular level provides a new appreciation of the physiology and reveals a molecular insight to explain the paradoxic actions of aldosterone on potassium secretion. Here, we review the current state of knowledge in the field.

  17. Regulation of aldosterone synthesis and secretion.

    PubMed

    Bollag, Wendy B

    2014-07-01

    Aldosterone is a steroid hormone synthesized in and secreted from the outer layer of the adrenal cortex, the zona glomerulosa. Aldosterone is responsible for regulating sodium homeostasis, thereby helping to control blood volume and blood pressure. Insufficient aldosterone secretion can lead to hypotension and circulatory shock, particularly in infancy. On the other hand, excessive aldosterone levels, or those too high for sodium status, can cause hypertension and exacerbate the effects of high blood pressure on multiple organs, contributing to renal disease, stroke, visual loss, and congestive heart failure. Aldosterone is also thought to directly induce end-organ damage, including in the kidneys and heart. Because of the significance of aldosterone to the physiology and pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system, it is important to understand the regulation of its biosynthesis and secretion from the adrenal cortex. Herein, the mechanisms regulating aldosterone production in zona glomerulosa cells are discussed, with a particular emphasis on signaling pathways involved in the secretory response to the main controllers of aldosterone production, the renin-angiotensin II system, serum potassium levels and adrenocorticotrophic hormone. The signaling pathways involved include phospholipase C-mediated phosphoinositide hydrolysis, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, cytosolic calcium levels, calcium influx pathways, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases, diacylglycerol, protein kinases C and D, 12-hydroxyeicostetraenoic acid, phospholipase D, mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, tyrosine kinases, adenylate cyclase, and cAMP-dependent protein kinase. A complete understanding of the signaling events regulating aldosterone biosynthesis may allow the identification of novel targets for therapeutic interventions in hypertension, primary aldosteronism, congestive heart failure, renal disease, and other cardiovascular disorders. PMID:24944029

  18. Increased insulin resistance and insulin secretion in nondiabetic African-Americans and Hispanics compared with non-Hispanic whites. The Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study.

    PubMed

    Haffner, S M; D'Agostino, R; Saad, M F; Rewers, M; Mykkänen, L; Selby, J; Howard, G; Savage, P J; Hamman, R F; Wagenknecht, L E

    1996-06-01

    The etiology of NIDDM is still controversial, with both insulin resistance and decreased insulin secretion postulated as potential important factors. African-Americans and Hispanics have a two- to threefold excess risk of developing NIDDM compared with non-Hispanic whites. Yet little is known concerning the prevalence of insulin resistance and secretion defects in minorities, especially in African-Americans in population-based studies. Fasting and 2-h post-glucose load glucose and insulin levels, insulin-mediated glucose disposal (insulin sensitivity index) (S(I)), glucose effectiveness (S(G)), and first-phase insulin response (acute insulin response [AIR]) were determined in nondiabetic African-Americans (n= 288), Hispanics (n= 363), and non-Hispanic whites (n= 435) as part of the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study. Subjects received a standard 2-h oral glucose tolerance test on the first day and an insulin-modified frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test on the second day. African-Americans and Hispanics were more obese than non-Hispanic whites. Both African-Americans and Hispanics had higher fasting and 2-h insulin concentrations and AIR but lower S(I) than non-Hispanic whites. No ethnic difference was observed in S(G). After further adjustments for obesity, body fat distribution, and behavioral factors, African-Americans continued to have higher fasting and 2-h insulin levels and AIR, but lower S(I) than non-Hispanic whites. In contrast, after adjustment for these covariates, no significant ethnic differences in S(I) or fasting insulin levels were observed between Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites. Hispanics continued to have higher 2-h insulin levels and AIRs than those in non-Hispanic whites. In this report, the association between S(I) and upper body adiposity (waist-to-hip, ratio) was similar in each ethnic group. Both nondiabetic African-Americans and Hispanics have increased insulin resistance and higher AIR than nondiabetic non

  19. α/β-Hydrolase domain-6-accessible monoacylglycerol controls glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shangang; Mugabo, Yves; Iglesias, Jose; Xie, Li; Delghingaro-Augusto, Viviane; Lussier, Roxane; Peyot, Marie-Line; Joly, Erik; Taïb, Bouchra; Davis, Matthew A; Brown, J Mark; Abousalham, Abdelkarim; Gaisano, Herbert; Madiraju, S R Murthy; Prentki, Marc

    2014-06-01

    Glucose metabolism in pancreatic β cells stimulates insulin granule exocytosis, and this process requires generation of a lipid signal. However, the signals involved in lipid amplification of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) are unknown. Here we show that in β cells, glucose stimulates production of lipolysis-derived long-chain saturated monoacylglycerols, which further increase upon inhibition of the membrane-bound monoacylglycerol lipase α/β-Hydrolase Domain-6 (ABHD6). ABHD6 expression in β cells is inversely proportional to GSIS. Exogenous monoacylglycerols stimulate β cell insulin secretion and restore GSIS suppressed by the pan-lipase inhibitor orlistat. Whole-body and β-cell-specific ABHD6-KO mice exhibit enhanced GSIS, and their islets show elevated monoacylglycerol production and insulin secretion in response to glucose. Inhibition of ABHD6 in diabetic mice restores GSIS and improves glucose tolerance. Monoacylglycerol binds and activates the vesicle priming protein Munc13-1, thereby inducing insulin exocytosis. We propose saturated monoacylglycerol as a signal for GSIS and ABHD6 as a negative modulator of insulin secretion. PMID:24814481

  20. α/β-Hydrolase domain-6-accessible monoacylglycerol controls glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shangang; Mugabo, Yves; Iglesias, Jose; Xie, Li; Delghingaro-Augusto, Viviane; Lussier, Roxane; Peyot, Marie-Line; Joly, Erik; Taïb, Bouchra; Davis, Matthew A; Brown, J Mark; Abousalham, Abdelkarim; Gaisano, Herbert; Madiraju, S R Murthy; Prentki, Marc

    2014-06-01

    Glucose metabolism in pancreatic β cells stimulates insulin granule exocytosis, and this process requires generation of a lipid signal. However, the signals involved in lipid amplification of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) are unknown. Here we show that in β cells, glucose stimulates production of lipolysis-derived long-chain saturated monoacylglycerols, which further increase upon inhibition of the membrane-bound monoacylglycerol lipase α/β-Hydrolase Domain-6 (ABHD6). ABHD6 expression in β cells is inversely proportional to GSIS. Exogenous monoacylglycerols stimulate β cell insulin secretion and restore GSIS suppressed by the pan-lipase inhibitor orlistat. Whole-body and β-cell-specific ABHD6-KO mice exhibit enhanced GSIS, and their islets show elevated monoacylglycerol production and insulin secretion in response to glucose. Inhibition of ABHD6 in diabetic mice restores GSIS and improves glucose tolerance. Monoacylglycerol binds and activates the vesicle priming protein Munc13-1, thereby inducing insulin exocytosis. We propose saturated monoacylglycerol as a signal for GSIS and ABHD6 as a negative modulator of insulin secretion.

  1. Reduction in Added Sugar Intake and Improvement in Insulin Secretion in Overweight Latina Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Jaimie N.; Ventura, Emily E.; Shaibi, Gabriel Q.; Weigensberg, Marc J.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Watanabe, Richard M.; Goran, Michael I.

    2010-01-01

    Background To date, no study has assessed the effects of modifying carbohydrate intake (specifically decreasing added sugar and increasing fiber) on insulin secretion, nor has any study used an overweight Latino adolescent population. The objective of this study was to examine whether changes in dietary intake, specifically reductions in added sugar and/or increases in fiber, following a 12-week, modified carbohydrate dietary intervention, were associated with changes in insulin secretion and other metabolic risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Methods Participants were 16 overweight (≥85th percentile BMI) Latina adolescent females (12–17 years) who completed a 12-week modified carbohydrate intervention. Dietary intake was assessed by 3-day diet records, body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and insulin dynamics by an extended 3-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at baseline and post-intervention. Results There was a trend for unadjusted change in reported added sugar intake (% of kcals) to be associated with change in insulin secretion, i.e. IAUC (r = 0.47; p = 0.075), and this relationship became significant after controlling for age, baseline insulin secretion, added sugar and adiposity, and change in adiposity (r = 0.85; p < 0.05). No other changes in dietary variables were related to changes in insulin secretion or other metabolic risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Conclusions Participants with greater reductions in added sugar intake showed significantly greater improvements in insulin secretion following a modified carbohydrate nutrition intervention. These findings suggest that interventions focused on decreasing added sugar intake have the potential to reduce type 2 diabetes risk in overweight youth. PMID:18370826

  2. Integrated Perfusion and Separation Systems for Entrainment of Insulin Secretion from Islets of Langerhans

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Lian; Wang, Xue; Dhumpa, Raghuram; Schrell, Adrian M.; Mukhitov, Nikita

    2014-01-01

    A microfluidic system was developed to investigate the entrainment of insulin secretion from islets of Langerhans to oscillatory glucose levels. A gravity-driven perfusion system was integrated with a microfluidic system to deliver sinusoidal glucose waveforms to the islet chamber. Automated manipulation of the height of the perfusion syringes allowed precise control of the ratio of two perfusion solutions into a chamber containing 1 – 10 islets. Insulin levels in the perfusate were measured using an online competitive electrophoretic immunoassay with a sampling period of 10 s. The insulin immunoassay had a detection limit of 3 nM with RSDs of calibration points ranging from 2 – 8%. At 11 mM glucose, insulin secretion from single islets was oscillatory with a period ranging from 3 – 6 min. Application of a small amplitude sinusoidal wave of glucose with a period of 5 or 10 min, shifted the period of the insulin oscillations to this forcing period. Exposing groups of 6 – 10 islets to a sinusoidal glucose wave synchronized their behavior, producing a coherent pulsatile insulin response from the population. These results demonstrate the feasibility of the developed system for the study of oscillatory insulin secretion and can be easily modified for investigating the dynamic nature of other hormones released from different cell types. PMID:25474044

  3. Isocitrate-to-SENP1 signaling amplifies insulin secretion and rescues dysfunctional β cells

    PubMed Central

    Ferdaoussi, Mourad; Dai, Xiaoqing; Jensen, Mette V.; Wang, Runsheng; Peterson, Brett S.; Huang, Chao; Ilkayeva, Olga; Smith, Nancy; Miller, Nathanael; Hajmrle, Catherine; Spigelman, Aliya F.; Wright, Robert C.; Plummer, Gregory; Suzuki, Kunimasa; Mackay, James P.; van de Bunt, Martijn; Gloyn, Anna L.; Ryan, Terence E.; Norquay, Lisa D.; Brosnan, M. Julia; Trimmer, Jeff K.; Rolph, Timothy P.; Kibbey, Richard G.; Manning Fox, Jocelyn E.; Colmers, William F.; Shirihai, Orian S.; Neufer, P. Darrell; Yeh, Edward T.H.; Newgard, Christopher B.; MacDonald, Patrick E.

    2015-01-01

    Insulin secretion from β cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans controls metabolic homeostasis and is impaired in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Increases in blood glucose trigger insulin release by closing ATP-sensitive K+ channels, depolarizing β cells, and opening voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels to elicit insulin exocytosis. However, one or more additional pathway(s) amplify the secretory response, likely at the distal exocytotic site. The mitochondrial export of isocitrate and engagement with cytosolic isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDc) may be one key pathway, but the mechanism linking this to insulin secretion and its role in T2D have not been defined. Here, we show that the ICDc-dependent generation of NADPH and subsequent glutathione (GSH) reduction contribute to the amplification of insulin exocytosis via sentrin/SUMO-specific protease-1 (SENP1). In human T2D and an in vitro model of human islet dysfunction, the glucose-dependent amplification of exocytosis was impaired and could be rescued by introduction of signaling intermediates from this pathway. Moreover, islet-specific Senp1 deletion in mice caused impaired glucose tolerance by reducing the amplification of insulin exocytosis. Together, our results identify a pathway that links glucose metabolism to the amplification of insulin secretion and demonstrate that restoration of this axis rescues β cell function in T2D. PMID:26389676

  4. Isocitrate-to-SENP1 signaling amplifies insulin secretion and rescues dysfunctional β cells.

    PubMed

    Ferdaoussi, Mourad; Dai, Xiaoqing; Jensen, Mette V; Wang, Runsheng; Peterson, Brett S; Huang, Chao; Ilkayeva, Olga; Smith, Nancy; Miller, Nathanael; Hajmrle, Catherine; Spigelman, Aliya F; Wright, Robert C; Plummer, Gregory; Suzuki, Kunimasa; Mackay, James P; van de Bunt, Martijn; Gloyn, Anna L; Ryan, Terence E; Norquay, Lisa D; Brosnan, M Julia; Trimmer, Jeff K; Rolph, Timothy P; Kibbey, Richard G; Manning Fox, Jocelyn E; Colmers, William F; Shirihai, Orian S; Neufer, P Darrell; Yeh, Edward T H; Newgard, Christopher B; MacDonald, Patrick E

    2015-10-01

    Insulin secretion from β cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans controls metabolic homeostasis and is impaired in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Increases in blood glucose trigger insulin release by closing ATP-sensitive K+ channels, depolarizing β cells, and opening voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels to elicit insulin exocytosis. However, one or more additional pathway(s) amplify the secretory response, likely at the distal exocytotic site. The mitochondrial export of isocitrate and engagement with cytosolic isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDc) may be one key pathway, but the mechanism linking this to insulin secretion and its role in T2D have not been defined. Here, we show that the ICDc-dependent generation of NADPH and subsequent glutathione (GSH) reduction contribute to the amplification of insulin exocytosis via sentrin/SUMO-specific protease-1 (SENP1). In human T2D and an in vitro model of human islet dysfunction, the glucose-dependent amplification of exocytosis was impaired and could be rescued by introduction of signaling intermediates from this pathway. Moreover, islet-specific Senp1 deletion in mice caused impaired glucose tolerance by reducing the amplification of insulin exocytosis. Together, our results identify a pathway that links glucose metabolism to the amplification of insulin secretion and demonstrate that restoration of this axis rescues β cell function in T2D.

  5. Increase of Calcium Sensing Receptor Expression Is Related to Compensatory Insulin Secretion during Aging in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Yoon Sin; Seo, Eun-Hui; Lee, Young-Sun; Cho, Sung Chun; Jung, Hye Seung; Park, Sang Chul; Jun, Hee-Sook

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is caused by both insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. To investigate age-related changes in glucose metabolism and development of type 2 diabetes, we compared glucose homeostasis in different groups of C57BL/6J mice ranging in age from 4 months to 20 months (4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 months). Interestingly, we observed that non-fasting glucose levels were not significantly changed, but glucose tolerance gradually increased by 20 months of age, whereas insulin sensitivity declined with age. We found that the size of islets and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion increased with aging. However, mRNA expression of pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 and granuphilin was decreased in islets of older mice compared with that of 4-month-old mice. Serum calcium (Ca2+) levels were significantly decreased at 12, 20 and 28 months of age compared with 4 months and calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) mRNA expression in the islets significantly increased with age. An extracellular calcium depletion agent upregulated CaSR mRNA expression and consequently enhanced insulin secretion in INS-1 cells and mouse islets. In conclusion, we suggest that decreased Ca2+ levels and increased CaSR expression might be involved in increased insulin secretion to compensate for insulin resistance in aged mice. PMID:27441644

  6. Monounsaturated fatty acid-enriched high-fat diets impede adipose NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated IL-1β secretion and insulin resistance despite obesity.

    PubMed

    Finucane, Orla M; Lyons, Claire L; Murphy, Aoife M; Reynolds, Clare M; Klinger, Rut; Healy, Niamh P; Cooke, Aoife A; Coll, Rebecca C; McAllan, Liam; Nilaweera, Kanishka N; O'Reilly, Marcella E; Tierney, Audrey C; Morine, Melissa J; Alcala-Diaz, Juan F; Lopez-Miranda, Jose; O'Connor, Darran P; O'Neill, Luke A; McGillicuddy, Fiona C; Roche, Helen M

    2015-06-01

    Saturated fatty acid (SFA) high-fat diets (HFDs) enhance interleukin (IL)-1β-mediated adipose inflammation and insulin resistance. However, the mechanisms by which different fatty acids regulate IL-1β and the subsequent effects on adipose tissue biology and insulin sensitivity in vivo remain elusive. We hypothesized that the replacement of SFA for monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) in HFDs would reduce pro-IL-1β priming in adipose tissue and attenuate insulin resistance via MUFA-driven AMPK activation. MUFA-HFD-fed mice displayed improved insulin sensitivity coincident with reduced pro-IL-1β priming, attenuated adipose IL-1β secretion, and sustained adipose AMPK activation compared with SFA-HFD-fed mice. Furthermore, MUFA-HFD-fed mice displayed hyperplastic adipose tissue, with enhanced adipogenic potential of the stromal vascular fraction and improved insulin sensitivity. In vitro, we demonstrated that the MUFA oleic acid can impede ATP-induced IL-1β secretion from lipopolysaccharide- and SFA-primed cells in an AMPK-dependent manner. Conversely, in a regression study, switching from SFA- to MUFA-HFD failed to reverse insulin resistance but improved fasting plasma insulin levels. In humans, high-SFA consumers, but not high-MUFA consumers, displayed reduced insulin sensitivity with elevated pycard-1 and caspase-1 expression in adipose tissue. These novel findings suggest that dietary MUFA can attenuate IL-1β-mediated insulin resistance and adipose dysfunction despite obesity via the preservation of AMPK activity.

  7. Effects of recombinant insulin-like growth factor I on insulin secretion and renal function in normal human subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Guler, H P; Schmid, C; Zapf, J; Froesch, E R

    1989-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is an important mediator of growth hormone (GH) action and it appeared tempting to evaluate possible clinical applications. Recombinant IGF-I was infused s.c. at a dose of 20 micrograms/kg of body weight per hour during 6 days in two healthy adult subjects. Blood glucose and fasting insulin levels remained within normal limits and IGF-II levels were suppressed. In contrast to insulin, fasting C peptide levels were decreased. GH secretion was also suppressed by IGF-I. Our preliminary data allow us to distinguish between the effects of GH per se and those of IGF-I: GH causes hyperinsulinism, whereas IGF-I leads to decreased insulin secretion. Glomerular filtration rate, as estimated by creatinine clearance, increased to 130% of preinfusion values during the IGF-I infusion. Total creatinine and urea excretion remained unchanged. We conclude that IGF-I influences kidney function and, in contrast to GH, exerts an insulin-sparing effect. It may be speculated that the therapeutic spectrum of IGF-I is quite different from that of GH. Images PMID:2649897

  8. Identification of novel genes for glucose metabolism based upon expression pattern in human islets and effect on insulin secretion and glycemia.

    PubMed

    Taneera, Jalal; Fadista, Joao; Ahlqvist, Emma; Atac, David; Ottosson-Laakso, Emilia; Wollheim, Claes B; Groop, Leif

    2015-04-01

    Normal glucose homeostasis is characterized by appropriate insulin secretion and low HbA1c. Gene expression signatures associated with these two phenotypes could be essential for islet function and pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Herein, we employed a novel approach to identify candidate genes involved in T2D by correlating islet microarray gene expression data (78 donors) with insulin secretion and HbA1c level. The expression of 649 genes (P < 0.05) was correlated with insulin secretion and HbA1c. Of them, five genes (GLR1A, PPP1R1A, PLCDXD3, FAM105A and ENO2) correlated positively with insulin secretion/negatively with HbA1c and one gene (GNG5) correlated negatively with insulin secretion/positively with HbA1c were followed up. The five positively correlated genes have lower expression levels in diabetic islets, whereas GNG5 expression is higher. Exposure of human islets to high glucose for 24 h resulted in up-regulation of GNG5 and PPP1R1A expression, whereas the expression of ENO2 and GLRA1 was down-regulated. No effect was seen on the expression of FAM105A and PLCXD3. siRNA silencing in INS-1 832/13 cells showed reduction in insulin secretion for PPP1R1A, PLXCD3, ENO2, FAM105A and GNG5 but not GLRA1. Although no SNP in these gene loci passed the genome-wide significance for association with T2D in DIAGRAM+ database, four SNPs influenced gene expression in cis in human islets. In conclusion, we identified and confirmed PPP1R1A, FAM105A, ENO2, PLCDX3 and GNG5 as potential regulators of islet function. We provide a list of candidate genes as a resource for exploring their role in the pathogenesis of T2D.

  9. Effects of intravenous neuropeptide Y on insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle in normal rats.

    PubMed

    Vettor, R; Pagano, C; Granzotto, M; Englaro, P; Angeli, P; Blum, W F; Federspil, G; Rohner-Jeanrenaud, F; Jeanrenaud, B

    1998-11-01

    Intracerebroventricular administration of neuropeptide Y to normal rats induces a syndrome characterised by obesity, hyperinsulinaemia, insulin resistance and over expression of the adipose tissue ob gene. Little is known about the effect of circulating neuropeptide Y on glucose metabolism, insulin secretion and leptin. We therefore aimed to evaluate the effect of an intravenous infusion of neuropeptide Y on glucose disposal, endogenous glucose production, whole body glycolytic flux, and glucose storage as assessed during euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp. In addition, the insulin-stimulated glucose utilisation index in individual tissues was measured by the 2-deoxy-[1-3H]-glucose technique. The effect of neuropeptide Y on insulin secretion was evaluated by hyperglycaemic clamp. Infusion did not induce any change in endogenous glucose production during basal conditions or at the end of the clamp. Glucose disposal was significantly increased in the rats given neuropeptide Y compared with controls (27.8 +/- 1.3 vs 24.3 +/- 1.6 mg x min(-1) x kg(-1); p < 0.05) as was the glycolytic flux (18.9 +/- 1.6 vs 14.4 +/- 0.8 mg x min(-1) x kg(-1); p < 0.05), while glucose storage was comparable in the two groups. In skeletal muscle, the glucose utilisation index was increased significantly in rats given neuropeptide Y. The glucose utilisation index in subcutaneous and epididimal adipose tissue was not significantly different between the two groups. Plasma leptin was significantly increased by hyperinsulinaemia, but was not affected by neuropeptide Y infusion. Both the early and late phase of the insulin response to hyperglycaemia were significantly reduced by neuropeptide Y. In conclusion neuropeptide Y infusion may increase insulin-induced glucose disposal in normal rats, accelerating its utilisation through the glycolytic pathway. Neuropeptide Y reduces both phases of the insulin response to hyperglycaemia.

  10. Acute overexpression of lactate dehydrogenase-A perturbs beta-cell mitochondrial metabolism and insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Ainscow, E K; Zhao, C; Rutter, G A

    2000-07-01

    Islet beta-cells express low levels of lactate dehydrogenase and have high glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase activity. To determine whether this configuration favors oxidative glucose metabolism via mitochondria in the beta-cell and is important for beta-cell metabolic signal transduction, we have determined the effects on glucose metabolism and insulin secretion of acute overexpression of the skeletal muscle isoform of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-A. Monitored in single MIN6 beta-cells, LDH hyperexpression (achieved by intranuclear cDNA microinjection or adenoviral infection) diminished the response to glucose of both phases of increases in mitochondrial NAD(P)H, as well as increases in mitochondrial membrane potential, cytosolic free ATP, and cystolic free Ca2+. These effects were observed at all glucose concentrations, but were most pronounced at submaximal glucose levels. Correspondingly, adenoviral vector-mediated LDH-A overexpression reduced insulin secretion stimulated by 11 mmol/l glucose and the subsequent response to stimulation with 30 mmol/l glucose, but it was without significant effect when the concentration of glucose was raised acutely from 3 to 30 mmol/l. Thus, overexpression of LDH activity interferes with normal glucose metabolism and insulin secretion in the islet beta-cell type, and it may therefore be directly responsible for insulin secretory defects in some forms of type 2 diabetes. The results also reinforce the view that glucose-derived pyruvate metabolism in the mitochondrion is critical for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in the beta-cell.

  11. Activation of transmembrane bile acid receptor TGR5 stimulates insulin secretion in pancreatic {beta} cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Divya P.; Rajagopal, Senthilkumar; Mahavadi, Sunila; Mirshahi, Faridoddin; Grider, John R.; Murthy, Karnam S.; Sanyal, Arun J.

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer G protein coupled receptor TGR5 is expressed in mouse and human islets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGR5 is coupled to activation of Gs and Ca{sup 2+} release via cAMP/Epac/PLC-{epsilon} pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Activation of TGR5 by bile salts and selective ligands causes insulin secretion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGR5 could be a potential therapeutic target to treat diabetes. -- Abstract: Bile acids act as signaling molecules and stimulate the G protein coupled receptor, TGR5, in addition to nuclear farnesoid X receptor to regulate lipid, glucose and energy metabolism. Bile acid induced activation of TGR5 in the enteroendocrine cells promotes glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) release, which has insulinotropic effect in the pancreatic {beta} cells. In the present study, we have identified the expression of TGR5 in pancreatic {beta} cell line MIN6 and also in mouse and human pancreatic islets. TGR5 selective ligands, oleanolic acid (OA) and INT-777 selectively activated G{alpha}{sub s} and caused an increase in intracellular cAMP and Ca{sup 2+}. OA and INT-777 also increased phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis and the increase was blocked by NF449 (a selective G{alpha}{sub s} inhibitor) or (U73122) (PI hydrolysis inhibitor). OA, INT-777 and lithocholic acid increased insulin release in MIN6 and human islets and the increase was inhibited by treatment with NF449, (U73122) or BAPTA-AM (chelator of calcium), but not with myristoylated PKI (PKA inhibitor), suggesting that the release is dependent on G{sub s}/cAMP/Ca{sup 2+} pathway. 8-pCPT-2 Prime -O-Me-cAMP, a cAMP analog, which activates Epac, but not PKA also stimulated PI hydrolysis. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the TGR5 expressed in the pancreatic {beta} cells regulates insulin secretion and highlights the importance of ongoing therapeutic strategies targeting TGR5 in the control of glucose homeostasis.

  12. Pseudoislet formation enhances gene expression, insulin secretion and cytoprotective mechanisms of clonal human insulin-secreting 1.1B4 cells.

    PubMed

    Green, Alastair D; Vasu, Srividya; McClenaghan, Neville H; Flatt, Peter R

    2015-10-01

    We have studied the effects of cell communication on human beta cell function and resistance to cytotoxicity using the novel human insulin-secreting cell line 1.1B4 configured as monolayers and pseudoislets. Incubation with the incretin gut hormones GLP-1 and GIP caused dose-dependent stimulation of insulin secretion from 1.1B4 cell monolayers and pseudoislets. The secretory responses were 1.5-2.7-fold greater than monolayers. Cell viability (MTT), DNA damage (comet assay) and apoptosis (acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining) were investigated following 2-h exposure of 1.1B4 monolayers and pseudoislets to ninhydrin, H2O2, streptozotocin, glucose, palmitate or cocktails of proinflammatory cytokines. All agents tested decreased viability and increased DNA damage and apoptosis in both 1.1B4 monolayers and pseudoislets. However, pseudoislets exhibited significantly greater resistance to cytotoxicity (1.5-2.7-fold increases in LD50) and lower levels of DNA damage (1.3-3.4-fold differences in percentage tail DNA and olive tail moment) and apoptosis (1.3-1.5-fold difference) compared to monolayers. Measurement of gene expression by reverse-transcription, real-time PCR showed that genes involved with insulin secretion (INS, PDX1, PCSK1, PCSK2, GLP1R and GIPR), cell-cell communication (GJD2, GJA1 and CDH1) and antioxidant defence (SOD1, SOD2, GPX1 and CAT) were significantly upregulated in pseudoislets compared to monolayers, whilst the expression of proapoptotic genes (NOS2, MAPK8, MAPK10 and NFKB1) showed no significant differences. In summary, these data indicate cell-communication associated with three-dimensional islet architecture is important both for effective insulin secretion and for protection of human beta cells against cytotoxicity. PMID:25559846

  13. The effect of nicardipine on glucose and drug-stimulated insulin secretion in normal volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Dow, R. J.; Baty, J.; Isles, T. E.

    1985-01-01

    1 The effect of nicardipine on insulin secretion was examined in two double-blind, randomised, cross-over, placebo-controlled studies in normal volunteers. 2 In the first study, the effect of acute dosing (via an intravenous infusion of 5 mg h-1 for 3 h) on the glucose, insulin, hormonal, and intermediary metabolite responses to an intravenous glucose tolerance test was determined in six healthy male volunteers. 3 In the second study, the glucose, insulin, and C-peptide responses to intravenous tolbutamide (200 mg) was determined in another six male volunteers after oral dosing with nicardipine 30 mg three times daily for 1 week. 4 A relative increase in insulin secretion was the principal finding of the first study. No other response was affected significantly. 5 No significant differences between the nicardipine- and placebo-treated groups were noted in the insulin, glucose, and C-peptide measurements of the second study. 6 In conclusion, treatment with nicardipine does not appear to impair insulin secretion in response either to an intravenous glucose load or intravenously administered tolbutamide. PMID:3896283

  14. Porphyromonas gingivalis Lipopolysaccharide Upregulates Insulin Secretion From Pancreatic β Cell Line MIN6

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Uppoor G.; Ilievski, Vladimir; Unterman, Terry G.; Watanabe, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    Background A close association between periodontitis and diabetes has been demonstrated in human cross-sectional studies, but an exact relationship between periodontitis and prediabetes has not been established. Previous studies using animal model systems consistently have shown that hyperinsulinemia occurs in animals with periodontitis compared to animals with healthy periodontium (while maintaining normoglycemia). Because bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of periodontitis, we hypothesized that LPS may stimulate insulin secretion through a direct effect on β cell function. To test this hypothesis, pancreatic β cell line MIN6 cells were used to determine the effect of Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) LPS on insulin secretion. Furthermore, expression of genes altered by Pg LPS in innate immunity and insulin-signaling pathways was determined. Methods MIN6 cells were grown in medium with glucose concentration of normoglycemia (5.5 mM). Pg LPS was added to each well at final concentrations of 50, 200, and 500 ng/mL. Insulin secretion was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Gene expression levels altered by Pg LPS were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array for mouse innate and adaptive immunity response and mouse insulin-signaling pathways, and results were confirmed for specific genes of interest by quantitative PCR. Results Pg LPS stimulated insulin secretion in the normoglycemic condition by ≈1.5- to 3.0-fold depending on the concentration of LPS. Pg LPS treatment altered the expression of several genes involved in innate and adaptive immune response and insulin-signaling pathway. Pg LPS upregulated the expression of the immune response–related genes cluster of differentiation 8a (Cd8a), Cd14, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (Icam1) by about two-fold. LPS also increased the expression of two insulin signaling–related genes, glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit (G6pc) and insulin

  15. The diabetes-susceptible gene SLC30A8/ZnT8 regulates hepatic insulin clearance

    PubMed Central

    Tamaki, Motoyuki; Fujitani, Yoshio; Hara, Akemi; Uchida, Toyoyoshi; Tamura, Yoshifumi; Takeno, Kageumi; Kawaguchi, Minako; Watanabe, Takahiro; Ogihara, Takeshi; Fukunaka, Ayako; Shimizu, Tomoaki; Mita, Tomoya; Kanazawa, Akio; Imaizumi, Mica O.; Abe, Takaya; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Hojyo, Shintaro; Fukada, Toshiyuki; Kawauchi, Takeshi; Nagamatsu, Shinya; Hirano, Toshio; Kawamori, Ryuzo; Watada, Hirotaka

    2013-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies demonstrated that common variants of solute carrier family 30 member 8 gene (SLC30A8) increase susceptibility to type 2 diabetes. SLC30A8 encodes zinc transporter-8 (ZnT8), which delivers zinc ion from the cytoplasm into insulin granules. Although it is well known that insulin granules contain high amounts of zinc, the physiological role of secreted zinc remains elusive. In this study, we generated mice with β cell–specific Slc30a8 deficiency (ZnT8KO mice) and demonstrated an unexpected functional linkage between Slc30a8 deletion and hepatic insulin clearance. The ZnT8KO mice had low peripheral blood insulin levels, despite insulin hypersecretion from pancreatic β cells. We also demonstrated that a substantial amount of the hypersecreted insulin was degraded during its first passage through the liver. Consistent with these findings, ZnT8KO mice and human individuals carrying rs13266634, a major risk allele of SLC30A8, exhibited increased insulin clearance, as assessed by c-peptide/insulin ratio. Furthermore, we demonstrated that zinc secreted in concert with insulin suppressed hepatic insulin clearance by inhibiting clathrin-dependent insulin endocytosis. Our results indicate that SLC30A8 regulates hepatic insulin clearance and that genetic dysregulation of this system may play a role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. PMID:24051378

  16. Loss of Liver Kinase B1 (LKB1) in Beta Cells Enhances Glucose-stimulated Insulin Secretion Despite Profound Mitochondrial Defects*

    PubMed Central

    Swisa, Avital; Granot, Zvi; Tamarina, Natalia; Sayers, Sophie; Bardeesy, Nabeel; Philipson, Louis; Hodson, David J.; Wikstrom, Jakob D.; Rutter, Guy A.; Leibowitz, Gil; Glaser, Benjamin; Dor, Yuval

    2015-01-01

    The tumor suppressor liver kinase B1 (LKB1) is an important regulator of pancreatic β cell biology. LKB1-dependent phosphorylation of distinct AMPK (adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase) family members determines proper β cell polarity and restricts β cell size, total β cell mass, and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). However, the full spectrum of LKB1 effects and the mechanisms involved in the secretory phenotype remain incompletely understood. We report here that in the absence of LKB1 in β cells, GSIS is dramatically and persistently improved. The enhancement is seen both in vivo and in vitro and cannot be explained by altered cell polarity, increased β cell number, or increased insulin content. Increased secretion does require membrane depolarization and calcium influx but appears to rely mostly on a distal step in the secretion pathway. Surprisingly, enhanced GSIS is seen despite profound defects in mitochondrial structure and function in LKB1-deficient β cells, expected to greatly diminish insulin secretion via the classic triggering pathway. Thus LKB1 is essential for mitochondrial homeostasis in β cells and in parallel is a powerful negative regulator of insulin secretion. This study shows that β cells can be manipulated to enhance GSIS to supra-normal levels even in the face of defective mitochondria and without deterioration over months. PMID:26139601

  17. Does adrenergic activity suppress insulin secretion during surgery? A clinical experiment with halothane anesthesia.

    PubMed Central

    Aärimaa, M; Syvälahti, E; Ovaska, J

    1978-01-01

    Peroperative inhibition of insulin release is widely attributed to increased alpha-adrenergic activity. To test this hypothesis serum insulin and glucose concentrations were measured at short intervals in 11 patients who underwent major surgery. Five patients were anesthetized with halothane and six with general anesthesia without halothane. The results were similar in both patient groups; halothane had no effect on insulin. This suggests that suppression of insulin under operations is probably not due to activation of the alpha-adrenergic receptors of the pancreatic beta-cells. The authors propose that suppression of insulin secretion during surgery may be caused by adrenaline, which, in competing for the glucose receptors, insensitizes the pancreatic beta-cells. PMID:202205

  18. Cephalic phase insulin secretion in relation to food presentation in normal and overweight subjects.

    PubMed

    Simon, C; Schlienger, J L; Sapin, R; Imler, M

    1986-01-01

    The existence of a preabsorptive insulin reflex is well known in animals but remains controversial in humans. Glycemia and insulin variations following olfactive and visual presentation of a standard meal were studied in 25 subjects, 10 of them (5 men and 5 women) of normal weight and 15 overweight (7 men and 8 women), after a 15 hour fast. Blood samples were collected continuously, every minute for 16 minutes after the meal was presented. The presentation produced an early blood insulin increment, variable in magnitude and time course and occurring between the 3rd and 9th minute, in both normal and overweight subjects. Glycemia variations were not significant. Our study demonstrated a positive correlation between the reflex insulin release, body weight and a conscious effort to maintain current body weight. However, the differences between overweight and normal subjects remained small. The physiological and psychological determinants of the cephalic phase of insulin secretion are discussed. PMID:3517898

  19. Nicotinamide induces differentiation of embryonic stem cells into insulin-secreting cells

    SciTech Connect

    Vaca, Pilar; Berna, Genoveva; Araujo, Raquel; Carneiro, Everardo M.; Bedoya, Francisco J.; Soria, Bernat; Martin, Franz

    2008-03-10

    The poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, nicotinamide, induces differentiation and maturation of fetal pancreatic cells. In addition, we have previously reported evidence that nicotinamide increases the insulin content of cells differentiated from embryonic stem (ES) cells, but the possibility of nicotinamide acting as a differentiating agent on its own has never been completely explored. Islet cell differentiation was studied by: (i) X-gal staining after neomycin selection; (ii) BrdU studies; (iii) single and double immunohistochemistry for insulin, C-peptide and Glut-2; (iv) insulin and C-peptide content and secretion assays; and (v) transplantation of differentiated cells, under the kidney capsule, into streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic mice. Here we show that undifferentiated mouse ES cells treated with nicotinamide: (i) showed an 80% decrease in cell proliferation; (ii) co-expressed insulin, C-peptide and Glut-2; (iii) had values of insulin and C-peptide corresponding to 10% of normal mouse islets; (iv) released insulin and C-peptide in response to stimulatory glucose concentrations; and (v) after transplantation into diabetic mice, normalized blood glucose levels over 7 weeks. Our data indicate that nicotinamide decreases ES cell proliferation and induces differentiation into insulin-secreting cells. Both aspects are very important when thinking about cell therapy for the treatment of diabetes based on ES cells.

  20. Loss of regular oscillatory insulin secretion in islet cell antibody positive non-diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Bingley, P J; Matthews, D R; Williams, A J; Bottazzo, G F; Gale, E A

    1992-01-01

    Basal insulin secretion was compared in nine islet-cell antibody positive, non-diabetic first-degree relatives of children with Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus and nine normal control subjects matched for age, sex and weight. Acute insulin responses to a 25 g intravenous glucose tolerance test were similar in the two groups (243 (198-229) vs 329 (285-380) mU.l-1 x 10 min-1, mean (+/- SE), p = 0.25). Fasting plasma insulin was assayed in venous samples taken at one min intervals for 2 h. Time series analysis was used to demonstrate oscillatory patterns in plasma insulin. Autocorrelation showed that regular oscillatory activity was generally absent in the islet-cell antibody-positive group, whereas a regular 13 min cycle was shown in control subjects (p less than 0.0001). Fourier transformation did, however, show a 13 min spectral peak in the islet-cell antibody positive group, consistent with intermittent pulsatility. We conclude that overall oscillatory patterns of basal insulin secretion are altered in islet-cell antibody positive subjects even when the acute insulin response is within the normal range. PMID:1541379

  1. Combined contributions of over-secreted glucagon-like peptide 1 and suppressed insulin secretion to hyperglycemia induced by gatifloxacin in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Yunli; Wang, Xinting; Liu, Can; Yao, Dan; Hu, Mengyue; Li, Jia; Hu, Nan; Liu, Li; Liu, Xiaodong

    2013-02-01

    Accumulating evidences have showed that gatifloxacin causes dysglycemia in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Our preliminary study demonstrated that gatifloxacin stimulated glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion from intestinal cells. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between gatifloxacin-stimulated GLP-1 release and dysglycemia in both normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and explore the possible mechanisms. Oral administration of gatifloxacin (100 mg/kg/day and 200 mg/kg/day) for 3 and 12 days led to marked elevation of GLP-1 levels, accompanied by significant decrease in insulin levels and increase in plasma glucose. Similar results were found in normal rats treated with 3-day gatifloxacin. Gatifloxacin-stimulated GLP-1 release was further confirmed in NCI-H716 cells, which was abolished by diazoxide, a K{sub ATP} channel opener. QT-PCR analysis showed that gatifloxacin also upregulated expression of proglucagon and prohormone convertase 3 mRNA. To clarify the contradiction on elevated GLP-1 without insulinotropic effect, effects of GLP-1 and gatifloxacin on insulin release were investigated using INS-1 cells. We found that short exposure (2 h) to GLP-1 stimulated insulin secretion and biosynthesis, whereas long exposure (24 h and 48 h) to high level of GLP-1 inhibited insulin secretion and biosynthesis. Moreover, we also confirmed gatifloxacin acutely stimulated insulin secretion while chronically inhibited insulin biosynthesis. All the results gave an inference that gatifloxacin stimulated over-secretion of GLP-1, in turn, high levels of GLP-1 and gatifloxacin synergistically impaired insulin release, worsening hyperglycemia. -- Highlights: ► Gatifloxacin induced hyperglycemia both in diabetic rats and normal rats. ► Gatifloxacin enhanced GLP-1 secretion but inhibited insulin secretion in rats. ► Long-term exposure to high GLP-1 inhibited insulin secretion and biosynthesis. ► GLP-1 over-secretion may be

  2. Insulin action in brain regulates systemic metabolism and brain function.

    PubMed

    Kleinridders, André; Ferris, Heather A; Cai, Weikang; Kahn, C Ronald

    2014-07-01

    Insulin receptors, as well as IGF-1 receptors and their postreceptor signaling partners, are distributed throughout the brain. Insulin acts on these receptors to modulate peripheral metabolism, including regulation of appetite, reproductive function, body temperature, white fat mass, hepatic glucose output, and response to hypoglycemia. Insulin signaling also modulates neurotransmitter channel activity, brain cholesterol synthesis, and mitochondrial function. Disruption of insulin action in the brain leads to impairment of neuronal function and synaptogenesis. In addition, insulin signaling modulates phosphorylation of tau protein, an early component in the development of Alzheimer disease. Thus, alterations in insulin action in the brain can contribute to metabolic syndrome, and the development of mood disorders and neurodegenerative diseases.

  3. Lack of TRPM2 Impaired Insulin Secretion and Glucose Metabolisms in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Kunitoshi; Dezaki, Katsuya; Damdindorj, Boldbaatar; Inada, Hitoshi; Shiuchi, Tetsuya; Mori, Yasuo; Yada, Toshihiko; Minokoshi, Yasuhiko; Tominaga, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE TRPM2 is a Ca2+-permeable nonselective cation channel activated by adenosine dinucleotides. We previously demonstrated that TRPM2 is activated by coapplication of heat and intracellular cyclic adenosine 5′-diphosphoribose, which has been suggested to be involved in intracellular Ca2+ increase in immunocytes and pancreatic β-cells. To clarify the involvement of TRPM2 in insulin secretion, we analyzed TRPM2 knockout (TRPM2-KO) mice. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (OGTT and IPGTT) were performed in TRPM2-KO and wild-type mice. We also measured cytosolic free Ca2+ in single pancreatic cells using fura-2 microfluorometry and insulin secretion from pancreatic islets. RESULTS Basal blood glucose levels were higher in TRPM2-KO mice than in wild-type mice without any difference in plasma insulin levels. The OGTT and IPGTT demonstrated that blood glucose levels in TRPM2-KO mice were higher than those in wild-type mice, which was associated with an impairment in insulin secretion. In isolated β-cells, smaller intracellular Ca2+ increase was observed in response to high concentrations of glucose and incretin hormone in TRPM2-KO cells than in wild-type cells. Moreover, insulin secretion from the islets of TRPM2-KO mice in response to glucose and incretin hormone treatment was impaired, whereas the response to tolbutamide, an ATP-sensitive potassium channel inhibitor, was not different between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS These results indicate that TRPM2 is involved in insulin secretion stimulated by glucose and that further potentiated by incretins. Thus, TRPM2 may be a new target for diabetes therapy. PMID:20921208

  4. On the mechanism of impaired insulin secretion in chronic renal failure.

    PubMed Central

    Fadda, G Z; Hajjar, S M; Perna, A F; Zhou, X J; Lipson, L G; Massry, S G

    1991-01-01

    It has been suggested that a sustained rise in resting levels of cytosolic calcium [Ca2+]i of pancreatic islets is responsible for impaired insulin secretion in chronic renal failure (CRF). Evidence for such an event is lacking and the mechanisms through which it may affect insulin secretion are not known. Studies were conducted in normal, CRF, and normocalcemic, parathyroidectomized (PTX) CRF rats to answer these questions. Resting levels of [Ca2+]i of islets from CRF rats were higher (P less than 0.01) than in control of CRF-PTX rats. [3H]2-deoxyglucose uptake and cAMP production by islets were not different in the three groups. Insulin content of, and glucose-induced insulin secretion by islets from CRF rats was lower (P less than 0.01) than in control and CRF-PTX rats. In contrast, glyceraldehyde-induced insulin release by CRF islets was normal. Basal ATP content, both glucose-stimulated ATP content and ATP/ADP ratio, net lactic acid output, Vmax of phosphofructokinase-1, and Ca2+ ATPase of islets from CRF rats were lower (P less than 0.02-less than 0.01) than in normal or CRF-PTX animals. Data show that: (a) Glucose but not glyceraldehyde-induced insulin secretion is impaired in CRF; (b) the impairment in glucose-induced insulin release in CRF is due to a defect in the metabolism of glucose; (c) this latter defect is due to reduced ATP content induced partly by high [Ca2+]i of islets; and (d) the high [Ca2+]i in islets of CRF rats is due to augmented PTH-induced calcium entry into cells and decreased calcium extrusion from the islets secondary to reduced activity of the Ca2+ ATPase. Images PMID:1985099

  5. Insulin-degrading enzyme secretion from astrocytes is mediated by an autophagy-based unconventional secretory pathway in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Son, Sung Min; Cha, Moon-Yong; Choi, Heesun; Kang, Seokjo; Choi, Hyunjung; Lee, Myung-Shik; Park, Sun Ah; Mook-Jung, Inhee

    2016-05-01

    The secretion of proteins that lack a signal sequence to the extracellular milieu is regulated by their transition through the unconventional secretory pathway. IDE (insulin-degrading enzyme) is one of the major proteases of amyloid beta peptide (Aβ), a presumed causative molecule in Alzheimer disease (AD) pathogenesis. IDE acts in the extracellular space despite having no signal sequence, but the underlying mechanism of IDE secretion extracellularly is still unknown. In this study, we found that IDE levels were reduced in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with AD and in pathology-bearing AD-model mice. Since astrocytes are the main cell types for IDE secretion, astrocytes were treated with Aβ. Aβ increased the IDE levels in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, IDE secretion was associated with an autophagy-based unconventional secretory pathway, and depended on the activity of RAB8A and GORASP (Golgi reassembly stacking protein). Finally, mice with global haploinsufficiency of an essential autophagy gene, showed decreased IDE levels in the CSF in response to an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of Aβ. These results indicate that IDE is secreted from astrocytes through an autophagy-based unconventional secretory pathway in AD conditions, and that the regulation of autophagy is a potential therapeutic target in addressing Aβ pathology.

  6. Taste signaling elements expressed in gut enteroendocrine cells regulate nutrient-responsive secretion of gut hormones.

    PubMed

    Kokrashvili, Zaza; Mosinger, Bedrich; Margolskee, Robert F

    2009-09-01

    Many of the receptors and downstream signaling elements involved in taste detection and transduction are also expressed in enteroendocrine cells where they underlie the chemosensory functions of the gut. In one well-known example of gastrointestinal chemosensation (the "incretin effect"), it is known that glucose that is given orally, but not systemically, induces secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (the incretin hormones), which in turn regulate appetite, insulin secretion, and gut motility. Duodenal L cells express sweet taste receptors, the taste G protein gustducin, and several other taste transduction elements. Knockout mice that lack gustducin or the sweet taste receptor subunit T1r3 have deficiencies in secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide and in the regulation of plasma concentrations of insulin and glucose in response to orally ingested carbohydrate-ie, their incretin effect is dysfunctional. Isolated small intestine and intestinal villi from gustducin null mice displayed markedly defective glucagon-like peptide 1 secretion in response to glucose, indicating that this is a local circuit of sugar detection by intestinal cells followed by hormone secretion from these same cells. Modulating hormone secretion from gut "taste cells" may provide novel treatments for obesity, diabetes, and malabsorption syndromes. PMID:19571229

  7. Simulatory effect of porcine insulin on noradrenaline secretion in guinea-pig ileum myenteric nerve terminals

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Juei-Tang; Hung, Chen-Road; Lin, Ming-I

    1997-01-01

    The effect of insulin on the release of noradrenaline (NA) from nerve terminals was investigated in isolated ileal synaptosomes of guinea-pig. Release was determined as the amount of NA, quantified by h.p.l.c.-electrochemical detection, from samples incubated with insulin minus that in parallel blanks treated with some volume of vehicle.Porcine insulin stimulated the secretion of NA in a concentration-dependent manner from 0.01 i.u. ml−1, while the value of lactate dehydrogenase in the incubated medium was not influenced by insulin.The presence of insulin receptors in this preparation was illustrated by immunoblotting with insulin receptor monoclonal antibodies.The release of NA by insulin was reduced by guanethidine and bretylium and it was markedly lowered in the samples obtained from guinea-pigs that had received an intraperitoneal injection of DSP-4, the noradrenergic neurotoxin.Tetrodotoxin attenuated the action of insulin at concentrations sufficient to block sodium channels. The depolarizing effect of insulin on the membrane potential was also illustrated by a concentration-dependent increase in the fluorescence of bisoxonol, a potential-sensitive dye.The action of insulin was attenuated by removal of calcium chloride from the bathing medium. The induction of calcium ion influx by insulin into the synaptosomes is supported by the inhibitory effects of the calcium channel blockers ω-conotoxin GVIA (for the N-type channels) and nifedipine (for the L-type channels).These findings suggest that insulin can stimulate NA release from noradrenergic terminals via activation of calcium influx. PMID:9146881

  8. Lipid droplets hypertrophy: a crucial determining factor in insulin regulation by adipocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanjabi, Bahram; Dashty, Monireh; Özcan, Behiye; Akbarkhanzadeh, Vishtaseb; Rahimi, Mehran; Vinciguerra, Manlio; van Rooij, Felix; Al-Lahham, Saad; Sheedfar, Fareeba; van Kooten, Theo G.; Spek, C. Arnold; Rowshani, Ajda T.; van der Want, Johannes; Klaassen, Rene; Sijbrands, Eric; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Rezaee, Farhad

    2015-03-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) hypertrophy in adipocytes is the main cause of energy metabolic system dysfunction, obesity and its afflictions such as T2D. However, the role of adipocytes in linking energy metabolic disorders with insulin regulation is unknown in humans. Human adipocytes constitutively synthesize and secrete insulin, which is biologically functional. Insulin concentrations and release are fat mass- and LDs-dependent respectively. Fat reduction mediated by bariatric surgery repairs obesity-associated T2D. The expression of genes, like PCSK1 (proinsulin conversion enzyme), GCG (Glucagon), GPLD1, CD38 and NNAT, involved in insulin regulation/release were differentially expressed in pancreas and adipose tissue (AT). INS (insulin) and GCG expression reduced in human AT-T2D as compared to AT-control, but remained unchanged in pancreas in either state. Insulin levels (mRNA/protein) were higher in AT derived from prediabetes BB rats with destructed pancreatic β-cells and controls than pancreas derived from the same rats respectively. Insulin expression in 10 human primary cell types including adipocytes and macrophages is an evidence for extrapancreatic insulin-producing cells. The data suggest a crosstalk between AT and pancreas to fine-tune energy metabolic system or may minimize the metabolic damage during diabetes. This study opens new avenues towards T2D therapy with a great impact on public health.

  9. Neuronostatin inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion via direct action on the pancreatic α-cell

    PubMed Central

    Salvatori, Alison S.; Elrick, Mollisa M.; Samson, Willis K.; Corbett, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Neuronostatin is a recently described peptide hormone encoded by the somatostatin gene. We previously showed that intraperitoneal injection of neuronostatin into mice resulted in c-Jun accumulation in pancreatic islets in a pattern consistent with the activation of glucagon-producing α-cells. We therefore hypothesized that neuronostatin could influence glucose homeostasis via a direct effect on the α-cell. Neuronostatin enhanced low-glucose-induced glucagon release in isolated rat islets and in the immortalized α-cell line αTC1-9. Furthermore, incubation with neuronostatin led to an increase in transcription of glucagon mRNA, as determined by RT-PCR. Neuronostatin also inhibited glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from isolated islets. However, neuronostatin did not alter insulin release from the β-cell line INS 832/13, indicating that the effect of neuronostatin on insulin secretion may be secondary to a direct action on the α-cell. In agreement with our in vitro data, intra-arterial infusion of neuronostatin in male rats delayed glucose disposal and inhibited insulin release during a glucose challenge. These studies suggest that neuronostatin participates in maintaining glucose homeostasis through cell-cell interactions between α-cells and β-cells in the endocrine pancreas, leading to attenuation in insulin secretion. PMID:24735892

  10. Pathogenesis of NIDDM--a disease of deficient insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Turner, R C; Matthews, D R; Clark, A; O'Rahilly, S; Rudenski, A S; Levy, J

    1988-05-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a familial disease and studies of both Caucasian and Japanese families have raised the possibility that a major susceptibility gene is involved. The majority of patients have both beta cell dysfunction and impaired insulin sensitivity but studies of relatives of Type 2 diabetic patients suggest that beta cell dysfunction is an early feature of the disease. Impaired insulin sensitivity, from acromegaly, Cushing's disease or steroid therapy, induces diabetes only in a small proportion of the population, and they may be those who have an inherited cell defect. We postulate that a single beta cell defect gene, on its own, may be insufficient to cause overt diabetes and would lead to life-long glucose intolerance unless associated with other defects such as impaired insulin sensitivity. The nature of such a postulated beta cell defect is uncertain. Whilst it has been reported to be specific to glucose, and not to non-glucose stimuli, this feature may be secondary to hyperglycaemia. The occurrence of islet amyloid in 70-90% of Type 2 diabetic patients, and rarely in the normal population, raises the possibility that amyloid deposition causing disruption of the islet is a factor which might affect beta cell function. Amyloid formation may be a primary abnormality or could be secondary to beta cell dysfunction induced by hyperglycaemia. A major susceptibility gene might predispose a proportion, perhaps 10-15%, of a Caucasian population towards diabetes. The subsequent development of diabetes in a particular patient is likely to depend on many factors including other genetic factors, a sedentary life style and obesity. In different populations different genetic influences may operate, including abnormalities of insulin receptor genes and glucose transporter genes, which may allow a beta cell abnormality to become expressed clinically. PMID:3075895

  11. Antrodia camphorata Increases Insulin Secretion and Protects from Apoptosis in MIN6 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vong, Chi Teng; Tseng, Hisa Hui Ling; Kwan, Yiu Wa; Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen; Hoi, Maggie Pui Man

    2016-01-01

    Antrodia camphorata is a Taiwanese-specific fungus which has been used clinically to treat hypertension, immune- and liver-related diseases and cancer; however, it has never been studied in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Hyperglycemia in T2DM causes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, leading to β-cell dysfunction. During chronic ER stress, misfolded proteins accumulate and initiate β-cell apoptosis. Moreover, β-cell dysfunction leads to defect in insulin secretion, which is the key process in the development and progression of T2DM. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the effects of A. camphorata on insulin secretion and ER stress-induced apoptosis in a mouse β-cell line, MIN6, and their underlying mechanisms. We demonstrated that the ethanolic extract of A. camphorata increased glucose-induced insulin secretion dose-dependently through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) pathway, and upregulated genes that were involved in insulin secretion, including PPAR-γ, glucose transporter-2 and glucokinase. Furthermore, A. camphorata slightly increased cell proliferation, as well as protected from ER stress-induced apoptosis in MIN6 cells. In conclusion, this study provided evidences that A. camphorata might have anti-diabetic effects and could be a novel drug for T2DM. PMID:27047382

  12. High passage MIN6 cells have impaired insulin secretion with impaired glucose and lipid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kim; Delghingaro-Augusto, Viviane; Nolan, Christopher J; Turner, Nigel; Hallahan, Nicole; Andrikopoulos, Sofianos; Gunton, Jenny E

    2012-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by the inability of beta-cells to secrete enough insulin to maintain glucose homeostasis. MIN6 cells secrete insulin in response to glucose and other secretagogues, but high passage (HP) MIN6 cells lose their ability to secrete insulin in response to glucose. We hypothesized that metabolism of glucose and lipids were defective in HP MIN6 cells causing impaired glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). HP MIN6 cells had no first phase and impaired second phase GSIS indicative of global functional impairment. This was coupled with a markedly reduced ATP content at basal and glucose stimulated states. Glucose uptake and oxidation were higher at basal glucose but ATP content failed to increase with glucose. HP MIN6 cells had decreased basal lipid oxidation. This was accompanied by reduced expressions of Glut1, Gck, Pfk, Srebp1c, Ucp2, Sirt3, Nampt. MIN6 cells represent an important model of beta cells which, as passage numbers increased lost first phase but retained partial second phase GSIS, similar to patients early in type 2 diabetes onset. We believe a number of gene expression changes occurred to produce this defect, with emphasis on Sirt3 and Nampt, two genes that have been implicated in maintenance of glucose homeostasis.

  13. Prenatal stress due to a natural disaster predicts insulin secretion in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Dancause, Kelsey N; Veru, Franz; Andersen, Ross E; Laplante, David P; King, Suzanne

    2013-09-01

    Prenatal stress might increase cardiometabolic disease risk. We measured prenatal stress due to an ice storm in 1998, and measured glucose tolerance among a subsample of 32 exposed adolescents in 2011. Severity of stress was positively associated with insulin secretion, suggesting that prenatal stress independently predicts metabolic outcomes in adolescence.

  14. Role of 3', 5' cyclic adenosine monophosphate and protein kinase C in the regulation of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein secretion by thyroid-stimulating hormone in isolated ovine thyroid cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, J F; Hill, D J; Becks, G P

    1994-05-01

    Isolated sheep thyroid follicles release insulin-like growth factors (IGF)-I and -II together with IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs). We previously showed that TSH suppresses the biosynthesis and release of IGFBPs in vitro which may increase the tissue availability of IGFs, allowing a synergy with TSH which potentiates both thyroid growth and function. Many of the actions of TSH on thyroid cell function are dependent upon activation of adenylate cyclase, although increased synthesis of inositol trisphosphate and activation of protein kinase C (PKC) have also been implicated. We have now examined whether probable changes in intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) or PKC are involved in TSH-mediated suppression of IGFBP release. Confluent primary cultures of ovine thyroid cells were maintained in serum-free Ham's modified F-12M medium containing transferrin, somatostatin and glycyl-histidyl-lysine (designated 3H), and further supplemented with sodium iodide (10(-8)-10(-3) mol/l), dibutyryl cAMP (0.25-1 mmol/l), forskolin (5-20 mumol/l) or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA; 10(-11)-10(-6) mol/l), with or without exposure to TSH (200 microU/ml). The uptake and organification of Na [125I] by cells was examined after test incubations of up to 48 h, and IGFBPs in conditioned media were analysed by ligand blot using 125I-labelled IGF-II. The PKC activity in the cytosol and plasma membrane fractions of cells was measured by phosphorylation of histone using [gamma-32P]ATP, and PKC immunoreactivity was visualized by Western immunoblot analysis. While dibutyryl cAMP or forskolin largely reproduced the stimulatory effect of TSH on iodine organification, they did not mimic the inhibitory effect of TSH on the secretion of IGFBPs of 43, 34, 28 and 19 kDa. Incubation with physiological or pharmacological concentrations of iodide (10(-6)-10(-3) mol/l) for up to 48 h significantly decreased TSH action on iodide uptake and organification but did not alter the

  15. Down-regulation of insulin receptors is related to insulin internalization

    SciTech Connect

    Geiger, D.; Carpentier, J.L.; Gorden, P.; Orci, L. )

    1989-11-01

    In the present study, we have tested the influence of inhibition of endocytosis by hypertonic medium on the regulation of cell surface insulin receptors. We show that active internalization of {sup 125}I-insulin is markedly inhibited by hypertonic media and that, in parallel, cell surface invaginations are significantly diminished. These two events are accompanied by a marked inhibition of cell surface insulin receptor down-regulation. These data provide further strong evidence that receptor-mediated endocytosis is the major mechanism by which insulin receptors are regulated at the surface of target cells.

  16. The Possible Mechanisms of the Impaired Insulin Secretion in Hypothyroid Rats

    PubMed Central

    Godini, Aliashraf; Ghasemi, Asghar

    2015-01-01

    Although the insulin secretion deficit in hypothyroid male rats has been documented, the underling mechanisms of the effect of hypothyroidism on insulin secretion are not clear. Isolated islets of the PTU-induced hypothyroid and control rats were exposed to glibenclamide, acetylcholine, and nifedipine in the presence of glucose concentrations of 2.8 or 8.3 and 16.7 mmol/L. Glucokinase and hexokinase specific activity, glucokinase content, and glucose transporter 2 protein expression were also determined in the isolated islets. Isolated islets from the hypothyroid rats showed a defect in insulin secretion in response to high glucose. In the presence of glibenclamide or acetylcholine, the isolated islets from the hypothyroid and control rats stimulated by glucose concentration of 16.7 mmol/L secreted similar amounts of insulin. In the presence of glucose concentrations of 8.3 mmol/L and 16.7 mmol/L, nifedipine was able to diminish insulin secretion from isolated islets of both groups, indicating that probably the defect may not arise from L type calcium channels or the steps beyond depolarization or the elements involved in the acetylcoline signaling pathway. Glucokinase content and hexokinase specific activity were also the same in the control and hypothyroid groups. On the other hand, glucokinase specific activity and glucose transporter 2 protein expression were significantly (p<0.001 and p<0.01 respectively) lower in the islets isolated from the hypothyroid rats (6.50 ± 0.46 mU/min/mg protein and 0.55 ± 0.09 arbitrary unit) compared to the controls (10.93 ± 0.83 mU/min/mg protein and 0.98 ± 0.07 arbitrary unit) respectively. In conclusion, the results of this study indicated that hypothyroidism reduced insulin secretion from isolated pancreatic islets, which confirms the finding of the previous studies; in addition, the insulin secretion deficit observed in hypothyroid rats may arise from the abnormalities in some parts of the glucose sensor apparatus of the

  17. Effect of phorbol and glucose on insulin secretion from the human fetal pancreas.

    PubMed

    Tuch, B E; Williams, P F; Handelsman, D; Dunlop, M; Grigoriou, S; Turtle, J R

    1987-04-01

    It has been reported previously that 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate is capable of stimulating the release of insulin from adult and neonatal pancreatic tissue. The data from this study show that this agent at a concentration of 1.3 uM, in the presence of 2.8 mM glucose, was unable to cause significant secretion of insulin from cultured human fetal pancreatic explants. By contrast 20 mM glucose was able to cause a small but significant immediate increase in secretion of insulin, but was unable to maintain this response beyond ten minutes. When the two agents were combined, a synergistic effect was seen throughout the entire 50 minute period of stimulation. The reason for this synergism is unclear since, whilst both secretagogues were able to cause a rise in the levels of diacylglycerol, together no extra effect was observed.

  18. Inhibition of Small Maf Function in Pancreatic β-Cells Improves Glucose Tolerance Through the Enhancement of Insulin Gene Transcription and Insulin Secretion.

    PubMed

    Nomoto, Hiroshi; Kondo, Takuma; Miyoshi, Hideaki; Nakamura, Akinobu; Hida, Yoko; Yamashita, Ken-ichiro; Sharma, Arun J; Atsumi, Tatsuya

    2015-10-01

    The large-Maf transcription factor v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A (MafA) has been found to be crucial for insulin transcription and synthesis and for pancreatic β-cell function and maturation. However, insights about the effects of small Maf factors on β-cells are limited. Our goal was to elucidate the function of small-Maf factors on β-cells using an animal model of endogenous small-Maf dysfunction. Transgenic (Tg) mice with β-cell-specific expression of dominant-negative MafK (DN-MafK) experiments, which can suppress the function of all endogenous small-Mafs, were fed a high-fat diet, and their in vivo phenotypes were evaluated. Phenotypic analysis, glucose tolerance tests, morphologic examination of β-cells, and islet experiments were performed. DN-MafK-expressed MIN6 cells were also used for in vitro analysis. The results showed that DN-MafK expression inhibited endogenous small-Maf binding to insulin promoter while increasing MafA binding. DN-MafK Tg mice under high-fat diet conditions showed improved glucose metabolism compared with control mice via incremental insulin secretion, without causing changes in insulin sensitivity or MafA expression. Moreover, up-regulation of insulin and glucokinase gene expression was observed both in vivo and in vitro under DN-MafK expression. We concluded that endogenous small-Maf factors negatively regulates β-cell function by competing for MafA binding, and thus, the inhibition of small-Maf activity can improve β-cell function. PMID:25763640

  19. Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells can secrete insulin in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Boroujeni, Zahra Niki; Aleyasin, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is characterized by autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells, leading to decreased insulin production. Differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into insulin-producing cells offers novel ways of diabetes treatment. MSCs can be isolated from the human umbilical cord tissue and differentiate into insulin-secreting cells. Human umbilical cord-derived stem cells (hUDSCs) were obtained after birth, selected by plastic adhesion, and characterized by flow cytometric analysis. hUDSCs were transduced with nonintegrated lentivirus harboring PDX1 (nonintegrated LV-PDX1) and was cultured in differentiation medium in 21 days. Pancreatic duodenum homeobox protein-1 (PDX1) is a transcription factor in pancreatic development. Significant expressions of PDX1, neurogenin3 (Ngn3), glucagon, glucose transporter2 (Glut2), and somatostatin were detected by quantitative RT-PCR (P < 0.05). PDX1 and insulin proteins were shown by immunocytochemistry analysis. Insulin secretion of hUDSCs(PDX1+) in the high-glucose medium was 1.8 μU/mL. They were used for treatment of diabetic rats and could decrease the blood glucose level from 400 mg/dL to a normal level in 4 days. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that hUDSCs are able to differentiate into insulin-producing cells by transduction with nonintegrated LV-PDX1. These hUDSCs(PDX1+) have the potential to be used as a viable resource in cell-based gene therapy of type 1 diabetes.

  20. Decreased basal insulin secretion from pancreatic islets of pups in a rat model of maternal obesity.

    PubMed

    Zambrano, Elena; Sosa-Larios, Tonantzin; Calzada, Lizbeth; Ibáñez, Carlos A; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Carmen A; Morales, Angélica; Morimoto, Sumiko

    2016-10-01

    Maternal obesity (MO) is a deleterious condition that enhances susceptibility of adult offspring to metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes. The objective is to study the effect of MO on in vitro insulin secretion and pancreatic cellular population in offspring. We hypothesize that a harmful antenatal metabolic environment due to MO diminishes the basal glucose-responsive secretory function of pancreatic beta cells in offspring. Mothers were fed a control (C) or high-fat diet from weaning through pregnancy (120 days) and lactation. At postnatal days (PNDs) 36 and 110, pups were killed, peripheral blood was collected and pancreatic islets were isolated. Basal insulin secretion was measured in vitro in islets for 60 min. It was found that blood insulin, glucose and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index were unaffected by maternal diet and age in females. However, male MO offspring at PND 110 showed hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance compared with C. Body weight was not modified by MO, but fat content was higher in MO pups compared with C pups. Triglycerides and leptin concentrations were higher in MO than in C offspring in all groups except in females at PND 36. Pancreatic islet cytoarchitecture was unaffected by MO. At PND 36, islets of male and female C and MO offspring responded similarly to glucose, but at PND 110, male and female MO offspring islets showed a 50% decrease in insulin secretion. It was concluded that MO impairs basal insulin secretion of offspring with a greater impact on males than females, and this effect mainly manifests in adulthood. PMID:27496224

  1. A low-protein diet during pregnancy alters glucose metabolism and insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Souza, Denise de Fátima I; Ignácio-Souza, Letícia M; Reis, Sílvia Regina de L; Reis, Marise Auxiliadora de B; Stoppiglia, Luiz Fabrizio; Carneiro, Everardo Magalhães; Boschero, Antonio Carlos; Arantes, Vanessa Cristina; Latorraca, Márcia Queiroz

    2012-03-01

    In pancreatic islets, glucose metabolism is a key process for insulin secretion, and pregnancy requires an increase in insulin secretion to compensate for the typical insulin resistance at the end of this period. Because a low-protein diet decreases insulin secretion, this type of diet could impair glucose homeostasis, leading to gestational diabetes. In pancreatic islets, we investigated GLUT2, glucokinase and hexokinase expression patterns as well as glucose uptake, utilization and oxidation rates. Adult control non-pregnant (CNP) and control pregnant (CP) rats were fed a normal protein diet (17%), whereas low-protein non-pregnant (LPNP) and low-protein pregnant (LPP) rats were fed a low-protein diet (6%) from days 1 to 15 of pregnancy. The insulin secretion in 2.8 mmol l(-1) of glucose was higher in islets from LPP rats than that in islets from CP, CNP and LPNP rats. Maximal insulin release was obtained at 8.3 and 16.7 mmol l(-1) of glucose in LPP and CP groups, respectively. The glucose dose-response curve from LPNP group was shifted to the right in relation to the CNP group. In the CP group, the concentration-response curve to glucose was shifted to the left compared with the CNP group. The LPP groups exhibited an "inverted U-shape" dose-response curve. The alterations in the GLUT2, glucokinase and hexokinase expression patterns neither impaired glucose metabolism nor correlated with glucose islet sensitivity, suggesting that β-cell sensitivity to glucose requires secondary events other than the observed metabolic/molecular events. PMID:22034157

  2. Continuous monitoring of ATP levels in living insulin secreting cells expressing cytosolic firefly luciferase.

    PubMed

    Maechler, P; Wang, H; Wollheim, C B

    1998-02-01

    The second messenger role of ATP in insulin secretion was investigated in living INS-1 insulinoma cells. ATP-dependent luminescence was monitored in cells expressing high levels of firefly luciferase under the control of the tetracycline-dependent transactivator. The calibration of luminescence in permeabilized cells yielded similar ATP levels as those obtained in cell extracts with a conventional ATP assay. Stimulation of insulin secretion by glucose or methyl-succinate was correlated with rises of cellular ATP in simultaneous measurements. ATP generation was decreased by inhibition of the ADP-ATP translocase. This approach demonstrates the feasibility of defining the dynamic relationship between ATP and other parameters involved in metabolism-secretion coupling.

  3. Effect of almonds on insulin secretion and insulin resistance in nondiabetic hyperlipidemic subjects: a randomized controlled crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David J A; Kendall, Cyril W C; Marchie, Augustine; Josse, Andrea R; Nguyen, Tri H; Faulkner, Dorothea A; Lapsley, Karen G; Singer, William

    2008-07-01

    Nuts appear to have a marked effect in cohort studies in reducing the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), but their demonstrated ability to lower cholesterol can only explain a proportion of the reduction in risk. Our aim was to assess whether improvement in carbohydrate metabolism provides a further explanation for the effect of nuts in reducing CHD. The effects of whole almonds, taken as snacks, were compared with the effects of low saturated fat (<5% energy) whole-wheat muffins (control) in the therapeutic diets of hyperlipidemic subjects. In a randomized crossover study, 27 hyperlipidemic men and women consumed 3 isoenergetic (mean, 423 kcal/d) supplements each for 1 month. Supplements provided 22.2% of energy and consisted of full-dose almonds (73 +/- 3 g/d), half-dose almonds plus half-dose muffins, and full-dose muffins. Subjects were assessed at weeks 0, 2, and 4 and fasting blood samples were obtained. Twenty-four-hour urinary output was collected at the end of week 4 on each treatment. Mean body weights differed by less than 300 g between treatments. No differences were seen in baseline or treatment values for fasting glucose, insulin, C-peptide, or insulin resistance as measured by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. However, 24-hour urinary C-peptide output as a marker of 24-hour insulin secretion was significantly reduced on the half-and full-dose almonds by comparison to the control after adjustment for urinary creatinine output (P = .002 and P = .004, respectively). We conclude that reductions in 24-hour insulin secretion appear to be a further metabolic advantage of nuts that in the longer term may help to explain the association of nut consumption with reduced CHD risk.

  4. Human marrow-derived mesodermal progenitor cells generate insulin-secreting islet-like clusters in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ai, Cuiwei; Todorov, Ivan; Slovak, Marilyn L; Digiusto, David; Forman, Stephen J; Shih, Chu-Chih

    2007-10-01

    Transplantation of pancreatic islet cells is the only known potential cure for diabetes mellitus. However, the difficulty in obtaining sufficient numbers of purified islets for transplantation severely limits its use. A renewable and clinically accessible source of stem cells capable of differentiating into insulin-secreting beta-cells might circumvent this limitation. Here, we report that human fetal bone marrow (BM)-derived mesodermal progenitor cells (MPCs) possess the potential to generate insulinsecreting islet-like clusters (ISILCs) when injected into human fetal pancreatic tissues implanted in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. Seven essential genes involved in pancreatic endocrine development, including insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, pdx-1, glut-2, nkx 2.2, and nkx 6.1, are expressed in these BM-MPC-derived ISILCs, suggesting that ISILCs are generated through neogenesis of BM-MPCs. Our data further suggest that differentiation of BM-MPCs into ISILCs is not mediated by cell fusion. Insulin secretion from these ISILCs is regulated by glucose concentration in vitro, and transplantation of purified ISILCs normalizes hyperglycemia in streptozocin (STZ)- induced nonobese diabetic (NOD)/SCID mice.

  5. Metabolic disturbances and defects in insulin secretion in rats with streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    Szkudelski, T; Zywert, A; Szkudelska, K

    2013-01-01

    Rats with diabetes induced by streptozotocin (STZ) and nicotinamide (NA) are often used in animal studies concerning various aspects of diabetes. In this experimental model, the severity of diabetes is different depending on doses of STZ and NA. Moreover, diabetic changes in rats with STZ-NA-induced diabetes are not fully characterized. In our present study, metabolic changes and insulin secretion were investigated in rats with diabetes induced by administration of 60 mg of STZ and 90 mg of NA per kg body weight. Four to six weeks after diabetes induction, insulin, glucagon and some metabolic parameters were determined to evaluate the severity of diabetes. Moreover, insulin secretory capacity of pancreatic islets isolated from control and diabetic rats was compared. It was demonstrated that administration of 60 mg of STZ and 90 mg of NA per kg body weight induced relatively mild diabetes, since insulin, glucagon and other analyzed parameters were only slightly affected in diabetic rats compared with control animals. In vitro studies revealed that insulin secretory response was preserved in pancreatic islets of diabetic rats, however, was lower than in islets of control animals. This effect was observed in the presence of different stimuli. Insulin secretion induced by 6.7 and 16.7 mmol/l glucose was moderately reduced in islets of diabetic rats compared with control islets. In the presence of leucine with glutamine, insulin secretion appeared to be also decreased in islets of rats with STZ-NA-induced diabetes. Insulinotropic action of 6.7 mmol/l glucose with forskolin was also deteriorated in diabetic islets. Moreover, it was demonstrated that at a non-stimulatory glucose, pharmacological depolarization of plasma membrane with a concomitant activation of protein kinase C evoked significant rise in insulin release in islets of control and diabetic rats. However, in diabetic islets, this effect was attenuated. These results indicate that impairment in insulin

  6. TCF7L2 is a master regulator of insulin production and processing

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yuedan; Park, Soo-Young; Su, Jing; Bailey, Kathleen; Ottosson-Laakso, Emilia; Shcherbina, Liliya; Oskolkov, Nikolay; Zhang, Enming; Thevenin, Thomas; Fadista, João; Bennet, Hedvig; Vikman, Petter; Wierup, Nils; Fex, Malin; Rung, Johan; Wollheim, Claes; Nobrega, Marcelo; Renström, Erik; Groop, Leif; Hansson, Ola

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have revealed >60 loci associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the underlying causal variants and functional mechanisms remain largely elusive. Although variants in TCF7L2 confer the strongest risk of T2D among common variants by presumed effects on islet function, the molecular mechanisms are not yet well understood. Using RNA-sequencing, we have identified a TCF7L2-regulated transcriptional network responsible for its effect on insulin secretion in rodent and human pancreatic islets. ISL1 is a primary target of TCF7L2 and regulates proinsulin production and processing via MAFA, PDX1, NKX6.1, PCSK1, PCSK2 and SLC30A8, thereby providing evidence for a coordinated regulation of insulin production and processing. The risk T-allele of rs7903146 was associated with increased TCF7L2 expression, and decreased insulin content and secretion. Using gene expression profiles of 66 human pancreatic islets donors’, we also show that the identified TCF7L2-ISL1 transcriptional network is regulated in a genotype-dependent manner. Taken together, these results demonstrate that not only synthesis of proinsulin is regulated by TCF7L2 but also processing and possibly clearance of proinsulin and insulin. These multiple targets in key pathways may explain why TCF7L2 has emerged as the gene showing one of the strongest associations with T2D. PMID:25015099

  7. Preptin derived from proinsulin-like growth factor II (proIGF-II) is secreted from pancreatic islet beta-cells and enhances insulin secretion.

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, C M; Phillips, A R; Cooper, G J

    2001-01-01

    Pancreatic islet beta-cells secrete the hormones insulin, amylin and pancreastatin. To search for further beta-cell hormones, we purified peptides from secretory granules isolated from cultured murine beta TC6-F7 beta-cells. We identified a 34-amino-acid peptide (3948 Da), corresponding to Asp(69)-Leu(102) of the proinsulin-like growth factor II E-peptide, which we have termed 'preptin'. Preptin, is present in islet beta-cells and undergoes glucose-mediated co-secretion with insulin. Synthetic preptin increases insulin secretion from glucose-stimulated beta TC6-F7 cells in a concentration-dependent and saturable manner. Preptin infusion into the isolated, perfused rat pancreas increases the second phase of glucose-mediated insulin secretion by 30%, while anti-preptin immunoglobulin infusion decreases the first and second phases of insulin secretion by 29 and 26% respectively. These findings suggest that preptin is a physiological amplifier of glucose-mediated insulin secretion. PMID:11716772

  8. Signal transduction in insulin secretion: comparison between fuel stimuli and receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Wollheim, C B; Biden, T J

    1986-01-01

    The initial events in signal transduction in insulin-secreting cells are summarized in FIGURE 8. Both nutrient stimuli, such as glucose and amino acids and the muscarinic agonist carbachol (carbamylcholine) raise [Ca2+]i. Although the rise in [Ca2+]i precedes the stimulation of insulin release, it is not a moment-to-moment regulator of release. The metabolizable fuel stimuli cause Ca2+ influx through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels following depolarization of the membrane potential. In contrast, carbachol, which does not depolarize, elicits Ptd Ins 4,5-P2 hydrolysis, a reaction catalyzed by phospholipase C. The generation of Ins 1,4,5-P3 in this instance is Ca2+ independent, but appears to involve a GTP-binding protein. However, this protein is not a substrate for pertussis toxin. The levels of Ins 1,4,5-P3, which releases Ca2+ from an ATP-dependent Ca2+ pool of the endoplasmic reticulum, are increased prior to the rise in [Ca2+]i. The mitochondria may take up Ca2+ after large increases in [Ca2+]i. A previously proposed second messenger, arachidonic acid, is much less selective than Ins 1,4,5-P3 in that it releases Ca2+ from mitochondria as well as from the endoplasmic reticulum in a slow and irreversible manner. As Ins 1,4,5-P3 is also generated during glucose stimulation of islets, albeit in a Ca2+-dependent manner, this metabolite could mediate not only the action of carbachol but also contribute to amplifying the [Ca2+]i rise in response to glucose.

  9. Protein co-ingestion strongly increases postprandial insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Manders, Ralph J F; Hansen, Dominique; Zorenc, Antoine H G; Dendale, Paul; Kloek, Joris; Saris, Wim H M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2014-07-01

    The capacity of nutritional protein to induce endogenous insulin secretion has been well established. However, it is not known whether such a response is applicable in a diverse population of type 2 diabetes patients. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of co-ingesting either intact or hydrolyzed protein with carbohydrate on postprandial plasma insulin and glucose responses in type 2 diabetes patients. Sixty longstanding, male, type 2 diabetes patients participated in a study in which we determined postprandial plasma insulin and glucose responses after ingesting a single bolus of carbohydrate (0.7 g/kg: CHO) with or without an intact protein (0.3 g/kg: PRO) or its hydrolysate (0.3 g/kg: PROh). Results showed that protein co-ingestion strongly increased postprandial insulin release, with the insulin response +99 ± 41 and +110 ± 10% greater in the CHO+PRO and CHO+PROh experiments when compared with the CHO experiment. The insulinotropic properties of protein co-ingestion were evident in nearly all patients, with 58 out of 60 patients responding >10% when compared with the insulin response following carbohydrate ingestion only (CHO). The concomitant plasma glucose responses were 22 ± 32 and 23 ± 36% lower in the CHO+PRO and CHO+PROh experiments, respectively. We conclude that protein co-ingestion represents an effective dietary strategy to strongly augment postprandial insulin release and attenuate the postprandial rise in glucose concentration in type 2 diabetes patients.

  10. Genome-Wide Interaction with Insulin Secretion Loci Reveals Novel Loci for Type 2 Diabetes in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Keaton, Jacob M.; Hellwege, Jacklyn N.; Ng, Maggie C. Y.; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Pankow, James S.; Fornage, Myriam; Wilson, James G.; Correa, Adolfo; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Chen, Yii-Der I.; Taylor, Kent D.; Rich, Stephen S.; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Freedman, Barry I.; Bowden, Donald W.

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is the result of metabolic defects in insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity, yet most T2D loci identified to date influence insulin secretion. We hypothesized that T2D loci, particularly those affecting insulin sensitivity, can be identified through interaction with insulin secretion loci. To test this hypothesis, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with acute insulin response to glucose (AIRg), a dynamic measure of first-phase insulin secretion, were identified in African Americans from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study (IRASFS; n = 492 subjects). These SNPs were tested for interaction, individually and jointly as a genetic risk score (GRS), using genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from five cohorts (ARIC, CARDIA, JHS, MESA, WFSM; n = 2,725 cases, 4,167 controls) with T2D as the outcome. In single variant analyses, suggestively significant (Pinteraction<5×10−6) interactions were observed at several loci including LYPLAL1 (rs10746381), CHN2 (rs7796525), and EXOC1 (rs4289500). Notable AIRg GRS interactions were observed with SAMD4A (rs11627203) and UTRN (rs17074194). These data support the hypothesis that additional genetic factors contributing to T2D risk can be identified by interactions with insulin secretion loci. PMID:27448167

  11. Genome-Wide Interaction with Insulin Secretion Loci Reveals Novel Loci for Type 2 Diabetes in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Keaton, Jacob M; Hellwege, Jacklyn N; Ng, Maggie C Y; Palmer, Nicholette D; Pankow, James S; Fornage, Myriam; Wilson, James G; Correa, Adolfo; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Rotter, Jerome I; Chen, Yii-Der I; Taylor, Kent D; Rich, Stephen S; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Freedman, Barry I; Bowden, Donald W

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is the result of metabolic defects in insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity, yet most T2D loci identified to date influence insulin secretion. We hypothesized that T2D loci, particularly those affecting insulin sensitivity, can be identified through interaction with insulin secretion loci. To test this hypothesis, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with acute insulin response to glucose (AIRg), a dynamic measure of first-phase insulin secretion, were identified in African Americans from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study (IRASFS; n = 492 subjects). These SNPs were tested for interaction, individually and jointly as a genetic risk score (GRS), using genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from five cohorts (ARIC, CARDIA, JHS, MESA, WFSM; n = 2,725 cases, 4,167 controls) with T2D as the outcome. In single variant analyses, suggestively significant (Pinteraction<5×10-6) interactions were observed at several loci including LYPLAL1 (rs10746381), CHN2 (rs7796525), and EXOC1 (rs4289500). Notable AIRg GRS interactions were observed with SAMD4A (rs11627203) and UTRN (rs17074194). These data support the hypothesis that additional genetic factors contributing to T2D risk can be identified by interactions with insulin secretion loci. PMID:27448167

  12. Chronic reduction of GIP secretion alleviates obesity and insulin resistance under high-fat diet conditions.

    PubMed

    Nasteska, Daniela; Harada, Norio; Suzuki, Kazuyo; Yamane, Shunsuke; Hamasaki, Akihiro; Joo, Erina; Iwasaki, Kanako; Shibue, Kimitaka; Harada, Takanari; Inagaki, Nobuya

    2014-07-01

    Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) exhibits potent insulinotropic effects on β-cells and anabolic effects on bone formation and fat accumulation. We explored the impact of reduced GIP levels in vivo on glucose homeostasis, bone formation, and fat accumulation in a novel GIP-GFP knock-in (KI) mouse. We generated GIP-GFP KI mice with a truncated prepro-GIP gene. The phenotype was assessed in heterozygous and homozygous states in mice on a control fat diet and a high-fat diet (HFD) in vivo and in vitro. Heterozygous GIP-GFP KI mice (GIP-reduced mice [GIP(gfp/+)]) exhibited reduced GIP secretion; in the homozygous state (GIP-lacking mice [GIP(gfp/gfp)]), GIP secretion was undetectable. When fed standard chow, GIP(gfp/+) and GIP(gfp/gfp) mice showed mild glucose intolerance with decreased insulin levels; bone volume was decreased in GIP(gfp/gfp) mice and preserved in GIP(gfp/+) mice. Under an HFD, glucose levels during an oral glucose tolerance test were similar in wild-type, GIP(gfp/+), and GIP(gfp/gfp) mice, while insulin secretion remained lower. GIP(gfp/+) and GIP(gfp/gfp) mice showed reduced obesity and reduced insulin resistance, accompanied by higher fat oxidation and energy expenditure. GIP-reduced mice demonstrate that partial reduction of GIP does not extensively alter glucose tolerance, but it alleviates obesity and lessens the degree of insulin resistance under HFD conditions, suggesting a potential therapeutic value.

  13. A case of insulin and ACTH co-secretion by a neuroendocrine tumour

    PubMed Central

    Solomou, S; Khan, R; Propper, D; Berney, D; Druce, M

    2014-01-01

    Summary A 33-year-old male was diagnosed with a metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma of uncertain primary. He defaulted from follow-up without therapy and some months later developed episodic severe hypoglycaemia, which was found to be associated with inappropriately elevated insulin and C-peptide levels. It was considered likely that the neuroendocrine tumour was the source of the insulin secretion. Diazoxide and somatostatin analogue were used to control hypoglycaemia. Much later in the course of the disease, he developed metabolic derangement, increased skin pigmentation and psychological disturbance, without frankly Cushingoid physical findings. Investigations revealed highly elevated cortisol levels (the levels having previously been normal) with markedly raised ACTH levels, consistent with the co-secretion of ACTH and insulin by the tumour. Treatment with metyrapone improved his psychological state and electrolyte imbalance. Unfortunately, despite several cycles of first-, second- and third-line chemotherapy from the start of the first hormonal presentation onwards, imaging revealed widespread progressive metastatic disease and the patient eventually passed away. This case highlights the importance of keeping in mind the biochemical heterogeneity of endocrine tumours during their treatment. Learning points The clinical presentation of insulin-secreting tumours includes symptoms of neuroglycopaenia and sympathetic overstimulation.Tumour-associated hypoglycaemia can be due to pancreatic insulinomas, and although ectopic hormone production occurs in a number of tumours, ectopic secretion of insulin is rare.A possible switch in the type of hormone produced can occur during the growth and progression of neuroendocrine tumours and, when treating neuroendocrine tumours, it is important to keep in mind their biochemical heterogeneity. PMID:24683485

  14. Nuclear SREBP-1a causes loss of pancreatic {beta}-cells and impaired insulin secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Iwasaki, Yuko; Iwasaki, Hitoshi; Yatoh, Shigeru; Ishikawa, Mayumi; Kato, Toyonori; Matsuzaka, Takashi; Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Yahagi, Naoya; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Takahashi, Akimitsu; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Shimano, Hitoshi

    2009-01-16

    Transgenic mice expressing nuclear sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1a under the control of the insulin promoter were generated to determine the role of SREBP-1a in pancreatic {beta}-cells. Only low expressors could be established, which exhibited mild hyperglycemia, impaired glucose tolerance, and reduced plasma insulin levels compared to C57BL/6 controls. The islets isolated from the transgenic mice were fewer and smaller, and had decreased insulin content and unaltered glucagon staining. Both glucose- and potassium-stimulated insulin secretions were decreased. The transgenic islets consistently expressed genes for fatty acids and cholesterol synthesis, resulting in accumulation of triglycerides but not cholesterol. PDX-1, {beta}{epsilon}{tau}{alpha}2, MafA, and IRS-2 were suppressed, partially explaining the loss and dysfunction of {beta}-cell mass. The transgenic mice on a high fat/high sucrose diet still exhibited impaired insulin secretion and continuous {beta}-cell growth defect. Therefore, nuclear SREBP-1a, even at a low level, strongly disrupts {beta}-cell mass and function.

  15. Changes of insulin sensitivity and secretion after bariatric/metabolic surgery.

    PubMed

    Mingrone, Geltrude; Cummings, David E

    2016-07-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is classically characterized by failure of pancreatic β-cell function and insulin secretion to compensate for a prevailing level of insulin resistance, typically associated with visceral obesity. Although this is usually a chronic, progressive disease in which delay of end-organ complications is the primary therapeutic goal for medical and behavioral approaches, several types of bariatric surgery, especially those that include intestinal bypass components, exert powerful antidiabetes effects to yield remission of T2D in most cases. It has become increasingly clear that in addition to the known benefits of acute caloric restriction and chronic weight loss to ameliorate T2D, bariatric/metabolic operations also engage a variety of weight-independent mechanisms to improve glucose homeostasis, enhancing insulin sensitivity and secretion to varying degrees depending on the specific operation. In this paper, we review the effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, biliopancreatic diversion, and vertical sleeve gastrectomy on the primary determinants of glucose homeostasis: insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and, to the lesser extent that it is known, insulin-independent glucose disposal. A full understanding of these effects should help optimize surgical and device-based designs to provide maximal antidiabetes impact, and it holds the promise to identify targets for possible novel diabetes pharmacotherapeutics. These insights also contribute to the conceptual rationale for use of bariatric operations as "metabolic surgery," employed primarily to treat T2D, including among patients not obese enough to qualify for surgery based on traditional criteria related to high body mass index. PMID:27568471

  16. Effects of pancreatic polypeptide on insulin action in exocrine secretion of isolated rat pancreas.

    PubMed Central

    Park, H J; Lee, Y L; Kwon, H Y

    1993-01-01

    1. Effects of pancreatic polypeptide (PP) on insulin action in pancreatic exocrine secretion was investigated by using an isolated rat pancreas that was perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution containing 2.5 mM glucose, 0.1% bovine serum albumin and 3% Dextran T-70 at a vascular flow rate of 1.2 ml min-1. 2. Cholecystokinin-8 (CCK-8) at a concentration of 14 pM stimulated basal flow rate and amylase output of the isolated pancreas. Twenty-five millimolar glucose not only increased the basal flow rate and amylase output but also potentiated the CCK-stimulated flow rate and amylase output. 3. Porcine insulin, administered intra-arterially at a concentration of 100 nM, also increased the basal flow rate and amylase output, and also potentiated the CCK-stimulated flow rate and amylase output. 4. Rat PP, given intra-arterially at a concentration of 10 pM, completely abolished the potentiation effects of both the 25 mM glucose and the exogenous insulin on the CCK-stimulated flow rate and amylase output. Rat PP also inhibited the flow rate and amylase output increased by either 25 mM glucose alone or exogenous insulin alone. However, rat PP did not change the flow rate and amylase output stimulated by CCK-8 alone. 5. These results indicate that insulin is an important stimulatory hormone of pancreatic exocrine secretion, and that PP exerts the inhibitory role in pancreatic exocrine secretion by modulating the insulin action. PMID:7504106

  17. GGPPS-mediated Rab27A geranylgeranylation regulates β cell dysfunction during type 2 diabetes development by affecting insulin granule docked pool formation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shan; Shen, Di; Jia, Wen-Jun; Han, Xiao; Shen, Ning; Tao, Weiwei; Gao, Xiang; Xue, Bin; Li, Chao-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Loss of first-phase insulin secretion associated with β cell dysfunction is an independent predictor of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) onset. Here we found that a critical enzyme involved in protein prenylation, geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase (GGPPS), is required to maintain first-phase insulin secretion. GGPPS shows a biphasic expression pattern in islets of db/db mice during the progression of T2DM: GGPPS is increased during the insulin compensatory period, followed by a decrease during β cell dysfunction. Ggpps deletion in β cells results in typical T2DM β cell dysfunction, with blunted glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and consequent insulin secretion insufficiency. However, the number and size of islets and insulin biosynthesis are unaltered. Transmission electron microscopy shows a reduced number of insulin granules adjacent to the cellular membrane, suggesting a defect in docked granule pool formation, while the reserve pool is unaffected. Ggpps ablation depletes GGPP and impairs Rab27A geranylgeranylation, which is responsible for the docked pool deficiency in Ggpps-null mice. Moreover, GGPPS re-expression or GGPP administration restore glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in Ggpps-null islets. These results suggest that GGPPS-controlled protein geranylgeranylation, which regulates formation of the insulin granule docked pool, is critical for β cell function and insulin release during the development of T2DM.

  18. Influence of Endogenous Insulin Secretion on Splanchnic Glucose and Amino Acid Metabolism in Man

    PubMed Central

    Felig, Philip; Wahren, John

    1971-01-01

    Splanchnic exchange of glucose, 20 individual amino acids, lactate, and pyruvate was studied in normal subjects in the postabsorptive state and after stimulation of endogenous insulin secretion by infusion of glucose at two dose levels. In the basal state, mean splanchnic glucose production was 3.4 mg/kg per min. A net uptake of lactate, pyruvate, and nine amino acids was observed, with alanine accounting for half of the total splanchnic-amino acid extraction. Infusion of glucose at 25 mg/kg per min for 20 min resulted in a fivefold increase in arterial insulin levels and in reversal of splanchnic glucose balance to a net uptake. Splanchnic uptake of alanine, glycine, phenylalanine, lactate, and pyruvate fell by 30-60% due to a reduction in fractional extraction of these substrates, inasmuch as their arterial concentrations did not decline. Administration of glucose at 2 mg/kg per min for 45 min resulted in a 19 mg/100 ml increase in arterial glucose concentration and a doubling of arterial insulin levels. Despite the small increment in insulin, hepatic glucose production fell by 85%. Splanchnic exchange of amino acids, lactate, and pyruvate was unaltered. Estimated total glucose utilization during the infusion was no greater than in the basal state, indicating lack of stimulation of peripheral glucose uptake. It is concluded that: (a) inhibition of hepatic glucose production associated with glucose infusion and large increments in insulin levels occurs in the absence of a decrease in the concentration of circulating gluconeogenic substrate, suggesting an hepatic rather than peripheral effect; (b) the liver is the primary target organ whereby glucose homeostasis is achieved with small increments in insulin; (c) the relatively greater sensitivity of the liver's response to insulin as compared with an effect of insulin on the peripheral tissues, may be a consequence of the higher levels of endogenous insulin in portal as compared with peripheral blood. PMID:5097575

  19. Essential role of mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter in the generation of mitochondrial pH gradient and metabolism-secretion coupling in insulin-releasing cells.

    PubMed

    Quan, Xianglan; Nguyen, Tuyet Thi; Choi, Seong-Kyung; Xu, Shanhua; Das, Ranjan; Cha, Seung-Kuy; Kim, Nari; Han, Jin; Wiederkehr, Andreas; Wollheim, Claes B; Park, Kyu-Sang

    2015-02-13

    In pancreatic β-cells, ATP acts as a signaling molecule initiating plasma membrane electrical activity linked to Ca(2+) influx, which triggers insulin exocytosis. The mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU) mediates Ca(2+) uptake into the organelle, where energy metabolism is further stimulated for sustained second phase insulin secretion. Here, we have studied the contribution of the MCU to the regulation of oxidative phosphorylation and metabolism-secretion coupling in intact and permeabilized clonal β-cells as well as rat pancreatic islets. Knockdown of MCU with siRNA transfection blunted matrix Ca(2+) rises, decreased nutrient-stimulated ATP production as well as insulin secretion. Furthermore, MCU knockdown lowered the expression of respiratory chain complexes, mitochondrial metabolic activity, and oxygen consumption. The pH gradient formed across the inner mitochondrial membrane following nutrient stimulation was markedly lowered in MCU-silenced cells. In contrast, nutrient-induced hyperpolarization of the electrical gradient was not altered. In permeabilized cells, knockdown of MCU ablated matrix acidification in response to extramitochondrial Ca(2+). Suppression of the putative Ca(2+)/H(+) antiporter leucine zipper-EF hand-containing transmembrane protein 1 (LETM1) also abolished Ca(2+)-induced matrix acidification. These results demonstrate that MCU-mediated Ca(2+) uptake is essential to establish a nutrient-induced mitochondrial pH gradient which is critical for sustained ATP synthesis and metabolism-secretion coupling in insulin-releasing cells.

  20. Role for AMP-activated protein kinase in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and preproinsulin gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Xavier, Gabriela; Leclerc, Isabelle; Varadi, Aniko; Tsuboi, Takashi; Moule, S Kelly; Rutter, Guy A

    2003-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has recently been implicated in the control of preproinsulin gene expression in pancreatic islet beta-cells [da Silva Xavier, Leclerc, Salt, Doiron, Hardie, Kahn and Rutter (2000) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 4023-4028]. Using pharmacological and molecular strategies to regulate AMPK activity in rat islets and clonal MIN6 beta-cells, we show here that the effects of AMPK are exerted largely upstream of insulin release. Thus forced increases in AMPK activity achieved pharmacologically with 5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide riboside (AICAR), or by adenoviral overexpression of a truncated, constitutively active form of the enzyme (AMPK alpha 1.T(172)D), blocked glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. In MIN6 cells, activation of AMPK suppressed glucose metabolism, as assessed by changes in total, cytosolic or mitochondrial [ATP] and NAD(P)H, and reduced increases in intracellular [Ca(2+)] caused by either glucose or tolbutamide. By contrast, inactivation of AMPK by expression of a dominant-negative form of the enzyme mutated in the catalytic site (AMPK alpha 1.D(157)A) did not affect glucose-stimulated increases in [ATP], NAD(P)H or intracellular [Ca(2+)], but led to the unregulated release of insulin. These results indicate that inhibition of AMPK by glucose is essential for the activation of insulin secretion by the sugar, and may contribute to the transcriptional stimulation of the preproinsulin gene. Modulation of AMPK activity in the beta-cell may thus represent a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:12589707

  1. Developmental and nutritional regulation of isoflavone secretion from soybean roots.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Akifumi; Yamazaki, Yumi; Yamashita, Kazuaki; Takahashi, Seiji; Nakayama, Toru; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2015-01-01

    Isoflavones play important roles in plant-microbe interactions in rhizospheres. Soybean roots secrete daidzein and genistein to attract rhizobia. Despite the importance of isoflavones in plant-microbe interactions, little is known about the developmental and nutritional regulation of isoflavone secretion from soybean roots. In this study, soybeans were grown in hydroponic culture, and isoflavone contents in tissues, isoflavone secretion from the roots, and the expression of isoflavone conjugates hydrolyzing beta-glucosidase (ICHG) were investigated. Isoflavone contents did not show strong growth-dependent changes, while secretion of daidzein from the roots dramatically changed, with higher secretion during vegetative stages. Coordinately, the expression of ICHG also peaked at vegetative stages. Nitrogen deficiency resulted in 8- and 15-fold increases in secretion of daidzein and genistein, respectively, with no induction of ICHG. Taken together, these results suggest that large amounts of isoflavones were secreted during vegetative stages via the hydrolysis of (malonyl)glucosides with ICHG. PMID:26168358

  2. Novel therapy for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: infusion of in vitro-generated insulin-secreting cells.

    PubMed

    Dave, S D; Vanikar, A V; Trivedi, H L; Thakkar, U G; Gopal, S C; Chandra, T

    2015-02-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is a metabolic disease usually resulting from autoimmune-mediated β-cell destruction requiring lifetime exogenous insulin replacement. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) hold promising therapy. We present our experience of treating IDDM with co-infusion of in vitro autologous adipose tissue-derived MSC-differentiated insulin-secreting cells (ISC) with hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). This was an Institutional Review Board approved prospective non-randomized open-labeled clinical trial after informed consent from ten patients. ISC were differentiated from autologous adipose tissue-derived MSC and were infused with bone marrow-derived HSC in portal, thymic circulation by mini-laparotomy and in subcutaneous circulation. Patients were monitored for blood sugar levels, serum C-peptide levels, glycosylated hemoglobin (Hb1Ac) and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibodies. Insulin administration was made on sliding scale with an objective of maintaining FBS < 150 mg/dL and PPBS around 200 mg/dL. Mean 3.34 mL cell inoculums with 5.25 × 10(4) cells/μL were infused. No untoward effects were observed. Over a mean follow-up of 31.71 months, mean serum C-peptide of 0.22 ng/mL before infusion had sustained rise of 0.92 ng/mL with decreased exogenous insulin requirement from 63.9 international units (IU)/day to 38.6 IU/day. Improvement in mean Hb1Ac was observed from 10.99 to 6.72%. Mean GAD antibodies were positive in all patients with mean of 331.10 IU/mL, which decreased to mean of 123 IU/mL. Co-infusion of autologous ISC with HSC represents a viable novel therapeutic option for IDDM.

  3. Aqueous extract of Abutilon indicum Sweet inhibits glucose absorption and stimulates insulin secretion in rodents.

    PubMed

    Krisanapun, Chutwadee; Peungvicha, Penchom; Temsiririrkkul, Rungravi; Wongkrajang, Yuvadee

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic effects of the aqueous extract derived from the Thai Abutilon indicum Sweet plant and to explore its effects on intestinal glucose absorption and insulin secretion. The authors hypothesized that the plasma glucose level could be reduced through the inhibition of glucose absorption and/or the enhancement of insulin secretion. Administration of the extract (0.5 and 1 g/kg body weight) in an oral glucose tolerance test led to a significant reduction in plasma glucose levels in 30 minutes after the administration in moderately diabetic rats, as compared with untreated rats (P < .05), and this was at a faster rate than the use of an antidiabetic drug, glibenclamide. The inhibition of glucose absorption through the small intestine was investigated using an everted intestinal sac. The results showed that the extract at concentrations of 0.156 to 5 mg/mL caused a reduction of glucose absorption in a dose response manner. The maximum response was noted at a dose of 2.5 mg/mL. The promotion of the extract on insulin secretion was confirmed by incubating beta cell of pancreatic islets and INS-1E insulinoma cells with the extract at 1 to 1000 microg/mL. These observations suggest that the aqueous extract from the A indicum plant has antidiabetic properties, which inhibited glucose absorption and stimulated insulin secretion. Phytochemical screening also revealed that the extract contained alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides, and saponins that could account for the observed pharmacologic effects of the plant extract. PMID:19761892

  4. The Role of Insulin in the Regulation of PCSK9

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Ji; Manthena, Praveen V.; Haas, Mary E.; Ling, Alisha V.; Shin, Dong-Ju; Graham, Mark J.; Crooke, Rosanne M.; Liu, Jingwen; Biddinger, Sudha B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), which binds the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor and targets it for degradation, has emerged as an important regulator of serum cholesterol levels and cardiovascular disease risk. Although much work is currently focused on developing therapies for inhibiting PCSK9, the endogenous regulation of PCSK9, particularly by insulin, remains unclear. The objective of these studies was to determine the effects of insulin on PCSK9 in vitro and in vivo. Approach and Results Using rat hepatoma cells and primary rat hepatocytes, we found that insulin increased PCSK9 expression and increased LDL receptor degradation in a PCSK9-dependent manner. In parallel, hepatic Pcsk9 mRNA and plasma PCSK9 protein levels were reduced by 55-75% in mice with liver-specific knockout of the insulin receptor; 75-88% in mice made insulin deficient with streptozotocin; and 65% in ob/ob mice treated with antisense oligonucleotides against the insulin receptor. However, antisense olignonucleotide mediated knockdown of insulin receptor in lean, wildtype mice had little effect. In addition, we found that fasting was able to reduce PCSK9 expression by 80% even in mice that lack hepatic insulin signaling. Conclusions Taken together, these data indicate that though insulin induces PCSK9 expression, it is not the sole or even dominant regulator of PCSK9 under all conditions. PMID:26023080

  5. Assessment of benzene induced oxidative impairment in rat isolated pancreatic islets and effect on insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Bahadar, Haji; Maqbool, Faheem; Mostafalou, Sara; Baeeri, Maryam; Rahimifard, Mahban; Navaei-Nigjeh, Mona; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2015-05-01

    Benzene (C6H6) is an organic compound used in petrochemicals and numerous other industries. It is abundantly released to our environment as a chemical pollutant causing widespread human exposure. This study mainly focused on benzene induced toxicity on rat pancreatic islets with respect to oxidative damage, insulin secretion and glucokinase (GK) activity. Benzene was dissolved in corn oil and administered orally at doses 200, 400 and 800mg/kg/day, for 4 weeks. In rats, benzene significantly raised the concentration of plasma insulin. Also the effect of benzene on the release of glucose-induced insulin was pronounced in isolated islets. Benzene caused oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation, and also reduced the cell viability and total thiols groups, in the islets of exposed rats. In conclusion, the current study revealed that pancreatic glucose metabolism is susceptible to benzene toxicity and the resultant oxidative stress could lead to functional abnormalities in the pancreas.

  6. Silk matrices promote formation of insulin-secreting islet-like clusters.

    PubMed

    Shalaly, Nancy Dekki; Ria, Massimiliano; Johansson, Ulrika; Åvall, Karin; Berggren, Per-Olof; Hedhammar, My

    2016-06-01

    Ex vivo expansion of endocrine cells constitutes an interesting alternative to be able to match the unmet need of transplantable pancreatic islets. However, endocrine cells become fragile once removed from their extracellular matrix (ECM) and typically become senescent and loose insulin expression during conventional 2D culture. Herein we develop a protocol where 3D silk matrices functionalized with ECM-derived motifs are used for generation of insulin-secreting islet-like clusters from mouse and human primary cells. The obtained clusters were shown to attain an islet-like spheroid shape and to maintain functional insulin release upon glucose stimulation in vitro. Furthermore, in vivo imaging of transplanted murine clusters showed engraftment with increasing vessel formation during time. There was no sign of cell death and the clusters maintained or increased in size throughout the period, thus suggesting a suitable cluster size for transplantation. PMID:26986856

  7. Reversal of diabetes following transplantation of an insulin-secreting human liver cell line: Melligen cells.

    PubMed

    Lawandi, Janet; Tao, Chang; Ren, Binhai; Williams, Paul; Ling, Dora; Swan, M Anne; Nassif, Najah T; Torpy, Fraser R; O'Brien, Bronwyn A; Simpson, Ann M

    2015-01-01

    As an alternative to the transplantation of islets, a human liver cell line has been genetically engineered to reverse type 1 diabetes (TID). The initial liver cell line (Huh7ins) commenced secretion of insulin in response to a glucose concentration of 2.5 mmol/l. After transfection of the Huh7ins cells with human islet glucokinase, the resultant Melligen cells secreted insulin in response to glucose within the physiological range; commencing at 4.25 mmol/l. Melligen cells exhibited increased glucokinase enzymatic activity in response to physiological glucose concentrations, as compared with Huh7ins cells. When transplanted into diabetic immunoincompetent mice, Melligen cells restored normoglycemia. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) revealed that both cell lines expressed a range of β-cell transcription factors and pancreatic hormones. Exposure of Melligen and Huh7ins cells to proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IFN-γ) affected neither their viability nor their ability to secrete insulin to glucose. Gene expression (microarray and qRT-PCR) analyses indicated the survival of Melligen cells in the presence of known β-cell cytotoxins was associated with the expression of NF-κB and antiapoptotic genes (such as BIRC3). This study describes the successful generation of an artificial β-cell line, which, if encapsulated to avoid allograft rejection, may offer a clinically applicable cure for T1D. PMID:26029722

  8. Urocortin3 mediates somatostatin-dependent negative feedback control of insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    van der Meulen, Talitha; Donaldson, Cynthia J; Cáceres, Elena; Hunter, Anna E; Cowing-Zitron, Christopher; Pound, Lynley D; Adams, Michael W; Zembrzycki, Andreas; Grove, Kevin L; Huising, Mark O

    2015-07-01

    The peptide hormone urocortin3 (Ucn3) is abundantly expressed by mature beta cells, yet its physiological role is unknown. Here we demonstrate that Ucn3 is stored and co-released with insulin and potentiates glucose-stimulated somatostatin secretion via cognate receptors on delta cells. Further, we found that islets lacking endogenous Ucn3 have fewer delta cells, reduced somatostatin content, impaired somatostatin secretion, and exaggerated insulin release, and that these defects are rectified by treatment with synthetic Ucn3 in vitro. Our observations indicate that the paracrine actions of Ucn3 activate a negative feedback loop that promotes somatostatin release to ensure the timely reduction of insulin secretion upon normalization of plasma glucose. Moreover, Ucn3 is markedly depleted from beta cells in mouse and macaque models of diabetes and in human diabetic islets. This suggests that Ucn3 is a key contributor to stable glycemic control, whose reduction during diabetes aggravates glycemic volatility and contributes to the pathophysiology of this disease. PMID:26076035

  9. Urocortin3 mediates somatostatin-dependent negative feedback control of insulin secretion

    PubMed Central

    van der Meulen, Talitha; Donaldson, Cynthia J.; Cáceres, Elena; Hunter, Anna E.; Cowing–Zitron, Christopher; Pound, Lynley D.; Adams, Michael W.; Zembrzycki, Andreas; Grove, Kevin L.; Huising, Mark O.

    2015-01-01

    The peptide hormone Urocortin3 (Ucn3) is abundantly expressed by mature beta cells, yet its physiological role is unknown. Here we demonstrate that Ucn3 is stored and co–released with insulin and potentiates glucose–stimulated somatostatin secretion via cognate receptor on delta cells. Further, we found that islets lacking endogenous Ucn3 demonstrate fewer delta cells, reduced somatostatin content, impaired somatostatin secretion and exaggerated insulin release, and that these defects are rectified by synthetic Ucn3 in vitro. Our observations indicate that the paracrine actions of Ucn3 activate a negative feedback loop that promotes somatostatin release to ensure the timely reduction of insulin secretion upon normalization of plasma glucose. Moreover, Ucn3 is markedly depleted from beta cells in mouse and macaque diabetes models and in human diabetic islets. This suggests that Ucn3 is a key contributor to stable glycemic control whose reduction during diabetes aggravates glycemic volatility and contributes to the pathophysiology of this disease. PMID:26076035

  10. Engineering of pseudoislets: effect on insulin secretion activity by cell number, cell population, and microchannel networks.

    PubMed

    Kojima, N; Takeuchi, S; Sakai, Y

    2014-05-01

    Engineered pseudoislets reconstituted from a suspension of pancreatic α and β cells have the potential to relieve the shortage of donor islets for transplantation in the treatment of type 1 diabetes. However, the methods to fabricate pseudoislets are not well developed. In this study, we attempted to generate pseudoislets, which show a higher potential for glucose-induced insulin secretion, by altering total cell number, adjusting the cell ratio of pancreatic α and β cells, and fabricating microchannel networks with the use of alginate hydrogel beads. To effectively aggregate α and β cells and hydrogel beads, we used a previously established rapid aggregation method. When pseudoislets were reconstituted with 8,000 cells in a 1:8 α/β-cell ratio, we observed that the glucose-induced insulin secretion was enhanced by 3.1 times compared with the pseudoislets formed with β cells only. In addition, embedding of microchannel networks increased the insulin secretion rate by 4.4 times compared with the pseudoislets without the microstructures. These findings demonstrated that active modification was effective in reconstituting higher functional pseudoislets, which may be useful for islet transplantation.

  11. Engineering of pseudoislets: effect on insulin secretion activity by cell number, cell population, and microchannel networks.

    PubMed

    Kojima, N; Takeuchi, S; Sakai, Y

    2014-05-01

    Engineered pseudoislets reconstituted from a suspension of pancreatic α and β cells have the potential to relieve the shortage of donor islets for transplantation in the treatment of type 1 diabetes. However, the methods to fabricate pseudoislets are not well developed. In this study, we attempted to generate pseudoislets, which show a higher potential for glucose-induced insulin secretion, by altering total cell number, adjusting the cell ratio of pancreatic α and β cells, and fabricating microchannel networks with the use of alginate hydrogel beads. To effectively aggregate α and β cells and hydrogel beads, we used a previously established rapid aggregation method. When pseudoislets were reconstituted with 8,000 cells in a 1:8 α/β-cell ratio, we observed that the glucose-induced insulin secretion was enhanced by 3.1 times compared with the pseudoislets formed with β cells only. In addition, embedding of microchannel networks increased the insulin secretion rate by 4.4 times compared with the pseudoislets without the microstructures. These findings demonstrated that active modification was effective in reconstituting higher functional pseudoislets, which may be useful for islet transplantation. PMID:24815151

  12. Carcinoid syndrome, acromegaly, and hypoglycemia due to an insulin-secreting neuroendocrine tumor of the liver.

    PubMed

    Furrer, J; Hättenschwiler, A; Komminoth, P; Pfammatter, T; Wiesli, P

    2001-05-01

    We report a patient with a hepatic neuroendocrine tumor showing an extraordinary change of the tumor's humoral manifestations from a clinically documented extrapituitary acromegaly and a typical carcinoid syndrome toward a hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia syndrome. At the primary manifestation of the tumor, an increased serum level of insulin-like growth factor I due to overproduction of GHRH and an increased urinary excretion of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were found. The clinical manifestation of the GHRH excess was an arthralgia, which resolved completely after operative tumor debulking and normalization of insulin-like growth factor I and GHRH serum levels. The secretion of serotonin from the tumor resulted in a typical carcinoid syndrome including right-sided valvular heart disease. On the later course of the disease, the humoral manifestations of the tumor were supplemented by the secretion of insulin, leading to recurrent severe hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. The hepatic origin of hyperinsulinism was demonstrated by selective arterial calcium stimulation. Moreover, tumor cells revealed insulin and C-peptide immunoreactivity in the immunohistochemical analysis. The patient died 8 yr after the initial diagnosis of the tumor, and a carefully performed autopsy procedure confirmed the absence of any extrahepatic tumor manifestation. PMID:11344231

  13. Stimulatory effect of apigenin-6-C-beta-L-fucopyranoside on insulin secretion and glycogen synthesis.

    PubMed

    Cazarolli, Luisa Helena; Folador, Poliane; Moresco, Henrique Hunger; Brighente, Inês Maria Costa; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Silva, Fátima Regina M Barreto

    2009-11-01

    In vivo and in vitro treatments were carried out to investigate the effects of apigenin-6-C-beta-L-fucopyranoside (1), isolated from Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae), on serum glucose and insulin levels in hyperglycemic rats as well as its effect on glycogen synthesis in normal rat soleus muscle. Apigenin-6-C-beta-L-fucopyranoside showed an acute effect on blood glucose lowering in hyperglycemic rats and stimulated glucose-induced insulin secretion. A stimulatory effect of 1 on glycogen synthesis was observed when muscles were incubated with this flavonoid and also its effect was completely nullified by pre-treatment with insulin signal transduction inhibitors. Taking this into account, the MAPK-PP1 and PI3K-GSK3 pathways are involved in the apigenin-6-C-beta-L-fucopyranoside-induced increase in glycogen synthesis in muscle. This study provides evidence for dual effects of apigenin-6-C-beta-L-fucopyranoside as an antihyperglycemic (insulin secretion) as well as an insulinomimetic (glycogen synthesis) agent.

  14. Carcinoid syndrome, acromegaly, and hypoglycemia due to an insulin-secreting neuroendocrine tumor of the liver.

    PubMed

    Furrer, J; Hättenschwiler, A; Komminoth, P; Pfammatter, T; Wiesli, P

    2001-05-01

    We report a patient with a hepatic neuroendocrine tumor showing an extraordinary change of the tumor's humoral manifestations from a clinically documented extrapituitary acromegaly and a typical carcinoid syndrome toward a hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia syndrome. At the primary manifestation of the tumor, an increased serum level of insulin-like growth factor I due to overproduction of GHRH and an increased urinary excretion of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were found. The clinical manifestation of the GHRH excess was an arthralgia, which resolved completely after operative tumor debulking and normalization of insulin-like growth factor I and GHRH serum levels. The secretion of serotonin from the tumor resulted in a typical carcinoid syndrome including right-sided valvular heart disease. On the later course of the disease, the humoral manifestations of the tumor were supplemented by the secretion of insulin, leading to recurrent severe hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. The hepatic origin of hyperinsulinism was demonstrated by selective arterial calcium stimulation. Moreover, tumor cells revealed insulin and C-peptide immunoreactivity in the immunohistochemical analysis. The patient died 8 yr after the initial diagnosis of the tumor, and a carefully performed autopsy procedure confirmed the absence of any extrahepatic tumor manifestation.

  15. Frontiers in transplantation of insulin-secreting tissue for diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Warnock, Garth L.

    1999-01-01

    Transplantation of insulin-secreting tissue represents a physiologic approach to reverse diabetes mellitus. Pancreas transplants yield a remarkable enhancement in quality of life and appear to modify the devastating neurovascular complications of diabetes. A more attractive approach is transplantation of insulin-secreting cells, a procedure of low invasiveness with the exciting prospect of modulating graft immunogenicity before transplantation, so as to minimize requirements for toxic immunosuppressive drugs. The Surgical-Medical Research Institute at the University of Alberta in Edmonton, and several others centres throughout the world, has demonstrated that islet cell transplants can reverse insulin dependence and induce remarkable glycemic stability for several years. However, widespread success has been denied because of insufficient donor tissue, early failures to reverse insulin dependence and the loss of graft function with time. Promising new research approaches to these problems are reviewed, including xenogeneic sources of cells, engineering islet cells with genes that induce expression of immunoprotective molecules, and neogenesis factors that may sustain populations of transplanted β cells. PMID:10593242

  16. Does epigenetic dysregulation of pancreatic islets contribute to impaired insulin secretion and type 2 diabetes?

    PubMed

    Dayeh, Tasnim; Ling, Charlotte

    2015-10-01

    β cell dysfunction is central to the development and progression of type 2 diabetes (T2D). T2D develops when β cells are not able to compensate for the increasing demand for insulin caused by insulin resistance. Epigenetic modifications play an important role in establishing and maintaining β cell identity and function in physiological conditions. On the other hand, epigenetic dysregulation can cause a loss of β cell identity, which is characterized by reduced expression of genes that are important for β cell function, ectopic expression of genes that are not supposed to be expressed in β cells, and loss of genetic imprinting. Consequently, this may lead to β cell dysfunction and impaired insulin secretion. Risk factors that can cause epigenetic dysregulation include parental obesity, an adverse intrauterine environment, hyperglycemia, lipotoxicity, aging, physical inactivity, and mitochondrial dysfunction. These risk factors can affect the epigenome at different time points throughout the lifetime of an individual and even before an individual is conceived. The plasticity of the epigenome enables it to change in response to environmental factors such as diet and exercise, and also makes the epigenome a good target for epigenetic drugs that may be used to enhance insulin secretion and potentially treat diabetes.

  17. Restructuring of Pancreatic Islets and Insulin Secretion in a Postnatal Critical Window

    PubMed Central

    Aguayo-Mazzucato, Cristina; Sanchez-Soto, Carmen; Godinez-Puig, Victoria; Gutiérrez-Ospina, Gabriel; Hiriart, Marcia

    2006-01-01

    Function and structure of adult pancreatic islets are determined by early postnatal development, which in rats corresponds to the first month of life. We analyzed changes in blood glucose and hormones during this stage and their association with morphological and functional changes of alpha and beta cell populations during this period. At day 20 (d20), insulin and glucose plasma levels were two- and six-fold higher, respectively, as compared to d6. Interestingly, this period is characterized by physiological hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, where peripheral insulin resistance and a high plasmatic concentration of glucagon are also observed. These functional changes were paralleled by reorganization of islet structure, cell mass and aggregate size of alpha and beta cells. Cultured beta cells from d20 secreted the same amount of insulin in 15.6 mM than in 5.6 mM glucose (basal conditions), and were characterized by a high basal insulin secretion. However, beta cells from d28 were already glucose sensitive. Understanding and establishing morphophysiological relationships in the developing endocrine pancreas may explain how events in early life are important in determining adult islet physiology and metabolism. PMID:17183663

  18. Pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus type 2: beyond the duo "insulin resistance-secretion deficit".

    PubMed

    Carrera Boada, C A; Martínez-Moreno, J M

    2013-03-01

    T2DM involves at least two primary pathogenic mechanisms: (a) a progressive decline in pancreatic islet cell function resulting in reduced insulin secretion and (b) peripheral insulin resistance resulting in a decrease in the metabolic responses to insulin. This dynamic interaction between insulin secretion and insulin resistance is essential to the maintenance of normal glucose tolerance (NGT). The transition from the normal control of glucose metabolism to type 2 diabetes mellitus occurs through the intermediate states of altered metabolism that worsen over time. The first state of the disease is known as prediabetes, and consists of a set of metabolic disorder characterized by a great hyperglycemia, enough to increase of retinopathies, nephropathies and neuropathies incidence. If we advance in the T2DM temporal sequence we found a remarkable change in the pancreatic cells population that form the Langerhans islets, mainly caused by amylin fibers accumulation over these cells from polypeptide hormone called amyloid polypeptide or IAPP. The IAPP hypersecretion and amylin fibers deposition attached to the endoplasmic reticulum stress caused by excessive workload due to biosynthesis overproduction of insulin and IAPP result in ?-cell apoptosis. In addition to these alterations, we must also consider the changes observed in incretins profiles like GIP (glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide) and GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide 1) directly related to glucose homeostasis maintenance. Risk factors that predispose to a healthy individual to develop T2DM are several, but the most important is the obesity. The body mass index (BMI) has been used in numerous epidemiological studies as a powerful indicator of T2DM risk. Lipotoxicity caused by circulating free fatty acids increased, changes in lipoprotein profiles, body fat distribution and glucotoxicity caused by cells over-stimulation are other risk factors to consider in T2DM developing.

  19. Insulin/IGF signaling and its regulation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Nässel, Dick R; Liu, Yiting; Luo, Jiangnan

    2015-09-15

    Taking advantage of Drosophila as a genetically tractable experimental animal much progress has been made in our understanding of how the insulin/IGF signaling (IIS) pathway regulates development, growth, metabolism, stress responses and lifespan. The role of IIS in regulation of neuronal activity and behavior has also become apparent from experiments in Drosophila. This review briefly summarizes these functional roles of IIS, and also how the insulin producing cells (IPCs) are regulated in the fly. Furthermore, we discuss functional aspects of the spatio-temporal production of eight different insulin-like peptides (DILP1-8) that are thought to act on one known receptor (dInR) in Drosophila.

  20. Diurnal pattern to insulin secretion and insulin action in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Saad, Ahmed; Dalla Man, Chiara; Nandy, Debashis K; Levine, James A; Bharucha, Adil E; Rizza, Robert A; Basu, Rita; Carter, Rickey E; Cobelli, Claudio; Kudva, Yogish C; Basu, Ananda

    2012-11-01

    Evaluation of the existence of a diurnal pattern of glucose tolerance after mixed meals is important to inform a closed-loop system of treatment for insulin requiring diabetes. We studied 20 healthy volunteers with normal fasting glucose (4.8 ± 0.1 mmol/L) and HbA(1c) (5.2 ± 0.0%) to determine such a pattern in nondiabetic individuals. Identical mixed meals were ingested during breakfast, lunch, or dinner at 0700, 1300, and 1900 h in randomized Latin square order on 3 consecutive days. Physical activity was the same on all days. Postprandial glucose turnover was measured using the triple tracer technique. Postprandial glucose excursion was significantly lower (P < 0.01) at breakfast than lunch and dinner. β-Cell responsivity to glucose and disposition index was higher (P < 0.01) at breakfast than lunch and dinner. Hepatic insulin extraction was lower (P < 0.01) at breakfast than dinner. Although meal glucose appearance did not differ between meals, suppression of endogenous glucose production tended to be lower (P < 0.01) and insulin sensitivity tended to be higher (P < 0.01) at breakfast than at lunch or dinner. Our results suggest a diurnal pattern to glucose tolerance in healthy humans, and if present in type 1 diabetes, it will need to be incorporated into artificial pancreas systems. PMID:22751690

  1. Insulin signalling and the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saltiel, Alan R.; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2001-12-01

    The epidemic of type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In both disorders, tissues such as muscle, fat and liver become less responsive or resistant to insulin. This state is also linked to other common health problems, such as obesity, polycystic ovarian disease, hyperlipidaemia, hypertension and atherosclerosis. The pathophysiology of insulin resistance involves a complex network of signalling pathways, activated by the insulin receptor, which regulates intermediary metabolism and its organization in cells. But recent studies have shown that numerous other hormones and signalling events attenuate insulin action, and are important in type 2 diabetes.

  2. [Differentiation of human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells into insulin-secreting cells induced by regenerating pancreatic extract].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanmei; Wang, Dianliang; Zeng, Hongyan; Wang, Lieming; Sun, Jinwei; Zhang, Zhen; Dong, Shasha

    2012-02-01

    In this study, the natural biological inducer, rat regenerating pancreatic extract (RPE), was used to induce human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) into insulin-secreting cells. We excised 60% of rat pancreas in order to stimulate pancreatic regeneration. RPE was extracted and used to induce hAMSCs at a final concentration of 20 microg/mL. The experiment methods used were as follows: morphological-identification, dithizone staining, immumofluorescence analysis, reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and insulin secretion stimulated by high glucose. The results show that the cell morphology of passge3 hAMSCs changed significantly after the induction of RPE, resulting in cluster shape after induction for 15 days. Dithizone staining showed that there were scarlet cell masses in RPE-treated culture. Immumofluorescence analysis indicated that induced cells were insulin-positive expression. RT-PCR showed the positive expression of human islet-related genes Pdx1 and insulin in the induced cells. The result of insulin secretion stimulated by high glucose indicated that insulin increasingly secreted and then kept stable with prolongation of high glucose stimulation. In conclusion, hAMSCs had the potential to differentiate into insulin-secreting cells induced by RPE in vitro. PMID:22667123

  3. Usurping the mitochondrial supremacy: extramitochondrial sources of reactive oxygen intermediates and their role in beta cell metabolism and insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Gray, Joshua P; Heart, Emma

    2010-05-01

    Insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells is a process dependent on metabolism. While oxidative stress is a well-known inducer of beta cell toxicity and impairs insulin secretion, recent studies suggest that low levels of metabolically-derived reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) also play a positive role in insulin secretion. Glucose metabolism is directly correlated with ROI production, particularly in beta cells in which glucose uptake is proportional to the extracellular concentration of glucose. Low levels of exogenously added ROI or quinones, which stimulate ROI production, positively affect insulin secretion, while antioxidants block insulin secretion, suggesting that ROI activate unidentified redox-sensitive signal transduction components within these cells. The mitochondria are one source of ROI: increased metabolic flux increases mitochondrial membrane potential resulting in electron leakage and adventitious ROI production. A second source of ROI are cytosolic and plasma membrane oxidoreductases which oxidize NAD(P)H and directly produce ROI through the reduction of molecular oxygen. The mechanism of ROI-mediated potentiation of insulin secretion remains an important topic for future study.

  4. Nature and regulation of the insulin receptor: structure and function

    SciTech Connect

    Czech, M.P.

    1985-01-01

    Native, cell-surface insulin receptor consists of two glycoprotein subunit types with apparent masses of about 125,000 daltons (alpha subunit) and 90,000 daltons (beta subunit). The alpha and beta insulin-receptor subunits seem to have distinct functions such that alpha appears to bind hormone whereas beta appears to possess intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity. In detergent extracts, insulin activates receptor autophosphorylation of tyrosine residues on its beta subunit, whereas in the presence of reductant, the alpha subunit is also phosphorylated. In intact cells, insulin activates serine/threonine phosphorylation of insulin receptor beta subunit as well as tyrosine phosphorylation. The biological role of the receptor-associated tyrosine kinase is not known. The insulin receptor kinase is regulated by beta-adrenergic agonists and other agents that elevate cAMP in adipocytes, presumably via the cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Such agents decrease receptor affinity for insulin and partially uncouple receptor tyrosine kinase activity from activation by insulin. These effects appear to contribute to the biological antagonism between insulin and beta-agonists. These data suggest the hypothesis that a complex network of tyrosine and serine/threonine phosphorylations on the insulin receptor modulate its binding and kinase activities in an antagonistic manner.

  5. Insulin Action in Brain Regulates Systemic Metabolism and Brain Function

    PubMed Central

    Kleinridders, André; Ferris, Heather A.; Cai, Weikang

    2014-01-01

    Insulin receptors, as well as IGF-1 receptors and their postreceptor signaling partners, are distributed throughout the brain. Insulin acts on these receptors to modulate peripheral metabolism, including regulation of appetite, reproductive function, body temperature, white fat mass, hepatic glucose output, and response to hypoglycemia. Insulin signaling also modulates neurotransmitter channel activity, brain cholesterol synthesis, and mitochondrial function. Disruption of insulin action in the brain leads to impairment of neuronal function and synaptogenesis. In addition, insulin signaling modulates phosphorylation of tau protein, an early component in the development of Alzheimer disease. Thus, alterations in insulin action in the brain can contribute to metabolic syndrome, and the development of mood disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24931034

  6. Splanchnic neural regulation of somatostatin secretion in the isolated perfused human pancreas.

    PubMed Central

    Brunicardi, F C; Elahi, D; Andersen, D K

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The somatostatin-secreting delta cells in the islets of Langerhans appear to be regulated by neural mechanisms that have not been defined clearly. In this study, the celiac neural bundle of the human pancreas was electrically stimulated in the presence and absence of selective neural antagonists. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The authors previously reported on studies of the splanchnic neural regulation of insulin, glucagon, and pancreatic polypeptide secretion. In these studies, alpha-adrenergic fibers appeared to have a predominant effect, strongly inhibiting the secretion of insulin, glucagon, and pancreatic polypeptide secretion. Cholinergic fibers appeared to stimulate strongly, although beta-adrenergic fibers weakly stimulated, the secretion of these hormones. Investigations of neural regulatory mechanisms governing human somatostatin release in vitro have not been previously reported. METHODS: Pancreata were obtained from eight cadaveric organ donors. The isolated perfused human pancreas technique was used to assess the regulation of somatostatin secretion by the various neural fibers contained within the celiac plexus. The secretory response of somatostatin was examined in the presence of 16.7 mmol/L glucose, with and without neural stimulation, and specific neural antagonists. RESULTS: The basal somatostatin secretion was 88 +/- 26 fmol/g/min and increased 131 +/- 23% (n = 8, p < 0.01) in response to 16.7 mmol/L glucose. The augmentation seen with glucose was inhibited 66 +/- 22% (n = 8, p < 0.05) during celiac neural bundle stimulation. Alpha-adrenergic blockade resulted in a 90 +/- 30% (n = 6, p < 0.01) augmentation of somatostatin release. Beta-adrenergic blockade caused a 13 +/- 2% (n = 6, p < 0.05) suppression of somatostatin release. Complete adrenergic blockade resulted in a 25 +/- 23% (n = 5, p = not significant) inhibition of somatostatin release. Cholinergic blockade resulted in a 40 +/- 10% (n = 6, p < 0.02) suppression of somatostatin

  7. Novel Zn2+ Modulated GPR39 Receptor Agonists Do Not Drive Acute Insulin Secretion in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Shin-ichiro; Tsuchida, Takuma; Oguma, Takahiro; Marley, Anna; Wennberg-Huldt, Charlotte; Hovdal, Daniel; Fukuda, Hajime; Yoneyama, Yukimi; Sasaki, Kazuyo; Johansson, Anders; Lundqvist, Sara; Brengdahl, Johan; Isaacs, Richard J.; Brown, Daniel; Geschwindner, Stefan; Benthem, Lambertus; Priest, Claire; Turnbull, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) occurs when there is insufficient insulin release to control blood glucose, due to insulin resistance and impaired β-cell function. The GPR39 receptor is expressed in metabolic tissues including pancreatic β-cells and has been proposed as a T2D target. Specifically, GPR39 agonists might improve β-cell function leading to more adequate and sustained insulin release and glucose control. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that GPR39 agonism would improve glucose stimulated insulin secretion in vivo. A high throughput screen, followed by a medicinal chemistry program, identified three novel potent Zn2+ modulated GPR39 agonists. These agonists were evaluated in acute rodent glucose tolerance tests. The results showed a lack of glucose lowering and insulinotropic effects not only in lean mice, but also in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice and Zucker fatty rats. It is concluded that Zn2+ modulated GPR39 agonists do not acutely stimulate insulin release in rodents. PMID:26720709

  8. Epigenetic conversion of adult dog skin fibroblasts into insulin-secreting cells.

    PubMed

    Brevini, T A L; Pennarossa, G; Acocella, F; Brizzola, S; Zenobi, A; Gandolfi, F

    2016-05-01

    Diabetes is among the most frequently diagnosed endocrine disorder in dogs and its prevalence continues to increase. Medical management of this pathology is lifelong and challenging because of the numerous serious complications. A therapy based on the use of autologous viable insulin-producing cells to replace the lost β cell mass would be very advantageous. A protocol to enable the epigenetic conversion of canine dermal fibroblasts, obtained from a skin biopsy, into insulin-producing cells (EpiCC) is described in the present manuscript. Cells were briefly exposed to the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-azacytidine (5-aza-CR) in order to increase their plasticity. This was followed by a three-step differentiation protocol that directed the cells towards the pancreatic lineage. After 36 days, 38 ± 6.1% of the treated fibroblasts were converted into EpiCC that expressed insulin mRNA and protein. Furthermore, EpiCC were able to release insulin into the medium in response to an increased glucose concentration. This is the first evidence that generating a renewable autologous, functional source of insulin-secreting cells is possible in the dog. This procedure represents a novel and promising potential therapy for diabetes in dogs. PMID:27033591

  9. The RHOX Homeodomain Proteins Regulate the Expression of Insulin and Other Metabolic Regulators in the Testis*

    PubMed Central

    MacLean, James A.; Hu, Zhiying; Welborn, Joshua P.; Song, Hye-Won; Rao, Manjeet K.; Wayne, Chad M.; Wilkinson, Miles F.

    2013-01-01

    Defects in cellular metabolism have been widely implicated in causing male infertility, but there has been little progress in understanding the underlying mechanism. Here we report that several key metabolism genes are regulated in the testis by Rhox5, the founding member of a large X-linked homeobox gene cluster. Among these Rhox5-regulated genes are insulin 2 (Ins2), resistin (Retn), and adiponectin (Adipoq), all of which encode secreted proteins that have profound and wide-ranging effects on cellular metabolism. The ability of Rhox5 to regulate their levels in the testis has the potential to dictate metabolism locally in this organ, given the existence of the blood-testes barrier. We demonstrate that Ins2 is a direct target of Rhox5 in Sertoli cells, and we show that this regulation is physiologically significant, because Rhox5-null mice fail to up-regulate Ins2 expression during the first wave of spermatogenesis and have insulin-signaling defects. We identify other Rhox family members that induce Ins2 transcription, define protein domains and homeodomain amino acid residues crucial for this property, and demonstrate that this regulation is conserved. Rhox5-null mice also exhibit altered expression of other metabolism genes, including those encoding the master transcriptional regulators of metabolism, PPARG and PPARGC1A, as well as SCD1, the rate-limiting enzyme for fatty acid metabolism. These results, coupled with the known roles of RHOX5 and its target metabolism genes in spermatogenesis in vivo, lead us to propose a model in which RHOX5 is a central transcription factor that promotes the survival of male germ cells via its effects on cellular metabolism. PMID:24121513

  10. The RHOX homeodomain proteins regulate the expression of insulin and other metabolic regulators in the testis.

    PubMed

    MacLean, James A; Hu, Zhiying; Welborn, Joshua P; Song, Hye-Won; Rao, Manjeet K; Wayne, Chad M; Wilkinson, Miles F

    2013-11-29

    Defects in cellular metabolism have been widely implicated in causing male infertility, but there has been little progress in understanding the underlying mechanism. Here we report that several key metabolism genes are regulated in the testis by Rhox5, the founding member of a large X-linked homeobox gene cluster. Among these Rhox5-regulated genes are insulin 2 (Ins2), resistin (Retn), and adiponectin (Adipoq), all of which encode secreted proteins that have profound and wide-ranging effects on cellular metabolism. The ability of Rhox5 to regulate their levels in the testis has the potential to dictate metabolism locally in this organ, given the existence of the blood-testes barrier. We demonstrate that Ins2 is a direct target of Rhox5 in Sertoli cells, and we show that this regulation is physiologically significant, because Rhox5-null mice fail to up-regulate Ins2 expression during the first wave of spermatogenesis and have insulin-signaling defects. We identify other Rhox family members that induce Ins2 transcription, define protein domains and homeodomain amino acid residues crucial for this property, and demonstrate that this regulation is conserved. Rhox5-null mice also exhibit altered expression of other metabolism genes, including those encoding the master transcriptional regulators of metabolism, PPARG and PPARGC1A, as well as SCD1, the rate-limiting enzyme for fatty acid metabolism. These results, coupled with the known roles of RHOX5 and its target metabolism genes in spermatogenesis in vivo, lead us to propose a model in which RHOX5 is a central transcription factor that promotes the survival of male germ cells via its effects on cellular metabolism.

  11. Involvement of hypothalamic dopamine in the regulation of prolactin secretion.

    PubMed

    Reymond, M J; Porter, J C

    1985-01-01

    The neuroendocrine control of prolactin (PRL) secretion is known to be a multifactorial process, but dopamine (DA) secreted by the tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) neurons of the hypothalamus is believed to exert a predominant inhibitory control on the secretion of PRL. The secretory activity of the TIDA neurons, including the rate of biosynthesis of DA and the rate of release of the neurohormone into hypophysial portal blood, can be readily evaluated in the rat. In most conditions in which an altered secretion of PRL has been documented, an altered secretory activity of the TIDA neurons has been found. When an acute reduction in the secretion of DA is observed, an increased secretion of PRL is associated, with an inverse relationship between DA and PRL concentrations in hypophysial portal and systemic blood, respectively. However, the secretion of PRL can be regulated by PRL itself through stimulation of the secretory activity of the TIDA neurons, and consequently hyperprolactinemia can be observed concomitantly with a sustained high secretion of DA, as seen after treatment with estrogen. The short loop feedback of PRL secretion seems to be impaired in the aging rat, since a sustained reduced hypothalamic secretion of DA is observed in spite of long-term hyperprolactinemia.

  12. The stimulatory effect of rabphilin 3a on regulated exocytosis from insulin-secreting cells does not require an association-dissociation cycle with membranes mediated by Rab 3.

    PubMed

    Arribas, M; Regazzi, R; Garcia, E; Wollheim, C B; De Camilli, P

    1997-11-01

    Rabphilin 3a is a Rab 3-GTP binding protein concentrated on secretory vesicles of neurons and endocrine cells. There is evidence that rabphilin 3a undergoes cycles of association-dissociation with membranes and that recruitment of rabphilin 3a to secretory vesicles is mediated by Rab 3a, suggesting that rabphilin 3a is a downstream effector of this Rab. In this study we have investigated whether a membrane-anchored form of rabphilin 3a mimics the action of rabphilin 3a on secretion and bypasses the need for Rab 3 function. Overexpression of both wild-type rabphilin 3a and of a transmembrane anchored form of rabphilin 3a stimulated (about 2-fold) evoked secretion of coexpressed human proinsulin from clonal HIT-T15 cells. A similar transmembrane-anchored protein which lacked the Rab 3 binding region stimulated secretion even more effectively. Unexpectedly, a rabphilin 3a deletion mutant missing the Rab 3 binding domain was also stimulatory on secretion, although a further deletion of rabphilin to exclude the first of the two proline-rich regions abolished its stimulatory effect. The first of these two mutants was primarily particulate, while the second mutant was primarily soluble, suggesting that the first proline-rich region of rabphilin 3a plays a role in targeting rabphilin to its site of action. We conclude that the action of rabphilin 3a can be independent of Rab 3 if other mechanisms produce a sufficient concentration of the protein in proximity of exocytotic sites. These results provide new evidence for a fundamental similarity in the mechanisms by which Ras and Rab GTPase produce their distinct physiological effects.

  13. Novel I1-Imidazoline Agonist S43126 Augment Insulin Secretion in Min6 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tesfai, Jerusalem; Crane, Louis; Baziard-Mouysset, Genevieve; Edwards, Lincoln P.

    2016-01-01

    The I1-imidazoline receptor is a novel drug target for hypertension and insulin resistance which are major disorders associated with Type II diabetes. In the present study, we examined the effects of a novel imidazoline agonist S43126 on calcium fluxes and insulin secretion from Min6 β-cells. We also examined the effects of S43126 on the induction of IRAS, and phosphorylation of components in the I1-imidazoline signaling pathways, namely ERK and PKB. Min6 β-cells were treated with varying doses of S43126 [10−8M to 10−5M] for various time (5–60mins). S43126 at higher dose [10−5M] stimulated insulin secretion under elevated glucose concentration compared to basal. In addition, insulin secretion and Ca2+ influx mediated by S43126 [10−5M] were decreased following co-treatment with efaroxan (I1-antagonist) and nifedipine (L-type voltage-gated Ca2+-channel blocker) at various times (5–60mins). Furthermore, S43126 at [10−5M] increased Ca2+ oscillation, [Ca2+] and 45Ca2+ uptake in a time and dose-dependent manner. Moreover, Western blot analysis of treated samples showed that S43126 caused an increased protein expression of IRAS as well as phosphorylation of both ERK1/2 and PKB in a concentration-dependent manner. We conclude that S43126 exerts its insulinotropic effect in a glucose dependent manner by a mechanism involving L-type calcium channels and imidazoline I1-receptors. PMID:27429837

  14. Identification of novel genes for glucose metabolism based upon expression pattern in human islets and effect on insulin secretion and glycemia.

    PubMed

    Taneera, Jalal; Fadista, Joao; Ahlqvist, Emma; Atac, David; Ottosson-Laakso, Emilia; Wollheim, Claes B; Groop, Leif

    2015-04-01

    Normal glucose homeostasis is characterized by appropriate insulin secretion and low HbA1c. Gene expression signatures associated with these two phenotypes could be essential for islet function and pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Herein, we employed a novel approach to identify candidate genes involved in T2D by correlating islet microarray gene expression data (78 donors) with insulin secretion and HbA1c level. The expression of 649 genes (P < 0.05) was correlated with insulin secretion and HbA1c. Of them, five genes (GLR1A, PPP1R1A, PLCDXD3, FAM105A and ENO2) correlated positively with insulin secretion/negatively with HbA1c and one gene (GNG5) correlated negatively with insulin secretion/positively with HbA1c were followed up. The five positively correlated genes have lower expression levels in diabetic islets, whereas GNG5 expression is higher. Exposure of human islets to high glucose for 24 h resulted in up-regulation of GNG5 and PPP1R1A expression, whereas the expression of ENO2 and GLRA1 was down-regulated. No effect was seen on the expression of FAM105A and PLCXD3. siRNA silencing in INS-1 832/13 cells showed reduction in insulin secretion for PPP1R1A, PLXCD3, ENO2, FAM105A and GNG5 but not GLRA1. Although no SNP in these gene loci passed the genome-wide significance for association with T2D in DIAGRAM+ database, four SNPs influenced gene expression in cis in human islets. In conclusion, we identified and confirmed PPP1R1A, FAM105A, ENO2, PLCDX3 and GNG5 as potential regulators of islet function. We provide a list of candidate genes as a resource for exploring their role in the pathogenesis of T2D. PMID:25489054

  15. Evolution of glutamate dehydrogenase regulation of insulin homeostasis is an example of molecular exaptation.

    PubMed

    Allen, Aron; Kwagh, Jae; Fang, Jie; Stanley, Charles A; Smith, Thomas J

    2004-11-16

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is found in all organisms and catalyzes the oxidative deamination of glutamate to 2-oxoglutarate. While this enzyme does not exhibit allosteric regulation in plants, bacteria, or fungi, its activity is tightly controlled by a number of compounds in mammals. We have previously shown that this regulation plays an important role in insulin homeostasis in humans and evolved concomitantly with a 48-residue "antenna" structure. As shown here, the antenna and some of the allosteric regulation first appears in the Ciliates. This primitive regulation is mediated by fatty acids and likely reflects the gradual movement of fatty acid oxidation from the peroxisomes to the mitochondria as the Ciliates evolved away from plants, fungi, and other protists. Mutagenesis studies where the antenna is deleted support this contention by demonstrating that the antenna is essential for fatty acid regulation. When the antenna from the Ciliates is spliced onto human GDH, it was found to fully communicate all aspects of mammalian regulation. Therefore, we propose that glutamate dehydrogenase regulation of insulin secretion is a example of exaptation at the molecular level where the antenna and associated fatty acid regulation was created to accommodate the changes in organelle function in the Ciliates and then later used to link amino acid catabolism and/or regulation of intracellular glutamate/glutamine levels in the pancreatic beta cells with insulin homeostasis in mammals.

  16. Sortilin facilitates VLDL-B100 secretion by insulin sensitive McArdle RH7777 cells.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Robert P; Guida, Wayne C; Sowden, Mark P; Jenkins, Jermaine L; Starr, Matthew L; Fratti, Rutilio A; Sparks, Charles E; Sparks, Janet D

    2016-09-16

    Studies examining the relationship between cellular sortilin and VLDL-B100 secretion demonstrate inconsistent results. Current studies explore the possibility that discrepancies may be related to insulin sensitivity. McArdle RH7777 cells (McA cells) cultured under serum enriched conditions lose sensitivity to insulin. Following incubation in serum-free DMEM containing 1% BSA, McA cells become insulin responsive and demonstrate reduced apo B secretion. Current studies indicate that insulin sensitive McA cells express lower cellular sortilin that corresponds with reduction in VLDL-B100 secretion without changes in mRNA of either sortilin or apo B. When sortilin expression is further reduced by siRNA knockdown (KD), there are additional decreases in VLDL-B100 secretion. A crystal structure of human sortilin (hsortilin) identifies two binding sites on the luminal domain for the N- and C-termini of neurotensin (NT). A small organic compound (cpd984) was identified that has strong theoretical binding to the N-terminal site. Both cpd984 and NT bind hsortilin by surface plasmon resonance. In incubations with insulin sensitive McA cells, cpd984 was shown to enhance VLDL-B100 secretion at each level of sortilin KD suggesting cpd984 acted through sortilin in mediating its effect. Current results support a role for sortilin to facilitate VLDL-B100 secretion which is limited to insulin sensitive McA cells. Inconsistent reports of the relationship between VLDL-B100 secretion and sortilin in previous studies may relate to differing functions of sortilin in VLDL-B100 secretion depending upon insulin sensitivity.

  17. Dual actions of Netrin-1 on islet insulin secretion and immune modulation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shan; Zhang, Xiuyuan; Qin, Yibo; Xu, Shixin; Zhang, Ju; Wang, Zhihong; Wang, Weiwei; Kong, Deling; Li, Chen

    2016-11-01

    Netrin-1 is typically known as a neural guidance cue, which has been implicated in pancreas development. Since regenerative, angiogenic and anti-inflammatory properties of Netrin-1 have been reported in multiple tissues, we have investigated the potential role of Netrin-1 in the endocrine islet and its implication in mice with high-fat diet (HFD)/streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Effects of exogenous Netrin-1 on β-cell [Ca(2+)]i, cyclic AMP (cAMP) and insulin production were assessed in vitro The long-term impact of Netrin-1 treatment was then evaluated in HFD/STZ-induced diabetic mice by subcutaneous implantation of osmotic minipumps which release Netrin-1 in a sustained manner for 4 weeks. Immunostaining of pancreases of Netrin-1-treated and control animals were employed to examine islet morphology, vascularization and macrophage infiltration. Plasma insulin, glucagon and pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations were quantified by ELISA. Expression of endogenous Netrin-1 was also assessed by PCR and immunohistochemistry. We observed a stimulatory effect of Netrin-1 on in vitro insulin secretion by promoting β-cell Ca(2+) influx and cAMP production. After 4-week continuous exposure, a hypoglycaemic property of Netrin-1 was demonstrated, which is probably attributable to improved β-cell function, shown as increased insulin content and preproinsulin mRNA expression. Enhanced islet vascularization, reduced islet macrophage infiltration and ameliorated systemic inflammation were detected from HFD/STZ-induced diabetic mice after Netrin-1 administration. We propose a dual action of Netrin-1 in islets during pathophysiological hyperglycaemia: by maintaining insulin secretion while attenuating inflammation.

  18. Increasing insulin resistance is associated with a decrease in Leydig cell testosterone secretion in men.

    PubMed

    Pitteloud, Nelly; Hardin, Megan; Dwyer, Andrew A; Valassi, Elena; Yialamas, Maria; Elahi, Dariush; Hayes, Frances J

    2005-05-01

    Insulin resistance is associated with low testosterone (T) levels in men, the mechanism of which is unclear. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in men with a spectrum of insulin sensitivity. Twenty-one men (aged 25-65 yr) had a glucose tolerance test and assessment of insulin sensitivity using a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Insulin sensitivity, expressed as the M value (milligrams per kilograms(-1) per minute(-1)), was calculated from the glucose disposal rate during the final 30 min of the clamp. Eighteen subjects had blood sampling every 10 min for 12 h to assess LH pulsatility. Hypogonadism was then induced with a GnRH antagonist, followed by sequential stimulation testing with GnRH (750 ng/kg, iv) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG; 1000 IU, im) to assess pituitary and testicular responsiveness, respectively. Nine subjects had normal glucose tolerance, nine had impaired glucose tolerance, and three had diabetes mellitus. There was a positive relationship between M and T levels (r = 0.46; P < 0.05). No relationship was seen between M and parameters of LH secretion, including mean LH levels, LH pulse amplitude, LH pulse frequency, and LH response to exogenous GnRH administration. In contrast, a strong correlation was observed between M and the T response to hCG (r = 0.73; P < 0.005). Baseline T levels correlated with the increase in T after hCG administration (r = 0.47; P < 0.05). During the clamp, T levels increased from a baseline level of 367 +/- 30 to 419 +/- 38 ng/dl during the last 30 min (P < 0.05). From these data we conclude that insulin resistance is associated with a decrease in Leydig cell T secretion in men. Additional studies are required to determine the mechanism of this effect.

  19. Exercise at anaerobic threshold intensity and insulin secretion by isolated pancreatic islets of rats

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Camila Aparecida Machado; Paiva, Mauricio Ferreira; Mota, Clécia Alencar Soares; Ribeiro, Carla; de Almeida Leme, José Alexandre Curiacos; Luciano, Eliete

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of acute exercise and exercise training at the anaerobic threshold (AT) intensity on aerobic conditioning and insulin secretion by pancreatic islets, adult male Wistar rats were submitted to the lactate minimum test (LMT) for AT determination. Half of the animals were submitted to swimming exercise training (trained), 1 h/day, 5 days/week during 8 weeks, with an overload equivalent to the AT. The other half was kept sedentary. At the end of the experimental period, the rats were submitted to an oral glucose tolerance test and to another LMT. Then, the animals were sacrificed at rest or immediately after 20 minutes of swimming exercise at the AT intensity for pancreatic islets isolation. At the end of the experiment mean workload (% bw) at AT was higher and blood lactate concentration (mmol/L) was lower in the trained than in the control group. Rats trained at the AT intensity showed no alteration in the areas under blood glucose and insulin during OGTT test. Islet insulin content of trained rats was higher than in the sedentary rats while islet glucose uptake did not differ among the groups. The static insulin secretion in response to the high glucose concentration (16.7 mM) of the sedentary group at rest was lower than the sedentary group submitted to the acute exercise and the inverse was observed in relation to the trained groups. Physical training at the AT intensity improved the aerobic condition and altered insulin secretory pattern by pancreatic islets. PMID:21099318

  20. Transforming growth factor-beta/Smad3 signaling regulates insulin gene transcription and pancreatic islet beta-cell function.

    PubMed

    Lin, Huei-Min; Lee, Ji-Hyeon; Yadav, Hariom; Kamaraju, Anil K; Liu, Eric; Zhigang, Duan; Vieira, Anthony; Kim, Seong-Jin; Collins, Heather; Matschinsky, Franz; Harlan, David M; Roberts, Anita B; Rane, Sushil G

    2009-05-01

    Pancreatic islet beta-cell dysfunction is a signature feature of Type 2 diabetes pathogenesis. Consequently, knowledge of signals that regulate beta-cell function is of immense clinical relevance. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta signaling plays a critical role in pancreatic development although the role of this pathway in the adult pancreas is obscure. Here, we define an important role of the TGF-beta pathway in regulation of insulin gene transcription and beta-cell function. We identify insulin as a TGF-beta target gene and show that the TGF-beta signaling effector Smad3 occupies the insulin gene promoter and represses insulin gene transcription. In contrast, Smad3 small interfering RNAs relieve insulin transcriptional repression and enhance insulin levels. Transduction of adenoviral Smad3 into primary human and non-human primate islets suppresses insulin content, whereas, dominant-negative Smad3 enhances insulin levels. Consistent with this, Smad3-deficient mice exhibit moderate hyperinsulinemia and mild hypoglycemia. Moreover, Smad3 deficiency results in improved glucose tolerance and enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in vivo. In ex vivo perifusion assays, Smad3-deficient islets exhibit improved glucose-stimulated insulin release. Interestingly, Smad3-deficient islets harbor an activated insulin-receptor signaling pathway and TGF-beta signaling regulates expression of genes involved in beta-cell function. Together, these studies emphasize TGF-beta/Smad3 signaling as an important regulator of insulin gene transcription and beta-cell function and suggest that components of the TGF-beta signaling pathway may be dysregulated in diabetes.

  1. Rosuvastatin Treatment Affects Both Basal and Glucose-Induced Insulin Secretion in INS-1 832/13 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Salunkhe, Vishal A.; Elvstam, Olof; Eliasson, Lena; Wendt, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Rosuvastatin is a member of the statin family. Like the other statins it is prescribed to lower cholesterol levels and thereby reduce the risk of cardiovascular events. Rosuvastatin lowers the cholesterol levels by inhibiting the key enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) in the cholesterol producing mevalonate pathway. It has been recognized that apart from their beneficial lipid lowering effects, statins also exhibit diabetogenic properties. The molecular mechanisms behind these remain unresolved. To investigate the effects of rosuvastatin on insulin secretion, we treated INS-1 832/13 cells with varying doses (20 nM to 20 μM) of rosuvastatin for 48 h. At concentrations of 2 μM and above basal insulin secretion was significantly increased. Using diazoxide we could determine that rosuvastatin did not increase basal insulin secretion by corrupting the KATP channels. Glucose-induced insulin secretion on the other hand seemed to be affected differently at different rosuvastatin concentrations. Rosuvastatin treatment (20 μM) for 24–48 h inhibited voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, which lead to reduced depolarization-induced exocytosis of insulin-containing granules. At lower concentrations of rosuvastatin (≤ 2 μM) the stimulus-secretion coupling pathway was intact downstream of the KATP channels as assessed by the patch clamp technique. However, a reduction in glucose-induced insulin secretion could be observed with rosuvastatin concentrations as low as 200 nM. The inhibitory effects of rosuvastatin on glucose-induced insulin secretion could be reversed with mevalonate, but not squalene, indicating that rosuvastatin affects insulin secretion through its effects on the mevalonate pathway, but not through the reduction of cholesterol biosynthesis. Taken together, these data suggest that rosuvastatin has the potential to increase basal insulin secretion and reduce glucose-induced insulin secretion. The latter is possibly an unavoidable

  2. Rosuvastatin Treatment Affects Both Basal and Glucose-Induced Insulin Secretion in INS-1 832/13 Cells.

    PubMed

    Salunkhe, Vishal A; Elvstam, Olof; Eliasson, Lena; Wendt, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Rosuvastatin is a member of the statin family. Like the other statins it is prescribed to lower cholesterol levels and thereby reduce the risk of cardiovascular events. Rosuvastatin lowers the cholesterol levels by inhibiting the key enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) in the cholesterol producing mevalonate pathway. It has been recognized that apart from their beneficial lipid lowering effects, statins also exhibit diabetogenic properties. The molecular mechanisms behind these remain unresolved. To investigate the effects of rosuvastatin on insulin secretion, we treated INS-1 832/13 cells with varying doses (20 nM to 20 μM) of rosuvastatin for 48 h. At concentrations of 2 μM and above basal insulin secretion was significantly increased. Using diazoxide we could determine that rosuvastatin did not increase basal insulin secretion by corrupting the KATP channels. Glucose-induced insulin secretion on the other hand seemed to be affected differently at different rosuvastatin concentrations. Rosuvastatin treatment (20 μM) for 24-48 h inhibited voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels, which lead to reduced depolarization-induced exocytosis of insulin-containing granules. At lower concentrations of rosuvastatin (≤ 2 μM) the stimulus-secretion coupling pathway was intact downstream of the KATP channels as assessed by the patch clamp technique. However, a reduction in glucose-induced insulin secretion could be observed with rosuvastatin concentrations as low as 200 nM. The inhibitory effects of rosuvastatin on glucose-induced insulin secretion could be reversed with mevalonate, but not squalene, indicating that rosuvastatin affects insulin secretion through its effects on the mevalonate pathway, but not through the reduction of cholesterol biosynthesis. Taken together, these data suggest that rosuvastatin has the potential to increase basal insulin secretion and reduce glucose-induced insulin secretion. The latter is possibly an unavoidable

  3. Insulin-secreting β cells require a post-genomic concept.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fang-Xu; Morahan, Grant

    2016-05-25

    Pancreatic insulin-secreting β cells are essential in maintaining normal glucose homeostasis accomplished by highly specialized transcription of insulin gene, of which occupies up to 40% their transcriptome. Deficiency of these cells causes diabetes mellitus, a global public health problem. Although tremendous endeavors have been made to generate insulin-secreting cells from human pluripotent stem cells (i.e., primitive cells capable of giving rise to all cell types in the body), a regenerative therapy to diabetes has not yet been established. Furthermore, the nomenclature of β cells has become inconsistent, confusing and controversial due to the lack of standardized positive controls of developmental stage-matched in vivo cells. In order to minimize this negative impact and facilitate critical research in this field, a post-genomic concept of pancreatic β cells might be helpful. In this review article, we will briefly describe how β cells were discovered and islet lineage is developed that may help understand the cause of nomenclatural controversy, suggest a post-genomic definition and finally provide a conclusive remark on future research of this pivotal cell. PMID:27226815

  4. Insulin-secreting β cells require a post-genomic concept

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Fang-Xu; Morahan, Grant

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic insulin-secreting β cells are essential in maintaining normal glucose homeostasis accomplished by highly specialized transcription of insulin gene, of which occupies up to 40% their transcriptome. Deficiency of these cells causes diabetes mellitus, a global public health problem. Although tremendous endeavors have been made to generate insulin-secreting cells from human pluripotent stem cells (i.e., primitive cells capable of giving rise to all cell types in the body), a regenerative therapy to diabetes has not yet been established. Furthermore, the nomenclature of β cells has become inconsistent, confusing and controversial due to the lack of standardized positive controls of developmental stage-matched in vivo cells. In order to minimize this negative impact and facilitate critical research in this field, a post-genomic concept of pancreatic β cells might be helpful. In this review article, we will briefly describe how β cells were discovered and islet lineage is developed that may help understand the cause of nomenclatural controversy, suggest a post-genomic definition and finally provide a conclusive remark on future research of this pivotal cell. PMID:27226815

  5. Myocardin and pdx-1 synergistically induce hMSCs to differentiate into insulin secreting cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing-Ting; Sun, Fang-Xing

    2014-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been reported as an attractive source for the generation of transplantable surrogate β cells. The objective of this study was to investigate a new method to induce the differentiation of hMSCs into insulin secretion cells and to explore its molecular mechanisms. In this study, we investigated in vitro differentiation of hMSCs by overexpression of myocardin and pdx-1. Differentiated cells were evaluated by immunocytochemistry, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), quantificational real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms were evaluated by chip assay, CO-IP and Luciferase assay. This study reported a new method to induce the differentiation of hMSCs into insulin secretion cells. The method is cotransduction of myocardin and pdx-1 for 7days. At the same time, we find myocardin and pdx-1 can form a complex to promote the transactivities of insulin by affecting the formation of the pdx-1/myocardin/SRF/CArG complex both in vitro and in vitro. The present study provided a simple and faithful in vitro model for further investigating the cell replacement therapy for diabetes.

  6. Block of Kv1.7 potassium currents increases glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Finol-Urdaneta, Rocio K; Remedi, Maria S; Raasch, Walter; Becker, Stefan; Clark, Robert B; Strüver, Nina; Pavlov, Evgeny; Nichols, Colin G; French, Robert J; Terlau, Heinrich

    2012-05-01

    Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) relies on repetitive, electrical spiking activity of the beta cell membrane. Cyclic activation of voltage-gated potassium channels (K(v) ) generates an outward, 'delayed rectifier' potassium current, which drives the repolarizing phase of each spike and modulates insulin release. Although several K(v) channels are expressed in pancreatic islets, their individual contributions to GSIS remain incompletely understood. We take advantage of a naturally occurring cone-snail peptide toxin, Conkunitzin-S1 (Conk-S1), which selectively blocks K(v) 1.7 channels to provide an intrinsically limited, finely graded control of total beta cell delayed rectifier current and hence of GSIS. Conk-S1 increases GSIS in isolated rat islets, likely by reducing K(v) 1.7-mediated delayed rectifier currents in beta cells, which yields increases in action potential firing and cytoplasmic free calcium. In rats, Conk-S1 increases glucose-dependent insulin secretion without decreasing basal glucose. Thus, we conclude that K(v) 1.7 contributes to the membrane-repolarizing current of beta cells during GSIS and that block of this specific component of beta cell K(v) current offers a potential strategy for enhancing GSIS with minimal risk of hypoglycaemia during metabolic disorders such as Type 2 diabetes. PMID:22438204

  7. Isolation of INS-1-derived cell lines with robust ATP-sensitive K+ channel-dependent and -independent glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Hohmeier, H E; Mulder, H; Chen, G; Henkel-Rieger, R; Prentki, M; Newgard, C B

    2000-03-01

    The biochemical mechanisms involved in regulation of insulin secretion are not completely understood. The rat INS-1 cell line has been used to gain insight in this area because it secretes insulin in response to glucose concentrations in the physiological range. However, the magnitude of the response is far less than that seen in freshly isolated rat islets. In the current study, we have stably transfected INS-1 cells with a plasmid containing the human proinsulin gene. After antibiotic selection and clonal expansion, 67% of the resultant clones were found to be poorly responsive to glucose in terms of insulin secretion (< or =2-fold stimulation by 15 mmol/l compared with 3 mmol/l glucose), 17% of the clones were moderately responsive (2- to 5-fold stimulation), and 16% were strongly responsive (5- to 13-fold stimulation). The differences in responsiveness could not be ascribed to differences in insulin content. Detailed analysis of one of the strongly responsive lines (832/13) revealed that its potent response to glucose (average of 10-fold) was stable over 66 population doublings (approximately 7.5 months of tissue culture) with half-maximal stimulation at 6 mmol/l glucose. Furthermore, in the presence of 15 mmol/l glucose, insulin secretion was potentiated significantly by 100 pmol/l isobutylmethylxanthine (320%), 1 mmol/l oleate/palmitate (77%), and 50 nmol/l glucagon-like peptide 1 (60%), whereas carbachol had no effect. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was also potentiated by the sulfonylurea tolbutamide (threefold at 3 mmol/l glucose and 50% at 15 mmol/l glucose) and was abolished by diazoxide, which demonstrates the operation of the ATP-sensitive K+ channel (K(ATP)) in 832/13 cells. Moreover, when the K(ATP) channel was bypassed by incubation of cells in depolarizing K+ (35 mmol/l), insulin secretion was more effectively stimulated by glucose in 832/13 cells than in parental INS-1 cells, which demonstrates the presence of a K(ATP) channel

  8. BMP4-BMPR1A signaling in beta cells is required for and augments glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Goulley, Joan; Dahl, Ulf; Baeza, Nathalie; Mishina, Yuji; Edlund, Helena

    2007-03-01

    Impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and perturbed proinsulin processing are hallmarks of beta cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. Signals that can preserve and/or enhance beta cell function are therefore of great therapeutic interest. Here we show that bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4) and its high-affinity receptor, Bmpr1a, are expressed in beta cells. Mice with attenuated BMPR1A signaling in beta cells show decreased expression of key genes involved in insulin gene expression, proinsulin processing, glucose sensing, secretion stimulus coupling, incretin signaling, and insulin exocytosis and develop diabetes due to impaired insulin secretion. We also show that transgenic expression of Bmp4 in beta cells enhances GSIS and glucose clearance and that systemic administration of BMP4 protein to adult mice significantly stimulates GSIS and ameliorates glucose tolerance in a mouse model of glucose intolerance. Thus, BMP4-BMPR1A signaling in beta cells plays a key role in GSIS.

  9. The regulation of body fat distribution and the modulation of insulin action.

    PubMed

    Cases, J A; Barzilai, N

    2000-11-01

    Body fat distribution may determine insulin resistance and its metabolic syndrome in humans, independent of obesity. Surgical removal of visceral fat (VF) in obese rats was associated with decreased leptin plasma levels and its gene expression in subcutaneous fat (SC). Chronic leptin treatment to rats decreased VF specifically supporting the role of leptin in determining fat distribution. Surgical removal of selected VF provided direct evidence of improved in vivo insulin action on hepatic glucose production (HGP) by over 2-fold vs sham-operated control. The impact of decreased VF on improved in vivo insulin action was further supported by obtaining similar decreases in VF by treating rats with leptin (Lep), beta3-aderenoreceptor agonist, or by severe caloric restriction (CR). All these three interventions improved insulin action on the modulation of HGP and were mostly attributed to preservation of hepatic glycogen stores. Because free fatty acids (FFA) plasma levels were unchanged, this effect may not be mediated portally by substrates. Improved peripheral insulin sensitivity and glycogen synthesis was demonstrated only in Lep. These data suggest that VF is a major determinant of hepatic insulin action. In obese rats, the ability of leptin to prevent visceral adiposity and its own expression is attenuated. Thus, the failure of leptin to regulate fat distribution and its own secretion suggest that 'leptin resistance' may be a pathologic feature in obesity.

  10. Nucleobindin-1 encodes a nesfatin-1-like peptide that stimulates insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Naresh; Mohan, Haneesha; Unniappan, Suraj

    2015-05-15

    Nesfatin-1 (82 amino acid) is an anorexigenic and insulinotropic peptide encoded in a secreted precursor, nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2). Nucleobindin-1 (NUCB1) is a protein with very high sequence similarity to NUCB2. We hypothesized that a nesfatin-1 like peptide (NLP) is encoded in NUCB1, and this peptide is biologically active. In silico analysis found a signal peptide cleavage site at position 25 (Arginine) and 26 (Valine) preceding the NLP region in NUCB1 sequence, and potential proprotein convertase cleavage sites at Lys-Arg (KR), forming a 77 amino acid NLP. RT-PCR studies found NUCB1 mRNA in both pancreas and MIN6 cells. NUCB1-like immunoreactivity was detected in mouse insulinoma (MIN6) cells, and pancreatic islet beta cells of mice. In order to determine the biological activity of NLP, MIN6 cells were incubated with synthetic rat NLP. NLP (10nM and 100nM) upregulated preproinsulin mRNA expression and insulin secretion at 1h post-incubation. In identical experiments using MIN6 cells, a scrambled peptide based on the NLP sequence did not elicit any effects on preproinsulin mRNA expression or insulin secretion. From this result, it is clear that an intact NLP sequence is required for its biological activity. NLP appears as another endogenous insulinotropic peptide encoded in NUCB1.

  11. Insulin secretion and cyclooxygenase enzyme inhibition by cabernet sauvignon grape skin compounds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanjun; Jayaprakasam, Bolleddula; Seeram, Navindra P; Olson, Lawrence K; DeWitt, David; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2004-01-28

    Bioassay-guided isolation and purification of hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of Cabernet Sauvignon grape skin yielded nine compounds (1-9), which were identified as beta-sitosterol-6'-linolenoyl-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), beta-sitosterol (2), beta-sitosterol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside (3), oleanolic acid (4), oleanolic aldehyde (5), resveratrol (6), (+)-epsilon-viniferin (7), (-)-catechin (8), and 1-triacontanol (9). The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic methods. The compounds were assayed for insulin production using an INS-1 cell assay. In a dose-response study, compound 4 stimulated insulin production of INS-1 cells by 20.23, 87.97, 1.13, and 6.38 ng of insulin/mg of protein at 6.25, 12.5, 25, and 50 microg/mL, respectively. This trend was similar to the dose-dependent insulin production of INS-1 cells by glucose. Compound 5 also showed a dose-dependent insulin production in this assay. The isolated compounds were also assayed for cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 (COX) enzyme inhibitory activities. At 100 microg/mL, compounds 2, 3, and 4 inhibited the COX-2 enzyme by 11, 12, and 10%, respectively, but did not show activities on the COX-1 enzyme. Compounds 6, 7, and 8 at 100 microg/mL inhibited the COX-1 enzyme by 98, 99, and 98%, respectively, and the COX-2 enzyme by 0, 47, and 72%, respectively. This is the first report of beta-sitosterol-6'-linolenoyl-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) from grape skin and insulin secretion activities of compounds 4 and 5.

  12. Ethanolic Extract of Butea monosperma Leaves Elevate Blood Insulin Level in Type 2 Diabetic Rats, Stimulate Insulin Secretion in Isolated Rat Islets, and Enhance Hepatic Glycogen Formation

    PubMed Central

    Samad, Mehdi Bin; Kabir, Ashraf Ul; Ahmed, Arif; Jahan, Mohammad Rajib; Hannan, J. M. A.

    2014-01-01

    We measured a vast range of parameters, in an attempt to further elucidate previously claimed antihyperglycemic activity of Butea monosperma. Our study clearly negates the possibility of antidiabetic activity by inhibited gastrointestinal enzyme action or by reduced glucose absorption. Reduction of fasting and postprandial glucose level was reconfirmed (P < 0.05). Improved serum lipid profile via reduced low density lipoprotein (LDL), cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), and increased high density lipoprotein (HDL) was also reestablished (P < 0.05). Significant insulin secretagogue activity of B. monosperma was found in serum insulin assay of B. monosperma treated type 2 diabetic rats (P < 0.01). This was further ascertained by our study on insulin secretion on isolated rat islets (P < 0.05). Improved sensitivity of glucose was shown by the significant increase in hepatic glycogen deposition (P < 0.05). Hence, we concluded that antihyperglycemic activity of B. monosperma was mediated by enhanced insulin secretion and enhanced glycogen formation in the liver. PMID:24860609

  13. A bolus infusion of xylitol solution in the treatment of cow ketosis does not cause a surge in insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Yoji; Sako, Toshinori; Mizutani, Hisashi; Sugiyama, Mieko; Hayakawa, Noriyuki; Hasegawa, Hiroya; Hirose, Hisashi

    2008-10-01

    When a solution of xylitol was rapidly administered intravenously (bolus infusion) to healthy cattle or those with ketosis, different results were obtained. In healthy cattle, a temporary surge in insulin secretion was observed, whereas in ketotic cattle no such surge was found, but instead a moderate level of secretion continued for a lengthy period. No significant difference in the areas under the insulin curve (AUC) was found between healthy cattle and ketotic cattle up to 120 min after xylitol infusion. These results clearly demonstrated that a bolus infusion of xylitol solution in ketotic cattle does not cause a temporary surge in insulin secretion unlike in healthy animals, but rather results in a continuous, gradual rise in secretion.

  14. Insulin receptor alternative splicing is regulated by insulin signaling and modulates beta cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Malakar, Pushkar; Chartarifsky, Lital; Hija, Ayat; Leibowitz, Gil; Glaser, Benjamin; Dor, Yuval; Karni, Rotem

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM) affects more than 300 million people worldwide. One of the hallmarks of T2DM is peripheral insulin resistance, in part due to unproductive insulin signaling through the insulin receptor. The insulin receptor (INSR) exists as two isoforms, INSR-A and INSR-B, which results from skipping or inclusion of exon 11 respectively. What determines the relative abundance of the different insulin receptor splice variants is unknown. Moreover, it is not yet clear what the physiological roles of each of the isoforms are in normal and diseased beta cells. In this study, we show that insulin induces INSR exon 11 inclusion in pancreatic beta cells in both human and mouse. This occurs through activation of the Ras-MAPK/ERK signaling pathway and up-regulation of the splicing factor SRSF1. Induction of exon 11 skipping by a splice-site competitive antisense oligonucleotide inhibited the MAPK-ERK signaling pathway downstream of the insulin receptor, sensitizing the pancreatic β-cell line MIN6 to stress-induced apoptosis and lipotoxicity. These results assign to insulin a regulatory role in INSR alternative splicing through the Ras-MAPK/ERK signaling pathway. We suggest that in beta cells, INSR-B has a protective role, while INSR-A expression sensitizes beta cells to programmed cell death. PMID:27526875

  15. Chronic activation of central AMPK attenuates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and exacerbates hepatic insulin resistance in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmin; Kim, Da Sol; Kang, Suna; Shin, Bae Keun

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the effects of chronic AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) activation in the hypothalamus on energy and glucose metabolism in 90% pancreatectomized diabetic rats. Diabetic rats fed a high fat diet were divided into 3 groups and intracerebroventricular (ICV) administered with one of the following: 5-amino-1-β-D-ribofuranosyl-imidazole-4-carboxamide (AICAR, AMPK activator; 80 μg/day), AICAR+compound C (AMPK inhibitor; 6.2 μg/day), or an artificial cerebrospinal fluid (control) by means of osmotic pumps for 4 weeks. In the hypothalamus, central AICAR activated the phosphorylation of AMPK whereas adding compound C suppressed the activation. AICAR increased body weight and epididymal and retroperitoneal fat mass by increasing energy intake for the first 2 weeks and decreasing energy expenditure, whereas compound C reversed the AICAR effect on energy metabolism. Indirect calorimetry revealed that ICV-AICAR decreased carbohydrate oxidation, but not fat oxidation, compared to the control. During euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, central AICAR increased hepatic glucose output at hyperinsulinemic states. ICV-AICAR increased expressions of hepatic genes involved in fatty acid synthesis and decreased expression of hepatic genes related to thermogenesis whereas compound C nullified the AICAR effect. Insulin secretion in the first and second phases decreased in AICAR-treated rats at hyperglycemic clamp, but compound C nullified the decrease. However, central AICAR did not alter β-cell mass via its proliferation or apoptosis. In conclusion, chronic hypothalamic AMPK activation impaired energy metabolism and glucose homeostasis by increasing food intake, increasing hepatic glucose output and decreasing insulin secretion in diabetic rats. The impairment of energy and glucose homeostasis by AMPK activation was nullified by an AMPK inhibitor.

  16. Differentiation of pancreatic stem and progenitor β-cells into insulin secreting cells in mice with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Skurikhin, E G; Ermakova, N N; Khmelevskaya, E S; Pershina, O V; Krupin, V A; Ermolaeva, L A; Dygai, A M

    2014-04-01

    We studied in vitro differentiation of pancreatic stem and progenitor cells into insulin secreting cells in the model of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in C57Bl/6 mice. Streptozotocin was shown to increase the population of pancreatic oligopotent β-cell precursors (CD45(-), TER119(-), CD133(+), and CD49f(low)) and did not affect multipotent (stem) progenitor cells (CD45(-), TER119(-), CD17(-), CD309(-)). During long-term culturing, diabetic multipotent progenitor cells showed high capacity for self-renewal. A population of dithizone-positive (insulin secreting cells) mononuclear cells was obtained releasing insulin after prolonged culturing in suspension enriched with diabetic CD45(-), TER119(-), CD17(-), and CD309(-) cells. The rate of generation of "new" insulin-producing cells and insulin release in the samples of experimental group considerably exceeded activity of the corresponding processes in the control group.

  17. Thyrotropin inhibits while insulin, epidermal growth factor and tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate stimulate insulin-like growth factor binding protein secretion from sheep thyroid cells.

    PubMed

    Eggo, M C; Bachrach, L K; Brown, A L; Burrow, G N

    1991-01-01

    Six insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBP) have been identified in the conditioned medium from sheep thyroid cells cultured under serum-free conditions. IGFBPs of 32, 28, 23 and 19 kDa were secreted by cells cultured for 14 days in serum-free and hormone-free medium. The constitutive secretion of IGFBP was inhibited by thyrotropin (TSH, 0.3 mU per mL). The effect was most marked on the secretion of the 28 kDa BP. High insulin concentrations stimulated the secretion of this IGFBP. The stimulatory effects of insulin were inhibited by TSH. Growth hormone treatment decreased the secretion of the 28 kDa protein. Tetradecanoylphorbol-13 acetate (TPA) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) both of which stimulate thyroid cell growth but inhibit differentiated function, markedly stimulated IGFBP secretion and induced the appearance of a 46 and a 150 kDa IGFBP. The effects of EGF and TPA were not identical. A rat IGFBP-2 cDNA reacted with sheep thyroid RNA of approximate size 1.6 kb. TPA treatment increased IGFBP-2 mRNA. Other hormones used to enhance differentiation and growth in thyroid cells in culture i.e. transferrin, somatostatin, cortisol and glycyl-histidyl-lysine acetate had no marked effects on IGFBP secretion nor on TSH-dependent, insulin-mediated iodide uptake and organification and cell growth. We show a correlation between secretion of high molecular weight IGFBP with enhanced growth but decreased function. Conversely, we find a correlation between decreased secretion of the 28 kDa BP and increased growth and function. PMID:1722684

  18. EEN regulates the proliferation and survival of multiple myeloma cells by potentiating IGF-1 secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Er-Wen; Xue, Sheng-Jiang; Li, Xiao-Yan; Xu, Suo-Wen; Cheng, Jian-Ding; Zheng, Jin-Xiang; Shi, He; Lv, Guo-Li; Li, Zhi-Gang; Li, Yue; Liu, Chang-Hui; Chen, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Hong; Li, Jie; Liu, Chao

    2014-05-02

    Highlights: • Levels of EEN expression paralleled with the rate of cell proliferation. • EEN was involved in the proliferation and survival of multiple myeloma (MM) cells. • EEN regulated the activity of IGF-1-Akt/mTOR pathway. • EEN regulated proliferation and survival of MM cells by enhancing IGF-1 secretion. - Abstract: The molecular mechanisms of multiple myeloma are not well defined. EEN is an endocytosis-regulating molecule. Here we report that EEN regulates the proliferation and survival of multiple myeloma cells, by regulating IGF-1 secretion. In the present study, we observed that EEN expression paralleled with cell proliferation, EEN accelerated cell proliferation, facilitated cell cycle transition from G1 to S phase by regulating cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) pathway, and delayed cell apoptosis via Bcl2/Bax-mitochondrial pathway. Mechanistically, we found that EEN was indispensable for insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) secretion and the activation of protein kinase B-mammalian target of rapamycin (Akt-mTOR) pathway. Exogenous IGF-1 overcame the phenotype of EEN depletion, while IGF-1 neutralization overcame that of EEN over-expression. Collectively, these data suggest that EEN may play a pivotal role in excessive cell proliferation and insufficient cell apoptosis of bone marrow plasma cells in multiple myeloma. Therefore, EEN may represent a potential diagnostic marker or therapeutic target for multiple myeloma.

  19. Zinc status affects glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion in patients with thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Fung, Ellen B; Gildengorin, Ginny; Talwar, Siddhant; Hagar, Leah; Lal, Ashutosh

    2015-06-02

    Up to 20% of adult patients with Thalassemia major (Thal) live with diabetes, while 30% may be zinc deficient. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between zinc status, impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in Thal patients. Charts from thirty subjects (16 male, 27.8 ± 9.1 years) with Thal were reviewed. Patients with low serum zinc had significantly lower fasting insulin, insulinogenic and oral disposition indexes (all p < 0.05) and elevated glucose response curve, following a standard 75 g oral load of glucose compared to those with normal serum zinc after controlling for baseline (group × time interaction p = 0.048). Longitudinal data in five patients with a decline in serum zinc over a two year follow up period (-19.0 ± 9.6 μg/dL), showed consistent increases in fasting glucose (3.6 ± 3.2 mg/dL) and insulin to glucose ratios at 120 min post glucose dose (p = 0.05). Taken together, these data suggest that the frequently present zinc deficiency in Thal patients is associated with decreased insulin secretion and reduced glucose disposal. Future zinc trials will require modeling of oral glucose tolerance test data and not simply measurement of static indices in order to understand the complexities of pancreatic function in the Thal patient.

  20. Zinc Status Affects Glucose Homeostasis and Insulin Secretion in Patients with Thalassemia

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Ellen B.; Gildengorin, Ginny; Talwar, Siddhant; Hagar, Leah; Lal, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Up to 20% of adult patients with Thalassemia major (Thal) live with diabetes, while 30% may be zinc deficient. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between zinc status, impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in Thal patients. Charts from thirty subjects (16 male, 27.8 ± 9.1 years) with Thal were reviewed. Patients with low serum zinc had significantly lower fasting insulin, insulinogenic and oral disposition indexes (all p < 0.05) and elevated glucose response curve, following a standard 75 g oral load of glucose compared to those with normal serum zinc after controlling for baseline (group × time interaction p = 0.048). Longitudinal data in five patients with a decline in serum zinc over a two year follow up period (−19.0 ± 9.6 μg/dL), showed consistent increases in fasting glucose (3.6 ± 3.2 mg/dL) and insulin to glucose ratios at 120 min post glucose dose (p = 0.05). Taken together, these data suggest that the frequently present zinc deficiency in Thal patients is associated with decreased insulin secretion and reduced glucose disposal. Future zinc trials will require modeling of oral glucose tolerance test data and not simply measurement of static indices in order to understand the complexities of pancreatic function in the Thal patient. PMID:26043030

  1. Regulation of mucous acinar exocrine secretion with age.

    PubMed

    Culp, D J; Richardson, L A

    1996-01-01

    Denny and co-workers (Navazesh et al., 1992) recently reported decreased concentrations of MG1 and MG2 mucins in resting and stimulated whole human saliva with age. The current study was therefore conducted to examine whether there is a corresponding attenuation with age in stimulus secretion coupling regulating mucous cell exocrine secretion. We utilized an in vitro model system, isolated rat sublingual acini, to evaluate the regulation of mucous cell exocrine secretion. Rat sublingual glands are similar to human sublingual and minor mucous glands, both histologically and in terms of their pattern of innervation, which is predominantly parasympathetic. Mucin secretion is thus activated primarily by muscarinic cholinergic agonist and to a lesser extent by vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), which is co-localized with acetylcholine in parasympathetic nerve terminals. We isolated sublingual mucous acini from five-month-old and 24-month-old rats and compared the concentration responses for mucin secretion induced by VIP and the muscarinic agonist, arecaidine propargyl ester (APE). Concentration-response curves for VIP were nearly identical for mucous acini from the five-month-old and 24-month-old animals. Values for basal secretion, maximal secretion, and EC50 (approximately equal to 200 nmol/L VIP) were statistically equivalent between both age groups. Concentration-response curves for APE were also very similar between age groups, with no statistically significant difference in basal secretion or EC50 values (approximately equal to 50 nmol/L APE). Maximal secretion was slightly less but statistically different for 24-month-old vs. five-month-old animals, 158% vs. 169% above basal secretion, respectively. Collectively, we found no substantial age-related changes in the secretory responsiveness of salivary mucous cells.

  2. Increased L-CPT-1 activity and altered gene expression in pancreatic islets of malnourished adult rats: a possible relationship between elevated free fatty acid levels and impaired insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    de Barros Reis, Marise Auxiliadora; Arantes, Vanessa Cristina; Cunha, Daniel Andrade; Latorraca, Márcia Queiroz; Toyama, Marcos Hikari; Carneiro, Everardo Magalhães; Boschero, Antonio Carlos

    2008-02-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction is associated with chronically elevated levels of serum fatty acids and reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Lipid metabolism in pancreatic beta cells is critical for the regulation of insulin secretion, and the chronic exposure to fatty acids results in higher palmitate oxidation rates and an altered insulin response to glucose. Using a rat model of isocaloric protein restriction, we examined whether pre- and postnatal protein malnutrition influences the properties of pancreatic islet carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (liver isoform, L-CPT-1), a rate-limiting enzyme that regulates fatty acid oxidation in mitochondria. The activity of L-CPT-1 in pancreatic islets increased in the low protein (LP), although the L-CPT-1 mRNA levels were unaffected by malnutrition. The susceptibility of enzyme to inhibition by malonyl-CoA was unaltered and the content of malonyl-CoA was reduced in LP cells. Because the mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acids is related to the altered expression of a number of genes encoding proteins involved in insulin secretion, the levels of expression of insulin and GLUT-2 mRNA were assessed. A reduced expression of both genes was observed in malnourished rats. These results provide further evidence that increased L-CPT-1 activity and changes in gene expression in pancreatic islets may be involved in the reduced insulin secretion seen in malnourished rats. PMID:17531461

  3. Autocrine regulation of milk secretion by a protein in milk.

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, C J; Addey, C V; Boddy, L M; Peaker, M

    1995-01-01

    Frequency or completeness of milk removal from the lactating mammary gland regulates the rate of milk secretion by a mechanism which is local, chemical and inhibitory in nature. Screening of goat's milk proteins in rabbit mammary explant cultures identified a single whey protein of M(r) 7600 able to inhibit synthesis of milk constituents. The active whey protein, which we term FIL (Feedback inhibitor of Lactation), also decreased milk secretion temporarily when introduced into a mammary gland of lactating goats. FIL was synthesized by primary cultures of goat mammary epithelial cells, and was secreted vectorially together with other milk proteins. N-terminal amino acid sequencing indicated that it is a hitherto unknown protein. The evidence indicates that local regulation of milk secretion by milk removal is through autocrine feedback inhibition by this milk protein. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 5 PMID:7826353

  4. Microarray analysis of novel candidate genes responsible for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in mouse pancreatic β cell line MIN6.

    PubMed

    Yamato, Eiji; Tashiro, Fumi; Miyazaki, Jun-ichi

    2013-01-01

    Elucidating the regulation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in pancreatic islet β cells is important for understanding and treating diabetes. MIN6 cells, a transformed β-cell line derived from a mouse insulinoma, retain GSIS and are a popular in vitro model for insulin secretion. However, in long-term culture, MIN6 cells' GSIS capacity is lost. We previously isolated a subclone, MIN6 clone 4, from the parental MIN6 cells, that shows well-regulated insulin secretion in response to glucose, glybenclamide, and KCl, even after prolonged culture. To investigate the molecular mechanisms responsible for preserving GSIS in this subclone, we compared four groups of MIN6 cells: Pr-LP (parental MIN6, low passage number), Pr-HP (parental MIN6, high passage number), C4-LP (MIN6 clone 4, low passage number), and C4-HP (MIN6 clone 4, high passage number). Based on their capacity for GSIS, we designated the Pr-LP, C4-LP, and C4-HP cells as "responder cells." In a DNA microarray analysis, we identified a group of genes with high expression in responder cells ("responder genes"), but extremely low expression in the Pr-HP cells. Another group of genes ("non-responder genes") was expressed at high levels in the Pr-HP cells, but at extremely low levels in the responder cells. Some of the responder genes were involved in secretory machinery or glucose metabolism, including Chrebp, Scgn, and Syt7. Among the non-responder genes were Car2, Maf, and Gcg, which are not normally expressed in islet β cells. Interestingly, we found a disproportionate number of known imprinted genes among the responder genes. Our findings suggest that the global expression profiling of GSIS-competent and GSIS-incompetent MIN6 cells will help delineate the gene regulatory networks for insulin secretion. PMID:23560115

  5. MARCH1 regulates insulin sensitivity by controlling cell surface insulin receptor levels.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Arvindhan; Petersen, Max C; Nasiri, Ali R; Butrico, Gina; Fung, Annie; Ruan, Hai-Bin; Kursawe, Romy; Caprio, Sonia; Thibodeau, Jacques; Bourgeois-Daigneault, Marie-Claude; Sun, Lisha; Gao, Guangping; Bhanot, Sanjay; Jurczak, Michael J; Green, Michael R; Shulman, Gerald I; Wajapeyee, Narendra

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a key driver of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and is characterized by defective insulin receptor (INSR) signalling. Although surface INSR downregulation is a well-established contributor to insulin resistance, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain obscure. Here we show that the E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH1 impairs cellular insulin action by degrading cell surface INSR. Using a large-scale RNA interference screen, we identify MARCH1 as a negative regulator of INSR signalling. March1 loss-of-function enhances, and March1 overexpression impairs, hepatic insulin sensitivity in mice. MARCH1 ubiquitinates INSR to decrease cell surface INSR levels, but unlike other INSR ubiquitin ligases, MARCH1 acts in the basal state rather than after insulin stimulation. Thus, MARCH1 may help set the basal gain of insulin signalling. MARCH1 expression is increased in white adipose tissue of obese humans, suggesting that MARCH1 contributes to the pathophysiology of T2D and could be a new therapeutic target. PMID:27577745

  6. MARCH1 regulates insulin sensitivity by controlling cell surface insulin receptor levels

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Arvindhan; Petersen, Max C.; Nasiri, Ali R.; Butrico, Gina; Fung, Annie; Ruan, Hai-Bin; Kursawe, Romy; Caprio, Sonia; Thibodeau, Jacques; Bourgeois-Daigneault, Marie-Claude; Sun, Lisha; Gao, Guangping; Bhanot, Sanjay; Jurczak, Michael J.; Green, Michael R.; Shulman, Gerald I.; Wajapeyee, Narendra

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a key driver of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and is characterized by defective insulin receptor (INSR) signalling. Although surface INSR downregulation is a well-established contributor to insulin resistance, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain obscure. Here we show that the E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH1 impairs cellular insulin action by degrading cell surface INSR. Using a large-scale RNA interference screen, we identify MARCH1 as a negative regulator of INSR signalling. March1 loss-of-function enhances, and March1 overexpression impairs, hepatic insulin sensitivity in mice. MARCH1 ubiquitinates INSR to decrease cell surface INSR levels, but unlike other INSR ubiquitin ligases, MARCH1 acts in the basal state rather than after insulin stimulation. Thus, MARCH1 may help set the basal gain of insulin signalling. MARCH1 expression is increased in white adipose tissue of obese humans, suggesting that MARCH1 contributes to the pathophysiology of T2D and could be a new therapeutic target. PMID:27577745

  7. Association of birthweight with diabetes and insulin sensitivity or secretion in the Japanese general population

    PubMed Central

    Oya, Junko; Nakagami, Tomoko; Kurita, Moritoshi; Yamamoto, Yayoi; Hasegawa, Yukiko; Tanaka, Yuki; Endo, Yasuhiro; Uchigata, Yasuko

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction Low birthweight (birthweight <2,500 g) has been considered to be a risk factor for diabetes in data from Western countries, and its percentage is increasing in Japan. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between birth weight and diabetes, as well as both insulin resistance and secretion. Materials and Methods The participants were 847 adults who underwent health check-ups. The participants were divided by birthweight into four groups (low birthweight and tertiles 1–3 above it). We assessed the effect of birthweight on diabetes using a logistic regression model. Multivariable liner regression analyses were carried out to examine whether birthweight is independently associated with homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and β-cell function. Results The prevalence of diabetes tended to increase with decreasing birthweight. The adjusted odds ratio for diabetes with low birthweight was 3.52 (1.04–11.96) as compared with the reference category, tertile 2. Univariable linear regression analyses showed that homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was negatively associated with birthweight, and this association remained after adjusting for age, sex, current body mass index and family history of diabetes. There was no significant association between homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function and birthweight. Conclusions Low birthweight was inversely associated with diabetes and insulin resistance in the Japanese general population. Longitudinal data analyses are required to examine the causal relationship between bodyweight and diabetes or insulin resistance in adulthood. PMID:26221521

  8. Opposing effects of dietary protein and sugar regulate a transcriptional target of Drosophila insulin-like peptide signaling.

    PubMed

    Buch, Susanne; Melcher, Christoph; Bauer, Matthias; Katzenberger, Joerg; Pankratz, Michael J

    2008-04-01

    Specific neurosecretory cells of the Drosophila brain express insulin-like peptides (dilps), which regulate growth, glucose homeostasis, and aging. Through microarray analysis of flies in which the insulin-producing cells (IPCs) were ablated, we identified a target gene, target of brain insulin (tobi), that encodes an evolutionarily conserved alpha-glucosidase. Flies with lowered tobi levels are viable, whereas tobi overexpression causes severe growth defects and a decrease in body glycogen. Interestingly, tobi expression is increased by dietary protein and decreased by dietary sugar. This pattern is reminiscent of mammalian glucagon secretion, which is increased by protein intake and decreased by sugar intake, suggesting that tobi is regulated by a glucagon analog. tobi expression is also eliminated upon ablation of neuroendocrine cells that produce adipokinetic hormone (AKH), an analog of glucagon. tobi is thus a target of the insulin- and glucagon-like signaling system that responds oppositely to dietary protein and sugar.

  9. GPR142 Controls Tryptophan-Induced Insulin and Incretin Hormone Secretion to Improve Glucose Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Efanov, Alexander M.; Fang, Xiankang; Beavers, Lisa S.; Wang, Xuesong; Wang, Jingru; Gonzalez Valcarcel, Isabel C.; Ma, Tianwei

    2016-01-01

    GPR142, a putative amino acid receptor, is expressed in pancreatic islets and the gastrointestinal tract, but the ligand affinity and physiological role of this receptor remain obscure. In this study, we show that in addition to L-Tryptophan, GPR142 signaling is also activated by L-Phenylalanine but not by other naturally occurring amino acids. Furthermore, we show that Tryptophan and a synthetic GPR142 agonist increase insulin and incretin hormones and improve glucose disposal in mice in a GPR142-dependent manner. In contrast, Phenylalanine improves in vivo glucose disposal independently of GPR142. Noteworthy, refeeding-induced elevations in insulin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide are blunted in Gpr142 null mice. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate GPR142 is a Tryptophan receptor critically required for insulin and incretin hormone regulation and suggest GPR142 agonists may be effective therapies that leverage amino acid sensing pathways for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:27322810

  10. Rp-cAMPS Prodrugs Reveal the cAMP Dependence of First-Phase Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Schwede, Frank; Chepurny, Oleg G.; Kaufholz, Melanie; Bertinetti, Daniela; Leech, Colin A.; Cabrera, Over; Zhu, Yingmin; Mei, Fang; Cheng, Xiaodong; Manning Fox, Jocelyn E.; MacDonald, Patrick E.; Genieser, Hans-G.; Herberg, Friedrich W.

    2015-01-01

    cAMP-elevating agents such as the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 potentiate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic β-cells. However, a debate has existed since the 1970s concerning whether or not cAMP signaling is essential for glucose alone to stimulate insulin secretion. Here, we report that the first-phase kinetic component of GSIS is cAMP-dependent, as revealed through the use of a novel highly membrane permeable para-acetoxybenzyl (pAB) ester prodrug that is a bioactivatable derivative of the cAMP antagonist adenosine-3′,5′-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Rp-isomer (Rp-cAMPS). In dynamic perifusion assays of human or rat islets, a step-wise increase of glucose concentration leads to biphasic insulin secretion, and under these conditions, 8-bromoadenosine-3′,5′-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Rp-isomer, 4-acetoxybenzyl ester (Rp-8-Br-cAMPS-pAB) inhibits first-phase GSIS by up to 80%. Surprisingly, second-phase GSIS is inhibited to a much smaller extent (≤20%). Using luciferase, fluorescence resonance energy transfer, and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer assays performed in living cells, we validate that Rp-8-Br-cAMPS-pAB does in fact block cAMP-dependent protein kinase activation. Novel effects of Rp-8-Br-cAMPS-pAB to block the activation of cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factors (Epac1, Epac2) are also validated using genetically encoded Epac biosensors, and are independently confirmed in an in vitro Rap1 activation assay using Rp-cAMPS and Rp-8-Br-cAMPS. Thus, in addition to revealing the cAMP dependence of first-phase GSIS from human and rat islets, these findings establish a pAB-based chemistry for the synthesis of highly membrane permeable prodrug derivatives of Rp-cAMPS that act with micromolar or even nanomolar potency to inhibit cAMP signaling in living cells. PMID:26061564

  11. Rp-cAMPS Prodrugs Reveal the cAMP Dependence of First-Phase Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion.

    PubMed

    Schwede, Frank; Chepurny, Oleg G; Kaufholz, Melanie; Bertinetti, Daniela; Leech, Colin A; Cabrera, Over; Zhu, Yingmin; Mei, Fang; Cheng, Xiaodong; Manning Fox, Jocelyn E; MacDonald, Patrick E; Genieser, Hans-G; Herberg, Friedrich W; Holz, George G

    2015-07-01

    cAMP-elevating agents such as the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 potentiate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic β-cells. However, a debate has existed since the 1970s concerning whether or not cAMP signaling is essential for glucose alone to stimulate insulin secretion. Here, we report that the first-phase kinetic component of GSIS is cAMP-dependent, as revealed through the use of a novel highly membrane permeable para-acetoxybenzyl (pAB) ester prodrug that is a bioactivatable derivative of the cAMP antagonist adenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Rp-isomer (Rp-cAMPS). In dynamic perifusion assays of human or rat islets, a step-wise increase of glucose concentration leads to biphasic insulin secretion, and under these conditions, 8-bromoadenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Rp-isomer, 4-acetoxybenzyl ester (Rp-8-Br-cAMPS-pAB) inhibits first-phase GSIS by up to 80%. Surprisingly, second-phase GSIS is inhibited to a much smaller extent (≤20%). Using luciferase, fluorescence resonance energy transfer, and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer assays performed in living cells, we validate that Rp-8-Br-cAMPS-pAB does in fact block cAMP-dependent protein kinase activation. Novel effects of Rp-8-Br-cAMPS-pAB to block the activation of cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factors (Epac1, Epac2) are also validated using genetically encoded Epac biosensors, and are independently confirmed in an in vitro Rap1 activation assay using Rp-cAMPS and Rp-8-Br-cAMPS. Thus, in addition to revealing the cAMP dependence of first-phase GSIS from human and rat islets, these findings establish a pAB-based chemistry for the synthesis of highly membrane permeable prodrug derivatives of Rp-cAMPS that act with micromolar or even nanomolar potency to inhibit cAMP signaling in living cells. PMID:26061564

  12. KCl -Permeabilized Pancreatic Islets: An Experimental Model to Explore the Messenger Role of ATP in the Mechanism of Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Deeney, Jude T.; Corkey, Barbara E.

    2015-01-01

    Our previous work has demonstrated that islet depolarization with KCl opens connexin36 hemichannels in β-cells of mouse pancreatic islets allowing the exchange of small metabolites with the extracellular medium. In this study, the opening of these hemichannels has been further characterized in rat islets and INS–1 cells. Taking advantage of hemicannels’opening, the uptake of extracellular ATP and its effect on insulin release were investigated. 70 mM KCl stimulated light emission by luciferin in dispersed rat islets cells transduced with the fire-fly luciferase gene: it was suppressed by 20 mM glucose and 50 μM mefloquine, a specific connexin36 inhibitor. Extracellular ATP was taken up or released by islets depolarized with 70 mM KCl at 5 mM glucose, depending on the external ATP concentration. 1 mM ATP restored the loss of ATP induced by the depolarization itself. ATP concentrations above 5 mM increased islet ATP content and the ATP/ADP ratio. No ATP uptake occurred in non-depolarized or KCl-depolarized islets simultaneously incubated with 50 μM mefloquine or 20 mM glucose. Extracellular ATP potentiated the secretory response induced by 70 mM KCl at 5 mM glucose in perifused rat islets: 5 mM ATP triggered a second phase of insulin release after the initial peak triggered by KCl-depolarization itself; at 10 mM, it increased both the initial, KCl-dependent, peak and stimulated a greater second phase of secretion than at 5 mM. These stimulatory effects of extracellular ATP were almost completely suppressed by 50 μM mefloquine. The magnitude of the second phase of insulin release due to 5 mM extracellular ATP was decreased by addition of 5 mM ADP (extracellular ATP/ADP ratio = 1). ATP acts independently of KATP channels closure and its intracellular concentration and its ATP/ADP ratio seems to regulate the magnitude of both the first (triggering) and second (amplifying) phases of glucose-induced insulin secretion. PMID:26444014

  13. Transplantation of insulin-secreting multicellular spheroids for the treatment of type 1 diabetes in mice.

    PubMed

    Kusamori, Kosuke; Nishikawa, Makiya; Mizuno, Narumi; Nishikawa, Tomoko; Masuzawa, Akira; Shimizu, Kazunori; Konishi, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yuki; Takakura, Yoshinobu

    2014-01-10

    The efficacy of cell-based therapy depends on the function and survival of transplanted cells, which have been suggested to be enhanced by spheroid formation. However, few attempts at spheroid generation from insulin-secreting cells, which may be used to treat type 1 diabetes, have been reported. We therefore developed spheroids from the mouse insulinoma cell line NIT-1 by using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based microwells with a coating of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm). The prepared NIT-1 spheroids or dissociated NIT-1 cells were transplanted into the subrenal capsule in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. NIT-1 spheroids prepared using the PNIPAAm-coated PDMS-based microwells had a uniformly sized spherical structure with a diameter of 200-300μm. The PNIPAAm coating increased cell survival in the spheroids and the recovery of the spheroids from the microwells. In diabetic mice, the transplanted NIT-1 spheroids reduced blood glucose levels to normal values faster than dissociated NIT-1 cells did. Additionally, survival was higher among NIT-1 cells in spheroids than among dissociated NIT-1 cells 24h after transplantation. These results indicate that insulin-secreting NIT-1 spheroids prepared using PNIPAAm-coated PDMS-based microwells are more effective for the treatment of type 1 diabetes than dissociated cells in suspension. PMID:24184345

  14. Influence of hemorrhage on adrenal secretion, blood glucose and serum insulin in the awake pig.

    PubMed Central

    Carey, L C; Curtin, R; Sapira, J D

    1976-01-01

    A study was performed to quantitate the adrenal medullary and cortical response to hemorrhage in awake animals bled at different rates and to relate these responses to simultaneous changes in blood glucose and serum insulin. A series of awake pigs were bled either slowly or rapidly of 30% of their calculated blood volume. Infusions of exogenous epinephrine were performed in an additional series of unbled animals and infusions of epinephrine plus hydrocortisone were similarly performed in an additonal series. Increase in blood glucose and epinephrine secretion rate following hemorrhage were found to be significantly dependent upon the rate of initial hemorrhage. Cortisol secretion was found to rise significantly during and following hemorrhage in both rapidly and slowly bled animals. Serum insulin levels remained at baseline levels during shock, despite the presence of significant hyperglycemia. In unbled animals infused with epinephrine at rates comparable to those measured in shock, elevations in blood glucose were markedly lower, shifting to the right of the dose-response curve during hemorrhage. Simultaneous infusions of cortisol and epinephrine resulted in a dose-response curve which did not differ significantly from that following infusion of epinephrine alone. Images Fig. 2. PMID:1247317

  15. A model study of the regulation of gastric acid secretion.

    PubMed

    Van Duijn, B; Ypey, D L; de Goede, J; Verveen, A A; Hekkens, W

    1989-07-01

    A computer simulation model is presented of the gastric phase regulation of gastric acid secretion in humans. The model is based on experimental data from the literature and includes terms representing gastric pH and gastric volume-dependent gastrin secretion, gastrin-dependent acid secretion, food storage in the stomach, and gastric emptying. We have explored the predictive value of the model in assessing the relative importance of gastric pH-dependent and gastric volume-dependent acid secretion mechanisms under various conditions. Similarly we have studied the role of gastric acid deregulation in achlorhydria, the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, and duodenal ulcer, and the influence of the antacid drugs cimetidine and ranitidine under duodenal ulcer conditions. Model analysis of normal gastric acid regulation suggests that gastric volume-controlled acid secretion is of major importance during eating and predicts that pH-dependent gastrin secretion is of major importance in preventing excessively low pH levels between meals and during the night.

  16. Advanced Glycation End-Products affect transcription factors regulating insulin gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Puddu, A.; Storace, D.; Odetti, P.; Viviani, G.L.

    2010-04-23

    Advanced Glycation End-Products (AGEs) are generated by the covalent interaction of reducing sugars with proteins, lipids or nucleic acids. AGEs are implicated in diabetic complications and pancreatic {beta}-cell dysfunction. We previously demonstrated that exposure of the pancreatic islet cell line HIT-T15 to high concentrations of AGEs leads to a significant decrease of insulin secretion and content. Insulin gene transcription is positively regulated by the beta cell specific transcription factor PDX-1 (Pancreatic and Duodenal Homeobox-1). On the contrary, the forkhead transcription factor FoxO1 inhibits PDX-1 gene transcription. Activity of FoxO1 is regulated by post-translational modifications: phosphorylation deactivates FoxO1, and acetylation prevents FoxO1 ubiquitination. In this work we investigated whether AGEs affect expression and subcellular localization of PDX-1 and FoxO1. HIT-T15 cells were cultured for 5 days in presence of AGEs. Cells were then lysed and processed for subcellular fractionation. We determined intracellular insulin content, then we assessed the expression and subcellular localization of PDX-1, FoxO1, phosphoFoxO1 and acetylFoxO1. As expected intracellular insulin content was lower in HIT-T15 cells cultured with AGEs. The results showed that AGEs decreased expression and nuclear localization of PDX-1, reduced phosphorylation of FoxO1, and increased expression and acetylation of FoxO1. These results suggest that AGEs decrease insulin content unbalancing transcription factors regulating insulin gene expression.

  17. Gastric bypass alters both glucose-dependent and glucose-independent regulation of islet hormone secretion

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Marzieh; Woods, Stephen C.; D’Alessio, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (GB) is characterized by accentuated, but short-lived postprandial elevations of blood glucose and insulin. This profile has been attributed to effects of relative hyperglycemia to directly stimulate β-cells and an augmented incretin effect. We hypothesized additional glucose-independent stimulation of insulin secretion in GB subjects. Methods Fifteen subjects with prior GB, and six matched obese non-surgical controls, and seven lean individuals were recruited. Islet hormones were measured before and after meal ingestion during hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemic clamps to minimize the direct effects of glycemia and glucose-dependent gastrointestinal hormones on insulin secretion. Results The GB subjects had less suppression of fasting β-cell secretion during the insulin clamp compared to controls. In addition, meal-induced insulin secretion increased in the GB subjects but not controls during fixed sub-basal glycemia. In contrast the glucagon responses to hypoglycemia and meal ingestion were lower in the GB subjects than controls. Conclusions Among subjects with GB the response of insulin and glucagon secretion to decreasing blood glucose is blunted, but meal-induced insulin secretion is stimulated even at fixed systemic sub-basal glycemia. These findings indicate that following GB islet hormone secretion is altered as a result of factors beyond circulatory glucose levels. PMID:26316298

  18. Correlating hypoxia with insulin secretion using a fluorescent hypoxia detection system.

    PubMed

    Skiles, Matthew L; Fancy, Romone; Topiwala, Pritesh; Sahai, Suchit; Blanchette, James O

    2011-04-01

    A common obstacle to the survival of encapsulated tissue is oxygen insufficiency. This appears particularly true of encapsulated pancreatic β-cells. Our work investigates a fluorescent hypoxia detection system for early recognition of hypoxic stress in encapsulated pancreatic tissue. Murine insulinoma (MIN6) cells were engineered to produce a red fluorescent protein under the control of hypoxia-inducible-factor-1. Aggregates of these cells were encapsulated in poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels at densities of 200,000, 600,000, and 1 million cells per capsule then incubated in either a 1% or 20% oxygen environment. Cell function was evaluated by daily measurement of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Encapsulated cells were also fluorescently imaged periodically over 72 h for expression of the marker signal. Results indicate that oxygen insufficiency severely impacts insulin release from MIN6 cells, and that large aggregates are especially vulnerable to oxygen limitations. Our marker was found to be successfully indicative of hypoxia and could be used as a predictor of subsequent insulin release. Further work will be required to fully characterize signal dynamics and to evaluate in vivo efficacy. The method presented here represents a unique and valuable approach to detecting hypoxic stress in living tissues which may prove useful to a variety of fields of biological research.

  19. Adiporedoxin, an upstream regulator of ER oxidative folding and protein secretion in adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Jedrychowski, Mark P.; Liu, Libin; Laflamme, Collette J.; Karastergiou, Kalypso; Meshulam, Tova; Ding, Shi-Ying; Wu, Yuanyuan; Lee, Mi-Jeong; Gygi, Steven P.; Fried, Susan K.; Pilch, Paul F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Adipocytes are robust protein secretors, most notably of adipokines, hormone-like polypeptides, which act in an endocrine and paracrine fashion to affect numerous physiological processes such as energy balance and insulin sensitivity. To understand how such proteins are assembled for secretion we describe the function of a novel endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductase, adiporedoxin (Adrx). Methods Adrx knockdown and overexpressing 3T3-L1 murine adipocyte cell lines and a knockout mouse model were used to assess the influence of Adrx on secreted proteins as well as the redox state of ER resident chaperones. The metabolic phenotypes of Adrx null mice were characterized and compared to WT mice. The correlation of Adrx levels BMI, adiponectin levels, and other inflammatory markers from adipose tissue of human subjects was also studied. Results Adiporedoxin functions via a CXXC active site, and is upstream of protein disulfide isomerase whose direct function is disulfide bond formation, and ultimately protein secretion. Over and under expression of Adrx in vitro enhances and reduces, respectively, the secretion of the disulfide-bonded proteins including adiponectin and collagen isoforms. On a chow diet, Adrx null mice have normal body weights, and glucose tolerance, are moderately hyperinsulinemic, have reduced levels of circulating adiponectin and are virtually free of adipocyte fibrosis resulting in a complex phenotype tending towards insulin resistance. Adrx protein levels in human adipose tissue correlate positively with adiponectin levels and negatively with the inflammatory marker phospho-Jun kinase. Conclusion These data support the notion that Adrx plays a critical role in adipocyte biology and in the regulation of mouse and human metabolism via its modulation of adipocyte protein secretion. PMID:26629401

  20. The Drosophila HNF4 nuclear receptor promotes glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and mitochondrial function in adults

    PubMed Central

    Barry, William E; Thummel, Carl S

    2016-01-01

    Although mutations in HNF4A were identified as the cause of Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young 1 (MODY1) two decades ago, the mechanisms by which this nuclear receptor regulates glucose homeostasis remain unclear. Here we report that loss of Drosophila HNF4 recapitulates hallmark symptoms of MODY1, including adult-onset hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance and impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). These defects are linked to a role for dHNF4 in promoting mitochondrial function as well as the expression of Hex-C, a homolog of the MODY2 gene Glucokinase. dHNF4 is required in the fat body and insulin-producing cells to maintain glucose homeostasis by supporting a developmental switch toward oxidative phosphorylation and GSIS at the transition to adulthood. These findings establish an animal model for MODY1 and define a developmental reprogramming of metabolism to support the energetic needs of the mature animal. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11183.001 PMID:27185732

  1. Redox Signal-mediated Enhancement of the Temperature Sensitivity of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 2 (TRPM2) Elevates Glucose-induced Insulin Secretion from Pancreatic Islets.

    PubMed

    Kashio, Makiko; Tominaga, Makoto

    2015-05-01

    Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is a thermosensitive Ca(2+)-permeable cation channel expressed by pancreatic β cells where channel function is constantly affected by body temperature. We focused on the physiological functions of redox signal-mediated TRPM2 activity at body temperature. H2O2, an important molecule in redox signaling, reduced the temperature threshold for TRPM2 activation in pancreatic β cells of WT mice but not in TRPM2KO cells. TRPM2-mediated [Ca(2+)]i increases were likely caused by Ca(2+) influx through the plasma membrane because the responses were abolished in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+). In addition, TRPM2 activation downstream from the redox signal plus glucose stimulation enhanced glucose-induced insulin secretion. H2O2 application at 37 °C induced [Ca(2+)]i increases not only in WT but also in TRPM2KO β cells. This was likely due to the effect of H2O2 on KATP channel activity. However, the N-acetylcysteine-sensitive fraction of insulin secretion by WT islets was increased by temperature elevation, and this temperature-dependent enhancement was diminished significantly in TRPM2KO islets. These data suggest that endogenous redox signals in pancreatic β cells elevate insulin secretion via TRPM2 sensitization and activity at body temperature. The results in this study could provide new therapeutic approaches for the regulation of diabetic conditions by focusing on the physiological function of TRPM2 and redox signals.

  2. Activation of activin type IB receptor signals in pancreatic β cells leads to defective insulin secretion through the attenuation of ATP-sensitive K+ channel activity.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Masatoshi; Morinaga, Hidetaka; Zhu, Hai-Lei; Wang, Lixiang; Hasuzawa, Nao; Takayanagi, Ryoichi; Teramoto, Noriyoshi

    2014-07-18

    In studies of gene-ablated mice, activin signaling through activin type IIB receptors (ActRIIB) and Smad2 has been shown to regulate not only pancreatic β cell mass but also insulin secretion. However, it still remains unclear whether gain of function of activin signaling is involved in the modulation of pancreatic β cell mass and insulin secretion. To identify distinct roles of activin signaling in pancreatic β cells, the Cre-loxP system was used to activate signaling through activin type IB receptor (ActRIB) in pancreatic β cells. The resultant mice (pancreatic β cell-specific ActRIB transgenic (Tg) mice; ActRIBCAβTg) exhibited a defect in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and a progressive impairment of glucose tolerance. Patch-clamp techniques revealed that the activity of ATP-sensitive K(+) channels (KATP channels) was decreased in mutant β cells. These results indicate that an appropriate level of activin signaling may be required for GSIS in pancreatic β cells, and that activin signaling involves modulation of KATP channel activity.

  3. cAMP-mediated and metabolic amplification of insulin secretion are distinct pathways sharing independence of β-cell microfilaments.

    PubMed

    Mourad, Nizar I; Nenquin, Myriam; Henquin, Jean-Claude

    2012-10-01

    Insulin secretion is triggered by an increase in the cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](c)) in β-cells. Ca(2+)-induced exocytosis of insulin granules can be augmented by metabolic amplification (unknown signals generated through glucose metabolism) or neurohormonal amplification (in particular cAMP mediated). Functional actin microfilaments are not required for metabolic amplification, but their possible role in cAMP-mediated amplification is unknown. It is also uncertain whether cAMP (generated in response to glucose) is implicated in metabolic amplification. These questions were addressed using isolated mouse islets. cAMP levels were increased by phosphodiesterase inhibition (with isobutylmethylxanthine) and adenylate-cyclase stimulation (with forskolin or glucagon-like peptide-1, 7-36 amide). Raising cAMP levels had no steady-state impact on actin polymerization in control islets. Neither disruption (depolymerization by latrunculin) nor stabilization (polymerization by jasplakinolide) of actin microfilaments was counteracted by cAMP. Both changes increased both phases of glucose- or tolbutamide-induced insulin secretion but did not prevent further amplification by cAMP. These large changes in secretion were not caused by changes in [Ca(2+)](c), which was only slightly increased by cAMP. Both phases of insulin secretion were larger in response to glucose than tolbutamide, although [Ca(2+)](c) was lower. This difference in secretion, which reflects metabolic amplification, was independent of microfilaments, was not attributable to differences in cAMP, and persisted in presence of dibutyryl-cAMP or when cAMP levels were variably raised by isobutylmethylxanthine + forskolin or glucagon-like peptide-1, 7-36 amide. We conclude that metabolic and cAMP-mediated amplification of insulin secretion are distinct pathways that accelerate acquisition of release competence by insulin granules that can access exocytotic sites without intervention of microfilaments.

  4. Effects of exendin-4 on glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, and beta-cell proliferation depend on treatment dose, treatment duration and meal contents

    SciTech Connect

    Arakawa, Masayuki; Ebato, Chie; Mita, Tomoya; Hirose, Takahisa; Kawamori, Ryuzo; Fujitani, Yoshio; Watada, Hirotaka

    2009-12-18

    Beta-cell proliferation is regulated by various metabolic demands including peripheral insulin resistance, obesity, and hyperglycemia. In addition to enhancement of glucose-induced insulin secretion, agonists for glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) stimulate proliferation and inhibit apoptosis of beta-cells, thereby probably preserve beta-cell mass. To evaluate the beta-cell preserving actions of GLP-1R agonists, we assessed the acute and chronic effects of exendin-4 on beta-cell proliferation, mass and glucose tolerance in C57BL/6J mice under various conditions. Short-term administration of high-dose exendin-4 transiently stimulated beta-cell proliferation. Comparative transcriptomic analysis showed upregulation of IGF-1 receptor and its downstream effectors in islets. Treatment of mice with exendin-4 daily for 4 weeks (long-term administration) and feeding high-fat diet resulted in significant inhibition of weight gain and improvement of glucose tolerance with reduced insulin secretion and beta-cell mass. These findings suggest that long-term GLP-1 treatment results in insulin sensitization of peripheral organs, rather than enhancement of beta-cell proliferation and function, particularly when animals are fed high-fat diet. Thus, the effects of exendin-4 on glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, and beta-cell proliferation largely depend on treatment dose, duration of treatment and meal contents. While GLP-1 enhances proliferation of beta-cells in some diabetic mice models, our results suggest that GLP-1 stimulates beta-cell growth only when expansion of beta-cell mass is required to meet metabolic demands.

  5. A highly energetic process couples calcium influx through L-type calcium channels to insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Seung-Ryoung; Reed, Benjamin J.; Sweet, Ian R.

    2009-01-01

    Calcium (Ca2+) influx is required for the sustained secretion of insulin and is accompanied by a large rate of energy usage. We hypothesize that the energy usage reflects a process [Ca2+/metabolic coupling process (CMCP)] that couples Ca2+ to insulin secretion by pancreatic islets. The aim of the study was to test this hypothesis by testing the effect of inhibiting candidate Ca2+-sensitive proteins proposed to play a critical role in the CMCP. The effects of the inhibitors on oxygen consumption rate (OCR), a reflection of ATP usage, and insulin secretion rate (ISR) were compared with those seen when L-type Ca2+ channels were blocked with nimodipine. We reasoned that if a downstream Ca2+-regulated site was responsible for the OCR associated with the CMCP, then its inhibition should mimic the effect of nimodipine. Consistent with previous findings, nimodipine decreased glucose-stimulated OCR by 36% and cytosolic Ca2+ by 46% and completely suppressed ISR in rat pancreatic islets. Inhibitors of three calmodulin-sensitive proteins (myosin light-chain kinase, calcineurin, and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II) did not meet the criteria. In contrast, KN-62 severed the connection between Ca2+ influx, OCR, and ISR without interfering with Ca2+ influx. In the presence of nimodipine or KN-62, potentiators of ISR, acetylcholine, GLP-1, and arginine had little effect on insulin secretion, suggesting that the CMCP is also essential for the amplification of ISR. In conclusion, a KN-62-sensitive process directly mediates the effects of Ca2+ influx via L-type Ca2+ channels on OCR and ISR, supporting the essential role of the CMCP in mediating ISR. PMID:19584201

  6. Reduced insulin secretion in response to nutrients in islets from malnourished young rats is associated with a diminished calcium uptake.

    PubMed

    Latorraca, M Q; Carneiro, E M; Mello, M A; Boschero, A C

    1999-01-01

    Changes in (45)Ca uptake and insulin secretion in response to glucose, leucine, and arginine were measured in isolated islets derived from 4-week-old rats born of mothers maintained with normal protein (NP, 17%) or low protein (LP, 6%) diet during pregnancy and lactation. Glucose provoked a dose-dependent stimulation of insulin secretion in both groups of islets, with basal (2.8 mmol/L glucose) and maximal release (27.7 mmol/L glucose) significantly reduced in LP compared with NP islets. In the LP group the concentration-response curve to glucose was shifted to the right compared with the NP group, with the half-maximal response occurring at 16.9 and 13.3 mmol/L glucose, respectively. In LP islets, glucose-induced first and second phases of insulin secretions were drastically reduced. In addition, insulin response to individual amino acids, or in association with glucose, was also significantly reduced in the LP group compared with NP islets. Finally, in LP islets the (45)Ca uptake after 5 minutes or 90 minutes of incubation (which reflect mainly the entry and retention, respectively, of Ca(2+)), was lower than in NP islets. These data indicate that in malnourished rats both initial and sustained phases of insulin secretion in response to glucose were reduced. This poor secretory response to nutrients seems to be the consequence of an altered Ca(2+) handling by malnourished islet cells. PMID:15539248

  7. Low protein diet confers resistance to the inhibitory effects of interleukin 1beta on insulin secretion in pancreatic islets*

    PubMed

    Vieira, E C.; Carneiro, E M.; Latorraca, M Q.; Delguingaro-Augusto, V; Amaral, M E.C.; Bosqueiro, J R.; Boschero, A C.

    2001-05-01

    High protein content in the diet during childhood and adolescence has been associated to the onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. We investigated the effect of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) on insulin secretion, glucose metabolism, and nitrite formation by islets isolated from rats fed with normal protein (NP, 17%) or low protein (LP, 6%) after weaning. Pretreatment of islets with IL-1beta for 1 h or 24 h inhibited the insulin secretion induced by glucose in both groups, but it was less marked in LP than in NP group. Islets from LP rats exhibited a decreased IL-1beta-induced nitric oxide (NO) production, lower inhibition of D-[U(14)C]-glucose oxidation to (14)CO(2) and less pronounced effect of IL-1beta on alpha-ketoisocaproic acid-induced insulin secretion than NP islets. However, when the islets were stimulated by high concentrations of K(+) the inhibitory effect of IL-1beta on insulin secretion was not different between groups. In conclusion, protein restriction protects beta-cells of the deleterious effect of IL-1beta, apparently, by decreasing NO production. The lower NO generation in islets from protein deprived rats may be due to increased free fatty acids oxidation and consequent alteration in Ca(2+) homeostasis. PMID:11382546

  8. Role of Epac2A/Rap1 signaling in interplay between incretin and sulfonylurea in insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Harumi; Shibasaki, Tadao; Park, Jae-Hyung; Hidaka, Shihomi; Takahashi, Toshimasa; Ono, Aika; Song, Dae-Kyu; Seino, Susumu

    2015-04-01

    Incretin-related drugs and sulfonylureas are currently used worldwide for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. We recently found that Epac2A, a cAMP binding protein having guanine nucleotide exchange activity toward Rap, is a target of both incretin and sulfonylurea. This suggests the possibility of interplay between incretin and sulfonylurea through Epac2A/Rap1 signaling in insulin secretion. In this study, we examined the combinatorial effects of incretin and various sulfonylureas on insulin secretion and activation of Epac2A/Rap1 signaling. A strong augmentation of insulin secretion by combination of GLP-1 and glibenclamide or glimepiride, which was found in Epac2A(+/+) mice, was markedly reduced in Epac2A(-/-) mice. In contrast, the combinatorial effect of GLP-1 and gliclazide was rather mild, and the effect was not altered by Epac2A ablation. Activation of Rap1 was enhanced by the combination of an Epac-selective cAMP analog with glibenclamide or glimepiride but not gliclazide. In diet-induced obese mice, ablation of Epac2A reduced the insulin secretory response to coadministration of the GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide and glimepiride. These findings clarify the critical role of Epac2A/Rap1 signaling in the augmenting effect of incretin and sulfonylurea on insulin secretion and provide the basis for the effects of combination therapies of incretin-related drugs and sulfonylureas. PMID:25315008

  9. Designed Inhibitors of Insulin-Degrading Enzyme Regulate the Catabolism and Activity of Insulin

    PubMed Central

    Leissring, Malcolm A.; Malito, Enrico; Hedouin, Sabrine; Reinstatler, Lael; Sahara, Tomoko; Abdul-Hay, Samer O.; Choudhry, Shakeel; Maharvi, Ghulam M.; Fauq, Abdul H.; Huzarska, Malwina; May, Philip S.; Choi, Sungwoon; Logan, Todd P.; Turk, Benjamin E.; Cantley, Lewis C.; Manolopoulou, Marika; Tang, Wei-Jen; Stein, Ross L.; Cuny, Gregory D.; Selkoe, Dennis J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Insulin is a vital peptide hormone that is a central regulator of glucose homeostasis, and impairments in insulin signaling cause diabetes mellitus. In principle, it should be possible to enhance the activity of insulin by inhibiting its catabolism, which is mediated primarily by insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), a structurally and evolutionarily distinctive zinc-metalloprotease. Despite interest in pharmacological inhibition of IDE as an attractive anti-diabetic approach dating to the 1950s, potent and selective inhibitors of IDE have not yet emerged. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a rational design approach based on analysis of combinatorial peptide mixtures and focused compound libraries to develop novel peptide hydroxamic acid inhibitors of IDE. The resulting compounds are ∼106 times more potent than existing inhibitors, non-toxic, and surprisingly selective for IDE vis-à-vis conventional zinc-metalloproteases. Crystallographic analysis of an IDE-inhibitor complex reveals a novel mode of inhibition based on stabilization of IDE's “closed,” inactive conformation. We show further that pharmacological inhibition of IDE potentiates insulin signaling by a mechanism involving reduced catabolism of internalized insulin. Conclusions/Significance The inhibitors we describe are the first to potently and selectively inhibit IDE or indeed any member of this atypical zinc-metalloprotease superfamily. The distinctive structure of IDE's active site, and the mode of action of our inhibitors, suggests that it may be possible to develop inhibitors that cross-react minimally with conventional zinc-metalloproteases. Significantly, our results reveal that insulin signaling is normally regulated by IDE activity not only extracellularly but also within cells, supporting the longstanding view that IDE inhibitors could hold therapeutic value for the treatment of diabetes. PMID:20498699

  10. Designed Inhibitors of Insulin-Degrading Enzyme Regulate the Catabolism and Activity of Insulin

    SciTech Connect

    Leissring, Malcolm A.; Malito, Enrico; Hedouin, Sabrine; Reinstatler, Lael; Sahara, Tomoko; Abdul-Hay, Samer O.; Choudhry, Shakeel; Maharvi, Ghulam M.; Fauq, Abdul H.; Huzarska, Malwina; May, Philip S.; Choi, Sungwoon; Logan, Todd P.; Turk, Benjamin E.; Cantley, Lewis C.; Manolopoulou, Marika; Tang, Wei-Jen; Stein, Ross L.; Cuny, Gregory D.; Selkoe, Dennis J.

    2010-09-20

    Insulin is a vital peptide hormone that is a central regulator of glucose homeostasis, and impairments in insulin signaling cause diabetes mellitus. In principle, it should be possible to enhance the activity of insulin by inhibiting its catabolism, which is mediated primarily by insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), a structurally and evolutionarily distinctive zinc-metalloprotease. Despite interest in pharmacological inhibition of IDE as an attractive anti-diabetic approach dating to the 1950s, potent and selective inhibitors of IDE have not yet emerged. We used a rational design approach based on analysis of combinatorial peptide mixtures and focused compound libraries to develop novel peptide hydroxamic acid inhibitors of IDE. The resulting compounds are {approx} 10{sup 6} times more potent than existing inhibitors, non-toxic, and surprisingly selective for IDE vis-a-vis conventional zinc-metalloproteases. Crystallographic analysis of an IDE-inhibitor complex reveals a novel mode of inhibition based on stabilization of IDE's 'closed,' inactive conformation. We show further that pharmacological inhibition of IDE potentiates insulin signaling by a mechanism involving reduced catabolism of internalized insulin. Conclusions/Significance: The inhibitors we describe are the first to potently and selectively inhibit IDE or indeed any member of this atypical zinc-metalloprotease superfamily. The distinctive structure of IDE's active site, and the mode of action of our inhibitors, suggests that it may be possible to develop inhibitors that cross-react minimally with conventional zinc-metalloproteases. Significantly, our results reveal that insulin signaling is normally regulated by IDE activity not only extracellularly but also within cells, supporting the longstanding view that IDE inhibitors could hold therapeutic value for the treatment of diabetes.

  11. Integrin adhesion in regulation of lacrimal gland acinar cell secretion.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Sofia V; Hamm-Alvarez, Sarah F; Gierow, J Peter

    2006-09-01

    The extracellular microenvironment regulates lacrimal gland acinar cell secretion. Culturing isolated rabbit lacrimal gland acinar cells on different extracellular matrix proteins revealed that laminin enhances carbachol-stimulated secretion to a greater extent than other extracellular matrix proteins investigated. Furthermore, immunofluorescence indicated that integrin subunits, potentially functioning as laminin receptors are present in acinar cells. Among these, the integrin alpha6 and beta1 subunit mRNA expression was also confirmed by RT-PCR and sequence analysis. Secretion assays, which measured beta-hexosaminidase activity released in the culture media, demonstrated that function-blocking integrin alpha6 and beta1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) induce a rapid, transient and dose-dependent secretory response in cultured cells. To determine the intracellular pathways by which integrin alpha6 and beta1 mAbs could induce secretion, selected second messenger molecules were inhibited. Although inhibitors of protein kinase C and IP(3)-induced Ca(2+) mobilization attenuated carbachol-stimulated secretion, no effect on integrin mAb-induced release was observed. In addition, protein tyrosine kinases do not appear to have a role in transducing signals arising from mAb interactions. Our data clearly demonstrate, though, that cell adhesion through integrins regulates secretion from lacrimal gland acinar cells. The fact that the integrin mAbs affect the cholinergic response differently and that the integrin beta1 mAb secretion, but not the alpha6, was attenuated by the phosphatase inhibitor, sodium orthovanadate, suggests that each subunit utilizes separate intracellular signaling pathways to induce exocytosis. The results also indicate that the secretory response triggered by the beta1 integrin mAb is generated through dephosphorylation events.

  12. The Regulation of Lipid Deposition by Insulin in Goose Liver Cells Is Mediated by the PI3K-AKT-mTOR Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Han, Chunchun; Wei, Shouhai; He, Fang; Liu, Dandan; Wan, Huofu; Liu, Hehe; Li, Liang; Xu, Hongyong; Du, Xiaohui; Xu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Background We previously showed that the fatty liver formations observed in overfed geese are accompanied by the activation of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway and an increase in plasma insulin concentrations. Recent studies have suggested a crucial role for the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway in regulating lipid metabolism; therefore, we hypothesized that insulin affects goose hepatocellular lipid metabolism through the PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling pathway. Methods Goose primary hepatocytes were isolated and treated with serum-free media supplemented with PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway inhibitors (LY294002, rapamycin, and NVP-BEZ235, respectively) and 50 or 150 nmol/L insulin. Results Insulin induced strong effects on lipid accumulation as well as the mRNA and protein levels of genes involved in lipogenesis, fatty acid oxidation, and VLDL-TG assembly and secretion in primary goose hepatocytes. The stimulatory effect of insulin on lipogenesis was significantly decreased by treatment with PI3K-Akt-mTOR inhibitors. These inhibitors also rescued the insulin-induced down-regulation of fatty acid oxidation and VLDL-TG assembly and secretion. Conclusion These findings suggest that the stimulatory effect of insulin on lipid deposition is mediated by PI3K-Akt-mTOR regulation of lipogenesis, fatty acid oxidation, and VLDL-TG assembly and secretion in goose hepatocytes. PMID:25945932

  13. Insulin secretion enhancing activity of roselle calyx extract in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Wisetmuen, Eamruthai; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan; Kongyingyoes, Bunkerd; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Yutanawiboonchai, Wiboonchai; Itharat, Arunporn

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective: Our recent study revealed the antihyperglycemic activity of an ethanolic extract of roselle calyxes (Hibiscus sabdariffa) in diabetic rats. The present study had, therefore, an objective to investigate the mechanism underlying this activity. Materials and Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were induced to be diabetes by intraperitoneal injection of 45 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ). Normal rats as well as diabetic rats were administered with the ethanolic extract of H. sabdariffa calyxes (HS-EE) at 0.1 and 1.0 g/kg/day, respectively, for 6 weeks. Then, blood glucose and insulin levels, at basal and glucose-stimulated secretions, were measured. The pancreas was dissected to examine histologically. Results: HS-EE 1.0 g/kg/day significantly decreased the blood glucose level by 38 ± 12% in diabetic rats but not in normal rats. In normal rats, treatment with 1.0 g/kg HS-EE increased the basal insulin level significantly as compared with control normal rats (1.28 ± 0.25 and 0.55 ± 0.05 ng/ml, respectively). Interestingly, diabetic rats treated with 1.0 g/kg HS-EE also showed a significant increase in basal insulin level as compared with the control diabetic rats (0.30 ± 0.05 and 0.15 ± 0.01 ng/ml, respectively). Concerning microscopic histological examination, HS-EE 1.0 g/kg significantly increased the number of islets of Langerhans in both normal rats (1.2 ± 0.1 and 2.0 ± 0.1 islet number/10 low-power fields (LPF) for control and HS-EE treated group, respectively) and diabetic rats (1.0 ± 0.3 and 3.9 ± 0.6 islet number/10 LPF for control and HS-EE treated group, respectively). Conclusion: The antidiabetic activity of HS-EE may be partially mediated via the stimulating effect on insulin secretion. PMID:23798879

  14. Leptin Suppression of Insulin Secretion by the Activation of ATP-Sensitive K+ Channels in Pancreatic β-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kieffer, Timothy J.; Heller, R. Scott; Leech, Colin A.; Holz, George G.; Habener, Joel F.

    2010-01-01

    In the genetic mutant mouse models ob/ob or db/db, leptin deficiency or resistance, respectively, results in severe obesity and the development of a syndrome resembling NIDDM. One of the earliest manifestations in these mutant mice is hyperinsulinemia, suggesting that leptin may normally directly suppress the secretion of insulin. Here, we show that pancreatic islets express a long (signal-transducing) form of leptin-receptor mRNA and that β-cells bind a fluorescent derivative of leptin (Cy3-leptin). The expression of leptin receptors on insulin-secreting β-cells was also visualized utilizing antisera generated against an extracellular epitope of the receptor. A functional role for the β-cell leptin receptor is indicated by our observation that leptin (100 ng/ml) suppressed the secretion of insulin from islets isolated from ob/ob mice. Furthermore, leptin produced a marked lowering of [Ca2+]i in ob/ob β-cells, which was accompanied by cellular hyperpolarization and increased membrane conductance. Cell-attached patch measurements of ob/ob β-cells demonstrated that leptin activated ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP) by increasing the open channel probability, while exerting no effect on mean open time. These effects were reversed by the sulfonylurea tolbutamide, a specific inhibitor of KATP. Taken together, these observations indicate an important physiological role for leptin as an inhibitor of insulin secretion and lead us to propose that the failure of leptin to inhibit insulin secretion from the β-cells of ob/ob and db/db mice may explain, in part, the development of hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and the progression to NIDDM. PMID:9166685

  15. Cold-sensing regulates Drosophila growth through insulin-producing cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiaoran; Gong, Zhefeng

    2015-01-01

    Across phyla, body size is linked to climate. For example, rearing fruit flies at lower temperatures results in bigger body sizes than those observed at higher temperatures. The underlying molecular basis of this effect is poorly understood. Here we provide evidence that the temperature-dependent regulation of Drosophila body size depends on a group of cold-sensing neurons and insulin-producing cells (IPCs). Electrically silencing IPCs completely abolishes the body size increase induced by cold temperature. IPCs are directly innervated by cold-sensing neurons. Stimulation of these cold-sensing neurons activates IPCs, promotes synthesis and secretion of Drosophila insulin-like peptides and induces a larger body size, mimicking the effects of rearing the flies in cold temperature. Taken together, these findings reveal a neuronal circuit that mediates the effects of low temperature on fly growth. PMID:26648410

  16. Physiological mechanisms of action of incretin and insulin in regulating skeletal muscle metabolism.

    PubMed

    Abdulla, Haitham; Phillips, Bethan; Smith, Kenneth; Wilkinson, Daniel; Atherton, Philip J; Idris, Iskandar

    2014-01-01

    Type II diabetes (T2D) is a progressive condition affecting approximately 350 million adults worldwide. Whilst skeletal muscle insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction are recognised causes of T2D, progressive loss of lean muscle mass (reducing surface area for glucose disposal area) in tandem with ageing-related adiposity (i.e. sarcopenic obesity) also plays an important role in driving hyperglycaemia progression. The anabolic effects of nutrition on the muscle are driven by the uptake of amino acids, into skeletal muscle protein, and insulin plays a crucial role in regulating this. Meanwhile glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) and glucose- dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) are incretin hormones released from the gut into the bloodstream in response to macronutrients, and have an established role in enhancing insulin secretion. Intriguingly, endocrine functions of incretins were recently shown to extend beyond classical insulinotropic effects, with GLP-1/GIP receptors being found in extra-pancreatic cells i.e., skeletal muscle and peripheral (muscle) microvasculature. Since, incretins have been shown to modulate blood flow and muscle glucose uptake in an insulin-independent manner, incretins may play a role in regulating nutrient-mediated modulation of muscle metabolism and microvascular tone, independently of their insulinotropic effects. In this review we will discuss the role of skeletal muscle in glucose homeostasis, disturbances related to insulin resistance, regulation of skeletal muscle metabolism, muscle microvascular abnormalities and disturbances of protein (PRO) metabolism seen in old age and T2D. We will also discuss the emerging non-insulinotropic role of GLP-1 in modulating skeletal muscle metabolism and microvascular blood flow. PMID:25323297

  17. The Transcription Factor COUP-TFII Is Negatively Regulated by Insulin and Glucose via Foxo1- and ChREBP-Controlled Pathways▿

    PubMed Central

    Perilhou, Anaïs; Tourrel-Cuzin, Cécile; Kharroubi, Ilham; Henique, Carole; Fauveau, Véronique; Kitamura, Tadahiro; Magnan, Christophe; Postic, Catherine; Prip-Buus, Carina; Vasseur-Cognet, Mireille

    2008-01-01

    COUP-TFII has an important role in regulating metabolism in vivo. We showed this previously by deleting COUP-TFII from pancreatic beta cells in heterozygous mutant mice, which led to abnormal insulin secretion. Here, we report that COUP-TFII expression is reduced in the pancreas and liver of mice refed with a carbohydrate-rich diet and in the pancreas and liver of hyperinsulinemic and hyperglycemic mice. In pancreatic beta cells, COUP-TFII gene expression is repressed by secreted insulin in response to glucose through Foxo1 signaling. Ex vivo COUP-TFII reduces insulin production and secretion. Our results suggest that beta cell insulin secretion is under the control of an autocrine positive feedback loop by alleviating COUP-TFII repression. In hepatocytes, both insulin, through Foxo1, and high glucose concentrations repress COUP-TFII expression. We demonstrate that this negative glucose effect involves ChREBP expression. We propose that COUP-TFII acts in a coordinate fashion to control insulin secretion and glucose metabolism. PMID:18765640

  18. The transcription factor COUP-TFII is negatively regulated by insulin and glucose via Foxo1- and ChREBP-controlled pathways.

    PubMed

    Perilhou, Anaïs; Tourrel-Cuzin, Cécile; Kharroubi, Ilham; Henique, Carole; Fauveau, Véronique; Kitamura, Tadahiro; Magnan, Christophe; Postic, Catherine; Prip-Buus, Carina; Vasseur-Cognet, Mireille

    2008-11-01

    COUP-TFII has an important role in regulating metabolism in vivo. We showed this previously by deleting COUP-TFII from pancreatic beta cells in heterozygous mutant mice, which led to abnormal insulin secretion. Here, we report that COUP-TFII expression is reduced in the pancreas and liver of mice refed with a carbohydrate-rich diet and in the pancreas and liver of hyperinsulinemic and hyperglycemic mice. In pancreatic beta cells, COUP-TFII gene expression is repressed by secreted insulin in response to glucose through Foxo1 signaling. Ex vivo COUP-TFII reduces insulin production and secretion. Our results suggest that beta cell insulin secretion is under the control of an autocrine positive feedback loop by alleviating COUP-TFII repression. In hepatocytes, both insulin, through Foxo1, and high glucose concentrations repress COUP-TFII expression. We demonstrate that this negative glucose effect involves ChREBP expression. We propose that COUP-TFII acts in a coordinate fashion to control insulin secretion and glucose metabolism. PMID:18765640

  19. Selective actions of mitochondrial fission/fusion genes on metabolism-secretion coupling in insulin-releasing cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyu-Sang; Wiederkehr, Andreas; Kirkpatrick, Clare; Mattenberger, Yves; Martinou, Jean-Claude; Marchetti, Piero; Demaurex, Nicolas; Wollheim, Claes B

    2008-11-28

    Mitochondria form filamentous networks that undergo continuous fission/fusion. In the pancreatic beta-cells, mitochondria are essential for the transduction of signals linking nutrient metabolism to insulin granule exocytosis. Here we have studied mitochondrial networks in the insulinoma cell line INS-1E, primary rat and human beta-cells. We have further investigated the impact of mitochondrial fission/fusion on metabolism-secretion coupling in INS-1E cells. Overexpression of hFis1 caused dramatic mitochondrial fragmentation, whereas Mfn1 evoked hyperfusion and the aggregation of mitochondria. Cells overexpressing hFis1 or Mfn1 showed reduced mitochondrial volume, lowered cellular ATP levels, and as a consequence, impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Decreased mitochondrial ATP generation was partially compensated for by enhanced glycolysis as indicated by increased lactate production in these cells. Dominant-negative Mfn1 elicited mitochondrial shortening and fragmentation of INS-1E cell mitochondria, similar to hFis1. However, the mitochondrial volume, cytosolic ATP levels, and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion were little affected. We conclude that mitochondrial fragmentation per se does not impair metabolism-secretion coupling. Through their impact on mitochondrial bioenergetics and distribution, hFis1 and Mfn1 activities influence mitochondrial signal generation thereby insulin exocytosis.

  20. Use of a High-Density Protein Microarray to Identify Autoantibodies in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and an HLA Background Associated with Reduced Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Douglas C.; Piaggi, Paolo; Hanson, Robert L.; Knowler, William C.; Bucci, John; Thio, Guene; Hohenadel, Maximilian G.; Bogardus, Clifton; Krakoff, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    New biomarkers for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) may aid diagnosis, drug development or clinical treatment. Evidence is increasing for the adaptive immune system’s role in T2DM and suggests the presence of unidentified autoantibodies. While high-density protein microarrays have emerged as a useful technology to identify possible novel autoantigens in autoimmune diseases, its application in T2DM has lagged. In Pima Indians, the HLA haplotype (HLA-DRB1*02) is protective against T2DM and, when studied when they have normal glucose tolerance, subjects with this HLA haplotype have higher insulin secretion compared to those without the protective haplotype. Possible autoantibody biomarkers were identified using microarrays containing 9480 proteins in plasma from Pima Indians with T2DM without the protective haplotype (n = 7) compared with those with normal glucose regulation (NGR) with the protective haplotype (n = 11). A subsequent validation phase involving 45 cases and 45 controls, matched by age, sex and specimen storage time, evaluated 77 proteins. Eleven autoantigens had higher antibody signals among T2DM subjects with the lower insulin-secretion HLA background compared with NGR subjects with the higher insulin-secretion HLA background (p<0.05, adjusted for multiple comparisons). PPARG2 and UBE2M had lowest p-values (adjusted p = 0.023) while PPARG2 and RGS17 had highest case-to-control antibody signal ratios (1.7). A multi-protein classifier involving the 11 autoantigens had sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristics curve of 0.73, 0.80, and 0.83 (95% CI 0.74–0.91, p = 3.4x10-8), respectively. This study identified 11 novel autoantigens which were associated with T2DM and an HLA background associated with reduced insulin secretion. While further studies are needed to distinguish whether these antibodies are associated with insulin secretion via the HLA background, T2DM more broadly, or a combination of the two, this study

  1. Use of a High-Density Protein Microarray to Identify Autoantibodies in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and an HLA Background Associated with Reduced Insulin Secretion.

    PubMed

    Chang, Douglas C; Piaggi, Paolo; Hanson, Robert L; Knowler, William C; Bucci, John; Thio, Guene; Hohenadel, Maximilian G; Bogardus, Clifton; Krakoff, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    New biomarkers for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) may aid diagnosis, drug development or clinical treatment. Evidence is increasing for the adaptive immune system's role in T2DM and suggests the presence of unidentified autoantibodies. While high-density protein microarrays have emerged as a useful technology to identify possible novel autoantigens in autoimmune diseases, its application in T2DM has lagged. In Pima Indians, the HLA haplotype (HLA-DRB1*02) is protective against T2DM and, when studied when they have normal glucose tolerance, subjects with this HLA haplotype have higher insulin secretion compared to those without the protective haplotype. Possible autoantibody biomarkers were identified using microarrays containing 9480 proteins in plasma from Pima Indians with T2DM without the protective haplotype (n = 7) compared with those with normal glucose regulation (NGR) with the protective haplotype (n = 11). A subsequent validation phase involving 45 cases and 45 controls, matched by age, sex and specimen storage time, evaluated 77 proteins. Eleven autoantigens had higher antibody signals among T2DM subjects with the lower insulin-secretion HLA background compared with NGR subjects with the higher insulin-secretion HLA background (p<0.05, adjusted for multiple comparisons). PPARG2 and UBE2M had lowest p-values (adjusted p = 0.023) while PPARG2 and RGS17 had highest case-to-control antibody signal ratios (1.7). A multi-protein classifier involving the 11 autoantigens had sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristics curve of 0.73, 0.80, and 0.83 (95% CI 0.74-0.91, p = 3.4x10-8), respectively. This study identified 11 novel autoantigens which were associated with T2DM and an HLA background associated with reduced insulin secretion. While further studies are needed to distinguish whether these antibodies are associated with insulin secretion via the HLA background, T2DM more broadly, or a combination of the two, this study may

  2. Acetylation modification regulates GRP78 secretion in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Zongwei; Zhuang, Ming; Zhang, Lichao; Zheng, Xingnan; Yang, Peng; Li, Zhuoyu

    2016-01-01

    High glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) expression contributes to the acquisition of a wide range of phenotypic cancer hallmarks, and the pleiotropic oncogenic functions of GRP78 may result from its diverse subcellular distribution. Interestingly, GRP78 has been reported to be secreted from solid tumour cells, participating in cell-cell communication in the tumour microenvironment. However, the mechanism underlying this secretion remains elusive. Here, we report that GRP78 is secreted from colon cancer cells via exosomes. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors blocked GRP78 release by inducing its aggregation in the ER. Mechanistically, HDAC inhibitor treatment suppressed HDAC6 activity and led to increased GRP78 acetylation; acetylated GRP78 then bound to VPS34, a class III phosphoinositide-3 kinase, consequently preventing the sorting of GRP78 into multivesicular bodies (MVBs). Of note, we found that mimicking GRP78 acetylation by substituting the lysine at residue 633, one of the deacetylated sites of HDAC6, with a glutamine resulted in decreased GRP78 secretion and impaired tumour cell growth in vitro. Our study thus reveals a hitherto-unknown mechanism of GRP78 secretion and may also provide implications for the therapeutic use of HDAC inhibitors. PMID:27460191

  3. Acetylation modification regulates GRP78 secretion in colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zongwei; Zhuang, Ming; Zhang, Lichao; Zheng, Xingnan; Yang, Peng; Li, Zhuoyu

    2016-01-01

    High glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) expression contributes to the acquisition of a wide range of phenotypic cancer hallmarks, and the pleiotropic oncogenic functions of GRP78 may result from its diverse subcellular distribution. Interestingly, GRP78 has been reported to be secreted from solid tumour cells, participating in cell-cell communication in the tumour microenvironment. However, the mechanism underlying this secretion remains elusive. Here, we report that GRP78 is secreted from colon cancer cells via exosomes. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors blocked GRP78 release by inducing its aggregation in the ER. Mechanistically, HDAC inhibitor treatment suppressed HDAC6 activity and led to increased GRP78 acetylation; acetylated GRP78 then bound to VPS34, a class III phosphoinositide-3 kinase, consequently preventing the sorting of GRP78 into multivesicular bodies (MVBs). Of note, we found that mimicking GRP78 acetylation by substituting the lysine at residue 633, one of the deacetylated sites of HDAC6, with a glutamine resulted in decreased GRP78 secretion and impaired tumour cell growth in vitro. Our study thus reveals a hitherto-unknown mechanism of GRP78 secretion and may also provide implications for the therapeutic use of HDAC inhibitors. PMID:27460191

  4. Relaxation response induces temporal transcriptome changes in energy metabolism, insulin secretion and inflammatory pathways.

    PubMed

    Bhasin, Manoj K; Dusek, Jeffery A; Chang, Bei-Hung; Joseph, Marie G; Denninger, John W; Fricchione, Gregory L; Benson, Herbert; Libermann, Towia A

    2013-01-01

    The relaxation response (RR) is the counterpart of the stress response. Millennia-old practices evoking the RR include meditation, yoga and repetitive prayer. Although RR elicitation is an effective therapeutic intervention that counteracts the adverse clinical effects of stress in disorders including hypertension, anxiety, insomnia and aging, the underlying molecular mechanisms that explain these clinical benefits remain undetermined. To assess rapid time-dependent (temporal) genomic changes during one session of RR practice among healthy practitioners with years of RR practice and also in novices before and after 8 weeks of RR training, we measured the transcriptome in peripheral blood prior to, immediately after, and 15 minutes after listening to an RR-eliciting or a health education CD. Both short-term and long-term practitioners evoked significant temporal gene expression changes with greater significance in the latter as compared to novices. RR practice enhanced expression of genes associated with energy metabolism, mitochondrial function, insulin secretion and telomere maintenance, and reduced expression of genes linked to inflammatory response and stress-related pathways. Interactive network analyses of RR-affected pathways identified mitochondrial ATP synthase and insulin (INS) as top upregulated critical molecules (focus hubs) and NF-κB pathway genes as top downregulated focus hubs. Our results for the first time indicate that RR elicitation, particularly after long-term practice, may evoke its downstream health benefits by improving mitochondrial energy production and utilization and thus promoting mitochondrial resiliency through upregulation of ATPase and insulin function. Mitochondrial resiliency might also be promoted by RR-induced downregulation of NF-κB-associated upstream and downstream targets that mitigates stress. PMID:23650531

  5. Transplantation of insulin-secreting cells differentiated from human adipose tissue-derived stem cells into type 2 diabetes mice.

    PubMed

    Nam, Ji Sun; Kang, Hyun Mi; Kim, Jiyoung; Park, Seah; Kim, Haekwon; Ahn, Chul Woo; Park, Jin Oh; Kim, Kyung Rae

    2014-01-10

    Currently, there are limited ways to preserve or recover insulin secretory capacity in human pancreas. We evaluated the efficacy of cell therapy using insulin-secreting cells differentiated from human eyelid adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hEAs) into type 2 diabetes mice. After differentiating hEAs into insulin-secreting cells (hEA-ISCs) in vitro, cells were transplanted into a type 2 diabetes mouse model. Serum levels of glucose, insulin and c-peptide were measured, and changes of metabolism and inflammation were assessed in mice that received undifferentiated hEAs (UDC group), differentiated hEA-ISCs (DC group), or sham operation (sham group). Human gene expression and immunohistochemical analysis were done. DC group mice showed improved glucose level, and survival up to 60 days compared to those of UDC and sham group. Significantly increased levels of human insulin and c-peptide were detected in sera of DC mice. RT-PCR and immunohistochemical analysis showed human gene expression and the presence of human cells in kidneys of DC mice. When compared to sham mice, DC mice exhibited lower levels of IL-6, triglyceride and free fatty acids as the control mice. Transplantation of hEA-ISCs lowered blood glucose level in type 2 diabetes mice by increasing circulating insulin level, and ameliorating metabolic parameters including IL-6.

  6. Use of anesthesia dramatically alters the oral glucose tolerance and insulin secretion in C57Bl/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Windeløv, Johanne A; Pedersen, Jens; Holst, Jens J

    2016-06-01

    Evaluation of the impact of anesthesia on oral glucose tolerance in mice. Anesthesia is often used when performing OGTT in mice to avoid the stress of gavage and blood sampling, although anesthesia may influence gastrointestinal motility, blood glucose, and plasma insulin dynamics. C57Bl/6 mice were anesthetized using the following commonly used regimens: (1) hypnorm/midazolam repetitive or single injection; (2) ketamine/xylazine; (3) isoflurane; (4) pentobarbital; and (5) A saline injected, nonanesthetized group. Oral glucose was administered at time 0 min and blood glucose measured in the time frame -15 to +150 min. Plasma insulin concentration was measured at time 0 and 20 min. All four anesthetic regimens resulted in impaired glucose tolerance compared to saline/no anesthesia. (1) hypnorm/midazolam increased insulin concentrations and caused an altered glucose tolerance; (2) ketamine/xylazine lowered insulin responses and resulted in severe hyperglycemia throughout the experiment; (3) isoflurane did not only alter the insulin secretion but also resulted in severe hyperglycemia; (4) pentobarbital resulted in both increased insulin secretion and impaired glucose tolerance. All four anesthetic regimens altered the oral glucose tolerance, and we conclude that anesthesia should not be used when performing metabolic studies in mice. PMID:27255361

  7. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor MK-626 restores insulin secretion through enhancing autophagy in high fat diet-induced mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Limei; Liu, Jian; Yu, Xiaoxing

    2016-02-12

    Autophagy is cellular machinery for maintenance of β-cell function and mass. The current study aimed to investigate the regulatory effects of MK-626, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, on insulin secretion through the activation of autophagy in high fat diet-induced obese mice. C57BL/6 mice were fed with a rodent diet containing 45 kcal% fat for 16 weeks to induce obesity and then were received either vehicle or MK-626 (3 mg/kg/day) orally during the final 4 weeks. Mouse islets were isolated. Phosphorylation of serine/threonine-protein kinase mTOR and levels of light chain 3B I (LC3B I), LC3B II, sequestosome-1 (SQSTM1/p62) and autophagy-related protein-7 (Atg7) were examined by Western blotting. Glucagon like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) level and insulin secretion were measured by ELISA. GLP-1 level in plasma was decreased in obese mice, which was elevated by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor MK-626. In the islets of obese mice, phosphorylation of mTOR, ratio of LC3B I and LC3B II, and level of p62 were elevated and the expression of Atg7 and insulin secretion were reduced compared to those of C57BL/6 mice. However, such effects were reversed by MK-626. Autophagy activator rapamycin stimulated insulin secretion in obese mice but autophagy inhibitor chloroquine treatment inhibited insulin secretion in obese mice administrated by MK-626. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of MK-626 were inhibited by GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin 9-39. The present study reveals the activation of autophagy to mediate the anti-diabetic effect of GLP-1.

  8. Novel Small Molecule Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist Stimulates Insulin Secretion in Rodents and From Human Islets

    PubMed Central

    Sloop, Kyle W.; Willard, Francis S.; Brenner, Martin B.; Ficorilli, James; Valasek, Kathleen; Showalter, Aaron D.; Farb, Thomas B.; Cao, Julia X.C.; Cox, Amy L.; Michael, M. Dodson; Gutierrez Sanfeliciano, Sonia Maria; Tebbe, Mark J.; Coghlan, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The clinical effectiveness of parenterally-administered glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) mimetics to improve glucose control in patients suffering from type 2 diabetes strongly supports discovery pursuits aimed at identifying and developing orally active, small molecule GLP-1 receptor agonists. The purpose of these studies was to identify and characterize novel nonpeptide agonists of the GLP-1 receptor. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Screening using cells expressing the GLP-1 receptor and insulin secretion assays with rodent and human islets were used to identify novel molecules. The intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and hyperglycemic clamp characterized the insulinotropic effects of compounds in vivo. RESULTS Novel low molecular weight pyrimidine-based compounds that activate the GLP-1 receptor and stimulate glucose-dependent insulin secretion are described. These molecules induce GLP-1 receptor-mediated cAMP signaling in HEK293 cells expressing the GLP-1 receptor and increase insulin secretion from rodent islets in a dose-dependent manner. The compounds activate GLP-1 receptor signaling, both alone or in an additive fashion when combined with the endogenous GLP-1 peptide; however, these agonists do not compete with radiolabeled GLP-1 in receptor-binding assays. In vivo studies using the IVGTT and the hyperglycemic clamp in Sprague Dawley rats demonstrate increased insulin secretion in compound-treated animals. Further, perifusion assays with human islets isolated from a donor with type 2 diabetes show near-normalization of insulin secretion upon compound treatment. CONCLUSIONS These studies characterize the insulinotropic effects of an early-stage, small molecule GLP-1 receptor agonist and provide compelling evidence to support pharmaceutical optimization. PMID:20823098

  9. Downregulation of Carnitine Acyl-Carnitine Translocase by miRNAs 132 and 212 Amplifies Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Mufaddal S.; Rabaglia, Mary E.; Bhatnagar, Sushant; Shang, Jin; Ilkayeva, Olga; Mynatt, Randall; Zhou, Yun-Ping; Schadt, Eric E.; Thornberry, Nancy A.; Muoio, Deborah M.; Keller, Mark P.

    2014-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that micro-RNAs (miRNAs) 132 and 212 are differentially upregulated in response to obesity in two mouse strains that differ in their susceptibility to obesity-induced diabetes. Here we show the overexpression of miRNAs 132 and 212 enhances insulin secretion (IS) in response to glucose and other secretagogues including nonfuel stimuli. We determined that carnitine acyl-carnitine translocase (CACT; Slc25a20) is a direct target of these miRNAs. CACT is responsible for transporting long-chain acyl-carnitines into the mitochondria for β-oxidation. Small interfering RNA–mediated knockdown of CACT in β-cells led to the accumulation of fatty acyl-carnitines and enhanced IS. The addition of long-chain fatty acyl-carnitines promoted IS from rat insulinoma β-cells (INS-1) as well as primary mouse islets. The effect on INS-1 cells was augmented in response to suppression of CACT. A nonhydrolyzable ether analog of palmitoyl-carnitine stimulated IS, showing that β-oxidation of palmitoyl-carnitine is not required for its stimulation of IS. These studies establish a link between miRNA-dependent regulation of CACT and fatty acyl-carnitine–mediated regulation of IS. PMID:24969106

  10. Structure and Regulation of the Type VI Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Julie M.; Brunet, Yannick R.; Cascales, Eric; Mougous, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a complex and widespread gram-negative export pathway with the capacity to translocate protein effectors into a diversity of target cell types. Current structural models of the T6SS indicate that the apparatus is composed of at least two complexes, a dynamic bacteriophage-like structure and a cell envelope-spanning membrane-associated assembly. How these complexes interact to promote effector secretion and cell targeting remains a major question in the field. As a contact-dependent pathway with specific cellular targets, the T6SS is subject to tight regulation. Thus, the identification of regulatory elements that control T6S expression continues to shape our understanding of the environmental circumstances relevant to its function. This review discusses recent progress toward characterizing T6S structure and regulation. PMID:22746332

  11. Neuroendocrine regulation of gonadotropin secretion in seasonally breeding birds

    PubMed Central

    Ubuka, Takayoshi; Bentley, George E.; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Seasonally breeding birds detect environmental signals, such as light, temperature, food availability, and presence of mates to time reproduction. Hypothalamic neurons integrate external and internal signals, and regulate reproduction by releasing neurohormones to the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland synthesizes and releases gonadotropins which in turn act on the gonads to stimulate gametogenesis and sex steroid secretion. Accordingly, how gonadotropin secretion is controlled by the hypothalamus is key to our understanding of the mechanisms of seasonal reproduction. A hypothalamic neuropeptide, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), activates reproduction by stimulating gonadotropin synthesis and release. Another hypothalamic neuropeptide, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), inhibits gonadotropin synthesis and release directly by acting on the pituitary gland or indirectly by decreasing the activity of GnRH neurons. Therefore, the next step to understand seasonal reproduction is to investigate how the activities of GnRH and GnIH neurons in the hypothalamus and their receptors in the pituitary gland are regulated by external and internal signals. It is possible that locally-produced triiodothyronine resulting from the action of type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase on thyroxine stimulates the release of gonadotropins, perhaps by action on GnRH neurons. The function of GnRH neurons is also regulated by transcription of the GnRH gene. Melatonin, a nocturnal hormone, stimulates the synthesis and release of GnIH and GnIH may therefore regulate a daily rhythm of gonadotropin secretion. GnIH may also temporally suppress gonadotropin secretion when environmental conditions are unfavorable. Environmental and social milieus fluctuate seasonally in the wild. Accordingly, complex interactions of various neuronal and hormonal systems need to be considered if we are to understand the mechanisms underlying seasonal reproduction. PMID:23531789

  12. [Aspartame--the sweet-tasting dipeptide--does not affect the pancreatic insulin-secreting function].

    PubMed

    Sadovnikova, N V; Fedotov, V P; Aleshina, L V; Shvachkin, Iu P; Girin, S K

    1984-01-01

    The action of a synthetic dipeptide aspartam (150 to 180 times as sweet as glucose) on pancreatic insulin-secretory function of rats was studied in vivo and in vitro. The drug was given orally while drinking (300 mg/kg body weight) or was added to the incubation medium of cultivated pancreatic cells (20 mM). It was shown that insulin content in the rat blood serum remained unchanged 10 and 35 minutes after aspartam administration. The drug did not exert any stimulating effect upon insulin secretion following the addition to the pancreatic cell culture medium. It is concluded that aspartam exhibits no direct or mediated action on pancreatic insulin-secretory function.

  13. Protein Kinase C Delta (PKCδ) Affects Proliferation of Insulin-Secreting Cells by Promoting Nuclear Extrusion of the Cell Cycle Inhibitor p21Cip1/WAF1

    PubMed Central

    Ranta, Felicia; Leveringhaus, Johannes; Theilig, Dorothea; Schulz-Raffelt, Gabriele; Hennige, Anita M.; Hildebrand, Dominic G.; Handrick, René; Jendrossek, Verena; Bosch, Fatima; Schulze-Osthoff, Klaus; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Ullrich, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Background High fat diet-induced hyperglycemia and palmitate-stimulated apoptosis was prevented by specific inhibition of protein kinase C delta (PKCδ) in β-cells. To understand the role of PKCδ in more detail the impact of changes in PKCδ activity on proliferation and survival of insulin-secreting cells was analyzed under stress-free conditions. Methodology and Principal Findings Using genetic and pharmacological approaches, the effect of reduced and increased PKCδ activity on proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle regulation of insulin secreting cells was examined. Proteins were analyzed by Western blotting and by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Increased expression of wild type PKCδ (PKCδWT) significantly stimulated proliferation of INS-1E cells with concomitant reduced expression and cytosolic retraction of the cell cycle inhibitor p21Cip1/WAF1. This nuclear extrusion was mediated by PKCδ-dependent phosphorylation of p21Cip1/WAF1 at Ser146. In kinase dead PKCδ (PKCδKN) overexpressing cells and after inhibition of endogenous PKCδ activity by rottlerin or RNA interference phosphorylation of p21Cip1/WAF1 was reduced, which favored its nuclear accumulation and apoptotic cell death of INS-1E cells. Human and mouse islet cells express p21Cip1/WAF1 with strong nuclear accumulation, while in islet cells of PKCδWT transgenic mice the inhibitor resides cytosolic. Conclusions and Significance These observations disclose PKCδ as negative regulator of p21Cip1/WAF1, which facilitates proliferation of insulin secreting cells under stress-free conditions and suggest that additional stress-induced changes push PKCδ into its known pro-apoptotic role. PMID:22216119

  14. REGULATION OF OBESITY AND INSULIN RESISTANCE BY NITRIC OXIDE

    PubMed Central

    Sansbury, Brian E.; Hill, Bradford G.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease and has quickly become a world-wide pandemic with few tangible and safe treatment options. While it is generally accepted that the primary cause of obesity is energy imbalance, i.e., the calories consumed are greater than are utilized, understanding how caloric balance is regulated has proven a challenge. Many “distal” causes of obesity, such as the structural environment, occupation, and social influences, are exceedingly difficult to change or manipulate. Hence, molecular processes and pathways more proximal to the origins of obesity—those that directly regulate energy metabolism or caloric intake—appear to be more feasible targets for therapy. In particular, nitric oxide (NO) is emerging as a central regulator of energy metabolism and body composition. NO bioavailability is decreased in animal models of diet-induced obesity and in obese and insulin resistant patients, and increasing NO output has remarkable effects on obesity and insulin resistance. This review discusses the role of NO in regulating adiposity and insulin sensitivity and places its modes of action into context with the known causes and consequences of metabolic disease. PMID:24878261

  15. Impaired physical fitness and insulin secretion in normoglycaemic subjects with familial aggregation of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Berntorp, K; Lindgärde, F

    1985-05-01

    Randomized subgroups from a health screening population were reinvestigated with oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) with simultaneous insulin and C-peptide measurements and submaximal exercise tests. Twenty-two normoglycaemic non-obese males with a strong family history of Type 2 diabetes were compared to 51 controls. While glucose levels tended to be somewhat higher, there was a tendency towards lower insulin and C-peptide levels in the hereditary group compared to controls, especially during the early phase of the OGTT, as reflected in a significant difference in the 40 min insulin level and the 0-40 min increment. Estimated maximal oxygen uptake was significantly lower in the hereditary group as were the sum ratios of insulin and C-peptide to glucose in the early phase of the OGTT. Insulin to C-peptide ratios did not differ. The data support both a decreased physical fitness, indicating peripheral insulin insensitivity, and a decreased insulin secretion among normoglycaemic individuals with familial aggregation of Type 2 diabetes.

  16. Pancreatic Transdifferentiation and Glucose-Regulated Production of Human Insulin in the H4IIE Rat Liver Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Ren, Binhai; Tao, Chang; Swan, Margaret Anne; Joachim, Nichole; Martiniello-Wilks, Rosetta; Nassif, Najah T; O'Brien, Bronwyn A; Simpson, Ann M

    2016-01-01

    Due to the limitations of current treatment regimes, gene therapy is a promising strategy being explored to correct blood glucose concentrations in diabetic patients. In the current study, we used a retroviral vector to deliver either the human insulin gene alone, the rat NeuroD1 gene alone, or the human insulin gene and rat NeuroD1 genes together, to the rat liver cell line, H4IIE, to determine if storage of insulin and pancreatic transdifferentiation occurred. Stable clones were selected and expanded into cell lines: H4IIEins (insulin gene alone), H4IIE/ND (NeuroD1 gene alone), and H4IIEins/ND (insulin and NeuroD1 genes). The H4IIEins cells did not store insulin; however, H4IIE/ND and H4IIEins/ND cells stored 65.5 ± 5.6 and 1475.4 ± 171.8 pmol/insulin/5 × 10⁶ cells, respectively. Additionally, several β cell transcription factors and pancreatic hormones were expressed in both H4IIE/ND and H4IIEins/ND cells. Electron microscopy revealed insulin storage vesicles in the H4IIE/ND and H4IIEins/ND cell lines. Regulated secretion of insulin to glucose (0-20 mmol/L) was seen in the H4IIEins/ND cell line. The H4IIEins/ND cells were transplanted into diabetic immunoincompetent mice, resulting in normalization of blood glucose. This data shows that the expression of NeuroD1 and insulin in liver cells may be a useful strategy for inducing islet neogenesis and reversing diabetes. PMID:27070593

  17. Pancreatic Transdifferentiation and Glucose-Regulated Production of Human Insulin in the H4IIE Rat Liver Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Binhai; Tao, Chang; Swan, Margaret Anne; Joachim, Nichole; Martiniello-Wilks, Rosetta; Nassif, Najah T.; O’Brien, Bronwyn A.; Simpson, Ann M.

    2016-01-01

    Due to the limitations of current treatment regimes, gene therapy is a promising strategy being explored to correct blood glucose concentrations in diabetic patients. In the current study, we used a retroviral vector to deliver either the human insulin gene alone, the rat NeuroD1 gene alone, or the human insulin gene and rat NeuroD1 genes together, to the rat liver cell line, H4IIE, to determine if storage of insulin and pancreatic transdifferentiation occurred. Stable clones were selected and expanded into cell lines: H4IIEins (insulin gene alone), H4IIE/ND (NeuroD1 gene alone), and H4IIEins/ND (insulin and NeuroD1 genes). The H4IIEins cells did not store insulin; however, H4IIE/ND and H4IIEins/ND cells stored 65.5 ± 5.6 and 1475.4 ± 171.8 pmol/insulin/5 × 106 cells, respectively. Additionally, several β cell transcription factors and pancreatic hormones were expressed in both H4IIE/ND and H4IIEins/ND cells. Electron microscopy revealed insulin storage vesicles in the H4IIE/ND and H4IIEins/ND cell lines. Regulated secretion of insulin to glucose (0–20 mmol/L) was seen in the H4IIEins/ND cell line. The H4IIEins/ND cells were transplanted into diabetic immunoincompetent mice, resulting in normalization of blood glucose. This data shows that the expression of NeuroD1 and insulin in liver cells may be a useful strategy for inducing islet neogenesis and reversing diabetes. PMID:27070593

  18. Cinnamic acid exerts anti-diabetic activity by improving glucose tolerance in vivo and by stimulating insulin secretion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hafizur, Rahman M; Hameed, Abdul; Shukrana, Mishkat; Raza, Sayed Ali; Chishti, Sidra; Kabir, Nurul; Siddiqui, Rehan A

    2015-02-15

    Although the anti-diabetic activity of cinnamic acid, a pure compound from cinnamon, has been reported but its mechanism(s) is not yet clear. The present study was designed to explore the possible mechanism(s) of anti-diabetic activity of cinnamic acid in in vitro and in vivo non-obese type 2 diabetic rats. Non-obese type 2 diabetes was developed by injecting 90 mg/kg streptozotocin in 2-day-old Wistar pups. Cinnamic acid and cinnamaldehyde were administered orally to diabetic rats for assessing acute blood glucose lowering effect and improvement of glucose tolerance. Additionally, insulin secretory activity of cinnamic acid and cinnamaldehyde was evaluated in isolated mice islets. Cinnamic acid, but not cinnamaldehyde, decreased blood glucose levels in diabetic rats in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Oral administration of cinnamic acid with 5 and 10 mg/kg doses to diabetic rats improved glucose tolerance in a dose-dependent manner. The improvement by 10 mg/kg cinnamic acid was comparable to that of standard drug glibenclamide (5 mg/kg). Further in vitro studies showed that cinnamaldehyde has little or no effect on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion; however, cinnamic acid significantly enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in isolated islets. In conclusion, it can be said that cinnamic acid exerts anti-diabetic activity by improving glucose tolerance in vivo and stimulating insulin secretion in vitro.

  19. Relation between Delayed Superfluous Insulin Secretion during An Oral Glucose Tolerance Test and Metabolic Disorders in Obese Japanese Children.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hidetoshi; Kikuchi, Toru; Harada, Waka; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Ito, Sueshi; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the relation between postprandial hyperinsulinemia and metabolic disorders in obese children. Twenty-eight obese Japanese children (8.8-16.2 yr) were divided into four groups: without impaired liver function and dyslipidemia (Group A), with impaired liver function (Group B), with dyslipidemia (Group C), and with impaired liver function and dyslipidemia (Group D). The levels of PG, serum immunoreactive insulin (IRI) and serum C-peptide (CPR) were measured during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The subjects had delayed superfluous insulin and CPR secretion during the OGTT compared with healthy references. In regard to the insulin secretion pattern, Group A's response peaked at 60 min and then decreased gradually until 120 min, Group B's response peaked at 60 min, remained at the peak until 120 min and then decreased gradually until 180 min, Group C's response peaked at 120 min and then decreased gradually until 180 min, and Group D's response peaked at 120 min and remained at the peak until 180 min. These results suggest that delayed superfluous insulin secretion during an OGTT is related to metabolic disorders in obese Japanese children and that these patients will experience a vicious cycle of postprandial hyperinsulinemia and metabolic disorders. It is important to prevent healthy children from becoming obese and to improve management of childhood obesity.

  20. L-cysteine reversibly inhibits glucose-induced biphasic insulin secretion and ATP production by inactivating PKM2.

    PubMed

    Nakatsu, Daiki; Horiuchi, Yuta; Kano, Fumi; Noguchi, Yoshiyuki; Sugawara, Taichi; Takamoto, Iseki; Kubota, Naoto; Kadowaki, Takashi; Murata, Masayuki

    2015-03-10

    Increase in the concentration of plasma L-cysteine is closely associated with defective insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells, which results in type 2 diabetes (T2D). In this study, we investigated the effects of prolonged L-cysteine treatment on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from mouse insulinoma 6 (MIN6) cells and from mouse pancreatic islets, and found that the treatment reversibly inhibited glucose-induced ATP production and resulting GSIS without affecting proinsulin and insulin synthesis. Comprehensive metabolic analyses using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry showed that prolonged L-cysteine treatment decreased the levels of pyruvate and its downstream metabolites. In addition, methyl pyruvate, a membrane-permeable form of pyruvate, rescued L-cysteine-induced inhibition of GSIS. Based on these results, we found that both in vitro and in MIN6 cells, L-cysteine specifically inhibited the activity of pyruvate kinase muscle isoform 2 (PKM2), an isoform of pyruvate kinases that catalyze the conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate. L-cysteine also induced PKM2 subunit dissociation (tetramers to dimers/monomers) in cells, which resulted in impaired glucose-induced ATP production for GSIS. DASA-10 (NCGC00181061, a substituted N,N'-diarylsulfonamide), a specific activator for PKM2, restored the tetramer formation and the activity of PKM2, glucose-induced ATP production, and biphasic insulin secretion in L-cysteine-treated cells. Collectively, our results demonstrate that impaired insulin secretion due to exposure to L-cysteine resulted from its direct binding and inactivation of PKM2 and suggest that PKM2 is a potential therapeutic target for T2D.

  1. l-cysteine reversibly inhibits glucose-induced biphasic insulin secretion and ATP production by inactivating PKM2

    PubMed Central

    Nakatsu, Daiki; Horiuchi, Yuta; Kano, Fumi; Noguchi, Yoshiyuki; Sugawara, Taichi; Takamoto, Iseki; Kubota, Naoto; Kadowaki, Takashi; Murata, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Increase in the concentration of plasma l-cysteine is closely associated with defective insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells, which results in type 2 diabetes (T2D). In this study, we investigated the effects of prolonged l-cysteine treatment on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from mouse insulinoma 6 (MIN6) cells and from mouse pancreatic islets, and found that the treatment reversibly inhibited glucose-induced ATP production and resulting GSIS without affecting proinsulin and insulin synthesis. Comprehensive metabolic analyses using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry showed that prolonged l-cysteine treatment decreased the levels of pyruvate and its downstream metabolites. In addition, methyl pyruvate, a membrane-permeable form of pyruvate, rescued l-cysteine–induced inhibition of GSIS. Based on these results, we found that both in vitro and in MIN6 cells, l-cysteine specifically inhibited the activity of pyruvate kinase muscle isoform 2 (PKM2), an isoform of pyruvate kinases that catalyze the conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate. l-cysteine also induced PKM2 subunit dissociation (tetramers to dimers/monomers) in cells, which resulted in impaired glucose-induced ATP production for GSIS. DASA-10 (NCGC00181061, a substituted N,N′-diarylsulfonamide), a specific activator for PKM2, restored the tetramer formation and the activity of PKM2, glucose-induced ATP production, and biphasic insulin secretion in l-cysteine–treated cells. Collectively, our results demonstrate that impaired insulin secretion due to exposure to l-cysteine resulted from its direct binding and inactivation of PKM2 and suggest that PKM2 is a potential therapeutic target for T2D. PMID:25713368

  2. Cloning of a novel insulin-regulated ghrelin transcript in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Seim, Inge; Lubik, Amy A; Lehman, Melanie L; Tomlinson, Nadine; Whiteside, Eliza J; Herington, Adrian C; Nelson, Colleen C; Chopin, Lisa K

    2013-04-01

    Ghrelin is a multifunctional hormone, with roles in stimulating appetite and regulating energy balance, insulin secretion and glucose homoeostasis. The ghrelin gene locus (GHRL) is highly complex and gives rise to a range of novel transcripts derived from alternative first exons and internally spliced exons. The wild-type transcript encodes a 117 amino acid preprohormone that is processed to yield the 28 amino acid peptide ghrelin. Here, we identified insulin-responsive transcription corresponding to cryptic exons in intron 2 of the human ghrelin gene. A transcript, termed in2c-ghrelin (intron 2-cryptic), was cloned from the testis and the LNCaP prostate cancer cell line. This transcript may encode an 83 amino acid preproghrelin isoform that codes for ghrelin, but not obestatin. It is expressed in a limited number of normal tissues and in tumours of the prostate, testis, breast and ovary. Finally, we confirmed that in2c-ghrelin transcript expression, as well as the recently described in1-ghrelin transcript, is significantly upregulated by insulin in cultured prostate cancer cells. Metabolic syndrome and hyperinsulinaemia have been associated with prostate cancer risk and progression. This may be particularly significant after androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer, which induces hyperinsulinaemia, and this could contribute to castrate-resistant prostate cancer growth. We have previously demonstrated that ghrelin stimulates prostate cancer cell line proliferation in vitro. This study is the first description of insulin regulation of a ghrelin transcript in cancer and should provide further impetus for studies into the expression, regulation and function of ghrelin gene products.

  3. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1--insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 cascade regulates stress-induced senescence.

    PubMed

    Elzi, David J; Lai, Yanlai; Song, Meihua; Hakala, Kevin; Weintraub, Susan T; Shiio, Yuzuru

    2012-07-24

    Cellular senescence is widely believed to play a key role in tumor suppression, but the molecular pathways that regulate senescence are only incompletely understood. By using a secretome proteomics approach, we identified insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) as a secreted mediator of breast cancer senescence upon chemotherapeutic drug treatment. The senescence-inducing activity of IGFBP3 is inhibited by tissue-type plasminogen activator-mediated proteolysis, which is counteracted by plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), another secreted mediator of senescence. We demonstrate that IGFBP3 is a critical downstream target of PAI-1-induced senescence. These results suggest a role for an extracellular cascade of secreted proteins in the regulation of cellular senescence.

  4. The role of apolipoprotein A-IV in regulating glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Yang, Qing; Huesman, Sarah; Xu, Min; Li, Xiaoming; Lou, Danwen; Woods, Stephen C; Marziano, Corina; Tso, Patrick

    2015-10-15

    Both glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) are produced from the gut and enhance postprandial insulin secretion. This study investigated whether apoA-IV regulates nutrient-induced GLP-1 secretion and whether apoA-IV knockout causes compensatory GLP-1 release. Using lymph-fistula-mice, we first determined lymphatic GLP-1 secretion by administering apoA-IV before an intraduodenal Ensure infusion. apoA-IV changed neither basal nor Ensure-induced GLP-1 secretion relative to saline administration. We then assessed GLP-1 in apoA-IV-/- and wild-type (WT) mice administered intraduodenal Ensure. apoA-IV-/- mice had comparable lymph flow, lymphatic triglyceride, glucose, and protein outputs as WT mice. Intriguingly, apoA-IV-/- mice had higher lymphatic GLP-1 concentration and output than WT mice 30 min after Ensure administration. Increased GLP-1 was also observed in plasma of apoA-IV-/- mice at 30 min. apoA-IV-/- mice had comparable total gut GLP-1 content relative to WT mice under fasting, but a lower GLP-1 content 30 min after Ensure administration, suggesting that more GLP-1 was secreted. Moreover, an injection of apoA-IV protein did not reverse the increased GLP-1 secretion in apoA-IV-/- mice. Finally, we assessed gene expression of GLUT-2 and the lipid receptors, including G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) 40, GPR119, and GPR120 in intestinal segments. GLUT-2, GPR40 and GPR120 mRNAs were unaltered by apoA-IV knockout. However, ileal GPR119 mRNA was significantly increased in apoA-IV-/- mice. GPR119 colocalizes with GLP-1 in ileum and stimulates GLP-1 secretion by sensing OEA, lysophosphatidylcholine, and 2-monoacylglycerols. We suggest that increased ileal GPR119 is a potential mechanism by which GLP-1 secretion is enhanced in apoA-IV-/- mice. PMID:26294669

  5. Reduced insulin secretion in protein malnourished mice is associated with multiple changes in the beta-cell stimulus-secretion coupling.

    PubMed

    Soriano, Sergi; Gonzalez, Alejandro; Marroquí, Laura; Tudurí, Eva; Vieira, Elaine; Amaral, Andressa G; Batista, Thiago M; Rafacho, Alex; Boschero, Antonio C; Nadal, Angel; Carneiro, Everardo M; Quesada, Ivan

    2010-08-01

    The mechanism by which protein malnutrition impairs glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in the pancreatic beta-cell is not completely known but may be related to alterations in the signaling events involved in insulin release. Here, we aimed to study the stimulus-secretion coupling of beta-cells from mice fed with low-protein (LP) diet or normal-protein (NP) diet for 8 wk after weaning. Patch-clamp measurements in isolated cells showed that beta-cells from LP mice had a resting membrane potential that was more hyperpolarized than controls. Additionally, depolarization and generation of action potentials in response to stimulatory glucose concentrations were also impaired in beta-cells of LP mice. All these alterations in the LP group were most likely attributed to higher ATP-dependent K(+) (K(ATP)) channel activity in resting conditions and lower efficiency of glucose to induce the closure of these channels. Moreover, a Western blot analysis revealed higher protein levels of the sulphonylurea receptor of the K(ATP) channel in islets of LP mice. Because beta-cell Ca(2+) signals depend on electrical activity, intracellular Ca(2+) oscillations were measured by fluorescence microscopy in intact islets, indicating a lower response to glucose in the LP group. Finally, cell-to-cell synchrony of Ca(2+) signals was analyzed by confocal microscopy. Islets from LP mice exhibited a decreased level of coupling among beta-cells, which was probably due to the low expression levels of connexin 36. Therefore, low-protein diet leads to several alterations in the stimulus-secretion coupling of pancreatic beta-cells that might explain the diminished insulin secretion in response to glucose in this malnutrition state.

  6. Insulin secretion and interleukin-1β dependent mechanisms in human diabetes remission after metabolic surgery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Yen; Lee, Wei-Jei; Asakawa, A; Fujitsuka, N; Chong, Keong; Chen, Shu-Chun; Lee, Shou-Dong; Inui, A

    2013-01-01

    To compare endocrine, metabolic, and inflammatory changes induced by gastric bypass (GB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and to investigate the mechanisms of success after metabolic surgery. Sixteen GB and 16 SG patients were followed up before and at 1 year after surgery. The 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed before and after surgery. Glucose homeostasis, serum interleukin-1β, plasma gut hormones and adipokines, and the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) ten-year cardiovascular risks were evaluated. The diabetes remission rate was significantly higher in GB than SG. Changes in the area under the curve (AUC) for glucose were greater in those with complete and partial remission after GB and remitters after SG than non-remitters after SG, whereas changes in AUC for C-peptide were higher in complete and partial remitters after GB than non-remitters after SG. Insulinogenic index was enhanced and serum interleukin-1β was reduced in complete remitters after GB and remitters after SG. Logistic regression analysis confirmed that insulinogenic index and interleukin-1β, not insulin resistance, were the factors determining the success of diabetes remission after metabolic surgeries. GB and SG significantly reduced the ten-year risk of coronary heart disease and fatal coronary heart disease in T2DM patients after surgery, while GB had the additional benefit of reduced stroke risk. Human diabetes remission after metabolic surgery is through insulin secretion and interleukin-1β dependent mechanisms. GB is superior to SG in cardiocerebral risk reduction in Asian non-morbidly obese, not well-controlled T2DM patients.

  7. Enhancement of glucose uptake in skeletal muscle L6 cells and insulin secretion in pancreatic hamster-insulinoma-transfected cells by application of non-thermal plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Naresh; Kaushik, Nagendra K.; Park, Gyungsoon; Choi, Eun H.; Uhm, Han S.

    2013-11-01

    Type-II diabetes Mellitus is characterized by defects in insulin action on peripheral tissues, such as skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and liver and pancreatic beta cells. Since the skeletal muscle accounts for approximately 75% of insulin-stimulated glucose-uptake in our body, impaired insulin secretion from defected beta cell plays a major role in the afflicted glucose homoeostasis. It was shown that the intracellular reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide level was increased by non-thermal-plasma treatment in ambient air. These increased intracellular reactive species may enhance glucose uptake and insulin secretion through the activation of intracellular calcium (Ca+) and cAMP production.

  8. FoxO1 Deacetylation Decreases Fatty Acid Oxidation in β-Cells and Sustains Insulin Secretion in Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kim-Muller, Ja Young; Kim, Young Jung R; Fan, Jason; Zhao, Shangang; Banks, Alexander S; Prentki, Marc; Accili, Domenico

    2016-05-01

    Pancreatic β-cell dysfunction contributes to onset and progression of type 2 diabetes. In this state β-cells become metabolically inflexible, losing the ability to select between carbohydrates and lipids as substrates for mitochondrial oxidation. These changes lead to β-cell dedifferentiation. We have proposed that FoxO proteins are activated through deacetylation-dependent nuclear translocation to forestall the progression of these abnormalities. However, how deacetylated FoxO exert their actions remains unclear. To address this question, we analyzed islet function in mice homozygous for knock-in alleles encoding deacetylated FoxO1 (6KR). Islets expressing 6KR mutant FoxO1 have enhanced insulin secretion in vivo and ex vivo and decreased fatty acid oxidation ex vivo Remarkably, the gene expression signature associated with FoxO1 deacetylation differs from wild type by only ∼2% of the >4000 genes regulated in response to re-feeding. But this narrow swath includes key genes required for β-cell identity, lipid metabolism, and mitochondrial fatty acid and solute transport. The data support the notion that deacetylated FoxO1 protects β-cell function by limiting mitochondrial lipid utilization and raise the possibility that inhibition of fatty acid oxidation in β-cells is beneficial to diabetes treatment.

  9. Novel repressor regulates insulin sensitivity through interaction with Foxo1

    PubMed Central

    Nakae, Jun; Cao, Yongheng; Hakuno, Fumihiko; Takemori, Hiroshi; Kawano, Yoshinaga; Sekioka, Risa; Abe, Takaya; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Toshiya; Sakai, Juro; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Forkhead box-containing protein o (Foxo) 1 is a key transcription factor in insulin and glucose metabolism. We identified a Foxo1-CoRepressor (FCoR) protein in mouse adipose tissue that inhibits Foxo1's activity by enhancing acetylation via impairment of the interaction between Foxo1 and the deacetylase Sirt1 and via direct acetylation. FCoR is phosphorylated at Threonine 93 by catalytic subunit of protein kinase A and is translocated into nucleus, making it possible to bind to Foxo1 in both cytosol and nucleus. Knockdown of FCoR in 3T3-F442A cells enhanced expression of Foxo target and inhibited adipocyte differentiation. Overexpression of FCoR in white adipose tissue decreased expression of Foxo-target genes and adipocyte size and increased insulin sensitivity in Leprdb/db mice and in mice fed a high-fat diet. In contrast, Fcor knockout mice were lean, glucose intolerant, and had decreased insulin sensitivity that was accompanied by increased expression levels of Foxo-target genes and enlarged adipocytes. Taken together, these data suggest that FCoR is a novel repressor that regulates insulin sensitivity and energy metabolism in adipose tissue by acting to fine-tune Foxo1 activity. PMID:22510882

  10. Mitotic Checkpoint Regulators Control Insulin Signaling and Metabolic Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eunhee; Zhang, Xiangli; Xing, Chao; Yu, Hongtao

    2016-07-28

    Insulin signaling regulates many facets of animal physiology. Its dysregulation causes diabetes and other metabolic disorders. The spindle checkpoint proteins MAD2 and BUBR1 prevent precocious chromosome segregation and suppress aneuploidy. The MAD2 inhibitory protein p31(comet) promotes checkpoint inactivation and timely chromosome segregation. Here, we show that whole-body p31(comet) knockout mice die soon after birth and have reduced hepatic glycogen. Liver-specific ablation of p31(comet) causes insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, and hyperglycemia and diminishes the plasma membrane localization of the insulin receptor (IR) in hepatocytes. MAD2 directly binds to IR and facilitates BUBR1-dependent recruitment of the clathrin adaptor AP2 to IR. p31(comet) blocks the MAD2-BUBR1 interaction and prevents spontaneous clathrin-mediated IR endocytosis. BUBR1 deficiency enhances insulin sensitivity in mice. BUBR1 depletion in hepatocytes or the expression of MAD2-binding-deficient IR suppresses the metabolic phenotypes of p31(comet) ablation. Our findings establish a major IR regulatory mechanism and link guardians of chromosome stability to nutrient metabolism. PMID:27374329

  11. Regulation of pancreatic somatostatin gene expression by insulin and glucagon.

    PubMed

    Ehrman, Melissa M; Melroe, Gregory T; Kittilson, Jeffrey D; Sheridan, Mark A

    2005-05-12

    Rainbow trout were used as a model system to study the effects of insulin and glucagon on the expression of preprosomatostatins (PPSS). We previously showed that the endocrine pancreas of trout contains three mRNAs that encode for distinct somatostatin-containing peptides: PPSS I, which contains somatostain-14 (SS-14) at its C-terminus, and two separate PPSS IIs, PPSS II' and PPSS II'', each containing [Tyr7, Gly10]-SS-14 at their C-terminus. Rainbow trout injected (100 ng/g body weight) with insulin displayed elevated expression of PPSS II' and PPSS II'' mRNAs. Glucagon-injected (100 ng/g body weight) animals displayed elevated pancreatic expression of all PPSS mRNAs compared to saline-injected control animals. Insulin directly stimulated the expression of pancreatic PPSS II' and PPSS II'' mRNAs in vitro in a dose-dependent manner in the presence of 4mM glucose. Glucagon, in the presence of 10mM glucose, directly stimulated the expression of all PPSS mRNAs in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. These results indicate that the pancreatic expression of PPSS mRNAs is differentially regulated by insulin and glucagon and that the regulatory pattern is dependent on glucose concentration. PMID:15866425

  12. Short-term sleep deprivation with nocturnal light exposure alters time-dependent glucagon-like peptide-1 and insulin secretion in male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Gil-Lozano, Manuel; Hunter, Paola M; Behan, Lucy-Ann; Gladanac, Bojana; Casper, Robert F; Brubaker, Patricia L

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal L cell is the principal source of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a major determinant of insulin release. Because GLP-1 secretion is regulated in a circadian manner in rodents, we investigated whether the activity of the human L cell is also time sensitive. Rhythmic fluctuations in the mRNA levels of canonical clock genes were found in the human NCI-H716 L cell model, which also showed a time-dependent pattern in their response to well-established secretagogues. A diurnal variation in GLP-1 responses to identical meals (850 kcal), served 12 h apart in the normal dark (2300) and light (1100) periods, was also observed in male volunteers maintained under standard sleep and light conditions. These findings suggest the existence of a daily pattern of activity in the human L cell. Moreover, we separately tested the short-term effects of sleep deprivation and nocturnal light exposure on basal and postprandial GLP-1, insulin, and glucose levels in the same volunteers. Sleep deprivation with nocturnal light exposure disrupted the melatonin and cortisol profiles and increased insulin resistance. Moreover, it also induced profound derangements in GLP-1 and insulin responses such that postprandial GLP-1 and insulin levels were markedly elevated and the normal variation in GLP-1 responses was abrogated. These alterations were not observed in sleep-deprived participants maintained under dark conditions, indicating a direct effect of light on the mechanisms that regulate glucose homeostasis. Accordingly, the metabolic abnormalities known to occur in shift workers may be related to the effects of irregular light-dark cycles on these glucoregulatory pathways. PMID:26530153

  13. Short-term sleep deprivation with nocturnal light exposure alters time-dependent glucagon-like peptide-1 and insulin secretion in male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Gil-Lozano, Manuel; Hunter, Paola M; Behan, Lucy-Ann; Gladanac, Bojana; Casper, Robert F; Brubaker, Patricia L

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal L cell is the principal source of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a major determinant of insulin release. Because GLP-1 secretion is regulated in a circadian manner in rodents, we investigated whether the activity of the human L cell is also time sensitive. Rhythmic fluctuations in the mRNA levels of canonical clock genes were found in the human NCI-H716 L cell model, which also showed a time-dependent pattern in their response to well-established secretagogues. A diurnal variation in GLP-1 responses to identical meals (850 kcal), served 12 h apart in the normal dark (2300) and light (1100) periods, was also observed in male volunteers maintained under standard sleep and light conditions. These findings suggest the existence of a daily pattern of activity in the human L cell. Moreover, we separately tested the short-term effects of sleep deprivation and nocturnal light exposure on basal and postprandial GLP-1, insulin, and glucose levels in the same volunteers. Sleep deprivation with nocturnal light exposure disrupted the melatonin and cortisol profiles and increased insulin resistance. Moreover, it also induced profound derangements in GLP-1 and insulin responses such that postprandial GLP-1 and insulin levels were markedly elevated and the normal variation in GLP-1 responses was abrogated. These alterations were not observed in sleep-deprived participants maintained under dark conditions, indicating a direct effect of light on the mechanisms that regulate glucose homeostasis. Accordingly, the metabolic abnormalities known to occur in shift workers may be related to the effects of irregular light-dark cycles on these glucoregulatory pathways.

  14. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor is present in pancreatic acinar cells and regulates amylase secretion through cAMP.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yanan; Ernst, Stephen A; Heidenreich, Kaeli; Williams, John A

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a glucoincretin hormone that can act through its receptor (GLP-1R) on pancreatic β-cells and increase insulin secretion and production. GLP-1R agonists are used clinically to treat type 2 diabetes. GLP-1 may also regulate the exocrine pancreas at multiple levels, including inhibition through the central nervous system, stimulation indirectly through insulin, and stimulation directly on acinar cells. However, it has been unclear whether GLP-1R is present in pancreatic acini and what physiological functions these receptors regulate. In the current study we utilized GLP-1R knockout (KO) mice to study the role of GLP-1R in acinar cells. RNA expression of GLP-1R was detected in acutely isolated pancreatic acini. Acinar cell morphology and expression of digestive enzymes were not affected by loss of GLP-1R. GLP-1 induced amylase secretion in wild-type (WT) acini. In GLP-1R KO mice, this effect was abolished, whereas vasoactive intestinal peptide-induced amylase release in KO acini showed a pattern similar to that in WT acini. GLP-1 stimulated cAMP production and increased protein kinase A-mediated protein phosphorylation in WT acini, and these effects were absent in KO acini. These data show that GLP-1R is present in pancreatic acinar cells and that GLP-1 can regulate secretion through its receptor and cAMP signaling pathway.

  15. Somatostatin modulates insulin-degrading-enzyme metabolism: implications for the regulation of microglia activity in AD.

    PubMed

    Tundo, Grazia; Ciaccio, Chiara; Sbardella, Diego; Boraso, Mariaserena; Viviani, Barbara; Coletta, Massimiliano; Marini, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    The deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) into senile plaques and the impairment of somatostatin-mediated neurotransmission are key pathological events in the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Insulin-degrading-enzyme (IDE) is one of the main extracellular protease targeting Aβ, and thus it represents an interesting pharmacological target for AD therapy. We show that the active form of somatostatin-14 regulates IDE activity by affecting its expression and secretion in microglia cells. A similar effect can also be observed when adding octreotide. Following a previous observation where somatostatin directly interacts with IDE, here we demonstrate that somatostatin regulates Aβ catabolism by modulating IDE proteolytic activity in IDE gene-silencing experiments. As a whole, these data indicate the relevant role played by somatostatin and, potentially, by analogue octreotide, in preventing Aβ accumulation by partially restoring IDE activity.

  16. Distribution of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, neuropeptide-Y and substance P and their effects on insulin secretion from the in vitro pancreas of normal and diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Adeghate, E; Ponery, A S; Pallot, D J; Singh, J

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the pattern of distribution of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), neuropeptide-Y (NPY) and substance P (SP) in the pancreas of diabetic rat to determine whether there are changes in the number and pattern of distribution of these neuropeptides after the onset of diabetes. Moreover, the effect of VIP, NPY and SP on insulin secretion from the pancreas of normal and diabetic rats was also examined. Diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced by a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ) given intraperitoneally (i.p.) (60 mg kg body weight(-1)). Four weeks after the induction of DM, diabetic (n = 6) and normal (n = 6) rats were anesthetized with chloral hydrate and their pancreases removed and processed for immunohistochemistry and insulin secretion. The number of insulin-positive cells in the islets of Langerhans was reduced while that of VIP and NPY increased significantly after the onset of diabetes. The pattern of distribution of VIP, NPY and SP in the nerves innervating the pancreas was similar in both normal and diabetic rats. VIP-evoked large and significant (P < 0.02) increases in insulin secretion from the pancreas of normal and diabetic rats. NPY also induced a marked (P < 0.005) increase in insulin release from pancreatic tissue fragments of normal rat. Stimulation of pancreatic tissue fragments of diabetic rat with NPY resulted in a slight but not significant increase in insulin release. SP induced a large and significant (P < 0.005) increase in insulin secretion from the pancreas of normal rat but inhibited insulin secretion significantly (P < 0.03) from isolated pancreas of diabetic rat. In summary, VIP and NPY can stimulate insulin secretion from the pancreas after the onset of diabetes. The stimulatory effect of SP on insulin secretion is reversed to inhibitory in diabetic rats. PMID:11179603

  17. Addition of sitagliptin or metformin to insulin monotherapy improves blood glucose control via different effects on insulin and glucagon secretion in hyperglycemic Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Yuichiro; Yamaguchi, Suguru; Furukawa, Asami; Kosuda, Minami; Nakazaki, Mitsuhiro; Ishihara, Hisamitsu

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor sitagliptin and the biguanide metformin on the secretion of insulin and glucagon, as well as incretin levels, in Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus poorly controlled with insulin monotherapy. This was a single-center, randomized, open-label, parallel group study, enrolling 25 subjects. Eleven patients (hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c] 8.40 ± 0.96%) and 10 patients (8.10 ± 0.54%) on insulin monotherapy completed 12-week treatment with sitagliptin (50 mg) and metformin (750 mg), respectively. Before and after treatment, each subject underwent a meal tolerance test. The plasma glucose, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), C-peptide, and glucagon responses to a meal challenge were measured. HbA1c reductions were similar in patients treated with sitagliptin (0.76 ± 0.18%) and metformin (0.77 ± 0.17%). In the sitagliptin group, glucose excursion during a meal tolerance test was reduced and accompanied by elevations in active GLP-1 and active GIP concentrations. C-peptide levels were unaltered despite reduced glucose responses, while glucagon responses were significantly suppressed (-7.93 ± 1.95% of baseline). In the metformin group, glucose excursion and incretin responses were unaltered. C-peptide levels were slightly increased but glucagon responses were unchanged. Our data indicate that sitagliptin and metformin exert different effects on islet hormone secretion in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients on insulin monotherapy. A glucagon suppressing effect of sitagliptin could be one of the factors improving blood glucose control in patients inadequately controlled with insulin therapy.

  18. The effect of medicinal plants of Islamabad and Murree region of Pakistan on insulin secretion from INS-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Zakir; Waheed, Abdul; Qureshi, Rizwana Aleem; Burdi, Dadu Khan; Verspohl, Eugen J; Khan, Naeema; Hasan, Mashooda

    2004-01-01

    In vitro testing of the extracts of medicinal plants collected from Islamabad and the Murree region on insulin secretagogue activity was carried out. Dried ethanol extracts of all plants (ZH1-ZH19) were dissolved in ethanol and DMSO, and tested at various concentrations (between 1 and 40 microg/mL) for insulin release from INS-1 cells in the presence of 5.5 mM glucose. Glibenclamide was used as a control. Promising insulin secretagogue activity in various plant extracts at 1, 10, 20 and 40 microg/mL was found, while in some cases a decrease in insulin secretion was also observed. Artemisia roxburghiana, Salvia coccinia and Monstera deliciosa showed insulin secretagogue activity at 1 microg/mL (p < 0.05) while Abies pindrow, Centaurea iberica and Euphorbia helioscopia were active at 10 microg/mL (p < 0.05). Extracts of Bauhinia variegata and Bergenia himalacia showed effects at 20 microg/mL (p < 0.05), and Taraxacum officinale and Viburnum foetens at 40 microg/mL (p < 0.05). Insulin secretagogue activity could not be detected in the extracts of Adhatoda vasica, Cassia fistula, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, Morus alba, Plectranthus rugosus, Peganum harmala and Olea ferruginea. The results suggest that medicinal plants of Islamabad and the Murree region of Pakistan may be potential natural resources for antidiabetic compounds.

  19. Toxins from Physalia physalis (Cnidaria) raise the intracellular Ca(2+) of beta-cells and promote insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Garcia, C M; Fuentes-Silva, D; Sanchez-Soto, C; Domínguez-Pérez, D; García-Delgado, N; Varela, C; Mendoza-Hernández, G; Rodriguez-Romero, A; Castaneda, O; Hiriart, M

    2012-01-01

    Physalia physalis is a marine cnidarian from which high molecular weight toxins with hemolytic and neurotoxic effects have been isolated. In the present work, two novel toxins, PpV9.4 and PpV19.3 were purified from P. physalis by bioactive guideline isolation. It involved two steps of column chromatography, gel filtration and RP-HPLC. The molecular weights were 550.7 and 4720.9 Da for PpV9.4 and PpV19.3, respectively. In the light of the Edman sequencing results, the structure of these toxins included the presence of modified amino acids. Both toxins increased the percentage of insulin secreting beta-cells and induced cytosolic Ca2+ elevation. To date, this is the first report of low molecular weight toxins increasing insulin secretion purified from cnidarians, by constituting a new approach to the study of beta-cells physiology. PMID:22830340

  20. Control of insulin secretion by cytochrome C and calcium signaling in islets with impaired metabolism.

    PubMed

    Rountree, Austin M; Neal, Adam S; Lisowski, Mark; Rizzo, Norma; Radtke, Jared; White, Sarah; Luciani, Dan S; Kim, Francis; Hampe, Christiane S; Sweet, Ian R

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the relative control of insulin secretion rate (ISR) by calcium influx and signaling from cytochrome c in islets where, as in diabetes, the metabolic pathways are impaired. This was achieved either by culturing isolated islets at low (3 mm) glucose or by fasting rats prior to the isolation of the islets. Culture in low glucose greatly reduced the glucose response of cytochrome c reduction and translocation and ISR, but did not affect the response to the mitochondrial fuel α-ketoisocaproate. Unexpectedly, glucose-stimulated calcium influx was only slightly reduced in low glucose-cultured islets and was not responsible for the impairment in glucose-stimulated ISR. A glucokinase activator acutely restored cytochrome c reduction and translocation and ISR, independent of effects on calcium influx. Islets from fasted rats had reduced ISR and cytochrome c reduction in response to both glucose and α-ketoisocaproate despite normal responses of calcium. Our data are consistent with the scenario where cytochrome c reduction and translocation are essential signals in the stimulation of ISR, the loss of which can result in impaired ISR even when calcium response is normal.

  1. Epidermal Wnt/β-catenin signaling regulates adipocyte differentiation via secretion of adipogenic factors

    PubMed Central

    Donati, Giacomo; Proserpio, Valentina; Lichtenberger, Beate Maria; Natsuga, Ken; Sinclair, Rodney; Fujiwara, Hironobu; Watt, Fiona M.

    2014-01-01

    It has long been recognized that the hair follicle growth cycle and oscillation in the thickness of the underlying adipocyte layer are synchronized. Although factors secreted by adipocytes are known to regulate the hair growth cycle, it is unclear whether the epidermis can regulate adipogenesis. We show that inhibition of epidermal Wnt/β-catenin signaling reduced adipocyte differentiation in developing and adult mouse dermis. Conversely, ectopic activation of epidermal Wnt signaling promoted adipocyte differentiation and hair growth. When the Wnt pathway was activated in the embryonic epidermis, there was a dramatic and premature increase in adipocytes in the absence of hair follicle formation, demonstrating that Wnt activation, rather than mature hair follicles, is required for adipocyte generation. Epidermal and dermal gene expression profiling identified keratinocyte-derived adipogenic factors that are induced by β-catenin activation. Wnt/β-catenin signaling-dependent secreted factors from keratinocytes promoted adipocyte differentiation in vitro, and we identified ligands for the bone morphogenetic protein and insulin pathways as proadipogenic factors. Our results indicate epidermal Wnt/β-catenin as a critical initiator of a signaling cascade that induces adipogenesis and highlight the role of epidermal Wnt signaling in synchronizing adipocyte differentiation with the hair growth cycle. PMID:24706781

  2. Elevated Glucose Oxidation, Reduced Insulin Secretion, and a Fatty Heart May Be Protective Adaptions in Ischemic CAD

    PubMed Central

    Hannukainen, J. C.; Lautamäki, R.; Mari, A.; Pärkkä, J. P.; Bucci, M.; Guzzardi, M. A.; Kajander, S.; Tuokkola, T.; Knuuti, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction, and ectopic fat deposition have been implicated in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD) and type 2 diabetes, which is common in CAD patients. We investigated whether CAD is an independent predictor of these metabolic abnormalities and whether this interaction is influenced by superimposed myocardial ischemia. Methods and Results: We studied CAD patients with (n = 8) and without (n = 14) myocardial ischemia and eight non-CAD controls. Insulin sensitivity and secretion and substrate oxidation were measured during fasting and oral glucose tolerance testing. We used magnetic resonance imaging/spectroscopy, positron emission and computerized tomography to characterize CAD, cardiac function, pericardial and abdominal adipose tissue, and myocardial, liver, and pancreatic triglyceride contents. Ischemic CAD was characterized by elevated oxidative glucose metabolism and a proportional decline in β-cell insulin secretion and reduction in lipid oxidation. Cardiac function was preserved in CAD groups, whereas cardiac fat depots were elevated in ischemic CAD compared to non-CAD subjects. Liver and pancreatic fat contents were similar in all groups and related with surrounding adipose masses or systemic insulin sensitivity. Conclusions: In ischemic CAD patients, glucose oxidation is enhanced and correlates inversely with insulin secretion. This can be seen as a mechanism to prevent glucose lowering because glucose is required in oxygen-deprived tissues. On the other hand, the accumulation of cardiac triglycerides may be a physiological adaptation to the limited fatty acid oxidative capacity. Our results underscore the urgent need of clinical trials that define the optimal/safest glycemic range in situations of myocardial ischemia. PMID:27045985

  3. Protein deficiency during pregnancy and lactation impairs glucose-induced insulin secretion but increases the sensitivity to insulin in weaned rats.

    PubMed

    Latorraca, M Q; Carneiro, E M; Boschero, A C; Mello, M A

    1998-09-01

    We studied glucose homeostasis in rat pups from dams fed on a normal-protein (170 g/kg) (NP) diet or a diet containing 60 g protein/kg (LP) during fetal life and the suckling period. At birth, total serum protein, serum albumin and serum insulin levels were similar in both groups. However, body weight and serum glucose levels in LP rats were lower than those in NP rats. At the end of the suckling period (28 d of age), total serum protein, serum albumin and serum insulin were significantly lower and the liver glycogen and serum free fatty acid levels were significantly higher in LP rats compared with NP rats. Although the fasting serum glucose level was similar in both groups, the area under the blood glucose concentration curve after a glucose load was higher for NP rats (859 (SEM 58) mmol/l per 120 min for NP rats v. 607 (SEM 52) mmol/l per 120 min for LP rats; P < 0.005). The mean post-glucose increase in insulin was higher for NP rats (30 (SEM 4.7) nmol/l per 120 min for NP rats v. 17 (SEM 3.9) nmol/l per 120 min for LP rats; P < 0.05). The glucose disappearance rate for NP rats (0.7 (SEM 0.1) %/min) was lower than that for LP rats (1.6 (SEM 0.2) %/min; P < 0.001). Insulin secretion from isolated islets (1 h incubation) in response to 16.7 mmol glucose/l was augmented 14-fold in NP rats but only 2.6-fold in LP rats compared with the respective basal secretion (2.8 mmol/l; P < 0.001). These results indicate that in vivo as well as in vitro insulin secretion in pups from dams maintained on a LP diet is reduced. This defect may be counteracted by an increase in the sensitivity of target tissues to insulin. PMID:9875069

  4. Hepatic SH2B1 and SH2B2 Regulate Liver Lipid Metabolism and VLDL Secretion in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Liang; Liu, Yan; Jiang, Lin; Chen, Zheng; Zhou, Yingjiang; Cho, Kae Won; Rui, Liangyou

    2013-01-01

    SH2B1 is an SH2 and PH domain-containing adaptor protein. Genetic deletion of SH2B1 results in obesity, type 2 diabetes, and fatty liver diseases in mice. Mutations in SH2B1 are linked to obesity in humans. SH2B1 in the brain controls energy balance and body weight at least in part by enhancing leptin sensitivity in the hypothalamus. SH2B1 in peripheral tissues also regulates glucose and lipid metabolism, presumably by enhancing insulin sensitivity in peripheral metabolically-active tissues. However, the function of SH2B1 in individual peripheral tissues is unknown. Here we generated and metabolically characterized hepatocyte-specific SH2B1 knockout (HKO) mice. Blood glucose and plasma insulin levels, glucose tolerance, and insulin tolerance were similar between HKO, albumin-Cre, and SH2B1f/f mice fed either a normal chow diet or a high fat diet (HFD). Adult-onset deletion of SH2B1 in the liver either alone or in combination with whole body SH2B2 knockout also did not exacerbate HFD-induced insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. Adult-onset, but not embryonic, deletion of SH2B1 in the liver attenuated HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. In agreement, adult-onset deletion of hepatic SH2B1 decreased the expression of diacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 (DGAT2) and increased the expression of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). Furthermore, deletion of liver SH2B1 in SH2B2 null mice attenuated very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion. These data indicate that hepatic SH2B1 is not required for the maintenance of normal insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism; however, it regulates liver triacylglycerol synthesis, lipolysis, and VLDL secretion. PMID:24358267

  5. Regulation of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Secretion by Cannabinoids

    PubMed Central

    GAMMON, C. MICHAEL; FREEMAN, G. MARK; XIE, WEIHUA; PETERSEN, SANDRA L.; WETSEL, WILLIAM C.

    2005-01-01

    Cannabinoids (CBs) exert untoward effects on reproduction by reducing LH secretion and suppressing gonadal function. Recent evidence suggests these effects are due primarily to hypothalamic dysfunction; however, the mechanism is obscure. Using immortalized hypothalamic GnRH neurons, we find these cells produce and secrete at least two different endocannabinoids. Following release, 2-arachidonyl monoacylglycerol and anandamide are rapidly transported into GnRH neurons and are degraded to other lipids by fatty-acid amide hydrolase. The immortalized GnRH neurons also possess CB1 and CB2 receptors that are coupled to Gi/Go proteins whose activation leads to inhibition of GnRH secretion. In perifusion experiments, CBs block pulsatile release of GnRH. When a CB receptor agonist is delivered into the third ventricle of adult female mice, estrous cycles are prolonged by at least 2 days. Although in situ hybridization experiments suggest either that GnRH neurons in vivo do not possess CB1 receptors or that they are very low, transcripts are localized in close proximity to these neurons. Inasmuch as GnRH neurons in vivo possess G protein receptors that are coupled to phospholipase C and increased intracellular Ca2+, these same neurons should also be able to synthesize endocannabinoids. These lipids, in turn, could bind to CB receptors on neighboring cells and perhaps, GnRH neurons, to exert feedback control over GnRH function. This network could serve as a novel mechanism for regulating GnRH secretion where reproductive functions as diverse as the onset of puberty, timing of ovulation, duration of lactational infertility, and initiation/persistence of menopause may be affected. PMID:16020480

  6. Blood-based biomarkers of age-associated epigenetic changes in human islets associate with insulin secretion and diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bacos, Karl; Gillberg, Linn; Volkov, Petr; Olsson, Anders H; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Gjesing, Anette Prior; Eiberg, Hans; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Almgren, Peter; Groop, Leif; Eliasson, Lena; Vaag, Allan; Dayeh, Tasnim; Ling, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Aging associates with impaired pancreatic islet function and increased type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. Here we examine whether age-related epigenetic changes affect human islet function and if blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect these changes and associate with future T2D. We analyse DNA methylation genome-wide in islets from 87 non-diabetic donors, aged 26–74 years. Aging associates with increased DNA methylation of 241 sites. These sites cover loci previously associated with T2D, for example, KLF14. Blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect age-related methylation changes in 83 genes identified in human islets (for example, KLF14, FHL2, ZNF518B and FAM123C) and some associate with insulin secretion and T2D. DNA methylation correlates with islet expression of multiple genes, including FHL2, ZNF518B, GNPNAT1 and HLTF. Silencing these genes in β-cells alter insulin secretion. Together, we demonstrate that blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect age-related DNA methylation changes in human islets, and associate with insulin secretion in vivo and T2D. PMID:27029739

  7. Blood-based biomarkers of age-associated epigenetic changes in human islets associate with insulin secretion and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bacos, Karl; Gillberg, Linn; Volkov, Petr; Olsson, Anders H; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Gjesing, Anette Prior; Eiberg, Hans; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Almgren, Peter; Groop, Leif; Eliasson, Lena; Vaag, Allan; Dayeh, Tasnim; Ling, Charlotte

    2016-03-31

    Aging associates with impaired pancreatic islet function and increased type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. Here we examine whether age-related epigenetic changes affect human islet function and if blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect these changes and associate with future T2D. We analyse DNA methylation genome-wide in islets from 87 non-diabetic donors, aged 26-74 years. Aging associates with increased DNA methylation of 241 sites. These sites cover loci previously associated with T2D, for example, KLF14. Blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect age-related methylation changes in 83 genes identified in human islets (for example, KLF14, FHL2, ZNF518B and FAM123C) and some associate with insulin secretion and T2D. DNA methylation correlates with islet expression of multiple genes, including FHL2, ZNF518B, GNPNAT1 and HLTF. Silencing these genes in β-cells alter insulin secretion. Together, we demonstrate that blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect age-related DNA methylation changes in human islets, and associate with insulin secretion in vivo and T2D.

  8. Interaction of sulfonylurea-conjugated polymer with insulinoma cell line of MIN6 and its effect on insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Park, K H; Kim, S W; Bae, Y H

    2001-04-01

    A carboxylated derivative of sulfonylurea (SU), an insulinotropic agent, was synthesized and grafted onto a water-soluble polymer as a biospecific and stimulating polymer for insulin secretion. To evaluate the effect of the SU-conjugated polymer on insulin secretion, its solution in dimethyl sulfoxide was added to the culture of insulinoma cell line of MIN6 cells to make 10 nM of SU units in the medium and incubated for 3 h at 37 degrees C. The culture medium was conditioned with glucose concentration of 3.3 or 25 mM. To verify the specific interaction between the SU (K+ channel closer)-conjugated polymer and MIN6 cells, the cells were pretreated with diazoxide, an agonist of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive K+ channel (K+ channel opener), before adding the SU-conjugated polymer to the cell culture medium. This treatment suppressed the action of SUs on MIN6 cells. Fluorescence-labeled polymer with rodamine-B isothiocyanate was used to visualize the interactions, and we found that the labeled polymer strongly absorbed to MIN6 cells, probably owing to its specific interaction mediated by SU receptors on the cell membrane. The fluorescence intensity on the cells significantly increased with an increase in incubation time and polymer concentration. A confocal laser microscopic study further confirmed this interaction. The results from this study provided evidence that SU-conjugated copolymer stimulates insulin secretion by specific interactions of SU moieties in the polymer with MIN6 cells.

  9. TRPM4 impacts on Ca2+ signals during agonist-induced insulin secretion in pancreatic beta-cells.

    PubMed

    Marigo, V; Courville, K; Hsu, W H; Feng, J M; Cheng, H

    2009-02-27

    TRPM4 is a Ca(2+)-activated non-selective cation (CAN) channel that functions in cell depolarization, which is important for Ca(2+) influx and insulin secretion in pancreatic beta-cells. We investigated TRPM4 expression and function in the beta-cell lines HIT-T15 (hamster), RINm5F (rat), beta-TC3 (mouse), MIN-6 (mouse) and the alpha-cell line INR1G9 (hamster). By RT-PCR, we identified TRPM4 transcripts in alpha- and beta-cells. Patch-clamp recordings with increasing Ca(2+) concentrations resulted in a dose-dependent activation of TRPM4 with the greatest depolarizing currents recorded from hamster-derived cells. Further, Ca(2+) imaging experiments revealed that inhibition of TRPM4 by a dominant-negative effect significantly decreased the magnitude of the Ca(2+) signals generated by agonist stimulation compared to control cells. The decrease in the [Ca(2+)](i) resulted in reduced insulin secretion. Our data suggest that depolarizing currents generated by TRPM4 are an important component in the control of intracellular Ca(2+) signals necessary for insulin secretion and perhaps glucagon from alpha-cells.

  10. Targeting triglyceride/fatty acid cycling in β-cells as a therapy for augmenting glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Cantley, James; Biden, Trevor J

    2010-01-01

    Insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells is triggered by signals arising from the metabolism of glucose and acting through separate initiation and amplification pathways. Despite decades of investigation, crucial details of this mechanism remain poorly understood, especially those relating to the amplifying pathway(s). Advances in this area are vital if we are to understand why insulin secretion fails in type 2 diabetes and to develop strategies to overcome this failure. Indeed, targeting the amplifying pathway(s) would constitute an attractive therapy for augmenting insulin secretion because it would closely link secretory responsiveness to the prevailing glycaemia. It is therefore noteworthy that the possibility of augmenting the amplification pathway(s) has recently been highlighted by studies investigating a metabolic cycle that links the breakdown of triacylglycerol (TAG), release of fatty acid (FA), and subsequent re-incorporation of that FA into TAG. This work reinvigorates and extends the long-standing idea that partitioning of endogenous lipid metabolism towards esterification products promotes the amplification phase of the secretory response. These conceptual advances, and their possible therapeutic application, will be discussed in the following article.

  11. Blood-based biomarkers of age-associated epigenetic changes in human islets associate with insulin secretion and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bacos, Karl; Gillberg, Linn; Volkov, Petr; Olsson, Anders H; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Gjesing, Anette Prior; Eiberg, Hans; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Almgren, Peter; Groop, Leif; Eliasson, Lena; Vaag, Allan; Dayeh, Tasnim; Ling, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Aging associates with impaired pancreatic islet function and increased type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. Here we examine whether age-related epigenetic changes affect human islet function and if blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect these changes and associate with future T2D. We analyse DNA methylation genome-wide in islets from 87 non-diabetic donors, aged 26-74 years. Aging associates with increased DNA methylation of 241 sites. These sites cover loci previously associated with T2D, for example, KLF14. Blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect age-related methylation changes in 83 genes identified in human islets (for example, KLF14, FHL2, ZNF518B and FAM123C) and some associate with insulin secretion and T2D. DNA methylation correlates with islet expression of multiple genes, including FHL2, ZNF518B, GNPNAT1 and HLTF. Silencing these genes in β-cells alter insulin secretion. Together, we demonstrate that blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect age-related DNA methylation changes in human islets, and associate with insulin secretion in vivo and T2D. PMID:27029739

  12. Proteins altered by elevated levels of palmitate or glucose implicated in impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion

    PubMed Central

    Sol, E-ri M; Hovsepyan, Meri; Bergsten, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Background Development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by aberrant insulin secretory patterns, where elevated insulin levels at non-stimulatory basal conditions and reduced hormonal levels at stimulatory conditions are major components. To delineate mechanisms responsible for these alterations we cultured INS-1E cells for 48 hours at 20 mM glucose in absence or presence of 0.5 mM palmitate, when stimulatory secretion of insulin was reduced or basal secretion was elevated, respectively. Results After culture, cells were protein profiled by SELDI-TOF-MS and 2D-PAGE. Differentially expressed proteins were discovered and identified by peptide mass fingerprinting. Complimentary protein profiles were obtained by the two approaches with SELDI-TOF-MS being more efficient in separating proteins in the low molecular range and 2D-PAGE in the high molecular range. Identified proteins included alpha glucosidase, calmodulin, gars, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, heterogenous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A3, lon peptidase, nicotineamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen (NADH) dehydrogenase, phosphoglycerate kinase, proteasome p45, rab2, pyruvate kinase and t-complex protein. The observed glucose-induced differential protein expression pattern indicates enhanced glucose metabolism, defense against reactive oxygen species, enhanced protein translation, folding and degradation and decreased insulin granular formation and trafficking. Palmitate-induced changes could be related to altered exocytosis. Conclusion The identified altered proteins indicate mechanism important for altered β-cell function in T2DM. PMID:19607692

  13. Hormone-sensitive lipase deficiency suppresses insulin secretion from pancreatic islets of Lep{sup ob/ob} mice

    SciTech Connect

    Sekiya, Motohiro; Yahagi, Naoya; Tamura, Yoshiaki; Okazaki, Hiroaki; Igarashi, Masaki; Ohta, Keisuke; Takanashi, Mikio; Kumagai, Masayoshi; Takase, Satoru; Nishi, Makiko; Takeuchi, Yoshinori; Izumida, Yoshihiko; Kubota, Midori; Ohashi, Ken; Iizuka, Yoko; Yagyu, Hiroaki; Gotoda, Takanari; Nagai, Ryozo; Shimano, Hitoshi; Yamada, Nobuhiro; and others

    2009-09-25

    It has long been a matter of debate whether the hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL)-mediated lipolysis in pancreatic {beta}-cells can affect insulin secretion through the alteration of lipotoxicity. We generated mice lacking both leptin and HSL (Lep{sup ob/ob}/HSL{sup -/-}) and explored the role of HSL in pancreatic {beta}-cells in the setting of obesity. Lep{sup ob/ob}/HSL{sup -/-} developed elevated blood glucose levels and reduced plasma insulin levels compared with Lep{sup ob/ob}/HSL{sup +/+} in a fed state, while the deficiency of HSL did not affect glucose homeostasis in Lep{sup +/+} background. The deficiency of HSL exacerbated the accumulation of triglycerides in Lep{sup ob/ob} islets, leading to reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. The deficiency of HSL also diminished the islet mass in Lep{sup ob/ob} mice due to decreased cell proliferation. In conclusion, HSL affects insulin secretary capacity especially in the setting of obesity.

  14. Effects of intensive dietary treatment on insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle glycogen synthase activation and insulin secretion in newly presenting type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A B; Argyraki, M; Thow, J C; Broughton, D; Jones, I R; Taylor, R

    1990-06-01

    Ten newly presenting, untreated, Europid Type 2 diabetic patients were studied before and after 8 weeks treatment with intensive diet alone. Nine normal control subjects were also studied. The degree of activation of skeletal muscle glycogen synthase (GS) was used as an intracellular marker of insulin action, prior to and during a 240-min insulin infusion (100 mU kg-1 h-1). Fasting blood glucose decreased from 12.1 +/- 0.9 (+/- SE) to 9.2 +/- 0.8 mmol l-1 (p less than 0.01), but there was no change in fasting insulin concentrations, 9.9 +/- 2.3 vs 9.3 +/- 2.1 mU l-1. Fractional GS activity did not increase in the Type 2 diabetic patients during the insulin infusion either at presentation (change -1.5 +/- 1.9%) or after treatment (change +0.9 +/- 1.8%), and was markedly decreased compared with the control subjects (change +14.5 +/- 2.8%, both p less than 0.001). Glucose requirement during the clamp was decreased in the Type 2 diabetic patients at presentation (2.2 +/- 0.7 vs 7.3 +/- 0.6 mg kg-1 min-1, p less than 0.001), and despite improvement following dietary treatment to 3.3 +/- 0.6 mg kg-1 min-1 (p less than 0.01) remained lower than in the control subjects (p less than 0.001). Fasting plasma non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations were elevated at presentation (p less than 0.05), and failed to suppress normally during the insulin infusion. After treatment fasting NEFA concentrations decreased (p less than 0.05) and suppressed normally (p less than 0.05). Insulin secretion was assessed following an intravenous bolus of glucose (0.5 g kg-1) at euglycaemia before and after treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Calcium release channel RyR2 regulates insulin release and glucose homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Santulli, Gaetano; Pagano, Gennaro; Sardu, Celestino; Xie, Wenjun; Reiken, Steven; D’Ascia, Salvatore Luca; Cannone, Michele; Marziliano, Nicola; Trimarco, Bruno; Guise, Theresa A.; Lacampagne, Alain; Marks, Andrew R.

    2015-01-01

    The type 2 ryanodine receptor (RyR2) is a Ca2+ release channel on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of several types of cells, including cardiomyocytes and pancreatic β cells. In cardiomyocytes, RyR2-dependent Ca2+ release is critical for excitation-contraction coupling; however, a functional role for RyR2 in β cell insulin secretion and diabetes mellitus remains controversial. Here, we took advantage of rare RyR2 mutations that were identified in patients with a genetic form of exercise-induced sudden death (catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia [CPVT]). As these mutations result in a “leaky” RyR2 channel, we exploited them to assess RyR2 channel function in β cell dynamics. We discovered that CPVT patients with mutant leaky RyR2 present with glucose intolerance, which was heretofore unappreciated. In mice, transgenic expression of CPVT-associated RyR2 resulted in impaired glucose homeostasis, and an in-depth evaluation of pancreatic islets and β cells from these animals revealed intracellular Ca2+ leak via oxidized and nitrosylated RyR2 channels, activated ER stress response, mitochondrial dysfunction, and decreased fuel-stimulated insulin release. Additionally, we verified the effects of the pharmacological inhibition of intracellular Ca2+ leak in CPVT-associated RyR2-expressing mice, in human islets from diabetic patients, and in an established murine model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Taken together, our data indicate that RyR2 channels play a crucial role in the regulation of insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis. PMID:25844899

  16. Enterovirus infection of human islets of Langerhans affects β-cell function resulting in disintegrated islets, decreased glucose stimulated insulin secretion and loss of Golgi structure

    PubMed Central

    Hodik, M; Skog, O; Lukinius, A; Isaza-Correa, J M; Kuipers, J; Giepmans, B N G; Frisk, G

    2016-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis In type 1 diabetes (T1D), most insulin-producing β cells are destroyed, but the trigger is unknown. One of the possible triggers is a virus infection and the aim of this study was to test if enterovirus infection affects glucose stimulated insulin secretion and the effect of virus replication on cellular macromolecules and organelles involved in insulin secretion. Methods Isolated human islets were infected with different strains of coxsackievirus B (CVB) virus and the glucose-stimulated insulin release (GSIS) was measured in a dynamic perifusion system. Classical morphological electron microscopy, large-scale electron microscopy, so-called nanotomy, and immunohistochemistry were used to study to what extent virus-infected β cells contained insulin, and real-time PCR was used to analyze virus induced changes of islet specific genes. Results In islets infected with CVB, GSIS was reduced in correlation with the degree of virus-induced islet disintegration. The expression of the gene encoding insulin was decreased in infected islets, whereas the expression of glucagon was not affected. Also, in islets that were somewhat disintegrated, there were uninfected β cells. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that virus particles and virus replication complexes were only present in β cells. There was a significant number of insulin granules remaining in the virus-infected β cells, despite decreased expression of insulin mRNA. In addition, no typical Golgi apparatus was detected in these cells. Exposure of islets to synthetic dsRNA potentiated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Conclusions/interpretation Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion; organelles involved in insulin secretion and gene expression were all affected by CVB replication in β cells. PMID:27547409

  17. Yersinia Type III Secretion System Master Regulator LcrF

    PubMed Central

    Schwiesow, Leah; Lam, Hanh

    2015-01-01

    Many Gram-negative pathogens express a type III secretion (T3SS) system to enable growth and survival within a host. The three human-pathogenic Yersinia species, Y. pestis, Y. pseudotuberculosis, and Y. enterocolitica, encode the Ysc T3SS, whose expression is controlled by an AraC-like master regulator called LcrF. In this review, we discuss LcrF structure and function as well as the environmental cues and pathways known to regulate LcrF expression. Similarities and differences in binding motifs and modes of action between LcrF and the Pseudomonas aeruginosa homolog ExsA are summarized. In addition, we present a new bioinformatics analysis that identifies putative LcrF binding sites within Yersinia target gene promoters. PMID:26644429

  18. Functional Enhancement of Electrofusion-derived BRIN-BD11 Insulin-secreting Cells After Implantation into Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Emma L.; Abdel-Wahab, Yasser H. A.; Flatt, Peter R.

    2001-01-01

    Electrofusion-derived BRIN-BD11 cells are glucosesensitive insulin-secreting cells which provide an archetypal bioengineered surrogate β-cell for insulin replacement therapy in diabetes mellitus, 5x106 BRIN-BD11 cells were implanted intraperitoneally into severely hyperglycaemic (>24mmol/l) streptozotocin-induced insulin-treated diabetic athymic nude (nu/nu) mice. The implants reduced hyperglycaemia such that insulin injections were discontinued by 5–16 days (<17mmol/l) and normoglycaemia (<9mmol/l) was achieved by 7–20 days. Implanted cells were removed after 28 days and re-established in culture. After re-culture for 20 days, glucose-stimulated (16.7mmol/l) insulin release was enhanced by 121% (p<0.001) compared to non-implanted cells. Insulin responses to glucagon-like peptide-1 (10−9mol/l), cholecystokinin-8 (10−8 mol/l) and L-alanine (10 mmol/l) were increased by 32%, 31% and 68% respectively (p<0.05–0.01). Insulin content of the cells was 148% greater at 20 days after re-culture than before implantation (p<0.001), but basal insulin release (at 5.6 mmol/l glucose) was not changed. After re-culture for 40 days, insulin content declined to 68% of the content before implantation (p<0.01), although basal insulin release was unchanged. However, the insulin secretory responses to glucose, glucagonlike peptide-1, cholecystokinin-8 and L-alanine were decreased after 40 days of re-culture to 65%, 72%, 73% and 42% respectively of the values before implantation (p<0.05–0.01). The functional enhancement of electrofusion-derived surrogate β-cells that were re-cultured for 20 days after implantation and restoration of normoglycaemia indicates that the in vivo environment could greatly assist β-cell engineering approaches to therapy for diabetes. PMID:12369723

  19. Type 2 Diabetes-Associated K+ Channel TALK-1 Modulates β-Cell Electrical Excitability, Second-Phase Insulin Secretion, and Glucose Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Vierra, Nicholas C; Dadi, Prasanna K; Jeong, Imju; Dickerson, Matthew; Powell, David R; Jacobson, David A

    2015-11-01

    Two-pore domain K+ (K2P) channels play an important role in tuning β-cell glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). The K2P channel TWIK-related alkaline pH-activated K2P (TALK)-1 is linked to type 2 diabetes risk through a coding sequence polymorphism (rs1535500); however, its physiological function has remained elusive. Here, we show that TALK-1 channels are expressed in mouse and human β-cells, where they serve as key regulators of electrical excitability and GSIS. We find that the rs1535500 polymorphism, which results in an alanine-to-glutamate substitution in the C-terminus of human TALK-1, increases channel activity. Genetic ablation of TALK-1 results in β-cell membrane potential depolarization, increased islet Ca2+ influx, and enhanced second-phase GSIS. Moreover, mice lacking TALK-1 channels are resistant to high-fat diet-induced elevations in fasting glycemia. These findings reveal TALK-1 channels as important modulators of second-phase insulin secretion and suggest a clinically relevant mechanism for rs1535500, which may increase type 2 diabetes risk by limiting GSIS. PMID:26239056

  20. The MDM2–p53–pyruvate carboxylase signalling axis couples mitochondrial metabolism to glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaomu; Cheng, Kenneth K. Y.; Liu, Zhuohao; Yang, Jin-Kui; Wang, Baile; Jiang, Xue; Zhou, Yawen; Hallenborg, Philip; Hoo, Ruby L. C.; Lam, Karen S. L.; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Gao, Xin; Xu, Aimin

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial metabolism is pivotal for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in pancreatic β-cells. However, little is known about the molecular machinery that controls the homeostasis of intermediary metabolites in mitochondria. Here we show that the activation of p53 in β-cells, by genetic deletion or pharmacological inhibition of its negative regulator MDM2, impairs GSIS, leading to glucose intolerance in mice. Mechanistically, p53 activation represses the expression of the mitochondrial enzyme pyruvate carboxylase (PC), resulting in diminished production of the TCA cycle intermediates oxaloacetate and NADPH, and impaired oxygen consumption. The defective GSIS and mitochondrial metabolism in MDM2-null islets can be rescued by restoring PC expression. Under diabetogenic conditions, MDM2 and p53 are upregulated, whereas PC is reduced in mouse β-cells. Pharmacological inhibition of p53 alleviates defective GSIS in diabetic islets by restoring PC expression. Thus, the MDM2–p53–PC signalling axis links mitochondrial metabolism to insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis, and could represent a therapeutic target in diabetes. PMID:27265727

  1. Potentiation of Glucose-stimulated Insulin Secretion by the GPR40–PLC–TRPC Pathway in Pancreatic β-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Hodaka; Yoshida, Masashi; Ito, Kiyonori; Dezaki, Katsuya; Yada, Toshihiko; Ishikawa, San-e; Kakei, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are expressed in pancreatic beta-cells. G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) contributes to medium- or long-chain fatty acid-induced amplification of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), and GPR40 agonists are promising therapeutic targets in type 2 diabetes. Recently, we demonstrated that glucagon-like peptide 1, a ligand of pancreatic GPCR, activates a class of nonselective cation channels (NSCCs) and enhances GSIS. The aim of the current study was to determine whether the GPR40 signal interacts with NSCCs. A GPR40 agonist (fasiglifam) potentiated GSIS at 8.3 and 16.7 mM glucose but not 2.8 mM glucose. The NSCC current was activated by fasiglifam at 5.6 mM glucose with 100 μM tolbutamide (−70 mV), and this activation was prevented by the presence of pyrazole-3 (transient receptor potential canonical; a TRPC3 channel blocker). Inhibitors of phospholipase C or protein kinase C (PKC) inhibited the increases in GSIS and the NSCC current induced by GPR40 stimulation. The present study demonstrates a novel mechanism for the regulation of insulin secretion by GPR40 agonist in pancreatic beta-cells. The stimulation of the GPR40–PLC/PKC–TRPC3 channel pathway potentiates GSIS by the depolarization of the plasma membrane in pancreatic beta-cell. PMID:27180622

  2. Insulin secretion impairment in Sirt6 knockout pancreatic β cells is mediated by suppression of the FoxO1-Pdx1-Glut2 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Song, Mi-Young; Wang, Jie; Ka, Sun-O; Bae, Eun Ju; Park, Byung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Sirtuin 6 (Sirt6), a chromatin associated class III deacetylase, controls whole-body energy homeostasis and has a critical role in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in pancreatic β cells. However, its underlying molecular mechanism remains poorly understood. To gain further insights, we studied the pathway by which Sirt6 regulates GSIS utilizing mice lacking Sirt6 in their β cells (βS6KO). Further, we overexpressed wild type or deacetylase-inactive mutant Sirt6 in isolated islets as well as in MIN6 cells. We confirmed that βS6KO mice developed glucose intolerance with severely impaired GSIS. Gene expression analysis of knockout islets and overexpression studies demonstrated that Sirt6 deacetylates forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1) to trigger its nuclear export and releases its transcriptional repression of key glucose sensing genes such as Pdx1 and Glut2. Ectopic overexpression of Sirt6 in knockout islets resulted in rescue of the defective insulin secretion and restoration of the expression of Pdx1 and Glut2. These results show that Sirt6 in pancreatic β cells deacetylates FoxO1 and subsequently increases the expression of Pdx1 and Glut2 to maintain the glucose-sensing ability of pancreatic β cells and systemic glucose tolerance. PMID:27457971

  3. Regulatory roles for Tiam1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rac1, in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic beta-cells.

    PubMed

    Veluthakal, Rajakrishnan; Madathilparambil, Suresh Vasu; McDonald, Phillip; Olson, Lawrence Karl; Kowluru, Anjaneyulu

    2009-01-01

    Using various biochemical, pharmacological and molecular biological approaches, we have recently reported regulatory roles for Rac1, a small G-protein, in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). However, little is understood with respect to localization of, and regulation by, specific regulatory factors of Rac1 in GSIS. Herein, we investigated regulatory roles for Tiam1, a specific nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Rac1, in GSIS in pancreatic beta-cells. Western blot analysis indicated that Tiam1 is predominantly cytosolic in distribution. NSC23766, a specific inhibitor of Tiam1-mediated activation of Rac1, markedly attenuated glucose-induced, but not KCl-induced insulin secretion in INS 832/13 cells and normal rat islets. Further, NSC23766 significantly reduced glucose-induced activation (i.e. GTP-bound form) and membrane association of Rac1 in INS 832/13 cells and rat islets. Moreover, siRNA-mediated knock-down of Tiam1 markedly inhibited glucose-induced membrane trafficking and activation of Rac1 in INS 832/13 cells. Interestingly, however, in contrast to the inhibitory effects of NSC23766, Tiam1 gene depletion potentiated GSIS in these cells; such a potentiation of GSIS was sensitive to extracellular calcium. Together, our studies present the first evidence for a regulatory role for Tiam1/Rac1-sensitive signaling step in GSIS. They also provide evidence for the existence of a potential Rac1/Tiam1-independent, but calcium-sensitive component for GSIS in these cells.

  4. Ciliary dysfunction impairs beta-cell insulin secretion and promotes development of type 2 diabetes in rodents.

    PubMed

    Gerdes, Jantje M; Christou-Savina, Sonia; Xiong, Yan; Moede, Tilo; Moruzzi, Noah; Karlsson-Edlund, Patrick; Leibiger, Barbara; Leibiger, Ingo B; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Beales, Philip L; Berggren, Per-Olof

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is affecting more than 382 million people worldwide. Although much progress has been made, a comprehensive understanding of the underlying disease mechanism is still lacking. Here we report a role for the β-cell primary cilium in type 2 diabetes susceptibility. We find impaired glucose handling in young Bbs4(-/-) mice before the onset of obesity. Basal body/ciliary perturbation in murine pancreatic islets leads to impaired first phase insulin release ex and in vivo. Insulin receptor is recruited to the cilium of stimulated β-cells and ciliary/basal body integrity is required for activation of downstream targets of insulin signalling. We also observe a reduction in the number of ciliated β-cells along with misregulated ciliary/basal body gene expression in pancreatic islets in a diabetic rat model. We suggest that ciliary function is implicated in insulin secretion and insulin signalling in the β-cell and that ciliary dysfunction could contribute to type 2 diabetes susceptibility. PMID:25374274

  5. Rates of insulin secretion in INS-1 cells are enhanced by coupling to anaplerosis and Kreb's cycle flux independent of ATP synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, Gary W.; Pongratz, Rebecca L.; Zhao, Xiaojian; Papas, Klearchos K.

    2011-11-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied media effects on mechanisms of insulin secretion of INS-1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insulin secretion was higher in DMEM than KRB despite identical ATP synthesis rates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insulin secretion rates correlated with rates of anaplerosis and TCA cycle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mitochondria metabolism and substrate cycles augment secretion signal of ATP. -- Abstract: Mechanistic models of glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) established in minimal media in vitro, may not accurately describe the complexity of coupling metabolism with insulin secretion that occurs in vivo. As a first approximation, we have evaluated metabolic pathways in a typical growth media, DMEM as a surrogate in vivo medium, for comparison to metabolic fluxes observed under the typical experimental conditions using the simple salt-buffer of KRB. Changes in metabolism in response to glucose and amino acids and coupling to insulin secretion were measured in INS-1 832/13 cells. Media effects on mitochondrial function and the coupling efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation were determined by fluorometrically measured oxygen consumption rates (OCRs) combined with {sup 31}P NMR measured rates of ATP synthesis. Substrate preferences and pathways into the TCA cycle, and the synthesis of mitochondrial 2nd messengers by anaplerosis were determined by {sup 13}C NMR isotopomer analysis of the fate of [U-{sup 13}C] glucose metabolism. Despite similar incremental increases in insulin secretion, the changes of OCR in response to increasing glucose from 2.5 to 15 mM were blunted in DMEM relative to KRB. Basal and stimulated rates of insulin secretion rates were consistently higher in DMEM, while ATP synthesis rates were identical in both DMEM and KRB, suggesting greater mitochondrial uncoupling in DMEM. The relative rates of anaplerosis, and hence synthesis and export of 2nd messengers from the mitochondria were found

  6. Thioredoxin-mimetic peptides (TXM) reverse auranofin induced apoptosis and restore insulin secretion in insulinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Kutner, Moshe; Khomsky, Lena; Trus, Michael; Aisner, Yonatan; Niv, Masha Y; Benhar, Moran; Atlas, Daphne

    2013-04-01

    The thioredoxin reductase/thioredoxin system (TrxR/Trx1) plays a major role in protecting cells from oxidative stress. Disruption of the TrxR-Trx1 system keeps Trx1 in the oxidized state leading to cell death through activation of the ASK1-Trx1 apoptotic pathway. The potential mechanism and ability of tri- and tetra-oligopeptides derived from the canonical -CxxC- motif of the Trx1-active site to mimic and enhance Trx1 cellular activity was examined. The Trx mimetics peptides (TXM) protected insulinoma INS 832/13 cells from oxidative stress induced by selectively inhibiting TrxR with auranofin (AuF). TXM reversed the AuF-effects preventing apoptosis, and increasing cell-viability. The TXM peptides were effective in inhibiting AuF-induced MAPK, JNK and p38(MAPK) phosphorylation, in correlation with preventing caspase-3 cleavage and thereby PARP-1 dissociation. The ability to form a disulfide-bridge-like conformation was estimated from molecular dynamics simulations. The TXM peptides restored insulin secretion and displayed Trx1 denitrosylase activity. Their potency was 10-100-fold higher than redox reagents like NAC, AD4, or ascorbic acid. Unable to reverse ERK1/2 phosphorylation, TXM-CB3 (NAc-Cys-Pro-Cys amide) appeared to function in part, through inhibiting ASK1-Trx dissociation. These highly effective anti-apoptotic effects of Trx1 mimetic peptides exhibited in INS 832/13 cells could become valuable in treating adverse oxidative-stress related disorders such as diabetes. PMID:23327993

  7. Arsenite reduces insulin secretion in rat pancreatic {beta}-cells by decreasing the calcium-dependent calpain-10 proteolysis of SNAP-25

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz-Villasenor, Andrea; Burns, Anna L.; Salazar, Ana Maria; Sordo, Monserrat; Hiriart, Marcia; Cebrian, Mariano E.; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia

    2008-09-15

    An increase in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes has been consistently observed among residents of high arsenic exposure areas. We have previously shown that in rat pancreatic {beta}-cells, low arsenite doses impair the secretion of insulin without altering its synthesis. To further study the mechanism by which arsenite reduces insulin secretion, we evaluated the effects of arsenite on the calcium-calpain pathway that triggers insulin exocytosis in RINm5F cells. Cell cycle and proliferation analysis were also performed to complement the characterization. Free [Ca{sup 2+}]i oscillations needed for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion were abated in the presence of subchronic low arsenite doses (0.5-2 {mu}M). The global activity of calpains increased with 2 {mu}M arsenite. However, during the secretion of insulin stimulated with glucose (15.6 mM), 1 {mu}M arsenite decreased the activity of calpain-10, measured as SNAP-25 proteolysis. Both proteins are needed to fuse insulin granules with the membrane to produce insulin exocytosis. Arsenite also induced a slowdown in the {beta} cell line proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, reflected by a reduction of dividing cells and in their arrest in G2/M. Data obtained showed that one of the mechanisms by which arsenite impairs insulin secretion is by decreasing the oscillations of free [Ca{sup 2+}]i, thus reducing calcium-dependent calpain-10 partial proteolysis of SNAP-25. The effects in cell division and proliferation observed with arsenite exposure can be an indirect consequence of the decrease in insulin secretion.

  8. In vivo and in vitro glucose-induced biphasic insulin secretion in the mouse: pattern and role of cytoplasmic Ca2+ and amplification signals in beta-cells.

    PubMed

    Henquin, Jean-Claude; Nenquin, Myriam; Stiernet, Patrick; Ahren, Bo

    2006-02-01

    The mechanisms underlying biphasic insulin secretion have not been completely elucidated. We compared the pattern of plasma insulin changes during hyperglycemic clamps in mice to that of glucose-induced insulin secretion and cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](c)) changes in perifused mouse islets. Anesthetized mice were infused with glucose to clamp blood glucose at 8.5 (baseline), 11.1, 16.7, or 30 mmol/l. A first-phase insulin response consistently peaked at 1 min, and a slowly ascending second phase occurred at 16.7 and 30 mmol/l glucose. Glucose-induced insulin secretion in vivo is thus biphasic, with a similarly increasing second phase in the mouse as in humans. In vitro, square-wave stimulation from a baseline of 3 mmol/l glucose induced similar biphasic insulin secretion and [Ca(2+)](c) increases, with sustained and flat second phases. The glucose dependency (3-30 mmol/l) of both changes was sigmoidal with, however, a shift to the right of the relation for insulin secretion compared with that for [Ca(2+)](c). The maximum [Ca(2+)](c) increase was achieved by glucose concentrations, causing half-maximum insulin secretion. Because this was true for both phases, we propose that contrary to current concepts, amplifying signals are also implicated in first-phase glucose-induced insulin secretion. To mimic in vivo conditions, islets were stimulated with high glucose after being initially perifused with 8.5 instead of 3.0 mmol/l glucose. First-phase insulin secretion induced by glucose at 11.1, 16.7, and 30 mmol/l was decreased by approximately 50%, an inhibition that could not be explained by commensurate decreases in [Ca(2+)](c) or in the pool of readily releasable granules. Also unexpected was the gradually ascending pattern of the second phase, now similar to that in vivo. These observations indicated that variations in prestimulatory glucose can secondarily affect the magnitude and pattern of subsequent glucose-induced insulin secretion.

  9. Insulin/IGF signaling in Drosophila and other insects: factors that regulate production, release and post-release action of the insulin-like peptides.

    PubMed

    Nässel, Dick R; Vanden Broeck, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    Insulin, insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and insulin-like peptides (ILPs) are important regulators of metabolism, growth, reproduction and lifespan, and mechanisms of insulin/IGF signaling (IIS) have been well conserved over evolution. In insects, between one and 38 ILPs have been identified in each species. Relatively few insect species have been investigated in depth with respect to ILP functions, and therefore we focus mainly on the well-studied fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. In Drosophila eight ILPs (DILP1-8), but only two receptors (dInR and Lgr3) are known. DILP2, 3 and 5 are produced by a set of neurosecretory cells (IPCs) in the brain and their biosynthesis and release are controlled by a number of mechanisms differing between larvae and adults. Adult IPCs display cell-autonomous sensing of circulating glucose, coupled to evolutionarily conserved mechanisms for DILP release. The glucose-mediated DILP secretion is modulated by neurotransmitters and neuropeptides, as well as by factors released from the intestine and adipocytes. Larval IPCs, however, are indirectly regulated by glucose-sensing endocrine cells producing adipokinetic hormone, or by circulating factors from the intestine and fat body. Furthermore, IIS is situated within a complex physiological regulatory network that also encompasses the lipophilic hormones, 20-hydroxyecdysone and juvenile hormone. After release from IPCs, the ILP action can be modulated by circulating proteins that act either as protective carriers (binding proteins), or competitive inhibitors. Some of these proteins appear to have additional functions that are independent of ILPs. Taken together, the signaling with multiple ILPs is under complex control, ensuring tightly regulated IIS in the organism.

  10. VAMP-2 and cellubrevin are expressed in pancreatic beta-cells and are essential for Ca(2+)-but not for GTP gamma S-induced insulin secretion.

    PubMed Central

    Regazzi, R; Wollheim, C B; Lang, J; Theler, J M; Rossetto, O; Montecucco, C; Sadoul, K; Weller, U; Palmer, M; Thorens, B

    1995-01-01

    VAMP proteins are important components of the machinery controlling docking and/or fusion of secretory vesicles with their target membrane. We investigated the expression of VAMP proteins in pancreatic beta-cells and their implication in the exocytosis of insulin. cDNA cloning revealed that VAMP-2 and cellubrevin, but not VAMP-1, are expressed in rat pancreatic islets and that their sequence is identical to that isolated from rat brain. Pancreatic beta-cells contain secretory granules that store and secrete insulin as well as synaptic-like microvesicles carrying gamma-aminobutyric acid. After subcellular fractionation on continuous sucrose gradients, VAMP-2 and cellubrevin were found to be associated with both types of secretory vesicle. The association of VAMP-2 with insulin-containing granules was confirmed by confocal microscopy of primary cultures of rat pancreatic beta-cells. Pretreatment of streptolysin-O permeabilized insulin-secreting cells with tetanus and botulinum B neurotoxins selectively cleaved VAMP-2 and cellubrevin and abolished Ca(2+)-induced insulin release (IC50 approximately 15 nM). By contrast, the pretreatment with tetanus and botulinum B neurotoxins did not prevent GTP gamma S-stimulated insulin secretion. Taken together, our results show that pancreatic beta-cells express VAMP-2 and cellubrevin and that one or both of these proteins selectively control Ca(2+)-mediated insulin secretion. Images PMID:7796801

  11. HAP1 helps to regulate actin-based transport of insulin-containing granules in pancreatic β cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiyong; Peng, Ting; Wu, Hongnian; He, Jun; Li, He

    2015-07-01

    Huntingtin-associated protein 1 (HAP1) is enriched in neurons and binds to polyglutamine-expanded huntingtin. It consists of two alternatively spliced isoforms, HAP1A and HAP1B, which differ only in their short C-terminal sequences. Both HAP1A and HAP1B have been also detected in pancreatic β cells, where the loss of HAP1 impairs glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Here, we use time-lapse laser scanning confocal microscopy to provide direct evidence that HAP1A, but not HAP1B, co-localizes and co-migrates with insulin-containing vesicles and actin-based myosin Va motor protein in the INS-1 pancreatic β cell line. Knocking down HAP1 expression using small interfering RNA significantly inhibited actin-based transport of insulin vesicles following glucose stimulation. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated interaction between HAP1A, myosin Va, and phogrin, a transmembrane protein in insulin-containing vesicles. Stimulating INS-1 cells with glucose increased the association of HAP1A with myosin Va, while silencing HAP1 expression reduced the association of myosin Va with phogrin after glucose stimulation, without affecting levels of myosin Va or actin. Our results provide real-time evidence in living cells that HAP1 may help regulate transport of insulin-containing secretory granules along cortical actin filaments. This also raises the possibility that HAP1 may play an important role in actin-based secretory vesicle trafficking in neurons. PMID:25744490

  12. Increased secretion of insulin and proliferation of islet {beta}-cells in rats with mesenteric lymph duct ligation

    SciTech Connect

    Nagino, Ko; Yokozawa, Junji; Sasaki, Yu; Matsuda, Akiko; Takeda, Hiroaki; Kawata, Sumio

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insulin secretion was increased during the OGTT or IVGTT in mesenteric lymph duct-ligated rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proliferation of islet {beta}-cells was upregulated in lymph duct-ligated rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mesenteric lymph duct flow has a role in glucose metabolism. -- Abstract: Background and aims: It has been suggested that intestinal lymph flow plays an important role in insulin secretion and glucose metabolism after meals. In this study, we investigated the influence of ligation of the mesenteric lymph duct on glucose metabolism and islet {beta}-cells in rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (10 weeks old) were divided into two groups: one underwent ligation of the mesenteric lymph duct above the cistern (ligation group), and the other underwent a sham operation (sham group). After 1 and 2 weeks, fasting plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, triglyceride, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and the active form of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were measured. At 2 weeks after the operation, the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) were performed. After the rats had been sacrificed, the insulin content of the pancreas was measured and the proliferation of {beta}-cells was assessed immunohistochemically using antibodies against insulin and Ki-67. Results: During the OGTT, the ligation group showed a significant decrease in the plasma glucose concentration at 120 min (p < 0.05) and a significant increase in the plasma insulin concentration by more than 2-fold at 15 min (p < 0.01). On the other hand, the plasma GIP concentration was significantly decreased at 60 min (p < 0.01) in the ligated group, while the active form of GLP-1 showed a significantly higher level at 90 min (1.7-fold; p < 0.05) and 120 min (2.5-fold; p < 0.01). During the IVGTT, the plasma insulin concentration in the ligation group was significantly higher at 2

  13. TRAIL upregulates decoy receptor 1 and mediates resistance to apoptosis in insulin-secreting INS-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Soojeong; Park, So-Young; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Yoo, Young Hyun

    2010-06-01

    TRAIL/Apo2L (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) is a multifunctional protein regulating the homeostasis of the immune system, infection, autoimmune diseases, and apoptosis. In particular, the potential role of TRAIL in type 1 diabetes (T1D) has been studied by several research groups. A previous study found that TRAIL did not have significant cytotoxic effects on the insulin-secreting pancreatic beta cell line, INS-1. However, the mechanism was not clear. Here we demonstrate that INS-1 cells are resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis and show alteration in the expression of death and decoy receptors upon TRAIL treatment. To compare TRAIL-resistant INS-1 cells with TRAIL-sensitive cells, we utilized U87MG cells, which are known to be TRAIL-sensitive. TRAIL treatment showed NF-kappaB translocation to the nucleus in TRAIL-resistant INS-1 cells, and TRAIL-induced NF-kappaB activation was preceded by IkappaBalpha degradation. A pharmacological inhibitor of NF-kappaB, Bay 11-7082, blocked TRAIL-induced NF-kappaB translocation to the nucleus and IkappaBalpha degradation. Four related receptors bind TRAIL: two death receptors (DR4 and DR5) that promote apoptosis, and two decoy receptors (DcR1 and DcR2) that act as dominant-negative inhibitors of TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. In the present study, TRAIL treatment in INS-1 cells upregulated DcR1 and downregulated DR5 without altering the expression of DcR2 and DR4. The resistance to apoptosis in INS-1 cells might therefore, be a consequence of DcR1 upregulation and DR5 downregulation, and the transcription factor, NF-kappaB, could regulate the sensitivity of cells to TRAIL by controlling the ratio of decoy to death receptors. Thus, TRAIL may play an important role in the survival of pancreatic beta cells by regulating receptor expression in an NF-kappaB-dependent manner.

  14. Insulin-induced hypoglycemia stimulates corticotropin-releasing factor and arginine vasopressin secretion into hypophysial portal blood of conscious, unrestrained rams.

    PubMed Central

    Caraty, A; Grino, M; Locatelli, A; Guillaume, V; Boudouresque, F; Conte-Devolx, B; Oliver, C

    1990-01-01

    Insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IIH) is a strong stimulator of pituitary ACTH secretion. The mechanisms by which IIH activates the corticotrophs are still controversial. Indeed, in rats the variations of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) secretion in hypophysial portal blood (HPB) during IIH have been diversely appreciated. This may be due to the stressful conditions required for portal blood collection in rats. We studied the effects of IIH on the secretion of CRF and AVP in HPB and on the release of ACTH and cortisol in peripheral plasma in conscious, unrestrained, castrated rams. After the injection of a low (0.2 IU/kg) or high dose (2 IU/kg) of insulin, ACTH and cortisol levels in peripheral plasma increased in a dose-related manner. After injection of the low dose of insulin, CRF and AVP secretion in HPB were equally stimulated. After injection of the high dose of insulin, CRF secretion was further stimulated, while AVP release was dramatically increased. These results suggest that when the hypoglycemia is moderate, CRF is the main factor triggering ACTH release, and that the increased AVP secretion potentiates the stimulatory effect of CRF. When hypoglycemia is deeper, AVP secretion becomes predominant and may by itself stimulate ACTH release. Images PMID:2161426

  15. Insulin

    MedlinePlus

    ... pump is connected to your body by a flexible tube that has a tip that sticks under your skin. A cartridge of insulin is put in the pump. The insulin flows through the tube into your body. The pump controls how much insulin goes into your body. The ...

  16. Nε-(carboxymethyl) lysine-induced mitochondrial fission and mitophagy cause decreased insulin secretion from β-cells.

    PubMed

    Lo, Mei-Chen; Chen, Ming-Hong; Lee, Wen-Sen; Lu, Chin-I; Chang, Chuang-Rung; Kao, Shu-Huei; Lee, Horng-Mo

    2015-11-15

    Nε-(carboxymethyl) lysine-conjugated bovine serum albumin (CML-BSA) is a major component of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). We hypothesised that AGEs reduce insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells by damaging mitochondrial functions and inducing mitophagy. Mitochondrial morphology and the occurrence of autophagy were examined in pancreatic islets of diabetic db/db mice and in the cultured CML-BSA-treated insulinoma cell line RIN-m5F. In addition, the effects of α-lipoic acid (ALA) on mitochondria in AGE-damaged tissues were evaluated. The diabetic db/db mouse exhibited an increase in the number of autophagosomes in damaged mitochondria and receptor for AGEs (RAGE). Treatment of db/db mice with ALA for 12 wk increased the number of mitochondria with well-organized cristae and fewer autophagosomes. Treatment of RIN-m5F cells with CML-BSA increased the level of RAGE protein and autophagosome formation, caused mitochondrial dysfunction, and decreased insulin secretion. CML-BSA also reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP production, increased ROS and lipid peroxide production, and caused mitochondrial DNA deletions. Elevated fission protein dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) level and mitochondrial fragmentation demonstrated the unbalance of mitochondrial fusion and fission in CML-BSA-treated cells. Additionally, increased levels of Parkin and PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 protein suggest that fragmented mitochondria were associated with increased mitophagic activity, and ALA attenuated the CML-BSA-induced mitophage formation. Our study demonstrated that CML-BSA induced mitochondrial dysfunction and mitophagy in pancreatic β-cells. The findings from this study suggest that increased concentration of AGEs may damage β-cells and reduce insulin secretion.

  17. Reduced AMPKα2 protein expression restores glucose-induced insulin secretion in islets from calorie-restricted rats.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Maria Esméria C; Ribeiro, Rosane A; Vanzela, Emerielle C; Barbosa-Sampaio, Helena C

    2016-02-01

    In a state of caloric restriction (CR), improved insulin action was associated with the activation of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK). Here, we verified whether AMPK was involved in impaired β-cell function in islets from rats subjected to CR for 21 days. Eight-week-old male rats were distributed into a control (CTL) group that was fed an isocaloric diet ad libitum or a CR group that received 60% of the food consumed by the CTL group. From days 18-21, CTL and CR rats were treated with sense (CTLS and CRS) or antisense (CTLAS and CRAS) AMPKα2 oligonucleotides. Caloric restriction was associated with decreased body weight, perigonadal fat pads and insulinaemia, while higher glucose tolerance was observed in CRS rats. Antisense treatment normalized insulinaemia and glucose tolerance in CRAS rats and increased cholesterolaemia in CRAS and CTLAS groups. These effects were associated with reduced pAMPK/AMPK protein expression in the liver of rats treated with antisense oligonucleotides. Additionally, CRS islets showed higher pAMPK/AMPK content and lower glucose-induced insulin release. As expected, antisense oligonucleotides against AMPKα2 efficiently reduced pAMPK/AMPK protein in CRAS and CTLAS islets. The lower AMPK content in CRAS islets normalized the insulin secretion in islets exposed to 16.7 mM glucose. In addition, CTLAS islets presented higher insulin secretion at 2.8 and 16.7 mM glucose. These findings support the hypothesis that higher AMPK protein expression is involved in impaired β-cell function in islets from rats subjected to CR for 21 days. PMID:27102713

  18. Forced expression of PDX-1 gene makes hepatoma cells to acquire glucose-responsive insulin secretion while maintaining hepatic characteristic.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, H; Higuchi, Y; Kawai, K

    2015-02-28

    Evidence shows that forced expression of the PDX1 gene converts hepatoma cells, mouse liver epithelial cells (MLECs) and HepaRG cells, into insulin—producing cells, β—cells, or islets of Langerhans. However, no reports have investigated the characteristics of mouse or human hepatocytes introduced with the PDX1 gene over prolonged observation periods. In this study, we immunohistologically and molecularly investigated the alternative processes induced by PDX1 gene introduction in mouse and human hepatocytes over prolonged observation periods using immunocytochemistry, immunofluorescence, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Western blotting, and flow cytometry (FCM) analysis. Immunocytochemical and immunofluorescent observations showed that MLECs and HepaRG cells on 2 and 21 days after introduction of the PDX1 gene comprised cells double—positive for insulin and albumin. Additionally, they showed MAFA expression and glucose—responsive insulin secretion with glucokinase expression. However mouse embryonic fibroblasts introduced with PDX1—GFP could not acquire glucose—responsive insulin secretion and glucokinase expression. Subsequently, we hypothesized that the number of albumin—positive MLECs and HepaRG cells would decrease after introduction of PDX1 due to the conversion of MLECs and HepaRG cells into insulin—producing cells. However, FCM analysis indicated that the number of albumin—positive MLECs and HepaRG cells was not altered by the introduction of PDX1. We thought that MLECs and HepaRG cells introduced with the PDX1 gene could acquire a functional insulin secretory capacity without conversion to β—cells, or islets of Langerhans, and the acquisition could need glucokinase expression.

  19. The insulin sensitiser metformin regulates chicken Sertoli and germ cell populations.

    PubMed

    Faure, M; Guibert, E; Alves, S; Pain, B; Ramé, C; Dupont, J; Brillard, J P; Froment, P

    2016-05-01

    Metformin, an insulin sensitiser from the biguanide family of molecules, is used for the treatment of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes individuals. It increases peripheral glucose uptake and may reduce food intake. Based on the tight link between metabolism and fertility, we investigated the role of metformin on testicular function using in vitro culture of Sertoli cells and seminiferous tubules, complemented by in vivo data obtained following metformin administration to prepubertal chickens. In vitro, metformin treatment reduced Sertoli cell proliferation without inducing apoptosis and morphological changes. The metabolism of Sertoli cells was affected because lactate secretion by Sertoli cells increased approximately twofold and intracellular free ATP was negatively impacted. Two important pathways regulating proliferation and metabolism in Sertoli cells were assayed. Metformin exposure was not associated with an increased phosphorylation of AKT or ERK. There was a 90% reduction in the proportion of proliferating germ cells after a 96-h exposure of seminiferous tubule cultures to metformin. In vivo, 6-week-old chickens treated with metformin for 3 weeks exhibited reduced testicular weight and a 50% decrease in testosterone levels. The expression of a marker of undifferentiated germ cells was unchanged in contrast to the decrease in expression of 'protamine', a marker of differentiated germ cells. In conclusion, these results suggest that metformin affects the testicular energy content and the proliferative ability of Sertoli and germ cells. PMID:26917452

  20. Intrinsic optical signal imaging of glucose-stimulated physiological responses in the insulin secreting INS-1 β-cell line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi-Chao; Cui, Wan-Xing; Wang, Xu-Jing; Amthor, Franklin; Yao, Xin-Cheng

    2011-03-01

    Intrinsic optical signal (IOS) imaging has been established for noninvasive monitoring of stimulus-evoked physiological responses in the retina and other neural tissues. Recently, we extended the IOS imaging technology for functional evaluation of insulin secreting INS-1 cells. INS-1 cells provide a popular model for investigating β-cell dysfunction and diabetes. Our experiments indicate that IOS imaging allows simultaneous monitoring of glucose-stimulated physiological responses in multiple cells with high spatial (sub-cellular) and temporal (sub-second) resolution. Rapid image sequences reveal transient optical responses that have time courses comparable to glucose-evoked β-cell electrical activities.

  1. Regulation of aldosterone secretion during altered sodium intake.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, G; Catt, K J

    1983-07-01

    The interactions of the renin-angiotensin system with other factors in the regulation of aldosterone secretion were analyzed during altered sodium in the rat. During sodium restriction, the rise in aldosterone one secretion was accompanied by trophic changes in the adrenal glomerulosa zone including increased angiotensin II receptors and enzymes of early and late steps in the aldosterone biosynthetic pathway. All these effects of sodium restriction were reproduced by infusion of angiotensin II, and could be prevented by administration of the converting enzyme inhibitor, SQ 14,225. These findings indicate that the adrenal secretory and trophic responses to sodium restriction are mediated by angiotensin II. In hypophysectomized rats, the basal activities of the enzymes of the early aldosterone biosynthetic pathway were reduced, contributing to the blunted aldosterone responsiveness to sodium deficiency. However, sodium restriction for 6 days significantly increased adrenal glomerulosa angiotensin II receptors and enzymes of the early and late aldosterone biosynthetic pathway, indicating that the pituitary gland is not necessary for the adrenal effects of angiotensin II. In contrast to the prominent glomerulotropic actions of angiotensin II in rats on normal or low sodium intake, infusion of angiotensin II during high sodium intake did not increase blood aldosterone, angiotensin II receptors, or 18-hydroxylase activity, indicating that the trophic actions of the octapeptide are determined by the state of sodium balance. In recent studies, other factors including potassium, dopamine and somatostatin have been shown to potentiate or inhibit the actions of angiotensin II on the adrenal gland. The ability of such factors to influence the effects of angiotensin II could serve as a protective mechanism to modulate aldosterone responses to angiotensin II when elevations in the circulating level of the peptide occur in the absence of sodium deficiency.

  2. Clinical Results of an Automated Artificial Pancreas Using Technosphere Inhaled Insulin to Mimic First-Phase Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Zisser, Howard; Dassau, Eyal; Lee, Justin J.; Harvey, Rebecca A.; Bevier, Wendy; Doyle, Francis J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not adding a fixed preprandial dose of inhaled insulin to a fully automated closed loop artificial pancreas would improve the postprandial glucose control without adding an increased risk of hypoglycemia. Research Design and Methods: Nine subjects with T1DM were recruited for the study. The patients were on closed-loop control for 24 hours starting around 4:30 pm. Mixed meals (~50 g CHO) were given at 6:30 pm and 7:00 am the following day. For the treatment group each meal was preceded by the inhalation of one 10 U dose of Technosphere Insulin (TI). Subcutaneous insulin delivery was controlled by a zone model predictive control algorithm (zone-MPC). At 11:00 am, the patient exercised for 30 ± 5 minutes at 50% of predicted heart rate reserve. Results: The use of TI resulted in increasing the median percentage time in range (70-180 mg/dl, BG) during the 5-hour postprandial period by 21.6% (81.6% and 60% in the with/without TI cases, respectively, P = .06) and reducing the median postprandial glucose peak by 33 mg/dl (172 mg/dl and 205 mg/dl in the with and without TI cases, respectively, P = .004). The median percentage time in range 80-140 mg/dl during the entire study period was 67.5% as compared to percentage time in range without the use of TI of 55.2% (P = .03). Conclusions: Adding preprandial TI (See video supplement) to an automated closed-loop AP system resulted in superior postprandial control as demonstrated by lower postprandial glucose exposure without addition hypoglycemia. PMID:25901023

  3. INS-1 cell glucose-stimulated insulin secretion is reduced by the downregulation of the 67 kDa laminin receptor.

    PubMed

    Sabra, Georges; Dubiel, Evan A; Kuehn, Carina; Khalfaoui, Taoufik; Beaulieu, Jean-François; Vermette, Patrick

    2015-12-01

    Understanding β cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions can advance our knowledge of the mechanisms that control glucose homeostasis and improve culture methods used in islet transplantation for the treatment of diabetes. Laminin is the main constituent of the basement membrane and is involved in pancreatic β cell survival and function, even enhancing glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Most of the studies on cell responses towards laminin have focused on integrin-mediated interactions, while much less attention has been paid on non-integrin receptors, such as the 67 kDa laminin receptor (67LR). The specificity of the receptor-ligand interaction through the adhesion of INS-1 cells (a rat insulinoma cell line) to CDPGYIGSR-, GRGDSPC- or CDPGYIGSR + GRGDSPC-covered surfaces was evaluated. Also, the effects of the 67LR knocking down over glucose-stimulated insulin secretion were investigated. Culture of the INS-1 cells on the bioactive surfaces was improved compared to the low-fouling carboxymethyl dextran (CMD) surfaces, while downregulation of the 67LR resulted in reduced cell adhesion to surfaces bearing the CDPGYIGSR peptide. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was hindered by downregulation of the 67LR, regardless of the biological motif available on the biomimetic surfaces on which the cells were cultured. This finding illustrates the importance of the 67LR in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and points to a possible role of the 67LR in the mechanisms of insulin secretion.

  4. Insulin secretion and signaling in response to dietary restriction and subsequent re-alimentation in cattle.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Kate; Kenny, David A; Kelly, Alan K; Waters, Sinéad M

    2015-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine systemic insulin response to a glucose tolerance test (GTT) and transcript abundance of genes of the insulin signaling pathway in skeletal muscle, during both dietary restriction and re-alimentation-induced compensatory growth. Holstein Friesian bulls were blocked to one of two groups: 1) restricted feed allowance for 125 days (period 1) (RES, n = 15) followed by ad libitum feeding for 55 days (period 2) or 2) ad libitum access to feed throughout (periods 1 and 2) (ADLIB, n = 15). On days 90 and 36 of periods 1 and 2, respectively, a GTT was performed. M. longissimus dorsi biopsies were harvested from all bulls on days 120 and 15 of periods 1 and 2, respectively, and RNA-Seq analysis was performed. RES displayed a lower growth rate during period 1 (RES: 0.6 kg/day, ADLIB: 1.9 kg/day; P < 0.001), subsequently gaining more during re-alimentation (RES: 2.5 kg/day, ADLIB: 1.4 kg/day; P < 0.001). Systemic insulin response to glucose administration was lower in RES in period 1 (P < 0.001) with no difference observed during period 2. The insulin signaling pathway in M. longissimus dorsi was enriched (P < 0.05) in response to dietary restriction but not during re-alimentation (P > 0.05). Genes differentially expressed in the insulin signaling pathway suggested a greater sensitivity to insulin in skeletal muscle, with pleiotropic effects of insulin signaling interrupted during dietary restriction. Collectively, these results indicate increased sensitivity to glucose clearance and skeletal muscle insulin signaling during dietary restriction; however, no overall role for insulin was apparent in expressing compensatory growth.

  5. Inhibition of Monoacylglycerol Lipase Activity Decreases Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion in INS-1 (832/13) Cells and Rat Islets.

    PubMed

    Berdan, Charles A; Erion, Karel A; Burritt, Nathan E; Corkey, Barbara E; Deeney, Jude T

    2016-01-01

    Lipid signals derived from lipolysis and membrane phospholipids play an important role in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), though the exact secondary signals remain unclear. Previous reports have documented a stimulatory role of exogenously added mono-acyl-glycerol (MAG) on insulin secretion from cultured β-cells and islets. In this report we have determined effects of increasing intracellular MAG in the β-cell by inhibiting mono-acyl-glycerol lipase (MGL) activity, which catalyzes the final step in triacylglycerol breakdown, namely the hydrolysis of MAG to glycerol and free fatty acid (FA). To determine the role of MGL in GSIS, we used three different pharmacological agents (JZL184, MJN110 and URB602). All three inhibited GSIS and depolarization-induced insulin secretion in INS-1 (832/13). JZL184 significantly inhibited both GSIS and depolarization-induced insulin secretion in rat islets. JZL184 significantly decreased lipolysis and increased both mono- and diacyglycerol species in INS-1 cells. Analysis of the kinetics of GSIS showed that inhibition was greater during the sustained phase of secretion. A similar pattern was observed in the response of Ca2+ to glucose and depolarization but to a lesser degree suggesting that altered Ca2+ handling alone could not explain the reduction in insulin secretion. In addition, a significant reduction in long chain-CoA (LC-CoA) was observed in INS-1 cells at both basal and stimulatory glucose following inhibition of MGL. Our data implicate an important role for MGL in insulin secretion.

  6. Glucose-induced insulin secretion in uremia: role of 1 alpha,25(HO)2-vitamin D3.

    PubMed

    Allegra, V; Luisetto, G; Mengozzi, G; Martimbianco, L; Vasile, A

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the role and mechanism of action of calcitriol on glucose-induced insulin secretion in uremia, 17 patients with severe chronic renal failure were studied. Glucose metabolism was investigated by the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) before and after treatment for 21 days with 0.5 microgram/day of calcitriol and 500 mg/day of calcium (C+Ca) (6 cases) or 0.5 microgram/day of calcitriol alone (C) (11 cases). After these evaluations the patients on C+Ca were shifted to C and 6 patients on C were shifted to C+Ca, and IVGTT was repeated 21 days after the shift. For each test plasma glucose (G), immunoreactive insulin (IRI) and C-peptide (C-p) were measured at -30, 0, 2, 5, 15, 30, 45, 60 min, and baseline plasma values of 1 alpha,25(HO)2-vitamin D3, C-terminal parathyroid hormone (PTH-C), intact parathyroid hormone (PTH-I), calcitonin, and serum values of total and ionized calcium were dosed. Also, glucose constant decay (K-G), insulin response (IRI area), C-p production (C-p area), insulinogenic index (IGI) and insulin resistance index (RI) were calculated. A historical group of 21 healthy volunteers formed the normal controls. 1 alpha,25(HO)2-vitamin D3 plasma levels in uremic patients before treatment were significantly lower than normal range. As compared to controls, uremic patients showed significantly lower K-G, IRI area and IGI values and significantly higher RI values. After treatment with C or C+Ca, the insulin response improved significantly at 2 and 5 min and G decrement was more marked at 30, 45 and 60 min.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Collagen and Stretch Modulate Autocrine Secretion of Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 and Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Proteins from Differentiated Skeletal Muscle Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perrone, Carmen E.; Fenwick-Smith, Daniela; Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    1995-01-01

    Stretch-induced skeletal muscle growth may involve increased autocrine secretion of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) since IGF-1 is a potent growth factor for skeletal muscle hypertrophy, and stretch elevates IGF-1 mRNA levels in vivo. In tissue cultures of differentiated avian pectoralis skeletal muscle cells, nanomolar concentrations of exogenous IGF-1 stimulated growth in mechanically stretched but not static cultures. These cultures released up to 100 pg of endogenously produced IGF-1/micro-g of protein/day, as well as three major IGF binding proteins of 31, 36, and 43 kilodaltons (kDa). IGF-1 was secreted from both myofibers and fibroblasts coexisting in the muscle cultures. Repetitive stretch/relaxation of the differentiated skeletal muscle cells stimulated the acute release of IGF-1 during the first 4 h after initiating mechanical activity, but caused no increase in the long-term secretion over 24-72 h of IGF-1, or its binding proteins. Varying the intensity and frequency of stretch had no effect on the long-term efflux of IGF-1. In contrast to stretch, embedding the differentiated muscle cells in a three-dimensional collagen (Type I) matrix resulted in a 2-5-fold increase in long-term IGF-1 efflux over 24-72 h. Collagen also caused a 2-5-fold increase in the release of the IGF binding proteins. Thus, both the extracellular matrix protein type I collagen and stretch stimulate the autocrine secretion of IGF-1, but with different time kinetics. This endogenously produced growth factor may be important for the growth response of skeletal myofibers to both types of external stimuli.

  8. Effects of Insulin Detemir and NPH Insulin on Body Weight and Appetite-Regulating Brain Regions in Human Type 1 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    van Golen, Larissa W.; Veltman, Dick J.; IJzerman, Richard G.; Deijen, Jan Berend; Heijboer, Annemieke C.; Barkhof, Frederik; Drent, Madeleine L.; Diamant, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    Studies in rodents have demonstrated that insulin in the central nervous system induces satiety. In humans, these effects are less well established. Insulin detemir is a basal insulin analog that causes less weight gain than other basal insulin formulations, including the current standard intermediate-long acting Neutral Protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin. Due to its structural modifications, which render the molecule more lipophilic, it was proposed that insulin detemir enters the brain more readily than other insulins. The aim of this study was to investigate whether insulin detemir treatment differentially modifies brain activation in response to food stimuli as compared to NPH insulin. In addition, cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) insulin levels were measured after both treatments. Brain responses to viewing food and non-food pictures were measured using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in 32 type 1 diabetic patients, after each of two 12-week treatment periods with insulin detemir and NPH insulin, respectively, both combined with prandial insulin aspart. CSF insulin levels were determined in a subgroup. Insulin detemir decreased body weight by 0.8 kg and NPH insulin increased weight by 0.5 kg (p = 0.02 for difference), while both treatments resulted in similar glycemic control. After treatment with insulin detemir, as compared to NPH insulin, brain activation was significantly lower in bilateral insula in response to visual food stimuli, compared to NPH (p = 0.02 for right and p = 0.05 for left insula). Also, CSF insulin levels were higher compared to those with NPH insulin treatment (p = 0.003). Our findings support the hypothesis that in type 1 diabetic patients, the weight sparing effect of insulin detemir may be mediated by its enhanced action on the central nervous system, resulting in blunted activation in bilateral insula, an appetite-regulating brain region, in response to food stimuli. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00626080

  9. Insulin-like factor regulates neural induction through an IGF1 receptor-independent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Haramoto, Yoshikazu; Takahashi, Shuji; Oshima, Tomomi; Onuma, Yasuko; Ito, Yuzuru; Asashima, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Insulin receptor (IR) and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) signalling is required for normal embryonic growth and development. Previous reports indicated that the IGF/IGF1R/MAPK pathway contributes to neural induction and the IGF/IGF1R/PI3K/Akt pathway to eye development. Here, we report the isolation of insulin3 encoding a novel insulin-like ligand involved in neural induction. Insulin3 has a similar structure to pro-insulin and mature IGF ligands, but cannot activate the IGF1 receptor. However, similar to IGFs, Insulin3 induced the gene expression of an anterior neural marker, otx2, and enlarged anterior head structures by inhibiting Wnt signalling. Insulin3 are predominantly localised to the endoplasmic reticulum when otx2 is induced by insulin3. Insulin3 reduced extracellular Wnts and cell surface localised Lrp6. These results suggest that Insulin3 is a novel cell-autonomous inhibitor of Wnt signalling. This study provides the first evidence that an insulin-like factor regulates neural induction through an IGF1R-independent mechanism. PMID:26112133

  10. Impairment of glucose-induced insulin secretion in human pancreatic islets transplanted to diabetic nude mice.

    PubMed

    Jansson, L; Eizirik, D L; Pipeleers, D G; Borg, L A; Hellerström, C; Andersson, A

    1995-08-01

    Hyperglycemia-induced beta-cell dysfunction may be an important component in the pathogenesis of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. However, most available data in this field were obtained from rodent islets. To investigate the relevance of this hypothesis for human beta-cells in vivo, human pancreatic islets were transplanted under the renal capsule of nude mice. Experimental groups were chosen so that grafted islets were exposed to either hyper- or normoglycemia or combinations of these for 4 or 6 wk. Grafts of