Science.gov

Sample records for regulates cardiomyocyte growth

  1. Myostatin regulates cardiomyocyte growth through modulation of Akt signaling.

    PubMed

    Morissette, Michael R; Cook, Stuart A; Foo, ShiYin; McKoy, Godfrina; Ashida, Noboru; Novikov, Mikhail; Scherrer-Crosbie, Marielle; Li, Ling; Matsui, Takashi; Brooks, Gavin; Rosenzweig, Anthony

    2006-07-07

    Myostatin is a highly conserved, potent negative regulator of skeletal muscle hypertrophy in many species, from rodents to humans, although its mechanisms of action are incompletely understood. Transcript profiling of hearts from a genetic model of cardiac hypertrophy revealed dramatic upregulation of myostatin, not previously recognized to play a role in the heart. Here we show that myostatin abrogates the cardiomyocyte growth response to phenylephrine in vitro through inhibition of p38 and the serine-threonine kinase Akt, a critical determinant of cell size in many species from drosophila to mammals. Evaluation of male myostatin-null mice revealed that their cardiomyocytes and hearts overall were slightly smaller at baseline than littermate controls but exhibited more exuberant growth in response to chronic phenylephrine infusion. The increased cardiac growth in myostatin-null mice corresponded with increased p38 phosphorylation and Akt activation in vivo after phenylephrine treatment. Together, these data demonstrate that myostatin is dynamically regulated in the heart and acts more broadly than previously appreciated to regulate growth of multiple types of striated muscle.

  2. Regulation of cardiomyocyte autophagy by calcium.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Soni; Troncoso, Rodrigo; Criollo, Alfredo; Bravo-Sagua, Roberto; García, Lorena; Morselli, Eugenia; Cifuentes, Mariana; Quest, Andrew F G; Hill, Joseph A; Lavandero, Sergio

    2016-04-15

    Calcium signaling plays a crucial role in a multitude of events within the cardiomyocyte, including cell cycle control, growth, apoptosis, and autophagy. With respect to calcium-dependent regulation of autophagy, ion channels and exchangers, receptors, and intracellular mediators play fundamental roles. In this review, we discuss calcium-dependent regulation of cardiomyocyte autophagy, a lysosomal mechanism that is often cytoprotective, serving to defend against disease-related stress and nutrient insufficiency. We also highlight the importance of the subcellular distribution of calcium and related proteins, interorganelle communication, and other key signaling events that govern cardiomyocyte autophagy.

  3. DYRK2 Negatively Regulates Cardiomyocyte Growth by Mediating Repressor Function of GSK-3β on eIF2Bε

    PubMed Central

    Hagenmueller, Marco; Streit, Marcus R.; Malekar, Pratima; Riffel, Johannes H.; Buss, Sebastian J.; Weiss, Karl H.; Sadoshima, Junichi; Katus, Hugo A.; Hardt, Stefan E.

    2013-01-01

    Background A prerequisite of hypertrophic response of the myocardium is an increase in protein synthesis. A central regulator of translation initiation is Eukaryotic initiation factor 2B (eIF2B). Here we assessed the hypothesis that regulation of protein synthesis via eIF2Bε is essential to cardiac hypertrophic response in vivo. Methods Two transgenic mouse lines were generated with cardiac restricted overexpression of eIF2Bε or its mutant eIF2Bε-eIFS535A, which cannot be inactivated by phosphorylation through GSK-3β. Results (1) Under baseline conditions eIF2Bε transgenic mice showed no difference in cardiac phenotype compared to wild type, whereas in the mutant eIF2Bε-S535A an increase in LV/tibia length (7.5±0.4 mg/mm vs. 6.2±0.2 mg/mm, p<0.001) and cardiomyocyte cross sectional area (13004±570 vs. 10843±347 RU, p<0.01) was observed. (2) Cardiac overexpression of eIF2Bε did not change the response of the heart to pathologic stress induced by chronic isoproterenol treatment. (3) Cardiac overexpression of the eIF2Bε transgene was followed by overexpression of DYRK2 which is known to prime the inhibitory action of GSK-3β on eIF2Bε, while DYRK1A and GSK-3β itself were not increased. (4) In C57BL/6 mice after 48 h of isoproterenol-stimulation or aortic banding, eIF2Bε was increased and DYRK2 was concomitantly decreased. (5) In line with these in vivo findings, siRNA knockdown of DYRK2 in cultured cardiomyocytes resulted in decreased levels of p(S535)- eIF2Bε, (6) whereas adenoviral induced overexpression of DYRK2 was accompanied by clearly increased phosphorylation of eIF2Bε, indicating a coordinated response pattern (7) Adenoviral induced overexpression of DYRK2 leads to significantly reduced cardiomyocyte size and diminishes hypertrophic response to adrenergic stimulation. Conclusions The interaction of GSK-3β and its priming kinase DYRK2 regulate the activity of eIF2Bε in cardiac myocytes. DYRK2 is a novel negative regulator of cardiomyocyte

  4. Proteolysis regulates cardiomyocyte maturation and tissue integration

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Ryuichi; Gunawan, Felix; Beisaw, Arica; Jimenez-Amilburu, Vanesa; Maischein, Hans-Martin; Kostin, Sawa; Kawakami, Koichi; Stainier, Didier Y. R.

    2017-01-01

    Tissue integrity is critical for organ formation and function. During heart development, cardiomyocytes differentiate and integrate to form a coherent tissue that contracts synchronously. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating cardiac tissue integrity are poorly understood. Here we show that proteolysis, via the E3 ubiquitin ligase ASB2, regulates cardiomyocyte maturation and tissue integrity. Cardiomyocytes in asb2b zebrafish mutants fail to terminally differentiate, resulting in reduced cardiac contractility and output. Mosaic analyses reveal a cell-autonomous requirement for Asb2b in cardiomyocytes for their integration as asb2b mutant cardiomyocytes are unable to meld into wild-type myocardial tissue. In vitro and in vivo data indicate that ASB2 negatively regulates TCF3, a bHLH transcription factor. TCF3 must be degraded for cardiomyocyte maturation, as TCF3 gain-of-function causes a number of phenotypes associated with cardiomyocyte dedifferentiation. Overall, our results show that proteolysis has an important role in cardiomyocyte maturation and the formation of a coherent myocardial tissue. PMID:28211472

  5. The Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan Glypican-6 Is Upregulated in the Failing Heart, and Regulates Cardiomyocyte Growth through ERK1/2 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Melleby, Arne O.; Strand, Mari E.; Romaine, Andreas; Herum, Kate M.; Skrbic, Biljana; Dahl, Christen P.; Sjaastad, Ivar; Fiane, Arnt E.; Filmus, Jorge; Christensen, Geir; Lunde, Ida G.

    2016-01-01

    Pressure overload is a frequent cause of heart failure. Heart failure affects millions of patients worldwide and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Cell surface proteoglycans are emerging as molecular players in cardiac remodeling, and increased knowledge about their regulation and function is needed for improved understanding of cardiac pathogenesis. Here we investigated glypicans (GPC1-6), a family of evolutionary conserved heparan sulfate proteoglycans anchored to the extracellular leaflet of the cell membrane, in experimental and clinical heart failure, and explored the function of glypican-6 in cardiac cells in vitro. In mice subjected to pressure overload by aortic banding (AB), we observed elevated glypican-6 levels during hypertrophic remodeling and dilated, end-stage heart failure. Consistently, glypican-6 mRNA was elevated in left ventricular myocardium from explanted hearts of patients with end-stage, dilated heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Glypican-6 levels correlated negatively with left ventricular ejection fraction in patients, and positively with lung weight after AB in mice. Glypican-6 mRNA was expressed in both cardiac fibroblasts and cardiomyocytes, and the corresponding protein displayed different sizes in the two cell types due to tissue-specific glycanation. Importantly, adenoviral overexpression of glypican-6 in cultured cardiomyocytes increased protein synthesis and induced mRNA levels of the pro-hypertrophic signature gene ACTA1 and the hypertrophy and heart failure signature genes encoding natriuretic peptides, NPPA and NPPB. Overexpression of GPC6 induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and co-treatment with the ERK inhibitor U0126 attenuated the GPC6-induced increase in NPPA, NPPB and protein synthesis. In conclusion, our data suggests that glypican-6 plays a role in clinical and experimental heart failure progression by regulating cardiomyocyte growth through ERK signaling. PMID:27768722

  6. Cardiomyocyte proliferation contributes to heart growth in young humans

    PubMed Central

    Mollova, Mariya; Bersell, Kevin; Walsh, Stuart; Savla, Jainy; Das, Lala Tanmoy; Park, Shin-Young; Silberstein, Leslie E.; dos Remedios, Cristobal G.; Graham, Dionne; Colan, Steven; Kühn, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    The human heart is believed to grow by enlargement but not proliferation of cardiomyocytes (heart muscle cells) during postnatal development. However, recent studies have shown that cardiomyocyte proliferation is a mechanism of cardiac growth and regeneration in animals. Combined with evidence for cardiomyocyte turnover in adult humans, this suggests that cardiomyocyte proliferation may play an unrecognized role during the period of developmental heart growth between birth and adolescence. We tested this hypothesis by examining the cellular growth mechanisms of the left ventricle on a set of healthy hearts from humans aged 0–59 y (n = 36). The percentages of cardiomyocytes in mitosis and cytokinesis were highest in infants, decreasing to low levels by 20 y. Although cardiomyocyte mitosis was detectable throughout life, cardiomyocyte cytokinesis was not evident after 20 y. Between the first year and 20 y of life, the number of cardiomyocytes in the left ventricle increased 3.4-fold, which was consistent with our predictions based on measured cardiomyocyte cell cycle activity. Our findings show that cardiomyocyte proliferation contributes to developmental heart growth in young humans. This suggests that children and adolescents may be able to regenerate myocardium, that abnormal cardiomyocyte proliferation may be involved in myocardial diseases that affect this population, and that these diseases might be treatable through stimulation of cardiomyocyte proliferation. PMID:23302686

  7. Innervating sympathetic neurons regulate heart size and the timing of cardiomyocyte cell cycle withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Kreipke, R E; Birren, S J

    2015-12-01

    Sympathetic drive to the heart is a key modulator of cardiac function and interactions between heart tissue and innervating sympathetic fibres are established early in development. Significant innervation takes place during postnatal heart development, a period when cardiomyocytes undergo a rapid transition from proliferative to hypertrophic growth. The question of whether these innervating sympathetic fibres play a role in regulating the modes of cardiomyocyte growth was investigated using 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) to abolish early sympathetic innervation of the heart. Postnatal chemical sympathectomy resulted in rats with smaller hearts, indicating that heart growth is regulated by innervating sympathetic fibres during the postnatal period. In vitro experiments showed that sympathetic interactions resulted in delays in markers of cardiomyocyte maturation, suggesting that changes in the timing of the transition from hyperplastic to hypertrophic growth of cardiomyocytes could underlie changes in heart size in the sympathectomized animals. There was also an increase in the expression of Meis1, which has been linked to cardiomyocyte cell cycle withdrawal, suggesting that sympathetic signalling suppresses cell cycle withdrawal. This signalling involves β-adrenergic activation, which was necessary for sympathetic regulation of cardiomyocyte proliferation and hypertrophy. The effect of β-adrenergic signalling on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy underwent a developmental transition. While young postnatal cardiomyocytes responded to isoproterenol (isoprenaline) with a decrease in cell size, mature cardiomyocytes showed an increase in cell size in response to the drug. Together, these results suggest that early sympathetic effects on proliferation modulate a key transition between proliferative and hypertrophic growth of the heart and contribute to the sympathetic regulation of adult heart size.

  8. Nerves Regulate Cardiomyocyte Proliferation and Heart Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Ahmed I; O'Meara, Caitlin C; Gemberling, Matthew; Zhao, Long; Bryant, Donald M; Zheng, Ruimao; Gannon, Joseph B; Cai, Lei; Choi, Wen-Yee; Egnaczyk, Gregory F; Burns, Caroline E; Burns, C Geoffrey; MacRae, Calum A; Poss, Kenneth D; Lee, Richard T

    2015-08-24

    Some organisms, such as adult zebrafish and newborn mice, have the capacity to regenerate heart tissue following injury. Unraveling the mechanisms of heart regeneration is fundamental to understanding why regeneration fails in adult humans. Numerous studies have revealed that nerves are crucial for organ regeneration, thus we aimed to determine whether nerves guide heart regeneration. Here, we show using transgenic zebrafish that inhibition of cardiac innervation leads to reduction of myocyte proliferation following injury. Specifically, pharmacological inhibition of cholinergic nerve function reduces cardiomyocyte proliferation in the injured hearts of both zebrafish and neonatal mice. Direct mechanical denervation impairs heart regeneration in neonatal mice, which was rescued by the administration of neuregulin 1 (NRG1) and nerve growth factor (NGF) recombinant proteins. Transcriptional analysis of mechanically denervated hearts revealed a blunted inflammatory and immune response following injury. These findings demonstrate that nerve function is required for both zebrafish and mouse heart regeneration.

  9. Collagen regulates transforming growth factor-β receptors of HL-1 cardiomyocytes through activation of stretch and integrin signaling.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yen-Yu; Lin, Yung-Kuo; Kao, Yu-Hsun; Chung, Cheng-Chih; Yeh, Yung-Hsin; Chen, Shih-Ann; Chen, Yi-Jen

    2016-10-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF)-β are important in cardiac fibrosis, however, the effects of the ECM on TGF‑β signaling remain to be fully elucidated. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the role of collagen in TGF‑β signaling and examine the underlying mechanisms. In the present study, western blot analysis was used to examine TGF‑β signaling in HL‑1 cells treated with and without (control) type I collagen (10 µg/ml), which was co‑administered with either an anti‑β1 integrin antibody (10 µg/ml) or a stretch‑activated channel inhibitor (gadolinium; 50 µM). Cell proliferation and adhesion assays were used to investigate the roles of integrin, mechanical stretch and mitogen‑activated protein kinases (MAPKs) on cell proliferation and adhesion. The type I collagen (10 µg/ml)‑treated HL‑1 cells were incubated with or without anti‑β1 integrin antibody (10 µg/ml), gadolinium (50 µM) or inhibitors of p38 (SB203580; 3 µM), extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK; PD98059; 50 µM) and c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase (JNK; SP600125; 50 µM). Compared with the control cells, the collagen‑treated HL‑1 cells had lower expression levels of type I and type II TGF‑β receptors (TGFβRI and TGFβRII), with an increase in phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (FAK), p38 and ERK1/2, and a decrease in JNK. Incubation with the anti‑β1 integrin antibody reversed the collagen‑induced downregulation of the expression of TGFβRII and phosphorylated FAK. Gadolinium downregulated the expression levels of TGFβRI and small mothers against decapentaplegic (Smad)2/3, and decreased the levels of phosphorylated p38, ERK1/2 and JNK. In addition, gadolinium reversed the collagen‑induced activation of p38 and ERK1/2. In the presence of gadolinium and anti‑β1 integrin antibody, collagen regulated the expression levels of TGFβRI, TGFβRII and Smad2/3, but did not alter the phosphorylation

  10. Fibroblast growth factor 21 protects rat cardiomyocytes from endoplasmic reticulum stress by promoting the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1-extracellular signal‑regulated kinase 1/2 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Liang, Pingping; Zhong, Lin; Gong, Lei; Wang, Jiahui; Zhu, Yujie; Liu, Weifeng; Yang, Jun

    2017-09-19

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), as an endocrine factor, is secreted into circulation by injured cardiomyocytes. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis has been proposed as an important pathophysiological mechanism for cardiomyocyte injury. However, whether the enhanced expression of FGF21 in cardiomyocytes is linked to ER stress, and the effect and underlying mechanism of FGF21 on ER stress-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis remain unclear. In the present study, it was demonstrated that mild ER stress resulted in upregulated expression levels of FGF21 and its main receptors, as a response to cell compensation, at the induction of ≤5 µM tunicamycin (TM). However, excessive ER stress (TM ≥10 µM) activated the ER stress-mediated apoptosis signaling pathways, including PKR-like ER kinase (PERK)-eukaryotic translational initiation factor 2α (eIF2α)-activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4)-CCAAT/-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) and inositol-requiring kinase 1α (IRE1α)-c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), as well as inhibited the expression of FGF21 and its primary receptors. In addition, FGF21 overexpression provided protection against ER stress-induced cardiomyocyte injury, as evidenced by increased cell viability and reduced apoptosis. These changes were associated with the inhibition of ER stress-mediated apoptosis signaling pathways, as well as increased phosphorylation of FGFR1 and ERK1/2. However, the protective effects of overexpressed FGF21 were abolished following treatment with FGFR1 and ERK1/2 inhibitors. Thus, mild ER stress may induce the expression of FGF21 and its primary receptors in cardiomyocytes. FGF21 inhibits ER stress-induced cardiomyocyte injury as least in part via the FGFR1-ERK1/2 signaling pathway.

  11. Timing of cardiomyocyte growth, maturation, and attrition in perinatal sheep

    PubMed Central

    Jonker, Sonnet S.; Louey, Samantha; Giraud, George D.; Thornburg, Kent L.; Faber, J. Job

    2015-01-01

    Studies in altricial rodents attribute dramatic changes in perinatal cardiomyocyte growth, maturation, and attrition to stimuli associated with birth. Our purpose was to determine whether birth is a critical trigger controlling perinatal cardiomyocyte growth, maturation and attrition in a precocial large mammal, sheep (Ovis aries). Hearts from 0–61 d postnatal lambs were dissected or enzymatically dissociated. Cardiomyocytes were measured by micromorphometry, cell cycle activity assessed by immunohistochemistry, and nuclear number counted after DNA staining. Integration of this new data with published fetal data from our laboratory demonstrate that a newly appreciated >30% decrease in myocyte number occurred in the last 10 d of gestation (P < 0.0005) concomitant with an increase in cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (P < 0.05), indicative of apoptosis. Bisegmental linear regressions show that most changes in myocyte growth kinetics occur before birth (median = 15.2 d; P < 0.05). Right ventricular but not left ventricular cell number increases in the neonate, by 68% between birth and 60 d postnatal (P = 0.028). We conclude that in sheep few developmental changes in cardiomyocytes result from birth, excepting the different postnatal degrees of free wall hypertrophy between the ventricles. Furthermore, myocyte number is reduced in both ventricles immediately before term, but proliferation increases myocyte number in the neonatal right ventricle.—Jonker, S. S., Louey, S., Giraud, G. D., Thornburg, K. L., Faber, J. J. Timing of cardiomyocyte growth, maturation, and attrition in perinatal sheep. PMID:26139099

  12. AMPK and substrate availability regulate creatine transport in cultured cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Darrabie, Marcus D; Arciniegas, Antonio Jose Luis; Mishra, Rajashree; Bowles, Dawn E; Jacobs, Danny O; Santacruz, Lucia

    2011-05-01

    Profound alterations in myocellular creatine and phosphocreatine levels are observed during human heart failure. To maintain its intracellular creatine stores, cardiomyocytes depend upon a cell membrane creatine transporter whose regulation is not clearly understood. Creatine transport capacity in the intact heart is modulated by substrate availability, and it is reduced in the failing myocardium, likely adding to the energy imbalance that characterizes heart failure. AMPK, a key regulator of cellular energy homeostasis, acts by switching off energy-consuming pathways in favor of processes that generate energy. Our objective was to determine the effects of substrate availability and AMPK activation on creatine transport in cardiomyocytes. We studied creatine transport in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes and HL-1 cardiac cells expressing the human creatine transporter cultured in the presence of varying creatine concentrations and the AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribonucleoside (AICAR). Transport was enhanced in cardiomyocytes following incubation in creatine-depleted medium or AICAR. The changes in transport were due to alterations in V(max) that correlated with changes in total and cell surface creatine transporter protein content. Our results suggest a positive role for AMPK in creatine transport modulation for cardiomyocytes in culture.

  13. Endothelin-1 induces connective tissue growth factor expression in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Recchia, Anna Grazia; Filice, Elisabetta; Pellegrino, Daniela; Dobrina, Aldo; Cerra, Maria Carmela; Maggiolini, Marcello

    2009-03-01

    Endothelin (ET)-1 is a vasoconstrictor involved in cardiovascular diseases. Connective tissue growth factor/CCN2 (CTGF) is a fibrotic mediator overexpressed in human atherosclerotic lesions, myocardial infarction, and hypertension. In different cell types CTGF regulates cell proliferation/apoptosis, migration, and extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation and plays important roles in angiogenesis, chondrogenesis, osteogenesis, tissue repair, cancer and fibrosis. In the present study, we investigated the ET-1 signaling which triggers CTGF expression in cultured adult mouse atrial-muscle HL-1 cells used as a model system. ET-1 activated the CTGF promoter and induced CTGF expression at both mRNA and protein levels. Real-time PCR analysis revealed CTGF induction also in isolated rat heart preparations perfused with ET-1. Several intracellular signals elicited by ET-1 via ET receptors and even Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) contributed to the up-regulation of CTGF, including ERK activation and induction of the AP-1 components c-fos and c-jun, as also evaluated by ChIP analysis. Moreover, in cells treated with ET-1 the expression of ECM component decorin was abolished by CTGF silencing, indicating that CTGF is involved in ET-1 induced ECM accumulation not only in a direct manner but also through downstream effectors. Collectively, our data indicate that CTGF could be a mediator of the profibrotic effects of ET-1 in cardiomyocytes. CTGF inhibitors should be considered in setting a comprehensive pharmacological approach towards ET-1 induced cardiovascular diseases.

  14. The miRNA-212/132 family regulates both cardiac hypertrophy and cardiomyocyte autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Ucar, Ahmet; Gupta, Shashi K.; Fiedler, Jan; Erikci, Erdem; Kardasinski, Michal; Batkai, Sandor; Dangwal, Seema; Kumarswamy, Regalla; Bang, Claudia; Holzmann, Angelika; Remke, Janet; Caprio, Massimiliano; Jentzsch, Claudia; Engelhardt, Stefan; Geisendorf, Sabine; Glas, Carolina; Hofmann, Thomas G.; Nessling, Michelle; Richter, Karsten; Schiffer, Mario; Carrier, Lucie; Napp, L. Christian; Bauersachs, Johann; Chowdhury, Kamal; Thum, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Pathological growth of cardiomyocytes (hypertrophy) is a major determinant for the development of heart failure, one of the leading medical causes of mortality worldwide. Here we show that the microRNA (miRNA)-212/132 family regulates cardiac hypertrophy and autophagy in cardiomyocytes. Hypertrophic stimuli upregulate cardiomyocyte expression of miR-212 and miR-132, which are both necessary and sufficient to drive the hypertrophic growth of cardiomyocytes. MiR-212/132 null mice are protected from pressure-overload-induced heart failure, whereas cardiomyocyte-specific overexpression of the miR-212/132 family leads to pathological cardiac hypertrophy, heart failure and death in mice. Both miR-212 and miR-132 directly target the anti-hypertrophic and pro-autophagic FoxO3 transcription factor and overexpression of these miRNAs leads to hyperactivation of pro-hypertrophic calcineurin/NFAT signalling and an impaired autophagic response upon starvation. Pharmacological inhibition of miR-132 by antagomir injection rescues cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure in mice, offering a possible therapeutic approach for cardiac failure. PMID:23011132

  15. The intrinsic circadian clock within the cardiomyocyte directly regulates myocardial gene expression, metabolism, and contractile function

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Virtually every mammalian cell, including cardiomyocytes, possesses an intrinsic circadian clock. The role of this transcriptionally based molecular mechanism in cardiovascular biology remains unknown. We hypothesized that the circadian clock within the cardiomyocyte plays a role in regulating myo...

  16. The intrinsic circadian clock within the cardiomyocyte directly regulates myocardial gene expression, metabolism, and contractile function

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Virtually every mammalian cell, including cardiomyocytes, possesses an intrinsic circadian clock. The role of this transcriptionally based molecular mechanism in cardiovascular biology remains unknown. We hypothesized that circadian clock within the cardiomyocyte plays a role in regulating myocardia...

  17. Role of CAPE on cardiomyocyte protection via connexin 43 regulation under hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Cheng; Kuo, Chan-Yen; Chen, Rong-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cardiomyocyte under hypoxia cause cell death or damage is associated with heart failure. Gap junction, such as connexin 43 play a role in regulation of heart function under hypoxia. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) has been reported as an active component of propolis, has antioxidative, anti-inflammatory antiproliferative and antineoplastic biological properties. Aims: Connexin 43 appear to have a critical role in heart failure under hypoxia, there has been considerable interest in identifying the candidate component or compound to reduce cell death. Methods: In this study, we used human cardiomyocyte as a cell model to study the role of connexin 43 in hypoxia- incubated human cardiomyocyte in absence or presence of CAPE treatment. Results: Results showed that hypoxia induced connexin 43 expression, but not altered in connexin 40. Interestingly, CAPE attenuates hypoxia-caused connexin 43 down-regulation and cell death or cell growth inhibition. Conclusion: We suggested that reduction of cell death in cardiomyocytes by CAPE is associated with an increase in connexin 43 expression.

  18. Calcium-mediated histone modifications regulate alternative splicing in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Alok; Nguyen, Hieu; Geng, Cuiyu; Hinman, Melissa N; Luo, Guangbin; Lou, Hua

    2014-11-18

    In cardiomyocytes, calcium is known to control gene expression at the level of transcription, whereas its role in regulating alternative splicing has not been explored. Here we report that, in mouse primary or embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes, increased calcium levels induce robust and reversible skipping of several alternative exons from endogenously expressed genes. Interestingly, we demonstrate a calcium-mediated splicing regulatory mechanism that depends on changes of histone modifications. Specifically, the regulation occurs through changes in calcium-responsive kinase activities that lead to alterations in histone modifications and subsequent changes in the transcriptional elongation rate and exon skipping. We demonstrate that increased intracellular calcium levels lead to histone hyperacetylation along the body of the genes containing calcium-responsive alternative exons by disrupting the histone deacetylase-to-histone acetyltransferase balance in the nucleus. Consequently, the RNA polymerase II elongation rate increases significantly on those genes, resulting in skipping of the alternative exons. These studies reveal a mechanism by which calcium-level changes in cardiomyocytes impact on the output of gene expression through altering alternative pre-mRNA splicing patterns.

  19. mTORC1 and mTORC2 play different roles in regulating cardiomyocyte differentiation from embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bei; Wang, Jiadan; Tang, Leilei; Shi, Jiana; Zhu, Danyan

    2017-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine kinase and functions through two distinct complexes, mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and complex 2 (mTORC2), with their key components Raptor and Rictor, to play crucial roles in cellular survival and growth. However, the roles of mTORC1 and mTORC2 in regulating cardiomyocyte differentiation from mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells are not clear. In this study, we performed Raptor or Rictor knockdown experiments to investigate the roles of mTORC1 and mTORC2 in cardiomyocyte differentiation. Ablation of Raptor markedly increased the number of cardiomyocytes derived from mES cells with well-organized myofilaments. Expression levels of brachyury (mesoderm protein), Nkx2.5 (cardiac progenitor cell protein), and α-Actinin (cardiomyocyte marker) were increased in Raptor knockdown cells. In contrast, loss of Rictor prevented cardiomyocyte differentiation. The dual ablation of Raptor and Rictor also decreased the number of cardiomyocytes. The two complexes exerted a regulatory mechanism in such a manner that knockdown of Raptor/mTORC1 resulted in a decreased phosphorylation of Rictor (Thr1135), which subsequently activated Rictor/mTORC2 in the differentiation of mES cells into cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, mTORC1 and mTORC2 played different roles in cardiomyocyte differentiation from mES cells in vitro. The activation of Rictor/mTORC2 was critical for facilitating cardiomyocyte differentiation from mES cells. Thus, this complex may be a promising target for regulating myocardial differentiation from embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells.

  20. Regulation of myocardial metabolism by the cardiomyocyte circadian clock.

    PubMed

    Chatham, John C; Young, Martin E

    2013-02-01

    On a daily basis, the heart is subjected to dramatic fluctuations in energetic demand and neurohumoral influences, many of which occur in a temporally predictable manner. In order to preserve cardiac performance, the heart must therefore maintain metabolic flexibility, even within the confines of a single day. Recent studies have established mechanistic links between time-of-day-dependent oscillations in myocardial metabolism and the cardiomyocyte circadian clock. More specifically, evidence suggests that this cell autonomous molecular mechanism regulates myocardial glucose uptake, flux through both glycolysis and the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway, and pyruvate oxidation, as well as glycogen, triglyceride, and protein turnover. These observations have led to the hypothesis that the cardiomyocyte circadian clock confers the selective advantage of anticipation of increased energetic demand during the awake period. Here, we review the accumulative evidence in support of this hypothesis thus far, and discuss the possibility that attenuation of these metabolic rhythms, through disruption of the cardiomyocyte circadian clock, contributes towards the etiology of cardiac dysfunction in various disease states. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Focus on Cardiac Metabolism". Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Expression of microRNAs is dynamically regulated during cardiomyocyte hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Tatsuguchi, Mariko; Seok, Hee Young; Callis, Thomas E.; Thomson, J. Michael; Chen, Jian-Fu; Newman, Martin; Rojas, Mauricio; Hammond, Scott M.; Wang, Da-Zhi

    2007-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a recently discovered class of ∼22-nucleotide regulatory RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. We have recently demonstrated that muscle-specific miRNAs miR-1 and -133 play an important role in modulating muscle proliferation and differentiation. Here, we investigate the involvement of miRNAs in cardiac hypertrophy. We analyzed the global expression of miRNAs in agonist-induced hypertrophic cardiomyocytes as well as in pressure overload-induced hypertrophic hearts and found the miRNA expression profile altered in those hypertrophic conditions. We further show that inhibition of endogenous miR-21 or -18b augments hypertrophic growth. Conversely, introduction of functional miR-21 or -18b into cardiomyocytes represses myocyte hypertrophy. Together, our studies point to miRNAs as critical regulators of cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:17498736

  2. Regulation of myoglobin in hypertrophied rat cardiomyocytes in experimental pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Peters, E L; Offringa, C; Kos, D; Van der Laarse, W J; Jaspers, R T

    2016-10-01

    A major problem in chronic heart failure is the inability of hypertrophied cardiomyocytes to maintain the required power output. A Hill-type oxygen diffusion model predicts that oxygen supply is limiting in hypertrophied cardiomyocytes at maximal rates of oxygen consumption and that this limitation can be reduced by increasing the myoglobin (Mb) concentration. We explored how cardiac hypertrophy, oxidative capacity, and Mb expression in right ventricular cardiomyocytes are regulated at the transcriptional and translational levels in an early stage of experimental pulmonary hypertension, in order to identify targets to improve the oxygen supply/demand ratio. Male Wistar rats were injected with monocrotaline to induce pulmonary hypertension (PH) and right ventricular heart failure. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels per nucleus of growth factors insulin-like growth factor-1Ea (IGF-1Ea) and mechano growth factor (MGF) were higher in PH than in healthy controls, consistent with a doubling in cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area (CSA). Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity was unaltered, indicating that oxidative capacity per cell increased. Although the Mb protein concentration was unchanged, Mb mRNA concentration was reduced. However, total RNA per nucleus was about threefold higher in PH rats versus controls, and Mb mRNA content expressed per nucleus was similar in the two groups. The increase in oxidative capacity without an increase in oxygen supply via Mb-facilitated diffusion caused a doubling of the critical extracellular oxygen tension required to prevent hypoxia (PO2crit). We conclude that Mb mRNA expression is not increased during pressure overload-induced right ventricular hypertrophy and that the increase in myoglobin content per myocyte is likely due to increased translation. We conclude that increasing Mb mRNA expression may be beneficial in the treatment of experimental PH.

  3. MicroRNA-122 regulates caspase-8 and promotes the apoptosis of mouse cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Z.W.; Li, H.; Chen, S.S.; Li, Y.; Cui, Z.Y.; Ma, J.

    2017-01-01

    Cardiomyocyte apoptosis plays key roles in the pathogenesis of heart diseases such as myocardial infarction. MicroRNAs are important regulators of gene expression, which are also involved in the regulation of cardiomyocyte apoptosis. However, cardiomyocyte apoptosis regulated by microRNA (miR)-122 is largely unexplored. The aim of this study focused on the role of miR-122 in cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Cardiomyocytes were isolated from neonatal mice and primarily cultured. MiR-122 mimic and inhibitor were transfected to cardiomyocytes and verified by qRT-PCR. Cell viability and apoptosis post-transfection were assessed by MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Changes in expression of caspase-8 were quantified by qRT-PCR and western blot. Results showed that miR-122 mimic and inhibitor successfully induced changes in miR-122 levels in cultured cardiomyocytes (P<0.01). MiR-122 overexpression suppressed viability and promoted apoptosis of cardiomyocytes (P<0.05), and miR-122 knockdown promoted cell viability and inhibited apoptosis (P<0.05). The mRNA and protein levels of caspase-8 were elevated by miR-122 overexpression (P<0.01) and reduced by miR-122 knockdown (P<0.001). These results suggest an inductive role of miR-122 in cardiomyocyte apoptosis, which may be related to its regulation on caspase-8. PMID:28177059

  4. Effect of hepatocyte growth factor and angiotensin II on rat cardiomyocyte hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ai-Lan; Ou, Cai-Wen; He, Zhao-Chu; Liu, Qi-Cai; Dong, Qi; Chen, Min-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) plays an important role in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. The combined effect of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and Ang II on cardiomyocytes is unknown. The present study was designed to determine the effect of HGF on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and to explore the combined effect of HGF and Ang II on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Primary cardiomyocytes were isolated from neonatal rat hearts and cultured in vitro. Cells were treated with Ang II (1 µM) alone, HGF (10 ng/mL) alone, and Ang II (1 µM) plus HGF (10 ng/mL) for 24, 48, and 72 h. The amount of [3H]-leucine incorporation was then measured to evaluate protein synthesis. The mRNA levels of β-myosin heavy chain and atrial natriuretic factor were determined by real-time PCR to evaluate the presence of fetal phenotypes of gene expression. The cell size of cardiomyocytes was also studied. Ang II (1 µM) increased cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Similar to Ang II, treatment with 1 µM HGF promoted cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Moreover, the combination of 1 µM Ang II and 10 ng/mL HGF clearly induced a combined pro-hypertrophy effect on cardiomyocytes. The present study demonstrates for the first time a novel, combined effect of HGF and Ang II in promoting cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. PMID:23044624

  5. Two inhibitory systems and CKIs regulate cell cycle exit of mammalian cardiomyocytes after birth

    SciTech Connect

    Tane, Shoji; Okayama, Hitomi; Ikenishi, Aiko; Amemiya, Yuki; Nakayama, Keiichi I.; Takeuchi, Takashi

    2015-10-16

    Mammalian cardiomyocytes actively proliferate during embryonic stages, following which they exit their cell cycle after birth, and the exit is maintained. Previously, we showed that two inhibitory systems (the G1-phase inhibitory system: repression of cyclin D1 expression; the M-phase inhibitory system: inhibition of CDK1 activation) maintain the cell cycle exit of mouse adult cardiomyocytes. We also showed that two CDK inhibitors (CKIs), p21{sup Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1}, regulate the cell cycle exit in a portion of postnatal cardiomyocytes. It remains unknown whether the two inhibitory systems are involved in the cell cycle exit of postnatal cardiomyocytes and whether p21{sup Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1} also inhibit entry to M-phase. Here, we showed that more than 40% of cardiomyocytes entered an additional cell cycle by induction of cyclin D1 expression at postnatal stages, but M-phase entry was inhibited in the majority of cardiomyocytes. Marked cell cycle progression and endoreplication were observed in cardiomyocytes of p21{sup Cip1} knockout mice at 4 weeks of age. In addition, tri- and tetranucleated cardiomyocytes increased significantly in p21{sup Cip1} knockout mice. These data showed that the G1-phase inhibitory system and two CKIs (p21{sup Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1}) inhibit entry to an additional cell cycle in postnatal cardiomyocytes, and that the M-phase inhibitory system and p21{sup Cip1} inhibit M-phase entry of cardiomyocytes which have entered the additional cell cycle. - Highlights: • Many postnatal cardiomyocytes entered an additional cell cycle by cyclin D1 induction. • The majority of cardiomyocytes could not enter M-phase after cyclin D1 induction. • Cell cycle progressed markedly in p21{sup Cip1} knockout mice after postnatal day 14. • Tri- and tetranucleated cardiomyocytes increased in p21{sup Cip1} knockout mice.

  6. Regulation of cardiomyocyte signaling by RGS proteins: differential selectivity towards G proteins and susceptibility to regulation.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jianming; Michalek, Christina; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Ming; Xu, Xiaomei; Mende, Ulrike

    2006-07-01

    Many signals that regulate cardiomyocyte growth, differentiation and function are mediated via heterotrimeric G proteins, which are under the control of RGS proteins (Regulators of G protein Signaling). Several RGS proteins are expressed in the heart, but so far little is known about their function and regulation. Using adenoviral gene transfer, we conducted the first comprehensive analysis of the capacity and selectivity of the major cardiac RGS proteins (RGS2-RGS5) to regulate central G protein-mediated signaling pathways in adult ventricular myocytes (AVM). All four RGS proteins potently inhibited Gq/11-mediated phospholipase C beta stimulation and cell growth (assessed in neonatal myocytes). Importantly, RGS2 selectively inhibited Gq/11 signaling, whereas RGS3, RGS4 and RGS5 had the capacity to regulate both Gq/11 and Gi/o signaling (carbachol-induced cAMP inhibition). Gs signaling was unaffected, and, contrary to reports in other cell lines, RGS2-RGS5 did not appear to regulate adenylate cyclase directly in AVM. Since RGS proteins can be highly regulated in their expression by many different stimuli, we also tested the hypothesis that RGS expression is subject to G protein-mediated regulation in AVM and determined the specificity with which enhanced G protein signaling alters endogenous RGS expression in AVM. RGS2 mRNA and protein were markedly but transiently up-regulated by enhanced Gq/11 signaling (alpha1-adrenergic stimulation or Galphaq* overexpression), possibly by a negative feedback mechanism. In contrast, the other negative regulators of Gq/11 signaling (RGS3-RGS5) were unchanged. Endogenous RGS2 (but not RGS3-RGS5) expression was also up-regulated in cells with enhanced AC signaling (beta-adrenergic or forskolin stimulation). Taken together, these findings suggest diverse roles of RGS proteins in regulating myocyte signaling. RGS2 emerged as the only selective and highly regulated inhibitor of Gq/11 signaling that could potentially become a promising

  7. Btg2 is a Negative Regulator of Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy through a Decrease in Cytosolic RNA

    PubMed Central

    Masumura, Yuki; Higo, Shuichiro; Asano, Yoshihiro; Kato, Hisakazu; Yan, Yi; Ishino, Saki; Tsukamoto, Osamu; Kioka, Hidetaka; Hayashi, Takaharu; Shintani, Yasunori; Yamazaki, Satoru; Minamino, Tetsuo; Kitakaze, Masafumi; Komuro, Issei; Takashima, Seiji; Sakata, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Under hypertrophic stimulation, cardiomyocytes enter a hypermetabolic state and accelerate biomass accumulation. Although the molecular pathways that regulate protein levels are well-studied, the functional implications of RNA accumulation and its regulatory mechanisms in cardiomyocytes remain elusive. Here, we have elucidated the quantitative kinetics of RNA in cardiomyocytes through single cell imaging and c-Myc (Myc)-mediated hypermetabolic analytical model using cultured cardiomyocytes. Nascent RNA labeling combined with single cell imaging demonstrated that Myc protein significantly increased the amount of global RNA production per cardiomyocyte. Chromatin immunoprecipitation with high-throughput sequencing clarified that overexpressed Myc bound to a specific set of genes and recruits RNA polymerase II. Among these genes, we identified Btg2 as a novel target of Myc. Btg2 overexpression significantly reduced cardiomyocyte surface area. Conversely, shRNA-mediated knockdown of Btg2 accelerated adrenergic stimulus-induced hypertrophy. Using mass spectrometry analysis, we determined that Btg2 binds a series of proteins that comprise mRNA deadenylation complexes. Intriguingly, Btg2 specifically suppresses cytosolic, but not nuclear, RNA levels. Btg2 knockdown further enhances cytosolic RNA accumulation in cardiomyocytes under adrenergic stimulation, suggesting that Btg2 negatively regulates reactive hypertrophy by negatively regulating RNA accumulation. Our findings provide insight into the functional significance of the mechanisms regulating RNA levels in cardiomyocytes. PMID:27346836

  8. Notch signaling regulates cardiomyocyte proliferation during zebrafish heart regeneration.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Long; Borikova, Asya L; Ben-Yair, Raz; Guner-Ataman, Burcu; MacRae, Calum A; Lee, Richard T; Burns, C Geoffrey; Burns, Caroline E

    2014-01-28

    The human heart's failure to replace ischemia-damaged myocardium with regenerated muscle contributes significantly to the worldwide morbidity and mortality associated with coronary artery disease. Remarkably, certain vertebrate species, including the zebrafish, achieve complete regeneration of amputated or injured myocardium through the proliferation of spared cardiomyocytes. Nonetheless, the genetic and cellular determinants of natural cardiac regeneration remain incompletely characterized. Here, we report that cardiac regeneration in zebrafish relies on Notch signaling. Following amputation of the zebrafish ventricular apex, Notch receptor expression becomes activated specifically in the endocardium and epicardium, but not the myocardium. Using a dominant negative approach, we discovered that suppression of Notch signaling profoundly impairs cardiac regeneration and induces scar formation at the amputation site. We ruled out defects in endocardial activation, epicardial activation, and dedifferentiation of compact myocardial cells as causative for the regenerative failure. Furthermore, coronary endothelial tubes, which we lineage traced from preexisting endothelium in wild-type hearts, formed in the wound despite the myocardial regenerative failure. Quantification of myocardial proliferation in Notch-suppressed hearts revealed a significant decrease in cycling cardiomyocytes, an observation consistent with a noncell autonomous requirement for Notch signaling in cardiomyocyte proliferation. Unexpectedly, hyperactivation of Notch signaling also suppressed cardiomyocyte proliferation and heart regeneration. Taken together, our data uncover the exquisite sensitivity of regenerative cardiomyocyte proliferation to perturbations in Notch signaling.

  9. Cardiomyocyte Regulation of Systemic Lipid Metabolism by the Apolipoprotein B-Containing Lipoproteins in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Zachary

    2017-01-01

    The heart has emerged as an important organ in the regulation of systemic lipid homeostasis; however, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we show that Drosophila cardiomyocytes regulate systemic lipid metabolism by producing apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins (apoB-lipoproteins), essential lipid carriers that are so far known to be generated only in the fat body. In a Drosophila genetic screen, we discovered that when haplo-insufficient, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (mtp), required for the biosynthesis of apoB-lipoproteins, suppressed the development of diet-induced obesity. Tissue-specific inhibition of Mtp revealed that whereas knockdown of mtp only in the fat body decreases systemic triglyceride (TG) content on normal food diet (NFD) as expected, knockdown of mtp only in the cardiomyocytes also equally decreases systemic TG content on NFD, suggesting that the cardiomyocyte- and fat body-derived apoB-lipoproteins serve similarly important roles in regulating whole-body lipid metabolism. Unexpectedly, on high fat diet (HFD), knockdown of mtp in the cardiomyocytes, but not in fat body, protects against the gain in systemic TG levels. We further showed that inhibition of the Drosophila apoB homologue, apolipophorin or apoLpp, another gene essential for apoB-lipoprotein biosynthesis, affects systemic TG levels similarly to that of Mtp inhibition in the cardiomyocytes on NFD or HFD. Finally, we determined that HFD differentially alters Mtp and apoLpp expression in the cardiomyocytes versus the fat body, culminating in higher Mtp and apoLpp levels in the cardiomyocytes than in fat body and possibly underlying the predominant role of cardiomyocyte-derived apoB-lipoproteins in lipid metabolic regulation. Our findings reveal a novel and significant function of heart-mediated apoB-lipoproteins in controlling lipid homeostasis. PMID:28095410

  10. Cardiomyocyte Regulation of Systemic Lipid Metabolism by the Apolipoprotein B-Containing Lipoproteins in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunji; Bao, Hong; Ishikawa, Zachary; Wang, Weidong; Lim, Hui-Ying

    2017-01-01

    The heart has emerged as an important organ in the regulation of systemic lipid homeostasis; however, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we show that Drosophila cardiomyocytes regulate systemic lipid metabolism by producing apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins (apoB-lipoproteins), essential lipid carriers that are so far known to be generated only in the fat body. In a Drosophila genetic screen, we discovered that when haplo-insufficient, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (mtp), required for the biosynthesis of apoB-lipoproteins, suppressed the development of diet-induced obesity. Tissue-specific inhibition of Mtp revealed that whereas knockdown of mtp only in the fat body decreases systemic triglyceride (TG) content on normal food diet (NFD) as expected, knockdown of mtp only in the cardiomyocytes also equally decreases systemic TG content on NFD, suggesting that the cardiomyocyte- and fat body-derived apoB-lipoproteins serve similarly important roles in regulating whole-body lipid metabolism. Unexpectedly, on high fat diet (HFD), knockdown of mtp in the cardiomyocytes, but not in fat body, protects against the gain in systemic TG levels. We further showed that inhibition of the Drosophila apoB homologue, apolipophorin or apoLpp, another gene essential for apoB-lipoprotein biosynthesis, affects systemic TG levels similarly to that of Mtp inhibition in the cardiomyocytes on NFD or HFD. Finally, we determined that HFD differentially alters Mtp and apoLpp expression in the cardiomyocytes versus the fat body, culminating in higher Mtp and apoLpp levels in the cardiomyocytes than in fat body and possibly underlying the predominant role of cardiomyocyte-derived apoB-lipoproteins in lipid metabolic regulation. Our findings reveal a novel and significant function of heart-mediated apoB-lipoproteins in controlling lipid homeostasis.

  11. Emerging roles of SIRT1 deacetylase in regulating cardiomyocyte survival and hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Sundaresan, Nagalingam R; Pillai, Vinodkumar B.; Gupta, Mahesh P.

    2011-01-01

    Calorie restriction is considered to be the best environmental intervention providing health benefits to mammals. The underlying mechanism of this intervention seems to be controlled by a group of NAD-dependent deacetylases, collectively called sirtuins. In mammals there are seven sirutuin analogues, SIRT1 to SIRT7. The founding member of this family, SIRT1 is shown to protect cardiomyocytes from apoptosis and age-dependent degeneration in a dose dependent manner—protecting cells at low doses but showing detrimental effects at high doses. Studies performed with over expression or knockdown of SIRT1 indicated that though it protects cells from oxidative stress and ischemia-reperfusion injury, it promotes hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes. Activation of endogenous SIRT1 by resveratrol also displayed pro-survival and pro-hypertrophic activity of SIRT1. In this article we review recent findings documenting the role of SIRT1 in regulating cardiac myocyte growth and survival under stress, and the proposed mechanism behind its cardio protective effects. We also briefly discuss two other sirtuin analogues which have been shown to have cardioprotective effects. PMID:21276800

  12. Talin Is Required Continuously for Cardiomyocyte Remodeling during Heart Growth in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Bogatan, Simina; Cevik, Duygu; Demidov, Valentin; Vanderploeg, Jessica; Panchbhaya, Abdullah; Vitkin, Alex; Jacobs, J. Roger

    2015-01-01

    Mechanotransduction of tension can govern the remodeling of cardiomyocytes during growth or cardiomyopathy. Tension is signaled through the integrin adhesion complexes found at muscle insertions and costameres but the relative importance of signalling during cardiomyocyte growth versus remodelling has not been assessed. Employing the Drosophila cardiomyocyte as a genetically amenable model, we depleted the levels of Talin, a central component of the integrin adhesion complex, at different stages of heart growth and remodeling. We demonstrate a continuous requirement for Talin during heart growth to maintain the one-to-one apposition of myofibril ends between cardiomyocytes. Retracted myofibrils cannot regenerate appositions to adjacent cells after restoration of normal Talin expression, and the resulting deficit reduces heart contraction and lifespan. Reduction of Talin during heart remodeling after hatching or during metamorphosis results in pervasive degeneration of cell contacts, myofibril length and number, for which restored Talin expression is insufficient for regeneration. Resultant dilated cardiomyopathy results in a fibrillating heart with poor rhythmicity. Cardiomyocytes have poor capacity to regenerate deficits in myofibril orientation and insertion, despite an ongoing capacity to remodel integrin based adhesions. PMID:26110760

  13. Hyperosmotic stress-dependent NFkappaB activation is regulated by reactive oxygen species and IGF-1 in cultured cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Eisner, Verónica; Criollo, Alfredo; Quiroga, Clara; Olea-Azar, Claudio; Santibañez, Juan Francisco; Troncoso, Rodrigo; Chiong, Mario; Díaz-Araya, Guillermo; Foncea, Rocío; Lavandero, Sergio

    2006-08-07

    We have recently shown that hyperosmotic stress activates p65/RelB NFkappaB in cultured cardiomyocytes with dichotomic actions on caspase activation and cell death. It remains unexplored how NFkappaB is regulated in cultured rat cardiomyocytes exposed to hyperosmotic stress. We study here: (a) if hyperosmotic stress triggers reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and in turn whether they regulate NFkappaB and (b) if insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) modulates ROS production and NFkappaB activation in hyperosmotically-stressed cardiomyocytes. The results showed that hyperosmotic stress generated ROS in cultured cardiac myocytes, in particular the hydroxyl and superoxide species, which were inhibited by N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Hyperosmotic stress-induced NFkappaB activation as determined by IkappaBalpha degradation and NFkappaB DNA binding. NFkappaB activation and procaspase-3 and -9 fragmentation were prevented by NAC and IGF-1. However, this growth factor did not decrease ROS generation induced by hyperosmotic stress, suggesting that its actions over NFkappaB and caspase activation may be due to modulation of events downstream of ROS generation. We conclude that hyperosmotic stress induces ROS, which in turn activates NFkappaB and caspases. IGF-1 prevents NFkappaB activation by a ROS-independent mechanism.

  14. Microtubule Actin Cross-Linking Factor 1 Regulates Cardiomyocyte Microtubule Distribution and Adaptation to Hemodynamic Overload

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Dongmin; Wang, Huan; Liu, Xiaoyu; Hu, Xinli; Bache, Robert J.; Chen, Yingjie

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant cardiomyocyte microtubule growth is a feature of pressure overload induced cardiac hypertrophy believed to contribute to left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Microtubule Actin Cross-linking Factor 1 (MACF1/Acf7) is a 600 kd spectraplakin that stabilizes and guides microtubule growth along actin filaments. MACF1 is expressed in the heart, but its impact on cardiac microtubules, and how this influences cardiac structure, function, and adaptation to hemodynamic overload is unknown. Here we used inducible cardiac-specific MACF1 knockout mice (MACF1 KO) to determine the impact of MACF1 on cardiac microtubules and adaptation to pressure overload (transverse aortic constriction (TAC).In adult mouse hearts, MACF1 expression was low under basal conditions, but increased significantly in response to TAC. While MACF1 KO had no observable effect on heart size or function under basal conditions, MACF1 KO exacerbated TAC induced LV hypertrophy, LV dilation and contractile dysfunction. Interestingly, subcellular fractionation of ventricular lysates revealed that MACF1 KO altered microtubule distribution in response to TAC, so that more tubulin was associated with the cell membrane fraction. Moreover, TAC induced microtubule redistribution into this cell membrane fraction in both WT and MACF1 KO mice correlated strikingly with the level of contractile dysfunction (r2 = 0.786, p<.001). MACF1 disruption also resulted in reduction of membrane caveolin 3 levels, and increased levels of membrane PKCα and β1 integrin after TAC, suggesting MACF1 function is important for spatial regulation of several physiologically relevant signaling proteins during hypertrophy. Together, these data identify for the first time, a role for MACF1 in cardiomyocyte microtubule distribution and in adaptation to hemodynamic overload. PMID:24086300

  15. Microtubule Actin Cross-linking Factor 1 regulates cardiomyocyte microtubule distribution and adaptation to hemodynamic overload.

    PubMed

    Fassett, John T; Xu, Xin; Kwak, Dongmin; Wang, Huan; Liu, Xiaoyu; Hu, Xinli; Bache, Robert J; Chen, Yingjie

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant cardiomyocyte microtubule growth is a feature of pressure overload induced cardiac hypertrophy believed to contribute to left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Microtubule Actin Cross-linking Factor 1 (MACF1/Acf7) is a 600 kd spectraplakin that stabilizes and guides microtubule growth along actin filaments. MACF1 is expressed in the heart, but its impact on cardiac microtubules, and how this influences cardiac structure, function, and adaptation to hemodynamic overload is unknown. Here we used inducible cardiac-specific MACF1 knockout mice (MACF1 KO) to determine the impact of MACF1 on cardiac microtubules and adaptation to pressure overload (transverse aortic constriction (TAC).In adult mouse hearts, MACF1 expression was low under basal conditions, but increased significantly in response to TAC. While MACF1 KO had no observable effect on heart size or function under basal conditions, MACF1 KO exacerbated TAC induced LV hypertrophy, LV dilation and contractile dysfunction. Interestingly, subcellular fractionation of ventricular lysates revealed that MACF1 KO altered microtubule distribution in response to TAC, so that more tubulin was associated with the cell membrane fraction. Moreover, TAC induced microtubule redistribution into this cell membrane fraction in both WT and MACF1 KO mice correlated strikingly with the level of contractile dysfunction (r(2) = 0.786, p<.001). MACF1 disruption also resulted in reduction of membrane caveolin 3 levels, and increased levels of membrane PKCα and β1 integrin after TAC, suggesting MACF1 function is important for spatial regulation of several physiologically relevant signaling proteins during hypertrophy. Together, these data identify for the first time, a role for MACF1 in cardiomyocyte microtubule distribution and in adaptation to hemodynamic overload.

  16. Global transcriptomic analysis of induced cardiomyocytes predicts novel regulators for direct cardiac reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Talkhabi, Mahmood; Razavi, Seyed Morteza; Salari, Ali

    2017-04-04

    Heart diseases are the most significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. De novo generated cardiomyocytes (CMs) are a great cellular source for cell-based therapy and other potential applications. Direct cardiac reprogramming is the newest method to produce CMs, known as induced cardiomyocytes (iCMs). During a direct cardiac reprogramming, also known as transdifferentiation, non-cardiac differentiated adult cells are reprogrammed to cardiac identity by forced expression of cardiac-specific transcription factors (TFs) or microRNAs. To this end, many different combinations of TFs (±microRNAs) have been reported for direct reprogramming of mouse or human fibroblasts to iCMs, although their efficiencies remain very low. It seems that the investigated TFs and microRNAs are not sufficient for efficient direct cardiac reprogramming and other cardiac specific factors may be required for increasing iCM production efficiency, as well as the quality of iCMs. Here, we analyzed gene expression data of cardiac fibroblast (CFs), iCMs and adult cardiomyocytes (aCMs). The up-regulated and down-regulated genes in CMs (aCMs and iCMs) were determined as CM and CF specific genes, respectively. Among CM specific genes, we found 153 transcriptional activators including some cardiac and non-cardiac TFs that potentially activate the expression of CM specific genes. We also identified that 85 protein kinases such as protein kinase D1 (PKD1), protein kinase A (PRKA), calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CAMK), protein kinase C (PRKC), and insulin like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) that are strongly involved in establishing CM identity. CM gene regulatory network constructed using protein kinases, transcriptional activators and intermediate proteins predicted some new transcriptional activators such as myocyte enhancer factor 2A (MEF2A) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PPARGC1A), which may be required for qualitatively and

  17. Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Improves Cardiac Function after Ischemic Injury by Inducing Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Production and Survival of Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Okazaki, Tatsuma; Ebihara, Satoru; Asada, Masanori; Yamanda, Shinsuke; Saijo, Yoshifumi; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Ebihara, Takae; Niu, Kaijun; Mei, He; Arai, Hiroyuki; Yambe, Tomoyuki

    2007-01-01

    Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), known as a hematopoietic growth factor, induces vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production from skeletal muscles. However, the effects of M-CSF on cardiomyocytes have not been reported. Here, we show M-CSF increases VEGF production from cardiomyocytes, protects cardiomyocytes and myotubes from cell death, and improves cardiac function after ischemic injury. In mice, M-CSF increased VEGF production in hearts and in freshly isolated cardiomyocytes, which showed M-CSF receptor expression. In rat cell line H9c2 cardiomyocytes and myotubes, M-CSF induced VEGF production via the Akt signaling pathway, and M-CSF pretreatment protected these cells from H2O2-induced cell death. M-CSF activated Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathways and up-regulated downstream anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL expression in these cells. Using goats as a large animal model of myocardial infarction, we found that M-CSF treatment after the onset of myocardial infarction by permanent coronary artery ligation promoted angiogenesis in ischemic hearts but did not reduce the infarct area. M-CSF pretreatment of the goat myocardial infarction model by coronary artery occlusion-reperfusion improved cardiac function, as assessed by hemodynamic parameters and echocardiography. These results suggest M-CSF might be a novel therapeutic agent for ischemic heart disease. PMID:17717142

  18. Focal Adhesion Kinase-mediated Phosphorylation of Beclin1 Protein Suppresses Cardiomyocyte Autophagy and Initiates Hypertrophic Growth*♦

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Zhaokang; Zhu, Qiang; Dee, Rachel; Opheim, Zachary; Mack, Christopher P.; Cyr, Douglas M.; Taylor, Joan M.

    2017-01-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved intracellular degradation/recycling system that is essential for cellular homeostasis but is dysregulated in a number of diseases, including myocardial hypertrophy. Although it is clear that limiting or accelerating autophagic flux can result in pathological cardiac remodeling, the physiological signaling pathways that fine-tune cardiac autophagy are poorly understood. Herein, we demonstrated that stimulation of cardiomyocytes with phenylephrine (PE), a well known hypertrophic agonist, suppresses autophagy and that activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is necessary for PE-stimulated autophagy suppression and subsequent initiation of hypertrophic growth. Mechanistically, we showed that FAK phosphorylates Beclin1, a core autophagy protein, on Tyr-233 and that this post-translational modification limits Beclin1 association with Atg14L and reduces Beclin1-dependent autophagosome formation. Remarkably, although ectopic expression of wild-type Beclin1 promoted cardiomyocyte atrophy, expression of a Y233E phosphomimetic variant of Beclin1 failed to affect cardiomyocyte size. Moreover, genetic depletion of Beclin1 attenuated PE-mediated/FAK-dependent initiation of myocyte hypertrophy in vivo. Collectively, these findings identify FAK as a novel negative regulator of Beclin1-mediated autophagy and indicate that this pathway can facilitate the promotion of compensatory hypertrophic growth. This novel mechanism to limit Beclin1 activity has important implications for treating a variety of pathologies associated with altered autophagic flux. PMID:27994061

  19. Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 mediates endothelial-cardiomyocyte communication and regulates cardiac function.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Margaret E; Collins, Caitlin; Makarewich, Catherine A; Chen, Zhongming; Rojas, Mauricio; Willis, Monte S; Houser, Steven R; Tzima, Ellie

    2015-01-19

    Dilated cardiomyopathy is characterized by impaired contractility of cardiomyocytes, ventricular chamber dilatation, and systolic dysfunction. Although mutations in genes expressed in the cardiomyocyte are the best described causes of reduced contractility, the importance of endothelial-cardiomyocyte communication for proper cardiac function is increasingly appreciated. In the present study, we investigate the role of the endothelial adhesion molecule platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1) in the regulation of cardiac function. Using cell culture and animal models, we show that PECAM-1 expressed in endothelial cells (ECs) regulates cardiomyocyte contractility and cardiac function via the neuregulin-ErbB signaling pathway. Conscious echocardiography revealed left ventricular (LV) chamber dilation and systolic dysfunction in PECAM-1(-/-) mice in the absence of histological abnormalities or defects in cardiac capillary density. Despite deficits in global cardiac function, cardiomyocytes isolated from PECAM-1(-/-) hearts displayed normal baseline and isoproterenol-stimulated contractility. Mechanistically, absence of PECAM-1 resulted in elevated NO/ROS signaling and NRG-1 release from ECs, which resulted in augmented phosphorylation of its receptor ErbB2. Treatment of cardiomyocytes with conditioned media from PECAM-1(-/-) ECs resulted in enhanced ErbB2 activation, which was normalized by pre-treatment with an NRG-1 blocking antibody. To determine whether normalization of increased NRG-1 levels could correct cardiac function, PECAM-1(-/-) mice were treated with the NRG-1 blocking antibody. Echocardiography showed that treatment significantly improved cardiac function of PECAM-1(-/-) mice, as revealed by increased ejection fraction and fractional shortening. We identify a novel role for PECAM-1 in regulating cardiac function via a paracrine NRG1-ErbB pathway. These data highlight the importance of tightly regulated cellular communication for proper

  20. ADAM10 modulates calcitriol-regulated RAGE in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ting-Wei; Kao, Yu-Hsun; Lee, Ting-I; Chen, Yi-Jen

    2017-09-01

    Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) signalling plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Calcitriol modulates cardiac RAGE expression. This study explored the mechanisms underlying the effect of calcitriol on RAGE and soluble RAGE (sRAGE) expression in cardiomyocytes. Western blot, ELISA, fluorometric assay and PCR analyses were used to evaluate the RAGE, sRAGE, endogenous secretory RAGE (esRAGE), Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and a disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10) expression and enzyme activity in HL-1 atrial myocytes without and with calcitriol (10 and 100 nM), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) inhibitor (50 μg/mL), or ADAM10 inhibitor (5 μM) incubation for 48 h. Calcitriol (10 nM) significantly reduced RAGE protein expression and increased sRAGE concentrations in HL-1 cardiomyocytes compared with control cells. These changes were associated with increased protein expression and enzyme activity of ADAM10 and higher mRNA expression of esRAGE. In the presence of ADAM10 inhibitor, however, the suppressive effect of calcitriol on RAGE was diminished. Methylglyoxal (500 μM for 10 min)-mediated JNK phosphorylation was attenuated in the presence of calcitriol (10 nM). Moreover, control and NF-κB inhibitor-treated HL-1 cells had similar RAGE and sRAGE expression, suggesting that calcitriol-mediated RAGE modulation was independent of NF-κB signalling. We showed that RAGE downregulation and increased sRAGE production by calcitriol were mediated through ADAM10 activation in cardiomyocytes. The results suggest that calcitriol has therapeutic potential in treating RAGE-mediated cardiovascular complications. © 2017 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  1. Cardiomyocyte VEGF Regulates Endothelial Cell GPIHBP1 to Relocate Lipoprotein Lipase to the Coronary Lumen During Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Amy Pei-Ling; Wan, Andrea; Lal, Nathaniel; Zhang, Dahai; Wang, Fulong; Vlodavsky, Israel; Hussein, Bahira; Rodrigues, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL)-mediated triglyceride hydrolysis is the major source of fatty acid for cardiac energy. LPL, synthesized in cardiomyocytes, is translocated across endothelial cells (EC) by its transporter glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high-density lipoprotein-binding protein 1 (GPIHBP1). Previously, we have reported an augmentation in coronary LPL, which was linked to an increased expression of GPIHBP1 following moderate diabetes mellitus. We examined the potential mechanism by which hyperglycemia amplifies GPIHBP1. Exposure of rat aortic EC to high glucose induced GPIHBP1 expression and amplified LPL shuttling across these cells. This effect coincided with an elevated secretion of heparanase. Incubation of EC with high glucose or latent heparanase resulted in secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Primary cardiomyocytes, being a rich source of VEGF, when cocultured with EC, restored EC GPIHBP1 that is lost because of cell passaging. Furthermore, recombinant VEGF induced EC GPIHBP1 mRNA and protein expression within 24 hours, an effect that could be prevented by a VEGF neutralizing antibody. This VEGF-induced increase in GPIHBP1 was through Notch signaling that encompassed Delta-like ligand 4 augmentation and nuclear translocation of the Notch intracellular domain. Finally, cardiomyocytes from severely diabetic animals exhibiting attenuation of VEGF were unable to increase EC GPIHBP1 expression and had lower LPL activity at the vascular lumen in perfused hearts. EC, as the first responders to hyperglycemia, can release heparanase to liberate myocyte VEGF. This growth factor, by activating EC Notch signaling, is responsible for facilitating GPIHBP1-mediated translocation of LPL across EC and regulating LPL-derived fatty acid delivery to the cardiomyocytes. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. 14-3-3ε Plays a Role in Cardiac Ventricular Compaction by Regulating the Cardiomyocyte Cell Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Kosaka, Yasuhiro; Cieslik, Katarzyna A.; Li, Ling; Lezin, George; Maguire, Colin T.; Saijoh, Yukio; Toyo-oka, Kazuhito; Gambello, Michael J.; Vatta, Matteo; Wynshaw-Boris, Anthony; Baldini, Antonio; Yost, H. Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Trabecular myocardium accounts for the majority of the ventricles during early cardiogenesis, but compact myocardium is the primary component at later developmental stages. Elucidation of the genes regulating compact myocardium development is essential to increase our understanding of left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC), a cardiomyopathy characterized by increased ratios of trabecular to compact myocardium. 14-3-3ε is an adapter protein expressed in the lateral plate mesoderm, but its in vivo cardiac functions remain to be defined. Here we show that 14-3-3ε is expressed in the developing mouse heart as well as in cardiomyocytes. 14-3-3ε deletion did not appear to induce compensation by other 14-3-3 isoforms but led to ventricular noncompaction, with features similar to LVNC, resulting from a selective reduction in compact myocardium thickness. Abnormal compaction derived from a 50% decrease in cardiac proliferation as a result of a reduced number of cardiomyocytes in G2/M and the accumulation of cardiomyocytes in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. These defects originated from downregulation of cyclin E1 and upregulation of p27Kip1, possibly through both transcriptional and posttranslational mechanisms. Our work shows that 14-3-3ε regulates cardiogenesis and growth of the compact ventricular myocardium by modulating the cardiomyocyte cell cycle via both cyclin E1 and p27Kip1. These data are consistent with the long-held view that human LVNC may result from compaction arrest, and they implicate 14-3-3ε as a new candidate gene in congenital human cardiomyopathies. PMID:23071090

  3. Up-regulation of miR-138 inhibits hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis via down-regulating lipocalin-2 expression

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Haowei; Luo, Tiantian; He, Wenshuai; Xi, Dan; Lu, Hao; Li, Menghao; Liu, Jichen

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis contributes significantly to the development of numerous cardiac diseases, such as ischemic heart disease, heart failure, etc. Promoting cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis is one of the available strategies to attenuate cardiac dysfunction caused by cardiomyocyte loss. Previous studies have been demonstrated that miR-138 and lipocalin-2 (Lcn2) play important roles in cardiomyocyte apoptosis and survival. We presently determined whether Lcn2 is a target gene of miR-138 involved in hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Firstly, mimics of miR-138 were transfected into HL-1 cells to investigate its effect on cell apoptosis. Using 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-y1) 2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and Annexin V-FITC/PI flow cytometer assays, over-expression of miR-138 significantly enhanced the cell growth and significantly attenuated the cell apoptosis in hypoxic conditions. Dual-luciferase reporter gene and western blot results confirmed Lcn2 was a direct target of miR-138. Then, the recombinant plasmid, pcDNA3.1/Lcn2 was transfected into the HL-1 cells that over-expressed miR-138. We further observed that the over-expression of Lcn2 diminished the protection of miR-138 over-expression from hypoxia-induced cell survival and apoptosis. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that up-regulation of miR-138 inhibits the hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis via down-regulating the pro-apoptotic gene expression of Lcn2. PMID:26129883

  4. AKIP1, a cardiac hypertrophy induced protein that stimulates cardiomyocyte growth via the Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hongjuan; Tigchelaar, Wardit; Lu, Bo; van Gilst, Wiek H; de Boer, Rudolf A; Westenbrink, B Daan; Silljé, Herman H W

    2013-10-28

    Cardiac adaptation to unremitting physiological stress typically involves hypertrophic growth of cardiomyocytes, a compensatory response that often fails and causes heart disease. Gene array analysis identified AKIP1 (A Kinase Interacting Protein 1) as a hypertrophic gene and we therefore hypothesized a potential role in the hypertrophic response. We show for the first time that both AKIP1 mRNA and protein levels increased in hypertrophic cardiomyocytes under conditions of sustained cardiac stress, including pressure overload and after myocardial infarction and in vitro in phenylephrine (PE) stimulated neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes (NRVCs). AKIP1 overexpression in NRVCs markedly stimulated hypertrophic growth responses, including significantly increased cell size, augmented cytoskeletal organization and protein synthesis. Although, AKIP1 was not essential for PE induced hypertrophy in NRVCs, it did potentiate neurohormonal induced protein synthesis. AKIP1 did, however, not induce expression of pathological marker genes like ANP and β-MHC. ERK and Akt kinase signaling pathways have been linked to hypertrophy and AKIP1 specifically induced phosphorylation of Akt. This phosphorylation of Akt was essential for activation of ribosomal rpS6 and translation elongation factor eEF2 and this readily explains the increased protein synthesis. Akt inhibition fully blocked AKIP1 induced hypertrophy, showing that this pathway is critically involved. In conclusion, our results show that AKIP1 is induced in hypertrophic hearts and can stimulate adaptive cardiomyocyte growth, which involves Akt signaling.

  5. AKIP1, a Cardiac Hypertrophy Induced Protein that Stimulates Cardiomyocyte Growth via the Akt Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hongjuan; Tigchelaar, Wardit; Lu, Bo; van Gilst, Wiek H.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Westenbrink, B. Daan; Silljé, Herman H. W.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac adaptation to unremitting physiological stress typically involves hypertrophic growth of cardiomyocytes, a compensatory response that often fails and causes heart disease. Gene array analysis identified AKIP1 (A Kinase Interacting Protein 1) as a hypertrophic gene and we therefore hypothesized a potential role in the hypertrophic response. We show for the first time that both AKIP1 mRNA and protein levels increased in hypertrophic cardiomyocytes under conditions of sustained cardiac stress, including pressure overload and after myocardial infarction and in vitro in phenylephrine (PE) stimulated neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes (NRVCs). AKIP1 overexpression in NRVCs markedly stimulated hypertrophic growth responses, including significantly increased cell size, augmented cytoskeletal organization and protein synthesis. Although, AKIP1 was not essential for PE induced hypertrophy in NRVCs, it did potentiate neurohormonal induced protein synthesis. AKIP1 did, however, not induce expression of pathological marker genes like ANP and β-MHC. ERK and Akt kinase signaling pathways have been linked to hypertrophy and AKIP1 specifically induced phosphorylation of Akt. This phosphorylation of Akt was essential for activation of ribosomal rpS6 and translation elongation factor eEF2 and this readily explains the increased protein synthesis. Akt inhibition fully blocked AKIP1 induced hypertrophy, showing that this pathway is critically involved. In conclusion, our results show that AKIP1 is induced in hypertrophic hearts and can stimulate adaptive cardiomyocyte growth, which involves Akt signaling. PMID:24169435

  6. The Growth Hormone Secretagogue Hexarelin Protects Rat Cardiomyocytes From in vivo Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury Through Interleukin-1 Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiannan; Li, Yi; Zhang, Juan; Liu, Yusheng; Lu, Qinghua

    2017-04-06

    Hexarelin, a synthetic growth hormone-releasing peptide, has been proven to possess cardioprotective actions through its binding to the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) 1a and the non-GHSR receptor CD36. However, its effect on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury has not been fully clarified in vivo. We aimed to determine whether hexarelin treatment could protect cardiomyocytes from I/R injury and to examine the underlying mechanisms. In vivo hearts of male SD rats underwent 30 minutes of ischemia by left coronary artery ligation followed by reperfusion. The rats were then treated subcutaneously twice daily with hexarelin [100 μg/kg·day], ghrelin [400 μg/ kg·day], or saline for 7 days. Echocardiography, malondialdehyde detection, and histochemical staining were performed after treatment. In addition, Western blot was used to examine the expression levels of IL-1β, IL-1Ra, and IL-1RI. Our study showed that hexarelin treatment improved cardiac systolic function, decreased malondialdehyde production, and increased the number of surviving cardiomyocytes. The beneficial effects of hexarelin treatment were slightly superior to those of equimolar ghrelin treatment. We meanwhile confirmed that hexarelin induced down-regulation of IL-1β expression and up-regulation of IL-1Ra expression in I/R myocardium, which could be neutralized by the GHSR antagonist [D-Lys3]-growth hormone releasing peptide-6 ([D-Lys3]-GHRP-6). These findings suggest that hexarelin protects in vivo cardiomyocytes from I/R injury partly by modification of the IL-1 signaling pathway through the activation of cardiac GHSR1a receptors.

  7. Amyloid peptide regulates calcium homoeostasis and arrhythmogenesis in pulmonary vein cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Hsuan-Ming; Weerateerangkul, Punate; Chen, Yao-Chang; Kao, Yu-Hsun; Lin, Yung-Kuo; Huang, Jen-Hung; Chen, Shih-Ann; Chen, Yi-Jen

    2012-06-01

    Amyloid peptides modulate cardiac calcium homoeostasis and play an important role in the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation. Pulmonary veins (PVs) are critical in the genesis of atrial fibrillation and contain abundant amyloid peptides. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate whether amyloid peptides may change the PV electrical activity through regulating calcium homoeostasis. The channel and calcium-handling protein expressions, intracellular calcium and ionic currents were studied in isolated rabbit PV cardiomyocytes in the presence and absence (control) of beta-amyloid (Aβ(25-35) ) for 4-6 h, using Western blot analysis, indo-1 fluorimetric ratio and whole-cell patch clamp techniques. Aβ(25-35) decreased the expressions of Ca(V) 1.2, total or Ser16-phosphorylated phospholamban (p-PLB), p-PLB/PLB ratio, sodium/calcium exchanger, but did not change ryanodine receptor, sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) ATPase and K(+) channel proteins (Kir2.1, Kir2.3, Kv1.4, Kv1.5 and Kv4.2). Aβ(25-35) -treated cardiomyocytes had smaller calcium transient, SR calcium store, L-type calcium current and sodium/calcium exchanger current than control cardiomyocytes. Moreover, Aβ(25-35) -treated cardiomyocytes (n = 20) had shorter 90% of the action potential duration (82 ± 3 vs. 93 ± 5 ms, P < 0·05) than control cardiomyocytes (n = 16). Aβ(25-35) has direct electrophysiological effects on PV cardiomyocytes. © 2011 The Authors. European Journal of Clinical Investigation © 2011 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  8. Direct regulation of myocardial triglyceride metabolism by the cardiomyocyte circadian clock.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ju-Yun; Kienesberger, Petra C; Pulinilkunnil, Thomas; Sailors, Mary H; Durgan, David J; Villegas-Montoya, Carolina; Jahoor, Anil; Gonzalez, Raquel; Garvey, Merissa E; Boland, Brandon; Blasier, Zachary; McElfresh, Tracy A; Nannegari, Vijayalakshmi; Chow, Chi-Wing; Heird, William C; Chandler, Margaret P; Dyck, Jason R B; Bray, Molly S; Young, Martin E

    2010-01-29

    Maintenance of circadian alignment between an organism and its environment is essential to ensure metabolic homeostasis. Synchrony is achieved by cell autonomous circadian clocks. Despite a growing appreciation of the integral relation between clocks and metabolism, little is known regarding the direct influence of a peripheral clock on cellular responses to fatty acids. To address this important issue, we utilized a genetic model of disrupted clock function specifically in cardiomyocytes in vivo (termed cardiomyocyte clock mutant (CCM)). CCM mice exhibited altered myocardial response to chronic high fat feeding at the levels of the transcriptome and lipidome as well as metabolic fluxes, providing evidence that the cardiomyocyte clock regulates myocardial triglyceride metabolism. Time-of-day-dependent oscillations in myocardial triglyceride levels, net triglyceride synthesis, and lipolysis were markedly attenuated in CCM hearts. Analysis of key proteins influencing triglyceride turnover suggest that the cardiomyocyte clock inactivates hormone-sensitive lipase during the active/awake phase both at transcriptional and post-translational (via AMP-activated protein kinase) levels. Consistent with increased net triglyceride synthesis during the end of the active/awake phase, high fat feeding at this time resulted in marked cardiac steatosis. These data provide evidence for direct regulation of triglyceride turnover by a peripheral clock and reveal a potential mechanistic explanation for accelerated metabolic pathologies after prevalent circadian misalignment in Western society.

  9. Reciprocal regulation of transcription factors and PLC isozyme gene expression in adult cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Singal, Tushi; Dhalla, Naranjan S; Tappia, Paramjit S

    2010-06-01

    By employing a pharmacological approach, we have shown that phospholipase C (PLC) activity is involved in the regulation of gene expression of transcription factors such as c-Fos and c-Jun in cardiomyocytes in response to norepinephrine (NE). However, there is no information available regarding the identity of specific PLC isozymes involved in the regulation of c-Fos and c-Jun or on the involvement of these transcription factors in PLC isozyme gene expression in adult cardiomyocytes. In this study, transfection of cardiomyocytes with PLC isozyme specific siRNA was found to prevent the NE-mediated increases in the corresponding PLC isozyme gene expression, protein content and activity. Unlike PLC gamma(1) gene, silencing of PLC beta(1), beta(3) and delta(1) genes with si RNA prevented the increases in c-Fos and c-Jun gene expression in response to NE. On the other hand, transfection with c-Jun si RNA suppressed the NE-induced increase in c-Jun as well as PLC beta(1), beta(3) and delta(1) gene expression, but had no effect on PLC gamma(1) gene expression. Although transfection of cardiomyocytes with c-Fos si RNA prevented NE-induced expression of c-Fos, PLC beta(1) and PLC beta(3) genes, it did not affect the increases in PLC delta(1) and PLC gamma(1) gene expression. Silencing of either c-Fos or c-Jun also depressed the NE-mediated increases in PLC beta(1), beta(3) and gamma(1) protein content and activity in an isozyme specific manner. Furthermore, silencing of all PLC isozymes as well as of c-Fos and c-Jun resulted in prevention of the NE-mediated increase in atrial natriuretic factor gene expression. These findings, by employing gene silencing techniques, demonstrate that there occurs a reciprocal regulation of transcription factors and specific PLC isozyme gene expression in cardiomyocytes.

  10. NF-κB (p65) negatively regulates myocardin-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through multiple mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xing-Hua; Wang, Nan; Zhao, Dong-Wei; Zheng, De-Liang; Zheng, Li; Xing, Wen-Jing; Zhou, Hao; Cao, Dong-Sun; Zhang, Tong-Cun

    2014-12-01

    Myocardin is well known to play a key role in the development of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. But the exact molecular mechanism regulating myocardin stability and transactivity to affect cardiomyocyte hypertrophy has not been studied clearly. We now report that NF-κB (p65) can inhibit myocardin-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Then we explore the molecular mechanism of this response. First, we show that p65 can functionally repress myocardin transcriptional activity and also reduce the protein expression of myocardin. Second, the function of myocardin can be regulated by epigenetic modifications. Myocardin sumoylation is known to transactivate cardiac genes, but whether p65 can inhibit SUMO modification of myocardin is still not clear. Our data show that p65 weakens myocardin transcriptional activity through attenuating SUMO modification of myocardin by SUMO1/PIAS1, thereby impairing myocardin-mediated cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Furthermore, the expression of myocardin can be regulated by several microRNAs, which play important roles in the development and function of the heart and muscle. We next investigated potential role of miR-1 in cardiac hypotrophy. Our results show that p65 can upregulate the level of miR-1 and miR-1 can decrease protein expression of myocardin in cardiac myocytes. Notably, miR-1 expression is also controlled by myocardin, leading to a feedback loop. These data thus provide important and novel insights into the function that p65 inhibits myocardin-mediated cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by downregulating the expression and SUMO modification of myocardin and enhancing the expression of miR-1. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Myofibrillogenesis regulator 1 induces hypertrophy by promoting sarcomere organization in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoreng; Liu, Xiuhua; Wang, Song; Luan, Kang

    2012-06-01

    Human myofibrillogenesis regulator 1, a novel 17-kDa protein, is closely involved in cardiac hypertrophy. We studied the molecular mechanism that links MR-1 to hypertrophic response. Hypertrophic hallmarks such as cell size and [(3)H]-leucine incorporation were significantly increased when MR-1 was transfected into cardiomyocytes for 48 h. However, sarcomere organization was promoted when MR-1 was transfected for 8 h. The finding that cardiac hypertrophy was induced long after increase of sarcomere organization indicates that the promoted sarcomere organization may be one of the crucial factors causing hypertrophy. Furthermore, when MR-1 was transfected into cardiomyocytes, the nuclear localization of myomesin-1 was shifted to the cytoplasm. Transfection with small ubiquitin-like modifier-1 (SUMO-1) mimicked the effect of MR-1 inducing translocation of myomesin-1. However, transfection with SUMO-1 in MR-1-silenced cardiomyocytes failed to induce translocation and sarcomere organization, even though SUMO-1 expression was at the same level. Overexpression of MR-1 may induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via myomesin-1-mediated sarcomere organization.

  12. Myofibrillogenesis regulator 1 induces hypertrophy by promoting sarcomere organization in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoreng; Liu, Xiuhua; Wang, Song; Luan, Kang

    2012-01-01

    Human myofibrillogenesis regulator 1, a novel 17-kDa protein, is closely involved in cardiac hypertrophy. We studied the molecular mechanism that links MR-1 to hypertrophic response. Hypertrophic hallmarks such as cell size and [3H]-leucine incorporation were significantly increased when MR-1 was transfected into cardiomyocytes for 48 h. However, sarcomere organization was promoted when MR-1 was transfected for 8 h. The finding that cardiac hypertrophy was induced long after increase of sarcomere organization indicates that the promoted sarcomere organization may be one of the crucial factors causing hypertrophy. Furthermore, when MR-1 was transfected into cardiomyocytes, the nuclear localization of myomesin-1 was shifted to the cytoplasm. Transfection with small ubiquitin-like modifier-1 (SUMO-1) mimicked the effect of MR-1 inducing translocation of myomesin-1. However, transfection with SUMO-1 in MR-1-silenced cardiomyocytes failed to induce translocation and sarcomere organization, even though SUMO-1 expression was at the same level. Overexpression of MR-1 may induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via myomesin-1-mediated sarcomere organization. PMID:22418241

  13. Fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 is essential for in vitro cardiomyocyte development.

    PubMed

    Dell'Era, Patrizia; Ronca, Roberto; Coco, Laura; Nicoli, Stefania; Metra, Marco; Presta, Marco

    2003-09-05

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)/FGF receptor (FGFR) signaling plays a crucial role in mesoderm formation and patterning. Heartless mutant studies in Drosophila suggest that FGFR1, among the different FGFRs, may play a role in cardiogenesis. However, fgfr1-/- mice die during gastrulation before heart formation. To establish the contribution of FGFR1 in cardiac development, we investigated the capacity of murine fgfr1+/- and fgfr1-/- embryonic stem (ES) cells to differentiate to cardiomyocytes in vitro. Clusters of pulsating cardiomyocytes were observed in >90% of 3-dimensional embryoid bodies (EBs) originated from fgfr1+/- ES cells at day 9 to 10 of differentiation. In contrast, 10% or less of fgfr1-/- EBs showed beating foci at day 16. Accordingly, fgfr1-/- EBs were characterized by impaired expression of early cardiac transcription factors Nkx2.5 and d-Hand and of late structural cardiac genes myosin heavy chain (MHC)-alpha, MHC-beta, and ventricular myosin light chain. Homozygous fgfr1 mutation resulted also in alterations of the expression of mesoderm-related early genes, including nodal, BMP2, BMP4, T(bra), and sonic hedgehog. Nevertheless, fgfr1+/- and fgfr1-/- EBs similarly express cardiogenic precursor, endothelial, hematopoietic, and skeletal muscle markers, indicating that fgfr1-null mutation exerts a selective effect on cardiomyocyte development in differentiating ES cells. Accordingly, inhibitors of FGFR signaling, including the FGFR1 tyrosine kinase inhibitor SU 5402, the MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126, and the protein kinase C inhibitor GF109 all prevented cardiomyocyte differentiation in fgfr1+/- EBs without affecting the expression of the hematopoietic/endothelial marker flk-1. In conclusion, the data point to a nonredundant role for FGFR1-mediated signaling in cardiomyocyte development.

  14. The A-kinase anchor protein AKAP121 is a negative regulator of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Abrenica, Bernard; AlShaaban, Mohamed; Czubryt, Michael P

    2009-05-01

    Pathologic cardiac hypertrophy imposes a significant clinical burden on patients, yet the precise intracellular mechanisms responsible for its induction are only partially understood. We examined a potential role for AKAP121 to regulate cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, since recent reports have implicated other AKAPs in this process. We report here that knockdown of AKAP121 expression in isolated neonatal rat cardiomyocytes results in pronounced cellular hypertrophy. Loss of AKAP121 expression is associated with dephosphorylation and nuclear localization of NFATc3, a downstream effector of the hypertrophic phosphatase calcineurin. We also demonstrate that over-expression of AKAP121 in cardiac myocytes reduces basal cell size, and blocks hypertrophy induced by isoproterenol, indicating that AKAP121 negatively regulates the hypertrophic process. Co-immunoprecipitation data indicates that AKAP121 and calcineurin directly interact. Our findings are consistent with a model in which loss of AKAP121 expression leads to the release of an active pool of calcineurin, in turn causing nuclear translocation of NFATc3 and activation of the hypertrophic gene program. These results are the first to identify AKAP121 as a negative regulator of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, and highlight AKAP121 as a potential target for therapeutic exploitation.

  15. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase attenuates cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through regulation of FOXO3a/MAFbx signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Baolin; Wu, Qiang; Xiong, Zhaojun; Ma, Yuedong; Yu, Sha; Chen, Dandan; Huang, Shengwen; Dong, Yugang

    2016-09-01

    Control of cardiac muscle mass is thought to be determined by a dynamic balance of protein synthesis and degradation. Recent studies have demonstrated that atrophy-related forkhead box O 3a (FOXO3a)/muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx) signaling pathway plays a central role in the modulation of proteolysis and exert inhibitory effect on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation attenuates cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by regulating FOXO3a/MAFbx signaling pathway and its downstream protein degradation. The results showed that activation of AMPK with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR) attenuated cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by angiotensin II (Ang II). The antihypertrophic effects of AICAR were blunted by AMPK inhibitor Compound C. In addition, AMPK dramatically increased the activity of transcription factor FOXO3a, up-regulated the expression of its downstream ubiquitin ligase MAFbx, and enhanced cardiomyocyte proteolysis. Meanwhile, the effects of AMPK on protein degradation and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy were blocked after MAFbx was silenced by transfection of cardiomyocytes with MAFbx-siRNA. These results indicate that AMPK plays an important role in the inhibition of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by activating protein degradation via FOXO3a/MAFbx signaling pathway.

  16. Cardiomyocyte-enriched protein CIP protects against pathophysiological stresses and regulates cardiac homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhan-Peng; Kataoka, Masaharu; Chen, Jinghai; Wu, Gengze; Ding, Jian; Nie, Mao; Lin, Zhiqiang; Liu, Jianming; Hu, Xiaoyun; Ma, Lixin; Zhou, Bin; Wakimoto, Hiroko; Zeng, Chunyu; Kyselovic, Jan; Deng, Zhong-Liang; Seidman, Christine E.; Seidman, J.G.; Pu, William T.; Wang, Da-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Cardiomyopathy is a common human disorder that is characterized by contractile dysfunction and cardiac remodeling. Genetic mutations and altered expression of genes encoding many signaling molecules and contractile proteins are associated with cardiomyopathy; however, how cardiomyocytes sense pathophysiological stresses in order to then modulate cardiac remodeling remains poorly understood. Here, we have described a regulator in the heart that harmonizes the progression of cardiac hypertrophy and dilation. We determined that expression of the myocyte-enriched protein cardiac ISL1-interacting protein (CIP, also known as MLIP) is reduced in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. As CIP is highly conserved between human and mouse, we evaluated the effects of CIP deficiency on cardiac remodeling in mice. Deletion of the CIP-encoding gene accelerated progress from hypertrophy to heart failure in several cardiomyopathy models. Conversely, transgenic and AAV-mediated CIP overexpression prevented pathologic remodeling and preserved cardiac function. CIP deficiency combined with lamin A/C deletion resulted in severe dilated cardiomyopathy and cardiac dysfunction in the absence of stress. Transcriptome analyses of CIP-deficient hearts revealed that the p53- and FOXO1-mediated gene networks related to homeostasis are disturbed upon pressure overload stress. Moreover, FOXO1 overexpression suppressed stress-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in CIP-deficient cardiomyocytes. Our studies identify CIP as a key regulator of cardiomyopathy that has potential as a therapeutic target to attenuate heart failure progression. PMID:26436652

  17. Mitofusin 1 Is Negatively Regulated by MicroRNA 140 in Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jincheng; Li, Yuzhen; Jiao, Jianqin; Wang, Jianxun; Li, Yanrui

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs that mediate posttranscriptional gene silencing. Mitochondrial fission participates in the induction of apoptosis. It remains largely unknown whether miRNAs can regulate mitochondrial fission. Reactive oxygen species and doxorubicin could induce mitochondrial fission and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. Concomitantly, mitofusin 1 (Mfn1) was downregulated, whereas miRNA 140 (miR-140) was upregulated upon apoptotic stimulation. We investigated whether Mfn1 and miR-140 play a functional role in mitochondrial fission and apoptosis. Ectopic expression of Mfn1 attenuated mitochondrial fission and apoptosis. Knockdown of miR-140 inhibited mitochondrial fission. Our results further revealed that knockdown of miR-140 was able to reduce myocardial infarct sizes in an animal model. We observed that miR-140 could suppress the expression of Mfn1, and it exerted its effect on mitochondrial fission and apoptosis through targeting Mfn1. Our data revealed that mitochondrial fission occurs in cardiomyocytes and can be counteracted by Mfn1. However, the function of Mfn1 is negatively regulated by miR-140. Our present work suggests that Mfn1 and miR-140 are integrated into the program of cardiomyocyte apoptosis. PMID:24615014

  18. Regulation of Cardiac Transcription Factor GATA4 by Post-Translational Modification in Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy and Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Katanasaka, Yasufumi; Suzuki, Hidetoshi; Sunagawa, Yoichi; Hasegawa, Koji; Morimoto, Tatsuya

    2016-12-02

    Heart failure is a leading cause of cardiovascular mortality in industrialized countries. During development and deterioration of heart failure, cardiomyocytes undergo maladaptive hypertrophy, and changes in the cellular phenotype are accompanied by reinduction of the fetal gene program. Gene expression in cardiomyocytes is regulated by various nuclear transcription factors, co-activators, and co-repressors. The zinc finger protein GATA4 is one such transcription factor involved in the regulation of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. In response to hypertrophic stimuli such as those involving the sympathetic nervous and renin-angiotensin systems, changes in protein interaction and/or post-translational modifications of GATA4 cause hypertrophic gene transcription in cardiomyocytes. In this article, we focus on cardiac nuclear signaling molecules, especially GATA4, that are promising as potential targets for heart failure therapy.

  19. Prostanoid receptors involved in regulation of the beating rate of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Mechiche, Hakima; Grassin-Delyle, Stanislas; Robinet, Arnaud; Nazeyrollas, Pierre; Devillier, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Although prostanoids are known to be involved in regulation of the spontaneous beating rate of cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, the various subtypes of prostanoid receptors have not been investigated in detail. In our experiments, prostaglandin (PG)F(2α) and prostanoid FP receptor agonists (fluprostenol, latanoprost and cloprostenol) produced a decrease in the beating rate. Two prostanoid IP receptor agonists (iloprost and beraprost) induced first a marked drop in the beating rate and then definitive abrogation of beating. In contrast, the prostanoid DP receptor agonists (PGD(2) and BW245C) and TP receptor agonists (U-46619) produced increases in the beating rate. Sulprostone (a prostanoid EP(1) and EP(3) receptor agonist) induced marked increases in the beating rate, which were suppressed by SC-19220 (a selective prostanoid EP(1) antagonist). Butaprost (a selective prostanoid EP(2) receptor agonist), misoprostol (a prostanoid EP(2) and EP(3) receptor agonist), 11-deoxy-PGE(1) (a prostanoid EP(2), EP(3) and EP(4) receptor agonist) did not alter the beating rate. Our results strongly suggest that prostanoid EP(1) receptors are involved in positive regulation of the beating rate. Prostanoid EP(1) receptor expression was confirmed by western blotting with a selective antibody. Hence, neonatal rat cardiomyocytes express both prostanoid IP and FP receptors (which negatively regulate the spontaneous beating rate) and prostanoid TP, DP(1) and EP(1) receptors (which positively regulate the spontaneous beating rate).

  20. [Regulation of the excitability of neonatal cardiomyocytes by N-stearoyl- and N-oleoyl-ethanolamines].

    PubMed

    Voĭtychuk, O I; Asmolkova, V S; Hula, N M; Sotkis, H V; Oz, M; Shuba, Ia M

    2009-01-01

    N-acylethanolamines (NAE) are biologically active lipids able of modulating ion transport through the cellular plasma membrane, however specific targets of their action and signalling mechanisms involved in cardiac tissue are still poorly understood. Physiological activity of NAEs is known to depend on the level of unsaturation. Therefore, here we investigated the effects of saturated N-stearylethanolamine (NSE) and monounsaturated N-oleylethanolamine on electric excitability of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. 1 microM of either NSE or OEA decreased the duration of cardiac action potential (AP) from all parts of heart muscle. Shortening of AP was partially reversible, though the reversibility of AP duration upon washout of substances was more complete for endocardial ventricular compared to epicardial and atrial cardiomyocytes. I microM NSE depolarized resting membrane potential (RMP) of epicardial and of 65% of endocardial cells, whilst other cells types showed weakly reversible hyperpolarization. 1 microM OEA caused reversible RMP hyperpolarization of all studied cell types. NSE and OEA decreased the amplitude and upstroke velocity of AP that suggests their effect on sodium channels. NSE and to a lesser extent OEA inhibited the amplitude of AP phase 2 (plateau) which may indicate an inhibition of high-voltage-activated calcium channels. Effects of NSE and OEA on RMP and repolarization phase of AP (phase 3) depended on cardiac cell type suggesting differential regulation of inward rectifier Kir and voltage-gated delayed rectifier potassium channels by these lipids. We cannot also exclude interaction of NSE and OEA with anion channels, backgound K+ channels and ion transporters of the cardiomyocytes' plasma membrane. Overall, NSE-induced changes of AP parameters were less reversible than those induced by OEA, suggesting a slower degradation/ convertion of NSE in plasma membrane compared to OEA.

  1. The novel cardiac z-disc protein CEFIP regulates cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by modulating calcineurin signaling.

    PubMed

    Dierck, Franziska; Kuhn, Christian; Rohr, Claudia; Hille, Susanne; Braune, Julia; Sossalla, Samuel; Molt, Sibylle; van der Ven, Peter F M; Fürst, Dieter O; Frey, Norbert

    2017-09-15

    The z-disc is a structural component at the lateral borders of the sarcomere and is important for mechanical stability and contractility of both cardiac and skeletal muscles. Of note, the sarcomeric z-disc also represents a nodal point in cardiomyocyte function and signaling. Mutations of numerous z-disc proteins are associated with cardiomyopathies and muscle diseases. To identify additional z-disc proteins that might contribute to cardiac disease, we employed an in silico screen for cardiac-enriched cDNAs. This screen yielded a previously uncharacterized protein named cardiac-enriched FHL2-interacting protein (CEFIP), which exhibited a heart- and skeletal muscle-specific expression profile. Importantly, CEFIP was located at the z-disc and was up-regulated in several models of cardiomyopathy. We also found that CEFIP overexpression induced the fetal gene program and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Yeast two-hybrid screens revealed that CEFIP interacts with the calcineurin-binding protein four and a half LIM domains 2 (FHL2). Because FHL2 binds calcineurin, a phosphatase controlling hypertrophic signaling, we examined the effects of CEFIP on the calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T-cell (NFAT) pathway. These experiments revealed that CEFIP overexpression further enhances calcineurin-dependent hypertrophic signal transduction, and its knockdown repressed hypertrophy and calcineurin/NFAT activity. In summary, we report on a previously uncharacterized protein CEFIP that modulates calcineurin/NFAT signaling in cardiomyocytes, a finding with possible implications for the pathogenesis of cardiomyopathy. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Plant Growth Regulators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickell, Louis G.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the effect of "plant growth regulators" on plants, such as controlling the flowering, fruit development, plant size, and increasing crop yields. Provides a list of plant growth regulators which includes their chemical, common, and trade names, as well as their different use(s). (GA)

  3. Plant Growth Regulators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickell, Louis G.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the effect of "plant growth regulators" on plants, such as controlling the flowering, fruit development, plant size, and increasing crop yields. Provides a list of plant growth regulators which includes their chemical, common, and trade names, as well as their different use(s). (GA)

  4. Live cell screening platform identifies PPARδ as a regulator of cardiomyocyte proliferation and cardiac repair

    PubMed Central

    Magadum, Ajit; Ding, Yishu; He, Lan; Kim, Teayoun; Vasudevarao, Mohankrishna Dalvoy; Long, Qinqiang; Yang, Kevin; Wickramasinghe, Nadeera; Renikunta, Harsha V; Dubois, Nicole; Weidinger, Gilbert; Yang, Qinglin; Engel, Felix B

    2017-01-01

    Zebrafish can efficiently regenerate their heart through cardiomyocyte proliferation. In contrast, mammalian cardiomyocytes stop proliferating shortly after birth, limiting the regenerative capacity of the postnatal mammalian heart. Therefore, if the endogenous potential of postnatal cardiomyocyte proliferation could be enhanced, it could offer a promising future therapy for heart failure patients. Here, we set out to systematically identify small molecules triggering postnatal cardiomyocyte proliferation. By screening chemical compound libraries utilizing a Fucci-based system for assessing cell cycle stages, we identified carbacyclin as an inducer of postnatal cardiomyocyte proliferation. In vitro, carbacyclin induced proliferation of neonatal and adult mononuclear rat cardiomyocytes via a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ)/PDK1/p308Akt/GSK3β/β-catenin pathway. Inhibition of PPARδ reduced cardiomyocyte proliferation during zebrafish heart regeneration. Notably, inducible cardiomyocyte-specific overexpression of constitutively active PPARδ as well as treatment with PPARδ agonist after myocardial infarction in mice induced cell cycle progression in cardiomyocytes, reduced scarring, and improved cardiac function. Collectively, we established a cardiomyocyte proliferation screening system and present a new drugable target with promise for the treatment of cardiac pathologies caused by cardiomyocyte loss. PMID:28621328

  5. Cyclic stretch of Embryonic Cardiomyocytes Increases Proliferation, Growth, and Expression While Repressing Tgf-β Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Indroneal; Carrion, Katrina; Serrano, Ricardo; Dyo, Jeffrey; Sasik, Roman; Lund, Sean; Willems, Erik; Aceves, Seema; Meili, Rudolph; Mercola, Mark; Chen, Ju; Zambon, Alexander; Hardiman, Gary; Doherty, Taylor A; Lange, Stephan; del Álamo, Juan C.; Nigam, Vishal

    2014-01-01

    Perturbed biomechanical stimuli are thought to be critical for the pathogenesis of a number of congenital heart defects, including Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS). While embryonic cardiomyocytes experience biomechanical stretch every heart beat, their molecular responses to biomechanical stimuli during heart development are poorly understood. We hypothesized that biomechanical stimuli activate specific signaling pathways that impact proliferation, gene expression and myocyte contraction. The objective of this study was to expose embryonic mouse cardiomyocytes (EMCM) to cyclic stretch and examine key molecular and phenotypic responses. Analysis of RNA-Sequencing data demonstrated that gene ontology groups associated with myofibril and cardiac development were significantly modulated. Stretch increased EMCM proliferation, size, cardiac gene expression, and myofibril protein levels. Stretch also repressed several components belonging to the Transforming Growth Factor-β (Tgf-β) signaling pathway. EMCMs undergoing cyclic stretch had decreased Tgf-β expression, protein levels, and signaling. Furthermore, treatment of EMCMs with a Tgf-β inhibitor resulted in increased EMCM size. Functionally, Tgf-β signaling repressed EMCM proliferation and contractile function, as assayed via dynamic monolayer force microscopy (DMFM). Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that biomechanical stimuli play a vital role in normal cardiac development and for cardiac pathology, including HLHS. PMID:25446186

  6. Urocortin-induced cardiomyocytes hypertrophy is associated with regulation of the GSK-3β pathway.

    PubMed

    Gruson, Damien; Ginion, Audrey; Decroly, Noémie; Lause, Pascale; Vanoverschelde, Jean-Louis; Ketelslegers, Jean-Marie; Bertrand, Luc; Thissen, Jean-Paul

    2012-03-01

    Urocortin-1 (UCN), a member of the corticotropin-releasing factor, is a cardioprotective peptide, and is also involved in cardiac hypertrophy. The involvement of GSK-3β, a pivotal kinase in cardiac hypertrophy, in response to UCN is not yet documented. Cardiomyocytes from adult rats were stimulated for 48 h with UCN. Cell size, protein, and DNA contents were determined. Phosphorylated and total forms GSK-3β and the total amount of β-catenin were quantified by Western immunoblots. The effects of astressin, a UCN competitive receptor antagonist, were also evaluated. UCN increased cell size and the protein-to-DNA ratio, in accordance with a hypertrophic response. This effect was associated with increased phosphorylation of GSK-3β and marked accumulation of β-catenin, a downstream element to GSK-3β. All these effects were prevented by astressin and LY294002, an inhibitor of the phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase. UCN-induced cardiomyocytes hypertrophy is associated with regulation of GSK-3β, a pivotal kinase involved in cardiac hypertrophy, in a PI3K-dependent manner. Furthermore, the pharmacological blockade of UCN receptors was able to prevent UCN-induced hypertrophy, which leads to inhibition of the Akt/GSK-3β pathway.

  7. Antagonistic regulation of cell-cycle and differentiation gene programs in neonatal cardiomyocytes by homologous MEF2 transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Desjardins, Cody A; Naya, Francisco J

    2017-06-23

    Cardiomyocytes acquire their primary specialized function (contraction) before exiting the cell cycle. In this regard, proliferation and differentiation must be precisely coordinated for proper cardiac morphogenesis. Here, we have investigated the complex transcriptional mechanisms employed by cardiomyocytes to coordinate antagonistic cell-cycle and differentiation gene programs through the molecular dissection of the core cardiac transcription factor, MEF2. Knockdown of individual MEF2 proteins, MEF2A, -C, and -D, in primary neonatal cardiomyocytes resulted in radically distinct and opposite effects on cellular homeostasis and gene regulation. MEF2A and MEF2D were absolutely required for cardiomyocyte survival, whereas MEF2C, despite its major role in cardiac morphogenesis and direct reprogramming, was dispensable for this process. Inhibition of MEF2A or -D also resulted in the activation of cell-cycle genes and down-regulation of markers of terminal differentiation. In striking contrast, the regulation of cell-cycle and differentiation gene programs by MEF2C was antagonistic to that of MEF2A and -D. Computational analysis of regulatory regions from MEF2 isoform-dependent gene sets identified the Notch and Hedgehog signaling pathways as key determinants in coordinating MEF2 isoform-specific control of antagonistic gene programs. These results reveal that mammalian MEF2 family members have distinct transcriptional functions in cardiomyocytes and suggest that these differences are critical for proper development and maturation of the heart. Analysis of MEF2 isoform-specific function in neonatal cardiomyocytes has yielded insight into an unexpected transcriptional regulatory mechanism by which these specialized cells utilize homologous members of a core cardiac transcription factor to coordinate cell-cycle and differentiation gene programs. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. FOG-2 mediated recruitment of the NuRD complex regulates cardiomyocyte proliferation during heart development.

    PubMed

    Garnatz, Audrey S; Gao, Zhiguang; Broman, Michael; Martens, Spencer; Earley, Judy U; Svensson, Eric C

    2014-11-01

    FOG-2 is a multi-zinc finger protein that binds the transcriptional activator GATA4 and modulates GATA4-mediated regulation of target genes during heart development. Our previous work has demonstrated that the Nucleosome Remodeling and Deacetylase (NuRD) complex physically interacts with FOG-2 and is necessary for FOG-2 mediated repression of GATA4 activity in vitro. However, the relevance of this interaction for FOG-2 function in vivo has remained unclear. In this report, we demonstrate the importance of FOG-2/NuRD interaction through the generation and characterization of mice homozygous for a mutation in FOG-2 that disrupts NuRD binding (FOG-2(R3K5A)). These mice exhibit a perinatal lethality and have multiple cardiac malformations, including ventricular and atrial septal defects and a thin ventricular myocardium. To investigate the etiology of the thin myocardium, we measured the rate of cardiomyocyte proliferation in wild-type and FOG-2(R3K5A) developing hearts. We found cardiomyocyte proliferation was reduced by 31±8% in FOG-2(R3K5A) mice. Gene expression analysis indicated that the cell cycle inhibitor Cdkn1a (p21(cip1)) is up-regulated 2.0±0.2-fold in FOG-2(R3K5A) hearts. In addition, we demonstrate that FOG-2 can directly repress the activity of the Cdkn1a gene promoter, suggesting a model by which FOG-2/NuRD promotes ventricular wall thickening by repression of this cell cycle inhibitor. Consistent with this notion, the genetic ablation of Cdkn1a in FOG-2(R3K5A) mice leads to an improvement in left ventricular function and a partial rescue of left ventricular wall thickness. Taken together, our results define a novel mechanism in which FOG-2/NuRD interaction is required for cardiomyocyte proliferation by directly down-regulating the cell cycle inhibitor Cdkn1a during heart development.

  9. [The influence of fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) on cardiomyocytes differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells of bone marrow ex vivo].

    PubMed

    Lobanok, E S; Kvacheva, Z B; Pinchuk, S V; Volk, M V; Mezhevkina, L M; Fesenko, E E; Volotovski, I D

    2014-01-01

    The influence of FGF2 on the efficiency of cardiomyocytes differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) of bone marrow induced by 5-azacetidine (5-aza) was studied. The effect of FGF2 developing by the 14th day after the combined action of a differentiating agent and growth factor was manifested in an increase in Mef2A, Mef2D and gene transcription and a rise of ionized Ca2+ concentration in cytoplasm keeping cell viability and proliferation activity. In the presence of FGF2 this approach provided cardiomyogenesis and the increase in the formation of early precursors of cardiomyocytes.

  10. FGF10 promotes regional foetal cardiomyocyte proliferation and adult cardiomyocyte cell-cycle re-entry.

    PubMed

    Rochais, Francesca; Sturny, Rachel; Chao, Cho-Ming; Mesbah, Karim; Bennett, Michael; Mohun, Tim J; Bellusci, Saverio; Kelly, Robert G

    2014-12-01

    Cardiomyocyte proliferation gradually declines during embryogenesis resulting in severely limited regenerative capacities in the adult heart. Understanding the developmental processes controlling cardiomyocyte proliferation may thus identify new therapeutic targets to modulate the cell-cycle activity of cardiomyocytes in the adult heart. This study aims to determine the mechanism by which fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10) controls foetal cardiomyocyte proliferation and to test the hypothesis that FGF10 promotes the proliferative capacity of adult cardiomyocytes. Analysis of Fgf10(-/-) hearts and primary cardiomyocyte cultures reveals that altered ventricular morphology is associated with impaired proliferation of right but not left-ventricular myocytes. Decreased FOXO3 phosphorylation associated with up-regulated p27(kip) (1) levels was observed specifically in the right ventricle of Fgf10(-/-) hearts. In addition, cell-type-specific expression analysis revealed that Fgf10 and its receptor, Fgfr2b, are expressed in cardiomyocytes and not cardiac fibroblasts, consistent with a cell-type autonomous role of FGF10 in regulating regional specific myocyte proliferation in the foetal heart. Furthermore, we demonstrate that in vivo overexpression of Fgf10 in adult mice promotes cardiomyocyte but not cardiac fibroblast cell-cycle re-entry. FGF10 regulates regional cardiomyocyte proliferation in the foetal heart through a FOXO3/p27(kip1) pathway. In addition, FGF10 triggers cell-cycle re-entry of adult cardiomyocytes and is thus a potential target for cardiac repair. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Sildenafil prevents the up-regulation of transient receptor potential canonical channels in the development of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Kiso, Hironori; Ohba, Takayoshi; Iino, Kenji; Sato, Kazuhiro; Terata, Yutaka; Murakami, Manabu; Ono, Kyoichi; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Ito, Hiroshi

    2013-07-05

    Highlights: •Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC1, 3 and 6) are up-regulated by ET-1. •Sildenafil inhibited hypertrophic responses (BNP, Ca entry, NFAT activation). •Sildenafil suppressed TRPC1, 3 and 6 expression. -- Abstract: Background: Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPCs) channels are up-regulated in the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Sildenafil inhibits TRPC6 activation and expression, leading to the prevention of cardiac hypertrophy. However, the effects of sildenafil on the expression of other TRPCs remain unknown. We hypothesized that in addition to its effects of TRPC6, sildenafil blocks the up-regulation of other TRPC channels to suppress cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Methods and results: In cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, a 48 h treatment with 10 nM endothelin (ET)-1 induced hypertrophic responses characterized by nuclear factor of activated T cells activation and enhancement of brain natriuretic peptide expression and cell surface area. Co-treatment with sildenafil (1 μM, 48 h) inhibited these ET-1-induced hypertrophic responses. Although ET-1 enhanced the gene expression of TRPCs, sildenafil inhibited the enhanced gene expression of TRPC1, C3 and C6. Moreover, co-treatment with sildenafil abolished the augmentation of SOCE in the hypertrophied cardiomyocytes. Conclusions: These results suggest that sildenafil inhibits cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by suppressing the up-regulation of TRPC expression.

  12. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signaling directs cardiomyocyte movement toward the midline during heart tube assembly.

    PubMed

    Bloomekatz, Joshua; Singh, Reena; Prall, Owen Wj; Dunn, Ariel C; Vaughan, Megan; Loo, Chin-San; Harvey, Richard P; Yelon, Deborah

    2017-01-18

    Communication between neighboring tissues plays a central role in guiding organ morphogenesis. During heart tube assembly, interactions with the adjacent endoderm control the medial movement of cardiomyocytes, a process referred to as cardiac fusion. However, the molecular underpinnings of this endodermal-myocardial relationship remain unclear. Here, we show an essential role for platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (Pdgfra) in directing cardiac fusion. Mutation of pdgfra disrupts heart tube assembly in both zebrafish and mouse. Timelapse analysis of individual cardiomyocyte trajectories reveals misdirected cells in zebrafish pdgfra mutants, suggesting that PDGF signaling steers cardiomyocytes toward the midline during cardiac fusion. Intriguingly, the ligand pdgfaa is expressed in the endoderm medial to the pdgfra-expressing myocardial precursors. Ectopic expression of pdgfaa interferes with cardiac fusion, consistent with an instructive role for PDGF signaling. Together, these data uncover a novel mechanism through which endodermal-myocardial communication can guide the cell movements that initiate cardiac morphogenesis.

  13. Potential role of microRNA-10b down-regulation in cardiomyocyte apoptosis in aortic stenosis patients.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Idoia; Beaumont, Javier; López, Begoña; Ravassa, Susana; Gómez-Doblas, Juan José; Moreno, María Ujué; Valencia, Félix; de Teresa, Eduardo; Díez, Javier; González, Arantxa

    2016-12-01

    MicroRNAs have been associated with cardiomyocyte apoptosis, a process involved in myocardial remodelling in aortic valve (Av) stenosis (AS). Our aim was to analyse whether the dysregulation of myocardial microRNAs was related to cardiomyocyte apoptosis in AS patients. Endomyocardial biopsies were obtained from 28 patients with severe AS (based on pressure gradients and Av area) referred for Av replacement and from necropsies of 10 cardiovascular disease-free control subjects. AS patients showed an increased (P<0.001) cardiomyocyte apoptotic index (CMAI) compared with controls. Two clusters of patients were identified according to the CMAI: group 1 (CMAI ≤ 0.08%; n=16) and group 2 (CMAI > 0.08%; n=12). Group 2 patients presented lower cardiomyocyte density (P<0.001) and ejection fraction (P<0.05), and higher troponin T levels (P<0.05), prevalence of heart failure (HF; P<0.05) and NT-proBNP levels (P<0.05) than those from group 1. miRNA expression profile analysed in 5 patients randomly selected from each group showed 64 microRNAs down-regulated and 6 up-regulated (P<0.05) in group 2 compared with group 1. Those microRNAs with the highest fold-change were validated in the full two groups corroborating that miR-10b, miR-125b-2* and miR-338-3p were down-regulated (P<0.05) in group 2 compared with group 1 and control subjects. These three microRNAs were inversely correlated (P<0.05) with the CMAI. Inhibition of miR-10b induced an increase (P<0.05) of apoptosis and increased expression (P<0.05) of apoptosis protease-activating factor-1 (Apaf-1) in HL-1 cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, myocardial down-regulation of miR-10b may be involved in increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis in AS patients, probably through Apaf-1 up-regulation, contributing to cardiomyocyte damage and to the development of HF. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  14. Autoantibodies in dilated cardiomyopathy induce vascular endothelial growth factor expression in cardiomyocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Saygili, Erol; Noor-Ebad, Fawad; Schröder, Jörg W.; Mischke, Karl; Saygili, Esra; Rackauskas, Gediminas; Marx, Nikolaus; Kelm, Malte; Rana, Obaida R.

    2015-09-11

    Background: Autoantibodies have been identified as major predisposing factors for dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Patients with DCM show elevated serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) whose source is unknown. Besides its well-investigated effects on angiogenesis, evidence is present that VEGF signaling is additionally involved in fibroblast proliferation and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, hence in cardiac remodeling. Whether autoimmune effects in DCM impact cardiac VEGF signaling needs to be elucidated. Methods: Five DCM patients were treated by the immunoadsorption (IA) therapy on five consecutive days. The eluents from the IA columns were collected and prepared for cell culture. Cardiomyocytes from neonatal rats (NRCM) were incubated with increasing DCM-immunoglobulin-G (IgG) concentrations for 48 h. Polyclonal IgG (Venimmun N), which was used to restore IgG plasma levels in DCM patients after the IA therapy was additionally used for control cell culture purposes. Results: Elevated serum levels of VEGF decreased significantly after IA (Serum VEGF (ng/ml); DCM pre-IA: 45 ± 9.1 vs. DCM post–IA: 29 ± 6.7; P < 0.05). In cell culture, pretreatment of NRCM by DCM-IgG induced VEGF expression in a time and dose dependent manner. Biologically active VEGF that was secreted by NRCM significantly increased BNP mRNA levels in control cardiomyocytes and induced cell-proliferation of cultured cardiac fibroblast (Fibroblast proliferation; NRCM medium/HC-IgG: 1 ± 0.0 vs. NRCM medium/DCM-IgG 100 ng/ml: 5.6 ± 0.9; P < 0.05). Conclusion: The present study extends the knowledge about the possible link between autoimmune signaling in DCM and VEGF induction. Whether this observation plays a considerable role in cardiac remodeling during DCM development needs to be further elucidated. - Highlights: • Mechanisms of remodeling in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) are not fully understood. • Autoantibodies have been identified as major predisposing factors

  15. Stk38 Modulates Rbm24 Protein Stability to Regulate Sarcomere Assembly in Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Kong, Xu; Yew Mun, Lee; Meng Kai, Zhang; Li Yan, Guo; Lin, Yu; Lim, Teck Kwang; Lin, Qingsong; Xu, Xiu Qin

    2017-01-01

    RNA-binding protein Rbm24 is a key regulator of heart development and required for sarcomere assembly and heart contractility. Yet, its underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we link serine/threonine kinase 38 (Stk38) signaling to the regulation of Rbm24 by showing that Rbm24 phosphorylation and its function could be modulated by Stk38. Using co-immunoprecipitation coupled with mass spectrometry technique, we identified Stk38 as an endogenous binding partner of Rbm24. Stk38 knockdown resulted in decreased Rbm24 protein level in cardiomyocytes. Further studies using Stk38 kinase inhibitor or activator showed that Rbm24 protein stability was regulated in a kinase activity-dependent manner. Deficiency of Stk38 caused reduction of sarcomere proteins and disarrangement of sarcomere, suggesting that Stk38 is essential for Rbm24 to regulate sarcomere assembly. Our results revealed that Stk38 kinase catalyzes the phosphorylation of Rbm24 during sarcomerogensis and this orchestrates accurate sarcomere alignment. This furthers our understanding of the regulatory mechanism of cardiac sarcomere assembly in both physiologic and pathologic contexts, and uncovers a potential novel pathway to cardiomyopathy through modulating the Stk38/Rbm24 protein activity. PMID:28322254

  16. Tbx20 Is an Essential Regulator of Embryonic Heart Growth in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Ina M.; Bühler, Anja; Keßler, Mirjam; Rottbauer, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms that regulate cardiomyocyte proliferation during embryonic heart growth are not completely deciphered yet. In a forward genetic N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis screen, we identified the recessive embryonic-lethal zebrafish mutant line weiches herz (whz). Homozygous mutant whz embryos display impaired heart growth due to diminished embryonic cardiomyocyte proliferation resulting in cardiac hypoplasia and weak cardiac contraction. By positional cloning, we found in whz mutant zebrafish a missense mutation within the T-box 20 (Tbx20) transcription factor gene leading to destabilization of Tbx20 protein. Morpholino-mediated knock-down of Tbx20 in wild-type zebrafish embryos phenocopies whz, indicating that the whz phenotype is due to loss of Tbx20 function, thereby leading to significantly reduced cardiomyocyte numbers by impaired proliferation of heart muscle cells. Ectopic overexpression of wild-type Tbx20 in whz mutant embryos restored cardiomyocyte proliferation and heart growth. Interestingly, ectopic overexpression of Tbx20 in wild-type zebrafish embryos resulted, similar to the situation in the embryonic mouse heart, in significantly reduced proliferation rates of ventricular cardiomyocytes, suggesting that Tbx20 activity needs to be tightly fine-tuned to guarantee regular cardiomyocyte proliferation and embryonic heart growth in vivo. PMID:27907103

  17. sfrp1 promotes cardiomyocyte differentiation in Xenopus via negative-feedback regulation of Wnt signalling

    PubMed Central

    Gibb, Natalie; Lavery, Danielle L.; Hoppler, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Wnt signalling is a key regulator of vertebrate heart development, yet it is unclear which specific Wnt signalling components are required to regulate which aspect of cardiogenesis. Previously, we identified Wnt6 as an endogenous Wnt ligand required for controlling heart muscle differentiation via canonical Wnt/β-catenin signalling. Here we show for the first time a requirement for an endogenous Wnt signalling inhibitor for normal heart muscle differentiation. Expression of sfrp1 is strongly induced in differentiating heart muscle. We show that sfrp1 is not only able to promote heart muscle differentiation but is also required for the formation of normal size heart muscle in the embryo. sfrp1 is functionally able to inhibit Wnt6 signalling and its requirement during heart development relates to relieving the cardiogenesis-restricting function of endogenous wnt6. In turn, we discover that sfrp1 expression in the heart is regulated by Wnt6 signalling, which for the first time indicates that sfrp genes can function as part of a Wnt negative-feedback regulatory loop. Our experiments indicate that sfrp1 controls the size of the differentiating heart muscle primarily by regulating cell fate within the cardiac mesoderm between muscular and non-muscular cell lineages. The cardiac mesoderm is therefore not passively patterned by signals from the surrounding tissue, but regulates its differentiation into muscular and non-muscular tissue using positional information from the surrounding tissue. This regulatory network might ensure that Wnt activation enables expansion and migration of cardiac progenitors, followed by Wnt inhibition permitting cardiomyocyte differentiation. PMID:23482489

  18. Tetrahydrobiopterin Protects against Radiation-induced Growth Inhibition in H9c2 Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zheng-Yi; Li, Yi; Li, Rui; Zhang, An-An; Shang, Bo; Yu, Jing; Xie, Xiao-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor of nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) for the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO). BH4 therapy can reverse the disease-related redox disequilibrium observed with BH4 deficiency. However, whether BH4 exerts a protective effect against radiation-induced damage to cardiomyocytes remains unknown. Methods: Clonogenic assays were performed to determine the effects of X-ray on H9c2 cells with or without BH4 treatment. The contents of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in H9c2 cells were measured to investigate oxidative stress levels. The cell cycle undergoing radiation with or without BH4 treatment was detected using flow cytometry. The expression levels of proteins in the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT)/P53 signaling pathway, inducible NOS (iNOS), and endothelial NOS (eNOS) were examined using Western blotting. Results: X-ray radiation significantly inhibited the growth of H9c2 cells in a dose-dependent manner, whereas BH4 treatment significantly reduced the X-ray radiation-induced growth inhibition (control group vs. X-ray groups, respectively, P < 0.01). X-ray radiation induced LDH release, apoptosis, and G0/G1 peak accumulation, significantly increasing the level of MDA and the production of NO, and decreased the level of SOD (control group vs. X-ray groups, respectively, P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). By contrast, BH4 treatment can significantly reverse these processes (BH4 treatment groups vs. X-ray groups, P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). BH4 reversed the X-ray radiation-induced expression alterations of apoptosis-related molecules, including B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 associated X protein, and caspase-3, and molecules of the PI3K/Akt/P53 signaling pathway. BH4 enhanced the production of NO in 2 Gy and 4 Gy radiated groups by upregulating eNOS protein expression and downregulating iNOS protein expression. Conclusions: BH4 treatment can protect

  19. Identification of genes directly regulated by the intrinsic circadian clock within the cardiomyocyte

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Circadian rhythms in cardiovascular physiology (e.g., heart rate, cardiac output) and pathophysiology (e.g., arrhythmias) are firmly established. These phenomena have been attributed primarily to circadian rhythms in neurohumoral influences (e.g., sympathetic activity). Nevertheless, cardiomyocytes ...

  20. Dynamic DNA methylation orchestrates cardiomyocyte development, maturation and disease

    PubMed Central

    Gilsbach, Ralf; Preissl, Sebastian; Grüning, Björn A.; Schnick, Tilman; Burger, Lukas; Benes, Vladimir; Würch, Andreas; Bönisch, Ulrike; Günther, Stefan; Backofen, Rolf; Fleischmann, Bernd K.; Schübeler, Dirk; Hein, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    The heart is a highly specialized organ with essential function for the organism throughout life. The significance of DNA methylation in shaping the phenotype of the heart remains only partially known. Here we generate and analyse DNA methylomes from highly purified cardiomyocytes of neonatal, adult healthy and adult failing hearts. We identify large genomic regions that are differentially methylated during cardiomyocyte development and maturation. Demethylation of cardiomyocyte gene bodies correlates strongly with increased gene expression. Silencing of demethylated genes is characterized by the polycomb mark H3K27me3 or by DNA methylation. De novo methylation by DNA methyltransferases 3A/B causes repression of fetal cardiac genes, including essential components of the cardiac sarcomere. Failing cardiomyocytes partially resemble neonatal methylation patterns. This study establishes DNA methylation as a highly dynamic process during postnatal growth of cardiomyocytes and their adaptation to pathological stress in a process tightly linked to gene regulation and activity. PMID:25335909

  1. Dynamic DNA methylation orchestrates cardiomyocyte development, maturation and disease.

    PubMed

    Gilsbach, Ralf; Preissl, Sebastian; Grüning, Björn A; Schnick, Tilman; Burger, Lukas; Benes, Vladimir; Würch, Andreas; Bönisch, Ulrike; Günther, Stefan; Backofen, Rolf; Fleischmann, Bernd K; Schübeler, Dirk; Hein, Lutz

    2014-10-22

    The heart is a highly specialized organ with essential function for the organism throughout life. The significance of DNA methylation in shaping the phenotype of the heart remains only partially known. Here we generate and analyse DNA methylomes from highly purified cardiomyocytes of neonatal, adult healthy and adult failing hearts. We identify large genomic regions that are differentially methylated during cardiomyocyte development and maturation. Demethylation of cardiomyocyte gene bodies correlates strongly with increased gene expression. Silencing of demethylated genes is characterized by the polycomb mark H3K27me3 or by DNA methylation. De novo methylation by DNA methyltransferases 3A/B causes repression of fetal cardiac genes, including essential components of the cardiac sarcomere. Failing cardiomyocytes partially resemble neonatal methylation patterns. This study establishes DNA methylation as a highly dynamic process during postnatal growth of cardiomyocytes and their adaptation to pathological stress in a process tightly linked to gene regulation and activity.

  2. 5-Azacytidine delivered by mesoporous silica nanoparticles regulates the differentiation of P19 cells into cardiomyocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jin; Ding, Qian; Wang, Jia; Deng, Lin; Yang, Lu; Tao, Lei; Lei, Haihong; Lu, Shaoping

    2016-01-01

    Heart disease is one of the deadliest diseases causing mortality due to the limited regenerative capability of highly differentiated cardiomyocytes. Stem cell-based therapy in tissue engineering is one of the most exciting and rapidly growing areas and raises promising prospects for cardiac repair. In this study, we have synthesized FITC-mesoporous silica nanoparticles (FMSNs) based on a sol-gel method (known as Stöber's method) as a drug delivery platform to transport 5-azacytidine in P19 embryonic carcinoma stem cells. The surfactant CTAB is utilized as a liquid crystal template to self-aggregate into micelles, resulting in the synthesis of MSNs. Based on the cell viability assay, treatment with FMSNs + 5-azacytidine resulted in much more significant inhibition of the proliferation than 5-azacytidine alone. To study the mechanism, we have tested the differentiation genes and cardiac marker genes in P19 cells and found that these genes have been up-regulated in P19 embryonic carcinoma stem cells treated with FMSNs + 5-azacytidine + poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH), with the changes of histone modifications on the regulatory region. In conclusion, with FMSNs as drug delivery platforms, 5-azacytidine can be more efficiently delivered into stem cells and can be used to monitor and track the transfection process in situ to clarify their effects on stem cell functions and the differentiation process, which can serve as a promising tool in tissue engineering and other biomedical fields.

  3. Regulation of naturally occurring antisense RNA of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) in neonatal cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Luther, H P; Bartsch, H; Morano, I; Podlowski, S; Baumann, G

    2005-03-01

    Naturally occurring antisense RNA has been detected for a range of eukaryotic genes. Its abundance compared to levels of its complementary sense mRNA appears to be a factor indicating its possible regulatory function. In previous studies, we detected appreciable levels of antisense RNA against the two isoforms (alpha and beta) of the heavy myosin-chain (MyHC) in the myocardium of rats. If this is to play a significant role in gene expression antisense levels should vary in response to external and internal cellular influences. Recently, a bidirectional promoter located in the alpha/beta MyHC intergenic region was described, which was proposed to regulate coordinated transcription of alpha-MyHC sense and beta-MyHC antisense. To study MyHC antisense regulation in neonatal heart, we investigated cultivated myocytes stimulated with either trijodthyronin (T3) as an inductor of alpha-MyHC or phenylephrine with stimulation of beta-MyHC. RNA-quantification of sense and antisense transcripts of both isoforms was performed by real-time RT-PCR. Stimulation by T3 led to an induction of both sense and antisense of alpha-MyHC and to a decrease of beta-MyHC sense and antisense. Phenylephrine increased sense and antisense beta-MyHC but reduced antisense alpha-MyHC. The sense/antisense of alpha- and beta-MyHC ratio was unchanged compared to control. Results indicate a coregulation of sense and antisense MyHC RNA under stimulation of T3 and phenylephrine in neonatal cardiomyocytes.

  4. CTCF counter-regulates cardiomyocyte development and maturation programs in the embryonic heart

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Velazquez, Melisa; Badia-Careaga, Claudio; Lechuga-Vieco, Ana Victoria; Nieto-Arellano, Rocio; Rollan, Isabel; Alvarez, Alba; Torroja, Carlos; Caceres, Eva F.; Roy, Anna R.; Galjart, Niels; Sanchez-Cabo, Fatima; Enriquez, Jose Antonio; Gomez-Skarmeta, Jose Luis

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac progenitors are specified early in development and progressively differentiate and mature into fully functional cardiomyocytes. This process is controlled by an extensively studied transcriptional program. However, the regulatory events coordinating the progression of such program from development to maturation are largely unknown. Here, we show that the genome organizer CTCF is essential for cardiogenesis and that it mediates genomic interactions to coordinate cardiomyocyte differentiation and maturation in the developing heart. Inactivation of Ctcf in cardiac progenitor cells and their derivatives in vivo during development caused severe cardiac defects and death at embryonic day 12.5. Genome wide expression analysis in Ctcf mutant hearts revealed that genes controlling mitochondrial function and protein production, required for cardiomyocyte maturation, were upregulated. However, mitochondria from mutant cardiomyocytes do not mature properly. In contrast, multiple development regulatory genes near predicted heart enhancers, including genes in the IrxA cluster, were downregulated in Ctcf mutants, suggesting that CTCF promotes cardiomyocyte differentiation by facilitating enhancer-promoter interactions. Accordingly, loss of CTCF disrupts gene expression and chromatin interactions as shown by chromatin conformation capture followed by deep sequencing. Furthermore, CRISPR-mediated deletion of an intergenic CTCF site within the IrxA cluster alters gene expression in the developing heart. Thus, CTCF mediates local regulatory interactions to coordinate transcriptional programs controlling transitions in morphology and function during heart development. PMID:28846746

  5. CTCF counter-regulates cardiomyocyte development and maturation programs in the embryonic heart.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Velazquez, Melisa; Badia-Careaga, Claudio; Lechuga-Vieco, Ana Victoria; Nieto-Arellano, Rocio; Tena, Juan J; Rollan, Isabel; Alvarez, Alba; Torroja, Carlos; Caceres, Eva F; Roy, Anna R; Galjart, Niels; Delgado-Olguin, Paul; Sanchez-Cabo, Fatima; Enriquez, Jose Antonio; Gomez-Skarmeta, Jose Luis; Manzanares, Miguel

    2017-08-01

    Cardiac progenitors are specified early in development and progressively differentiate and mature into fully functional cardiomyocytes. This process is controlled by an extensively studied transcriptional program. However, the regulatory events coordinating the progression of such program from development to maturation are largely unknown. Here, we show that the genome organizer CTCF is essential for cardiogenesis and that it mediates genomic interactions to coordinate cardiomyocyte differentiation and maturation in the developing heart. Inactivation of Ctcf in cardiac progenitor cells and their derivatives in vivo during development caused severe cardiac defects and death at embryonic day 12.5. Genome wide expression analysis in Ctcf mutant hearts revealed that genes controlling mitochondrial function and protein production, required for cardiomyocyte maturation, were upregulated. However, mitochondria from mutant cardiomyocytes do not mature properly. In contrast, multiple development regulatory genes near predicted heart enhancers, including genes in the IrxA cluster, were downregulated in Ctcf mutants, suggesting that CTCF promotes cardiomyocyte differentiation by facilitating enhancer-promoter interactions. Accordingly, loss of CTCF disrupts gene expression and chromatin interactions as shown by chromatin conformation capture followed by deep sequencing. Furthermore, CRISPR-mediated deletion of an intergenic CTCF site within the IrxA cluster alters gene expression in the developing heart. Thus, CTCF mediates local regulatory interactions to coordinate transcriptional programs controlling transitions in morphology and function during heart development.

  6. Resistin-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is inhibited by apelin through the inactivation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway in H9c2 embryonic rat cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jian-Wei; Zheng, Xian; Cheng, Guan-Chang; Ye, Qun-Hui; Deng, Yong-Zhi; Wu, Lin

    2016-10-01

    It has been reported that resistin induces, whereas apelin inhibits cardiac hypertrophy. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of apelin inhibiting resistin-induced cardiac hypertrophy remain unclear. The aim of the current study is to investigate the effects of apelin on resistin-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism. H9c2 cells were used in the present study, and cell surface area and protein synthesis were evaluated. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to analyze the expression levels of hypertrophic markers, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and β-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC). In addition, western blotting was conducted to examine phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2. Following treatment of H9c2 cells with resistin, cell surface area, protein synthesis, and BNP and β-MHC mRNA expression levels were increased. Subsequent to co-treatment of H9c2 cells with apelin and resistin, lead to the inhibition of resistin-induced hypertrophic effects by apelin. In addition, treatment with resistin increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2, whereas pretreatment with apelin decreased phosphorylation of ERK1/2, which was increased by resistin. These results indicate that resistin-induced cardiac hypertrophy is inhibited by apelin via inactivation of ERK1/2 cell signaling.

  7. Mechanisms of epigenetic and cell-type specific regulation of Hey target genes in ES cells and cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Weber, David; Heisig, Julia; Kneitz, Susanne; Wolf, Elmar; Eilers, Martin; Gessler, Manfred

    2015-02-01

    Hey bHLH transcription factors are critical effectors of Notch signaling. During mammalian heart development they are expressed in atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes and in the developing endocardium. Hey knockout mice suffer from lethal cardiac defects, such as ventricular septum defects, valve defects and cardiomyopathy. Despite this functional relevance, little is known about the regulation of downstream targets in relevant cell types. The objective of this study was to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms by which Hey proteins affect gene expression in a cell type specific manner. We used an in vitro cardiomyocyte differentiation system with inducible Hey1 or Hey2 expression to study target gene regulation in cardiomyocytes (CM) generated from murine embryonic stem cells (ESC). The effects of Hey1 and Hey2 are largely redundant, but cell type specific. The number of regulated genes is comparable between ESC and CM, but the total number of binding sites is much higher, especially in ESC, targeting mainly genes involved in transcriptional regulation and developmental processes. Repression by Hey proteins generally correlates with the extent of Hey-binding to target promoters, Hdac recruitment and lower histone acetylation. Functionally, treatment with the Hdac inhibitor TSA abolished Hey target gene regulation. However, in CM the repressive effect of Hey-binding is lost for a subset of genes. These also lack Hey-dependent histone deacetylation in CM and are enriched for binding sites of cardiac specific activators like Srf, Nkx2-5, and Gata4. Ectopic Nkx2-5 overexpression in ESC blocks Hey-mediated repression of these genes. Thus, Hey proteins mechanistically repress target genes via Hdac recruitment and histone deacetylation. In CM Hey-repression is counteracted by cardiac activators, which recruit histone acetylases and prevent Hey mediated deacetylation and subsequent repression for a subset of genes.

  8. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signaling directs cardiomyocyte movement toward the midline during heart tube assembly

    PubMed Central

    Bloomekatz, Joshua; Singh, Reena; Prall, Owen WJ; Dunn, Ariel C; Vaughan, Megan; Loo, Chin-San; Harvey, Richard P; Yelon, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Communication between neighboring tissues plays a central role in guiding organ morphogenesis. During heart tube assembly, interactions with the adjacent endoderm control the medial movement of cardiomyocytes, a process referred to as cardiac fusion. However, the molecular underpinnings of this endodermal-myocardial relationship remain unclear. Here, we show an essential role for platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (Pdgfra) in directing cardiac fusion. Mutation of pdgfra disrupts heart tube assembly in both zebrafish and mouse. Timelapse analysis of individual cardiomyocyte trajectories reveals misdirected cells in zebrafish pdgfra mutants, suggesting that PDGF signaling steers cardiomyocytes toward the midline during cardiac fusion. Intriguingly, the ligand pdgfaa is expressed in the endoderm medial to the pdgfra-expressing myocardial precursors. Ectopic expression of pdgfaa interferes with cardiac fusion, consistent with an instructive role for PDGF signaling. Together, these data uncover a novel mechanism through which endodermal-myocardial communication can guide the cell movements that initiate cardiac morphogenesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21172.001 PMID:28098558

  9. Cucurbitacin I Attenuates Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy via Inhibition of Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CCN2) and TGF- β/Smads Signalings

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hara; Park, Kye Won; Park, Woo Jin; Yang, Seung Yul; Yang, Dong Kwon

    2015-01-01

    Cucurbitacin I is a naturally occurring triterpenoid derived from Cucurbitaceae family plants that exhibits a number of potentially useful pharmacological and biological activities. However, the therapeutic impact of cucurbitacin I on the heart has not heretofore been reported. To evaluate the functional role of cucurbitacin I in an in vitro model of cardiac hypertrophy, phenylephrine (PE)-stimulated cardiomyocytes were treated with a sub-cytotoxic concentration of the compound, and the effects on cell size and mRNA expression levels of ANF and β-MHC were investigated. Consequently, PE-induced cell enlargement and upregulation of ANF and β-MHC were significantly suppressed by pretreatment of the cardiomyocytes with cucurbitacin I. Notably, cucurbitacin I also impaired connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and MAPK signaling, pro-hypertrophic factors, as well as TGF-β/Smad signaling, the important contributing factors to fibrosis. The protective impact of cucurbitacin I was significantly blunted in CTGF-silenced or TGF-β1-silenced hypertrophic cardiomyocytes, indicating that the compound exerts its beneficial actions through CTGF. Taken together, these findings signify that cucurbitacin I protects the heart against cardiac hypertrophy via inhibition of CTGF/MAPK, and TGF- β/Smad-facilitated events. Accordingly, the present study provides new insights into the defensive capacity of cucurbitacin I against cardiac hypertrophy, and further suggesting cucurbitacin I’s utility as a novel therapeutic agent for the management of heart diseases. PMID:26296085

  10. Caveolin-3 regulates compartmentation of cardiomyocyte beta2-adrenergic receptor-mediated cAMP signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Peter T.; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O.; O’Hara, Thomas; Diakonov, Ivan; Bhargava, Anamika; Tokar, Sergiy; Schobesberger, Sophie; Shevchuk, Andrew I.; Sikkel, Markus B.; Wilkinson, Ross; Trayanova, Natalia A.; Lyon, Alexander R.; Harding, Sian E.; Gorelik, Julia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether caveolin-3 (Cav3) regulates localization of β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) and its cAMP signaling in healthy or failing cardiomyocytes. We co-expressed wildtype Cav3 or its dominant-negative mutant (Cav3DN) together with the Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based cAMP sensor Epac2-camps in adult rat ventricular myocytes (ARVMs). FRET and scanning ion conductance microscopy were used to locally stimulate β2AR and to measure cytosolic cAMP. Cav3 overexpression increased the number of caveolae and decreased the magnitude of β2AR-cAMP signal. Conversely, Cav3DN expression resulted in an increased β2AR-cAMP response without altering the whole-cell L-type calcium current. Following local stimulation of Cav3DN-expressing ARVMs, β2AR response could only be generated in T-tubules. However, the normally compartmentalized β2AR-cAMP signal became diffuse, similar to the situation observed in heart failure. Finally, overexpression of Cav3 in failing myocytes led to partial β2AR redistribution back into the T-tubules. In conclusion, Cav3 plays a crucial role for the localization of β2AR and compartmentation of β2AR-cAMP signaling to the T-tubules of healthy ARVMs, and overexpression of Cav3 in failing myocytes can partially restore the disrupted localization of these receptors. PMID:24345421

  11. Caveolin-3 regulates compartmentation of cardiomyocyte beta2-adrenergic receptor-mediated cAMP signaling.

    PubMed

    Wright, Peter T; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O; O'Hara, Thomas; Diakonov, Ivan; Bhargava, Anamika; Tokar, Sergiy; Schobesberger, Sophie; Shevchuk, Andrew I; Sikkel, Markus B; Wilkinson, Ross; Trayanova, Natalia A; Lyon, Alexander R; Harding, Sian E; Gorelik, Julia

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether caveolin-3 (Cav3) regulates localization of β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) and its cAMP signaling in healthy or failing cardiomyocytes. We co-expressed wildtype Cav3 or its dominant-negative mutant (Cav3DN) together with the Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based cAMP sensor Epac2-camps in adult rat ventricular myocytes (ARVMs). FRET and scanning ion conductance microscopy were used to locally stimulate β2AR and to measure cytosolic cAMP. Cav3 overexpression increased the number of caveolae and decreased the magnitude of β2AR-cAMP signal. Conversely, Cav3DN expression resulted in an increased β2AR-cAMP response without altering the whole-cell L-type calcium current. Following local stimulation of Cav3DN-expressing ARVMs, β2AR response could only be generated in T-tubules. However, the normally compartmentalized β2AR-cAMP signal became diffuse, similar to the situation observed in heart failure. Finally, overexpression of Cav3 in failing myocytes led to partial β2AR redistribution back into the T-tubules. In conclusion, Cav3 plays a crucial role for the localization of β2AR and compartmentation of β2AR-cAMP signaling to the T-tubules of healthy ARVMs, and overexpression of Cav3 in failing myocytes can partially restore the disrupted localization of these receptors.

  12. MicroRNA-30d regulates cardiomyocyte pyroptosis by directly targeting foxo3a in diabetic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Du, N; Zhang, Q; Li, J; Chen, X; Liu, X; Hu, Y; Qin, W; Shen, N; Xu, C; Fang, Z; Wei, Y; Wang, R; Du, Z; Zhang, Y; Lu, Y

    2014-10-23

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a common cardiac condition in patients with diabetes mellitus, which can result in cardiac hypertrophy and subsequent heart failure, associated with pyroptosis, the pro-inflammatory programmed cell death. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small endogenous non-coding RNAs, have been shown to be involved in diabetic cardiomyopathy. However, whether miRNAs regulate pyroptosis in diabetic cardiomyopathy remains unknown. Our study revealed that mir-30d expression was substantially increased in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats and in high-glucose-treated cardiomyocytes as well. Upregulation of mir-30d promoted cardiomyocyte pyroptosis in diabetic cardiomyopathy; conversely, knockdown of mir-30d attenuated it. In an effort to understand the signaling mechanisms underlying the pro-pyroptotic property of mir-30d, we found that forced expression of mir-30d upregulated caspase-1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. Moreover, mir-30d directly repressed foxo3a expression and its downstream protein, apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain (ARC). Furthermore, silencing ARC by siRNA mimicked the action of mir-30d: upregulating caspase-1 and inducing pyroptosis. These findings promoted us to propose a new signaling pathway leading to cardiomyocyte pyroptosis under hyperglycemic conditions: mir-30d↑→foxo3a↓→ ARC↓→caspase-1↑→IL-1β, IL-18↑→pyroptosis↑. Therefore, mir-30d may be a promising therapeutic target for the management of diabetic cardiomyopathy.

  13. NADPH oxidase 4 regulates cardiomyocyte differentiation via redox activation of c-Jun protein and the cis-regulation of GATA-4 gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Murray, Thomas V A; Smyrnias, Ioannis; Shah, Ajay M; Brewer, Alison C

    2013-05-31

    NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can modulate cellular phenotype and function in part through the redox modulation of the activity of transcription factors. We demonstrate here the potential of Nox4 to drive cardiomyocyte differentiation in pluripotent embryonal carcinoma cells, and we show that this involves the redox activation of c-Jun. This in turn acts to up-regulate GATA-4 expression, one of the earliest markers of cardiotypic differentiation, through a defined and highly conserved cis-acting motif within the GATA-4 promoter. These data therefore suggest a mechanism whereby ROS act in pluripotential cells in vivo to regulate the initial transcription of critical tissue-restricted determinant(s) of the cardiomyocyte phenotype, including GATA-4. The ROS-dependent activation, mediated by Nox4, of widely expressed redox-regulated transcription factors, such as c-Jun, is fundamental to this process.

  14. Calcium-sensing receptors regulate cardiomyocyte Ca2+ signaling via the sarcoplasmic reticulum-mitochondrion interface during hypoxia/reoxygenation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Communication between the SR (sarcoplasmic reticulum, SR) and mitochondria is important for cell survival and apoptosis. The SR supplies Ca2+ directly to mitochondria via inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) at close contacts between the two organelles referred to as mitochondrion-associated ER membrane (MAM). Although it has been demonstrated that CaR (calcium sensing receptor) activation is involved in intracellular calcium overload during hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/Re), the role of CaR activation in the cardiomyocyte apoptotic pathway remains unclear. We postulated that CaR activation plays a role in the regulation of SR-mitochondrial inter-organelle Ca2+ signaling, causing apoptosis during H/Re. To investigate the above hypothesis, cultured cardiomyocytes were subjected to H/Re. We examined the distribution of IP3Rs in cardiomyocytes via immunofluorescence and Western blotting and found that type 3 IP3Rs were located in the SR. [Ca2+]i, [Ca2+]m and [Ca2+]SR were determined using Fluo-4, x-rhod-1 and Fluo 5N, respectively, and the mitochondrial membrane potential was detected with JC-1 during reoxygenation using laser confocal microscopy. We found that activation of CaR reduced [Ca2+]SR, increased [Ca2+]i and [Ca2+]m and decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential during reoxygenation. We found that the activation of CaR caused the cleavage of BAP31, thus generating the pro-apoptotic p20 fragment, which induced the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and the translocation of bak/bax to mitochondria. Taken together, these results reveal that CaR activation causes Ca2+ release from the SR into the mitochondria through IP3Rs and induces cardiomyocyte apoptosis during hypoxia/reoxygenation. PMID:20565791

  15. Calcium-sensing receptors regulate cardiomyocyte Ca2+ signaling via the sarcoplasmic reticulum-mitochondrion interface during hypoxia/reoxygenation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Fang-hao; Tian, Zhiliang; Zhang, Wei-hua; Zhao, Ya-jun; Li, Hu-lun; Ren, Huan; Zheng, Hui-shuang; Liu, Chong; Hu, Guang-xia; Tian, Ye; Yang, Bao-feng; Wang, Rui; Xu, Chang-qing

    2010-06-17

    Communication between the SR (sarcoplasmic reticulum, SR) and mitochondria is important for cell survival and apoptosis. The SR supplies Ca2+ directly to mitochondria via inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) at close contacts between the two organelles referred to as mitochondrion-associated ER membrane (MAM). Although it has been demonstrated that CaR (calcium sensing receptor) activation is involved in intracellular calcium overload during hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/Re), the role of CaR activation in the cardiomyocyte apoptotic pathway remains unclear. We postulated that CaR activation plays a role in the regulation of SR-mitochondrial inter-organelle Ca2+ signaling, causing apoptosis during H/Re. To investigate the above hypothesis, cultured cardiomyocytes were subjected to H/Re. We examined the distribution of IP3Rs in cardiomyocytes via immunofluorescence and Western blotting and found that type 3 IP3Rs were located in the SR. [Ca2+]i, [Ca2+]m and [Ca2+]SR were determined using Fluo-4, x-rhod-1 and Fluo 5N, respectively, and the mitochondrial membrane potential was detected with JC-1 during reoxygenation using laser confocal microscopy. We found that activation of CaR reduced [Ca2+]SR, increased [Ca2+]i and [Ca2+]m and decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential during reoxygenation. We found that the activation of CaR caused the cleavage of BAP31, thus generating the pro-apoptotic p20 fragment, which induced the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and the translocation of bak/bax to mitochondria. Taken together, these results reveal that CaR activation causes Ca2+ release from the SR into the mitochondria through IP3Rs and induces cardiomyocyte apoptosis during hypoxia/reoxygenation.

  16. MicroRNAs in the Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2 (MEF2)-regulated Gtl2-Dio3 Noncoding RNA Locus Promote Cardiomyocyte Proliferation by Targeting the Transcriptional Coactivator Cited2.

    PubMed

    Clark, Amanda L; Naya, Francisco J

    2015-09-18

    Understanding cell cycle regulation in postmitotic cardiomyocytes may lead to new therapeutic approaches to regenerate damaged cardiac tissue. We have demonstrated previously that microRNAs encoded by the Gtl2-Dio3 noncoding RNA locus function downstream of the MEF2A transcription factor in skeletal muscle regeneration. We have also reported expression of these miRNAs in the heart. Here we investigated the role of two Gtl2-Dio3 miRNAs, miR-410 and miR-495, in cardiac muscle. Overexpression of miR-410 and miR-495 robustly stimulated cardiomyocyte DNA synthesis and proliferation. Interestingly, unlike our findings in skeletal muscle, these miRNAs did not modulate the activity of the WNT signaling pathway. Instead, these miRNAs targeted Cited2, a coactivator required for proper cardiac development. Consistent with miR-410 and miR-495 overexpression, siRNA knockdown of Cited2 in neonatal cardiomyocytes resulted in robust proliferation. This phenotype was associated with reduced expression of Cdkn1c/p57/Kip2, a cell cycle inhibitor, and increased expression of VEGFA, a growth factor with proliferation-promoting effects. Therefore, miR-410 and miR-495 are among a growing number of miRNAs that have the ability to potently stimulate neonatal cardiomyocyte proliferation.

  17. Systemic, but not cardiomyocyte-specific, deletion of the natriuretic peptide receptor guanylyl cyclase A increases cardiomyocyte number in neonatal mice.

    PubMed

    Schipke, Julia; Roloff, Konstanze; Kuhn, Michaela; Mühlfeld, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Guanylyl cyclase A (GC-A), the receptor for atrial and B-type natriuretic peptides, is implicated in the regulation of blood pressure and cardiac growth. We used design-based stereological methods to examine the effect of GC-A inactivation on cardiomyocyte volume, number and subcellular composition in postnatal mice at day P2. In mice with global, systemic GC-A deletion, the cardiomyocyte number was significantly increased, demonstrating that hyperplasia is the main cause for the increase in ventricle weight in these early postnatal animals. In contrast, conditional, cardiomyocyte-restricted inactivation of GC-A had no significant effect on ventricle weight or cardiomyocyte number. The mean volume of cardiomyocytes and the myocyte-related volumes of the four major cell organelles (myofibrils, mitochondria, nuclei and sarcoplasm) were similar between genotypes. Taken together, systemic GC-A deficiency induces cardiac enlargement based on a higher number of normally composed and sized cardiomyocytes early after birth, whereas cardiomyocyte-specific GC-A abrogation is not sufficient to induce cardiac enlargement and has no effect on number, size and composition of cardiomyocytes. We conclude that postnatal cardiac hyperplasia in mice with global GC-A inactivation is provoked by systemic alterations, e.g., arterial hypertension. Direct GC-A-mediated effects in cardiomyocytes seem not to be involved in the regulation of myocyte proliferation at this early stage.

  18. The miR-17-92 cluster regulates FOG-2 expression and inhibits proliferation of mouse embryonic cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Rui; Lei, Han; Chen, Mianzhi; Li, Qinwei; Sun, Huan; Ai, Jianzhong; Chen, Tielin; Wang, Honglian; Fang, Yin; Zhou, Qin

    2012-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have gradually been recognized as regulators of embryonic development; however, relatively few miRNAs have been identified that regulate cardiac development. A series of recent papers have established an essential role for the miRNA-17-92 (miR-17-92) cluster of miRNAs in the development of the heart. Previous research has shown that the Friend of Gata-2 (FOG-2) is critical for cardiac development. To investigate the possibility that the miR-17-92 cluster regulates FOG-2 expression and inhibits proliferation in mouse embryonic cardiomyocytes we initially used bioinformatics to analyze 3' untranslated regions (3'UTR) of FOG-2 to predict the potential of miR-17-92 to target it. We used luciferase assays to demonstrate that miR-17-5p and miR-20a of miR-17-92 interact with the predicted target sites in the 3'UTR of FOG-2. Furthermore, RT-PCR and Western blot were used to demonstrate the post-transcriptional regulation of FOG-2 by miR-17-92 in embryonic cardiomyocytes from E12.5-day pregnant C57BL/6J mice. Finally, EdU cell assays together with the FOG-2 rescue strategy were employed to evaluate the effect of proliferation on embryonic cardiomyocytes. We first found that the miR-17-5p and miR-20a of miR-17-92 directly target the 3'UTR of FOG-2 and post-transcriptionally repress the expression of FOG-2. Moreover, our findings demonstrated that over-expression of miR-17-92 may inhibit cell proliferation via post-transcriptional repression of FOG-2 in embryonic cardiomyocytes. These results indicate that the miR-17-92 cluster regulates the expression of FOG-2 protein and suggest that the miR-17-92 cluster might play an important role in heart development.

  19. Endocrine and other physiologic modulators of perinatal cardiomyocyte endowment

    PubMed Central

    Jonker, S S; Louey, S

    2015-01-01

    Immature contractile cardiomyocytes proliferate to rapidly increase cell number, establishing cardiomyocyte endowment in the perinatal period. Developmental changes in cellular maturation, size and attrition further contribute to cardiac anatomy. These physiological processes occur concomitant with a changing hormonal environment as the fetus prepares itself for the transition to extrauterine life. There are complex interactions between endocrine, hemodynamic and nutritional regulators of cardiac development. Birth has been long assumed to be the trigger for major differences between the fetal and postnatal cardiomyocyte growth patterns, but investigations in normally growing sheep and rodents suggest this may not be entirely true; in sheep, these differences are initiated before birth, while in rodents they occur after birth. The aim of this review is to draw together our understanding of the temporal regulation of these signals and cardiomyocyte responses relative to birth. Further, we consider how these dynamics are altered in stressed and suboptimal intrauterine environments. PMID:26432905

  20. Calcineurin B homologous protein 3 negatively regulates cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Soushi; Nakamura, Tomoe Y; Wakabayashi, Shigeo

    2015-07-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a leading cause of serious heart diseases. Although many signaling molecules are involved in hypertrophy, the functions of some proteins in this process are still unknown. Calcineurin B homologous protein 3 (CHP3)/tescalcin is an EF-hand Ca(2+)-binding protein that is abundantly expressed in the heart; however, the function of CHP3 is unclear. Here, we aimed to identify the cardiac functions of CHP3. CHP3 was expressed in hearts at a wide range of developmental stages and was specifically detected in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) but not in cardiac fibroblasts in culture. Moreover, knockdown of CHP3 expression using adenoviral-based RNA interference in NRVMs resulted in enlargement of cardiomyocyte size, concomitant with increased expression of a pathological hypertrophy marker ANP. This same treatment elevated glycogen synthase kinase (GSK3α/β) phosphorylation, which is known to inhibit GSK3 function. In contrast, CHP3 overexpression blocked the insulin-induced phosphorylation of GSK3α/β without affecting the phosphorylation of Akt, which is an upstream kinase of GSK3α/β, in HEK293 cells, and it inhibited both IGF-1-induced phosphorylation of GSK3β and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in NRVMs. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that GSK3β interacted with CHP3. However, a Ca(2+)-binding-defective mutation of CHP3 (CHP3-D123A) also interacted with GSK3β and had the same inhibitory effect on GSK3α/β phosphorylation, suggesting that the action of CHP3 was independent of Ca(2+). These findings suggest that CHP3 functions as a novel negative regulator of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via inhibition of GSK3α/β phosphorylation and subsequent enzymatic activation of GSK3α/β. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Calcium and mitochondrial metabolism in ceramide-induced cardiomyocyte death.

    PubMed

    Parra, Valentina; Moraga, Francisco; Kuzmicic, Jovan; López-Crisosto, Camila; Troncoso, Rodrigo; Torrealba, Natalia; Criollo, Alfredo; Díaz-Elizondo, Jessica; Rothermel, Beverly A; Quest, Andrew F G; Lavandero, Sergio

    2013-08-01

    Ceramides are important intermediates in the biosynthesis and degradation of sphingolipids that regulate numerous cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, cell growth, differentiation and death. In cardiomyocytes, ceramides induce apoptosis by decreasing mitochondrial membrane potential and promoting cytochrome-c release. Ca(2+) overload is a common feature of all types of cell death. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of ceramides on cytoplasmic Ca(2+) levels, mitochondrial function and cardiomyocyte death. Our data show that C2-ceramide induces apoptosis and necrosis in cultured cardiomyocytes by a mechanism involving increased Ca(2+) influx, mitochondrial network fragmentation and loss of the mitochondrial Ca(2+) buffer capacity. These biochemical events increase cytosolic Ca(2+) levels and trigger cardiomyocyte death via the activation of calpains. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Gene expression of selenoproteins can be regulated by thioredoxin(Txn) silence in chicken cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Hamid, Sattar; Liu, Qi; Cai, Jingzeng; Xu, Shiwen; Zhang, Ziwei

    2017-09-04

    Thioredoxin (Txn) system is the most crucial antioxidant defense mechanism in myocardium. The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of Txn low expression on 25 selenoproteins in chicken cardiomyocytes. We developed a Se-deficient model (0.033mg/kg) and Txn knock down cardiomyocytes model (siRNA) studies. Western Blot, Quantitative Real-time PCR (qPCR) were performed, and correlation analysis, heat map were used for further analysis. Both low expression of Txn models are significantly decreased (P<0.05) the mRNA levels of Deiodinase 1, 2 (Dio 1, 2), Glutathione Peroxidase 1, 2, 3, 4 (Gpx 1, 2, 3, 4), Thioredoxin Reductase 1, 2, 3 (TR 1, 2, 3), Selenoprotein t (Selt), Selenoprotein w (Selw), Selenoprotein k (Selk), selenoprotein x1 (Sepx1), and significantly increased (P<0.05) the mRNA levels of the rest of selenoproteins. Correlation analysis showed that Deiodinase 3 (Dio 3), Selenoprotein m (Selm), 15-kDa Selenoprotein (Selp15), Selenoprotein h (Selh), Selenoprotein u (Selu), Selenoprotein i (Seli), Selenoprotein n (Seln), Selenoprotein p1 (Sepp1), Selenoprotein o (Selo), Selenoprotein s (Sels), Selenoprotein synthetase 2 (Sels2) and Selenoprotein p (Selp) had a negative correlation with Txn, while the rest of selenoproteins had a positive correlation with Txn. Combined in vivo and in vitro we can know that hamper Txn expression can inhibit Gpx 1, 2, 3, 4, TR 1, 2, 3, Dio 1, 2, Selt, Selw, Selk, Sepx1, meanwhile, over expression the rest of selenoproteins. In conclusion, the different selenoproteins possess and exhibit distinct responses to silence of Txn in chicken cardiomyocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sodium orthovanadate suppresses palmitate-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis by regulation of the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Fu, Hui; Chang, Fen; Wang, Jinlan; Zhang, Shangli; Caudle, Yi; Zhao, Jing; Yin, Deling

    2016-05-01

    Elevated circulatory free fatty acids (FFAs) especially saturated FFAs, such as palmitate (PA), are detrimental to the heart. However, mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon remain unknown. Here, the role of JAK2/STAT3 in PA-induced cytotoxicity was investigated in cardiomyocytes. We demonstrate that PA suppressed the JAK2/STAT3 pathway by dephosphorylation of JAK2 (Y1007/1008) and STAT3 (Y705), and thus blocked the translocation of STAT3 into the nucleus. Conversely, phosphorylation of S727, another phosphorylated site of STAT3, was increased in response to PA treatment. Pretreatment of JNK inhibitor, but not p38 MAPK inhibitor, inhibited STAT3 (S727) activation induced by PA and rescued the phosphorylation of STAT3 (Y705). The data suggested that JNK may be another upstream factor regulating STAT3, and verified the important function of P-STAT3 (Y705) in PA-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Sodium orthovanadate (SOV), a protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, obviously inhibited PA-induced apoptosis by restoring JAK2/STAT3 pathways. This effect was diminished by STAT3 inhibitor Stattic. Collectively, our data suggested a novel mechanism that the inhibition of JAK2/STAT3 activation was responsible for palmitic lipotoxicity and SOV may act as a potential therapeutic agent by targeting JAK2/STAT3 in lipotoxic cardiomyopathy treatment.

  4. The CCAAT box in the proximal SERCA2 gene promoter regulates basal and stress-induced transcription in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Fragoso-Medina, Jorge; Rodriguez, Gabriela; Zarain-Herzberg, Angel

    2017-09-07

    The cardiac sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase-2a (SERCA2a) is vital for the correct handling of calcium concentration in cardiomyocytes. Recent studies showed that the induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress (ERS) with the SERCA2 inhibitor Thapsigargin (Tg) increases the mRNA and protein levels of SERCA2a. The SERCA2 gene promoter contains an ERS response element (ERSE) at position -78 bp that is conserved among species and might transcriptionally regulate SERCA2 gene expression. However, its involvement in SERCA2 basal and calcium-mediated transcriptional activation has not been elucidated. In this work, we show that in cellular cultures of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes, the treatment with Tg or the calcium ionophore A23187 increases the SERCA2a mRNA and protein abundance, as well as the transcriptional activity of two chimeric human SERCA2 gene constructs, containing -254 and -2579 bp of 5'-regulatory region cloned in the pGL3-basic vector and transiently transfected in cultured cardiomyocytes. We found that the ERSE present in the SERCA2 proximal promoter contains a CCAAT box that is involved in basal and ERS-mediated hSERCA2 transcriptional activation. The EMSA results showed that the CCAAT box present in the ERSE recruits the NF-Y transcription factor. Additionally, by ChIP assays, we confirmed in vivo binding of NF-Y and C/EBPβ transcription factors to the SERCA2 gene proximal promoter.

  5. Early administration of nifedipine protects against angiotensin II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through regulating CaMKII-SERCA2a pathway and apoptosis in rat cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ji; Zhang, Wei-dong; Du, Yi-meng

    2016-04-01

    The calcium channel blocker (CCB), nifedipine, is a more effective treatment for early- than late-stage cardiac hypertrophy. We investigated the effects of early- and late-stage nifedipine administration on calcium homeostasis, CaMKII (Ca(2+) /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II) activity and apoptosis of cardiomyocytes under hypertrophic stimulation with angiotensin II (AngII). Primary rat cardiomyocytes were divided into five treatment groups: AK, AngII plus the CaMKII inhibitor, KN-93; AN-1 (early-stage), AngII plus nifedipine × 48 h; AN-2 (late-stage), AngII × 48 h, then AngII plus nifedipine × 48 h; C, untreated; and A, AngII × 48 h. The t1/2β [time required for intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+) ]i) to decline to one half of the peak value] decreased; however, CaMKII and SERCA2a (sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) -ATPase 2a) activities increased in the AN-1 group compared with the AK group. In the AN-2 group compared with the AN-1 group, CaMKII activity, t1/2α [time required for [Ca(2+) ]i to increase from the bottom to one half of peak value], t1/2β, and apoptosis increased. These results indicate that the timing of CCB administration affects the calcium concentration and apoptosis of hypertrophic cardiomyocytes through the CaMKII-SERCA2a signalling pathway, thereby influencing the drug's protective activity against cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. β-Adrenergic stimulation activates protein kinase Cε and induces extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Cai, Hongyan; Liu, Hua; Guo, Tao

    2015-06-01

    The cardiac adrenergic signaling pathway is important in the induction of cardiac hypertrophy. The cardiac adrenergic pathway involves two main branches, phospholipase C (PLC)/protein kinase C (PKC) and the adenylate cyclase (cAMPase)/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathways. It is hypothesized that PLC/PKC and cAMPase/PKA are activated by the α‑adrenergic receptor (αAR) and the β‑adrenergic receptor (βAR), respectively. Previous studies have demonstrated that exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac), a guanine exchange factor, activates phospholipase Cε. It is possible that there are βAR‑activated PKC pathways mediated by Epac and PLC. In the present study, the role of Epac and PLC in βAR activated PKC pathways in cardiomyocytes was investigated. It was found that PKCε activation and translocation were induced by the βAR agonist, isoproterenol (Iso). Epac agonist 8‑CPT‑2'OMe‑cAMP also enhanced PKCε activation. βAR stimulation activated PKCε in the cardiomyocytes and was regulated by Epac. Iso‑induced change in PKCε was not affected in the cardiomyocytes, which were infected with adenovirus coding rabbit muscle cAMP‑dependent protein kinase inhibitor. However, Iso‑induced PKCε activation was inhibited by the PLC inhibitor, U73122. The results suggested that Iso‑induced PKCε activation was independent of PKA, but was regulated by PLC. To further investigate the downstream signal target of PKCε activation, the expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (pERK)1/2 and the levels of ERK phosphorylation was analyzed. The results revealed that Iso‑induced PKCε activation led to an increase in the expression of pERK1/2. ERK phosphorylation was inhibited by the PKCε inhibitor peptide. Taken together, these data demonstrated that the βAR is able to activate PKCε dependent on Epac and PLC, but independent of PKA.

  7. Protein kinase C epsilon-dependent extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation involved in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy with angiotensin II stimulation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhuo; Wang, Wei; Geng, Jing; Wang, Liqi; Su, Guohai; Zhang, Yun; Ge, Zhiming; Kang, Weiqiang

    2010-03-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) plays a critical role in hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes; however, the molecular mechanism, especially the signaling cascades, in cardiomyocytes remains unclear. In the present study, we examined the mechanism of Ang II in hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes. Ang II rapidly stimulated phosphorylation of protein kinase C epsilon (PKCepsilon) in a time- and dose-dependent manner via Ang II receptor-1 (AT(1)). Furthermore, Ang II-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) phosphorylation and translocation was mediated through a signal pathway that involves AT(1) and PKCepsilon, which resulted in transcriptional activation of myocyte enhancer factor-2C (MEF2C) and hypertrophy. Consequently, inhibiting PKCepsilon or ERK5 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly attenuated Ang II-induced MEF2C activation and hypertrophy of rat cardiomyocytes. These data provide evidence that PKCepsilon-dependent ERK5 phosphorylation and nucleocytoplasmic traffic mediates Ang II-induced MEF2C activation and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. PKCepsilon and ERK5 may be potential targets in the treatment of pathological vascular hypertrophy associated with the enhanced renin-angiotensin system. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. BRG1 and BRM function antagonistically with c-MYC in adult cardiomyocytes to regulate conduction and contractility.

    PubMed

    Willis, Monte S; Holley, Darcy Wood; Wang, Zhongjing; Chen, Xin; Quintana, Megan; Jensen, Brian C; Tannu, Manasi; Parker, Joel; Jeyaraj, Darwin; Jain, Mukesh K; Wolfram, Julie A; Lee, Hyoung-Gon; Bultman, Scott J

    2017-04-01

    The contractile dysfunction that underlies heart failure involves perturbations in multiple biological processes ranging from metabolism to electrophysiology. Yet the epigenetic mechanisms that are altered in this disease state have not been elucidated. SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes are plausible candidates based on mouse knockout studies demonstrating a combined requirement for the BRG1 and BRM catalytic subunits in adult cardiomyocytes. Brg1/Brm double mutants exhibit metabolic and mitochondrial defects and are not viable although their cause of death has not been ascertained. To determine the cause of death of Brg1/Brm double-mutant mice, to test the hypothesis that BRG1 and BRM are required for cardiac contractility, and to identify relevant downstream target genes. A tamoxifen-inducible gene-targeting strategy utilizing αMHC-Cre-ERT was implemented to delete both SWI/SNF catalytic subunits in adult cardiomyocytes. Brg1/Brm double-mutant mice were monitored by echocardiography and electrocardiography, and they underwent rapidly progressive ventricular dysfunction including conduction defects and arrhythmias that culminated in heart failure and death within 3weeks. Mechanistically, BRG1/BRM repressed c-Myc expression, and enforced expression of a DOX-inducible c-MYC trangene in mouse cardiomyocytes phenocopied the ventricular conduction defects observed in Brg1/Brm double mutants. BRG1/BRM and c-MYC had opposite effects on the expression of cardiac conduction genes, and the directionality was consistent with their respective loss- and gain-of-function phenotypes. To support the clinical relevance of this mechanism, BRG1/BRM occupancy was diminished at the same target genes in human heart failure cases compared to controls, and this correlated with increased c-MYC expression and decreased CX43 and SCN5A expression. BRG1/BRM and c-MYC have an antagonistic relationship regulating the expression of cardiac conduction genes that maintain contractility

  9. Ischemic postconditioning and pinacidil suppress calcium overload in anoxia-reoxygenation cardiomyocytes via down-regulation of the calcium-sensing receptor

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Shengli; Yao, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic postconditioning (IPC) and ATP sensitive potassium channel (KATP) agonists (e.g. pinacidil and diazoxide) postconditioning are effective methods to defeat myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, but their specific mechanisms of reducing I/R injury are not fully understood. We observed an intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i) overload in Anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R) cardiomyocytes, which can be reversed by KATP agonists diazoxide or pinacidil. The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) regulates intracellular calcium homeostasis. CaSR was reported to be involved in the I/R-induced apoptosis in rat cardiomyocytes. We therefore hypothesize that IPC and pinacidil postconditioning (PPC) reduce calcium overload in I/R cardiomyocytes by the down-regulation of CaSR. A/R model was established with adult rat caridomyocyte. mRNA and protein expression of CaSR were detected, IPC, PPC and KATP’s effects on [Ca2+]i concentration was assayed too. IPC and PPC ameliorated A/R insult induced [Ca2+]i overload in cardiomyocytes. In addition, they down-regulated the mRNA and protein level of CaSR as we expected. CaSR agonist spermine and KATP blocker glibenclamide offset IPC’s effects on CaSR expression and [Ca2+]i modulation. Our data indicate that CaSR down-regulation contributes to the mitigation of calcium overload in A/R cardiomyocytes, which may partially represents IPC and KATP’s myocardial protective mechanism under I/R circumstances. PMID:27833799

  10. Foxo3a inhibits cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through transactivating catalase.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wei-Qi; Wang, Kun; Lv, Dao-Yuan; Li, Pei-Feng

    2008-10-31

    The forkhead transcription factor Foxo3a is able to inhibit cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. However, its underlying molecular mechanism remains to be fully understood. Our present study demonstrates that Foxo3a can regulate cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through transactivating catalase. Insulin was able to induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy with an elevated level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The antioxidant agents, including catalase and N-acetyl-L-cysteine, could inhibit cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by insulin, suggesting that ROS is necessary for insulin to induce hypertrophy. Strikingly, we observed that the levels of catalase were decreased in response to insulin treatment. The transcriptional activity of Foxo3a depends on its phosphorylation status with the nonphosphorylated but not phosphorylated form to be functional. Insulin treatment led to an increase in the phosphorylated levels of Foxo3a. To understand the relationship between Foxo3a and catalase in the hypertrophic pathway, we characterized that catalase was a transcriptional target of Foxo3a. Foxo3a bound to the promoter region of catalase and stimulated its activity. The inhibitory effect of Foxo3a on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy depended on its transcriptional regulation of catalase. Finally, we identified that myocardin was a downstream mediator of ROS in conveying the hypertrophic signal of insulin or insulin-like growth factor-1. Foxo3a could negatively regulate myocardin expression levels through up-regulating catalase and the consequent reduction of ROS levels. Taken together, our results reveal that Foxo3a can inhibit hypertrophy by transcriptionally targeting catalase.

  11. PDZ domain-binding motif regulates cardiomyocyte compartment-specific NaV1.5 channel expression and function.

    PubMed

    Shy, Diana; Gillet, Ludovic; Ogrodnik, Jakob; Albesa, Maxime; Verkerk, Arie O; Wolswinkel, Rianne; Rougier, Jean-Sébastien; Barc, Julien; Essers, Maria C; Syam, Ninda; Marsman, Roos F; van Mil, Anneke M; Rotman, Samuel; Redon, Richard; Bezzina, Connie R; Remme, Carol Ann; Abriel, Hugues

    2014-07-08

    Sodium channel NaV1.5 underlies cardiac excitability and conduction. The last 3 residues of NaV1.5 (Ser-Ile-Val) constitute a PDZ domain-binding motif that interacts with PDZ proteins such as syntrophins and SAP97 at different locations within the cardiomyocyte, thus defining distinct pools of NaV1.5 multiprotein complexes. Here, we explored the in vivo and clinical impact of this motif through characterization of mutant mice and genetic screening of patients. To investigate in vivo the regulatory role of this motif, we generated knock-in mice lacking the SIV domain (ΔSIV). ΔSIV mice displayed reduced NaV1.5 expression and sodium current (INa), specifically at the lateral myocyte membrane, whereas NaV1.5 expression and INa at the intercalated disks were unaffected. Optical mapping of ΔSIV hearts revealed that ventricular conduction velocity was preferentially decreased in the transversal direction to myocardial fiber orientation, leading to increased anisotropy of ventricular conduction. Internalization of wild-type and ΔSIV channels was unchanged in HEK293 cells. However, the proteasome inhibitor MG132 rescued ΔSIV INa, suggesting that the SIV motif is important for regulation of NaV1.5 degradation. A missense mutation within the SIV motif (p.V2016M) was identified in a patient with Brugada syndrome. The mutation decreased NaV1.5 cell surface expression and INa when expressed in HEK293 cells. Our results demonstrate the in vivo significance of the PDZ domain-binding motif in the correct expression of NaV1.5 at the lateral cardiomyocyte membrane and underline the functional role of lateral NaV1.5 in ventricular conduction. Furthermore, we reveal a clinical relevance of the SIV motif in cardiac disease. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Fractalkine Depresses Cardiomyocyte Contractility

    PubMed Central

    Taube, David; Xu, Jiang; Yang, Xiao-Ping; Undrovinas, Albertas; Peterson, Edward; Harding, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Background Our laboratory reported that male mice with cardiomyocyte-selective knockout of the prostaglandin E2 EP4 receptor sub-type (EP4 KO) exhibit reduced cardiac function. Gene array on left ventricles (LV) showed increased fractalkine, a chemokine implicated in heart failure. We therefore hypothesized that fractalkine is regulated by PGE2 and contributes to depressed contractility via alterations in intracellular calcium. Methods Fractalkine was measured in LV of 28–32 week old male EP4 KO and wild type controls (WT) by ELISA and the effect of PGE2 on fractalkine secretion was measured in cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts. The effect of fractalkine on contractility and intracellular calcium was determined in Fura-2 AM-loaded, electrical field-paced cardiomyocytes. Cardiomyocytes (AVM) from male C57Bl/6 mice were treated with fractalkine and responses measured under basal conditions and after isoproterenol (Iso) stimulation. Results LV fractalkine was increased in EP4 KO mice but surprisingly, PGE2 regulated fractalkine secretion only in fibroblasts. Fractalkine treatment of AVM decreased both the speed of contraction and relaxation under basal conditions and after Iso stimulation. Despite reducing contractility after Iso stimulation, fractalkine increased the Ca2+ transient amplitude but decreased phosphorylation of cardiac troponin I, suggesting direct effects on the contractile machinery. Conclusions Fractalkine depresses myocyte contractility by mechanisms downstream of intracellular calcium. PMID:23936109

  13. Fractalkine depresses cardiomyocyte contractility.

    PubMed

    Taube, David; Xu, Jiang; Yang, Xiao-Ping; Undrovinas, Albertas; Peterson, Edward; Harding, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Our laboratory reported that male mice with cardiomyocyte-selective knockout of the prostaglandin E2 EP4 receptor sub-type (EP4 KO) exhibit reduced cardiac function. Gene array on left ventricles (LV) showed increased fractalkine, a chemokine implicated in heart failure. We therefore hypothesized that fractalkine is regulated by PGE2 and contributes to depressed contractility via alterations in intracellular calcium. Fractalkine was measured in LV of 28-32 week old male EP4 KO and wild type controls (WT) by ELISA and the effect of PGE2 on fractalkine secretion was measured in cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts. The effect of fractalkine on contractility and intracellular calcium was determined in Fura-2 AM-loaded, electrical field-paced cardiomyocytes. Cardiomyocytes (AVM) from male C57Bl/6 mice were treated with fractalkine and responses measured under basal conditions and after isoproterenol (Iso) stimulation. LV fractalkine was increased in EP4 KO mice but surprisingly, PGE2 regulated fractalkine secretion only in fibroblasts. Fractalkine treatment of AVM decreased both the speed of contraction and relaxation under basal conditions and after Iso stimulation. Despite reducing contractility after Iso stimulation, fractalkine increased the Ca(2+) transient amplitude but decreased phosphorylation of cardiac troponin I, suggesting direct effects on the contractile machinery. Fractalkine depresses myocyte contractility by mechanisms downstream of intracellular calcium.

  14. Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy in Arrhythmogenic Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Gerçek, Mustafa; Gerçek, Muhammed; Kant, Sebastian; Simsekyilmaz, Sakine; Kassner, Astrid; Milting, Hendrik; Liehn, Elisa A; Leube, Rudolf E; Krusche, Claudia A

    2017-04-01

    Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (AC) is a hereditary disease leading to sudden cardiac death or heart failure. AC pathology is characterized by cardiomyocyte loss and replacement fibrosis. Our goal was to determine whether cardiomyocytes respond to AC progression by pathological hypertrophy. To this end, we examined tissue samples from AC patients with end-stage heart failure and tissue samples that were collected at different disease stages from desmoglein 2-mutant mice, a well characterized AC model. We find that cardiomyocyte diameters are significantly increased in right ventricles of AC patients. Increased mRNA expression of the cardiac stress marker natriuretic peptide B is also observed in the right ventricle of AC patients. Elevated myosin heavy chain 7 mRNA expression is detected in left ventricles. In desmoglein 2-mutant mice, cardiomyocyte diameters are normal during the concealed disease phase but increase significantly after acute disease onset on cardiomyocyte death and fibrotic myocardial remodeling. Hypertrophy progresses further during the chronic disease stage. In parallel, mRNA expression of myosin heavy chain 7 and natriuretic peptide B is up-regulated in both ventricles with right ventricular preference. Calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cells (Nfat) signaling, which is linked to pathological hypertrophy, is observed during AC progression, as evidenced by Nfatc2 and Nfatc3 mRNA in cardiomyocytes and increased mRNA of the Nfat target regulator of calcineurin 1. Taken together, we demonstrate that pathological hypertrophy occurs in AC and is secondary to cardiomyocyte loss and cardiac remodeling.

  15. Hormonal regulation of fetal growth.

    PubMed

    Gicquel, C; Le Bouc, Y

    2006-01-01

    Fetal growth is a complex process depending on the genetics of the fetus, the availability of nutrients and oxygen to the fetus, maternal nutrition and various growth factors and hormones of maternal, fetal and placental origin. Hormones play a central role in regulating fetal growth and development. They act as maturational and nutritional signals in utero and control tissue development and differentiation according to the prevailing environmental conditions in the fetus. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system, and IGF-I and IGF-II in particular, plays a critical role in fetal and placental growth throughout gestation. Disruption of the IGF1, IGF2 or IGF1R gene retards fetal growth, whereas disruption of IGF2R or overexpression of IGF2 enhances fetal growth. IGF-I stimulates fetal growth when nutrients are available, thereby ensuring that fetal growth is appropriate for the nutrient supply. The production of IGF-I is particularly sensitive to undernutrition. IGF-II plays a key role in placental growth and nutrient transfer. Several key hormone genes involved in embryonic and fetal growth are imprinted. Disruption of this imprinting causes disorders involving growth defects, such as Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, which is associated with fetal overgrowth, or Silver-Russell syndrome, which is associated with intrauterine growth retardation. Optimal fetal growth is essential for perinatal survival and has long-term consequences extending into adulthood. Given the high incidence of intrauterine growth retardation and the high risk of metabolic and cardiovascular complications in later life, further clinical and basic research is needed to develop accurate early diagnosis of aberrant fetal growth and novel therapeutic strategies.

  16. Selective regulation of cardiomyocyte gene expression and cardiac morphogenesis by retinoic acid.

    PubMed

    Dickman, E D; Smith, S M

    1996-05-01

    Early heart development is known to be sensitive to retinoid concentrations; a specific pattern of malformations is observed in both vitamin A-deficiency and retinoid-toxicity states. While the influence of retinoids on early cardiac morphogenesis has been described previously, the effect of retinoids upon cardiomyocyte differentiation and gene expression is largely uncharacterized. We have established an in ovo chick embryo model in which slow-release retinoic acid (RA) induces four distinct cardiac malformations in a dose-dependent fashion. Late primitive streak-stage chick embryos were treated with all-trans-retinoic acid released from anion exchange beads placed on the embryo's left side and then allowed to develop further for 20-24 hr. At low doses (10 and 25 micrograms/ml RA) an abnormal loop structure was observed. At higher doses (50 and 100 micrograms/ml RA) cardia bifida and clustered heart tissue were noted. Situs inversus only occurred after treatment with 100 micrograms/ml RA. RA-treated embryos were subsequently analyzed for appropriate cardiac myocyte differentiation using antibody staining and ELISA analysis to detect sarcomeric myosin heavy chain, tropomyosin, titin, and alpha-actinin protein expression. Alpha-actinin expression was significantly decreased in RA-treated embryos, as compared to DMSO-treated controls. Also, heart contraction rate was depressed after RA exposure. RA exposure did not alter the protein expression levels of sarcomeric myosin heavy chain or tropomyosin. The observed alterations are consistent with suggestions that retinoids may affect both morphogenesis and myofibril formation in the developing heart.

  17. Angiotensin-(1-7) attenuated long-term hypoxia-stimulated cardiomyocyte apoptosis by inhibiting HIF-1α nuclear translocation via Mas receptor regulation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ruey-Lin; Lin, Jing-Wei; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Hsieh, Dennis Jine-Yuan; Yeh, Yu-Lan; Shen, Chia-Yao; Day, Cecilia-Hsuan; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Viswanadha, Vijaya Padma; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2016-02-01

    Extreme hypoxia often leads to myocardial apoptosis and causes heart failure. Angiotensin-(1-7)Ang-(1-7) is well known for its cardio-protective effects. However, the effects of Ang-(1-7) on long-term hypoxia (LTH)-induced apoptosis remain unknown. In this study, we found that Ang-(1-7) reduced myocardial apoptosis caused by hypoxia through the Mas receptor. Activation of the Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis down-regulated the hypoxia pro-apoptotic signaling cascade by decreasing the protein levels of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP3). Moreover, the Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis further inhibited HIF-1α nuclear translocation. On the other hand, Ang-(1-7) activated the IGF1R/PI3K/Akt signaling pathways, which mediate cell survival. However, the above effects were abolished by A779 treatment or silencing of Mas expression. Taken together, our findings indicate that the Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis protects cardiomyocytes from LTH-stimulated apoptosis. The protective effect of Ang-(1-7) is associated with the inhibition of HIF-1α nuclear translocation and the induction of IGF1R and Akt phosphorylation.

  18. Prolyl hydroxylation regulates protein degradation, synthesis, and splicing in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Stoehr, Andrea; Yang, Yanqin; Patel, Sajni; Evangelista, Alicia M; Aponte, Angel; Wang, Guanghui; Liu, Poching; Boylston, Jennifer; Kloner, Philip H; Lin, Yongshun; Gucek, Marjan; Zhu, Jun; Murphy, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    Protein hydroxylases are oxygen- and α-ketoglutarate-dependent enzymes that catalyse hydroxylation of amino acids such as proline, thus linking oxygen and metabolism to enzymatic activity. Prolyl hydroxylation is a dynamic post-translational modification that regulates protein stability and protein-protein interactions; however, the extent of this modification is largely uncharacterized. The goals of this study are to investigate the biological consequences of prolyl hydroxylation and to identify new targets that undergo prolyl hydroxylation in human cardiomyocytes. We used human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes in combination with pulse-chase amino acid labelling and proteomics to analyse the effects of prolyl hydroxylation on protein degradation and synthesis. We identified 167 proteins that exhibit differences in degradation with inhibition of prolyl hydroxylation by dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG); 164 were stabilized. Proteins involved in RNA splicing such as serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 2 (SRSF2) and splicing factor and proline- and glutamine-rich (SFPQ) were stabilized with DMOG. DMOG also decreased protein translation of cytoskeletal and sarcomeric proteins such as α-cardiac actin. We searched the mass spectrometry data for proline hydroxylation and identified 134 high confidence peptides mapping to 78 unique proteins. We identified SRSF2, SFPQ, α-cardiac actin, and cardiac titin as prolyl hydroxylated. We identified 29 prolyl hydroxylated proteins that showed a significant difference in either protein degradation or synthesis. Additionally, we performed next-generation RNA sequencing and showed that the observed decrease in protein synthesis was not due to changes in mRNA levels. Because RNA splicing factors were prolyl hydroxylated, we investigated splicing ± inhibition of prolyl hydroxylation and detected 369 alternative splicing events, with a preponderance of exon skipping. This study provides the first extensive

  19. MiR-132 Regulates Rem Expression in Cardiomyocytes During Long-Term β-Adrenoceptor Agonism.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Elba D; Sampieri, Raúl; Hernández, Ascención; García, María C; Sánchez, Jorge A

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the effects of long-term β-adrenergic receptor stimulation on Rem protein and mRNA expression in rat heart and possible involvement of miR-132. Adult rats were treated with isoproterenol (ISO, 150 µg.kg.h(-1)) for 2 d and Rem, miR-132, and α1c (the principal subunit of Cav1.2 channels) were measured at protein and mRNA levels with western blot and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) experiments, respectively. Ca(2+) currents and intracellular Ca(2+) signals were evaluated in isolated cardiomyocytes. Systemic administration of ISO led to decreases in Rem protein and mRNA levels (down to 49%). Furthermore, levels of the microRNAs (miRs) miR-132 and miR-214 were upregulated 5- and 9-fold, respectively. Transfection of miR-132, but not miR-214, into HEK293 cells reduced the expression of a luciferase reporter gene controlled by a conserved 3´-untranslated region (UTR) of Rem by half. Chronic ISO administration also led to a 25% decrease in the amplitude of peak L-type Ca(2+) currents, a 40% decrease in α1c subunit protein abundance at the membrane level, and a 60% decrease in expression of α1c channel subunit mRNA. These results suggest that Rem expression is down-regulated posttranscriptionally by miR-132 in response to long-term activation of β-adrenergic signaling, but this down-regulation does not produce a larger Ca(2+) influx through Cav1.2 channels.

  20. Myofibrillogenesis regulator-1 attenuated hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced apoptosis by inhibiting the PERK/Nrf2 pathway in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Tao, Tian-Qi; Wang, Xiao-Reng; Liu, Mi; Xu, Fei-Fei; Liu, Xiu-Hua

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of myofibrillogenesis regulator-1 (MR-1) in cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R), through protein kinase R-like ER kinase (PERK)/nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway. To address this aim, an H/R model of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes was used. MR-1 was overexpressed using an adenoviral vector system and knocked down using MR-1 specific siRNA. Apoptosis was assessed by using Annexin V/PI double staining, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling assay, and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Western blotting was used to detect the protein levels of MR-1, glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), total and phosphorylated PERK, Nrf2, activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), Bcl-2 and Bax. Immunofluorescence staining was used to assess the subcellular location of Nrf2. We found that H/R induced significant apoptosis in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. MR-1 overexpression attenuated H/R-induced apoptosis, decreased GRP78 (P < 0.01) and CHOP expression (P < 0.05), and increased the Bcl-2/Bax ratio (P < 0.01). MR-1 overexpression suppressed H/R-induced PERK phosphorylation, Nrf2 nuclear translocation, and ATF4 expression (P < 0.01). While MR-1 knockdown aggravated H/R-induced apoptosis, increased expression of GRP78 and CHOP (P < 0.05), and decreased the Bcl-2/Bax ratio (P < 0.01). MR-1 knockdown significantly increased H/R-induced PERK phosphorylation (P < 0.05), Nrf2 nuclear translocation, and ATF4 expression (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that MR-1 alleviates H/R-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis through inhibition of the PERK/Nrf2 pathway.

  1. Redox regulation of cardiomyocyte cell cycling via an ERK1/2 and c-Myc-dependent activation of cyclin D2 transcription

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Thomas V.A.; Smyrnias, Ioannis; Schnelle, Moritz; Mistry, Rajesh K.; Zhang, Min; Beretta, Matteo; Martin, Daniel; Anilkumar, Narayana; de Silva, Shana M.; Shah, Ajay M.; Brewer, Alison C.

    2015-01-01

    Adult mammalian cardiomyocytes have a very limited capacity to proliferate, and consequently the loss of cells after cardiac stress promotes heart failure. Recent evidence suggests that administration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), can regulate redox-dependent signalling pathway(s) to promote cardiomyocyte proliferation in vitro, but the potential relevance of such a pathway in vivo has not been tested. We have generated a transgenic (Tg) mouse model in which the H2O2-generating enzyme, NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4), is overexpressed within the postnatal cardiomyocytes, and observed that the hearts of 1–3 week old Tg mice pups are larger in comparison to wild type (Wt) littermate controls. We demonstrate that the cardiomyocytes of Tg mouse pups have increased cell cycling capacity in vivo as determined by incorporation of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine. Further, microarray analyses of the transcriptome of these Tg mouse hearts suggested that the expression of cyclin D2 is significantly increased. We investigated the molecular mechanisms which underlie this more proliferative phenotype in isolated neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCs) in vitro, and demonstrate that Nox4 overexpression mediates an H2O2-dependent activation of the ERK1/2 signalling pathway, which in turn phosphorylates and activates the transcription factor c-myc. This results in a significant increase in cyclin D2 expression, which we show to be mediated, at least in part, by cis-acting c-myc binding sites within the proximal cyclin D2 promoter. Overexpression of Nox4 in NRCs results in an increase in their proliferative capacity that is ablated by the silencing of cyclin D2. We further demonstrate activation of the ERK1/2 signalling pathway, increased phosphorylation of c-myc and significantly increased expression of cyclin D2 protein in the Nox4 Tg hearts. We suggest that this pathway acts to maintain the proliferative capacity of cardiomyocytes in Nox4 Tg pups in vivo and so delays their exit from the cell

  2. Nkx2.5 homeoprotein regulates expression of gap junction protein connexin 43 and sarcomere organization in postnatal cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Hideko; Ueyama, Tomomi; Wakimoto, Hiroko; Liu, Margaret K; Maguire, Colin T; Converso, Kimber L; Kang, Peter M; Manning, Warren J; Lawitts, Joel; Paul, David L; Berul, Charles I; Izumo, Seigo

    2003-03-01

    Nkx2.5, an evolutionarily conserved homeodomain containing transcription factor, is one of the earliest cardiogenic markers. Although its expression continues through adulthood, its function in adult cardiomyocytes is not well understood. To examine the effect of Nkx2.5 in terminal differentiated postnatal cardiomyocytes, we generated transgenic mice expressing either wild-type Nkx2.5 (TG-wild), a putative transcriptionally active mutant (carboxyl-terminus deletion mutant: TG-DeltaC) or a DNA non-binding point mutant of Nkx2.5 (TG-I183P) under alpha-myosin heavy chain promoter. Most TG-wild and TG-DeltaC mice died before 4 months of age with heart failure associated with conduction abnormalities. Cardiomyocytes expressing wild-type Nkx2.5 or a putative transcriptionally active mutant (DeltaC) had dramatically reduced expression of connexin 43 and changed sarcomere structure. Wild-type Nkx2.5 adenovirus-infected adult cardiomyocytes demonstrated connexin 43 downregulation as early as 16 h after infection, indicating that connexin 43 downregulation is due to Nkx2.5 overexpression but not due to heart failure phenotype in vivo. These studies indicate that overexpression of Nkx2.5 in terminally differentiated cardiomyocytes dramatically alters cardiac cell structure and function.

  3. cAMP-mediated beta-adrenergic signaling negatively regulates Gq-coupled receptor-mediated fetal gene response in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Patrizio, Mario; Vago, Valerio; Musumeci, Marco; Fecchi, Katia; Sposi, Nadia Maria; Mattei, Elisabetta; Catalano, Liviana; Stati, Tonino; Marano, Giuseppe

    2008-12-01

    The treatment with beta-blockers causes an enhancement of the norepinephrine-induced fetal gene response in cultured cardiomyocytes. Here, we tested whether the activation of cAMP-mediated beta-adrenergic signaling antagonizes alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor (AR)-mediated fetal gene response. To address this question, the fetal gene program, of which atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and the beta-isoform of myosin heavy chain are classical members, was induced by phenylephrine (PE), an alpha(1)-AR agonist. In cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, we found that stimulation of beta-ARs with isoproterenol, a beta-AR agonist, inhibited the fetal gene expression induced by PE. Similar results were also observed when cardiomyocytes were treated with forskolin (FSK), a direct activator of adenylyl cyclase, or 8-CPT-6-Phe-cAMP, a selective activator of protein kinase A (PKA). Conversely, the PE-induced fetal gene expression was further upregulated by H89, a selective PKA inhibitor. To evaluate whether these results could be generalized to Gq-mediated signaling and not specifically to alpha(1)-ARs, cardiomyocytes were treated with prostaglandin F(2)alpha, another Gq-coupled receptor agonist, which is able to promote fetal gene expression. This treatment caused an increase of both ANP mRNA and protein levels, which was almost completely abolished by FSK treatment. The capability of beta-adrenergic signaling to regulate the fetal gene expression was also evaluated in vivo conditions by using beta1- and beta2-AR double knockout mice, in which the predominant cardiac beta-AR subtypes are lacking, or by administering isoproterenol (ISO), a beta-AR agonist, at a subpressor dose. A significant increase of the fetal gene expression was found in beta(1)- and beta(2)-AR gene deficient mice. Conversely, we found that ANP, beta-MHC and skACT mRNA levels were significantly decreased in ISO-treated hearts. Collectively, these data indicate that cAMP-mediated beta-adrenergic signaling

  4. Cardiac metabolism and its interactions with contraction, growth, and survival of cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Kolwicz, Stephen C; Purohit, Suneet; Tian, Rong

    2013-08-16

    The network for cardiac fuel metabolism contains intricate sets of interacting pathways that result in both ATP-producing and non-ATP-producing end points for each class of energy substrates. The most salient feature of the network is the metabolic flexibility demonstrated in response to various stimuli, including developmental changes and nutritional status. The heart is also capable of remodeling the metabolic pathways in chronic pathophysiological conditions, which results in modulations of myocardial energetics and contractile function. In a quest to understand the complexity of the cardiac metabolic network, pharmacological and genetic tools have been engaged to manipulate cardiac metabolism in a variety of research models. In concert, a host of therapeutic interventions have been tested clinically to target substrate preference, insulin sensitivity, and mitochondrial function. In addition, the contribution of cellular metabolism to growth, survival, and other signaling pathways through the production of metabolic intermediates has been increasingly noted. In this review, we provide an overview of the cardiac metabolic network and highlight alterations observed in cardiac pathologies as well as strategies used as metabolic therapies in heart failure. Lastly, the ability of metabolic derivatives to intersect growth and survival are also discussed.

  5. MicroRNA-34a regulates high glucose-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fang; Li, Bo; Wei, Yin-zhi; Zhou, Bin; Wang, Han; Chen, Ming; Gan, Xue-dong; Wang, Zhao-hui; Xiong, Shi-xi

    2013-12-01

    Hyperglycemia is an important initiator of cardiovascular disease, contributing to the development of cardiomyocyte death and diabetic complications. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether high glucose state could induce apoptosis of rat cardiomyocyte cell line H9c2 through microRNA-mediated Bcl-2 signaling pathway. The expression of miR-34a and Bcl-2 mRNA was detected by using real-time PCR. Western blotting was used to examine the changes in apoptosis-associated protein Bcl-2. Apoptosis of H9c2 cells was tested by using flow cytometry. The results showed that the expression of miR-34a was significantly elevated and that of Bcl-2 was strongly reduced, and apoptosis of cardiomyocytes was apparently increased in the high-glucose-treated H9c2 cells as compared with normal-glucose-treated controls. In addition, we identified Bcl-2 gene was the target of miR-34a. miR-34a mimics reduced the expression of Bcl-2 and increased glucose-induced apoptosis, but miR-34a inhibitor acted as the opposite mediator. Our data demonstrate that miR-34a contributes to high glucose-induced decreases in Bcl-2 expression and subsequent cardiomyocyte apoptosis.

  6. [Plant hormones, plant growth regulators].

    PubMed

    Végvári, György; Vidéki, Edina

    2014-06-29

    Plants seem to be rather defenceless, they are unable to do motion, have no nervous system or immune system unlike animals. Besides this, plants do have hormones, though these substances are produced not in glands. In view of their complexity they lagged behind animals, however, plant organisms show large scale integration in their structure and function. In higher plants, such as in animals, the intercellular communication is fulfilled through chemical messengers. These specific compounds in plants are called phytohormones, or in a wide sense, bioregulators. Even a small quantity of these endogenous organic compounds are able to regulate the operation, growth and development of higher plants, and keep the connection between cells, tissues and synergy between organs. Since they do not have nervous and immume systems, phytohormones play essential role in plants' life.

  7. Differential regulation of DNA methylation versus histone acetylation in cardiomyocytes during HHcy in vitro and in vivo: an epigenetic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Kalani, Anuradha; Givvimani, Srikanth; Kamat, Pradip Kumar; Familtseva, Anastasia; Tyagi, Suresh C

    2014-04-01

    The mechanisms of homocysteine-mediated cardiac threats are poorly understood. Homocysteine, being the precursor to S-adenosyl methionine (a methyl donor) through methionine, is indirectly involved in methylation phenomena for DNA, RNA, and protein. We reported previously that cardiac-specific deletion of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor-1 (NMDAR1) ameliorates homocysteine-posed cardiac threats, and in this study, we aim to explore the role of NMDAR1 in epigenetic mechanisms of heart failure, using cardiomyocytes during hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy). High homocysteine levels activate NMDAR1, which consequently leads to abnormal DNA methylation vs. histone acetylation through modulation of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), HDAC1, miRNAs, and MMP9 in cardiomyocytes. HL-1 cardiomyocytes cultured in Claycomb media were treated with 100 μM homocysteine in a dose-dependent manner. NMDAR1 antagonist (MK801) was added in the absence and presence of homocysteine at 10 μM in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of DNMT1, histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1), NMDAR1, microRNA (miR)-133a, and miR-499 was assessed by real-time PCR as well as Western blotting. Methylation and acetylation levels were determined by checking 5'-methylcytosine DNA methylation and chromatin immunoprecipitation. Hyperhomocysteinemic mouse models (CBS+/-) were used to confirm the results in vivo. In HHcy, the expression of NMDAR1, DNMT1, and matrix metalloproteinase 9 increased with increase in H3K9 acetylation, while HDAC1, miR-133a, and miR-499 decreased in cardiomyocytes. Similar results were obtained in heart tissue of CBS+/- mouse. High homocysteine levels instigate cardiovascular remodeling through NMDAR1, miR-133a, miR-499, and DNMT1. A decrease in HDAC1 and an increase in H3K9 acetylation and DNA methylation are suggestive of chromatin remodeling in HHcy.

  8. Stretch-induced hypertrophy activates NFkB-mediated VEGF secretion in adult cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Leychenko, Anna; Konorev, Eugene; Jijiwa, Mayumi; Matter, Michelle L

    2011-01-01

    Hypertension and myocardial infarction are associated with the onset of hypertrophy. Hypertrophy is a compensatory response mechanism to increases in mechanical load due to pressure or volume overload. It is characterized by extracellular matrix remodeling and hypertrophic growth of adult cardiomyocytes. Production of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), which acts as an angiogenic factor and a modulator of cardiomyocyte function, is regulated by mechanical stretch. Mechanical stretch promotes VEGF secretion in neonatal cardiomyocytes. Whether this effect is retained in adult cells and the molecular mechanism mediating stretch-induced VEGF secretion has not been elucidated. Our objective was to investigate whether cyclic mechanical stretch induces VEGF secretion in adult cardiomyocytes and to identify the molecular mechanism mediating VEGF secretion in these cells. Isolated primary adult rat cardiomyocytes (ARCMs) were subjected to cyclic mechanical stretch at an extension level of 10% at 30 cycles/min that induces hypertrophic responses. Cyclic mechanical stretch induced a 3-fold increase in VEGF secretion in ARCMs compared to non-stretch controls. This increase in stretch-induced VEGF secretion correlated with NFkB activation. Cyclic mechanical stretch-mediated VEGF secretion was blocked by an NFkB peptide inhibitor and expression of a dominant negative mutant IkBα, but not by inhibitors of the MAPK/ERK1/2 or PI3K pathways. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated an interaction of NFkB with the VEGF promoter in stretched primary cardiomyocytes. Moreover, VEGF secretion is increased in the stretched myocardium during pressure overload-induced hypertrophy. These findings are the first to demonstrate that NFkB activation plays a role in mediating VEGF secretion upon cyclic mechanical stretch in adult cardiomyocytes. Signaling by NFkB initiated in response to cyclic mechanical stretch may therefore coordinate the hypertrophic response in adult

  9. Stretch-Induced Hypertrophy Activates NFkB-Mediated VEGF Secretion in Adult Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Leychenko, Anna; Konorev, Eugene; Jijiwa, Mayumi; Matter, Michelle L.

    2011-01-01

    Hypertension and myocardial infarction are associated with the onset of hypertrophy. Hypertrophy is a compensatory response mechanism to increases in mechanical load due to pressure or volume overload. It is characterized by extracellular matrix remodeling and hypertrophic growth of adult cardiomyocytes. Production of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), which acts as an angiogenic factor and a modulator of cardiomyocyte function, is regulated by mechanical stretch. Mechanical stretch promotes VEGF secretion in neonatal cardiomyocytes. Whether this effect is retained in adult cells and the molecular mechanism mediating stretch-induced VEGF secretion has not been elucidated. Our objective was to investigate whether cyclic mechanical stretch induces VEGF secretion in adult cardiomyocytes and to identify the molecular mechanism mediating VEGF secretion in these cells. Isolated primary adult rat cardiomyocytes (ARCMs) were subjected to cyclic mechanical stretch at an extension level of 10% at 30 cycles/min that induces hypertrophic responses. Cyclic mechanical stretch induced a 3-fold increase in VEGF secretion in ARCMs compared to non-stretch controls. This increase in stretch-induced VEGF secretion correlated with NFkB activation. Cyclic mechanical stretch-mediated VEGF secretion was blocked by an NFkB peptide inhibitor and expression of a dominant negative mutant IkBα, but not by inhibitors of the MAPK/ERK1/2 or PI3K pathways. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated an interaction of NFkB with the VEGF promoter in stretched primary cardiomyocytes. Moreover, VEGF secretion is increased in the stretched myocardium during pressure overload-induced hypertrophy. These findings are the first to demonstrate that NFkB activation plays a role in mediating VEGF secretion upon cyclic mechanical stretch in adult cardiomyocytes. Signaling by NFkB initiated in response to cyclic mechanical stretch may therefore coordinate the hypertrophic response in adult

  10. Regulation of cardiac autophagy by insulin-like growth factor 1.

    PubMed

    Troncoso, Rodrigo; Díaz-Elizondo, Jessica; Espinoza, Sandra P; Navarro-Marquez, Mario F; Oyarzún, Alejandra P; Riquelme, Jaime A; Garcia-Carvajal, Ivonne; Díaz-Araya, Guillermo; García, Lorena; Hill, Joseph A; Lavandero, Sergio

    2013-07-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling is a key pathway in the control of cell growth and survival. Three critical nodes in the IGF-1 signaling pathway have been described in cardiomyocytes: protein kinase Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), Ras/Raf/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and phospholipase C (PLC)/inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (InsP3 )/Ca(2+) . The Akt/mTOR and Ras/Raf/ERK signaling arms govern survival in the settings of cardiac stress and hypertrophic growth. By contrast, PLC/InsP3 /Ca(2+) functions to regulate metabolic adaptability and gene transcription. Autophagy is a catabolic process involved in protein degradation, organelle turnover, and nonselective breakdown of cytoplasmic components during nutrient starvation or stress. In the heart, autophagy is observed in a variety of human pathologies, where it can be either adaptive or maladaptive, depending on the context. We proposed the hypothesis that IGF-1 protects the heart by rescuing the mitochondrial metabolism and the energetics state, reducing cell death and controls the potentially exacerbate autophagic response to nutritional stress. In light of the importance of IGF-1 and autophagy in the heart, we review here IGF-1 signaling and autophagy regulation in the context of cardiomyocyte nutritional stress. Copyright © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Down-regulation of catalase and oxidative modification of protein kinase CK2 lead to the failure of apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain to inhibit cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Murtaza, Iram; Wang, Hong-Xia; Feng, Xue; Alenina, Natalia; Bader, Michael; Prabhakar, Bellur S; Li, Pei-Feng

    2008-03-07

    Cardiac hypertrophy is regulated by a complex interplay of pro- and anti-hypertrophic factors. Here, we report a novel anti-hypertrophic pathway composed of catalase, protein kinase CK2 (CK2), and apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain (ARC). Our results showed that ARC phosphorylation levels, CK2 activity, and catalase expression levels were decreased in the hearts of the angiotensinogen transgenic mice and in cardiomyocytes treated with the hypertrophic stimuli, including phenylephrine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and angiotensin II. To understand the role of ARC in hypertrophy, we observed that enforced expression of ARC could inhibit hypertrophy. Knockdown of endogenous ARC or inhibition of its phosphorylation could sensitize cardiomyocytes to undergoing hypertrophy. The phosphorylatable, but not the nonphosphorylatable, ARC could inhibit hypertrophy. Thus, ARC is able to inhibit hypertrophy in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. In exploring the molecular mechanism by which CK2 activity is reduced, we found that CK2 was carbonylated in angiotensinogen transgenic mice and in cardiomyocytes treated with the hypertrophic stimuli. The decrease in catalase expression led to an elevated level of reactive oxygen species. The latter oxidatively modified CK2, resulting in its carbonylation. CK2 lost its catalytic activity upon carbonylation. ARC is phosphorylated by CK2, and ARC phosphorylation levels were reduced as a consequence of the decrease of CK2 activity. To understand the molecular mechanism by which ARC inhibits hypertrophy, we observed that ARC could inhibit the activation of mitochondrial permeability transition. These results suggest that catalase, CK2, and ARC constitute an anti-hypertrophic pathway in the heart.

  12. Growth hormone regulation of follicular growth.

    PubMed

    Lucy, Matthew C

    2011-01-01

    The somatotropic axis-consisting of growth hormone (GH), the insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF1 and IGF2), GH binding protein (GHBP), IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) 1 to 6, and the cell-surface receptors for GH and the IGFs-has major effects on growth, lactation and reproduction. The primary target tissues for GH are involved in growth and metabolism. The functionality of the somatotropic axis depends in part on the expression of liver GH receptor (GHR), which determines the amount of IGF1 released from the liver in response to GH. The IGF1 acts as a pleiotropic growth factor and also serves as the endocrine negative feedback signal controlling pituitary GH secretion. Growth hormone and IGF1 undergo dynamic changes throughout the life cycle, particularly when animals are either growing, early post partum or lactating. Cells within the reproductive tract can respond directly to GH but to a lesser degree than the primary target tissues. The major impact that GH has on reproduction, therefore, may be secondary to its systemic effects on metabolism (including insulin sensitivity) or secondary to the capacity for GH to control IGF1 secretion. Insulin-like growth factor 1 and IGFBP are also synthesised within the ovary and this local synthesis is a component of the collective IGF1 action on the follicle. Future studies of GH should focus on its direct effects on the follicle as well as its indirect effects mediated by shifts in nutrient metabolism, insulin sensitivity, IGF1 and IGFBP.

  13. The Regulation of Filamentous Growth in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Paul J.; Sprague, George F.

    2012-01-01

    Filamentous growth is a nutrient-regulated growth response that occurs in many fungal species. In pathogens, filamentous growth is critical for host–cell attachment, invasion into tissues, and virulence. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergoes filamentous growth, which provides a genetically tractable system to study the molecular basis of the response. Filamentous growth is regulated by evolutionarily conserved signaling pathways. One of these pathways is a mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. A remarkable feature of the filamentous growth MAPK pathway is that it is composed of factors that also function in other pathways. An intriguing challenge therefore has been to understand how pathways that share components establish and maintain their identity. Other canonical signaling pathways—rat sarcoma/protein kinase A (RAS/PKA), sucrose nonfermentable (SNF), and target of rapamycin (TOR)—also regulate filamentous growth, which raises the question of how signals from multiple pathways become integrated into a coordinated response. Together, these pathways regulate cell differentiation to the filamentous type, which is characterized by changes in cell adhesion, cell polarity, and cell shape. How these changes are accomplished is also discussed. High-throughput genomics approaches have recently uncovered new connections to filamentous growth regulation. These connections suggest that filamentous growth is a more complex and globally regulated behavior than is currently appreciated, which may help to pave the way for future investigations into this eukaryotic cell differentiation behavior. PMID:22219507

  14. Knockdown of Long Non-Coding RNA-ZFAS1 Protects Cardiomyocytes Against Acute Myocardial Infarction Via Anti-Apoptosis by Regulating miR-150/CRP.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tao; Wu, Dan; Wu, Qinghua; Zou, Bing; Huang, Xiao; Cheng, Xiaoshu; Wu, Yanqing; Hong, Kui; Li, Ping; Yang, Renqiang; Li, Yunde; Cheng, Yingzhang

    2017-10-01

    ZFAS1 is one of cardiac-specific or cardiac-related lncRNAs. This study was to explore the functional involvement of ZFAS1 and its regulatory role in AMI. In this study, the models of AMI rat and myocardial cell cultured under hypoxia were made. The expression of ZFAS1 and miR-150 of myocardial infarction tissue or cardiac myocytes was determined by quantitative real time PCR. The regulatory role of ZFAS1 on miR-150 was examined by RNA pull down assay. The effect of miR-150 or ZFAS1 expression on cell viability was analyzed by MTT assay. The relative expression of ZFAS1 in the myocardium infracted zone and border zone was significantly upregulated at 1-48 h of AMI rats, but it downregulated at 1 week and 2 weeks; miR-150 was significantly downregulated at AMI-1-48 h and upregulated at 1 and 2 weeks after model establishment. The result of RNA pull down assay indicated that ZFAS1 could interact directly with miR-150. C-reactive protein (CRP) was regulated by ZFAS1/miR-150 axis and negatively targeted by miR-150. Hypoxia caused the decrease of cell viability and the upregulation of CRP at mRNA and protein levels; whereas this upregulation could be attenuated by miR-150 mimic or si-ZFAS1 in H9C2 cells and cardiomyocytes. Knockdown of ZFAS1 or miR-150 overexpression effectively relieved AMI-induced myocardial infarction in AMI-1 week rats. The ZFAS1/miR-150 axis was involved in the molecular mechanism of AMI induced cardiomyocytes apoptosis via regulating CRP. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 3281-3289, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Crosstalk between adenosine A1 and β1-adrenergic receptors regulates translocation of PKCε in isolated rat cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, Satoshi; Dobson, James G.; Ikebe, Mitsuo; Shea, Lynne G.; Fenton, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine A1 receptor (A1R)-induced translocation of PKCε to transverse (t) tubular membranes in isolated rat cardiomyocytes is associated with a reduction in β1-adrenergic-stimulated contractile function. The PKCε-mediated activation of protein kinase D (PKD) by endothelin-1 is inhibited by β1-adrenergic stimulated protein kinase A (PKA) suggesting a similar mechanism of A1R signal transduction modulation by adrenergic agonists may exist in the heart. We have investigated the influence of β1-adrenergic stimulation on PKCε translocation elicited by A1R. Immunofluorescence imaging and Western blotting with PKCε and β-COP antibodies were used to quantify the co-localization of PKCε and t-tubular structures in isolated rat cardiomyocytes. The A1R agonist CCPA increased the co-localization of PKCε and t-tubules as detected by imaging. The β1-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol (ISO) inhibited this effect of CCPA. Forskolin, a potent activator of PKA, mimicked, and H89, a pharmacological PKA inhibitor, and PKI, a membrane-permeable PKA peptide PKA inhibitor, attenuated the negative effect of ISO on the A1R-mediated PKCε translocation. Western blotting with isolated intact hearts revealed an increase in PKCε/β-COP co-localization induced by A1R. This increase was attenuated by the A1R antagonist DPCPX and ISO. The ISO-induced attenuation was reversed by H89. It is concluded that adrenergic stimulation inhibits A1R-induced PKCε translocation to the PKCε anchor site RACK2 constituent of a coatomer containing β-COP and associated with the t-tubular structures of the heart. In that this translocation has been previously associated with the antiadrenergic property of A1R, it is apparent that the interactive effects of adenosine and β1-adrenergic agonists on function are complex in the heart. PMID:22105697

  16. Autonomous regulation of growth cone filopodia.

    PubMed

    Rehder, V; Cheng, S

    1998-02-05

    The fan-shaped array of filopodia is the first site of contact of a neuronal growth cone with molecules encountered during neuronal pathfinding. Filopodia are highly dynamic structures, and the "action radius" of a growth cone is strongly determined by the length and number of its filopodia. Since interactions of filopodia with instructive cues in the vicinity of the growth cone can have effects on growth cone morphology within minutes, it has to be assumed that a large part of the signaling underlying such morphological changes resides locally within the growth cone proper. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that two important growth cone parameters-namely, the length and number of its filopodia-are regulated autonomously in the growth cone. We previously demonstrated in identified neurons from the snail Helisoma trivolvis that filopodial length and number are regulated by intracellular calcium. Here, we investigated filopodial dynamics and their regulation by the second-messenger calcium in growth cones which were physically isolated from their parent neuron by neurite transection. Our results show that isolated growth cones have longer but fewer filopodia than growth cones attached to their parent cell. These isolated growth cones, however, are fully capable of undergoing calcium-induced cytoskeletal changes, suggesting that the machinery necessary to perform changes in filopodial length and number is fully intrinsic to the growth cone proper.

  17. A Proliferative Burst During Preadolescence Establishes the Final Cardiomyocyte Number

    PubMed Central

    Naqvi, Nawazish; Li, Ming; Calvert, John W.; Tejada, Thor; Lambert, Jonathan P.; Wu, Jianxin; Kesteven, Scott H.; Holman, Sara R.; Matsuda, Torahiro; Lovelock, Joshua D.; Howard, Wesley W.; Iismaa, Siiri E.; Chan, Andrea Y.; Crawford, Brian H.; Wagner, Mary B.; Martin, David I. K.; Lefer, David J.; Graham, Robert M.; Husain, Ahsan

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY It is widely believed that perinatal cardiomyocyte terminal differentiation blocks cytokinesis, thereby causing binucleation and limiting regenerative repair after injury. This suggests that heart growth should occur entirely by cardiomyocyte hypertrophy during preadolescence when, in mice, cardiac mass increases many-fold over a few weeks. Here we show thata thyroid hormone surge activates the IGF-1/IGF1-R/Akt pathway on postnatal day-15andinitiates a brief but intense proliferative burst of predominantly binuclear cardiomyocytes. This proliferation increases cardiomyocyte numbers by ~40%, causing a major disparity between heart and cardiomyocyte growth. Also, the response to cardiac injury at postnatal day15 is intermediate between that observed at postnatal day-2 and -21, further suggesting persistence of cardiomyocyte proliferative capacity beyond the perinatal period. If replicated in humans, this may allow novel regenerative therapies for heart diseases. PMID:24813607

  18. A proliferative burst during preadolescence establishes the final cardiomyocyte number.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, Nawazish; Li, Ming; Calvert, John W; Tejada, Thor; Lambert, Jonathan P; Wu, Jianxin; Kesteven, Scott H; Holman, Sara R; Matsuda, Torahiro; Lovelock, Joshua D; Howard, Wesley W; Iismaa, Siiri E; Chan, Andrea Y; Crawford, Brian H; Wagner, Mary B; Martin, David I K; Lefer, David J; Graham, Robert M; Husain, Ahsan

    2014-05-08

    It is widely believed that perinatal cardiomyocyte terminal differentiation blocks cytokinesis, thereby causing binucleation and limiting regenerative repair after injury. This suggests that heart growth should occur entirely by cardiomyocyte hypertrophy during preadolescence when, in mice, cardiac mass increases many-fold over a few weeks. Here, we show that a thyroid hormone surge activates the IGF-1/IGF-1-R/Akt pathway on postnatal day 15 and initiates a brief but intense proliferative burst of predominantly binuclear cardiomyocytes. This proliferation increases cardiomyocyte numbers by ~40%, causing a major disparity between heart and cardiomyocyte growth. Also, the response to cardiac injury at postnatal day 15 is intermediate between that observed at postnatal days 2 and 21, further suggesting persistence of cardiomyocyte proliferative capacity beyond the perinatal period. If replicated in humans, this may allow novel regenerative therapies for heart diseases.

  19. ErbB2 is required for cardiomyocyte proliferation in murine neonatal hearts

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hong; Yin, Chaoying; Zhang, Yingao; Qian, Li; Liu, Jiandong

    2017-01-01

    It has been long recognized that the mammalian heart loses its proliferative capacity soon after birth, yet, the molecular basis of this loss of cardiac proliferation postnatally is largely unknown. In this study, we found that cardiac ErbB2, a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor family, exhibits a rapid and dramatic decline in expression at the neonatal stage. We further demonstrate that conditional ablation of ErbB2 in the ventricular myocardium results in upregulation of negative cell cycle regulators and a significant reduction in cardiomyocyte proliferation during the narrow neonatal proliferative time window. Together, our data reveal a positive correlation between the expression levels of ErbB2 with neonatal cardiomyocyte proliferation and suggest that reduction in cardiac ErbB2 expression may contribute to the loss of postnatal cardiomyocyte proliferative capacity. PMID:27390088

  20. Regulation of muscle growth in neonates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This review reports recent findings on the multiple factors that regulate skeletal muscle growth in neonates. Skeletal muscle is the fastest growing protein mass in neonates. The high rate of neonatal muscle growth is due to accelerated rates of protein synthesis accompanied by the rapid accumulatio...

  1. Chemical Growth Regulators for Guayule Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dastoor, M. N.; Schubert, W. W.; Petersen, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    Test Tubes containing Guayule - tissue cultures were used in experiments to test effects of chemical-growth regulators. The shoots grew in response to addition of 2-(3,4-dichlorophenoxy)-triethylamine (triethylamine (TEA) derivative) to agar medium. Preliminary results indicate that a class of compounds that promotes growth in soil may also promote growth in a culture medium. Further experiments are needed to define the effect of the TEA derivative.

  2. Chemical Growth Regulators for Guayule Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dastoor, M. N.; Schubert, W. W.; Petersen, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    Test Tubes containing Guayule - tissue cultures were used in experiments to test effects of chemical-growth regulators. The shoots grew in response to addition of 2-(3,4-dichlorophenoxy)-triethylamine (triethylamine (TEA) derivative) to agar medium. Preliminary results indicate that a class of compounds that promotes growth in soil may also promote growth in a culture medium. Further experiments are needed to define the effect of the TEA derivative.

  3. Spontaneous Calcium Oscillations Regulate Human Cardiac Progenitor Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira-Martins, João; Rondon-Clavo, Carlos; Tugal, Derin; Korn, Justin A; Rizzi, Roberto; Padin-Iruegas, Maria Elena; Ottolenghi, Sergio; De Angelis, Antonella; Urbanek, Konrad; Iwata, Noriko; D’Amario, Domenico; Hosoda, Toru; Leri, Annarosa; Kajstura, Jan; Anversa, Piero; Rota, Marcello

    2009-01-01

    Rationale The adult heart possesses a pool of progenitor cells stored in myocardial niches but the mechanisms involved in the activation of this cell compartment are currently unknown. Objective Ca2+ promotes cell growth raising the possibility that changes in intracellular Ca2+ initiate division of c-kit-positive human cardiac progenitor cells (hCPCs) and determine their fate. Methods and Results Ca2+ oscillations were identified in hCPCs and these events occurred independently from coupling with cardiomyocytes or the presence of extracellular Ca2+. These findings were confirmed in the heart of transgenic mice in which EGFP was under the control of the c-kit-promoter. Ca2+ oscillations in hCPCs were regulated by the release of Ca2+ from the ER through activation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) and the re-uptake of Ca2+ by the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump (SERCA). IP3Rs and SERCA were highly expressed in hCPCs while ryanodine receptors were not detected. Although Na+-Ca2+ exchanger, store-operated Ca2+-channels and plasma membrane Ca2+-pump were present and functional in hCPCs, they had no direct effects on Ca2+ oscillations. Conversely, Ca2+ oscillations and their frequency markedly increased with ATP and histamine which activated purinoceptors and histamine-1 receptors highly expressed in hCPCs. Importantly, Ca2+ oscillations in hCPCs were coupled with the entry of cells into the cell cycle and BrdUrd incorporation. Induction of Ca2+ oscillations in hCPCs prior to their intramyocardial delivery to infarcted hearts was associated with enhanced engraftment and expansion of these cells promoting the generation of a large myocyte progeny. Conclusion IP3R-mediated Ca2+ mobilization control hCPC growth and their regenerative potential. PMID:19745162

  4. Mitochondrial fission is required for cardiomyocyte hypertrophy mediated by a Ca2+-calcineurin signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Pennanen, Christian; Parra, Valentina; López-Crisosto, Camila; Morales, Pablo E.; del Campo, Andrea; Gutierrez, Tomás; Rivera-Mejías, Pablo; Kuzmicic, Jovan; Chiong, Mario; Zorzano, Antonio; Rothermel, Beverly A.; Lavandero, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy has been associated with diminished mitochondrial metabolism. Mitochondria are crucial organelles for the production of ATP, and their morphology and function are regulated by the dynamic processes of fusion and fission. The relationship between mitochondrial dynamics and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is still poorly understood. Here, we show that treatment of cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes with the hypertrophic agonist norepinephrine promotes mitochondrial fission (characterized by a decrease in mitochondrial mean volume and an increase in the relative number of mitochondria per cell) and a decrease in mitochondrial function. We demonstrate that norepinephrine acts through α1-adrenergic receptors to increase cytoplasmic Ca2+, activating calcineurin and promoting migration of the fission protein Drp1 (encoded by Dnml1) to mitochondria. Dominant-negative Drp1 (K38A) not only prevented mitochondrial fission, it also blocked hypertrophic growth of cardiomyocytes in response to norepinephrine. Remarkably, an antisense adenovirus against the fusion protein Mfn2 (AsMfn2) was sufficient to increase mitochondrial fission and stimulate a hypertrophic response without agonist treatment. Collectively, these results demonstrate the importance of mitochondrial dynamics in the development of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and metabolic remodeling. PMID:24777478

  5. Mitochondrial fission is required for cardiomyocyte hypertrophy mediated by a Ca2+-calcineurin signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Pennanen, Christian; Parra, Valentina; López-Crisosto, Camila; Morales, Pablo E; Del Campo, Andrea; Gutierrez, Tomás; Rivera-Mejías, Pablo; Kuzmicic, Jovan; Chiong, Mario; Zorzano, Antonio; Rothermel, Beverly A; Lavandero, Sergio

    2014-06-15

    Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy has been associated with diminished mitochondrial metabolism. Mitochondria are crucial organelles for the production of ATP, and their morphology and function are regulated by the dynamic processes of fusion and fission. The relationship between mitochondrial dynamics and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is still poorly understood. Here, we show that treatment of cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes with the hypertrophic agonist norepinephrine promotes mitochondrial fission (characterized by a decrease in mitochondrial mean volume and an increase in the relative number of mitochondria per cell) and a decrease in mitochondrial function. We demonstrate that norepinephrine acts through α1-adrenergic receptors to increase cytoplasmic Ca(2+), activating calcineurin and promoting migration of the fission protein Drp1 (encoded by Dnml1) to mitochondria. Dominant-negative Drp1 (K38A) not only prevented mitochondrial fission, it also blocked hypertrophic growth of cardiomyocytes in response to norepinephrine. Remarkably, an antisense adenovirus against the fusion protein Mfn2 (AsMfn2) was sufficient to increase mitochondrial fission and stimulate a hypertrophic response without agonist treatment. Collectively, these results demonstrate the importance of mitochondrial dynamics in the development of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and metabolic remodeling. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Functional expression and regulation of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (HCN) in mouse iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes after UTF1 -neo selection.

    PubMed

    Semmler, Judith; Lehmann, Martin; Pfannkuche, Kurt; Reppel, Michael; Hescheler, Jürgen; Nguemo, Filomain

    2014-01-01

    In vitro reprogramming of somatic cells holds great potential to serve as an autologous source of cells for tissue repair. However, major difficulties in achieving this potential include obtaining homogeneous and stable cells for transplantation. High electrical activity of cells such as cardiomyocytes (CMs) is crucial for both, safety and efficiency of cell replacement therapy. Moreover, the function of the cardiac pacemaker is controlled by the activities of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels. Here we have examined changes in HCN gene expression and function during cardiomyogenesis. We differentiated murine iPS cells selected by an undifferentiated transcription factor 1 (UTF1) -promoter-driven G418 resistance to CMs in vitro and characterized them by RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, and electrophysiology. As key cardiac markers alpha-actinin and cardiac troponin T could be identified in derived CMs. Immunocytochemical staining of CMs showed the presence of all HCN subunits (HCN1-4). Electrophysiology experiments revealed developmental changes of action potentials and If currents as well as functional hormonal regulation and sensitivity to If channel blockers. We conclude that iPS cells derived from UTF-selection give rise to functional CMs in vitro, with established hormonal regulation pathways and functionally expressed If current in a development-dependent manner; and have all phenotypes with the pacemaker as predominant subtype. This might be of great importance for transplantation purposes. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. The alteration of protein prenylation induces cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through Rheb-mTORC1 signalling and leads to chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Xu, Na; Guan, Shan; Chen, Zhong; Yu, Yang; Xie, Jun; Pan, Fei-Yan; Zhao, Ning-Wei; Liu, Li; Yang, Zhong-Zhou; Gao, Xiang; Xu, Biao; Li, Chao-Jun

    2015-04-01

    G protein-regulated cell function is crucial for cardiomyocytes, and any deregulation of its gene expression or protein modification can lead to pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Herein, we report that protein prenylation, a lipidic modification of G proteins that facilitates their association with the cell membrane, might control the process of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. We found that geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPPS), a key enzyme involved in protein prenylation, played a critical role in postnatal heart growth by regulating cardiomyocyte size. Cardiac-specific knockout of GGPPS in mice led to spontaneous cardiac hypertrophy, beginning from week 4, accompanied by the persistent enlargement of cardiomyocytes. This hypertrophic effect occurred by altered prenylation of G proteins. Evaluation of the prenylation, membrane association and hydrophobicity showed that Rheb was hyperactivated and increased mTORC1 signalling pathway after GGPPS deletion. Protein farnesylation or mTORC1 inhibition blocked GGPPS knockdown-induced mTORC1 activation and suppressed the larger neonatal rat ventricle myocyte size and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in vivo, demonstrating a central role of the FPP-Rheb-mTORC1 axis for GGPPS deficiency-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. The sustained cardiomyocyte hypertrophy progressively provoked cardiac decompensation and dysfunction, ultimately causing heart failure and adult death. Importantly, GGPPS was down-regulated in the hypertrophic hearts of mice subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and in failing human hearts. Moreover, HPLC-MS/MS detection revealed that the myocardial farnesyl diphosphate (FPP):geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) ratio was enhanced after pressure overload. Our observations conclude that the alteration of protein prenylation promotes cardiomyocyte hypertrophic growth, which acts as a potential cause for pathogenesis of heart failure and may provide a new molecular target for hypertrophic heart disease

  8. Evidence suggesting that the cardiomyocyte circadian clock modulates responsiveness of the heart to hypertrophic stimuli in mice.

    PubMed

    Durgan, David J; Tsai, Ju-Yun; Grenett, Maximiliano H; Pat, Betty M; Ratcliffe, William F; Villegas-Montoya, Carolina; Garvey, Merissa E; Nagendran, Jeevan; Dyck, Jason R B; Bray, Molly S; Gamble, Karen L; Gimble, Jeffrey M; Young, Martin E

    2011-04-01

    Circadian dyssynchrony of an organism (at the whole-body level) with its environment, either through light-dark (LD) cycle or genetic manipulation of clock genes, augments various cardiometabolic diseases. The cardiomyocyte circadian clock has recently been shown to influence multiple myocardial processes, ranging from transcriptional regulation and energy metabolism to contractile function. The authors, therefore, reasoned that chronic dyssychrony of the cardiomyocyte circadian clock with its environment would precipitate myocardial maladaptation to a circadian challenge (simulated shiftwork; SSW). To test this hypothesis, 2- and 20-month-old wild-type and CCM (Cardiomyocyte Clock Mutant; a model with genetic temporal suspension of the cardiomyocyte circadian clock at the active-to-sleep phase transition) mice were subjected to chronic (16-wks) biweekly 12-h phase shifts in the LD cycle (i.e., SSW). Assessment of adaptation/maladaptation at whole-body homeostatic, gravimetric, humoral, histological, transcriptional, and cardiac contractile function levels revealed essentially identical responses between wild-type and CCM littermates. However, CCM hearts exhibited increased biventricular weight, cardiomyocyte size, and molecular markers of hypertrophy (anf, mcip1), independent of aging and/or SSW. Similarly, a second genetic model of selective temporal suspension of the cardiomyocyte circadian clock (Cardiomyocyte-specific BMAL1 Knockout [CBK] mice) exhibits increased biventricular weight and mcip1 expression. Wild-type mice exhibit 5-fold greater cardiac hypertrophic growth (and 6-fold greater anf mRNA induction) when challenged with the hypertrophic agonist isoproterenol at the active-to-sleep phase transition, relative to isoproterenol administration at the sleep-to-active phase transition. This diurnal variation was absent in CCM mice. Collectively, these data suggest that the cardiomyocyte circadian clock likely influences responsiveness of the heart to

  9. FGF signalling regulates bone growth through autophagy.

    PubMed

    Cinque, Laura; Forrester, Alison; Bartolomeo, Rosa; Svelto, Maria; Venditti, Rossella; Montefusco, Sandro; Polishchuk, Elena; Nusco, Edoardo; Rossi, Antonio; Medina, Diego L; Polishchuk, Roman; De Matteis, Maria Antonietta; Settembre, Carmine

    2015-12-10

    Skeletal growth relies on both biosynthetic and catabolic processes. While the role of the former is clearly established, how the latter contributes to growth-promoting pathways is less understood. Macroautophagy, hereafter referred to as autophagy, is a catabolic process that plays a fundamental part in tissue homeostasis. We investigated the role of autophagy during bone growth, which is mediated by chondrocyte rate of proliferation, hypertrophic differentiation and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition in growth plates. Here we show that autophagy is induced in growth-plate chondrocytes during post-natal development and regulates the secretion of type II collagen (Col2), the major component of cartilage ECM. Mice lacking the autophagy related gene 7 (Atg7) in chondrocytes experience endoplasmic reticulum storage of type II procollagen (PC2) and defective formation of the Col2 fibrillary network in the ECM. Surprisingly, post-natal induction of chondrocyte autophagy is mediated by the growth factor FGF18 through FGFR4 and JNK-dependent activation of the autophagy initiation complex VPS34-beclin-1. Autophagy is completely suppressed in growth plates from Fgf18(-/-) embryos, while Fgf18(+/-) heterozygous and Fgfr4(-/-) mice fail to induce autophagy during post-natal development and show decreased Col2 levels in the growth plate. Strikingly, the Fgf18(+/-) and Fgfr4(-/-) phenotypes can be rescued in vivo by pharmacological activation of autophagy, pointing to autophagy as a novel effector of FGF signalling in bone. These data demonstrate that autophagy is a developmentally regulated process necessary for bone growth, and identify FGF signalling as a crucial regulator of autophagy in chondrocytes.

  10. The G protein-coupled receptor 30 is up-regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) in breast cancer cells and cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Recchia, Anna Grazia; De Francesco, Ernestina Marianna; Vivacqua, Adele; Sisci, Diego; Panno, Maria Luisa; Andò, Sebastiano; Maggiolini, Marcello

    2011-03-25

    GPR30, also known as GPER, has been suggested to mediate rapid effects induced by estrogens in diverse normal and cancer tissues. Hypoxia is a common feature of solid tumors involved in apoptosis, cell survival, and proliferation. The response to low oxygen environment is mainly mediated by the hypoxia-inducible factor named HIF-1α, which activates signaling pathways leading to adaptive mechanisms in tumor cells. Here, we demonstrate that the hypoxia induces HIF-1α expression, which in turn mediates the up-regulation of GPER and its downstream target CTGF in estrogen receptor-negative SkBr3 breast cancer cells and in HL-1 cardiomyocytes. Moreover, we show that HIF-1α-responsive elements located within the promoter region of GPER are involved in hypoxia-dependent transcription of GPER, which requires the ROS-induced activation of EGFR/ERK signaling in both SkBr3 and HL-1 and cells. Interestingly, the apoptotic response to hypoxia was prevented by estrogens through GPER in SkBr3 cells. Taken together, our data suggest that the hypoxia-induced expression of GPER may be included among the mechanisms involved in the anti-apoptotic effects elicited by estrogens, particularly in a low oxygen microenvironment.

  11. The choroid as a sclera growth regulator.

    PubMed

    Summers, Jody A

    2013-09-01

    Emmetropization is a vision dependent mechanism that attempts to minimize refractive error through coordinated growth of the cornea, lens and sclera such that the axial length matches the focal length of the eye. It is generally accepted that this visually guided eye growth is controlled via a cascade of locally generated chemical events that are initiated in the retina and ultimately cause changes in scleral extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling which lead to changes in eye size and refraction. Of much interest, therefore, are the molecular mechanisms that underpin emmetropization and visually guided ocular growth. The choroid, a highly vascularized layer located between the retina and the sclera is uniquely situated to relay retina-derived signals to the sclera to effect changes in ECM synthesis and ocular size. Studies initiated by Josh Wallman clearly demonstrate that the choroid plays an active role in emmetropization, both by modulation of its thickness to adjust the retina to the focal plane of the eye (choroidal accommodation), and well as through the release of growth factors that have the potential to regulate scleral extracellular matrix remodeling. His discoveries prompted numerous investigations on the molecular composition of the choroid and changes in gene expression associated with visually guided ocular growth. This article will review molecular and functional studies of the choroid to provide support for the hypothesis that the choroid is a source of sclera growth regulators that effect changes in ocular growth in response to visual stimuli. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Choroid as a Sclera Growth Regulator

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Jody A.

    2013-01-01

    Emmetropization is a vision dependent mechanism that attempts to minimize refractive error through coordinated growth of the cornea, lens and sclera such that the axial length matches the focal length of the eye. It is generally accepted that this visually guided eye growth is controlled via a cascade of locally generated chemical events that are initiated in the retina and ultimately cause changes in scleral extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling which lead to changes in eye size and refraction. Of much interest, therefore, are the molecular mechanisms that underpin emmetropization and visually guided ocular growth. The choroid, a highly vascularized layer located between the retina and the sclera is uniquely situated to relay retina-derived signals to the sclera to effect changes in ECM synthesis and ocular size. Studies initiated by Josh Wallman, Ph.D., clearly demonstrate that the choroid plays an active role in emmetropization, both by modulation of its thickness to adjust the retina to the focal plane of the eye (choroidal accommodation), and well as through the release of growth factors that have the potential to regulate scleral extracellular matrix remodeling. His discoveries prompted numerous investigations on the molecular composition of the choroid and changes in gene expression associated with visually guided ocular growth. This article will review molecular and functional studies of the choroid to provide support for the hypothesis that the choroid is a source of sclera growth regulators that effect changes in ocular growth in response to visual stimuli. PMID:23528534

  13. Resistance to cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in ae3 −/− mice, deficient in the AE3 Cl−/HCO3− exchanger

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiac hypertrophy is central to the etiology of heart failure. Understanding the molecular pathways promoting cardiac hypertrophy may identify new targets for therapeutic intervention. Sodium-proton exchanger (NHE1) activity and expression levels in the heart are elevated in many models of hypertrophy through protein kinase C (PKC)/MAPK/ERK/p90RSK pathway stimulation. Sustained NHE1 activity, however, requires an acid-loading pathway. Evidence suggests that the Cl−/HCO3− exchanger, AE3, provides this acid load. Here we explored the role of AE3 in the hypertrophic growth cascade of cardiomyocytes. Methods AE3-deficient (ae3 −/− ) mice were compared to wildtype (WT) littermates to examine the role of AE3 protein in the development of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Mouse hearts were assessed by echocardiography. As well, responses of cultured cardiomyocytes to hypertrophic stimuli were measured. pH regulation capacity of ae3 −/− and WT cardiomyocytes was assessed in cultured cells loaded with the pH-sensitive dye, BCECF-AM. Results ae3 −/− mice were indistinguishable from wild type (WT) mice in terms of cardiovascular performance. Stimulation of ae3 −/− cardiomyocytes with hypertrophic agonists did not increase cardiac growth or reactivate the fetal gene program. ae3 −/− mice are thus protected from pro-hypertrophic stimulation. Steady state intracellular pH (pHi) in ae3 −/− cardiomyocytes was not significantly different from WT, but the rate of recovery of pHi from imposed alkalosis was significantly slower in ae3 −/− cardiomyocytes. Conclusions These data reveal the importance of AE3-mediated Cl−/HCO3− exchange in cardiovascular pH regulation and the development of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Pharmacological antagonism of AE3 is an attractive approach in the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:25047106

  14. Regulation of bone mass by growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Olney, Robert C

    2003-09-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is a peptide hormone secreted from the pituitary gland under the control of the hypothalamus. It has a many actions in the body, including regulating a number of metabolic pathways. Some, but not all, of its effects are mediated through insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). Both GH and IGF-I play significant roles in the regulation of growth and bone metabolism and hence are regulators of bone mass. Bone mass increases steadily through childhood, peaking in the mid 20s. Subsequently, there is a slow decline that accelerates in late life. During childhood, the accumulation in bone mass is a combination of bone growth and bone remodeling. Bone remodeling is the process of new bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts. GH directly and through IGF-I stimulates osteoblast proliferation and activity, promoting bone formation. It also stimulates osteoclast differentiation and activity, promoting bone resorption. The result is an increase in the overall rate of bone remodeling, with a net effect of bone accumulation. The absence of GH results in a reduced rate of bone remodeling and a gradual loss of bone mineral density. Bone growth primarily occurs at the epiphyseal growth plates and is the result of the proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes. GH has direct effects on these chondrocytes, but primarily regulates this function through IGF-I, which stimulates the proliferation of and matrix production by these cells. GH deficiency severely limits bone growth and hence the accumulation of bone mass. GH deficiency is not an uncommon complication in oncology and has long-term effects on bone health.

  15. Mathematics Coursework Regulates Growth in Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; Wilkins, Jesse L. M.

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth (LSAY), we examined the extent to which students' mathematics coursework regulates (influences) the rate of growth in mathematics achievement during middle and high school. Graphical analysis showed that students who started middle school with higher achievement took individual mathematics…

  16. Mathematics Coursework Regulates Growth in Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; Wilkins, Jesse L. M.

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth (LSAY), we examined the extent to which students' mathematics coursework regulates (influences) the rate of growth in mathematics achievement during middle and high school. Graphical analysis showed that students who started middle school with higher achievement took individual mathematics…

  17. RhoA signaling in cardiomyocytes protects against stress-induced heart failure but facilitates cardiac fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Lauriol, Jessica; Keith, Kimberly; Jaffré, Fabrice; Couvillon, Anthony; Saci, Abdel; Goonasekera, Sanjeewa A; McCarthy, Jason R; Kessinger, Chase W; Wang, Jianxun; Ke, Qingen; Kang, Peter M; Molkentin, Jeffery D; Carpenter, Christopher; Kontaridis, Maria I

    2014-10-21

    The Ras-related guanosine triphosphatase RhoA mediates pathological cardiac hypertrophy, but also promotes cell survival and is cardioprotective after ischemia/reperfusion injury. To understand how RhoA mediates these opposing roles in the myocardium, we generated mice with a cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of RhoA. Under normal conditions, the hearts from these mice showed functional, structural, and growth parameters similar to control mice. Additionally, the hearts of the cardiomyocyte-specific, RhoA-deficient mice subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC)-a procedure that induces pressure overload and, if prolonged, heart failure-exhibited a similar amount of hypertrophy as those of the wild-type mice subjected to TAC. Thus, neither normal cardiac homeostasis nor the initiation of compensatory hypertrophy required RhoA in cardiomyocytes. However, in response to chronic TAC, hearts from mice with cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of RhoA showed greater dilation, with thinner ventricular walls and larger chamber dimensions, and more impaired contractile function than those from control mice subjected to chronic TAC. These effects were associated with aberrant calcium signaling, as well as decreased activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and AKT. In addition, hearts from mice with cardiomyocyte-specific RhoA deficiency also showed less fibrosis in response to chronic TAC, with decreased transcriptional activation of genes involved in fibrosis, including myocardin response transcription factor (MRTF) and serum response factor (SRF), suggesting that the fibrotic response to stress in the heart depends on cardiomyocyte-specific RhoA signaling. Our data indicated that RhoA regulates multiple pathways in cardiomyocytes, mediating both cardioprotective (hypertrophy without dilation) and cardio-deleterious effects (fibrosis).

  18. The pro-angiogenic cytokine pleiotrophin potentiates cardiomyocyte apoptosis through inhibition of endogenous AKT/PKB activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinliang; Wei, Hong; Chesley, Alan; Moon, Chanil; Krawczyk, Melissa; Volkova, Maria; Ziman, Bruce; Margulies, Kenneth B; Talan, Mark; Crow, Michael T; Boheler, Kenneth R

    2007-11-30

    Pleiotrophin is a development-regulated cytokine and growth factor that can promote angiogenesis, cell proliferation, or differentiation, and it has been reported to have neovasculogenic effects in damaged heart. Developmentally, it is prominently expressed in fetal and neonatal hearts, but it is minimally expressed in normal adult heart. Conversely, we show in a rat model of myocardial infarction and in human dilated cardiomyopathy that pleiotrophin is markedly up-regulated. To elucidate the effects of pleiotrophin on cardiac contractile cells, we employed primary cultures of rat neonatal and adult cardiomyocytes. We show that pleiotrophin is released from cardiomyocytes in vitro in response to hypoxia and that the addition of recombinant pleiotrophin promotes caspase-mediated genomic DNA fragmentation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Functionally, it potentiates the apoptotic response of neonatal cardiomyocytes to hypoxic stress and to ultraviolet irradiation and of adult cardiomyocytes to hypoxia-reoxygenation. Moreover, UV-induced apoptosis in neonatal cardiomyocytes can be partially inhibited by small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous pleiotrophin. Mechanistically, pleiotrophin antagonizes IGF-1 associated Ser-473 phosphorylation of AKT/PKB, and it concomitantly decreases both BAD and GSK3beta phosphorylation. Adenoviral expression of constitutively active AKT and lithium chloride-mediated inhibition of GSK3beta reduce the potentiated programmed cell death elicited by pleiotrophin. These latter data indicate that pleiotrophin potentiates cardiomyocyte cell death, at least partially, through inhibition of AKT signaling. In conclusion, we have uncovered a novel function for pleiotrophin on heart cells following injury. It fosters cardiomyocyte programmed cell death in response to pro-apoptotic stress, which may be critical to myocardial injury repair.

  19. Migration of cardiomyocytes is essential for heart regeneration in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Itou, Junji; Oishi, Isao; Kawakami, Hiroko; Glass, Tiffany J; Richter, Jenna; Johnson, Austin; Lund, Troy C; Kawakami, Yasuhiko

    2012-11-01

    Adult zebrafish possess a significant ability to regenerate injured heart tissue through proliferation of pre-existing cardiomyocytes, which contrasts with the inability of mammals to do so after the immediate postnatal period. Zebrafish therefore provide a model system in which to study how an injured heart can be repaired. However, it remains unknown what important processes cardiomyocytes are involved in other than partial de-differentiation and proliferation. Here we show that migration of cardiomyocytes to the injury site is essential for heart regeneration. Ventricular amputation induced expression of cxcl12a and cxcr4b, genes encoding a chemokine ligand and its receptor. We found that cxcl12a was expressed in the epicardial tissue and that Cxcr4 was expressed in cardiomyocytes. We show that pharmacological blocking of Cxcr4 function as well as genetic loss of cxcr4b function causes failure to regenerate the heart after ventricular resection. Cardiomyocyte proliferation was not affected but a large portion of proliferating cardiomyocytes remained localized outside the injury site. A photoconvertible fluorescent reporter-based cardiomyocyte-tracing assay demonstrates that cardiomyocytes migrated into the injury site in control hearts but that migration was inhibited in the Cxcr4-blocked hearts. By contrast, the epicardial cells and vascular endothelial cells were not affected by blocking Cxcr4 function. Our data show that the migration of cardiomyocytes into the injury site is regulated independently of proliferation, and that coordination of both processes is necessary for heart regeneration.

  20. IL-10 Inhibits the NF-κB and ERK/MAPK-Mediated Production of Pro-Inflammatory Mediators by Up-Regulation of SOCS-3 in Trypanosoma cruzi-Infected Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Siffo, Sofía; Mirkin, Gerardo A.; Goren, Nora B.

    2013-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) infection produces an intense inflammatory response which is critical for the control of the evolution of Chagas’ disease. Interleukin (IL)-10 is one of the most important anti-inflammatory cytokines identified as modulator of the inflammatory reaction. This work shows that exogenous addition of IL-10 inhibited ERK1/2 and NF-κB activation and reduced inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2), metalloprotease (MMP) -9 and MMP-2 expression and activities, as well as tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 expression, in T. cruzi-infected cardiomyocytes. We found that T. cruzi and IL-10 promote STAT3 phosphorylation and up-regulate the expression of suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS)-3 thereby preventing NF-κB nuclear translocation and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Specific knockdown of SOCS-3 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) impeded the IL-10-mediated inhibition of NF-κB and ERK1/2 activation. As a result, the levels of studied pro-inflammatory mediators were restored in infected cardiomyocytes. Our study reports the first evidence that T. cruzi up- regulates SOCS-3 expression and highlights the relevance of IL-10 in the modulation of pro-inflammatory response of cardiomyocytes in Chagas’ disease. PMID:24260222

  1. MiR-145-5p regulates hypoxia-induced inflammatory response and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes by targeting CD40.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ming; Zhang, Liwei; You, Fei; Zhou, Jingyu; Ma, Yongjiang; Yang, Feifei; Tao, Ling

    2017-03-09

    An increasing body of evidence indicates that inflammation and apoptosis are involved in the development of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). In this study, we sought to investigate the specific role and the underlying regulatory mechanism of miR-145-5p in myocardial ischemic injury. H9c2 cardiac cells were exposed to hypoxia to establish a model of myocardial hypoxic/ischemic injury. We found that miR-145-5p was notably down-regulated, while CD40 expression was highly elevated in H9c2 cells following exposure to acute hypoxia. Additionally, hypoxia markedly enhanced the inflammatory response, as reflected by an increase in the secretion of the cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6, whereas the introduction of miR-145-5p effectively suppressed inflammatory factor production triggered by hypoxia. Furthermore, we observed hypoxia stimulation significantly augmented apoptosis accompanied by a decrease in the expression of Bcl-2 and an increase in the expression of Bax, Caspase-3, and Caspase-9. However, augmentation of miR-145-5p led to a dramatic prevention of hypoxia-induced apoptosis. Importantly, we identified CD40 as a direct target of miR-145-5p. Interestingly, the depletion of CD40 with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) apparently repressed the production of inflammatory cytokines and apoptosis in the setting of acute hypoxic treated. Taken together, these data demonstrated that miR-145-5p may function as a cardiac-protective molecule in myocardial ischemic injury by ameliorating inflammation and apoptosis via negative regulation of CD40. The study gives evidence that miR-145-5p provides an interesting strategy for protecting cardiomyocytes from hypoxia-induced inflammatory response and apoptosis.

  2. Proteolytic Processing Regulates Placental Growth Factor Activities*

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Daniel C.; Willenborg, Sebastian; Koch, Manuel; Zwolanek, Daniela; Müller, Stefan; Becker, Ann-Kathrin A.; Metzger, Stephanie; Ehrbar, Martin; Kurschat, Peter; Hellmich, Martin; Hubbell, Jeffrey A.; Eming, Sabine A.

    2013-01-01

    Placental growth factor (PlGF) is a critical mediator of blood vessel formation, yet mechanisms of its action and regulation are incompletely understood. Here we demonstrate that proteolytic processing regulates the biological activity of PlGF. Specifically, we show that plasmin processing of PlGF-2 yields a protease-resistant core fragment comprising the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 binding site but lacking the carboxyl-terminal domain encoding the heparin-binding domain and an 8-amino acid peptide encoded by exon 7. We have identified plasmin cleavage sites, generated a truncated PlGF118 isoform mimicking plasmin-processed PlGF, and explored its biological function in comparison with that of PlGF-1 and -2. The angiogenic responses induced by the diverse PlGF forms were distinct. Whereas PlGF-2 increased endothelial cell chemotaxis, vascular sprouting, and granulation tissue formation upon skin injury, these activities were abrogated following plasmin digestion. Investigation of PlGF/Neuropilin-1 binding and function suggests a critical role for heparin-binding domain/Neuropilin-1 interaction and its regulation by plasmin processing. Collectively, here we provide new mechanistic insights into the regulation of PlGF-2/Neuropilin-1-mediated tissue vascularization and growth. PMID:23645683

  3. Underground tuning: quantitative regulation of root growth.

    PubMed

    Satbhai, Santosh B; Ristova, Daniela; Busch, Wolfgang

    2015-02-01

    Plants display a high degree of phenotypic plasticity that allows them to tune their form and function to changing environments. The plant root system has evolved mechanisms to anchor the plant and to efficiently explore soils to forage for soil resources. Key to this is an enormous capacity for plasticity of multiple traits that shape the distribution of roots in the soil. Such root system architecture-related traits are determined by root growth rates, root growth direction, and root branching. In this review, we describe how the root system is constituted, and which mechanisms, pathways, and genes mainly regulate plasticity of the root system in response to environmental variation.

  4. Investigating mitochondrial metabolism in contracting HL-1 cardiomyocytes following hypoxia and pharmacological HIF activation identifies HIF-dependent and independent mechanisms of regulation.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, Lucy J A; Abd-Jamil, Amira H; Gomes, Renata S M; Carter, Emma E; Carr, Carolyn A; Clarke, Kieran; Heather, Lisa C

    2014-11-01

    Hypoxia is a consequence of cardiac disease and downregulates mitochondrial metabolism, yet the molecular mechanisms through which this occurs in the heart are incompletely characterized. Therefore, we aimed to use a contracting HL-1 cardiomyocyte model to investigate the effects of hypoxia on mitochondrial metabolism. Cells were exposed to hypoxia (2% O2) for 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours to characterize the metabolic response. Cells were subsequently treated with the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-activating compound, dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG), to determine whether hypoxia-induced mitochondrial changes were HIF dependent or independent, and to assess the suitability of this cultured cardiac cell line for cardiovascular pharmacological studies. Hypoxic cells had increased glycolysis after 24 hours, with glucose transporter 1 and lactate levels increased 5-fold and 15-fold, respectively. After 24 hours of hypoxia, mitochondrial networks were more fragmented but there was no change in citrate synthase activity, indicating that mitochondrial content was unchanged. Cellular oxygen consumption was 30% lower, accompanied by decreases in the enzymatic activities of electron transport chain (ETC) complexes I and IV, and aconitase by 81%, 96%, and 72%, relative to controls. Pharmacological HIF activation with DMOG decreased cellular oxygen consumption by 43%, coincident with decreases in the activities of aconitase and complex I by 26% and 30%, indicating that these adaptations were HIF mediated. In contrast, the hypoxia-mediated decrease in complex IV activity was not replicated by DMOG treatment, suggesting HIF-independent regulation of this complex. In conclusion, 24 hours of hypoxia increased anaerobic glycolysis and decreased mitochondrial respiration, which was associated with changes in ETC and tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme activities in contracting HL-1 cells. Pharmacological HIF activation in this cardiac cell line allowed both HIF-dependent and independent

  5. Compartmentalized energy transfer in cardiomyocytes: use of mathematical modeling for analysis of in vivo regulation of respiration.

    PubMed Central

    Aliev, M K; Saks, V A

    1997-01-01

    The mathematical model of the compartmentalized energy transfer system in cardiac myocytes presented includes mitochondrial synthesis of ATP by ATP synthase, phosphocreatine production in the coupled mitochondrial creatine kinase reaction, the myofibrillar and cytoplasmic creatine kinase reactions, ATP utilization by actomyosin ATPase during the contraction cycle, and diffusional exchange of metabolites between different compartments. The model was used to calculate the changes in metabolite profiles during the cardiac cycle, metabolite and energy fluxes in different cellular compartments at high workload (corresponding to the rate of oxygen consumption of 46 mu atoms of O.(g wet mass)-1.min-1) under varying conditions of restricted ADP diffusion across mitochondrial outer membrane and creatine kinase isoenzyme "switchoff." In the complete system, restricted diffusion of ADP across the outer mitochondrial membrane stabilizes phosphocreatine production in cardiac mitochondria and increases the role of the phosphocreatine shuttle in energy transport and respiration regulation. Selective inhibition of myoplasmic or mitochondrial creatine kinase (modeling the experiments with transgenic animals) results in "takeover" of their function by another, active creatine kinase isoenzyme. This mathematical modeling also shows that assumption of the creatine kinase equilibrium in the cell may only be a very rough approximation to the reality at increased workload. The mathematical model developed can be used as a basis for further quantitative analyses of energy fluxes in the cell and their regulation, particularly by adding modules for adenylate kinase, the glycolytic system, and other reactions of energy metabolism of the cell. Images FIGURE 7 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 7 PMID:9199806

  6. Regulation of body growth by microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Lui, Julian C

    2016-10-24

    Regulation of body growth remains a fascinating and unresolved biological mystery. One key component of body growth is skeletal and longitudinal bone growth. Children grow taller because their bones grew longer, and the predominant driver of longitudinal bone growth is a cartilaginous structure found near the ends of long bone named the growth plate. Numerous recent studies have started to unveil the importance of microRNAs in regulation of growth plate functions, therefore contributing to regulation of linear growth. In addition to longitudinal growth, other organs in our body need to increase in size and cell number as we grow, and the regulation of organ growth involves both systemic factors like hormones; and other intrinsic mechanisms, which we are just beginning to understand. This review aims to summarize some recent important findings on how microRNAs are involved in both of these processes: the regulation of longitudinal bone growth, and the regulation of organs and overall body growth.

  7. An integrated mechanism of cardiomyocyte nuclear Ca(2+) signaling.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Cristián; Vicencio, Jose Miguel; Varas-Godoy, Manuel; Jaimovich, Enrique; Rothermel, Beverly A; Uhlén, Per; Hill, Joseph A; Lavandero, Sergio

    2014-10-01

    In cardiomyocytes, Ca(2+) plays a central role in governing both contraction and signaling events that regulate gene expression. Current evidence indicates that discrimination between these two critical functions is achieved by segregating Ca(2+) within subcellular microdomains: transcription is regulated by Ca(2+) release within nuclear microdomains, and excitation-contraction coupling is regulated by cytosolic Ca(2+). Accordingly, a variety of agonists that control cardiomyocyte gene expression, such as endothelin-1, angiotensin-II or insulin-like growth factor-1, share the feature of triggering nuclear Ca(2+) signals. However, signaling pathways coupling surface receptor activation to nuclear Ca(2+) release, and the phenotypic responses to such signals, differ between agonists. According to earlier hypotheses, the selective control of nuclear Ca(2+) signals by activation of plasma membrane receptors relies on the strategic localization of inositol trisphosphate receptors at the nuclear envelope. There, they mediate Ca(2+) release from perinuclear Ca(2+) stores upon binding of inositol trisphosphate generated in the cytosol, which diffuses into the nucleus. More recently, identification of such receptors at nuclear membranes or perinuclear sarcolemmal invaginations has uncovered novel mechanisms whereby agonists control nuclear Ca(2+) release. In this review, we discuss mechanisms for the selective control of nuclear Ca(2+) signals with special focus on emerging models of agonist receptor activation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An integrated mechanism of cardiomyocyte nuclear Ca2+ signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ibarra, Cristián; Vicencio, Jose Miguel; Varas-Godoy, Manuel; Jaimovich, Enrique; Rothermel, Beverly A.; Uhlén, Per; Hill, Joseph A.; Lavandero, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    In cardiomyocytes, Ca2+ plays a central role in governing both contraction and signaling events that regulate gene expression. Current evidence indicates that discrimination between these two critical functions is achieved by segregating Ca2+ within subcellular microdomains: transcription is regulated by Ca2+ release within nuclear microdomains, and excitation–contraction coupling is regulated by cytosolic Ca2+. Accordingly, a variety of agonists that control cardiomyocyte gene expression, such as endothelin-1, angiotensin-II or insulin-like growth factor-1, share the feature of triggering nuclear Ca2+ signals. However, signaling pathways coupling surface receptor activation to nuclear Ca2+ release, and the phenotypic responses to such signals, differ between agonists. According to earlier hypotheses, the selective control of nuclear Ca2+ signals by activation of plasma membrane receptors relies on the strategic localization of inositol trisphosphate receptors at the nuclear envelope. There, they mediate Ca2+ release from perinuclear Ca2+ stores upon binding of inositol trisphosphate generated in the cytosol, which diffuses into the nucleus. More recently, identification of such receptors at nuclear membranes or perinuclear sarcolemmal invaginations has uncovered novel mechanisms whereby agonists control nuclear Ca2+ release. In this review, we discuss mechanisms for the selective control of nuclear Ca2+ signals with special focus on emerging models of agonist receptor activation. PMID:24997440

  9. Acetylation of VGLL4 Regulates Hippo-YAP Signaling and Postnatal Cardiac Growth.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhiqiang; Guo, Haidong; Cao, Yuan; Zohrabian, Sylvia; Zhou, Pingzhu; Ma, Qing; VanDusen, Nathan; Guo, Yuxuan; Zhang, Jin; Stevens, Sean M; Liang, Feng; Quan, Qimin; van Gorp, Pim R; Li, Amy; Dos Remedios, Cristobal; He, Aibin; Bezzerides, Vassilios J; Pu, William T

    2016-11-21

    Binding of the transcriptional co-activator YAP with the transcription factor TEAD stimulates growth of the heart and other organs. YAP overexpression potently stimulates fetal cardiomyocyte (CM) proliferation, but YAP's mitogenic potency declines postnatally. While investigating factors that limit YAP's postnatal mitogenic activity, we found that the CM-enriched TEAD1 binding protein VGLL4 inhibits CM proliferation by inhibiting TEAD1-YAP interaction and by targeting TEAD1 for degradation. Importantly, VGLL4 acetylation at lysine 225 negatively regulated its binding to TEAD1. This developmentally regulated acetylation event critically governs postnatal heart growth, since overexpression of an acetylation-refractory VGLL4 mutant enhanced TEAD1 degradation, limited neonatal CM proliferation, and caused CM necrosis. Our study defines an acetylation-mediated, VGLL4-dependent switch that regulates TEAD stability and YAP-TEAD activity. These insights may improve targeted modulation of TEAD-YAP activity in applications from cardiac regeneration to cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Regulation of myostatin activity and muscle growth.

    PubMed

    Lee, S J; McPherron, A C

    2001-07-31

    Myostatin is a transforming growth factor-beta family member that acts as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass. To identify possible myostatin inhibitors that may have applications for promoting muscle growth, we investigated the regulation of myostatin signaling. Myostatin protein purified from mammalian cells consisted of a noncovalently held complex of the N-terminal propeptide and a disulfide-linked dimer of C-terminal fragments. The purified C-terminal myostatin dimer was capable of binding the activin type II receptors, Act RIIB and, to a lesser extent, Act RIIA. Binding of myostatin to Act RIIB could be inhibited by the activin-binding protein follistatin and, at higher concentrations, by the myostatin propeptide. To determine the functional significance of these interactions in vivo, we generated transgenic mice expressing high levels of the propeptide, follistatin, or a dominant-negative form of Act RIIB by using a skeletal muscle-specific promoter. Independent transgenic mouse lines for each construct exhibited dramatic increases in muscle mass comparable to those seen in myostatin knockout mice. Our findings suggest that the propeptide, follistatin, or other molecules that block signaling through this pathway may be useful agents for enhancing muscle growth for both human therapeutic and agricultural applications.

  11. Unexpected maturation of PI3K and MAPK-ERK signaling in fetal ovine cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Louey, S.; Stork, P. J.; Giraud, G. D.; Thornburg, K. L.

    2014-01-01

    In the first two-thirds of gestation, ovine fetal cardiomyocytes undergo mitosis to increase cardiac mass and accommodate fetal growth. Thereafter, some myocytes continue to proliferate while others mature and terminally differentiate into binucleated cells. At term (145 days gestational age; dGA) about 60% of cardiomyocytes become binucleated and exit the cell cycle under hormonal control. Rising thyroid hormone (T3) levels near term (135 dGA) inhibit proliferation and stimulate maturation. However, the degree to which intracellular signaling patterns change with age in response to T3 is unknown. We hypothesized that in vitro activation of ERK, Akt, and p70S6K by two regulators of cardiomyocyte cell cycle activity, T3 and insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), would be similar in cardiomyocytes at gestational ages 100 and 135 dGA. IGF-1 and T3 each independently stimulated phosphorylation of ERK, Akt, and p70S6K in cells at both ages. In the younger mononucleated myocytes, the phosphorylation of ERK and Akt was reduced in the presence of IGF-1 and T3. However, the same hormone combination led to a dramatic twofold increase in the phosphorylation of these signaling proteins in the 135 dGA cardiomyocytes—even in cells that were not proliferating. In the older cells, both mono- and binucleated cells were affected. In conclusion, fetal ovine cardiomyocytes undergo profound maturation-related changes in signaling in response to T3 and IGF-1, but not to either factor alone. Differences in age-related response are likely to be related to milestones in fetal cardiac development as the myocardium prepares for ex utero life. PMID:25128174

  12. Brassinosteroids Regulate Root Growth, Development, and Symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhuoyun; Li, Jia

    2016-01-04

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are natural plant hormones critical for growth and development. BR deficient or signaling mutants show significantly shortened root phenotypes. However, for a long time, it was thought that these phenotypes were solely caused by reduced cell elongation in the mutant roots. Functions of BRs in regulating root development have been largely neglected. Nonetheless, recent detailed analyses, revealed that BRs are not only involved in root cell elongation but are also involved in many aspects of root development, such as maintenance of meristem size, root hair formation, lateral root initiation, gravitropic response, mycorrhiza formation, and nodulation in legume species. In this review, current findings on the functions of BRs in mediating root growth, development, and symbiosis are discussed.

  13. MicroRNA-322 protects hypoxia-induced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes via BDNF gene

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liguo; Song, Shigang; Lv, Hang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cardiomyocytes apoptosis under hypoxia condition contributes significantly to various cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we investigated the role of microRNA-322 (miR-322) in regulating hypoxia-induced apoptosis in neonatal murine cardiomyocytes in vitro. Method: Cardiomyocytes of C57BL/6J mice were treated with hypoxia condition in vitro. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis was measured by TUNEL assay. Gene expression pattern of miR-322 was measured by qRT-PCR. Stable downregulation of miR-322 in cardiomyocytes were achieved by lentiviral transduction, and the effect of miR-322 downregulation on hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis was investigated. Possible regulation of miR-322 on its downstream target gene, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was investigated in cardiomyocytes. BDNF was then genetically silenced by siRNA to evaluate its role in miR-137 mediated cardiomyocyte apoptosis protection under hypoxia condition. Results: Under hypoxia condition, significant apoptosis was induced and miR-322 was significantly upregulated in cardiomyocytes in vitro. Through lentiviral transduction, miR-322 was efficiently knocked down in cardiomyocytes. Downregulation of miR-322 protected hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Luciferase assay showed BDNF was the target gene of miR-322. QRT-PCR showed BDNF expression was associated with miR-322 regulation on hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Silencing BDNF in cardiomyocyte through siRNA transfection reversed the protective effect of miR-322 downregulation on hypoxia-induced apoptosis. Conclusion: Our study revealed that miR-322, in association with BDNF, played important role in regulating hypoxia-induced apoptosis in cardiomyocyte. PMID:27398164

  14. [Synthesis and regulation of growth hormone secretion].

    PubMed

    Miyachi, Y; Yakushiji, F; Terazono, T

    1993-10-01

    Human growth hormone (hGH) is a single chain, 22 kd-protein with two intramolecular disulfide bonds. The hGH gene is located on chromosome 17 at band q22-q24 and has four introns separating five coding exons. The expression of hGH is restricted to the pituitary and regulated by GHF-1 which binds to the hGH promoter acting in concert with several other more ubiquitous DNA binding proteins. The secretion of hGH is regulated by GH releasing hormone (GRH) and somatostatin. GRH controls GH synthesis by stimulating transcription of GH mRNA while somatostatin determines the timing and amplitude of GH pulses. Pulsatile GH secretion is influenced by a number of neurogenic, metabolic and hormonal factors.

  15. Regulation of pancreatic cancer growth by superoxide.

    PubMed

    Du, Juan; Nelson, Elke S; Simons, Andrean L; Olney, Kristen E; Moser, Justin C; Schrock, Hannah E; Wagner, Brett A; Buettner, Garry R; Smith, Brian J; Teoh, Melissa L T; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Cullen, Joseph J

    2013-07-01

    K-ras mutations have been identified in up to 95% of pancreatic cancers, implying their critical role in the molecular pathogenesis. Expression of K-ras oncogene in an immortalized human pancreatic ductal epithelial cell line, originally derived from normal pancreas (H6c7), induced the formation of carcinoma in mice. We hypothesized that K-ras oncogene correlates with increased non-mitochondrial-generated superoxide (O 2.-), which could be involved in regulating cell growth contributing to tumor progression. In the H6c7 cell line and its derivatives, H6c7er-Kras+ (H6c7 cells expressing K-ras oncogene), and H6c7eR-KrasT (tumorigenic H6c7 cells expressing K-ras oncogene), there was an increase in hydroethidine fluorescence in cell lines that express K-ras. Western blots and activity assays for the antioxidant enzymes that detoxify O 2.- were similar in these cell lines suggesting that the increase in hydroethidine fluorescence was not due to decreased antioxidant capacity. To determine a possible non-mitochondrial source of the increased levels of O 2.-, Western analysis demonstrated the absence of NADPH oxidase-2 (NOX2) in H6c7 cells but present in the H6c7 cell lines expressing K-ras and other pancreatic cancer cell lines. Inhibition of NOX2 decreased hydroethidine fluorescence and clonogenic survival. Furthermore, in the cell lines with the K-ras oncogene, overexpression of superoxide dismutases that detoxify non-mitochondrial sources of O 2.-, and treatment with the small molecule O 2.- scavenger Tempol, also decreased hydroethidine fluorescence, inhibited clonogenic survival and inhibited growth of tumor xenografts. Thus, O 2.- produced by NOX2 in pancreatic cancer cells with K-ras, may regulate pancreatic cancer cell growth. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Process for producing vegetative and tuber growth regulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutte, Gary W. (Inventor); Yorio, Neil C. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A process of making a vegetative and tuber growth regulator. The vegetative and tuber growth regulator is made by growing potato plants in a recirculating hydroponic system for a sufficient time to produce the growth regulator. Also, the use of the vegetative and growth regulator on solanaceous plants, tuber forming plants and ornamental seedlings by contacting the roots or shoots of the plant with a sufficient amount of the growth regulator to regulate the growth of the plant and one more of canopy size, plant height, stem length, internode number and presence of tubers in fresh mass. Finally, a method for regulating the growth of potato plants using a recirculating hydroponic system is described.

  17. Atorvastatin protects cardiomyocytes from oxidative stress by inhibiting LOX-1 expression and cardiomyocyte apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Cheng, Linfang; Wang, Qiqi; Zhou, Dongchen; Wu, Zhigang; Shen, Ling; Zhang, Li; Zhu, Jianhua

    2015-03-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major health problem worldwide. The most severe form of CAD is acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Recent studies have demonstrated the beneficial role of atorvastatin in ACS; however, the mechanisms underlying this effect have not been fully clarified. Growing evidence indicates that activation of the lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) plays an important role in oxidative stress-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis during ACS. In this study, we examined whether atorvastatin inhibits H2O2-induced LOX-1 expression and H9c2 cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and investigated the underlying signaling pathway. Treatment of H9c2 cardiomyocytes with H2O2 resulted in elevated expression of LOX-1 mRNA and protein, as well as increased caspase-3 and -9 protein expression and cell apoptosis. H2O2-induced LOX-1 expression, caspase protein expression, and cardiomyocyte apoptosis were attenuated by pretreatment with atorvastatin. Atorvastatin activated H2O2-inhibited phosphorylation of Akt in a concentration-dependent manner. The Akt inhibitor, LY294002, inhibited the effect of atorvastatin on inducing Akt phosphorylation and on suppressing H2O2-mediated caspase up-regulation and cell apoptosis. These findings indicate that atorvastatin protects cardiomyocyte from oxidative stress via inhibition of LOX-1 expression and apoptosis, and that activation of H2O2-inhibited phosphorylation of Akt may play an important role in the protective function of atorvastatin.

  18. Microscopic heat pulses induce contraction of cardiomyocytes without calcium transients

    SciTech Connect

    Oyama, Kotaro; Mizuno, Akari; Shintani, Seine A.; Itoh, Hideki; Serizawa, Takahiro; Fukuda, Norio; Suzuki, Madoka

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Infra-red laser beam generates microscopic heat pulses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heat pulses induce contraction of cardiomyocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ca{sup 2+} transients during the contraction were not detected. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Skinned cardiomyocytes in free Ca{sup 2+} solution also contracted. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heat pulses regulated the contractions without Ca{sup 2+} dynamics. -- Abstract: It was recently demonstrated that laser irradiation can control the beating of cardiomyocytes and hearts, however, the precise mechanism remains to be clarified. Among the effects induced by laser irradiation on biological tissues, temperature change is one possible effect which can alter physiological functions. Therefore, we investigated the mechanism by which heat pulses, produced by infra-red laser light under an optical microscope, induce contractions of cardiomyocytes. Here we show that microscopic heat pulses induce contraction of rat adult cardiomyocytes. The temperature increase, {Delta}T, required for inducing contraction of cardiomyocytes was dependent upon the ambient temperature; that is, {Delta}T at physiological temperature was lower than that at room temperature. Ca{sup 2+} transients, which are usually coupled to contraction, were not detected. We confirmed that the contractions of skinned cardiomyocytes were induced by the heat pulses even in free Ca{sup 2+} solution. This heat pulse-induced Ca{sup 2+}-decoupled contraction technique has the potential to stimulate heart and skeletal muscles in a manner different from the conventional electrical stimulations.

  19. Intracellular diffusion restrictions in isolated cardiomyocytes from rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Sokolova, Niina; Vendelin, Marko; Birkedal, Rikke

    2009-12-17

    coupled to respiration. This argues against diffusion restriction by the outer mitochondrial membrane. These results from rainbow trout cardiomyocytes resemble those from other low-performance hearts such as neonatal rat and rabbit hearts. Thus, it seems that metabolic regulation is related to cardiac performance, and it is likely that rainbow trout can be used as a model animal for further studies of the localization and role of diffusion restrictions in low-performance hearts.

  20. Local IGF-1 isoform protects cardiomyocytes from hypertrophic and oxidative stresses via SirT1 activity.

    PubMed

    Vinciguerra, Manlio; Santini, Maria Paola; Claycomb, William C; Ladurner, Andreas G; Rosenthal, Nadia

    2009-12-10

    Oxidative and hypertrophic stresses contribute to the pathogenesis of heart failure. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a peptide hormone with a complex post-transcriptional regulation, generating distinct isoforms. Locally acting IGF-1 isoform (mIGF-1) helps the heart to recover from toxic injury and from infarct. In the murine heart, moderate overexpression of the NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase SirT1 was reported to mitigate oxidative stress. SirT1 is known to promote lifespan extension and to protect from metabolic challenges. Circulating IGF-1 and SirT1 play antagonizing biological roles and share molecular targets in the heart, in turn affecting cardiomyocyte physiology. However, how different IGF-1 isoforms may impact SirT1 and affect cardiomyocyte function is unknown. Here we show that locally acting mIGF-1 increases SirT1 expression/activity, whereas circulating IGF-1 isoform does not affect it, in cultured HL-1 and neonatal cardiomyocytes. mIGF-1-induced SirT1 activity exerts protection against angiotensin II (Ang II)-triggered hypertrophy and against paraquat (PQ) and Ang II-induced oxidative stress. Conversely, circulating IGF-1 triggered itself oxidative stress and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Interestingly, potent cardio-protective genes (adiponectin, UCP-1 and MT-2) were increased specifically in mIGF-1-overexpressing cardiomyocytes, in a SirT1-dependent fashion. Thus, mIGF-1 protects cardiomyocytes from oxidative and hypertrophic stresses via SirT1 activity, and may represent a promising cardiac therapeutic.

  1. Local IGF-1 isoform protects cardiomyocytes from hypertrophic and oxidative stresses via SirT1 activity

    PubMed Central

    Vinciguerra, Manlio; Santini, Maria Paola; Claycomb, William C.; Ladurner, Andreas G.; Rosenthal, Nadia

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative and hypertrophic stresses contribute to the pathogenesis of heart failure. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a peptide hormone with a complex post-transcriptional regulation, generating distinct isoforms. Locally acting IGF-1 isoform (mIGF-1) helps the heart to recover from toxic injury and from infarct. In the murine heart, moderate overexpression of the NAD+-dependent deacetylase SirT1 was reported to mitigate oxidative stress. SirT1 is known to promote lifespan extension and to protect from metabolic challenges. Circulating IGF-1 and SirT1 play antagonizing biological roles and share molecular targets in the heart, in turn affecting cardiomyocyte physiology. However, how different IGF-1 isoforms may impact SirT1 and affect cardiomyocyte function is unknown. Here we show that locally acting mIGF-1 increases SirT1 expression/activity, whereas circulating IGF-1 isoform does not affect it, in cultured HL-1 and neonatal cardiomyocytes. mIGF-1-induced SirT1 activity exerts protection against angiotensin II (Ang II)-triggered hypertrophy and against paraquat (PQ) and Ang II-induced oxidative stress. Conversely, circulating IGF-1 triggered itself oxidative stress and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Interestingly, potent cardio-protective genes (adiponectin, UCP-1 and MT-2) were increased specifically in mIGF-1-overexpressing cardiomyocytes, in a SirT1-dependent fashion. Thus, mIGF-1 protects cardiomyocytes from oxidative and hypertrophic stresses via SirT1 activity, and may represent a promising cardiac therapeutic. PMID:20228935

  2. The intrinsic circadian clock within the cardiomyocyte.

    PubMed

    Durgan, David J; Hotze, Margaret A; Tomlin, Tara M; Egbejimi, Oluwaseun; Graveleau, Christophe; Abel, E Dale; Shaw, Chad A; Bray, Molly S; Hardin, Paul E; Young, Martin E

    2005-10-01

    Circadian clocks are intracellular molecular mechanisms that allow the cell to anticipate the time of day. We have previously reported that the intact rat heart expresses the major components of the circadian clock, of which its rhythmic expression in vivo is consistent with the operation of a fully functional clock mechanism. The present study exposes oscillations of circadian clock genes [brain and arylhydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like protein 1 (bmal1), reverse strand of the c-erbaalpha gene (rev-erbaalpha), period 2 (per2), albumin D-element binding protein (dbp)] for isolated adult rat cardiomyocytes in culture. Acute (2 h) and/or chronic (continuous) treatment of cardiomyocytes with FCS (50% and 2.5%, respectively) results in rhythmic expression of circadian clock genes with periodicities of 20-24 h. In contrast, cardiomyocytes cultured in the absence of serum exhibit dramatically dampened oscillations in bmal1 and dbp only. Zeitgebers (timekeepers) are factors that influence the timing of the circadian clock. Glucose, which has been previously shown to reactivate circadian clock gene oscillations in fibroblasts, has no effect on the expression of circadian clock genes in adult rat cardiomyocytes, either in the absence or presence of serum. Exposure of adult rat cardiomyocytes to the sympathetic neurotransmitter norephinephrine (10 microM) for 2 h reinitiates rhythmic expression of circadian clock genes in a serum-independent manner. Oscillations in circadian clock genes were associated with 24-h oscillations in the metabolic genes pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (pdk4) and uncoupling protein 3 (ucp3). In conclusion, these data suggest that the circadian clock operates within the myocytes of the heart and that this molecular mechanism persists under standard cell culture conditions (i.e., 2.5% serum). Furthermore, our data suggest that norepinephrine, unlike glucose, influences the timing of the circadian clock within the heart and that the

  3. Fibroblast Growth Factor Signaling in Metabolic Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Nies, Vera J. M.; Sancar, Gencer; Liu, Weilin; van Zutphen, Tim; Struik, Dicky; Yu, Ruth T.; Atkins, Annette R.; Evans, Ronald M.; Jonker, Johan W.; Downes, Michael Robert

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is a growing health problem. Obesity is strongly associated with several comorbidities, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, certain cancers, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes, which all reduce life expectancy and life quality. Several drugs have been put forward in order to treat these diseases, but many of them have detrimental side effects. The unexpected role of the family of fibroblast growth factors in the regulation of energy metabolism provides new approaches to the treatment of metabolic diseases and offers a valuable tool to gain more insight into metabolic regulation. The known beneficial effects of FGF19 and FGF21 on metabolism, together with recently discovered similar effects of FGF1 suggest that FGFs and their derivatives carry great potential as novel therapeutics to treat metabolic conditions. To facilitate the development of new therapies with improved targeting and minimal side effects, a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of action of FGFs is needed. In this review, we will discuss what is currently known about the physiological roles of FGF signaling in tissues important for metabolic homeostasis. In addition, we will discuss current concepts regarding their pharmacological properties and effector tissues in the context of metabolic disease. Also, the recent progress in the development of FGF variants will be reviewed. Our goal is to provide a comprehensive overview of the current concepts and consensuses regarding FGF signaling in metabolic health and disease and to provide starting points for the development of FGF-based therapies against metabolic conditions. PMID:26834701

  4. Calcium and mitochondrial metabolism in ceramide-induced cardiomyocyte death

    PubMed Central

    Parra, Valentina; Moraga, Francisco; Kuzmicic, Jovan; López-Crisosto, Camila; Troncoso, Rodrigo; Torrealba, Natalia; Criollo, Alfredo; Díaz-Elizondo, Jessica; Rothermel, Beverly A.; Quest, Andrew F.G.; Lavandero, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Ceramides are important intermediates in the biosynthesis and degradation of sphingolipids that regulatenumerous cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, cell growth, differentiation and death. In cardiomyocytes, ceramides induce apoptosis by decreasing mitochondrial membrane potential and promoting cytochrome-c release. Ca2+ overload is a common feature of all types of cell death. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of ceramides on cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels, mitochondrial function and cardiomyocyte death. Our data show that C2-ceramide induces apoptosis and necrosis in cultured cardiomyocytes by a mechanism involving increased Ca2+ influx, mitochondrial network fragmentation and loss of the mitochondrial Ca2+ buffer capacity. These biochemical events increase cytosolic Ca2+ levels and trigger cardiomyocyte death via the activation of calpains. PMID:23602992

  5. The Cardiomyocyte Circadian Clock: Emerging Roles in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Durgan, David J.; Young, Martin E.

    2011-01-01

    Circadian misalignment has been implicated in the development of obesity, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. Time-of-day-dependent synchronization of organisms with their environment is mediated by circadian clocks. This cell autonomous mechanism has been identified within all cardiovascular-relevant cell types, including cardiomyocytes. Recent molecular- and genetic- based studies suggest that the cardiomyocyte circadian clock influences multiple myocardial processes, including transcription, signaling, growth, metabolism, and contractile function. Following an appreciation of its physiological roles, the cardiomyocyte circadian clock has recently been linked to the pathogenesis of heart disease in response to adverse stresses, such as ischemia/reperfusion, in animal models. The purpose of this review is therefore to highlight recent advances regarding the roles of the cardiomyocyte circadian clock in both myocardial physiology and pathophysiology (i.e., health and disease). PMID:20203314

  6. The cardiomyocyte circadian clock: emerging roles in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Durgan, David J; Young, Martin E

    2010-03-05

    Circadian misalignment has been implicated in the development of obesity, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. Time-of-day-dependent synchronization of organisms with their environment is mediated by circadian clocks. This cell autonomous mechanism has been identified within all cardiovascular-relevant cell types, including cardiomyocytes. Recent molecular- and genetic-based studies suggest that the cardiomyocyte circadian clock influences multiple myocardial processes, including transcription, signaling, growth, metabolism, and contractile function. Following an appreciation of its physiological roles, the cardiomyocyte circadian clock has recently been linked to the pathogenesis of heart disease in response to adverse stresses, such as ischemia/reperfusion, in animal models. The purpose of this review is therefore to highlight recent advances regarding the roles of the cardiomyocyte circadian clock in both myocardial physiology and pathophysiology (ie, health and disease).

  7. Building and re-building the heart by cardiomyocyte proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Foglia, Matthew J.; Poss, Kenneth D.

    2016-01-01

    The adult human heart does not regenerate significant amounts of lost tissue after injury. Rather than making new, functional muscle, human hearts are prone to scarring and hypertrophy, which can often lead to fatal arrhythmias and heart failure. The most-cited basis of this ineffective cardiac regeneration in mammals is the low proliferative capacity of adult cardiomyocytes. However, mammalian cardiomyocytes can avidly proliferate during fetal and neonatal development, and both adult zebrafish and neonatal mice can regenerate cardiac muscle after injury, suggesting that latent regenerative potential exists. Dissecting the cellular and molecular mechanisms that promote cardiomyocyte proliferation throughout life, deciphering why proliferative capacity normally dissipates in adult mammals, and deriving means to boost this capacity are primary goals in cardiovascular research. Here, we review our current understanding of how cardiomyocyte proliferation is regulated during heart development and regeneration. PMID:26932668

  8. Regulation of Pollen Tube Growth by Transglutaminase

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Giampiero; Serafini-Fracassini, Donatella; Del Duca, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    In pollen tubes, cytoskeleton proteins are involved in many aspects of pollen germination and growth, from the transport of sperm cells to the asymmetrical distribution of organelles to the deposition of cell wall material. These activities are based on the dynamics of the cytoskeleton. Changes to both actin filaments and microtubules are triggered by specific proteins, resulting in different organization levels suitable for the different functions of the cytoskeleton. Transglutaminases are enzymes ubiquitous in all plant organs and cell compartments. They catalyze the post-translational conjugation of polyamines to different protein targets, such as the cytoskeleton. Transglutaminases are suggested to have a general role in the interaction between pollen tubes and the extracellular matrix during fertilization and a specific role during the self-incompatibility response. In such processes, the activity of transglutaminases is enhanced, leading to the formation of cross-linked products (including aggregates of tubulin and actin). Consequently, transglutaminases are suggested to act as regulators of cytoskeleton dynamics. The distribution of transglutaminases in pollen tubes is affected by both membrane dynamics and the cytoskeleton. Transglutaminases are also secreted in the extracellular matrix, where they may take part in the assembly and/or strengthening of the pollen tube cell wall. PMID:27137368

  9. Placental growth factor regulates cardiac adaptation and hypertrophy through a paracrine mechanism.

    PubMed

    Accornero, Federica; van Berlo, Jop H; Benard, Matthew J; Lorenz, John N; Carmeliet, Peter; Molkentin, Jeffery D

    2011-07-22

    Paracrine growth factor-mediated crosstalk between cardiac myocytes and nonmyocytes in the heart is critical for programming adaptive cardiac hypertrophy in which myocyte size, capillary density, and the extracellular matrix function coordinately. To examine the role that placental growth factor (PGF) plays in the heart as a paracrine regulator of cardiac adaptation to stress stimulation. PGF is induced in the heart after pressure-overload stimulation, where it is expressed in both myocytes and nonmyocytes. We generated cardiac-specific and adult inducible PGF-overexpressing transgenic mice and analyzed Pgf(-/-) mice to examine the role that this factor plays in cardiac disease and paracrine signaling. Although PGF transgenic mice did not have a baseline phenotype or a change in capillary density, they did exhibit a greater cardiac hypertrophic response, a greater increase in capillary density, and increased fibroblast content in the heart in response to pressure-overload stimulation. PGF transgenic mice showed a more adaptive type of cardiac growth that was protective against signs of failure with pressure overload and neuroendocrine stimulation. Antithetically, Pgf(-/-) mice rapidly died of heart failure within 1 week of pressure overload, they showed an inability to upregulate angiogenesis, and they showed significantly less fibroblast activity in the heart. Mechanistically, we show that PGF does not have a direct effect on cardiomyocytes but works through endothelial cells and fibroblasts by inducing capillary growth and fibroblast proliferation, which secondarily support greater cardiac hypertrophy through intermediate paracrine growth factors such as interleukin-6. PGF is a secreted factor that supports hypertrophy and cardiac function during pressure overload by affecting endothelial cells and fibroblasts that in turn stimulate and support the myocytes through additional paracrine factors.

  10. Placental growth factor regulates cardiac adaptation and hypertrophy through a paracrine mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Accornero, Federica; van Berlo, Jop H.; Benard, Matthew J.; Lorenz, John N.; Carmeliet, Peter; Molkentin, Jeffery D.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Paracrine growth factor-mediated crosstalk between cardiac myocytes and non-myocytes in the heart is critical for programming adaptive cardiac hypertrophy in which myocyte size, capillary density, and the extracellular matrix function coordinately. Objective To examine the role that placental growth factor (PGF) plays in the heart as a paracrine regulator of cardiac adaptation to stress stimulation. Methods and Results PGF is induced in the heart following pressure overload stimulation where it is expressed in both myocytes and non-myocytes. Here we generated cardiac-specific and adult inducible PGF overexpressing transgenic mice, as well as analyzed Pgf−/− mice to examine the role that this factor plays in cardiac disease and paracrine signaling. While PGF transgenic mice did not have a baseline phenotype or a change in capillary density, they did exhibit a greater cardiac hypertrophic response, a greater increase in capillary density, and increased fibroblast content in the heart in response to pressure overload stimulation. PGF transgenic mice showed a more adaptive type of cardiac growth that was protective against signs of failure with pressure overload and neuroendocrine stimulation. Antithetically, Pgf−/− mice rapidly succumbed to heart failure within a week of pressure overload, they showed an inability to upregulate angiogenesis, and they showed significantly less fibroblast activity in the heart. Mechanistically, we show that PGF does not have a direct effect on the cardiomyocytes but works through endothelial cells and fibroblasts by inducing capillary growth and fibroblasts proliferation, which secondarily support greater cardiac hypertrophy through intermediate paracrine growth factors such as interleukin-6. Conclusions PGF is a secreted factor that supports hypertrophy and cardiac function during pressure overload by affecting endothelial cells and fibroblasts that in turn stimulate and support the myocytes through additional

  11. Transcriptional regulation of secondary growth and wood formation.

    PubMed

    Du, Juan; Groover, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Secondary growth and wood formation are products of the vascular cambium, a lateral meristem. Although the mechanisms have only recently begun to be uncovered, transcriptional regulation appears increasingly central to the regulation of secondary growth. The importance of transcriptional regulation is illustrated by the correlation of expression of specific classes of genes with related biological processes occurring at specific stages of secondary growth, including cell division, cell expansion, and cell differentiation. At the same time, transcription factors have been characterized that affect specific aspects of secondary growth, including regulation of the cambium and differentiation of cambial daughter cells. In the present review, we summarize evidence pointing to transcription as a major mechanism for regulation of secondary growth, and outline future approaches for comprehensively describing transcriptional networks underlying secondary growth.

  12. Cell cycle regulation in mouse heart during embryonic and postnatal stages.

    PubMed

    Ikenishi, Aiko; Okayama, Hitomi; Iwamoto, Noriko; Yoshitome, Satoshi; Tane, Shoji; Nakamura, Kazuomi; Obayashi, Tetsuya; Hayashi, Toshinori; Takeuchi, Takashi

    2012-10-01

    The regulation of cardiomyocyte proliferation is important for heart development and function. Proliferation levels of mouse cardiomyocytes are high during early embryogenesis and start to decrease at midgestation. Many cardiomyocytes undergo mitosis without cytokinesis, resulting in binucleated cardiomyocytes during early postnatal stages, following which the cell cycle arrests irreversibly. It remains unknown how the proliferation pattern is regulated, and how the irreversible cell cycle arrest occurs. To clarify the mechanisms, fundamental information about cell cycle regulators in cardiomyocytes and cell cycle patterns during embryonic and postnatal stages is necessary. Here, we show that the expression, complex formation, and activity of main cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) changed in a synchronous manner during embryonic and postnatal stages. These levels decreased from midgestation to birth, and then showed one wave in which the peak was around postnatal day 5. Detailed analysis of the complexes suggested that CDK activities were inhibited before the protein levels decreased. Analysis of DNA content distribution patterns in mono- and binucleated cardiomyocytes after birth revealed changes in cell cycle distribution patterns and the transition from mono- to binucleated cells. These analyses indicated that the wave of cell cycle regulator expression or activities during postnatal stages mainly produced binucleated cells from mononucleated cells. The data obtained should provide a basis for the analysis of cell cycle regulation in cardiomyocytes during embryonic and postnatal stages. © 2012 The Authors Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2012 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  13. Myc overexpression enhances of epicardial contribution to the developing heart and promotes extensive expansion of the cardiomyocyte population

    PubMed Central

    Villa del Campo, Cristina; Lioux, Ghislaine; Carmona, Rita; Sierra, Rocío; Muñoz-Chápuli, Ramón; Clavería, Cristina; Torres, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Myc is an essential regulator of cell growth and proliferation. Myc overexpression promotes the homeostatic expansion of cardiomyocyte populations by cell competition, however whether this applies to other cardiac lineages remains unknown. The epicardium contributes signals and cells to the developing and adult injured heart and exploring strategies for modulating its activity is of great interest. Using inducible genetic mosaics, we overexpressed Myc in the epicardium and determined the differential expansion of Myc-overexpressing cells with respect to their wild type counterparts. Myc-overexpressing cells overcolonized all epicardial-derived lineages and showed increased ability to invade the myocardium and populate the vasculature. We also found massive colonization of the myocardium by Wt1Cre-derived Myc-overexpressing cells, with preservation of cardiac development. Detailed analyses showed that this contribution is unlikely to derive from Cre activity in early cardiomyocytes but does not either derive from established epicardial cells, suggesting that early precursors expressing Wt1Cre originate the recombined cardiomyocytes. Myc overexpression does not modify the initial distribution of Wt1Cre-recombined cardiomyocytes, indicating that it does not stimulate the incorporation of early expressing Wt1Cre lineages to the myocardium, but differentially expands this initial population. We propose that strategies using epicardial lineages for heart repair may benefit from promoting cell competitive ability. PMID:27752085

  14. Sublethal Caspase Activation Promotes Generation of Cardiomyocytes from Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Österholm, Cecilia; Wang, Heng; Beltrán-Rodríguez, Antonio; Varas-Godoy, Manuel; Månsson-Broberg, Agneta; Uhlén, Per; Simon, András; Grinnemo, Karl-Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Generation of new cardiomyocytes is critical for cardiac repair following myocardial injury, but which kind of stimuli is most important for cardiomyocyte regeneration is still unclear. Here we explore if apoptotic stimuli, manifested through caspase activation, influences cardiac progenitor up-regulation and cardiomyocyte differentiation. Using mouse embryonic stem cells as a cellular model, we show that sublethal activation of caspases increases the yield of cardiomyocytes while concurrently promoting the proliferation and differentiation of c-Kit+/α-actininlow cardiac progenitor cells. A broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor blocked these effects. In addition, the caspase inhibitor reversed the mRNA expression of genes expressed in cardiomyocytes and their precursors. Our study demonstrates that sublethal caspase-activation has an important role in cardiomyocyte differentiation and may have significant implications for promoting cardiac regeneration after myocardial injury involving exogenous or endogenous cell sources. PMID:25763592

  15. 17(R),18(S)-Epoxyeicosatetraenoic Acid, A Potent Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA)-Derived Regulator of Cardiomyocyte Contraction: Structure-Activity Relationships and Stable Analogs

    PubMed Central

    Falck, John R.; Wallukat, Gerd; Puli, Narender; Goli, Mohan; Arnold, Cosima; Konkel, Anne; Rothe, Michael; Fischer, Robert; Müller, Dominik N.; Schunck, Wolf-Hagen

    2011-01-01

    17(R),18(S)-Epoxyeicosatetraenoic acid [17(R),18(S)-EETeTr], a cytochrome P450 epoxygenase metabolite of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), exerts negative chronotropic effects and protects neonatal rat cardiomyocytes against Ca2+-overload with an EC50 ~1–2 nM. Structure-activity studies revealed a cis-Δ11,12- or Δ14,15-olefin and a 17(R),18(S)-epoxide are minimal structural elements for anti-arrhythmic activity whereas antagonist activity was often associated with the combination of a Δ14,15-olefin and a 17(S),18(R)-epoxide. Compared with natural material, the agonist and antagonist analogs are chemically and metabolically more robust and several show promise as templates for future development of clinical candidates. PMID:21591683

  16. Anticipating anticipation: pursuing identification of cardiomyocyte circadian clock function.

    PubMed

    Young, Martin E

    2009-10-01

    Diurnal rhythms in myocardial physiology (e.g., metabolism, contractile function) and pathophyiology (e.g., sudden cardiac death) are well establish and have classically been ascribed to time-of-day-dependent alterations in the neurohumoral milieu. Existence of an intramyocellular circadian clock has recently been exposed. Circadian clocks enable the cell to anticipate environmental stimuli, facilitating a timely and appropriate response. Generation of genetically modified mice with a targeted disruption of the cardiomyocyte circadian clock has provided an initial means for deciphering the functions of this transcriptionally based mechanism and allowed predictions regarding which environmental stimuli the heart anticipates (i.e., "anticipating anticipation"). Recent studies show that the cardiomyocyte circadian clock influences myocardial gene expression, beta-adrenergic signaling, transcriptional responsiveness to fatty acids, triglyceride metabolism, heart rate, and cardiac output, as well as ischemia-reperfusion tolerance. In addition to reviewing current knowledge regarding the roles of the cardiomyocyte circadian clock, this article highlights putative frontiers in this field. The latter includes establishing molecular links between the cardiomyocyte circadian clock with identified functions, understanding the pathophysiological consequences of disruption of this mechanism, targeting resynchronization of the cardiomyocyte circadian clock for prevention/treatment of cardiovascular disease, linking the circadian clock with the cardiobeneficial effects of caloric restriction, and determining whether circadian clock genes are subject to epigenetic regulation. Information gained from studies investigating the cardiomyocyte circadian clock will likely translate to extracardiac tissues, such as skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue.

  17. Endocrine Regulation of Compensatory Growth in Fish

    PubMed Central

    Won, Eugene T.; Borski, Russell J.

    2013-01-01

    Compensatory growth (CG) is a period of accelerated growth that occurs following the alleviation of growth-stunting conditions during which an organism can make up for lost growth opportunity and potentially catch up in size with non-stunted cohorts. Fish show a particularly robust capacity for the response and have been the focus of numerous studies that demonstrate their ability to compensate for periods of fasting once food is made available again. CG is characterized by an elevated growth rate resulting from enhanced feed intake, mitogen production, and feed conversion efficiency. Because little is known about the underlying mechanisms that drive the response, this review describes the sequential endocrine adaptations that lead to CG; namely during the precedent catabolic phase (fasting) that taps endogenous energy reserves, and the following hyperanabolic phase (refeeding) when accelerated growth occurs. In order to elicit a CG response, endogenous energy reserves must first be moderately depleted, which alters endocrine profiles that enhance appetite and growth potential. During this catabolic phase, elevated ghrelin and growth hormone (GH) production increase appetite and protein-sparing lipolysis, while insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are suppressed, primarily due to hepatic GH resistance. During refeeding, temporal hyperphagia provides an influx of energy and metabolic substrates that are then allocated to somatic growth by resumed IGF signaling. Under the right conditions, refeeding results in hyperanabolism and a steepened growth trajectory relative to constantly fed controls. The response wanes as energy reserves are re-accumulated and homeostasis is restored. We ascribe possible roles for select appetite and growth-regulatory hormones in the context of the prerequisite of these catabolic and hyperanabolic phases of the CG response in teleosts, with emphasis on GH, IGFs, cortisol, somatostatin, neuropeptide Y, ghrelin, and leptin. PMID:23847591

  18. Excitation–Contraction Coupling of the Mouse Embryonic Cardiomyocyte

    PubMed Central

    Rapila, Risto; Korhonen, Topi; Tavi, Pasi

    2008-01-01

    In the mammalian embryo, the primitive tubular heart starts beating during the first trimester of gestation. These early heartbeats originate from calcium-induced contractions of the developing heart muscle cells. To explain the initiation of this activity, two ideas have been presented. One hypothesis supports the role of spontaneously activated voltage-gated calcium channels, whereas the other emphasizes the role of Ca2+ release from intracellular stores initiating spontaneous intracellular calcium oscillations. We show with experiments that both of these mechanisms coexist and operate in mouse cardiomyocytes during embryonic days 9–11. Further, we characterize how inositol-3-phosphate receptors regulate the frequency of the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium oscillations and thus the heartbeats. This study provides a novel view of the regulation of embryonic cardiomyocyte activity, explaining the functional versatility of developing cardiomyocytes and the origin and regulation of the embryonic heartbeat. PMID:18794377

  19. Excitation-contraction coupling of the mouse embryonic cardiomyocyte.

    PubMed

    Rapila, Risto; Korhonen, Topi; Tavi, Pasi

    2008-10-01

    In the mammalian embryo, the primitive tubular heart starts beating during the first trimester of gestation. These early heartbeats originate from calcium-induced contractions of the developing heart muscle cells. To explain the initiation of this activity, two ideas have been presented. One hypothesis supports the role of spontaneously activated voltage-gated calcium channels, whereas the other emphasizes the role of Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores initiating spontaneous intracellular calcium oscillations. We show with experiments that both of these mechanisms coexist and operate in mouse cardiomyocytes during embryonic days 9-11. Further, we characterize how inositol-3-phosphate receptors regulate the frequency of the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium oscillations and thus the heartbeats. This study provides a novel view of the regulation of embryonic cardiomyocyte activity, explaining the functional versatility of developing cardiomyocytes and the origin and regulation of the embryonic heartbeat.

  20. α-SMA-Cre-mediated excision of PDK1 reveals an essential role of PDK1 in regulating morphology of cardiomyocyte and tumor progression in tissue microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Qian, X-J; Li, X-L; Xu, X; Wang, X; Feng, Q-T; Yang, C-J

    2015-04-01

    The phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) - phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1)-Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) cascade plays a critical role in cardiovascular development and tumor genesis. But the role of PDK1 in the microenvironment of heart and tumor remains unknown. To clarify the effects of PDK1 on tissue microenvironment in vivo, here, we created α-SMA-Cre-mediated excision of PDK1 mice. And the mice were injected subcutaneously with Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells. We found PDK1-deficient mice had post-natal praecox dilated cardiomyopathy, decelerated tumor growth and severe tumor metastasis. Histopathological analysis revealed abnormality of vascular microenvironment in heart and primary tumor. In conclusion, PDK1 plays a pivotal role in regulating cardiac function and tumor metastasis by interfering with microenvironment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Disruption of Smad5 gene induces mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in cardiomyocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Yanxun; Zhou Jiang; Liao Xudong; Lue Yaxin; Deng Chuxia; Huang Peitang; Chen Quan; Yang Xiao . E-mail: yangx@nic.bmi.ac.cn

    2005-05-15

    Our previous studies have shown that SMAD5, an important intracellular mediator of transforming growth factor {beta} (TGF-{beta}) family, is required for normal development of the cardiovascular system in vivo. In the current study, we reported that the lack of the Smad5 gene resulted in apoptosis of cardiac myocytes in vivo. To further investigate the mechanism of the Smad5 gene in cardiomyocyte apoptosis, the embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation system was employed. We found that the myotubes that differentiated from the homozygous Smad5 {sup ex6/ex6} mutant ES cells underwent collapse and degeneration during the late stages of in vitro differentiation, mimicking the in vivo observation. By electron microscopy, abnormal swollen mitochondria were observed in cardiomyocytes both from Smad5-deficient embryos and from ES-differentiated cells. There was also a significant reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential ({delta}{psi} {sub m}) and a leakage of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol of myocytes differentiated from Smad5 mutant ES cells. The expression of p53 and p21 was found to be elevated in the differentiated Smad5 mutant myocytes, and this was accompanied by an up-regulation in caspase 3 expression. These results suggest that the Smad5-mediated TGF-{beta} signals may protect cardiomyocytes from apoptosis by maintaining the integrity of the mitochondria, probably through suppression of p53 mediated pathways.

  2. Mechanochemical regulation of growth cone motility

    PubMed Central

    Kerstein, Patrick C.; Nichol, Robert H.; Gomez, Timothy M.

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal growth cones are exquisite sensory-motor machines capable of transducing features contacted in their local extracellular environment into guided process extension during development. Extensive research has shown that chemical ligands activate cell surface receptors on growth cones leading to intracellular signals that direct cytoskeletal changes. However, the environment also provides mechanical support for growth cone adhesion and traction forces that stabilize leading edge protrusions. Interestingly, recent work suggests that both the mechanical properties of the environment and mechanical forces generated within growth cones influence axon guidance. In this review we discuss novel molecular mechanisms involved in growth cone force production and detection, and speculate how these processes may be necessary for the development of proper neuronal morphogenesis. PMID:26217175

  3. Naturally Engineered Maturation of Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Scuderi, Gaetano J.; Butcher, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Ischemic heart disease remains one of the most prominent causes of mortalities worldwide with heart transplantation being the gold-standard treatment option. However, due to the major limitations associated with heart transplants, such as an inadequate supply and heart rejection, there remains a significant clinical need for a viable cardiac regenerative therapy to restore native myocardial function. Over the course of the previous several decades, researchers have made prominent advances in the field of cardiac regeneration with the creation of in vitro human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte tissue engineered constructs. However, these engineered constructs exhibit a functionally immature, disorganized, fetal-like phenotype that is not equivalent physiologically to native adult cardiac tissue. Due to this major limitation, many recent studies have investigated approaches to improve pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte maturation to close this large functionality gap between engineered and native cardiac tissue. This review integrates the natural developmental mechanisms of cardiomyocyte structural and functional maturation. The variety of ways researchers have attempted to improve cardiomyocyte maturation in vitro by mimicking natural development, known as natural engineering, is readily discussed. The main focus of this review involves the synergistic role of electrical and mechanical stimulation, extracellular matrix interactions, and non-cardiomyocyte interactions in facilitating cardiomyocyte maturation. Overall, even with these current natural engineering approaches, pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes within three-dimensional engineered heart tissue still remain mostly within the early to late fetal stages of cardiomyocyte maturity. Therefore, although the end goal is to achieve adult phenotypic maturity, more emphasis must be placed on elucidating how the in vivo fetal microenvironment drives cardiomyocyte maturation. This

  4. Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Cardiomyocytes Interplay to Prevent Myocardial Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xueying; Zhang, Yong; Li, Xingda; Wang, Xinyue; Zhu, Jiuxin; Wang, Yang; Yang, Fan; Wang, Baoqiu; Liu, Yanju; Xu, Chaoqian; Pan, Zhenwei; Wang, Ning; Yang, Baofeng

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy for cardiovascular disease. However, there is no evidence so far that BMSCs can heal pathological myocardial hypertrophy. In this study, BMSCs were indirectly cocultured with neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes (NRVCs) in vitro or intramyocardially transplanted into hypertrophic hearts in vivo. The results showed that isoproterenol (ISO)-induced typical hypertrophic characteristics of cardiomyocytes were prevented by BMSCs in the coculture model in vitro and after BMSC transplantation in vivo. Furthermore, activation of the Ca2+/calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 3 (NFATc3) hypertrophic pathway in NRVCs was abrogated in the presence of BMSCs both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) release from BMSCs, but not basic fibroblast growth factor and insulin-like growth factor 1, abolished the protective effects of BMSCs on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Consistently, VEGF administration attenuated ISO-induced enlargement of cellular size; the upregulation of atrial natriuretic peptide, brain natriuretic peptide, and β-myosin heavy chain expression; and the activation of Ca2+/calcineurin/NFATc3 hypertrophic pathways, and these pathways can be abrogated by blocking VEGFR-1 in cardiomyocytes, indicating that VEGF receptor 1 is involved in the antihypertrophic role of VEGF. We further found that the ample VEGF secretion contributing to the antihypertrophic effects of BMSCs originates from the crosstalk of BMSCs and cardiac cells but not BMSCs or cardiomyocytes alone. Interplay of mesenchymal stem cells with cardiomyocytes produced synergistic effects on VEGF release. In summary, crosstalk between mesenchymal stem cells and cardiomyocytes contributes to the inhibition of myocardial hypertrophy via inhibiting Ca2+/calcineurin/NFATc3 hypertrophic pathways in cardiac cells. These results provide the

  5. Regulation of L-type inward calcium channel activity by captopril and angiotensin II via the phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase pathway in cardiomyocytes from volume-overload hypertrophied rat hearts

    PubMed Central

    Alvin, Zikiar; Laurence, Graham G.; Coleman, Bernell R; Zhao, Aiqiu; Hajj-Moussa, Majd; Haddad, Georges E.

    2011-01-01

    Heart failure can be caused by pro-hypertrophic humoral factors such as angiotensin II (Ang II), which regulates protein kinase activities. The intermingled responses of these kinases lead to the early compensated cardiac hypertrophy, but later to the uncompensated phase of heart failure. We have shown that although beneficial, cardiac hypertrophy is associated with modifications in ion channels that are mainly mediated through mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activation. This study evaluates the control of L-type Ca2+ current (ICa,L) by the Ang II/PI3K pathway in hypertrophied ventricular myocytes from volume-overload rats using the perforated patch-clamp technique. To assess activation of the ICa,L in cardiomyocytes, voltages of 350 ms in 10 mV increments from a holding potential of −85 mV were applied to cardiocytes, with a pre-pulse to −45 mV for 300 ms. Volume overload-induced hypertrophy reduces ICa,L, whereas addition of Ang II alleviates the hypertrophic-induced decrease in a PI3K-dependent manner. Acute administration of Ang II (10−6 mol/L) to normal adult cardiomyocytes had no effect; however, captopril reduced their basal ICa,L. In parallel, captopril regressed the hypertrophy and inverted the Ang II effect on ICa,L seemingly through a PI3K upstream effector. Thus, it seems that regression of cardiac hypertrophy by captopril improved ICa,L partly through PI3K. PMID:21423294

  6. The regulation of plant growth by the circadian clock.

    PubMed

    Farré, E M

    2012-05-01

    Circadian regulated changes in growth rates have been observed in numerous plants as well as in unicellular and multicellular algae. The circadian clock regulates a multitude of factors that affect growth in plants, such as water and carbon availability and light and hormone signalling pathways. The combination of high-resolution growth rate analyses with mutant and biochemical analysis is helping us elucidate the time-dependent interactions between these factors and discover the molecular mechanisms involved. At the molecular level, growth in plants is modulated through a complex regulatory network, in which the circadian clock acts at multiple levels.

  7. Angiotensin II stimulates hyperplasia but not hypertrophy in immature ovine cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sundgren, N C; Giraud, G D; Stork, P J S; Maylie, J G; Thornburg, K L

    2003-01-01

    Rat and sheep cardiac myocytes become binucleate as they complete the ‘terminal differentiation’ process soon after birth and are not able to divide thereafter. Angiotensin II (Ang II) is known to stimulate hypertrophic changes in rodent cardiomyocytes under both in vivo and in vitro conditions via the AT1 receptor and intracellular extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) signalling cascade. We sought to develop culture methods for immature sheep cardiomyocytes in order to test the hypothesis that Ang II is a hypertrophic agent in the immature myocardium of the sheep. We isolated fetal sheep cardiomyocytes and cultured them for 96 h, added Ang II and phenylephrine (PE) for 48 h, and measured footprint area and proliferation (5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) uptake) separately in mono- vs. binucleate myocytes. We found that neither Ang II nor PE changed the footprint area of mononucleated cells. PE stimulated an increase in footprint area of binucleate cells but Ang II did not. Ang II increased myocyte BrdU uptake compared to serum free conditions, but PE did not affect BrdU uptake. The MAP kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor UO126 prevented BrdU uptake in Ang II-stimulated cells and prevented cell hypertrophy in PE-stimulated cells. This paper establishes culture methods for immature sheep cardiomyocytes and reports that: (1) Ang II is not a hypertrophic agent; (2) Ang II stimulates hyperplastic growth among mononucleate myocytes; (3) PE is a hypertrophic agent in binucleate myocytes; and (4) the ERK cascade is required for the proliferation effect of Ang II and the hypertrophic effect of PE. PMID:12626668

  8. Angiotensin II stimulates hyperplasia but not hypertrophy in immature ovine cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Sundgren, N C; Giraud, G D; Stork, P J S; Maylie, J G; Thornburg, K L

    2003-05-01

    Rat and sheep cardiac myocytes become binucleate as they complete the 'terminal differentiation' process soon after birth and are not able to divide thereafter. Angiotensin II (Ang II) is known to stimulate hypertrophic changes in rodent cardiomyocytes under both in vivo and in vitro conditions via the AT1 receptor and intracellular extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) signalling cascade. We sought to develop culture methods for immature sheep cardiomyocytes in order to test the hypothesis that Ang II is a hypertrophic agent in the immature myocardium of the sheep. We isolated fetal sheep cardiomyocytes and cultured them for 96 h, added Ang II and phenylephrine (PE) for 48 h, and measured footprint area and proliferation (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) uptake) separately in mono- vs. binucleate myocytes. We found that neither Ang II nor PE changed the footprint area of mononucleated cells. PE stimulated an increase in footprint area of binucleate cells but Ang II did not. Ang II increased myocyte BrdU uptake compared to serum free conditions, but PE did not affect BrdU uptake. The MAP kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor UO126 prevented BrdU uptake in Ang II-stimulated cells and prevented cell hypertrophy in PE-stimulated cells. This paper establishes culture methods for immature sheep cardiomyocytes and reports that: (1) Ang II is not a hypertrophic agent; (2) Ang II stimulates hyperplastic growth among mononucleate myocytes; (3) PE is a hypertrophic agent in binucleate myocytes; and (4) the ERK cascade is required for the proliferation effect of Ang II and the hypertrophic effect of PE.

  9. Triennial Growth Symposium: Dietary regulation of growth development

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The 2010 Triennial Growth Symposium was held immediately before the Joint Annual Meeting of the American Dairy Science Association, Poultry Science Association, Asociación Mexicana de Producción Animal, Canadian Society of Animal Science, Western Section American Society of Animal Science, and Ameri...

  10. β-Adrenergic response is counteracted by extremely-low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields in beating cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Cornacchione, Marisa; Pellegrini, Manuela; Fassina, Lorenzo; Mognaschi, Maria Evelina; Di Siena, Sara; Gimmelli, Roberto; Ambrosino, Paolo; Soldovieri, Maria Virginia; Taglialatela, Maurizio; Gianfrilli, Daniele; Isidori, Andrea M; Lenzi, Andrea; Naro, Fabio

    2016-09-01

    Proper β-adrenergic signaling is indispensable for modulating heart frequency. Studies on extremely-low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic field (ELF-PEMF) effects in the heart beat function are contradictory and no definitive conclusions were obtained so far. To investigate the interplay between ELF-PEMF exposure and β-adrenergic signaling, cultures of primary murine neonatal cardiomyocytes and of sinoatrial node were exposed to ELF-PEMF and short and long-term effects were evaluated. The ELF-PEMF generated a variable magnetic induction field of 0-6mT at a frequency of 75Hz. Exposure to 3mT ELF-PEMF induced a decrease of contraction rate, Ca(2+) transients, contraction force, and energy consumption both under basal conditions and after β-adrenergic stimulation in neonatal cardiomyocytes. ELF-PEMF exposure inhibited β-adrenergic response in sinoatrial node (SAN) region. ELF-PEMF specifically modulated β2 adrenergic receptor response and the exposure did not modify the increase of contraction rate after adenylate cyclase stimulation by forskolin. In HEK293T cells transfected with β1 or β2 adrenergic receptors, ELF-PEMF exposure induced a rapid and selective internalization of β2 adrenergic receptor. The β-adrenergic signaling, was reduced trough Gi protein by ELF-PEMF exposure since the phosphorylation level of phospholamban and the PI3K pathway were impaired after isoproterenol stimulation in neonatal cardiomyocytes. Long term effects of ELF-PEMF exposure were assessed in cultures of isolated cardiomyocytes. ELF-PEMF counteracts cell size increase, the generation of binucleated of cardiomyocytes and prevents the up-regulation of hypertrophic markers after β-adrenergic stimulation, indicating an inhibition of cell growth and maturation. These data show that short and long term exposure to ELF-PEMF induces a reduction of cardiac β-adrenergic response at molecular, functional and adaptative levels.

  11. Epigenomic Reprogramming of Adult Cardiomyocyte-Derived Cardiac Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiqiang; Zhong, Jiang F; Qiu, Hongyu; Robb MacLellan, W.; Marbán, Eduardo; Wang, Charles

    2015-01-01

    It has been believed that mammalian adult cardiomyocytes (ACMs) are terminally-differentiated and are unable to proliferate. Recently, using a bi-transgenic ACM fate mapping mouse model and an in vitro culture system, we demonstrated that adult mouse cardiomyocytes were able to dedifferentiate into cardiac progenitor-like cells (CPCs). However, little is known about the molecular basis of their intrinsic cellular plasticity. Here we integrate single-cell transcriptome and whole-genome DNA methylation analyses to unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying the dedifferentiation and cell cycle reentry of mouse ACMs. Compared to parental cardiomyocytes, dedifferentiated mouse cardiomyocyte-derived CPCs (mCPCs) display epigenomic reprogramming with many differentially-methylated regions, both hypermethylated and hypomethylated, across the entire genome. Correlated well with the methylome, our transcriptomic data showed that the genes encoding cardiac structure and function proteins are remarkably down-regulated in mCPCs, while those for cell cycle, proliferation, and stemness are significantly up-regulated. In addition, implantation of mCPCs into infarcted mouse myocardium improves cardiac function with augmented left ventricular ejection fraction. Our study demonstrates that the cellular plasticity of mammalian cardiomyocytes is the result of a well-orchestrated epigenomic reprogramming and a subsequent global transcriptomic alteration. PMID:26657817

  12. Symbiotic regulation of plant growth, development and reproduction

    Treesearch

    Russell J. Rodriguez; D. Carl Freeman; E. Durant McArthur; Yong Ok Kim; Regina S. Redman

    2009-01-01

    The growth and development of rice (Oryzae sativa) seedlings was shown to be regulated epigenetically by a fungal endophyte. In contrast to un-inoculated (nonsymbiotic) plants, endophyte colonized (symbiotic) plants preferentially allocated resources into root growth until root hairs were well established. During that time symbiotic roots expanded at...

  13. Growth Regulator Herbicides Prevent Invasive Annual Grass Seed Production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Auxinic herbicides, such as 2,4-D and dicamba, that act as plant growth regulators are commonly used for broadleaf weed control in cereal crops (e.g. wheat, barley), grasslands, and non-croplands. If applied at later growth stages, while cereals are developing reproductive parts, the herbicides can...

  14. S100A8/MYD88/NF-қB: a novel pathway involved in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy driven by thyroid hormone.

    PubMed

    Takano, Ana Paula Cremasco; Munhoz, Carolina Demarchi; Moriscot, Anselmo Sigari; Gupta, Sudhiranjan; Barreto-Chaves, Maria Luiza Morais

    2017-02-04

    Recent studies have evidenced the involvement of inflammation-related pathways to the development of cardiac hypertrophy and other consequences on the cardiovascular system, including the calcium-binding protein S100A8. However, this has never been investigated in the thyroid hormone (TH)-prompted cardiac hypertrophy. Thus, we aimed to test whether S100A8 and related signaling molecules, myeloid differentiation factor-88 (MyD88) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-қB), could be associated with the cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by TH. Our results demonstrate that the S100A8/MyD88/NF-қB signaling pathway is activated in cardiomyocytes following TH stimulation. The knockdown of S100A8 and MyD88 indicates the contribution of those molecules to cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in response to TH, as evaluated by cell surface area, leucine incorporation assay, and gene expression. Furthermore, S100A8 and MyD88 are crucial mediators of NF-қB activation, which is also involved in the hypertrophic growth of TH-treated cardiomyocytes. Supporting the in vitro data, the contribution of NF-қB for TH-induced cardiac hypertrophy is confirmed in vivo, by using transgenic mice with cardiomyocyte-specific suppression of NF-қB. These data identify a novel pathway regulated by TH that mediates cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. However, the potential role of this new pathway in short and long-term cardiac effects of TH remains to be further investigated.

  15. Mechanical regulation of plant growth and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    Soybean and eggplant grown and shaken in a greenhouse exhibited decreased internode length, internode diameter, leaf area, and fresh and dry weight of roots and shoots in much the same way as outdoor-exposed plants. Perhaps more important than decreased dimensions of plant parts resulting from periodic seismic treatment is the inhibition of photosynthetic productivity that accompanies this stress. Soybeam plants briefly shaken or rubbed twice daily experienced a decrease in relative as well as absolute growth rate compared to that of undisturbed controls. Growth dynamics analysis revealed that virtually all of the decline in relative growth rate (RGR) was due to a decline in net assimilation rate (NAR), but not in leaf area ratio (LAR). Lower NAR suggests that the stress-induced decrease in dry weight gain is due to a decline in photosynthetic efficiency. Possible effects on stomatal aperture was investigated by measuring rates of whole plant transpiration as a function of seismo-stress, and a transitory decrease followed by a gradual, partial recovery was detected.

  16. Mechanical regulation of plant growth and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    Soybean and eggplant grown and shaken in a greenhouse exhibited decreased internode length, internode diameter, leaf area, and fresh and dry weight of roots and shoots in much the same way as outdoor-exposed plants. Perhaps more important than decreased dimensions of plant parts resulting from periodic seismic treatment is the inhibition of photosynthetic productivity that accompanies this stress. Soybeam plants briefly shaken or rubbed twice daily experienced a decrease in relative as well as absolute growth rate compared to that of undisturbed controls. Growth dynamics analysis revealed that virtually all of the decline in relative growth rate (RGR) was due to a decline in net assimilation rate (NAR), but not in leaf area ratio (LAR). Lower NAR suggests that the stress-induced decrease in dry weight gain is due to a decline in photosynthetic efficiency. Possible effects on stomatal aperture was investigated by measuring rates of whole plant transpiration as a function of seismo-stress, and a transitory decrease followed by a gradual, partial recovery was detected.

  17. Developmental mechanisms regulating secondary growth in woody plants.

    PubMed

    Groover, Andrew; Robischon, Marcel

    2006-02-01

    Secondary growth results in the radial expansion of woody stems, and requires the coordination of tissue patterning, cell differentiation, and the maintenance of meristematic stem cells within the vascular cambium. Advances are being made towards describing molecular mechanisms that regulate these developmental processes, thanks in part to the application of new genetic technologies to forest trees, and the extension of knowledge about evolutionarily conserved mechanisms from model annuals. New studies demonstrate a central role for developmental mechanisms that involve transcriptional regulators, phytohormones and the cell wall in regulating secondary growth.

  18. Light signaling and the phytohormonal regulation of shoot growth.

    PubMed

    Kurepin, Leonid V; Pharis, Richard P

    2014-12-01

    Shoot growth of dicot plants is rigorously controlled by the interactions of environmental cues with several groups of phytohormones. The signaling effects of light on shoot growth are of special interest, as both light irradiance and light quality change rapidly throughout the day, causing profound changes in stem elongation and leaf area growth. Among the several dicot species examined, we have focused on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) because its shoots are robust and their growth is highly plastic. Sunflower shoots thus constitute an ideal tissue for assessing responses to both light irradiance and light quality signals. Herein, we discuss the possible roles of gibberellins, auxin, ethylene, cytokinins and brassinosteroids in mediating the stem elongation and leaf area growth that is induced by shade light. To do this we uncoupled the plant's responses to changes in the red to far-red [R/FR] light ratio from its responses to changes in irradiance of photosynthetically active radiation [PAR]. Reducing each of R/FR light ratio and PAR irradiance results in increased sunflower stem elongation. However, the plant's response for leaf area growth differs considerably, with a low R/FR ratio generally promoting leaf area growth, whereas low irradiance PAR inhibits it. The increased stem elongation that occurs in response to lowering R/FR ratio and PAR irradiance is accomplished at the expense of leaf area growth. In effect, the low PAR irradiance signal overrides the low R/FR ratio signal in shade light's control of leaf growth and development. Three hormone groups, gibberellins, auxin and ethylene are directly involved in regulating these light-mediated shoot growth changes. Gibberellins and auxin function as growth promoters, with auxin likely acting as an up-regulator of gibberellin biosynthesis. Ethylene functions as a growth-inhibitor and probably interacts with gibberellins in regulating both stem and leaf growth of the sunflower shoot. Copyright © 2014

  19. Intra-Myocardial Injection of Both Growth Factors and Heart Derived Sca-1+/CD31− Cells Attenuates Post-MI LV Remodeling More Than Does Cell Transplantation Alone: Neither Intervention Enhances Functionally Significant Cardiomyocyte Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaohong; Li, Qinglu; Hu, Qingsong; Suntharalingam, Piradeep; From, Arthur H. L.; Zhang, Jianyi

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) are two potent cell survival and regenerative factors in response to myocardial injury (MI). We hypothesized that simultaneous delivery of IGF+HGF combined with Sca-1+/CD31− cells would improve the outcome of transplantation therapy in response to the altered hostile microenvironment post MI. One million adenovirus nuclear LacZ-labeled Sca-1+/CD31− cells were injected into the peri-infarction area after left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) ligation in mice. Recombinant mouse IGF-1+HGF was added to the cell suspension prior to the injection. The left ventricular (LV) function was assessed by echocardiography 4 weeks after the transplantation. The cell engraftment, differentiation and cardiomyocyte regeneration were evaluated by histological analysis. Sca-1+/CD31− cells formed viable grafts and improved LV ejection fraction (EF) (Control, 54.5+/−2.4; MI, 17.6+/−3.1; Cell, 28.2+/−4.2, n = 9, P<0.01). IGF+HGF significantly enhanced the benefits of cell transplantation as evidenced by increased EF (38.8+/−2.2; n = 9, P<0.01) and attenuated adverse structural remodeling. Furthermore, IGF+HGF supplementation increased the cell engraftment rate, promoted the transplanted cell survival, enhanced angiogenesis, and minimally stimulated endogenous cardiomyocyte regeneration in vivo. The in vitro experiments showed that IGF+HGF treatment stimulated Sca-1+/CD31− cell proliferation and inhibited serum free medium induced apoptosis. Supperarray profiling of Sca-1+/CD31− cells revealed that Sca-1+/CD31− cells highly expressed various trophic factor mRNAs and IGF+HGF treatment altered the mRNAs expression patterns of these cells. These data indicate that IGF-1+HGF could serve as an adjuvant to cell transplantation for myocardial repair by stimulating donor cell and endogenous cardiac stem cell survival, regeneration and promoting angiogenesis. PMID:24919180

  20. Axon Growth and Guidance: Receptor Regulation and Signal Transduction

    PubMed Central

    O’Donnell, Michael; Chance, Rebecca K.; Bashaw, Greg J.

    2016-01-01

    The development of precise connectivity patterns during the establishment of the nervous system depends on the regulated action of diverse, conserved families of guidance cues and their neuronal receptors. Determining how these signaling pathways function to regulate axon growth and guidance is fundamentally important to understanding wiring specificity in the nervous system and will undoubtedly shed light on many neural developmental disorders. Considerable progress has been made in defining the mechanisms that regulate the correct spatial and temporal distribution of guidance receptors and how these receptors in turn signal to the growth cone cytoskeleton to control steering decisions. This review focuses on recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms mediating growth cone guidance with a particular emphasis on the control of guidance receptor regulation and signaling. PMID:19400716

  1. Axon growth and guidance: receptor regulation and signal transduction.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Michael; Chance, Rebecca K; Bashaw, Greg J

    2009-01-01

    The development of precise connectivity patterns during the establishment of the nervous system depends on the regulated action of diverse, conserved families of guidance cues and their neuronal receptors. Determining how these signaling pathways function to regulate axon growth and guidance is fundamentally important to understanding wiring specificity in the nervous system and will undoubtedly shed light on many neural developmental disorders. Considerable progress has been made in defining the mechanisms that regulate the correct spatial and temporal distribution of guidance receptors and how these receptors in turn signal to the growth cone cytoskeleton to control steering decisions. This review focuses on recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms mediating growth cone guidance with a particular emphasis on the control of guidance receptor regulation and signaling.

  2. Profilin modulates sarcomeric organization and mediates cardiomyocyte hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Kooij, Viola; Viswanathan, Meera C.; Lee, Dong I.; Rainer, Peter P.; Schmidt, William; Kronert, William A.; Harding, Sian E.; Kass, David A.; Bernstein, Sanford I.; Van Eyk, Jennifer E.; Cammarato, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Aims Heart failure is often preceded by cardiac hypertrophy, which is characterized by increased cell size, altered protein abundance, and actin cytoskeletal reorganization. Profilin is a well-conserved, ubiquitously expressed, multifunctional actin-binding protein, and its role in cardiomyocytes is largely unknown. Given its involvement in vascular hypertrophy, we aimed to test the hypothesis that profilin-1 is a key mediator of cardiomyocyte-specific hypertrophic remodelling. Methods and results Profilin-1 was elevated in multiple mouse models of hypertrophy, and a cardiomyocyte-specific increase of profilin in Drosophila resulted in significantly larger heart tube dimensions. Moreover, adenovirus-mediated overexpression of profilin-1 in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) induced a hypertrophic response, measured by increased myocyte size and gene expression. Profilin-1 silencing suppressed the response in NRVMs stimulated with phenylephrine or endothelin-1. Mechanistically, we found that profilin-1 regulates hypertrophy, in part, through activation of the ERK1/2 signalling cascade. Confocal microscopy showed that profilin localized to the Z-line of Drosophila myofibrils under normal conditions and accumulated near the M-line when overexpressed. Elevated profilin levels resulted in elongated sarcomeres, myofibrillar disorganization, and sarcomeric disarray, which correlated with impaired muscle function. Conclusion Our results identify novel roles for profilin as an important mediator of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. We show that overexpression of profilin is sufficient to induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and sarcomeric remodelling, and silencing of profilin attenuates the hypertrophic response. PMID:26956799

  3. Regulation of plant growth by cytokinin

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Tomáš; Motyka, Václav; Strnad, Miroslav; Schmülling, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    Cytokinins are a class of plant-specific hormones that play a central role during the cell cycle and influence numerous developmental programs. Because of the lack of biosynthetic and signaling mutants, the regulatory roles of cytokinins are not well understood. We genetically engineered cytokinin oxidase expression in transgenic tobacco plants to reduce their endogenous cytokinin content. Cytokinin-deficient plants developed stunted shoots with smaller apical meristems. The plastochrone was prolonged, and leaf cell production was only 3–4% that of wild type, indicating an absolute requirement of cytokinins for leaf growth. In contrast, root meristems of transgenic plants were enlarged and gave rise to faster growing and more branched roots. These results suggest that cytokinins are an important regulatory factor of plant meristem activity and morphogenesis, with opposing roles in shoots and roots. PMID:11504909

  4. Pro-survival function of MEF2 in cardiomyocytes is enhanced by β-blockers

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, S; Salma, J; Wales, S; McDermott, JC

    2015-01-01

    β1-Adrenergic receptor (β1-AR) stimulation increases apoptosis in cardiomyocytes through activation of cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling. The myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) proteins function as important regulators of myocardial gene expression. Previously, we reported that PKA signaling directly represses MEF2 activity. We determined whether (a) MEF2 has a pro-survival function in cardiomyocytes, and (b) whether β-adrenergic/PKA signaling modulates MEF2 function in cardiomyocytes. Initially, we observed that siRNA-mediated gene silencing of MEF2 induces cardiomyocyte apoptosis as indicated by flow cytometry. β1-AR activation by isoproterenol represses MEF2 activity and promotes apoptosis in cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes. Importantly, β1-AR mediated apoptosis was abrogated in cardiomyocytes expressing a PKA-resistant form of MEF2D (S121/190A). We also observed that a β1-blocker, Atenolol, antagonizes isoproterenol-induced apoptosis while concomitantly enhancing MEF2 transcriptional activity. β-AR stimulation modulated MEF2 cellular localization in cardiomyocytes and this effect was reversed by β-blocker treatment. Furthermore, Kruppel-like factor 6, a MEF2 target gene in the heart, functions as a downstream pro-survival factor in cardiomyocytes. Collectively, these data indicate that (a) MEF2 has an important pro-survival role in cardiomyocytes, and (b) β-adrenergic signaling antagonizes the pro-survival function of MEF2 in cardiomyocytes and β-blockers promote it. These observations have important clinical implications that may contribute to novel strategies for preventing cardiomyocyte apoptosis associated with heart pathology. PMID:27551452

  5. Recent research on the growth plate: Recent insights into the regulation of the growth plate.

    PubMed

    Lui, Julian C; Nilsson, Ola; Baron, Jeffrey

    2014-08-01

    For most bones, elongation is driven primarily by chondrogenesis at the growth plates. This process results from chondrocyte proliferation, hypertrophy, and extracellular matrix secretion, and it is carefully orchestrated by complex networks of local paracrine factors and modulated by endocrine factors. We review here recent advances in the understanding of growth plate physiology. These advances include new approaches to study expression patterns of large numbers of genes in the growth plate, using microdissection followed by microarray. This approach has been combined with genome-wide association studies to provide insights into the regulation of the human growth plate. We also review recent studies elucidating the roles of bone morphogenetic proteins, fibroblast growth factors, C-type natriuretic peptide, and suppressor of cytokine signaling in the local regulation of growth plate chondrogenesis and longitudinal bone growth.

  6. The neglected role of insulin-like growth factors in the maternal circulation regulating fetal growth.

    PubMed

    Sferruzzi-Perri, A N; Owens, J A; Pringle, K G; Roberts, C T

    2011-01-01

    Maternal insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) play a pivotal role in modulating fetal growth via their actions on both the mother and the placenta. Circulating IGFs influence maternal tissue growth and metabolism, thereby regulating nutrient availability for the growth of the conceptus. Maternal IGFs also regulate placental morphogenesis, substrate transport and hormone secretion, all of which influence fetal growth either via indirect effects on maternal substrate availability, or through direct effects on the placenta and its capacity to supply nutrients to the fetus. The extent to which IGFs influence the mother and/or placenta are dependent on the species and maternal factors, including age and nutrition. As altered fetal growth is associated with increased perinatal morbidity and mortality and a greater risk of developing degenerative diseases in adult life, understanding the role of maternal IGFs during pregnancy is essential in order to identify mechanisms underlying altered fetal growth and offspring programming.

  7. The neglected role of insulin-like growth factors in the maternal circulation regulating fetal growth

    PubMed Central

    Sferruzzi-Perri, A N; Owens, J A; Pringle, K G; Roberts, C T

    2011-01-01

    Maternal insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) play a pivotal role in modulating fetal growth via their actions on both the mother and the placenta. Circulating IGFs influence maternal tissue growth and metabolism, thereby regulating nutrient availability for the growth of the conceptus. Maternal IGFs also regulate placental morphogenesis, substrate transport and hormone secretion, all of which influence fetal growth either via indirect effects on maternal substrate availability, or through direct effects on the placenta and its capacity to supply nutrients to the fetus. The extent to which IGFs influence the mother and/or placenta are dependent on the species and maternal factors, including age and nutrition. As altered fetal growth is associated with increased perinatal morbidity and mortality and a greater risk of developing degenerative diseases in adult life, understanding the role of maternal IGFs during pregnancy is essential in order to identify mechanisms underlying altered fetal growth and offspring programming. PMID:20921199

  8. Regulation of intrinsic neuronal properties for axon growth and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Ferdinando; Gianola, Sara; Corvetti, Luigi

    2007-01-01

    Regulation of neuritic growth is crucial for neural development, adaptation and repair. The intrinsic growth potential of nerve cells is determined by the activity of specific molecular sets, which sense environmental signals and sustain structural extension of neurites. The expression and function of these molecules are dynamically regulated by multiple mechanisms, which adjust the actual growth properties of each neuron population at different ontogenetic stages or in specific conditions. The neuronal potential for axon elongation and regeneration are restricted at the end of development by the concurrent action of several factors associated with the final maturation of neurons and of the surrounding tissue. In the adult, neuronal growth properties can be significantly modulated by injury, but they are also continuously tuned in everyday life to sustain physiological plasticity. Strict regulation of structural remodelling and neuritic elongation is thought to be required to maintain specific patterns of connectivity in the highly complex mammalian CNS. Accordingly, procedures that neutralize such mechanisms effectively boost axon growth in both intact and injured nervous system. Even in these conditions, however, aberrant connections are only formed in the presence of unusual external stimuli or experience. Therefore, growth regulatory mechanisms play an essentially permissive role by setting the responsiveness of neural circuits to environmental stimuli. The latter exert an instructive action and determine the actual shape of newly formed connections. In the light of this notion, efficient therapeutic interventions in the injured CNS should combine targeted manipulations of growth control mechanisms with task-specific training and rehabilitation paradigms.

  9. Catecholamines promote Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae growth by regulating iron metabolism.

    PubMed

    Li, Lu; Chen, Zhaohui; Bei, Weicheng; Su, Zhipeng; Huang, Qi; Zhang, Liang; Chen, Huanchun; Zhou, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Catecholamines are host stress hormones that can induce the growth of many bacteria by facilitating iron utilization and/or regulate the expression of virulence genes through specific hormone receptors. Whether these two responsive pathways are interconnected is unknown. In our previous study, it was found that catecholamines can regulate the expression of a great number of genes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, an important swine respiratory pathogen. However, bacterial growth was not affected by catecholamines in rich medium. In this study, it was discovered that catecholamines affected A. pleuropneumoniae growth in chemically defined medium (CDM). We found that serum inhibited A. pleuropneumoniae growth in CDM, while epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine promoted A. pleuropneumoniae growth in the CDM containing serum. The known bacterial hormone receptor QseC didn't play roles in this process. Ion-supplementation and transcriptome analysis indicated that serum addition resulted in iron-restricted conditions which were alleviated by the addition of catecholamines. Transferrin, one of the components in serum, inhibited the growth of A. pleuropneumoniae in CDM, an effect reversed by addition of catecholamines in a TonB2-dependent manner. Our data demonstrate that catecholamines promote A. pleuropneumoniae growth by regulating iron-acquisition and metabolism, which is independent of the adrenergic receptor QseC.

  10. Catecholamines Promote Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Growth by Regulating Iron Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lu; Chen, Zhaohui; Bei, Weicheng; Su, Zhipeng; Huang, Qi; Zhang, Liang; Chen, Huanchun; Zhou, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Catecholamines are host stress hormones that can induce the growth of many bacteria by facilitating iron utilization and/or regulate the expression of virulence genes through specific hormone receptors. Whether these two responsive pathways are interconnected is unknown. In our previous study, it was found that catecholamines can regulate the expression of a great number of genes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, an important swine respiratory pathogen. However, bacterial growth was not affected by catecholamines in rich medium. In this study, it was discovered that catecholamines affected A. pleuropneumoniae growth in chemically defined medium (CDM). We found that serum inhibited A. pleuropneumoniae growth in CDM, while epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine promoted A. pleuropneumoniae growth in the CDM containing serum. The known bacterial hormone receptor QseC didn’t play roles in this process. Ion-supplementation and transcriptome analysis indicated that serum addition resulted in iron-restricted conditions which were alleviated by the addition of catecholamines. Transferrin, one of the components in serum, inhibited the growth of A. pleuropneumoniae in CDM, an effect reversed by addition of catecholamines in a TonB2-dependent manner. Our data demonstrate that catecholamines promote A. pleuropneumoniae growth by regulating iron-acquisition and metabolism, which is independent of the adrenergic receptor QseC. PMID:25849041

  11. Role of endogenous PDGF-BB in cultured cardiomyocytes exposed to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Rong, Rong; Wang, You-Cui; Hu, Li-qun; He, Qin-qin; Zhou, Xin-Fu; Wang, Ting-hua; Bu, Pei-li

    2015-04-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) plays a critical role in cell proliferation, angiogenesis and fibrosis. However, its exact role in cardiomyocytes exposed to hypoxia is not well known. This study was therefore designed to detect whether PDGF-BB expression was changed in a hypoxic condition, then the possible role of endogenous PDGF-BB in cardiomyocytes was explored, with interference RNA in a lentiviral vector ex vivo. The results showed that cultured cardiomyocytes exhibited an optimal proliferation from 3 to 10 days. However, LDH level was significantly increased but the heart rhythm was not altered in cardiomyocytes exposed to hypoxia for 24 hours. PDGF-BB expression was substantially upregulated in hypoxic cardiomyocytes. In order to know the role of PDGF-BB, we performed PDGF-BB knockdown in cultured cardiomyocytes. The number of apoptotic cells and the level of LDH were significantly increased but the beat rhythm was reduced in cardiomyocytes with PDGF-BB knockdown. These findings suggest that endogenous PDGF-BB exerts a crucial protective effect to cultured cardiomyocytes exposed to hypoxia.

  12. Importance of Thickness in Human Cardiomyocyte Network for Effective Electrophysiological Stimulation Using On-Chip Extracellular Microelectrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Tomoyo; Nomura, Fumimasa; Kaneko, Tomoyuki; Yasuda, Kenji

    2012-06-01

    We have developed a three-dimensionally controlled in vitro human cardiomyocyte network assay for the measurements of drug-induced conductivity changes and the appearance of fatal arrhythmia such as ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation for more precise in vitro predictive cardiotoxicity. To construct an artificial conductance propagation model of a human cardiomyocyte network, first, we examined the cell concentration dependence of the cell network heights and found the existence of a height limit of cell networks, which was double-layer height, whereas the cardiomyocytes were effectively and homogeneously cultivated within the microchamber maintaining their spatial distribution constant and their electrophysiological conductance and propagation were successfully recorded using a microelectrode array set on the bottom of the microchamber. The pacing ability of a cardiomyocyte's electrophysiological response has been evaluated using microelectrode extracellular stimulation, and the stimulation for pacing also successfully regulated the beating frequencies of two-layered cardiomyocyte networks, whereas monolayered cardiomyocyte networks were hardly stimulated by the external electrodes using the two-layered cardiomyocyte stimulation condition. The stability of the lined-up shape of human cardiomyocytes within the rectangularly arranged agarose microchambers was limited for a two-layered cardiomyocyte network because their stronger force generation shrunk those cells after peeling off the substrate. The results indicate the importance of fabrication technology of thickness control of cellular networks for effective extracellular stimulation and the potential concerning thick cardiomyocyte networks for long-term cultivation.

  13. Postnatal telomere dysfunction induces cardiomyocyte cell-cycle arrest through p21 activation

    PubMed Central

    Aix, Esther; Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Óscar; Sánchez-Ferrer, Carlota; Aguado, Tania

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms that drive mammalian cardiomyocytes out of the cell cycle soon after birth remain largely unknown. Here, we identify telomere dysfunction as a critical physiological signal for cardiomyocyte cell-cycle arrest. We show that telomerase activity and cardiomyocyte telomere length decrease sharply in wild-type mouse hearts after birth, resulting in cardiomyocytes with dysfunctional telomeres and anaphase bridges and positive for the cell-cycle arrest protein p21. We further show that premature telomere dysfunction pushes cardiomyocytes out of the cell cycle. Cardiomyocytes from telomerase-deficient mice with dysfunctional telomeres (G3 Terc−/−) show precocious development of anaphase-bridge formation, p21 up-regulation, and binucleation. In line with these findings, the cardiomyocyte proliferative response after cardiac injury was lost in G3 Terc−/− newborns but rescued in G3 Terc−/−/p21−/− mice. These results reveal telomere dysfunction as a crucial signal for cardiomyocyte cell-cycle arrest after birth and suggest interventions to augment the regeneration capacity of mammalian hearts. PMID:27241915

  14. Preservation of cardiomyocytes from the adult heart.

    PubMed

    Abi-Gerges, Najah; Pointon, Amy; Pullen, Georgia F; Morton, Michael J; Oldman, Karen L; Armstrong, Duncan; Valentin, Jean-Pierre; Pollard, Christopher E

    2013-11-01

    Cardiomyocytes represent one of the most useful models to conduct cardiac research. A single adult heart yields millions of cardiomyocytes, but these cells do not survive for long after isolation. We aimed to determine whether inhibition of myosin II ATPase that is essential for muscle contraction may preserve fully differentiated adult cardiomyocytes. Using inhibitors of the myosin II ATPase, blebbistatin and N-benzyl-p-toluene sulphonamide (BTS), we preserved freshly isolated fully differentiated adult primary cardiomyocytes that were stored at a refrigerated temperature. Specifically, preserved cardiomyocytes stayed viable for a 2-week period with a stable expression of cardiac genes and retained the expression of key markers characteristic of cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, voltage-clamp, action potential, calcium transient and contractility studies confirmed that the preserved cardiomyocytes are comparable to freshly isolated cells. Long-term exposure of preserved cardiomyocytes to four tyrosine kinase inhibitors, sunitinib malate, dasatinib, sorafenib tosylate and imatinib mesylate, revealed their potential to induce cardiac toxicity that was manifested with a decrease in contractility and induction of cell death, but this toxicity was not observed in acute experiments conducted over the time course amenable to freshly prepared cardiomyocytes. This study introduces the concept that the inhibition of myosin II ATPase safeguards the structure and function of fully differentiated adult cardiomyocytes. The fact that these preserved cardiomyocytes can be used for numerous days after preparation makes them a robust and versatile tool in cardiac research and allows the investigation of long-term exposure to novel drugs on cardiomyocyte function. © 2013.

  15. The Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor: Its Intracellular Signaling and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yue; Li, Yin; Zhang, Weizhen

    2014-01-01

    The growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), also known as the ghrelin receptor, is involved in mediating a wide variety of biological effects of ghrelin, including: stimulation of growth hormone release, increase of food intake and body weight, modulation of glucose and lipid metabolism, regulation of gastrointestinal motility and secretion, protection of neuronal and cardiovascular cells, and regulation of immune function. Dependent on the tissues and cells, activation of GHSR may trigger a diversity of signaling mechanisms and subsequent distinct physiological responses. Distinct regulation of GHSR occurs at levels of transcription, receptor interaction and internalization. Here we review the current understanding on the intracellular signaling pathways of GHSR and its modulation. An overview of the molecular structure of GHSR is presented first, followed by the discussion on its signaling mechanisms. Finally, potential mechanisms regulating GHSR are reviewed. PMID:24651458

  16. Muscle RING finger-1 attenuates IGF-I-dependent cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by inhibiting JNK signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wadosky, Kristine M.; Rodríguez, Jessica E.; Hite, Rebecca L.; Min, Jin-na; Walton, Bethany L.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies implicate the muscle-specific ubiquitin ligase muscle RING finger-1 (MuRF1) in inhibiting pathological cardiomyocyte growth in vivo by inhibiting the transcription factor SRF. These studies led us to hypothesize that MuRF1 similarly inhibits insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I)-mediated physiological cardiomyocyte growth. We identified two lines of evidence to support this hypothesis: IGF-I stimulation of cardiac-derived cells with MuRF1 knockdown 1) exhibited an exaggerated hypertrophy and, 2) conversely, increased MuRF1 expression-abolished IGF-I-dependent cardiomyocyte growth. Enhanced hypertrophy with MuRF1 knockdown was accompanied by increases in Akt-regulated gene expression. Unexpectedly, MuRF1 inhibition of this gene expression profile was not a result of differences in p-Akt. Instead, we found that MuRF1 inhibits total protein levels of Akt, GSK-3β (downstream of Akt), and mTOR while limiting c-Jun protein expression, a mechanism recently shown to govern Akt, GSK-3β, and mTOR activities and expression. These findings establish that MuRF1 inhibits IGF-I signaling by restricting c-Jun activity, a novel mechanism recently identified in the context of ischemia-reperfusion injury. Since IGF-I regulates exercise-mediated physiological cardiac growth, we challenged MuRF1−/− and MuRF1-Tg+ mice and their wild-type sibling controls to 5 wk of voluntary wheel running. MuRF1−/− cardiac growth was increased significantly over wild-type control; conversely, the enhanced exercise-induced cardiac growth was lost in MuRF1-Tg+ animals. These studies demonstrate that MuRF1-dependent attenuation of IGF-I signaling via c-Jun is applicable in vivo and establish that further understanding of this novel mechanism may be crucial in the development of therapies targeting IGF-I signaling. PMID:24425758

  17. Muscle RING finger-1 attenuates IGF-I-dependent cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by inhibiting JNK signaling.

    PubMed

    Wadosky, Kristine M; Rodríguez, Jessica E; Hite, Rebecca L; Min, Jin-na; Walton, Bethany L; Willis, Monte S

    2014-04-01

    Recent studies implicate the muscle-specific ubiquitin ligase muscle RING finger-1 (MuRF1) in inhibiting pathological cardiomyocyte growth in vivo by inhibiting the transcription factor SRF. These studies led us to hypothesize that MuRF1 similarly inhibits insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I)-mediated physiological cardiomyocyte growth. We identified two lines of evidence to support this hypothesis: IGF-I stimulation of cardiac-derived cells with MuRF1 knockdown 1) exhibited an exaggerated hypertrophy and, 2) conversely, increased MuRF1 expression-abolished IGF-I-dependent cardiomyocyte growth. Enhanced hypertrophy with MuRF1 knockdown was accompanied by increases in Akt-regulated gene expression. Unexpectedly, MuRF1 inhibition of this gene expression profile was not a result of differences in p-Akt. Instead, we found that MuRF1 inhibits total protein levels of Akt, GSK-3β (downstream of Akt), and mTOR while limiting c-Jun protein expression, a mechanism recently shown to govern Akt, GSK-3β, and mTOR activities and expression. These findings establish that MuRF1 inhibits IGF-I signaling by restricting c-Jun activity, a novel mechanism recently identified in the context of ischemia-reperfusion injury. Since IGF-I regulates exercise-mediated physiological cardiac growth, we challenged MuRF1(-/-) and MuRF1-Tg+ mice and their wild-type sibling controls to 5 wk of voluntary wheel running. MuRF1(-/-) cardiac growth was increased significantly over wild-type control; conversely, the enhanced exercise-induced cardiac growth was lost in MuRF1-Tg+ animals. These studies demonstrate that MuRF1-dependent attenuation of IGF-I signaling via c-Jun is applicable in vivo and establish that further understanding of this novel mechanism may be crucial in the development of therapies targeting IGF-I signaling.

  18. Differential methylation during maize leaf growth targets developmentally regulated genes.

    PubMed

    Candaele, Jasper; Demuynck, Kirin; Mosoti, Douglas; Beemster, Gerrit T S; Inzé, Dirk; Nelissen, Hilde

    2014-03-01

    DNA methylation is an important and widespread epigenetic modification in plant genomes, mediated by DNA methyltransferases (DMTs). DNA methylation is known to play a role in genome protection, regulation of gene expression, and splicing and was previously associated with major developmental reprogramming in plants, such as vernalization and transition to flowering. Here, we show that DNA methylation also controls the growth processes of cell division and cell expansion within a growing organ. The maize (Zea mays) leaf offers a great tool to study growth processes, as the cells progressively move through the spatial gradient encompassing the division zone, transition zone, elongation zone, and mature zone. Opposite to de novo DMTs, the maintenance DMTs were transcriptionally regulated throughout the growth zone of the maize leaf, concomitant with differential CCGG methylation levels in the four zones. Surprisingly, the majority of differentially methylated sequences mapped on or close to gene bodies and not to repeat-rich loci. Moreover, especially the 5' and 3' regions of genes, which show overall low methylation levels, underwent differential methylation in a developmental context. Genes involved in processes such as chromatin remodeling, cell cycle progression, and growth regulation, were differentially methylated. The presence of differential methylation located upstream of the gene anticorrelated with transcript expression, while gene body differential methylation was unrelated to the expression level. These data indicate that DNA methylation is correlated with the decision to exit mitotic cell division and to enter cell expansion, which adds a new epigenetic level to the regulation of growth processes.

  19. Local translation of RhoA regulates growth cone collapse

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Llewellyn J.; Macosko, Evan Z.; Jeromin, Andreas; Urquhart, Erica R.; Jaffrey, Samie R.

    2005-01-01

    Neuronal development requires highly coordinated regulation of the cytoskeleton within the developing axon. This dynamic regulation manifests itself in axonal branching, turning, and pathfinding, presynaptic differentiation, and growth cone collapse and extension. Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A), a secreted guidance cue that primarily acts to repel axons from inappropriate targets, induces cytoskeletal rearrangements that results in growth cone collapse 1. These effects require intra-axonal mRNA translation. Here we show that transcripts for RhoA, a small GTPase that regulates the actin cytoskeleton, are localized to developing axons and growth cones, and this localization is mediated by an axonal targeting element located in the RhoA 3’UTR. Sema3A induces intra-axonal translation of RhoA mRNA and this local translation of RhoA is necessary and sufficient for Sema3A-mediated growth cone collapse. These studies indicate that local RhoA translation regulates the neuronal cytoskeleton and identify a novel mechanism for the regulation of RhoA signaling. PMID:16107849

  20. Insulin signaling regulates neurite growth during metamorphic neuronal remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Tingting; Zhao, Tao; Hewes, Randall S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Although the growth capacity of mature neurons is often limited, some neurons can shift through largely unknown mechanisms from stable maintenance growth to dynamic, organizational growth (e.g. to repair injury, or during development transitions). During insect metamorphosis, many terminally differentiated larval neurons undergo extensive remodeling, involving elimination of larval neurites and outgrowth and elaboration of adult-specific projections. Here, we show in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen), that a metamorphosis-specific increase in insulin signaling promotes neuronal growth and axon branching after prolonged stability during the larval stages. FOXO, a negative effector in the insulin signaling pathway, blocked metamorphic growth of peptidergic neurons that secrete the neuropeptides CCAP and bursicon. RNA interference and CCAP/bursicon cell-targeted expression of dominant-negative constructs for other components of the insulin signaling pathway (InR, Pi3K92E, Akt1, S6K) also partially suppressed the growth of the CCAP/bursicon neuron somata and neurite arbor. In contrast, expression of wild-type or constitutively active forms of InR, Pi3K92E, Akt1, Rheb, and TOR, as well as RNA interference for negative regulators of insulin signaling (PTEN, FOXO), stimulated overgrowth. Interestingly, InR displayed little effect on larval CCAP/bursicon neuron growth, in contrast to its strong effects during metamorphosis. Manipulations of insulin signaling in many other peptidergic neurons revealed generalized growth stimulation during metamorphosis, but not during larval development. These findings reveal a fundamental shift in growth control mechanisms when mature, differentiated neurons enter a new phase of organizational growth. Moreover, they highlight strong evolutionarily conservation of insulin signaling in neuronal growth regulation. PMID:24357229

  1. Myofibril growth during cardiac hypertrophy is regulated through dual phosphorylation and acetylation of the actin capping protein CapZ.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying-Hsi; Warren, Chad M; Li, Jieli; McKinsey, Timothy A; Russell, Brenda

    2016-08-01

    The mechanotransduction signaling pathways initiated in heart muscle by increased mechanical loading are known to lead to long-term transcriptional changes and hypertrophy, but the rapid events for adaptation at the sarcomeric level are not fully understood. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that actin filament assembly during cardiomyocyte growth is regulated by post-translational modifications (PTMs) of CapZβ1. In rapidly hypertrophying neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) stimulated by phenylephrine (PE), two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE) of CapZβ1 revealed a shift toward more negative charge. Consistent with this, mass spectrometry identified CapZβ1 phosphorylation on serine-204 and acetylation on lysine-199, two residues which are near the actin binding surface of CapZβ1. Ectopic expression of dominant negative PKCɛ (dnPKCɛ) in NRVMs blunted the PE-induced increase in CapZ dynamics, as evidenced by the kinetic constant (Kfrap) of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), and concomitantly reduced phosphorylation and acetylation of CapZβ1. Furthermore, inhibition of class I histone deacetylases (HDACs) increased lysine-199 acetylation on CapZβ1, which increased Kfrap of CapZ and stimulated actin dynamics. Finally, we show that PE treatment of NRVMs results in decreased binding of HDAC3 to myofibrils, suggesting a signal-dependent mechanism for the regulation of sarcomere-associated CapZβ1 acetylation. Taken together, this dual regulation through phosphorylation and acetylation of CapZβ1 provides a novel model for the regulation of myofibril growth during cardiac hypertrophy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Endogenous versus Exogenous Growth Factor Regulation of Articular Chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Shuiliang; Chan, Albert G.; Mercer, Scott; Eckert, George J.; Trippel, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    Anabolic growth factors that regulate the function of articular chondrocytes are candidates for articular cartilage repair. Such factors may be delivered by pharmacotherapy in the form of exogenous proteins, or by gene therapy as endogenous proteins. It is unknown whether delivery method influences growth factor effectiveness in regulating articular chondrocyte reparative functions. We treated adult bovine articular chondrocytes with exogenous recombinant insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1), or with the genes encoding these growth factors for endogenous production. Treatment effects were measured as change in chondrocyte DNA content, glycosaminoglycan production, and aggrecan gene expression. We found that IGF-I stimulated chondrocyte biosynthesis similarly when delivered by either exogenous or endogenous means. In contrast, exogenous TGF-ß1 stimulated these reparative functions, while endogenous TGF-ß1 had little effect. Endogenous TGF-ß1 became more bioactive following activation of the transgene protein product. These data indicate that effective mechanisms of growth factor delivery for articular cartilage repair may differ for different growth factors. In the case of IGF-I, gene therapy or protein therapy appear to be viable options. In contrast, TGF-ß1 gene therapy may be constrained by a limited ability of chondrocytes to convert latent complexes to an active form. PMID:24105960

  3. Comparison of the hypertrophic effect of phorbol ester, norepinephrine, angiotensin II and contraction on cultured cardiomyocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Allo, S.N.; Carl, L.L.; Morgan, H.E. )

    1991-03-15

    Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), norepinephrine (NE), angiotensin II (AII) and contraction stimulate cardiomyocyte growth. Differences exist in the time course and extent of protein and RNA accumulation. Cells plated at 4 {times} 10{sup 6} cells/60mm dish and arrested with 50 mM KCl demonstrated no significant growth. Treatment with PMA stimulated growth to a maximum of 17% at 48 h. In contrast, maximal stimulation of growth was 36% at 48 h and 31% at 72 h for contracting and NE treated cells, respectively. Maximal stimulation of the capacity for protein synthesis was 32% for PMA treated cells at 24 h as compared to 59% and 77% for NE treated and contracting cells respectively at 72 h. In support of a primary role for altered capacity in the regulation of protein synthesis, there was a significant correlation between RNA and protein content independent of the stimulus used. AII increased RNA content by 28% at 48h, but had no effect on growth up to 72h. Treatment with staurosporine blocked the stimulation of growth, suggestive of a role for protein kinase C (PKC). However, the inhibition of contraction-induced growth was due in part to a reduction in the rate of contraction. It was concluded that: significant differences existed in the time course of growth stimulation and RNA accumulation, depending on the stimulus; and growth inhibition by staurosporine is suggestive of an important role of PKC in hypertrophic growth induced by these stimuli.

  4. Substrate and nutrient limitation regulating microbial growth in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bååth, Erland

    2015-04-01

    Microbial activity and growth in soil is regulated by several abiotic factors, including temperature, moisture and pH as the most important ones. At the same time nutrient conditions and substrate availability will also determine microbial growth. Amount of substrate will not only affect overall microbial growth, but also affect the balance of fungal and bacterial growth. The type of substrate will also affect the latter. Furthermore, according to Liebig law of limiting factors, we would expect one nutrient to be the main limiting one for microbial growth in soil. When this nutrient is added, the initial second liming factor will become the main one, adding complexity to the microbial response after adding different substrates. I will initially describe different ways of determining limiting factors for bacterial growth in soil, especially a rapid method estimating bacterial growth, using the leucine incorporation technique, after adding C (as glucose), N (as ammonium nitrate) and P (as phosphate). Scenarios of different limitations will be covered, with the bacterial growth response compared with fungal growth and total activity (respiration). The "degree of limitation", as well as the main limiting nutrient, can be altered by adding substrate of different stoichiometric composition. However, the organism group responding after alleviating the nutrient limitation can differ depending on the type of substrate added. There will also be situations, where fungi and bacteria appear to be limited by different nutrients. Finally, I will describe interactions between abiotic factors and the response of the soil microbiota to alleviation of limiting factors.

  5. Cyp26b1 within the growth plate regulates bone growth in juvenile mice

    SciTech Connect

    Minegishi, Yoshiki; Sakai, Yasuo; Yahara, Yasuhito; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Hosokawa, Ko; Tsumaki, Noriyuki

    2014-11-07

    Highlights: • Retinoic acid and Cyp26b1 were oppositely localized in growth plate cartilage. • Cyp26b1 deletion in chondrocytes decreased bone growth in juvenile mice. • Cyp26b1 deletion reduced chondrocyte proliferation and growth plate height. • Vitamin A-depletion partially reversed growth plate abnormalities caused by Cyp26b1 deficiency. • Cyp26b1 regulates bone growth by controlling chondrocyte proliferation. - Abstract: Retinoic acid (RA) is an active metabolite of vitamin A and plays important roles in embryonic development. CYP26 enzymes degrade RA and have specific expression patterns that produce a RA gradient, which regulates the patterning of various structures in the embryo. However, it has not been addressed whether a RA gradient also exists and functions in organs after birth. We found localized RA activities in the diaphyseal portion of the growth plate cartilage were associated with the specific expression of Cyp26b1 in the epiphyseal portion in juvenile mice. To disturb the distribution of RA, we generated mice lacking Cyp26b1 specifically in chondrocytes (Cyp26b1{sup Δchon} cKO). These mice showed reduced skeletal growth in the juvenile stage. Additionally, their growth plate cartilage showed decreased proliferation rates of proliferative chondrocytes, which was associated with a reduced height in the zone of proliferative chondrocytes, and closed focally by four weeks of age, while wild-type mouse growth plates never closed. Feeding the Cyp26b1 cKO mice a vitamin A-deficient diet partially reversed these abnormalities of the growth plate cartilage. These results collectively suggest that Cyp26b1 in the growth plate regulates the proliferation rates of chondrocytes and is responsible for the normal function of the growth plate and growing bones in juvenile mice, probably by limiting the RA distribution in the growth plate proliferating zone.

  6. Developmental mechanisms regulating secondary growth in woody plants

    Treesearch

    Andrew Groover; Marcel Robischon

    2006-01-01

    Secondary growth results in the radial expansion of woody stems, and requires the coordination of tissue patterning, cell differentiation, and the maintenance of meristematic stem cells within the vascular cambium. Advances are being made towards describing molecular mechanisms that regulate these developmental processes, thanks in part to the application of new...

  7. Glucose induces apoptosis of cardiomyocytes via microRNA-1 and IGF-1.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xi-Yong; Song, Yao-Hua; Geng, Yong-Jian; Lin, Qiu-Xiong; Shan, Zhi-Xin; Lin, Shu-Guang; Li, Yangxin

    2008-11-21

    Glucose toxicity is an important initiator of cardiovascular disease, contributing to the development of cardiomyocyte death and diabetic complications. The present study investigated whether high glucose state could induce apoptosis of rat cardiomyocyte cell line H9C2 through microRNA regulated insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) signaling pathway. Our data showed that H9C2 cells exposed to high glucose have increased miR-1 expression level, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, increased cytochrome-c release, and increased apoptosis. Glucose induced mitochondrial dysfunction, cytochrome-c release and apoptosis was blocked by IGF-1. Using prediction algorithms, we identified 3'-untranslated regions of IGF-1 gene are the target of miR-1. miR-1 mimics, but not mutant miR-1, blocked the capacity of IGF-1 to prevent glucose-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, cytochrome-c release and apoptosis. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that IGF-1 inhibits glucose-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, cytochrome-c release and apoptosis and IGF-1's effect is regulated by miR-1.

  8. Cardiomyocyte-secreted acetylcholine is required for maintenance of homeostasis in the heart

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Ashbeel; Fields, William C.; Rocha-Resende, Cibele; Resende, Rodrigo R.; Guatimosim, Silvia; Prado, Vania F.; Gros, Robert; Prado, Marco A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Heart activity and long-term function are regulated by the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the nervous system. Parasympathetic neurons have received increased attention recently because acetylcholine (ACh) has been shown to play protective roles in heart disease. However, parasympathetic innervation is sparse in the heart, raising the question of how cholinergic signaling regulates cardiomyocytes. We hypothesized that non-neuronal secretion of ACh from cardiomyocytes plays a role in cholinergic regulation of cardiac activity. To test this possibility, we eliminated secretion of ACh exclusively from cardiomyocytes by targeting the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). We find that lack of cardiomyocyte-secreted ACh disturbs the regulation of cardiac activity and causes cardiomyocyte remodeling. Mutant mice present normal hemodynamic parameters under nonstressful conditions; however, following exercise, their heart rate response is increased. Moreover, hearts from mutant mice present increased oxidative stress, altered calcium signaling, remodeling, and hypertrophy. Hence, without cardiomyocyte-derived ACh secretion, hearts from mutant mice show signs of imbalanced autonomic activity consistent with decreased cholinergic drive. These unexpected results suggest that cardiomyocyte-derived ACh is required for maintenance of cardiac homeostasis and regulates critical signaling pathways necessary to maintain normal heart activity. We propose that this non-neuronal source of ACh boosts parasympathetic cholinergic signaling to counterbalance sympathetic activity regulating multiple aspects of heart physiology.—Roy, A., Fields, W. C., Rocha-Resende, C., Resende, R. R., Guatimosim, S., Prado, V. F., Gros, R., Prado, M. A. M. Cardiomyocyte-secreted acetylcholine is required for maintenance of homeostasis in the heart. PMID:24018063

  9. The role of mAKAPβ in the process of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by angiotensin II

    PubMed Central

    GUO, HUIXIN; LIU, BAOXIN; HOU, LEI; THE, ERLINDA; LI, GANG; WANG, DONGZHI; JIE, QIQIANG; CHE, WENLIANG; WEI, YIDONG

    2015-01-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) is the central product of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and this octapeptide contributes to the pathophysiology of cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling. mAKAPβ is an A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) that has the function of binding to the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) and confining the holoenzyme to discrete locations within the cell. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of mAKAPβ in AngII-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and the possible mechanisms involved. Cultured cardiomyocytes from neonatal rats were treated with AngII. Subsequently, the morphology of the cardiomyocytes was observed and the expression of mAKAPβ and cardiomyocyte hypertrophic markers was measured. mAKAPβ-shRNA was constructed for RNA interference; the expression of mAKAPβ and hypertrophic markers, the cell surface area and the [3H]Leucine incorporation rate in the AngII-treated rat cardiomyocytes were detected following RNA interference. Simultaneously, changes in the expression levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK)2 in the cardiomyocytes were assessed. The cell size of the AngII-treated cardiaomyocytes was significantly larger than that of the untreated cardiomyocytes. The expression of hypertrophic markers and p-ERK2, the cell surface area and the [3H]Leucine incorporation rate were all significantly increased in the AngII-treated cells. However, the expression of mAKAPβ remained unaltered in this process. RNA interference simultaneously inhibited the protein expression of mAKAPβ and p-ERK2, and the hypertrophy of the cardiomyocytes induced by AngII was attenuated. These results demonstrate that AngII induces hypertrophy in cardiomyocytes, and mAKAPβ is possibly involved in this process. The effects of mAKAPβ on AngII-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy may be associated with p-ERK2 expression. PMID:25739102

  10. Heparin localization and fine structure regulate Burkitt's lymphoma growth

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, David; Lynn, David M.; Berry, Eric; Sasisekharan, Ram; Langer, Robert . E-mail: rlanger@mit.edu

    2006-09-29

    Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) is a B-cell malignancy associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Mounting evidence has implicated heparan sulfate proteoglycans and heparan sulfate-like glycosaminoglycans (HSGAGs) in the initiation, severity, and progression of the malignancy. The importance of HSGAGs in regulating BL cell growth was therefore examined. Extracellular exogenous heparin inhibited cell growth >30%, while heparin internalized with poly({beta}-amino ester)s promoted proliferation up to 58%. The growth-modulating effects of heparin and internalized heparin were dependent on cell surface HSGAGs, PI3K, and Erk/Mek. Treatment of cells with protamine sulfate or with heparinases potently inhibited proliferation, with the greatest effects induced by heparinase I. Cell surface HSGAGs therefore play an important role in regulating BL proliferation and may offer a potential target for therapeutic intervention.

  11. HMGCR positively regulated the growth and migration of glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhihua; Yuan, Wen; Chen, Tao; Zhou, Chenzhi; Liu, Chao; Huang, Yongkai; Han, Deqing; Huang, Qinghui

    2016-01-15

    The metabolic program of cancer cells is significant different from the normal cells, which makes it possible to develop novel strategies targeting cancer cells. Mevalonate pathway and its rate-limiting enzyme HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR) have shown important roles in the progression of several cancer types. However, their roles in glioblastoma cells remain unknown. In this study, up-regulation of HMGCR in the clinical glioblastoma samples was observed. Forced expression of HMGCR promoted the growth and migration of U251 and U373 cells, while knocking down the expression of HMGCR inhibited the growth, migration and metastasis of glioblastoma cells. Molecular mechanism studies revealed that HMGCR positively regulated the expression of TAZ, an important mediator of Hippo pathway, and the downstream target gene connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), suggesting HMGCR might activate Hippo pathway in glioblastoma cells. Taken together, our study demonstrated the oncogenic roles of HMGCR in glioblastoma cells and HMGCR might be a promising therapeutic target.

  12. Effects of plant growth regulators on the growth and lipid accumulation of Nannochloropsis oculata (droop) Hibberd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinh, Cam Tu; Tran, Thanh Huong; Bui, Trang Viet

    2017-09-01

    Nannochloropsis oculata cells were grown in f/2 modified medium of Chiu et al. (2009) supplemented with the plant growth regulators in different concentrations. Lipid accumulation of N. oculata cells was evaluated by using Nile Red dye and Fiji Image J with Analyze Particles. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) stimulated the increase of cell density in rapid growth phase (day 6) at high concentration (0.75 mg/L) and in slow growth phase (day 10) at lower concentration (0.50 mg/L). IAA, gibberellic acid (GA3) and zeatin increased content of chlorophyll a, in particular, in f/2 modified medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/L zeatin at the 10th day of culture. Roles of plant growth regulators in growth and lipid accumulation of N. oculata were discussed.

  13. Effects of the plant growth regulator, chlormequat, on mammalian fertility.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Martin T; Danielsen, Viggo

    2006-02-01

    This paper summarizes the consequences of exposure to chlormequat, a plant growth regulator, on reproduction in mammals. Plant growth regulators are chemicals used to manipulate plant growth, flowering and fruit yield. In grain crops, plant growth regulators are applied to promote sturdier growth and reduce the risk of lodging. Chlormequat is the most common plant growth regulator. Maximum residue limits of chlormequat in food products are 10 mg/kg in oat and pear, 3 mg/kg in wheat and rye, and 0.5 mg/kg in milk. In Denmark, results from experiments with pigs in the late 1980s showed sows that display impaired reproduction, mainly impaired oestrus, when fed grain from crop treated with chlormequat. Subsequently, the advisory body to the Danish pig industry recommended limiting the use of grain (maximum 30% of diet energy) from crop treated with chlormequat given to breeding stock due to the risk of reproduction problems. More recently, experiments have been conducted to evaluate the influence of chlormequat-treated wheat crop on reproductive function in male and female mice. These experiments showed that epididymal spermatozoa from mice on feed or water containing chlormequat had compromised fertilizing competence in vitro, while reproduction in female mice was not compromised. The estimated intake of chlormequat in the pig (0.0023 mg/kg bw/day) and the mouse (0.024 mg/kg bw/day) experiments was below the acceptable daily intake of 0.05 mg/kg bw/day. Reports from the industry do not show any effects at these low levels.

  14. Local calcium changes regulate the length of growth cone filopodia.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Su; Geddis, Matthew S; Rehder, Vincent

    2002-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the free intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in growth cones can act as an important regulator of growth cone behavior. Here we investigated whether there is a spatial and temporal correlation between [Ca(2+)](i) and one particular aspect of growth cone behavior, namely the regulation of growth cone filopodia. Calcium was released from the caged compound NP-EGTA (o-nitrophenyl EGTA tetrapotassium salt) to simulate a signaling event in the form of a transient increase in [Ca(2+)](i). In three different experimental paradigms, we released calcium either globally (within an entire growth cone), regionally (within a small area of the lamellipodium), or locally (within a single filopodium). We demonstrate that global photolysis of NP-EGTA in growth cones caused a transient increase in [Ca(2+)](i) throughout the growth cone and elicited subsequent filopodial elongation that was restricted to the stimulated growth cone. Pharmacological blockage of either calmodulin or the Ca(2+)-dependent phosphatase, calcineurin, inhibited the effect of uncaging calcium, suggesting that these enzymes are acting downstream of calcium. Regional uncaging of calcium in the lamellipodium caused a regional increase in [Ca(2+)](i), but induced filopodial elongation on the entire growth cone. Elevation of [Ca(2+)](i) locally within an individual filopodium resulted in the elongation of only the stimulated filopodium. These findings suggest that the effect of an elevation of [Ca(2+)](i) on filopodial behavior depends on the spatial distribution of the calcium signal. In particular, calcium signals within filopodia can cause filopodial length changes that are likely a first step towards directed filopodial steering events seen during pathfinding in vivo.

  15. Smad4 regulates growth plate matrix production and chondrocyte polarity

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, Amanda T.; Berthet, Ellora; Cantu, Andrea; Laird, Diana J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Smad4 is an intracellular effector of the TGFβ family that has been implicated in Myhre syndrome, a skeletal dysplasia characterized by short stature, brachydactyly and stiff joints. The TGFβ pathway also plays a critical role in the development, organization and proliferation of the growth plate, although the exact mechanisms remain unclear. Skeletal phenotypes in Myhre syndrome overlap with processes regulated by the TGFβ pathway, including organization and proliferation of the growth plate and polarity of the chondrocyte. We used in vitro and in vivo models of Smad4 deficiency in chondrocytes to test the hypothesis that deregulated TGFβ signaling leads to aberrant extracellular matrix production and loss of chondrocyte polarity. Specifically, we evaluated growth plate chondrocyte polarity in tibiae of Col2-Cre+/−;Smad4fl/fl mice and in chondrocyte pellet cultures. In vitro and in vivo, Smad4 deficiency decreased aggrecan expression and increased MMP13 expression. Smad4 deficiency disrupted the balance of cartilage matrix synthesis and degradation, even though the sequential expression of growth plate chondrocyte markers was intact. Chondrocytes in Smad4-deficient growth plates also showed evidence of polarity defects, with impaired proliferation and ability to undergo the characteristic changes in shape, size and orientation as they differentiated from resting to hypertrophic chondrocytes. Therefore, we show that Smad4 controls chondrocyte proliferation, orientation, and hypertrophy and is important in regulating the extracellular matrix composition of the growth plate. PMID:28167493

  16. Evodiamine inhibits angiotensin II-induced rat cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    He, Na; Gong, Qi-Hai; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Jing-Yi; Lin, Shu-Xian; Hou, Hua-Hua; Wu, Qin; Sun, An-Sheng

    2017-09-05

    To investigate the effects of evodiamine (Evo), a component of Evodiaminedia rutaecarpa Juss.) Benth, on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) and further explore the potential mechanisms. Cardiomyocytes from neonatal Sprague Dawley rats were isolated and characterized, and then the cadiomyocyte cultures were randomly divided into control, model (Ang II 0.1 μmol/L), and Evo (0.03, 0.3, 3 μmol/L) groups. The cardiomyocyte surface area, protein level, intracellular free calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) concentration, activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and content of nitric oxide (NO) were measured, respectively. The mRNA expressions of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), calcineurin (CaN), extracellular signal-regulated kinase-2 (ERK-2), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) of cardiomyocytes were analyzed by real-time reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction. The protein expressions of calcineurin catalytic subunit (CnA) and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) were detected by Western blot analysis. Compared with the control group, Ang II induced cardiomyocytes hypertrophy, as evidenced by increased cardiomyocyte surface area, protein content, and ANF mRNA expression; increased intracellular free calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) concentration and expressions of CaN mRNA, CnA protein, and ERK-2 mRNA, but decreased MKP-1 protein expression (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Compared with Ang II, Evo (0.3, 3 μmol/L) significantly attenuated Ang II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, decreased the [Ca(2+)]i concentration and expressions of CaN mRNA, CnA protein, and ERK-2 mRNA, but increased MKP-1 protein expression (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Most interestingly, Evo increased the NOS activity and NO production, and upregulated the eNOS mRNA expression (P<0.05). Evo signifificantly attenuated Ang II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, and this effect was partly due to promotion of NO production, reduction of [Ca(2+)]i concentration, and inhibition of CaN and

  17. Ethylene signaling and regulation in plant growth and stress responses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feifei; Cui, Xiankui; Sun, Yue; Dong, Chun-Hai

    2013-07-01

    Gaseous phytohormone ethylene affects many aspects of plant growth and development. The ethylene signaling pathway starts when ethylene binds to its receptors. Since the cloning of the first ethylene receptor ETR1 from Arabidopsis, a large number of studies have steadily improved our understanding of the receptors and downstream components in ethylene signal transduction pathway. This article reviews the regulation of ethylene receptors, signal transduction, and the posttranscriptional modulation of downstream components. Functional roles and importance of the ethylene signaling components in plant growth and stress responses are also discussed. Cross-reactions of ethylene with auxin and other phytohormones in plant organ growth will be analyzed. The studies of ethylene signaling in plant growth, development, and stress responses in the past decade greatly advanced our knowledge of how plants respond to endogenous signals and environmental factors.

  18. BMP signaling regulates satellite cell-dependent postnatal muscle growth.

    PubMed

    Stantzou, Amalia; Schirwis, Elija; Swist, Sandra; Alonso-Martin, Sonia; Polydorou, Ioanna; Zarrouki, Faouzi; Mouisel, Etienne; Beley, Cyriaque; Julien, Anaïs; Le Grand, Fabien; Garcia, Luis; Colnot, Céline; Birchmeier, Carmen; Braun, Thomas; Schuelke, Markus; Relaix, Frédéric; Amthor, Helge

    2017-08-01

    Postnatal growth of skeletal muscle largely depends on the expansion and differentiation of resident stem cells, the so-called satellite cells. Here, we demonstrate that postnatal satellite cells express components of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling machinery. Overexpression of noggin in postnatal mice (to antagonize BMP ligands), satellite cell-specific knockout of Alk3 (the gene encoding the BMP transmembrane receptor) or overexpression of inhibitory SMAD6 decreased satellite cell proliferation and accretion during myofiber growth, and ultimately retarded muscle growth. Moreover, reduced BMP signaling diminished the adult satellite cell pool. Abrogation of BMP signaling in satellite cell-derived primary myoblasts strongly diminished cell proliferation and upregulated the expression of cell cycle inhibitors p21 and p57 In conclusion, these results show that BMP signaling defines postnatal muscle development by regulating satellite cell-dependent myofiber growth and the generation of the adult muscle stem cell pool. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Netrin-4 regulates angiogenic responses and tumor cell growth

    SciTech Connect

    Nacht, Mariana; St Martin, Thia B.; Byrne, Ann; Klinger, Katherine W.; Teicher, Beverly A.; Madden, Stephen L. Jiang, Yide

    2009-03-10

    Netrin-4 is a 628 amino acid basement membrane component that promotes neurite elongation at low concentrations but inhibits neurite extension at high concentrations. There is a growing body of literature suggesting that several molecules, including netrins, are regulators of both neuronal and vascular growth. It is believed that molecules that guide neural growth and development are also involved in regulating morphogenesis of the vascular tree. Further, netrins have recently been implicated in controlling epithelial cell branching morphogenesis in the breast, lung and pancreas. Characterization of purified netrin-4 in in vitro angiogenesis assays demonstrated that netrin-4 markedly inhibits HMVEC migration and tube formation. Moreover, netrin-4 inhibits proliferation of a variety of human tumor cells in vitro. Netrin-4 has only modest effects on proliferation of endothelial and other non-transformed cells. Netrin-4 treatment results in phosphorylation changes of proteins that are known to control cell growth. Specifically, Phospho-Akt-1, Phospho-Jnk-2, and Phospho-c-Jun are reduced in tumor cells that have been treated with netrin-4. Together, these data suggest a potential role for netrin-4 in regulating tumor growth.

  20. Bacterial gene regulation in diauxic and non-diauxic growth.

    PubMed

    Narang, Atul; Pilyugin, Sergei S

    2007-01-21

    When bacteria are grown in a batch culture containing a mixture of two growth-limiting substrates, they exhibit a rich spectrum of substrate consumption patterns including diauxic growth, simultaneous consumption, and bistable growth. In previous work, we showed that a minimal model accounting only for enzyme induction and dilution captures all the substrate consumption patterns [Narang, A., 1998a. The dynamical analogy between microbial growth on mixtures of substrates and population growth of competing species. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 59, 116-121, Narang, A., 2006. Comparitive analysis of some models of gene regulation in mixed-substrate microbial growth, J. Theor. Biol. 242, 489-501]. In this work, we construct the bifurcation diagram of the minimal model, which shows the substrate consumption pattern at any given set of parameter values. The bifurcation diagram explains several general properties of mixed-substrate growth. (1) In almost all the cases of diauxic growth, the "preferred" substrate is the one that, by itself, supports a higher specific growth rate. In the literature, this property is often attributed to the optimality of regulatory mechanisms. Here, we show that the minimal model, which accounts for induction and growth only, displays the property under fairly general conditions. This suggests that the higher growth rate of the preferred substrate is an intrinsic property of the induction and dilution kinetics. It can be explained mechanistically without appealing to optimality principles. (2) The model explains the phenotypes of various mutants containing lesions in the regions encoding for the operator, repressor, and peripheral enzymes. A particularly striking phenotype is the "reversal of the diauxie" in which the wild-type and mutant strains consume the very same two substrates in opposite order. This phenotype is difficult to explain in terms of molecular mechanisms, such as inducer exclusion or CAP activation, but it turns out to be a natural

  1. Maternal growth factor regulation of human placental development and fetal growth.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Karen; Westwood, Melissa

    2010-10-01

    Normal development and function of the placenta is critical to achieving a successful pregnancy, as normal fetal growth depends directly on the transfer of nutrients from mother to fetus via this organ. Recently, it has become apparent from both animal and human studies that growth factors within the maternal circulation, for example the IGFs, are important regulators of placental development and function. Although these factors act via distinct receptors to exert their effects, the downstream molecules activated upon ligand/receptor interaction are common to many growth factors. The expression of numerous signaling molecules is altered in the placentas from pregnancies affected by the fetal growth complications, fetal growth restriction, and macrosomia. Thus, targeting these molecules may lead to more effective treatments for complications of pregnancy associated with altered placental development. Here, we review the maternal growth factors required for placental development and discuss their mechanism of action.

  2. Plant growth regulators enhance gold uptake in Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Manoj G; Stirk, Wendy A; Southway, Colin; Papenfus, Heino B; Swart, Pierre A; Lux, Alexander; Vaculík, Marek; Martinka, Michal; Van Staden, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    The use of plant growth regulators is well established and they are used in many fields of plant science for enhancing growth. Brassica juncea plants were treated with 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 microM auxin indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), which promotes rooting. The IBA-treated plants were also sprayed with 100 microM gibberellic acid (GA3) and kinetin (Kin) to increase leaf-foliage. Gold (I) chloride (AuCl) was added to the growth medium of plants to achieve required gold concentration. The solubilizing agent ammonium thiocyanate (1 g kg(-1)) (commonly used in mining industries to solubilize gold) was added to the nutrient solution after six weeks of growth and, two weeks later, plants were harvested. Plant growth regulators improved shoot and root dry biomass of B. juncea plants. Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry analysis showed the highest Au uptake for plants treated with 5.0 microM IBA. The average recovery of Au with this treatment was significantly greater than the control treatment by 45.8 mg kg(-1) (155.7%). The other IBA concentrations (2.5 and 7.5 microM) also showed a significant increase in Au uptake compared to the control plants by 14.7 mg kg(-1) (50%) and 42.5 mg kg(-1) (144.5%) respectively. A similar trend of Au accumulation was recorded in the roots of B. juncea plants. This study conducted in solution culture suggests that plant growth regulators can play a significant role in improving phytoextraction of Au.

  3. Interactions between fibroblast growth factors and Notch regulate neuronal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Faux, C H; Turnley, A M; Epa, R; Cappai, R; Bartlett, P F

    2001-08-01

    The differentiation of precursor cells into neurons has been shown to be influenced by both the Notch signaling pathway and growth factor stimulation. In this study, the regulation of neuronal differentiation by these mechanisms was examined in the embryonic day 10 neuroepithelial precursor (NEP) population. By downregulating Notch1 expression and by the addition of a Delta1 fusion protein (Delta Fc), it was shown that signaling via the Notch pathway inhibited neuron differentiation in the NEP cells, in vitro. The expression of two of the Notch receptor homologs, Notch1 and Notch3, and the ligand Delta1 in these NEP cells was found to be influenced by a number of different growth factors, indicating a potential interaction between growth factors and Notch signaling. Interestingly, none of the growth factors examined promoted neuron differentiation; however, the fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) 1 and 2 potently inhibited differentiation. FGF1 and FGF2 upregulated the expression of Notch and decreased expression of Delta1 in the NEP cells. In addition, the inhibitory response of the cells to the FGFs could be overcome by downregulating Notch1 expression and by disrupting Notch cleavage and signaling by the ablation of the Presenilin1 gene. These results indicate that FGF1 and FGF2 act via the Notch pathway, either directly or indirectly, to inhibit differentiation. Thus, signaling through the Notch receptor may be a common regulator of neuronal differentiation within the developing forebrain.

  4. Microtopographical effects of natural scaffolding on cardiomyocyte function and arrhythmogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shah, U; Bien, H; Entcheva, E

    2010-08-01

    A natural myocardial patch for heart regeneration derived from porcine urinary bladder matrix (UBM) was previously reported to outperform synthetic materials (Dacron and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE)) used in current surgical treatments. UBM, an extracellular matrix prepared from urinary bladder, has intricate three-dimensional architecture with two distinct sides: the luminal side with a smoother surface relief; and the abluminal side with a fine mesh of nano- and microfibers. This study tested the ability of this natural scaffold to support functional cardiomyocyte networks, and probed how the local microtopography and composition of the two sides affects cell function. Cardiomyocytes isolated from neonatal rats were seeded in vitro to form cardiac tissue onto luminal (L) or abluminal (Ab) UBM. Immunocytochemistry of contractile cardiac proteins demonstrated growth of cardiomyocyte networks with mature morphology on either side of UBM, but greater cell compactness was seen in L. Fluorescence-based imaging techniques were used to measure dynamic changes in intracellular calcium concentration upon electrical stimulation of L and Ab-grown cells. Functional differences in cardiac tissue grown on the two sides manifested themselves in faster calcium recovery (p<0.04) and greater hysteresis (difference in response to increasing and decreasing pacing rates) for L vs Ab side (p<0.03). These results suggest that surface differences may be leveraged to engineer the desired cardiomyocyte responses and highlight the potential of natural scaffolds for fostering heart repair.

  5. Suppression of colorectal tumor growth by regulated survivin targeting.

    PubMed

    Li, Binghua; Fan, Junkai; Liu, Xinran; Qi, Rong; Bo, Linan; Gu, Jinfa; Qian, Cheng; Liu, Xinyuan

    2006-12-01

    A major goal in cancer gene therapy is to develop efficient gene transfer protocols that allow tissue-specific and tightly regulated expression of therapeutic genes. The ideal vector should efficiently transduce cancer cells with minimal toxicity on normal tissues and persistently express foreign genes. One of the most promising regulatory systems is the mifepristone/RU486-regulated system, which has much lower basal transcriptional activity and high inducibility. In this work, we modified this system by incorporating a cancer-specific promoter, the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter. By utilizing hTERT promoter to control the regulator, RU486 could specifically induce the expression of foreign genes in cancer cells but not in normal cells. In the context of this system, a dominant negative mutant of survivin (surDN) was controllably expressed in colorectal tumor cells. The surDN expression induced by RU486 showed a dosage- and time-dependent pattern. Regulated expression of surDN caused caspase-dependent apoptosis in colorectal tumor cells but had little effect on normal cells. Analysis of cell viability showed that RU486-induced expression of surDN suppressed colorectal tumor cell growth and had synergic effect in combination with chemotherapeutic agents. The potential of this system in cancer therapy was evaluated in experimental animals. Tumor xenograft models were established in nude mice with colorectal tumor cells, and RU486 was intraperitoneally administered. The results showed that conditional expression of surDN efficiently inhibited tumor growth in vivo and prolonged the life of tumor-burdened mice. Synergized with the chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin, regulated surDN expression completely suppressed tumor growth. These results indicated that this modified RU486-regulated system could be useful in cancer-targeting therapy.

  6. Role of heterotrimeric G protein and calcium in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by IGF-1.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Loreto; Cea, Paola; Rocco, Paola; Peña-Oyarzún, Daniel; Rivera-Mejias, Pablo; Sotomayor-Flores, Cristian; Quiroga, Clara; Criollo, Alfredo; Ibarra, Cristian; Chiong, Mario; Lavandero, Sergio

    2014-04-01

    In the heart, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a peptide with pro-hypertrophic and anti-apoptotic actions. The pro-hypertrophic properties of IGF-1 have been attributed to the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Recently, we reported that IGF-1 also increases intracellular Ca(2+) levels through a pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive G protein. Here we investigate whether this Ca(2+) signal is involved in IGF-1-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Our results show that the IGF-1-induced increase in Ca(2+) level is abolished by the IGF-1 receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG538, PTX and the peptide inhibitor of Gβγ signaling, βARKct. Increases in the activities of Ca(2+) -dependent enzymes calcineurin, calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII), and protein kinase Cα (PKCα) were observed at 5 min after IGF-1 exposure. AG538, PTX, βARKct, and the dominant negative PKCα prevented the IGF-1-dependent phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Participation of calcineurin and CaMKII in ERK phosphorylation was discounted. IGF-1-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, determined by cell size and β-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC), was prevented by AG538, PTX, βARKct, dominant negative PKCα, and the MEK1/2 inhibitor PD98059. Inhibition of calcineurin with CAIN did not abolish IGF-1-induced cardiac hypertrophy. We conclude that IGF-1 induces hypertrophy in cultured cardiomyocytes by activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase activity/βγ-subunits of a PTX-sensitive G protein/Ca(2+) /PKCα/ERK pathway without the participation of calcineurin. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Ubiquitination-dependent mechanisms regulate synaptic growth and function.

    PubMed

    DiAntonio, A; Haghighi, A P; Portman, S L; Lee, J D; Amaranto, A M; Goodman, C S

    2001-07-26

    The covalent attachment of ubiquitin to cellular proteins is a powerful mechanism for controlling protein activity and localization. Ubiquitination is a reversible modification promoted by ubiquitin ligases and antagonized by deubiquitinating proteases. Ubiquitin-dependent mechanisms regulate many important processes including cell-cycle progression, apoptosis and transcriptional regulation. Here we show that ubiquitin-dependent mechanisms regulate synaptic development at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Neuronal overexpression of the deubiquitinating protease fat facets leads to a profound disruption of synaptic growth control; there is a large increase in the number of synaptic boutons, an elaboration of the synaptic branching pattern, and a disruption of synaptic function. Antagonizing the ubiquitination pathway in neurons by expression of the yeast deubiquitinating protease UBP2 (ref. 5) also produces synaptic overgrowth and dysfunction. Genetic interactions between fat facets and highwire, a negative regulator of synaptic growth that has structural homology to a family of ubiquitin ligases, suggest that synaptic development may be controlled by the balance between positive and negative regulators of ubiquitination.

  8. Mechanical stress regulation of plant growth and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, C. A.; Myers, P. N.

    1995-01-01

    The authors introduce the chapter with a discussion of lessons from nature, agriculture, and landscapes; terms and definitions; and an historical perspective of mechanical stress regulation of plant growth and development. Topics include developmental responses to mechanical stress; mechanical stress-environment interactions; metabolic, productivity, and compositional changes; hormonal involvement; mechanoperception and early transduction mechanisms; applications in agriculture; and research implications. The discussion of hormonal involvement in mechanical stress physiology includes ethylene, auxin, gibberellins, and other phytohormones. The discussion of applications in agriculture examines windbreaks, nursery practices, height control and conditioning, and enhancement of growth and productivity. Implications for research are related to handling plant materials, space biology, and future research needs.

  9. BRASSINOSTEROIDS: Essential Regulators of Plant Growth and Development.

    PubMed

    Clouse, Steven D.; Sasse, Jenneth M.

    1998-06-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are growth-promoting natural products found at low levels in pollen, seeds, and young vegetative tissues throughout the plant kingdom. Detailed studies of BR biosynthesis and metabolism, coupled with the recent identification of BR-insensitive and BR-deficient mutants, has greatly expanded our view of steroids as signals controlling plant growth and development. This review examines the microchemical and molecular genetic analyses that have provided convincing evidence for an essential role of BRs in diverse developmental programs, including cell expansion, vascular differentiation, etiolation, and reproductive development. Recent advances relevant to the molecular mechanisms of BR-regulated gene expression and BR signal transduction are also discussed.

  10. Mechanical stress regulation of plant growth and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, C. A.; Myers, P. N.

    1995-01-01

    The authors introduce the chapter with a discussion of lessons from nature, agriculture, and landscapes; terms and definitions; and an historical perspective of mechanical stress regulation of plant growth and development. Topics include developmental responses to mechanical stress; mechanical stress-environment interactions; metabolic, productivity, and compositional changes; hormonal involvement; mechanoperception and early transduction mechanisms; applications in agriculture; and research implications. The discussion of hormonal involvement in mechanical stress physiology includes ethylene, auxin, gibberellins, and other phytohormones. The discussion of applications in agriculture examines windbreaks, nursery practices, height control and conditioning, and enhancement of growth and productivity. Implications for research are related to handling plant materials, space biology, and future research needs.

  11. Excitation model of pacemaker cardiomyocytes of cardiac conduction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriev, M.; Babich, L.

    2015-11-01

    Myocardium includes typical and atypical cardiomyocytes - pacemakers, which form the cardiac conduction system. Excitation from the atrioventricular node in normal conditions is possible only in one direction. Retrograde direction of pulses is impossible. The most important prerequisite for the work of cardiomyocytes is the anatomical integrity of the conduction system. Changes in contractile force of the cardiomyocytes, which appear periodically, are due to two mechanisms of self-regulation - heterometric and homeometric. Graphic course of the excitation pulse propagation along the heart muscle more accurately reveals the understanding of the arrhythmia mechanism. These models have the ability to visualize the essence of excitation dynamics. However, they do not have the proper forecasting function for result estimation. Integrative mathematical model enables further investigation of general laws of the myocardium active behavior, allows for determination of the violation mechanism of electrical and contractile function of cardiomyocytes. Currently, there is no full understanding of the topography of pacemakers and ionic mechanisms. There is a need for the development of direction of mathematical modeling and comparative studies of the electrophysiological arrangement of cells of atrioventricular connection and ventricular conduction system.

  12. Alendronate affects calcium dynamics in cardiomyocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kemeny-Suss, Naomi; Kasneci, Amanda; Rivas, Daniel; Afilalo, Jonathan; Komarova, Svetlana V; Chalifour, Lorraine E; Duque, Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    Therapy with bisphosphonates, including alendronate (ALN), is considered a safe and effective treatment for osteoporosis. However, recent studies have reported an unexpected increase in serious atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients treated with bisphosphonates. The mechanism that explains this side effect remains unknown. Since AF is associated with an altered sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium load, we studied how ALN affects cardiomyocyte calcium homeostasis and protein isoprenylation in vitro. Acute and long-term (48h) treatment of atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes with ALN (10(-8)-10(-6)M) was performed. Changes in calcium dynamics were determined by both fluorescence measurement of cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentration and western blot analysis of calcium-regulating proteins. Finally, effect of ALN on protein farnesylation was also identified. In both atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes, ALN treatment delayed and diminished calcium responses to caffeine. Only in atrial cells, long-term exposure to ALN-induced transitory calcium oscillations and led to the development of oscillatory component in calcium responses to caffeine. Changes in calcium dynamics were accompanied by changes in expression of proteins controlling sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium. In contrast, ALN minimally affected protein isoprenylation in these cells. In summary, treatment of atrial cardiomyocytes with ALN-induced abnormalities in calcium dynamics consistent with induction of a self-stimulatory, pacemaker-like behavior, which may contribute to the development of cardiac side effects associated with these drugs.

  13. Cyp26b1 within the growth plate regulates bone growth in juvenile mice.

    PubMed

    Minegishi, Yoshiki; Sakai, Yasuo; Yahara, Yasuhito; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Hosokawa, Ko; Tsumaki, Noriyuki

    2014-11-07

    Retinoic acid (RA) is an active metabolite of vitamin A and plays important roles in embryonic development. CYP26 enzymes degrade RA and have specific expression patterns that produce a RA gradient, which regulates the patterning of various structures in the embryo. However, it has not been addressed whether a RA gradient also exists and functions in organs after birth. We found localized RA activities in the diaphyseal portion of the growth plate cartilage were associated with the specific expression of Cyp26b1 in the epiphyseal portion in juvenile mice. To disturb the distribution of RA, we generated mice lacking Cyp26b1 specifically in chondrocytes (Cyp26b1(Δchon) cKO). These mice showed reduced skeletal growth in the juvenile stage. Additionally, their growth plate cartilage showed decreased proliferation rates of proliferative chondrocytes, which was associated with a reduced height in the zone of proliferative chondrocytes, and closed focally by four weeks of age, while wild-type mouse growth plates never closed. Feeding the Cyp26b1 cKO mice a vitamin A-deficient diet partially reversed these abnormalities of the growth plate cartilage. These results collectively suggest that Cyp26b1 in the growth plate regulates the proliferation rates of chondrocytes and is responsible for the normal function of the growth plate and growing bones in juvenile mice, probably by limiting the RA distribution in the growth plate proliferating zone.

  14. Effects of Substrate Mechanics on Contractility of Cardiomyocytes Generated from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hazeltine, Laurie B.; Simmons, Chelsey S.; Salick, Max R.; Lian, Xiaojun; Badur, Mehmet G.; Han, Wenqing; Delgado, Stephanie M.; Wakatsuki, Tetsuro; Crone, Wendy C.; Pruitt, Beth L.; Palecek, Sean P.

    2012-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC-) derived cardiomyocytes have potential applications in drug discovery, toxicity testing, developmental studies, and regenerative medicine. Before these cells can be reliably utilized, characterization of their functionality is required to establish their similarity to native cardiomyocytes. We tracked fluorescent beads embedded in 4.4–99.7 kPa polyacrylamide hydrogels beneath contracting neonatal rat cardiomyocytes and cardiomyocytes generated from hPSCs via growth-factor-induced directed differentiation to measure contractile output in response to changes in substrate mechanics. Contraction stress was determined using traction force microscopy, and morphology was characterized by immunocytochemistry for α-actinin and subsequent image analysis. We found that contraction stress of all types of cardiomyocytes increased with substrate stiffness. This effect was not linked to beating rate or morphology. We demonstrated that hPSC-derived cardiomyocyte contractility responded appropriately to isoprenaline and remained stable in culture over a period of 2 months. This study demonstrates that hPSC-derived cardiomyocytes have appropriate functional responses to substrate stiffness and to a pharmaceutical agent, which motivates their use in further applications such as drug evaluation and cardiac therapies. PMID:22649451

  15. Essential role of Cdc42 in cardiomyocyte proliferation and cell-cell adhesion during heart development.

    PubMed

    Li, Jieli; Liu, Yang; Jin, Yixin; Wang, Rui; Wang, Jian; Lu, Sarah; VanBuren, Vincent; Dostal, David E; Zhang, Shenyuan L; Peng, Xu

    2017-01-15

    Cdc42 is a member of the Rho GTPase family and functions as a molecular switch in regulating cell migration, proliferation, differentiation and survival. However, the role of Cdc42 in heart development remains largely unknown. To determine the function of Cdc42 in heart formation, we have generated a Cdc42 cardiomyocyte knockout (CCKO) mouse line by crossing Cdc42 flox mice with myosin light chain (MLC) 2a-Cre mice. The inactivation of Cdc42 in embryonic cardiomyocytes induced lethality after embryonic day 12.5. Histological analysis of CCKO embryos showed cardiac developmental defects that included thin ventricular walls and ventricular septum defects. Microarray and real-time PCR data also revealed that the expression level of p21 was significantly increased and cyclin B1 was dramatically decreased, suggesting that Cdc42 is required for cardiomyocyte proliferation. Phosphorylated Histone H3 staining confirmed that the inactivation of Cdc42 inhibited cardiomyocytes proliferation. In addition, transmission electron microscope studies showed disorganized sarcomere structure and disruption of cell-cell contact among cardiomyocytes in CCKO hearts. Accordingly, we found that the distribution of N-cadherin/β-Catenin in CCKO cardiomyocytes was impaired. Taken together, our data indicate that Cdc42 is essential for cardiomyocyte proliferation, sarcomere organization and cell-cell adhesion during heart development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Light-Mediated Hormonal Regulation of Plant Growth and Development.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Mieke; Galvão, Vinicius Costa; Fankhauser, Christian

    2016-04-29

    Light is crucial for plant life, and perception of the light environment dictates plant growth, morphology, and developmental changes. Such adjustments in growth and development in response to light conditions are often established through changes in hormone levels and signaling. This review discusses examples of light-regulated processes throughout a plant's life cycle for which it is known how light signals lead to hormonal regulation. Light acts as an important developmental switch in germination, photomorphogenesis, and transition to flowering, and light cues are essential to ensure light capture through architectural changes during phototropism and the shade avoidance response. In describing well-established links between light perception and hormonal changes, we aim to give insight into the mechanisms that enable plants to thrive in variable light environments.

  17. Aromatic fluorine compounds. VIII. Plant growth regulators and intermediates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finger, G.C.; Gortatowski, M.J.; Shiley, R.H.; White, R.H.

    1959-01-01

    The preparation and properties of 41 fluorophenoxyacetic acids, 4 fluorophenoxypropionic acids, 2 fluorobenzoic acids, several indole derivatives, and a number of miscellaneous compounds are described. Data are given for many intermediates such as new fluorinated phenols, anisoles, anilines and nitrobenzenes. Most of the subject compounds are related to a number of well-known herbicides or plant growth regulators such as 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T and others.

  18. ROS Regulation of Polar Growth in Plant Cells1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Mangano, Silvina; Juárez, Silvina Paola Denita

    2016-01-01

    Root hair cells and pollen tubes, like fungal hyphae, possess a typical tip or polar cell expansion with growth limited to the apical dome. Cell expansion needs to be carefully regulated to produce a correct shape and size. Polar cell growth is sustained by oscillatory feedback loops comprising three main components that together play an important role regulating this process. One of the main components are reactive oxygen species (ROS) that, together with calcium ions (Ca2+) and pH, sustain polar growth over time. Apoplastic ROS homeostasis controlled by NADPH oxidases as well as by secreted type III peroxidases has a great impact on cell wall properties during cell expansion. Polar growth needs to balance a focused secretion of new materials in an extending but still rigid cell wall in order to contain turgor pressure. In this review, we discuss the gaps in our understanding of how ROS impact on the oscillatory Ca2+ and pH signatures that, coordinately, allow root hair cells and pollen tubes to expand in a controlled manner to several hundred times their original size toward specific signals. PMID:27208283

  19. RNAi screens in mice identify physiological regulators of oncogenic growth

    PubMed Central

    Beronja, Slobodan; Janki, Peter; Heller, Evan; Lien, Wen-Hui; Keyes, Brice; Oshimori, Naoki; Fuchs, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Summary Tissue growth is the multifaceted outcome of a cell’s intrinsic capabilities and its interactions with the surrounding environment. Decoding these complexities is essential for understanding human development and tumorigenesis. Here, we tackle this problem by carrying out the first genome-wide RNAi-mediated screens in mice. Focusing on skin development and oncogenic (HrasG12V-induced) hyperplasia, our screens uncover novel as well as anticipated regulators of embryonic epidermal growth. Among top oncogenic screen hits are Mllt6 and the Wnt effector β-catenin; they maintain HrasG12V-dependent hyperproliferation. We also expose β-catenin as an unanticipated antagonist of normal epidermal growth, functioning through Wnt-independent intercellular adhesion. Finally, we document physiological relevance to mouse and human cancers, thereby establishing the feasibility of in vivo mammalian genome-wide investigations to dissect tissue development and tumorigenesis. By documenting some oncogenic growth regulators, we pave the way for future investigations of other hits and raise promise for unearthing new targets for cancer therapies. PMID:23945586

  20. Ihh signaling regulates mandibular symphysis development and growth.

    PubMed

    Sugito, H; Shibukawa, Y; Kinumatsu, T; Yasuda, T; Nagayama, M; Yamada, S; Minugh-Purvis, N; Pacifici, M; Koyama, E

    2011-05-01

    Symphyseal secondary cartilage is important for mandibular development, but the molecular mechanisms underlying its formation remain largely unknown. Here we asked whether Indian hedgehog (Ihh) regulates symphyseal cartilage development and growth. By embryonic days 16.5 to 18.5, Sox9-expressing chondrocytes formed within condensed Tgfβ-1/Runx2-expressing mesenchymal cells at the prospective symphyseal joint site, and established a growth-plate-like structure with distinct Ihh, collagen X, and osteopontin expression patterns. In post-natal life, mesenchymal cells expressing the Ihh receptor Patched1 were present anterior to the Ihh-expressing secondary cartilage, proliferated, differentiated into chondrocytes, and contributed to anterior growth of alveolar bone. In Ihh-null mice, however, symphyseal development was defective, mainly because of enhanced chondrocyte maturation and reduced proliferation of chondroprogenitor cells. Proliferation was partially restored in dual Ihh;Gli3 mutants, suggesting that Gli3 is normally a negative regulator of symphyseal development. Thus, Ihh signaling is essential for symphyseal cartilage development and anterior mandibular growth.

  1. ROS Regulation of Polar Growth in Plant Cells.

    PubMed

    Mangano, Silvina; Juárez, Silvina Paola Denita; Estevez, José M

    2016-07-01

    Root hair cells and pollen tubes, like fungal hyphae, possess a typical tip or polar cell expansion with growth limited to the apical dome. Cell expansion needs to be carefully regulated to produce a correct shape and size. Polar cell growth is sustained by oscillatory feedback loops comprising three main components that together play an important role regulating this process. One of the main components are reactive oxygen species (ROS) that, together with calcium ions (Ca(2+)) and pH, sustain polar growth over time. Apoplastic ROS homeostasis controlled by NADPH oxidases as well as by secreted type III peroxidases has a great impact on cell wall properties during cell expansion. Polar growth needs to balance a focused secretion of new materials in an extending but still rigid cell wall in order to contain turgor pressure. In this review, we discuss the gaps in our understanding of how ROS impact on the oscillatory Ca(2+) and pH signatures that, coordinately, allow root hair cells and pollen tubes to expand in a controlled manner to several hundred times their original size toward specific signals. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Understanding greater cardiomyocyte functions on aligned compared to random carbon nanofibers in PLGA.

    PubMed

    Asiri, Abdullah M; Marwani, Hadi M; Khan, Sher Bahadar; Webster, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated greater cardiomyocyte density on carbon nanofibers (CNFs) aligned (compared to randomly oriented) in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) composites. Although such studies demonstrated a closer mimicking of anisotropic electrical and mechanical properties for such aligned (compared to randomly oriented) CNFs in PLGA composites, the objective of the present in vitro study was to elucidate a deeper mechanistic understanding of how cardiomyocyte densities recognize such materials to respond more favorably. Results showed lower wettability (greater hydrophobicity) of CNFs embedded in PLGA compared to pure PLGA, thus providing evidence of selectively lower wettability in aligned CNF regions. Furthermore, the results correlated these changes in hydrophobicity with increased adsorption of fibronectin, laminin, and vitronectin (all proteins known to increase cardiomyocyte adhesion and functions) on CNFs in PLGA compared to pure PLGA, thus providing evidence of selective initial protein adsorption cues on such CNF regions to promote cardiomyocyte adhesion and growth. Lastly, results of the present in vitro study further confirmed increased cardiomyocyte functions by demonstrating greater expression of important cardiomyocyte biomarkers (such as Troponin-T, Connexin-43, and α-sarcomeric actin) when CNFs were aligned compared to randomly oriented in PLGA. In summary, this study provided evidence that cardiomyocyte functions are improved on CNFs aligned in PLGA compared to randomly oriented in PLGA since CNFs are more hydrophobic than PLGA and attract the adsorption of key proteins (fibronectin, laminin, and vironectin) that are known to promote cardiomyocyte adhesion and expression of important cardiomyocyte functions. Thus, future studies should use this knowledge to further design improved CNF:PLGA composites for numerous cardiovascular applications.

  3. p27 Protein Protects Metabolically Stressed Cardiomyocytes from Apoptosis by Promoting Autophagy*

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xuetao; Momen, Abdul; Wu, Jun; Noyan, Hossein; Li, Renke; von Harsdorf, Rüdiger; Husain, Mansoor

    2014-01-01

    p27Kip1 (p27), a key regulator of cell division, has been implicated in autophagy of cancer cells. However, its role in autophagy, the evolutionarily conserved catabolic process that enables cells to remove unwanted proteins and damaged organelles, had not been examined in the heart. Here we report that ectopic delivery of a p27 fusion protein (TAT-p27) was sufficient to induce autophagy in neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes in vitro, under basal conditions and after glucose deprivation. Conversely, lentivirus-delivered shRNA against p27 successfully reduced p27 levels and suppressed basal and glucose-deprived levels of autophagy in cardiomyocytes in vitro. Glucose deprivation mimics myocardial ischemia and induces apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. During glucose deprivation, TAT-p27 inhibited apoptosis, whereas down-regulation of p27 decreased survival of cardiomyocytes. However, inhibition of autophagy by pharmacological (3-methyladenine, chloroquine, or bafilomycin A1) or genetic approaches (siRNA-mediated knockdown of Atg5) sensitized cardiomyocytes to glucose deprivation-induced apoptosis, even in the presence of TAT-p27. TAT-p27 was also able to provoke greater levels of autophagy in resting and fasting cardiomyocytes in vivo. Further, TAT-p27 enhanced autophagy and repressed cardiomyocytes apoptosis, improved cardiac function, and reduced infarct size following myocardial infarction. Again, these effects were lost when cardiac autophagy in vivo was blocked by chloroquine. Taken together, these data show that p27 positively regulates cardiac autophagy in vitro and in vivo, at rest and after metabolic stress, and that TAT-p27 inhibits apoptosis by promoting autophagy in glucose-deprived cardiomyocytes in vitro and in post-myocardial infarction hearts in vivo. PMID:24794871

  4. Human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes for studies of cardiac ion transporters

    PubMed Central

    Fine, Michael; Lu, Fang-Min; Lin, Mei-Jung; Moe, Orson; Wang, Hao-Ran

    2013-01-01

    Human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) can differentiate into functional cardiomyocytes (iCell Cardiomyocytes) with ion channel activities that are remarkably similar to adult cardiomyocytes. Here, we extend this characterization to cardiac ion transporters. Additionally, we document facile molecular biological manipulation of iCell Cardiomyocytes to overexpress and knockdown transporters and regulatory proteins. Na/Ca exchange (NCX1) and Na/K pump currents were recorded via patch clamp, and Na/H and Cl/OH exchanges were recorded via oscillating proton-selective microelectrodes during patch clamp. Flux densities of all transport systems are similar to those of nonrodent adult cardiomyocytes. NCX1 protein and NCX1 currents decline after NCX1 small interfering (si)RNA transfection with similar time courses (τ ≈ 2 days), and an NCX1-Halo fusion protein is internalized after its extracellular labeling by AlexaFluor488 Ligand with a similar time course. Loss of the cardiac regulatory protein phospholemman (PLM) occurs over a longer time course (τ ≈ 60 h) after PLM small interfering RNA transfection. Similar to multiple previous reports for adult cardiomyocytes, Na/K pump currents in iCell Cardiomyocytes are not enhanced by activating cAMP production with either maximal or submaximal cytoplasmic Na and using either forskolin or isoproterenol to activate adenylate cyclases. Finally, we describe Ca influx-dependent changes of iCell Cardiomyocyte capacitance (Cm). Large increases of Cm occur during Ca influx via NCX1, thereby documenting large internal membrane reserves that can fuse to the sarcolemma, and subsequent declines of Cm document active endocytic processes. Together, these results document a great potential of iCell Cardiomyocytes for both short- and long-term studies of cardiac ion transporters and their regulation. PMID:23804202

  5. Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1-induced osteopontin expression facilitates cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Iman A; Gadeau, Alain-Pierre; Fliegel, Larry; Lopaschuk, Gary; Mlih, Mohamed; Abdulrahman, Nabeel; Fillmore, Natasha; Mraiche, Fatima

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced expression and activity of the Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) has been implicated in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in various experimental models. The upregulation of NHE1 was correlated with an increase in osteopontin (OPN) expression in models of cardiac hypertrophy (CH), and the mechanism for this remains to be delineated. To determine whether the expression of active NHE1-induces OPN and contributes to the hypertrophic response in vitro, cardiomyocytes were infected with the active form of the NHE1 adenovirus or transfected with OPN silencing RNA (siRNA-OPN) and characterized for cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Expression of NHE1 in cardiomyocytes resulted in a significant increase in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy markers: cell surface area, protein content, ANP mRNA and expression of phosphorylated-GATA4. NHE1 activity was also significantly increased in cardiomyocytes expressing active NHE1. Interestingly, transfection of cardiomyocytes with siRNA-OPN significantly abolished the NHE1-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. siRNA-OPN also significantly reduced the activity of NHE1 in cardiomyocytes expressing NHE1 (68.5±0.24%; P<0.05), confirming the role of OPN in the NHE1-induced hypertrophic response. The hypertrophic response facilitated by NHE1-induced OPN occurred independent of the extracellular-signal-regulated kinases and Akt, but required p90-ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK). The ability of OPN to facilitate the NHE1-induced hypertrophic response identifies OPN as a potential therapeutic target to reverse the hypertrophic effect induced by the expression of active NHE1.

  6. Na+/H+ Exchanger Isoform 1-Induced Osteopontin Expression Facilitates Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Iman A.; Gadeau, Alain-Pierre; Fliegel, Larry; Lopaschuk, Gary; Mlih, Mohamed; Abdulrahman, Nabeel; Fillmore, Natasha; Mraiche, Fatima

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced expression and activity of the Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) has been implicated in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in various experimental models. The upregulation of NHE1 was correlated with an increase in osteopontin (OPN) expression in models of cardiac hypertrophy (CH), and the mechanism for this remains to be delineated. To determine whether the expression of active NHE1-induces OPN and contributes to the hypertrophic response in vitro, cardiomyocytes were infected with the active form of the NHE1 adenovirus or transfected with OPN silencing RNA (siRNA-OPN) and characterized for cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Expression of NHE1 in cardiomyocytes resulted in a significant increase in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy markers: cell surface area, protein content, ANP mRNA and expression of phosphorylated-GATA4. NHE1 activity was also significantly increased in cardiomyocytes expressing active NHE1. Interestingly, transfection of cardiomyocytes with siRNA-OPN significantly abolished the NHE1-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. siRNA-OPN also significantly reduced the activity of NHE1 in cardiomyocytes expressing NHE1 (68.5±0.24%; P<0.05), confirming the role of OPN in the NHE1-induced hypertrophic response. The hypertrophic response facilitated by NHE1-induced OPN occurred independent of the extracellular-signal-regulated kinases and Akt, but required p90-ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK). The ability of OPN to facilitate the NHE1-induced hypertrophic response identifies OPN as a potential therapeutic target to reverse the hypertrophic effect induced by the expression of active NHE1. PMID:25884410

  7. Differentiation of cardiomyocytes from amniotic fluid‑derived mesenchymal stem cells by combined induction with transforming growth factor β1 and 5‑azacytidine.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shan; Zhang, Song

    2017-08-28

    As a novel type of seed cell, amniotic fluid‑derived mesenchymal stem cells (AFMSCs) are promising for the regeneration of myocardial cells. A focus of cardiovascular regenerative medicine is to improve the efficiency of AFMSC differentiation. The present study replaced the traditional method of AFMSC differentiation with a combined induction method, in order to improve the efficiency of directional differentiation. AFMSCs were obtained from rabbit amniotic fluid samples, and western blot analysis was performed to analyze the expression of octamer‑binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4), and tumorigenicity experiments were conducted. AFMSCs were divided into the following 4 groups: Induction with transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1); induction with 5‑azacytidine (5Aza); induction with TGFβ1 and 5Aza combined; and untreated controls. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to analyze the expression of cardiac‑specific GATA binding protein 4 (GATA4), and immunofluorescence was employed to analyze the expression of cardiac troponin T (cTnT). In addition, western blotting was performed to analyze the expression of connexin 43, and transmission electron microscopy was used to observe the ultrastructure of the differentiated cells. AFMSCs exhibited positive OCT4 expression and were not observed to induce tumor development in nude mice. The expression levels of GATA4, cTnT, and connexin 43 in the combined induction group were markedly higher when compared with the remaining groups. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that differentiated cells exhibited myocardial cell characteristics. In conclusion, AFMSCs are multipotent, non‑tumorigenic cells that are capable of differentiating into cardiomyocyte‑like cells. This combined induction method may improve the efficiency of directed differentiation.

  8. Mathematical model of mouse embryonic cardiomyocyte excitation-contraction coupling.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, Topi; Rapila, Risto; Tavi, Pasi

    2008-10-01

    Excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling is the mechanism that connects the electrical excitation with cardiomyocyte contraction. Embryonic cardiomyocytes are not only capable of generating action potential (AP)-induced Ca(2+) signals and contractions (E-C coupling), but they also can induce spontaneous pacemaking activity. The spontaneous activity originates from spontaneous Ca(2+) releases from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), which trigger APs via the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX). In the AP-driven mode, an external stimulus triggers an AP and activates voltage-activated Ca(2+) intrusion to the cell. These complex and unique features of the embryonic cardiomyocyte pacemaking and E-C coupling have never been assessed with mathematical modeling. Here, we suggest a novel mathematical model explaining how both of these mechanisms can coexist in the same embryonic cardiomyocytes. In addition to experimentally characterized ion currents, the model includes novel heterogeneous cytosolic Ca(2+) dynamics and oscillatory SR Ca(2+) handling. The model reproduces faithfully the experimentally observed fundamental features of both E-C coupling and pacemaking. We further validate our model by simulating the effect of genetic modifications on the hyperpolarization-activated current, NCX, and the SR Ca(2+) buffer protein calreticulin. In these simulations, the model produces a similar functional alteration to that observed previously in the genetically engineered mice, and thus provides mechanistic explanations for the cardiac phenotypes of these animals. In general, this study presents the first model explaining the underlying cellular mechanism for the origin and the regulation of the heartbeat in early embryonic cardiomyocytes.

  9. Mathematical Model of Mouse Embryonic Cardiomyocyte Excitation–Contraction Coupling

    PubMed Central

    Korhonen, Topi; Rapila, Risto; Tavi, Pasi

    2008-01-01

    Excitation–contraction (E–C) coupling is the mechanism that connects the electrical excitation with cardiomyocyte contraction. Embryonic cardiomyocytes are not only capable of generating action potential (AP)-induced Ca2+ signals and contractions (E–C coupling), but they also can induce spontaneous pacemaking activity. The spontaneous activity originates from spontaneous Ca2+ releases from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), which trigger APs via the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX). In the AP-driven mode, an external stimulus triggers an AP and activates voltage-activated Ca2+ intrusion to the cell. These complex and unique features of the embryonic cardiomyocyte pacemaking and E–C coupling have never been assessed with mathematical modeling. Here, we suggest a novel mathematical model explaining how both of these mechanisms can coexist in the same embryonic cardiomyocytes. In addition to experimentally characterized ion currents, the model includes novel heterogeneous cytosolic Ca2+ dynamics and oscillatory SR Ca2+ handling. The model reproduces faithfully the experimentally observed fundamental features of both E–C coupling and pacemaking. We further validate our model by simulating the effect of genetic modifications on the hyperpolarization-activated current, NCX, and the SR Ca2+ buffer protein calreticulin. In these simulations, the model produces a similar functional alteration to that observed previously in the genetically engineered mice, and thus provides mechanistic explanations for the cardiac phenotypes of these animals. In general, this study presents the first model explaining the underlying cellular mechanism for the origin and the regulation of the heartbeat in early embryonic cardiomyocytes. PMID:18794378

  10. Regulation of dendrite growth and maintenance by exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yun; Lee, Jiae; Rowland, Kimberly; Wen, Yuhui; Hua, Hope; Carlson, Nicole; Lavania, Shweta; Parrish, Jay Z; Kim, Michael D

    2015-12-01

    Dendrites lengthen by several orders of magnitude during neuronal development, but how membrane is allocated in dendrites to facilitate this growth remains unclear. Here, we report that Ras opposite (Rop), the Drosophila ortholog of the key exocytosis regulator Munc18-1 (also known as STXBP1), is an essential factor mediating dendrite growth. Neurons with depleted Rop function exhibit reduced terminal dendrite outgrowth followed by primary dendrite degeneration, suggestive of differential requirements for exocytosis in the growth and maintenance of different dendritic compartments. Rop promotes dendrite growth together with the exocyst, an octameric protein complex involved in tethering vesicles to the plasma membrane, with Rop-exocyst complexes and exocytosis predominating in primary dendrites over terminal dendrites. By contrast, membrane-associated proteins readily diffuse from primary dendrites into terminals, but not in the reverse direction, suggesting that diffusion, rather than targeted exocytosis, supplies membranous material for terminal dendritic growth, revealing key differences in the distribution of materials to these expanding dendritic compartments.

  11. Regulation of plant growth and development by the GROWTH-REGULATING FACTOR and GRF-INTERACTING FACTOR duo.

    PubMed

    Hoe Kim, Jeong; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2015-10-01

    Transcription factors are key regulators of gene expression and play pivotal roles in all aspects of living organisms. Therefore, identification and functional characterization of transcription factors is a prerequisite step toward understanding life. This article reviews molecular and biological functions of the two transcription regulator families, GROWTH-REGULATING FACTOR (GRF) and GRF-INTERACTING FACTOR (GIF), which have only recently been recognized. A myriad of experimental evidence clearly illustrates that GRF and GIF are bona fide partner proteins and form a plant-specific transcriptional complex. One of the most conspicuous outcomes from this research field is that the GRF-GIF duo endows the primordial cells of vegetative and reproductive organs with a meristematic specification state, guaranteeing the supply of cells for organogenesis and successful reproduction. It has recently been shown that GIF1 proteins, also known as ANGUSTIFOLIA3, recruit chromatin remodelling complexes to target genes, and that AtGRF expression is directly activated by the floral identity factors, APETALA1 and SEPALLATA3, providing an important insight into understanding of the action of GRF-GIF. Moreover, GRF genes are extensively subjected to post-transcriptional control by microRNA396, revealing the presence of a complex regulatory circuit in regulation of plant growth and development by the GRF-GIF duo. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Intermedin 1-53 Inhibits Myocardial Fibrosis in Rats by Down-Regulating Transforming Growth Factor-β

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jian; Luan, Jiangwei; Zhu, Gaohong; Qi, Chang; Yang, Zhiyong; Zhao, Sheng; Li, Bin; Zhang, Xinzhong; Guo, Naipeng; Li, Xiaodong; Wang, Dandan

    2017-01-01

    Background Myocardial fibrosis is the result of persistent anoxia and ischemic myocardial fibers caused by coronary atherosclerotic stenosis, which lead to heart failure, threatening the patient’s life. This study aimed to explore the regulatory role of intermedin 1-53 (IMD1-53) in cardiac fibrosis using neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts and a myocardial infarction (MI) rat model both in vitro and in vivo. Material/Methods The Western blot method was used to detect the protein expression of collagen I and collagen III in myocardial fibroblasts. The SYBR Green I real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was used to detect the mRNA expression of collagen type I and III, IMD1-53 calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). Masson staining was used to detect the area changes of myocardial fibrosis in MI rats. Results Results in vivo showed that IMD1-53 reduced the scar area on the heart of MI rats and inhibited the expression of collagen type I and III both in mRNA and protein. Results of an in vitro study showed that IMD1-53 inhibited the transformation of cardiomyocytes into myofibroblasts caused by angiotensin II (Ang II). The further mechanism study showed that IMD1-53 inhibited the expression of TGF-β and the phosphorylation of smad3, which further up-regulated the expression of MMP-2. Conclusions IMD1-53 is an effective anti-fibrosis hormone that inhibits cardiac fibrosis formation after MI by down-regulating the expression of TGF-β and the phosphorylation of smad3, blocking fibrous signal pathways, and up-regulating the expression of MMP-2, thereby demonstrating its role in regression of myocardial fibrosis. PMID:28065931

  13. Alteration in mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake disrupts insulin signaling in hypertrophic cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Tomás; Parra, Valentina; Troncoso, Rodrigo; Pennanen, Christian; Contreras-Ferrat, Ariel; Vasquez-Trincado, César; Morales, Pablo E; Lopez-Crisosto, Camila; Sotomayor-Flores, Cristian; Chiong, Mario; Rothermel, Beverly A; Lavandero, Sergio

    2014-11-07

    Cardiac hypertrophy is characterized by alterations in both cardiac bioenergetics and insulin sensitivity. Insulin promotes glucose uptake by cardiomyocytes and its use as a substrate for glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidation in order to maintain the high cardiac energy demands. Insulin stimulates Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum, however, how this translates to changes in mitochondrial metabolism in either healthy or hypertrophic cardiomyocytes is not fully understood. In the present study we investigated insulin-dependent mitochondrial Ca(2+) signaling in normal and norepinephrine or insulin like growth factor-1-induced hypertrophic cardiomyocytes. Using mitochondrion-selective Ca(2+)-fluorescent probes we showed that insulin increases mitochondrial Ca(2+) levels. This signal was inhibited by the pharmacological blockade of either the inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor or the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter, as well as by siRNA-dependent mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter knockdown. Norepinephrine-stimulated cardiomyocytes showed a significant decrease in endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondrial contacts compared to either control or insulin like growth factor-1-stimulated cells. This resulted in a reduction in mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake, Akt activation, glucose uptake and oxygen consumption in response to insulin. Blocking mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake was sufficient to mimic the effect of norepinephrine-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy on insulin signaling. Mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake is a key event in insulin signaling and metabolism in cardiomyocytes.

  14. Myogenic regulatory transcription factors regulate growth in rhabdomyosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Tenente, Inês M; Hayes, Madeline N; Ignatius, Myron S; McCarthy, Karin; Yohe, Marielle; Sindiri, Sivasish; Gryder, Berkley; Oliveira, Mariana L; Ramakrishnan, Ashwin; Tang, Qin; Chen, Eleanor Y; Petur Nielsen, G; Khan, Javed; Langenau, David M

    2017-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a pediatric malignacy of muscle with myogenic regulatory transcription factors MYOD and MYF5 being expressed in this disease. Consensus in the field has been that expression of these factors likely reflects the target cell of transformation rather than being required for continued tumor growth. Here, we used a transgenic zebrafish model to show that Myf5 is sufficient to confer tumor-propagating potential to RMS cells and caused tumors to initiate earlier and have higher penetrance. Analysis of human RMS revealed that MYF5 and MYOD are mutually-exclusively expressed and each is required for sustained tumor growth. ChIP-seq and mechanistic studies in human RMS uncovered that MYF5 and MYOD bind common DNA regulatory elements to alter transcription of genes that regulate muscle development and cell cycle progression. Our data support unappreciated and dominant oncogenic roles for MYF5 and MYOD convergence on common transcriptional targets to regulate human RMS growth. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19214.001 PMID:28080960

  15. Autophagy protects cardiomyocytes from the myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury through the clearance of CLP36

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shiguo; Liu, Chao; Gu, Lei; Wang, Lina; Shang, Yongliang; Liu, Qiong; Wan, Junyi; Shi, Jian; Wang, Fang; Xu, Zhiliang; Ji, Guangju

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of the death worldwide. An increasing number of studies have found that autophagy is involved in the progression or prevention of CVD. However, the precise mechanism of autophagy in CVD, especially the myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury (MI/R injury), is unclear and controversial. Here, we show that the cardiomyocyte-specific disruption of autophagy by conditional knockout of Atg7 leads to severe contractile dysfunction, myofibrillar disarray and vacuolar cardiomyocytes. A negative cytoskeleton organization regulator, CLP36, was found to be accumulated in Atg7-deficient cardiomyocytes. The cardiomyocyte-specific knockout of Atg7 aggravates the MI/R injury with cardiac hypertrophy, contractile dysfunction, myofibrillar disarray and severe cardiac fibrosis, most probably due to CLP36 accumulation in cardiomyocytes. Altogether, this work reveals autophagy may protect cardiomyocytes from the MI/R injury through the clearance of CLP36, and these findings define a novel relationship between autophagy and the regulation of stress fibre in heart. PMID:27512143

  16. Hedgehog signaling in prostate epithelial-mesenchymal growth regulation

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yu-Ching; Joyner, Alexandra L.

    2015-01-01

    The prostate gland plays an important role in male reproduction, and is also an organ prone to diseases such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer. The prostate consists of ducts with an inner layer of epithelium surrounded by stroma. Reciprocal signaling between these two cell compartments is instrumental to normal prostatic development, homeostasis, regeneration, as well as tumor formation. Hedgehog (HH) signaling is a master regulator in numerous developmental processes. In many organs, HH plays a key role in epithelial-mesenchymal signaling that regulates organ growth and tissue differentiation, and abnormal HH signaling has been implicated in the progression of various epithelial carcinomas. In this review, we focus on recent studies exploring the multipotency of endogenous postnatal and adult epithelial and stromal stem cells and studies addressing the role of HH in prostate development and cancer. We discuss the implications of the results for a new understanding of prostate development and disease. Insight into the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying epithelial-mesenchymal growth regulation should provide a basis for devising innovative therapies to combat diseases of the prostate. PMID:25641695

  17. MicroRNA-22 Regulates Cardiac Hypertrophy and Remodeling in Response to Stress

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhan-Peng; Chen, Jinghai; Seok, Hee Young; Zhang, Zheng; Kataoka, Masaharu; Hu, Xiaoyun; Wang, Da-Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Rationale The adult heart is composed primarily of terminally differentiated, mature cardiomyocytes that express signature genes related to contraction. In response to mechanical or pathological stress, the heart undergoes hypertrophic growth, a process defined as an increase in cardiomyocyte cell size without an increase in cell number. However, the molecular mechanism of cardiac hypertrophy is not fully understood. Objective To identify and characterize microRNAs that regulate cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling. Methods and Results Screening for muscle-expressed microRNAs that are dynamically regulated during muscle differentiation and hypertrophy identified microRNA-22 (miR-22) as a cardiac- and skeletal muscle–enriched microRNA that is upregulated during myocyte differentiation and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Overexpression of miR-22 was sufficient to induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. We generated mouse models with global and cardiac-specific miR-22 deletion, and we found that cardiac miR-22 was essential for hypertrophic cardiac growth in response to stress. miR-22–null hearts blunted cardiac hypertrophy and cardiac remodeling in response to 2 independent stressors: isoproterenol infusion and an activated calcineurin transgene. Loss of miR-22 sensitized mice to the development of dilated cardiomyopathy under stress conditions. We identified Sirt1 and Hdac4 as miR-22 targets in the heart. Conclusions Our studies uncover miR-22 as a critical regulator of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cardiac remodeling. PMID:23524588

  18. Nucleolin is regulated both at the level of transcription and translation

    SciTech Connect

    Bicknell, Katrina; Brooks, Gavin; Kaiser, Pete; Chen Hongying; Dove, Brian K.; Hiscox, Julian A.; E-mail: j.a.hiscox@leeds.ac.uk

    2005-07-08

    Nucleolin is a multi-functional protein that is located to the nucleolus. In tissue culture cells, the stability of nucleolin is related to the proliferation status of the cell. During development, rat cardiomyocytes proliferate actively with increases in the mass of the heart being due to both hyperplasia and hypertrophy. The timing of this shift in the phenotype of the myocyte from one capable of undergoing hyperplasia to one that can grow only by hypertrophy occurs within 4 days of post-natal development. Thus, cardiomyocytes are an ideal model system in which to study the regulation of nucleolin during growth in vivo. Using Western blot and quantitative RT-PCR (TaqMan) we found that the amount of nucleolin is regulated both at the level of transcription and translation during the development of the cardiomyocyte. However, in cells which had exited the cell cycle and were subsequently given a hypertrophic stimulus, nucleolin was regulated post-transcriptionally.

  19. Effects of different plant growth regulators on blueberry fruit quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. C.; Zhu, Y. Q.; Wang, Y. N.; Luo, C.; Wang, X.

    2017-08-01

    In order to understand the effects of different plant growth regulators (PGRs) on blueberry fruit growth, various concentrations of Abscisic acid (ABA), Methyl jasmonate (MJ), Brassinolide (BR), Melatonin (MT) were sprayed on blueberry cv. ‘Brigita’ fruits. The results showed that all the PGRs put into effect on improving the quality of blueberry fruit. Comparing with the control plants no PGR spraying,300 mg/L of MT treatment promoted effectively accumulation of the soluble sugar. ABA 20mg/L treatment in-creased effectively accumulation of anthocyanin, and significantly decreased titratable acid content. The treatment of MJ 10mg/L improved significantly the soluble solid content. The effect of the four PGRs treatments on appearance did not show obvious difference.

  20. Apyrases, extracellular ATP and the regulation of growth.

    PubMed

    Clark, Greg; Roux, Stanley J

    2011-12-01

    Although no definitive receptor for extracellular ATP (eATP) has been identified in plants, there is now stronger physiological evidence that the effects of eATP on plant growth are mediated by a receptor, or, as in animals, by multiple receptors. Recent papers clarify how extracellular nucleotides induce changes in [Ca(2+)](cyt), and the production of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species. They document links between eATP signaling and the synthesis or transport of hormones, and they reveal that applied nucleotides can regulate the aperture of stomates, which release ATP when stimulated by light and hormones. Ectoapyrases (ecto-nucleoside triphosphate-diphosphohydrolase) help control both the diverse signaling changes and downstream growth changes induced by extracellular nucleotides by limiting their concentration in the extracellular matrix (ECM). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Model of Chloroplast Growth Regulation in Mesophyll Cells.

    PubMed

    Paton, Kelly M; Anderson, Lisa; Flottat, Pauline; Cytrynbaum, Eric N

    2015-09-01

    Chloroplasts regulate their growth to optimize photosynthesis. Quantitative data show that the ratio of total chloroplast area to mesophyll cell area is constant across different cells within a single species and also across species. Wild-type chloroplasts exhibit little scatter around this trend; highly irregularly shaped mutant chloroplasts exhibit more scatter. Here we propose a model motivated by a bacterial quorum-sensing model consisting of a switch-like signaling network that turns off chloroplast growth. We calculated the dependence of the location of the relevant saddle-node bifurcation on the geometry of the chloroplasts. Our model exhibits a linear trend, with linearly growing scatter dependent on chloroplast shape, consistent with the data. When modeled chloroplasts are of a shape that grows with a constant area-to-volume ratio (disks, cylinders), we find a linear trend with minimal scatter. Chloroplasts with area and volume that do not grow proportionally (spheres) exhibit a linear trend with additional scatter.

  2. Fluoxetine regulates cell growth inhibition of interferon-α.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Min; Yu, Bu-Chin; Chiu, Wen-Tai; Sun, Hung-Yu; Chien, Yu-Chieh; Su, Hui-Chen; Yen, Shu-Yang; Lai, Hsin-Wen; Bai, Chyi-Huey; Young, Kung-Chia; Tsao, Chiung-Wen

    2016-10-01

    Fluoxetine, a well-known anti-depression agent, may act as a chemosensitizer to assist and promote cancer therapy. However, how fluoxetine regulates cellular signaling to enhance cellular responses against tumor cell growth remains unclear. In the present study, addition of fluoxetine promoted growth inhibition of interferon-alpha (IFN-α) in human bladder carcinoma cells but not in normal uroepithelial cells through lessening the IFN-α-induced apoptosis but switching to cause G1 arrest, and maintaining the IFN-α-mediated reduction in G2/M phase. Activations and signal transducer and transactivator (STAT)-1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α) were involved in this process. Chemical inhibitions of STAT-1 or PPAR-α partially rescued bladder carcinoma cells from IFN-α-mediated growth inhibition via blockades of G1 arrest, cyclin D1 reduction, p53 downregulation and p27 upregulation in the presence of fluoxetine. However, the functions of both proteins were not involved in the control of fluoxetine over apoptosis and maintained the declined G2/M phase of IFN-α. These results indicated that activation of PPAR-α and STAT-1 participated, at least in part, in growth inhibition of IFN-α in the presence of fluoxetine.

  3. AMPK Regulation of Cell Growth, Apoptosis, Autophagy, and Bioenergetics.

    PubMed

    Paz, Marina Villanueva; Cotán, David; Maraver, Juan Garrido; Oropesa-Ávila, Manuel; de la Mata, Mario; Pavón, Ana Delgado; de Lavera, Isabel; Gómez, Elizabet Alcocer; Córdoba, Mónica Álvarez; Alcázar, José A Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) generally promotes catabolic pathways that produce ATP and at the same time inhibits anabolic pathways involved in different processes that consume ATP. As an energy sensor, AMPK is involved in the main cellular functions implicated in cell fate, such as cell growth and autophagy.Recently, AMPK has been connected with apoptosis regulation, although the molecular mechanism by which AMPK induces and/or inhibits cell death is not clear.This chapter reviews the essential role of AMPK in signaling pathways that respond to cellular stress and damage, highlighting the complex and reciprocal regulation between AMPK and their targets and effectors. The therapeutic implications of the role of AMPK in different pathologies such as diabetes, cancer, or mitochondrial dysfunctions are still controversial, and it is necessary to further investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying AMPK activation.

  4. Astrocyte growth is regulated by neuropeptides through Tis 8 and basic fibroblast growth factor.

    PubMed Central

    Hu, R M; Levin, E R

    1994-01-01

    The important intracellular mechanisms of astrocyte growth are not well defined. Using an inhibitor of astrocyte proliferation, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), and the glial mitogen endothelin (ET-3), we sought a common pathway for growth regulation in these neural cells. In cultured fetal rat diencephalic astrocytes, ANP selectively and rapidly inhibited the Tis 8 immediate early gene and protein. After 4 h, ANP selectively inhibited the basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) gene and protein. ET-3 significantly stimulated both Tis 8 and bFGF mRNAs and protein, but also stimulated several other immediate early and growth factor/receptor genes. An antisense oligonucleotide to Tis 8 strongly prevented ET-stimulated thymidine incorporation, while the inhibitory action of ANP was enhanced. The Tis 8 antisense oligonucleotide also significantly reversed ET-stimulated bFGF transcription and enhanced the bFGF inhibition caused by ANP. In addition, an antisense oligonucleotide to bFGF significantly reversed the ET-stimulated thymidine incorporation and enhanced the ANP inhibition of DNA synthesis. The sequential modulation of Tis 8, followed by bFGF, provides a novel mechanism for both positive and negative regulation of astrocyte growth by endogenous neuropeptides. Images PMID:8163680

  5. Regulation of skeletal muscle growth in fish by the growth hormone--insulin-like growth factor system.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Eduardo N; Valdés, Juan Antonio; Molina, Alfredo; Björnsson, Björn Thrandur

    2013-10-01

    The growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system is the key promoter of growth in vertebrates; however, how this system modulates muscle mass in fish is just recently becoming elucidated. In fish, the GH induces muscle growth by modulating the expression of several genes belonging to the myostatin (MSTN), atrophy, GH, and IGF systems as well as myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs). The GH controls the expression of igf1 via Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducers and activators of the transcription 5 (STAT5) signaling pathway, but it seems that it is not the major regulator. These mild effects of the GH on igf1 expression in fish muscle seem to be related with the presence of higher contents of truncated GH receptor1 (tGHR1) than full length GHR (flGHR1). IGFs in fish stimulate myogenic cell proliferation, differentiation, and protein synthesis through the MAPK/ERK and PI3K/AKT/TOR signaling pathways, concomitant with abolishing protein degradation and atrophy via the PI3K/AKT/FOXO signaling pathway. Besides these signaling pathways control the expression of several genes belonging to the atrophy and IGF systems. Particularly, IGFs and amino acid control the expression of igf1, thus, suggesting other of alternative signaling pathways regulating the transcription of this growth factor. The possible role of IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) and the contribution of muscle-derived versus hepatic-produced IGF1 on fish muscle growth is also addressed. Thus, a comprehensive overview on the GH-IGF system regulating fish skeletal muscle growth is presented, as well as perspectives for future research in this field. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Determination of the Human Cardiomyocyte mRNA and miRNA Differentiation Network by Fine-Scale Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Babiarz, Joshua E.; Ravon, Morgane; Sridhar, Sriram; Ravindran, Palanikumar; Swanson, Brad; Bitter, Hans; Weiser, Thomas; Chiao, Eric; Certa, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    To gain insight into the molecular regulation of human heart development, a detailed comparison of the mRNA and miRNA transcriptomes across differentiating human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)–derived cardiomyocytes and biopsies from fetal, adult, and hypertensive human hearts was performed. Gene ontology analysis of the mRNA expression levels of the hiPSCs differentiating into cardiomyocytes revealed 3 distinct groups of genes: pluripotent specific, transitional cardiac specification, and mature cardiomyocyte specific. Hierarchical clustering of the mRNA data revealed that the transcriptome of hiPSC cardiomyocytes largely stabilizes 20 days after initiation of differentiation. Nevertheless, analysis of cells continuously cultured for 120 days indicated that the cardiomyocytes continued to mature toward a more adult-like gene expression pattern. Analysis of cardiomyocyte-specific miRNAs (miR-1, miR-133a/b, and miR-208a/b) revealed an miRNA pattern indicative of stem cell to cardiomyocyte specification. A biostatistitical approach integrated the miRNA and mRNA expression profiles revealing a cardiomyocyte differentiation miRNA network and identified putative mRNAs targeted by multiple miRNAs. Together, these data reveal the miRNA network in human heart development and support the notion that overlapping miRNA networks re-enforce transcriptional control during developmental specification. PMID:22050602

  7. Cardiomyocytes with disrupted CFTR function require CaMKII and Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel activity to maintain contraction rate.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Zachary M; De Arcangelis, Vania; Xiang, Yang; Best, Philip M

    2010-07-01

    The physiological role of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in cardiomyocytes remains unclear. Using spontaneously beating neonatal ventricular cardiomyocytes from wild-type (WT) or CFTR knockout (KO) mice, we examined the role of CFTR in the modulation of cardiomyocyte contraction rate. Contraction rates of spontaneously beating myocytes were captured by video imaging. Real-time changes in intracellular ([Ca(2+)](i)) and protein kinase A (PKA) activity were measured by fura-2 and fluorescence resonance energy transfer, respectively. Acute inhibition of CFTR in WT cardiomyocytes using the CFTR inhibitor CFTR(inh)-172 transiently inhibited the contraction rate. By contrast, cardiomyocytes from CFTR KO mice displayed normal contraction rates. Further investigation revealed that acute inhibition of CFTR activity in WT cardiomyocytes activated L-type Ca(2+) channels, leading to a transient increase of [Ca(2+)](i) and inhibition of PKA activity. Additionally, we found that contraction rate normalization following acute CFTR inhibition in WT cardiomyocytes or chronic deletion in cardiomyocytes from CFTR KO mice requires the activation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) and Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels (CaCC) because simultaneous addition of myristoylated-autocamtide-2-related inhibitory peptide or niflumic acid and CFTR(inh)-172 to WT cardiomyocytes or treatment of cardiomyoctes from CFTR KO mice with these agents caused sustained attenuation of contraction rates. Our results demonstrate that regulation of cardiomyocyte contraction involves CFTR. They also reveal that activation of CaMKII and CaCC compensates for loss of CFTR function. Increased dependence on CaMKII upon loss of CFTR function might leave cystic fibrosis patients at increased risk of heart dysfunction and disease.

  8. Cholesterol depletion impairs contractile machinery in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hissa, Barbara; Oakes, Patrick W.; Pontes, Bruno; Ramírez-San Juan, Guillermina; Gardel, Margaret L.

    2017-01-01

    Cholesterol regulates numerous cellular processes. Depleting its synthesis in skeletal myofibers induces vacuolization and contraction impairment. However, little is known about how cholesterol reduction affects cardiomyocyte behavior. Here, we deplete cholesterol by incubating neonatal cardiomyocytes with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin. Traction force microscopy shows that lowering cholesterol increases the rate of cell contraction and generates defects in cell relaxation. Cholesterol depletion also increases membrane tension, Ca2+ spikes frequency and intracellular Ca2+ concentration. These changes can be correlated with modifications in caveolin-3 and L-Type Ca2+ channel distributions across the sarcolemma. Channel regulation is also compromised since cAMP-dependent PKA activity is enhanced, increasing the probability of L-Type Ca2+ channel opening events. Immunofluorescence reveals that cholesterol depletion abrogates sarcomeric organization, changing spacing and alignment of α-actinin bands due to increase in proteolytic activity of calpain. We propose a mechanism in which cholesterol depletion triggers a signaling cascade, culminating with contraction impairment and myofibril disruption in cardiomyocytes. PMID:28256617

  9. Spatial Allocation and Specification of Cardiomyocytes during Zebrafish Embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fukui, Hajime; Chiba, Ayano; Miyazaki, Takahiro; Takano, Haruko; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki; Omori, Toyonori

    2017-01-01

    Incomplete development and severe malformation of the heart result in miscarriage of embryos because of its malfunction as a pump for circulation. During cardiogenesis, development of the heart is precisely coordinated by the genetically-primed program that is revealed by the sequential expression of transcription factors. It is important to investigate how spatial allocation of the heart containing cardiomyocytes and other mesoderm-derived cells is determined. In addition, the molecular mechanism underlying cardiomyocyte differentiation still remains elusive. The location of ectoderm-, mesoderm-, and endoderm-derived organs is determined by their initial allocation and subsequent mutual cell-cell interactions or paracrine-based regulation. In the present work, we provide an overview of cardiac development controlled by the germ layers and discuss the points that should be uncovered in future for understanding cardiogenesis. PMID:28382067

  10. Evidence for Cardiomyocyte Renewal in Humans

    SciTech Connect

    Bergmann, O; Bhardwaj, R D; Bernard, S; Zdunek, S; Barnabe-Heider, F; Walsh, S; Zupicich, J; Alkass, K; Buchholz, B A; Druid, H; Jovinge, S; Frisen, J

    2008-10-14

    It has been difficult to establish whether we are limited to the heart muscle cells we are born with or if cardiomyocytes are generated also later in life. We have taken advantage of the integration of {sup 14}C, generated by nuclear bomb tests during the Cold War, into DNA to establish the age of cardiomyocytes in humans. We report that cardiomyocytes renew, with a gradual decrease from 1% turning over annually at the age of 20 to 0.3% at the age of 75. Less than 50% of cardiomyocytes are exchanged during a normal lifespan. The capacity to generate cardiomyocytes in the adult human heart suggests that it may be rational to work towards the development of therapeutic strategies aiming to stimulate this process in cardiac pathologies.

  11. Evidence for cardiomyocyte renewal in humans.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Olaf; Bhardwaj, Ratan D; Bernard, Samuel; Zdunek, Sofia; Barnabé-Heider, Fanie; Walsh, Stuart; Zupicich, Joel; Alkass, Kanar; Buchholz, Bruce A; Druid, Henrik; Jovinge, Stefan; Frisén, Jonas

    2009-04-03

    It has been difficult to establish whether we are limited to the heart muscle cells we are born with or if cardiomyocytes are generated also later in life. We have taken advantage of the integration of carbon-14, generated by nuclear bomb tests during the Cold War, into DNA to establish the age of cardiomyocytes in humans. We report that cardiomyocytes renew, with a gradual decrease from 1% turning over annually at the age of 25 to 0.45% at the age of 75. Fewer than 50% of cardiomyocytes are exchanged during a normal life span. The capacity to generate cardiomyocytes in the adult human heart suggests that it may be rational to work toward the development of therapeutic strategies aimed at stimulating this process in cardiac pathologies.

  12. Mammalian target of rapamycin is essential for cardiomyocyte survival and heart development in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Pengpeng; Shan, Tizhong; Liang, Xinrong; Deng, Changyan; Kuang, Shihuan

    2014-09-12

    Highlights: • mTOR is a critical regulator of many biological processes yet its function in heart is not well understood. • MCK-Cre/Mtor{sup flox/flox} mice were established to delete Mtor in cardiomyocytes. • The mTOR-mKO mice developed normally but die prematurely within 5 weeks after birth due to heart disease. • The mTOR-mKO mice had dilated myocardium and increased cell death. • mTOR-mKO hearts had reduced expression of metabolic genes and activation of mTOR target proteins. - Abstract: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a critical regulator of protein synthesis, cell proliferation and energy metabolism. As constitutive knockout of Mtor leads to embryonic lethality, the in vivo function of mTOR in perinatal development and postnatal growth of heart is not well defined. In this study, we established a muscle-specific mTOR conditional knockout mouse model (mTOR-mKO) by crossing MCK-Cre and Mtor{sup flox/flox} mice. Although the mTOR-mKO mice survived embryonic and perinatal development, they exhibited severe postnatal growth retardation, cardiac muscle pathology and premature death. At the cellular level, the cardiac muscle of mTOR-mKO mice had fewer cardiomyocytes due to apoptosis and necrosis, leading to dilated cardiomyopathy. At the molecular level, the cardiac muscle of mTOR-mKO mice expressed lower levels of fatty acid oxidation and glycolysis related genes compared to the WT littermates. In addition, the mTOR-mKO cardiac muscle had reduced Myh6 but elevated Myh7 expression, indicating cardiac muscle degeneration. Furthermore, deletion of Mtor dramatically decreased the phosphorylation of S6 and AKT, two key targets downstream of mTORC1 and mTORC2 mediating the normal function of mTOR. These results demonstrate that mTOR is essential for cardiomyocyte survival and cardiac muscle function.

  13. Plant growth regulation activity of steviol and derivatives.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Brás Heleno; Stiirmer, Júlio César; de Souza Filho, José D; Ayub, Ricardo Antonio

    2008-05-01

    This work describes the preparation of tetracyclic diterpenoids and determination of their plant growth regulator properties. Stevioside (2) was used as starting material and the derivatives 13-hydroxy-ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (steviol, 3), ent-7alpha,13-dihydroxy-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (4), 13-hydroxy, ent-kaur-16,17-epoxi-19-oic acid (steviol epoxide, 5), 17-hydroxy-16-ketobayeran-19-oic acid (17-hydroxyisosteviol, 6), 17-hydroxy-16-hydroxyiminobayeran-19-oic acid (7), 16-ketobayeran-19-oic acid (isosteviol, 9), 16,17-dihydroxybeyeran-19-oic acid (8), and 16-hydroxyiminobayeran-19-oic acid (isosteviol oxime, 10) were obtained by simple chemical procedures. Another derivative, ent-7alpha,13-dihydroxycaur-15-en-19-oic acid (4), was obtained by biotransformation of steviol (3) by Penicillium citrinum. In order to determine the plant growth regulator activity the compounds were submitted to the lettuce hypocotyl and barley aleurone bioassays. All compounds showed significant activities in both bioassays. Steviol (3) and isosteviol (9) were also tested in field-grown grapes resulting in an increase in berry weight and size.

  14. Economic growth and energy regulation in the environmental Kuznets curve.

    PubMed

    Lorente, Daniel Balsalobre; Álvarez-Herranz, Agustín

    2016-08-01

    This study establishes the existence of a pattern of behavior, between economic growth and environmental degradation, consistent with the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for 17 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries between 1990 and 2012. Based on this EKC pattern, it shows that energy regulation measures help reduce per capita greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. To validate this hypothesis, we also add the explanatory variables: renewable energy promotion, energy innovation processes, and the suppression effect of income level on the contribution of renewable energy sources to total energy consumption. It aims to be a tool for decision-making regarding energy policy. This paper provides a two-stage econometric analysis of instrumental variables with the aim of correcting the existence of endogeneity in the variable GDP per capita, verifying that the instrumental variables used in this research are appropriate for our aim. To this end, it first makes a methodological contribution before incorporating additional variables associated with environmental air pollution into the EKC hypothesis and showing how they positively affect the explanation of the correction in the GHG emission levels. This study concludes that air pollution will not disappear on its own as economic growth increases. Therefore, it is necessary to promote energy regulation measures to reduce environmental pollution.

  15. Shock Wave Therapy Promotes Cardiomyocyte Autophagy and Survival during Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Du, Ling; Shen, Tao; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Yunhe; Zhao, Cong; Jia, Na; Wang, Que; He, Qing

    2017-01-01

    Autophagy plays an important role in cardiovascular disease. Controversy still exists regarding the effect of autophagy on ischemic/hypoxic myocardium. Cardiac shock wave therapy (CSWT) is an effective alternative treatment for refractory ischemic heart disease. Whether CSWT can regulate cardiomyocyte autophagy under hypoxic conditions is not clear. We established a myocardial hypoxia model using the H9c2 cell line and performed shock waves (SWs) treatment to evaluate the effect of SW on autophagy. The H9c2 cells were incubated under hypoxic conditions, and SW treatment was then performed at energies of 0.02, 0.05, or 0.10 mJ/mm2. The cell viability and intracellular ATP level were examined. Western blot analysis was used to assess the expression of LC3B, AMPK, mTOR, Beclin-1, Sirt1, and HIF-1α. Autophagic vacuoles were visualized by monodansylcadaverine staining. After the 24-hour hypoxic period, cardiomyocyte viability and ATP levels were decreased and autophagy was significantly increased in H9c2 cells. SW treatment with an energy of 0.05 mJ/mm2 significantly increased the cellular viability, ATP level, LC3B-II/I, and number of autophagic vacuoles. In addition, phosphorylated AMPK and Sirt1 were increased and phosphorylated mTOR and HIF-1α were decreased after SW treatment. SW treatment can potentially promote cardiomyocyte autophagy during hypoxia and protect cardiomyocyte function by regulating the AMPK/mTOR pathway. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Upregulation of α-enolase protects cardiomyocytes from phenylephrine-induced hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Gao, Si; Liu, Xueping; Wei, Lihua; Lu, Jing; Liu, Peiqing

    2017-09-14

    Cardiac hypertrophy often refers to the abnormal growth of heart muscle through a variety of factors. The mechanisms of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy have been extensively investigated using neonatal rat cardiomyocytes treated with phenylephrine. α-Enolase is a glycolytic enzyme with "multifunctional jobs" beyond its catalytic activity. Its possible contribution to cardiac dysfunction remains to be determined. The present study aimed to investigate the change of α-enolase during cardiac hypertrophy and explore its role in this pathological process. We revealed that mRNA and protein levels of α-enolase were significantly upregulated in hypertrophic rat heart induced by abdominal aortic constriction and in phenylephrine-treated neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, knockdown of α-enolase by RNA interference in cardiomyocytes mimicked the hypertrophic responses and aggravated phenylephrine-induced hypertrophy without reducing the total glycolytic activity of enolase. In addition, knockdown of α-enolase led to an increase of GATA4 expression in the normal and phenylephrine-treated cardiomyocytes. Our results suggest that the elevation of α-enolase during cardiac hypertrophy is compensatory. It exerts a catalytic independent role in protecting cardiomyocytes against pathological hypertrophy.

  17. Role of Nodal-PITX2C signaling pathway in glucose-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Su, Dongmei; Jing, Sun; Guan, Lina; Li, Qian; Zhang, Huiling; Gao, Xiaobo; Ma, Xu

    2014-06-01

    Pathological cardiac hypertrophy is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular disease. Recent studies have shown that cardiomyocytes, in response to high glucose (HG) stimuli, undergo hypertrophic growth. While much work still needs to be done to elucidate this important mechanism of hypertrophy, previous works have showed that some pathways or genes play important roles in hypertrophy. In this study, we showed that sublethal concentrations of glucose (25 mmol/L) could induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy with an increase in the cellular surface area and the upregulation of the atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) gene, a hypertrophic marker. High glucose (HG) treatments resulted in the upregulation of the Nodal gene, which is under-expressed in cardiomyocytes. We also determined that the knockdown of the Nodal gene resisted HG-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. The overexpression of Nodal was able to induce hypertrophy in cardiomyocytes, which was associated with the upregulation of the PITX2C gene. We also showed that increases in the PITX2C expression, in response to Nodal, were mediated by the Smad4 signaling pathway. This study is highly relevant to the understanding of the effects of the Nodal-PITX2C pathway on HG-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, as well as the related molecular mechanisms.

  18. Regulation of rat ovarian cell growth and steroid secretion

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, CC; Dawson, WE; Turner, JT; Wyche, JH

    1980-01-01

    A cultured rat ovarian cell line (31 A-F(2)) was used to study the effect of growth factors (epidermal growth factor [EGF] and fibroblast growth factor [FGF]), a survival factor (ovarian growth factor [OGF]), a hormone (insulin), and an iron-binding protein (transferring) on cell proliferation and steroid production under defined culture conditions. EGF and insulin were shown to be mitogenic (half-maximal response at 0.12 nM and 0.11 muM, respectively) for 31A-F(2) cells incubated in serum-free medium. EGF induced up to three doublings in the cell population, whereas insulin induced an average of one cell population doubling. FGF, OGF, and transferrin were found not to have any prominent effect on cell division when incubated individually with 31A-F(2) cells in serum-free medium. However, a combination of EGF, OGF, insulin, and transferrin stimulated cell division to the same approximate extent as cells incubated in the presence of 5 percent fetal calf serum. EGF or insulin did not significantly affect total cell cholesterol levels (relative to cells incubated in serum-free medium) when incubated individually with 31A-F(2) cells. However, cell cholesterol levels were increased by the addition of OGF (250 percent), FGF (370 percent), or a combination of insulin and EGF (320 percent). Progesterone secretion from 31A-F(2) cells was enhanced by EGF (25 percent), FGF (80 percent), and insulin (115 percent). However, the addition of a mitogenic mixture of EGF, OGF, insulin, and transferrin suppressed progesterone secretion 150 percent) below that of control cultures. These studies have permitted us to determine that EGF and insulin are mitogenic factors that are required for the growth of 31A-F(2) cells and that OGF and transferrin are positive cofactors that enhance growth. Also, additional data suggest that cholesterol and progesterone production in 31A-F(2) cells can be regulated by peptide growth factors and the hormone insulin. PMID:6995465

  19. Metabolic switch and hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes following treatment with angiotensin II are prevented by AMP-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Stuck, Bettina Johanna; Lenski, Matthias; Böhm, Michael; Laufs, Ulrich

    2008-11-21

    Angiotensin II induces cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, but its consequences on cardiomyocyte metabolism and energy supply are not completely understood. Here we investigate the effect of angiotensin II on glucose and fatty acid utilization and the modifying role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key regulator of metabolism and proliferation. Treatment of H9C2 cardiomyocytes with angiotensin II (Ang II, 1 microm, 4 h) increased [(3)H]leucine incorporation, up-regulated the mRNA expression of the hypertrophy marker genes MLC, ANF, BNP, and beta-MHC, and decreased the phosphorylation of the negative mTOR-regulator tuberin (TSC-2). Rat neonatal cardiomyocytes showed similar results. Western blot analysis revealed a time- and concentration-dependent down-regulation of AMPK-phosphorylation in the presence of angiotensin II, whereas the protein expression of the catalytic alpha-subunit remained unchanged. This was paralleled by membrane translocation of glucose-transporter type 4 (GLUT4), increased uptake of [(3)H]glucose and transient down-regulation of phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), whereas fatty acid uptake remained unchanged. Similarly, short-term transaortic constriction in mice resulted in down-regulation of P-AMPK and P-ACC but up-regulation of GLUT4 membrane translocation in the heart. Preincubation of cardiomyocytes with the AMPK stimulator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR; 1 mM, 4 h) completely prevented the angiotensin II-induced cardiomyocytes hypertrophy. In addition, AICAR reversed the metabolic effects of angiotensin II: GLUT4 translocation was reduced, but ACC phosphorylation and TSC phosphorylation were elevated. In summary, angiotensin II-induced hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes is accompanied by decreased activation of AMPK, increased glucose uptake, and decreased mTOR inhibition. Stimulation with the AMPK activator AICAR reverses these metabolic changes, increases fatty acid utilization, and inhibits

  20. ARNT2 Regulates Tumoral Growth in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Yasushi; Kasamatsu, Atsushi; Nakashima, Dai; Yamatoji, Masanobu; Minakawa, Yasuyuki; Koike, Kazuyuki; Fushimi, Kazuaki; Higo, Morihiro; Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke; Shiiba, Masashi; Tanzawa, Hideki; Uzawa, Katsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) 2 is a transcriptional factor related to adaptive responses against cellular stress from a xenobiotic substance. Recent evidence indicates ARNT is involved in carcinogenesis and cancer progression; however, little is known about the relevance of ARNT2 in the behavior of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). In the current study, we evaluated the ARNT2 mRNA and protein expression levels in OSCC in vitro and in vivo and the clinical relationship between ARNT2 expression levels in primary OSCCs and their clinicopathologic status by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry. Using ARNT2 overexpression models, we performed functional analyses to investigate the critical roles of ARNT2 in OSCC. ARNT2 mRNA and protein were down-regulated significantly (P < 0.05 for both comparisons) in nine OSCC-derived cells and primary OSCC (n=100 patients) compared with normal counterparts. In addition to the data from exogenous experiments that ARNT2-overexpressed cells showed decreased cellular proliferation, ARNT2-positive OSCC cases were correlated significantly (P < 0.05) with tumoral size. Since von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase, a negative regulator of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF1)-α, is a downstream molecule of ARNT2, we speculated that HIF1-α and its downstream molecules would have key functions in cellular growth. Consistent with our hypothesis, overexpressed ARNT2 cells showed down-regulation of HIF1-α, which causes hypofunctioning of glucose transporter 1, leading to decreased cellular growth. Our results proposed for the first time that the ARNT2 level is an indicator of cellular proliferation in OSCCs. Therefore, ARNT2 may be a potential therapeutic target against progression of OSCCs. PMID:27076852

  1. Regulation of growth hormone secretion by (pro)renin receptor.

    PubMed

    Tani, Yuji; Yamada, Shozo; Inoshita, Naoko; Hirata, Yukio; Shichiri, Masayoshi

    2015-06-03

    (Pro)renin receptor (PRR) has a single transmembrane domain that co-purifies with the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase). In addition to its role in cellular acidification, V-ATPase has been implicated in membrane fusion and exocytosis via its Vo domain. Results from the present study show that PRR is expressed in pituitary adenoma cells and regulates growth hormone (GH) release via V-ATPase-induced cellular acidification. Positive PRR immunoreactivity was detected more often in surgically resected, growth hormone-producing adenomas (GHomas) than in nonfunctional pituitary adenomas. GHomas strongly expressing PRR showed excess GH secretion, as evidenced by distinctly high plasma GH and insulin-like growth factor-1 levels, as well as an elevated nadir GH in response to the oral glucose tolerance test. Suppression of PRR expression in rat GHoma-derived GH3 cells using PRR siRNA resulted in reduced GH secretion and significantly enhanced intracellular GH accumulation. GH3 treatment with bafilomycin A1, a V-ATPase inhibitor, also blocked GH release, indicating mediation via impaired cellular acidification of V-ATPase. PRR knockdown decreased Atp6l, a subunit of the Vo domain that destabilizes V-ATPase assembly, increased intracellular GH, and decreased GH release. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating a pivotal role for PRR in a pituitary hormone release mechanism.

  2. [Breast hormones--regulators of energy homeostasis: growth of infants].

    PubMed

    Kon', I Ia; Shilina, N M; Gmoshinskaia, M V; Ivanushkina, T A

    2011-01-01

    Studied the possible relationship between the growth rate of children who are breastfed, and the level of protein, fat, insulin-like growth factor- 1 (IGF-1), ghrelin, leptin, adiponectin in breast milk. Examined 71 pair--a mother and a healthy child, who is breastfed. All infants were divided into 3 groups: low, normal and high weight gain. Daily breast milk intake, the level of fat, protein and hormones proteins regulators of energy homeostasis (adiponectin, grelin, IGF-1 and leptin) in breast milk were measured at 1, 2 and 3 months of lactation. It was found that daily breast milk consumption was higher in the group of infants with high weight gain and the content of protein and fat in it did not differ in three groups. Total daily consumption of protein and fat with breast milk was higher in groups of infants with high weight gain. There was significantly higher IGF-1 level and the tendency to higher grelin level in breast milk of mothers of infants with higher weight gain. The possible link of breast milk hormones with growth velocity of breast-fed infants is discussed.

  3. Sulf1A and HGF regulate satellite-cell growth

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Roop; Hitchins, Laura; Fletcher, Fenella; Dhoot, Gurtej K.

    2010-01-01

    The role of Sulf1A, sulfation and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in satellite-cell growth was examined in an in vitro model of dissociated whole skeletal muscle fibres. Pax7-positive quiescent satellite cells express little or no Sulf1A but show rapid re-expression in regenerating myoblasts and myotubes, similar to embryonic muscle and in vitro satellite cells preceding asynchronous MyoD activation. Once activated, Sulf1A and MyoD re-expression persists up to 72 hours in most satellite cells under normal culture conditions and following moderate changes in sulfation, whereas Sulf1A neutralisation by antibodies not only enhances satellite-cell proliferation but also downregulates MyoD and Pax7 expression in a large proportion of the satellite cells. The HGF exposure also induces similar but even more pronounced changes characterised by variable sulfation levels and rapid downregulation of MyoD and Pax7 without myogenin activation in a sub-set of cells. This Pax7-MyoD-myogenin-negative sub-population expresses Sulf1A and Myf5. The transfer of all such satellite-cell progenies onto gelatin-coated-substratum re-activates MyoD and Pax7 gene expression in all cells, thus detecting a distinct sub-population of satellite cells. We conclude that HGF and fine-tuned sulfation levels are major contributory factors controlling satellite-cell growth by regulating the relative activities of actively proliferating and differentiating cells. PMID:20442248

  4. A Repressor Protein Complex Regulates Leaf Growth in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Nathalie; Pauwels, Laurens; Baekelandt, Alexandra; De Milde, Liesbeth; Van Leene, Jelle; Besbrugge, Nienke; Heyndrickx, Ken S.; Pérez, Amparo Cuéllar; Durand, Astrid Nagels; De Clercq, Rebecca; Van De Slijke, Eveline; Vanden Bossche, Robin; Eeckhout, Dominique; Gevaert, Kris; Vandepoele, Klaas; De Jaeger, Geert; Goossens, Alain; Inzé, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Cell number is an important determinant of final organ size. In the leaf, a large proportion of cells are derived from the stomatal lineage. Meristemoids, which are stem cell-like precursor cells, undergo asymmetric divisions, generating several pavement cells adjacent to the two guard cells. However, the mechanism controlling the asymmetric divisions of these stem cells prior to differentiation is not well understood. Here, we characterized PEAPOD (PPD) proteins, the only transcriptional regulators known to negatively regulate meristemoid division. PPD proteins interact with KIX8 and KIX9, which act as adaptor proteins for the corepressor TOPLESS. D3-type cyclin encoding genes were identified among direct targets of PPD2, being negatively regulated by PPDs and KIX8/9. Accordingly, kix8 kix9 mutants phenocopied PPD loss-of-function producing larger leaves resulting from increased meristemoid amplifying divisions. The identified conserved complex might be specific for leaf growth in the second dimension, since it is not present in Poaceae (grasses), which also lack the developmental program it controls. PMID:26232487

  5. Regulation of the photosynthetic apparatus under fluctuating growth light.

    PubMed

    Tikkanen, Mikko; Grieco, Michele; Nurmi, Markus; Rantala, Marjaana; Suorsa, Marjaana; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2012-12-19

    Safe and efficient conversion of solar energy to metabolic energy by plants is based on tightly inter-regulated transfer of excitation energy, electrons and protons in the photosynthetic machinery according to the availability of light energy, as well as the needs and restrictions of metabolism itself. Plants have mechanisms to enhance the capture of energy when light is limited for growth and development. Also, when energy is in excess, the photosynthetic machinery slows down the electron transfer reactions in order to prevent the production of reactive oxygen species and the consequent damage of the photosynthetic machinery. In this opinion paper, we present a partially hypothetical scheme describing how the photosynthetic machinery controls the flow of energy and electrons in order to enable the maintenance of photosynthetic activity in nature under continual fluctuations in white light intensity. We discuss the roles of light-harvesting II protein phosphorylation, thermal dissipation of excess energy and the control of electron transfer by cytochrome b(6)f, and the role of dynamically regulated turnover of photosystem II in the maintenance of the photosynthetic machinery. We present a new hypothesis suggesting that most of the regulation in the thylakoid membrane occurs in order to prevent oxidative damage of photosystem I.

  6. Regulation of skeletal muscle stem cells by fibroblast growth factors.

    PubMed

    Pawlikowski, Bradley; Vogler, Thomas Orion; Gadek, Katherine; Olwin, Bradley B

    2017-03-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are essential for self-renewal of skeletal muscle stem cells (satellite cells) and required for maintenance and repair of skeletal muscle. Satellite cells express high levels of FGF receptors 1 and 4, low levels of FGF receptor 3, and little or no detectable FGF receptor 2. Of the multiple FGFs that influence satellite cell function in culture, FGF2 and FGF6 are the only members that regulate satellite cell function in vivo by activating ERK MAPK, p38α/β MAPKs, PI3 kinase, PLCγ and STATs. Regulation of FGF signaling is complex in satellite cells, requiring Syndecan-4, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, as well as ß1-integrin and fibronectin. During aging, reduced responsiveness to FGF diminishes satellite cell self-renewal, leading to impaired skeletal muscle regeneration and depletion of satellite cells. Mislocalization of ß1-integrin, reductions in fibronectin, and alterations in heparan sulfate content all contribute to reduced FGF responsiveness in satellite cells. How these cell surface proteins regulate satellite cell self-renewal is incompletely understood. Here we summarize the current knowledge, highlighting the role(s) for FGF signaling in skeletal muscle regeneration, satellite cell behavior, and age-induced muscle wasting. Developmental Dynamics, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Dexamethasone Treatment of Newborn Rats Decreases Cardiomyocyte Endowment in the Developing Heart through Epigenetic Modifications.

    PubMed

    Gay, Maresha S; Li, Yong; Xiong, Fuxia; Lin, Thant; Zhang, Lubo

    2015-01-01

    The potential adverse effect of synthetic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone therapy on the developing heart remains unknown. The present study investigated the effects of dexamethasone on cardiomyocyte proliferation and binucleation in the developing heart of newborn rats and evaluated DNA methylation as a potential mechanism. Dexamethasone was administered intraperitoneally in a three day tapered dose on postnatal day 1 (P1), 2 and 3 to rat pups in the absence or presence of a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist Ru486, given 30 minutes prior to dexamethasone. Cardiomyocytes from P4, P7 or P14 animals were analyzed for proliferation, binucleation and cell number. Dexamethasone treatment significantly increased the percentage of binucleated cardiomyocytes in the hearts of P4 pups, decreased myocyte proliferation in P4 and P7 pups, reduced cardiomyocyte number and increased the heart to body weight ratio in P14 pups. Ru486 abrogated the effects of dexamethasone. In addition, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-AZA) blocked the effects of dexamethasone on binucleation in P4 animals and proliferation at P7, leading to recovered cardiomyocyte number in P14 hearts. 5-AZA alone promoted cardiomyocyte proliferation at P7 and resulted in a higher number of cardiomyocytes in P14 hearts. Dexamethasone significantly decreased cyclin D2, but not p27 expression in P4 hearts. 5-AZA inhibited global DNA methylation and blocked dexamethasone-mediated down-regulation of cyclin D2 in the heart of P4 pups. The findings suggest that dexamethasone acting on glucocorticoid receptors inhibits proliferation and stimulates premature terminal differentiation of cardiomyocytes in the developing heart via increased DNA methylation in a gene specific manner.

  8. ETL, a novel seven-transmembrane receptor that is developmentally regulated in the heart. ETL is a member of the secretin family and belongs to the epidermal growth factor-seven-transmembrane subfamily.

    PubMed

    Nechiporuk, T; Urness, L D; Keating, M T

    2001-02-09

    Using differential display of rat fetal and postnatal cardiomyocytes, we have identified a novel seven-transmembrane receptor, ETL. The cDNA-predicted amino acid sequence of ETL indicated that it encodes a 738-aa protein composed of a large extracellular domain with epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats, a seven-transmembrane domain, and a short cytoplasmic tail. ETL belongs to the secretin family of G-protein-coupled peptide hormone receptors and the EGF-TM7 subfamily of receptors. The latter are characterized by a variable number of extracellular EGF and cell surface domains and conserved seven transmembrane-spanning regions. ETL mRNA expression is up-regulated in the adult rat and human heart. In situ hybridization analyses revealed expression in rat cardiomyocytes and abundant expression in vascular and bronchiolar smooth muscle cells. In COS-7 cells transfected with Myc-tagged rat ETL, rat ETL exists as a stable dimer and undergoes endoproteolytic cleavage of the extracellular domain. The proteolytic activity can be abolished by a specific mutation, T455A, in this domain. In transfected mammalian cells, ETL is associated with cell membranes and is also observed in cytoplasmic vesicles. ETL is the first seven-transmembrane receptor containing EGF-like repeats that is developmentally regulated in the heart.

  9. Juvenile hormone regulates extreme mandible growth in male stag beetles.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Hiroki; Cornette, Richard; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki; Okada, Yasukazu; Lavine, Laura Corley; Emlen, Douglas J; Miura, Toru

    2011-01-01

    The morphological diversity of insects is one of the most striking phenomena in biology. Evolutionary modifications to the relative sizes of body parts, including the evolution of traits with exaggerated proportions, are responsible for a vast range of body forms. Remarkable examples of an insect trait with exaggerated proportions are the mandibular weapons of stag beetles. Male stag beetles possess extremely enlarged mandibles which they use in combat with rival males over females. As with other sexually selected traits, stag beetle mandibles vary widely in size among males, and this variable growth results from differential larval nutrition. However, the mechanisms responsible for coupling nutrition with growth of stag beetle mandibles (or indeed any insect structure) remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that during the development of male stag beetles (Cyclommatus metallifer), juvenile hormone (JH) titers are correlated with the extreme growth of an exaggerated weapon of sexual selection. We then investigate the putative role of JH in the development of the nutritionally-dependent, phenotypically plastic mandibles, by increasing hemolymph titers of JH with application of the JH analog fenoxycarb during larval and prepupal developmental periods. Increased JH signaling during the early prepupal period increased the proportional size of body parts, and this was especially pronounced in male mandibles, enhancing the exaggerated size of this trait. The direction of this response is consistent with the measured JH titers during this same period. Combined, our results support a role for JH in the nutrition-dependent regulation of extreme mandible growth in this species. In addition, they illuminate mechanisms underlying the evolution of trait proportion, the most salient feature of the evolutionary diversification of the insects.

  10. Antagonistic Regulation of Arabidopsis Growth by Brassinosteroids and Abiotic Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Yuhee; Kwon, Soon Il; Choe, Sunghwa

    2014-01-01

    To withstand ever-changing environmental stresses, plants are equipped with phytohormone-mediated stress resistance mechanisms. Salt stress triggers abscisic acid (ABA) signaling, which enhances stress tolerance at the expense of growth. ABA is thought to inhibit the action of growth-promoting hormones, including brassinosteroids (BRs). However, the regulatory mechanisms that coordinate ABA and BR activity remain to be discovered. We noticed that ABA-treated seedlings exhibited small, round leaves and short roots, a phenotype that is characteristic of the BR signaling mutant, brassinosteroid insensitive1-9 (bri1-9). To identify genes that are antagonistically regulated by ABA and BRs, we examined published Arabidopsis microarray data sets. Of the list of genes identified, those upregulated by ABA but downregulated by BRs were enriched with a BRRE motif in their promoter sequences. After validating the microarray data using quantitative RT-PCR, we focused on RD26, which is induced by salt stress. Histochemical analysis of transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing RD26pro:GUS revealed that the induction of GUS expression after NaCl treatment was suppressed by co-treatment with BRs, but enhanced by co-treatment with propiconazole, a BR biosynthetic inhibitor. Similarly, treatment with bikinin, an inhibitor of BIN2 kinase, not only inhibited RD26 expression, but also reduced the survival rate of the plant following exposure to salt stress. Our results suggest that ABA and BRs act antagonistically on their target genes at or after the BIN2 step in BR signaling pathways, and suggest a mechanism by which plants fine-tune their growth, particularly when stress responses and growth compete for resources. PMID:25377253

  11. Antagonistic regulation of Arabidopsis growth by brassinosteroids and abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yuhee; Kwon, Soon Il; Choe, Sunghwa

    2014-11-01

    To withstand ever-changing environmental stresses, plants are equipped with phytohormone-mediated stress resistance mechanisms. Salt stress triggers abscisic acid (ABA) signaling, which enhances stress tolerance at the expense of growth. ABA is thought to inhibit the action of growth-promoting hormones, including brassinosteroids (BRs). However, the regulatory mechanisms that coordinate ABA and BR activity remain to be discovered. We noticed that ABA-treated seedlings exhibited small, round leaves and short roots, a phenotype that is characteristic of the BR signaling mutant, brassinosteroid insensitive1-9 (bri1-9). To identify genes that are antagonistically regulated by ABA and BRs, we examined published Arabidopsis microarray data sets. Of the list of genes identified, those upregulated by ABA but downregulated by BRs were enriched with a BRRE motif in their promoter sequences. After validating the microarray data using quantitative RT-PCR, we focused on RD26, which is induced by salt stress. Histochemical analysis of transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing RD26pro:GUS revealed that the induction of GUS expression after NaCl treatment was suppressed by co-treatment with BRs, but enhanced by co-treatment with propiconazole, a BR biosynthetic inhibitor. Similarly, treatment with bikinin, an inhibitor of BIN2 kinase, not only inhibited RD26 expression, but also reduced the survival rate of the plant following exposure to salt stress. Our results suggest that ABA and BRs act antagonistically on their target genes at or after the BIN2 step in BR signaling pathways, and suggest a mechanism by which plants fine-tune their growth, particularly when stress responses and growth compete for resources.

  12. Protein restriction does not impair adaptations induced in cardiomyocytes by exercise in rats.

    PubMed

    Cabral, C A C; Natali, A J; Natali, A Y; Novaes, R D; Lavorato, V N; Drumond, L R; Carneiro Júnior, M A; Silva, M F; Quintão-Junior, J F; Gontijo, L N; Silva, C H O; Felix, L B; Silva, M E

    2013-11-01

    The effect of a treadmill running program on physical performance and morphofunctional adaptations was investigated in control and malnourished rats. Male 4-week old Wistar rats were randomized in groups of 12 animals: control trained (CT), control sedentary (CS), malnourished trained (MT) and malnourished sedentary (MS). Control and malnourished animals received chow with 12% protein or 6% protein, respectively. Trained groups were subjected to a treadmill running program for 8 weeks. Physical performance, biochemical parameters, cardiomyocytes morphology and biomechanics were determined. Malnourished animals presented reduction in body mass, serum levels of total protein, albumin and hemoglobin compared to the control groups. At 1 and 3 Hz cardiomyocytes from CT and MT showed higher cell shortening, speed of contraction and relaxation compared to the other groups. At 3 Hz cardiomyocytes from MS showed reduction in cell shortening and speed of contraction compared to CS. Protein restriction does not prevent the improvement in physical performance or cardiomyocytes biomechanical efficiency and growth in response to exercise. These findings could represent a modulatory effect of exercise to maintain cardiomyocyte growth at the expense of reducing the rate of body growth in order to ensure proper cellular function in conditions of cardiovascular overload imposed by exercise.

  13. Interferons induce the expression of IFITM1 and IFITM3 and suppress the proliferation of rat neonatal cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Lau, Samantha Lai-Yee; Yuen, Man-Leuk; Kou, Cecy Ying-Chuck; Au, Ka-Wing; Zhou, Junwei; Tsui, Stephen Kwok-Wing

    2012-03-01

    Cardiovascular diseases have been one of the leading killers among the human population worldwide. During the heart development, cardiomyocytes undergo a transition from hyperplastic to hypertrophic growth with an unclear underlying mechanism. In this study, we aim to investigate how interferons differentially stimulate the interferon-inducible transmembrane (IFITM) family proteins and further be involved in the process of heart development. The expression levels of three IFITM family members, IFITM1, IFITM2, and IFITM3 were investigated during Sprague-Dawley rat myocardial development and differentiation of H9C2 cardiomyocytes. The effects of interferon-α, -β, and -γ on DNA synthesis in H9C2 cells were also characterized. Up-regulation of IFITM1 and IFITM3 were observed during the heart development of Sprague-Dawley rat and the differentiation of H9C2 cells. Moreover, interferon-α and -β induce the expression of IFITM3 while interferon-γ up-regulates IFITM1. Finally, interferon-α and -β were demonstrated to inhibit DNA synthesis during H9C2 cell differentiation. Our results indicated interferons are potentially involved in the differentiation and cell proliferation during heart development. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Proepithelin Regulates Prostate Cancer Cell Biology by Promoting Cell Growth, Migration, and Anchorage-Independent Growth

    PubMed Central

    Monami, Giada; Emiliozzi, Velia; Bitto, Alessandro; Lovat, Francesca; Xu, Shi-Qiong; Goldoni, Silvia; Fassan, Matteo; Serrero, Ginette; Gomella, Leonard G.; Baffa, Raffaele; Iozzo, Renato V.; Morrione, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    The growth factor proepithelin has recently emerged as an important regulator of transformation in several physiological and pathological systems. In this study, we determined the biological roles of proepithelin in prostate cancer cells using purified human recombinant proepithelin as well as proepithelin-depletion strategies. Proepithelin promoted the migration of androgen-dependent and -independent human prostate cancer cells; androgen-independent DU145 cells were the more responsive. In these cells, proepithelin additionally stimulated wound closure, invasion, and promotion of cell growth in vitro. These effects required the activation of both the Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. We have analyzed proepithelin expression levels in different available prostate cancer microarray studies using the Oncomine database and found a statistically significant increase in proepithelin mRNA expression levels in prostate cancers compared with nonneoplastic controls. Notably, depletion of endogenous proepithelin by siRNA and antisense strategies impaired the ability of DU145 cells to grow and migrate after serum withdrawal and inhibited anchorage-independent growth. Our results provide the first evidence for a role of proepithelin in stimulating the migration, invasion, proliferation, and anchorage-independent growth of prostate cancer cells. This study supports the hypothesis that proepithelin may play a critical role as an autocrine growth factor in the establishment and initial progression of prostate cancer. Furthermore, proepithelin may prove to be a useful clinical marker for the diagnosis of prostate tumors. PMID:19179604

  15. A systems genetics approach identifies Trp53inp2 as a link between cardiomyocyte glucose utilization and hypertrophic response.

    PubMed

    Seldin, Marcus M; Kim, Eric D; Romay, Milagros C; Li, Shen; Rau, Christoph D; Wang, Jessica J; Krishnan, Karthickeyan Chella; Wang, Yibin; Deb, Arjun; Lusis, Aldons J

    2017-04-01

    Cardiac failure has been widely associated with an increase in glucose utilization. The aim of our study was to identify factors that mechanistically bridge this link between hyperglycemia and heart failure. Here, we screened the Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel (HMDP) for substrate-specific cardiomyocyte candidates based on heart transcriptional profile and circulating nutrients. Next, we utilized an in vitro model of rat cardiomyocytes to demonstrate that the gene expression changes were in direct response to substrate abundance. After overlaying candidates of interest with a separate HMDP study evaluating isoproterenol-induced heart failure, we chose to focus on the gene Trp53inp2 as a cardiomyocyte glucose utilization-specific factor. Trp53inp2 gene knockdown in rat cardiomyocytes reduced expression and protein abundance of key glycolytic enzymes. This resulted in reduction of both glucose uptake and glycogen content in cardiomyocytes stimulated with isoproterenol. Furthermore, this reduction effectively blunted the capacity of glucose and isoprotereonol to synergistically induce hypertrophic gene expression and cell size expansion. We conclude that Trp53inp2 serves as regulator of cardiomyocyte glycolytic activity and can consequently regulate hypertrophic response in the context of elevated glucose content.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Here, we apply a novel method for screening transcripts based on a substrate-specific expression pattern to identify Trp53inp2 as an induced cardiomyocyte glucose utilization factor. We further show that reducing expression of the gene could effectively blunt hypertrophic response in the context of elevated glucose content. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Mkk4 Is a Negative Regulator of the Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 Signaling Associated With Atrial Remodeling and Arrhythmogenesis With Age

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Laura; Jin, Jiawei; Shen, Weijin; Tsui, Hoyee; Shi, Ying; Wang, Yanwen; Zhang, Yanmin; Hao, Guoliang; Wu, Jingjing; Chen, Si; Fraser, James A.; Dong, Nianguo; Christoffels, Vincent; Ravens, Ursula; Huang, Christopher L.‐H.; Zhang, Henggui; Cartwright, Elizabeth J.; Wang, Xin; Lei, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation (AF), often associated with structural, fibrotic change in cardiac tissues involving regulatory signaling mediators, becomes increasingly common with age. In the present study, we explored the role of mitogen‐activated protein kinase kinase 4 (Mkk4), a critical component of the stress‐activated mitogen‐activated protein kinase family, in age‐associated AF. Methods and Results We developed a novel mouse model with a selective inactivation of atrial cardiomyocyte Mkk4 (Mkk4ACKO). We characterized and compared electrophysiological, histological, and molecular features of young (3‐ to 4‐month), adult (6‐month), and old (1‐year) Mkk4ACKO mice with age‐matched control littermates (Mkk4F/F). Aging Mkk4ACKO mice were more susceptible to atrial tachyarrhythmias than the corresponding Mkk4F/F mice, showing characteristic slow and dispersed atrial conduction, for which modeling studies demonstrated potential arrhythmic effects. These differences paralleled increased interstitial fibrosis, upregulated transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF‐β1) signaling and dysregulation of matrix metalloproteinases in Mkk4ACKO, compared to Mkk4F/F, atria. Mkk4 inactivation increased the sensitivity of cultured cardiomyocytes to angiotensin II–induced activation of TGF‐β1 signaling. This, in turn, enhanced expression of profibrotic molecules in cultured cardiac fibroblasts, suggesting cross‐talk between these two cell types in profibrotic signaling. Finally, human atrial tissues in AF showed a Mkk4 downregulation associated with increased production of profibrotic molecules, compared to findings in tissue from control subjects in sinus rhythm. Conclusions These findings together demonstrate, for the first time, that Mkk4 is a negative regulator of the TGF‐β1 signaling associated with atrial remodeling and arrhythmogenesis with age, establishing Mkk4 as a new potential therapeutic target for treating AF. PMID:24721794

  17. GLP1 protects cardiomyocytes from palmitate-induced apoptosis via Akt/GSK3b/b-catenin pathway.

    PubMed

    Ying, Ying; Zhu, Huazhang; Liang, Zhen; Ma, Xiaosong; Li, Shiwei

    2015-12-01

    Activation of apoptosis in cardiomyocytes by saturated palmitic acids contributes to cardiac dysfunction in diabetic cardiomyopathy. Beta-catenin (b-catenin) is a transcriptional regulator of several genes involved in survival/anti-apoptosis. However, its role in palmitate-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis remains unclear. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) has been shown to exhibit potential cardioprotective properties. This study was designed to evaluate the role of b-catenin signalling in palmitate-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and the molecular mechanism underlying the protective effects of GLP1 on palmitate-stressed cardiomyocytes. Exposure of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes to palmitate increased the fatty acid transporter CD36-mediated intracellular lipid accumulation and cardiomyocyte apoptosis, decreased accumulation and nuclear translocation of active b-catenin, and reduced expression of b-catenin target protein survivin and BCL2. These detrimental effects of palmitate were significantly attenuated by GLP1 co-treatment. However, the anti-apoptotic effects of GLP1 were markedly abolished when b-catenin was silenced with a specific short hairpin RNA. Furthermore, analysis of the upstream molecules and mechanisms responsible for GLP1-associated cardiac protection revealed that GLP1 restored the decreased phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) and glycogen synthase kinase-3b (GSK3b) in palmitate-stimulated cardiomyocytes. In contrast, inhibition of Akt with an Akt-specific inhibitor MK2206 or blockade of GLP1 receptor (GLP1R) with a competitive antagonist exendin-(9-39) significantly abrogated the GLP1-mediated activation of GSK3b/b-catenin signalling, leading to increased apoptosis in palmitate-stressed cardiomyocytes. Collectively, our results demonstrated for the first time that the attenuated b-catenin signalling may contribute to palmitate-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, while GLP1 can protect cardiomyocytes from palmitate-induced apoptosis through

  18. Isolation and Culture of Neonatal Mouse Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ehler, Elisabeth; Moore-Morris, Thomas; Lange, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes have long been used to study myofibrillogenesis and myofibrillar functions. Cultured cardiomyocytes allow for easy investigation and manipulation of biochemical pathways, and their effect on the biomechanical properties of spontaneously beating cardiomyocytes. The following 2-day protocol describes the isolation and culture of neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes. We show how to easily dissect hearts from neonates, dissociate the cardiac tissue and enrich cardiomyocytes from the cardiac cell-population. We discuss the usage of different enzyme mixes for cell-dissociation, and their effects on cell-viability. The isolated cardiomyocytes can be subsequently used for a variety of morphological, electrophysiological, biochemical, cell-biological or biomechanical assays. We optimized the protocol for robustness and reproducibility, by using only commercially available solutions and enzyme mixes that show little lot-to-lot variability. We also address common problems associated with the isolation and culture of cardiomyocytes, and offer a variety of options for the optimization of isolation and culture conditions. PMID:24056408

  19. HMGB1 mediates hyperglycaemia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis via ERK/Ets-1 signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Ke; Lu, Qing-Hua; Zhang, Jia-Ning; Wang, Ben; Liu, Xiang-Juan; An, Feng-Shuang; Qin, Wei-Dong; Chen, Xue-Ying; Dong, Wen-Qian; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Ming-Xiang

    2014-11-01

    Apoptosis is a key event involved in diabetic cardiomyopathy. The expression of high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is up-regulated in diabetic mice. However, the molecular mechanism of high glucose (HG)-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis remains obscure. We aimed to determine the role of HMGB1 in HG-induced apoptosis of cardiomyocytes. Treating neonatal primary cardiomyocytes with HG increased cell apoptosis, which was accompanied by elevated levels of HMGB1. Inhibition of HMGB1 by short-hairpin RNA significantly decreased HG-induced cell apoptosis by reducing caspase-3 activation and ratio of Bcl2-associated X protein to B-cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 (bax/bcl-2). Furthermore, HG activated E26 transformation-specific sequence-1 (Ets-1), and HMGB1 inhibition attenuated HG-induced activation of Ets-1 via extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signalling. In addition, inhibition of Ets-1 significantly decreased HG-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Similar results were observed in streptozotocin-treated diabetic mice. Inhibition of HMGB1 by short-hairpin RNA markedly decreased myocardial cell apoptosis and activation of ERK and Ets-1 in diabetic mice. In conclusion, inhibition of HMGB1 may protect against hyperglycaemia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis by down-regulating ERK-dependent activation of Ets-1. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  20. Cardiac Fibroblasts Regulate Sympathetic Nerve Sprouting and Neurocardiac Synapse Stability

    PubMed Central

    Mias, Céline; Coatrieux, Christelle; Denis, Colette; Genet, Gaël; Seguelas, Marie-Hélène; Laplace, Nathalie; Rouzaud-Laborde, Charlotte; Calise, Denis; Parini, Angelo; Cussac, Daniel; Pathak, Atul; Sénard, Jean-Michel; Galés, Céline

    2013-01-01

    Sympathetic nervous system (SNS) plays a key role in cardiac homeostasis and its deregulations always associate with bad clinical outcomes. To date, little is known about molecular mechanisms regulating cardiac sympathetic innervation. The aim of the study was to determine the role of fibroblasts in heart sympathetic innervation. RT-qPCR and western-blots analysis performed in cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts isolated from healthy adult rat hearts revealed that Pro-Nerve growth factor (NGF) and pro-differentiating mature NGF were the most abundant neurotrophins expressed in cardiac fibroblasts while barely detectable in cardiomyocytes. When cultured with cardiac fibroblasts or fibroblast-conditioned medium, PC12 cells differentiated into/sympathetic-like neurons expressing axonal marker Tau-1 at neurites in contact with cardiomyocytes. This was prevented by anti-NGF blocking antibodies suggesting a paracrine action of NGF secreted by fibroblasts. When co-cultured with cardiomyocytes to mimic neurocardiac synapse, differentiated PC12 cells exhibited enhanced norepinephrine secretion as quantified by HPLC compared to PC12 cultured alone while co-culture with fibroblasts had no effect. However, when supplemented to PC12-cardiomyocytes co-culture, fibroblasts allowed long-term survival of the neurocardiac synapse. Activated fibroblasts (myofibroblasts) isolated from myocardial infarction rat hearts exhibited significantly higher mature NGF expression than normal fibroblasts and also promoted PC12 cells differentiation. Within the ischemic area lacking cardiomyocytes and neurocardiac synapses, tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity was increased and associated with local anarchical and immature sympathetic hyperinnervation but tissue norepinephrine content was similar to that of normal cardiac tissue, suggesting depressed sympathetic function. Collectively, these findings demonstrate for the first time that fibroblasts are essential for the setting of cardiac sympathetic

  1. Controlled-release systems for the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Liliana; Wolf, David; Markus, Arie; Wybraniec, Sławomir; Wiesman, Zeev

    2003-09-24

    A simple technique was developed for the production of controlled-release systems (CRSs) for pyriproxyfen, an insect growth regulator active against the larvae of Culex pipiens, the most common species of mosquito found in developed countries. The CRSs consisted of a spongy core material encapsulated in a coating of a polyurethane or polyurea hydrogel, into which the active ingredient had been incorporated. The coating also included a surfactant to improve the low solubility in water of pyriproxyfen. The light core material enabled the CRS to float on the water surface, where the mosquitoe larvae are found. The type and amount of the polymeric coating and the amount of surfactant influenced the release profiles into water of the active ingredient. The release profiles of the CRSs were adjusted to the life cycle of the C. pipiens mosquito in order to obtain their optimal activity on the eighth day, which corresponds to the time of larval maturity.

  2. Regulation of Microtubule Growth and Catastrophe: Unifying Theory and Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Bowne-Anderson, Hugo; Hibbel, Anneke; Howard, Jonathon

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have found that microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) can regulate the dynamical properties of microtubules in unexpected ways. For most MAPs, there is an inverse relationship between their effects on the speed of growth and the frequency of catastrophe, the conversion of a growing microtubule to a shrinking one. Such a negative correlation is predicted by the standard GTP-cap model, which posits that catastrophe is due to loss of a stabilizing cap of GTP-tubulin at the end of a growing microtubule. However, many other MAPs, notably Kinesin-4 and combinations of EB1 with XMAP215, contradict this general rule. In this review, we show that a more nuanced, but still simple, GTP-cap model, can account for the diverse regulatory activities of MAPs. PMID:26616192

  3. Janus kinase-2 signaling mediates apoptosis in rat cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Mascareno, Eduardo; Beckles, Daniel L; Siddiqui, M A Q

    2005-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that activation Jak2, which is prominently involved in the up-regulation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), constitutes a focal point in relaying signals triggered by a Angiotensin II (Ang II) and hypoxia/reoxygenation separately to cause an enhanced susceptibility of cardiac myocyte to apoptotic cell death. Ang II-treated adult cardiomyocytes in culture exhibited an increased level of apoptosis that accompanied activation of pro-apoptotic as well as anti-apoptotic signaling pathways. We observed increased phosphorylation of Jak2 kinase, Stat1, JNK, with increased expression of Bax protein, followed by an increase in caspase-1 and caspase-3 activity. Activation of these pro-apoptotic pathways was blocked by the Jak2 pharmacological inhibitor, Tyrphostin AG490. We also observed an increase in phosphorylation of cardioprotective pathway components, namely S6 ribosomal protein, and heat shock protein 27 (HSP27). Likewise, the oxidative stress, via the hypoxia/reoxygenation treatment of rat adult cardiomyocytes, produced apoptosis that was dependent upon activation of Jak2. The apoptotic response was not only reduced by Losartan, an inverse agonist of the AT1, receptor, but by treatment with AG490 as well. Taken together, these observations provide clear evidence in favor of Jak2 signaling as mediator of the apoptotic response in cardiomyocytes. However, there was a concomitant induction of cytoprotective signaling that presumably provides a negative feed-back to the deleterious effects of the agonist.

  4. Role of Histone Demethylases in Cardiomyocytes Induced to Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Carulla, Juan; García, Jeison

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic changes induced by histone demethylases play an important role in differentiation and pathological changes in cardiac cells. However, the role of the jumonji family of demethylases in the development of cardiac hypertrophy remains elusive. In this study, the presence of different histone demethylases in cardiac cells was evaluated after hypertrophy was induced with neurohormones. A cell line from rat cardiomyocytes was used as a biological model. The phenotypic profiles of the cells, as well as the expression of histone demethylases, were studied through immunofluorescence, transient transfection, western blot, and qRT-PCR analysis after inducing hypertrophy by angiotensin II and endothelin-1. An increase in fetal gene expression (ANP, BNP, and β-MHC) was observed in cardiomyocytes after treatment with angiotensin II and endothelin-1. A significant increase in JMJD2A expression, but not in UTX or JMJD2C expression, was observed. When JMJD2A was overexpressed in cardiomyocytes through transient transfection, the effect of neurohormones on fetal cardiac gene expression was increased. We conclude that JMJD2A plays a principal role in the regulation of fetal cardiac genes, which increase in expression during the pathological hypertrophic process. PMID:27722168

  5. Triiodothyronine regulates cell growth and survival in renal cell cancer.

    PubMed

    Czarnecka, Anna M; Matak, Damian; Szymanski, Lukasz; Czarnecka, Karolina H; Lewicki, Slawomir; Zdanowski, Robert; Brzezianska-Lasota, Ewa; Szczylik, Cezary

    2016-10-01

    Triiodothyronine plays an important role in the regulation of kidney cell growth, differentiation and metabolism. Patients with renal cell cancer who develop hypothyreosis during tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment have statistically longer survival. In this study, we developed cell based model of triiodothyronine (T3) analysis in RCC and we show the different effects of T3 on renal cell cancer (RCC) cell growth response and expression of the thyroid hormone receptor in human renal cell cancer cell lines from primary and metastatic tumors along with human kidney cancer stem cells. Wild-type thyroid hormone receptor is ubiquitously expressed in human renal cancer cell lines, but normalized against healthy renal proximal tube cell expression its level is upregulated in Caki-2, RCC6, SKRC-42, SKRC-45 cell lines. On the contrary the mRNA level in the 769-P, ACHN, HKCSC, and HEK293 cells is significantly decreased. The TRβ protein was abundant in the cytoplasm of the 786-O, Caki-2, RCC6, and SKRC-45 cells and in the nucleus of SKRC-42, ACHN, 769-P and cancer stem cells. T3 has promoting effect on the cell proliferation of HKCSC, Caki-2, ASE, ACHN, SK-RC-42, SMKT-R2, Caki-1, 786-0, and SK-RC-45 cells. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor, sunitinib, directly inhibits proliferation of RCC cells, while thyroid hormone receptor antagonist 1-850 (CAS 251310‑57-3) has less significant inhibitory impact. T3 stimulation does not abrogate inhibitory effect of sunitinib. Renal cancer tumor cells hypostimulated with T3 may be more responsive to tyrosine kinase inhibition. Moreover, some tumors may be considered as T3-independent and present aggressive phenotype with thyroid hormone receptor activated independently from the ligand. On the contrary proliferation induced by deregulated VHL and or c-Met pathways may transgress normal T3 mediated regulation of the cell cycle.

  6. Evidence for a Critical Role of Catecholamines for Cardiomyocyte Lineage Commitment in Murine Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Martin; Nguemo, Filomain; Wagh, Vilas; Pfannkuche, Kurt; Hescheler, Jürgen; Reppel, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Catecholamine release is known to modulate cardiac output by increasing heart rate. Although much is known about catecholamine function and regulation in adults, little is known about the presence and role of catecholamines during heart development. The present study aimed therefore to evaluate the effects of different catecholamines on early heart development in an in vitro setting using embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived cardiomyocytes. Effects of catecholamine depletion induced by reserpine were examined in murine ES cells (line D3, αPIG44) during differentiation. Cardiac differentiation was assessed by immunocytochemistry, qRT-PCR, quantification of beating clusters, flow cytometry and pharmacological approaches. Proliferation was analyzed by EB cross-section measurements, while functionality of cardiomyocytes was studied by extracellular field potential (FP) measurements using microelectrode arrays (MEAs). To further differentiate between substance-specific effects of reserpine and catecholamine action via α- and β-receptors we proved the involvement of adrenergic receptors by application of unspecific α- and β-receptor antagonists. Reserpine treatment led to remarkable down-regulation of cardiac-specific genes, proteins and mesodermal marker genes. In more detail, the average ratio of ∼40% spontaneously beating control clusters was significantly reduced by 100%, 91.1% and 20.0% on days 10, 12, and 14, respectively. Flow cytometry revealed a significant reduction (by 71.6%, n = 11) of eGFP positive CMs after reserpine treatment. By contrast, reserpine did not reduce EB growth while number of neuronal cells in reserpine-treated EBs was significantly increased. MEA measurements of reserpine-treated EBs showed lower FP frequencies and weak responsiveness to adrenergic and muscarinic stimulation. Interestingly we found that developmental inhibition after α- and β-adrenergic blocker application mimicked developmental changes with reserpine. Using several

  7. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 directly regulates murine neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, Charles-Félix; Fontaine, Romain H.; Soueid, Jihane; Tammela, Tuomas; Makinen, Taija; Alfaro-Cervello, Clara; Bonnaud, Fabien; Miguez, Andres; Benhaim, Lucile; Xu, Yunling; Barallobre, Maria-José; Moutkine, Imane; Lyytikkä, Johannes; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Pytowski, Bronislaw; Zalc, Bernard; Richardson, William; Kessaris, Nicoletta; Garcia-Verdugo, Jose Manuel; Alitalo, Kari; Eichmann, Anne; Thomas, Jean-Léon

    2011-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are slowly dividing astrocytes that are intimately associated with capillary endothelial cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the brain. Functionally, members of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family can stimulate neurogenesis as well as angiogenesis, but it has been unclear whether they act directly via VEGF receptors (VEGFRs) expressed by neural cells, or indirectly via the release of growth factors from angiogenic capillaries. Here, we show that VEGFR-3, a receptor required for lymphangiogenesis, is expressed by NSCs and is directly required for neurogenesis. Vegfr3:YFP reporter mice show VEGFR-3 expression in multipotent NSCs, which are capable of self-renewal and are activated by the VEGFR-3 ligand VEGF-C in vitro. Overexpression of VEGF-C stimulates VEGFR-3-expressing NSCs and neurogenesis in the SVZ without affecting angiogenesis. Conversely, conditional deletion of Vegfr3 in neural cells, inducible deletion in subventricular astrocytes, and blocking of VEGFR-3 signaling with antibodies reduce SVZ neurogenesis. Therefore, VEGF-C/VEGFR-3 signaling acts directly on NSCs and regulates adult neurogenesis, opening potential approaches for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:21498572

  8. Symbiotic regulation of plant growth, development and reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, R.J.; Freeman, D. Carl; McArthur, E.D.; Kim, Y.-O.; Redman, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    The growth and development of rice (Oryzae sativa) seedlings was shown to be regulated epigenetically by a fungal endophyte. In contrast to un-inoculated (nonsymbiotic) plants, endophyte colonized (symbiotic) plants preferentially allocated resources into root growth until root hairs were well established. During that time symbiotic roots expanded at five times the rate observed in nonsymbiotic plants. Endophytes also influenced sexual reproduction of mature big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) plants. Two spatially distinct big sagebrush subspecies and their hybrids were symbiotic with unique fungal endophytes, despite being separated by only 380 m distance and 60 m elevation. A double reciprocal transplant experiment of parental and hybrid plants, and soils across the hybrid zone showed that fungal endophytes interact with the soils and different plant genotypes to confer enhanced plant reproduction in soil native to the endophyte and reduced reproduction in soil alien to the endophyte. Moreover, the most prevalent endophyte of the hybrid zone reduced the fitness of both parental subspecies. Because these endophytes are passed to the next generation of plants on seed coats, this interaction provides a selective advantage, habitat specificity, and the means of restricting gene flow, thereby making the hybrid zone stable, narrow and potentially leading to speciation. ?? 2009 Landes Bioscience.

  9. Computational insight into the chemical space of plant growth regulators.

    PubMed

    Bushkov, Nikolay A; Veselov, Mark S; Chuprov-Netochin, Roman N; Marusich, Elena I; Majouga, Alexander G; Volynchuk, Polina B; Shumilina, Daria V; Leonov, Sergey V; Ivanenkov, Yan A

    2016-02-01

    An enormous technological progress has resulted in an explosive growth in the amount of biological and chemical data that is typically multivariate and tangled in structure. Therefore, several computational approaches have mainly focused on dimensionality reduction and convenient representation of high-dimensional datasets to elucidate the relationships between the observed activity (or effect) and calculated parameters commonly expressed in terms of molecular descriptors. We have collected the experimental data available in patent and scientific publications as well as specific databases for various agrochemicals. The resulting dataset was then thoroughly analyzed using Kohonen-based self-organizing technique. The overall aim of the presented study is to investigate whether the developed in silico model can be applied to predict the agrochemical activity of small molecule compounds and, at the same time, to offer further insights into the distinctive features of different agrochemical categories. The preliminary external validation with several plant growth regulators demonstrated a relatively high prediction power (67%) of the constructed model. This study is, actually, the first example of a large-scale modeling in the field of agrochemistry.

  10. Light regulation of the growth response in corn root gravitropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, M. O.; Leopold, A. C.

    1992-01-01

    Roots of Merit variety corn (Zea mays L.) require red light for orthogravitropic curvature. Experiments were undertaken to identify the step in the pathway from gravity perception to asymmetric growth on which light may act. Red light was effective in inducing gravitropism whether it was supplied concomitant with or as long as 30 minutes after the gravity stimulus (GS). The presentation time was the same whether the GS was supplied in red light or in darkness. Red light given before the GS slightly enhanced the rate of curvature but had little effect on the lag time or on the final curvature. This enhancement was expanded by a delay between the red light pulse and the GS. These results indicate that gravity perception and at least the initial transduction steps proceed in the dark. Light may regulate the final growth (motor) phase of gravitropism. The time required for full expression of the light enhancement of curvature is consistent with its involvement in some light-stimulated biosynthetic event.

  11. Light regulation of the growth response in corn root gravitropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, M. O.; Leopold, A. C.

    1992-01-01

    Roots of Merit variety corn (Zea mays L.) require red light for orthogravitropic curvature. Experiments were undertaken to identify the step in the pathway from gravity perception to asymmetric growth on which light may act. Red light was effective in inducing gravitropism whether it was supplied concomitant with or as long as 30 minutes after the gravity stimulus (GS). The presentation time was the same whether the GS was supplied in red light or in darkness. Red light given before the GS slightly enhanced the rate of curvature but had little effect on the lag time or on the final curvature. This enhancement was expanded by a delay between the red light pulse and the GS. These results indicate that gravity perception and at least the initial transduction steps proceed in the dark. Light may regulate the final growth (motor) phase of gravitropism. The time required for full expression of the light enhancement of curvature is consistent with its involvement in some light-stimulated biosynthetic event.

  12. Minireview: Mechanisms of Growth Hormone-Mediated Gene Regulation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    GH exerts a diverse array of physiological actions that include prominent roles in growth and metabolism, with a major contribution via stimulating IGF-1 synthesis. GH achieves its effects by influencing gene expression profiles, and Igf1 is a key transcriptional target of GH signaling in liver and other tissues. This review examines the mechanisms of GH-mediated gene regulation that begin with signal transduction pathways activated downstream of the GH receptor and continue with chromatin events at target genes and additionally encompasses the topics of negative regulation and cross talk with other cellular inputs. The transcription factor, signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b, is regarded as the major signaling pathway by which GH achieves its physiological effects, including in stimulating Igf1 gene transcription in liver. Recent studies exploring the mechanisms of how activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b accomplishes this are highlighted, which begin to characterize epigenetic features at regulatory domains of the Igf1 locus. Further research in this field offers promise to better understand the GH-IGF-1 axis in normal physiology and disease and to identify strategies to manipulate the axis to improve human health. PMID:24825400

  13. Minireview: mechanisms of growth hormone-mediated gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Chia, Dennis J

    2014-07-01

    GH exerts a diverse array of physiological actions that include prominent roles in growth and metabolism, with a major contribution via stimulating IGF-1 synthesis. GH achieves its effects by influencing gene expression profiles, and Igf1 is a key transcriptional target of GH signaling in liver and other tissues. This review examines the mechanisms of GH-mediated gene regulation that begin with signal transduction pathways activated downstream of the GH receptor and continue with chromatin events at target genes and additionally encompasses the topics of negative regulation and cross talk with other cellular inputs. The transcription factor, signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b, is regarded as the major signaling pathway by which GH achieves its physiological effects, including in stimulating Igf1 gene transcription in liver. Recent studies exploring the mechanisms of how activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b accomplishes this are highlighted, which begin to characterize epigenetic features at regulatory domains of the Igf1 locus. Further research in this field offers promise to better understand the GH-IGF-1 axis in normal physiology and disease and to identify strategies to manipulate the axis to improve human health.

  14. Epidermal Growth Factor Regulates Hematopoietic Regeneration Following Radiation Injury

    PubMed Central

    Doan, Phuong L.; Himburg, Heather A.; Helms, Katherine; Russell, J. Lauren; Fixsen, Emma; Quarmyne, Mamle; Harris, Jeffrey R.; Deoliviera, Divino; Sullivan, Julie M.; Chao, Nelson J.; Kirsch, David G.; Chute, John P.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms which regulate HSC regeneration following myelosuppressive injury are not well understood. We identified epidermal growth factor (EGF) to be highly enriched in the bone marrow (BM) serum of mice bearing deletion of Bak and Bax in Tie2+ cells (Tie2Cre;Bak1−/−;Baxfl/− mice), which displayed radioprotection of the HSC pool and 100% survival following lethal dose total body irradiation (TBI). BM HSCs from wild type mice expressed functional EGFR and systemic administration of EGF promoted the recovery of the HSC pool in vivo and the improved survival of mice following TBI. Conversely, administration of erlotinib, an EGFR antagonist, significantly decreased both HSC regeneration and mice survival following TBI. VavCre;EGFRfl/+ mice also demonstrated delayed recovery of BM stem/progenitor cells following TBI compared to VavCre;EGFR+/+ mice. Mechanistically, EGF reduced radiation-induced apoptosis of HSCs and mediated this effect via repression of the proapoptotic protein, PUMA. EGFR signaling regulates HSC regeneration following myelosuppressive injury. PMID:23377280

  15. Hepatocyte Growth Factor Regulates Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Expression*

    PubMed Central

    Day, Regina M.; Thiel, Gerald; Lum, Julie; Chévere, Rubén D.; Yang, Yongzhen; Stevens, Joanne; Sibert, Laura; Fanburg, Barry L.

    2008-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a mitogen, morphogen, and motogen that functions in tissue healing and acts as an anti-fibrotic factor. The mechanism for this is not well understood. Recent studies implicate somatic angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in fibrosis. We examined the effects of HGF on ACE expression in bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells (BPAEC). Short term treatment of BPAEC with HGF transiently increased both ACE mRNA (3 h) and activity (24 h), as determined by ACE protease assays and reverse transcription-PCR. Incubation of BPAEC with HGF for longer periods suppressed ACE mRNA (6 h) and activity (72 h). In contrast, phorbol ester (PMA) treatment produced sustained increase in ACE mRNA and activity. We examined the short term molecular effects of HGF on ACE using PMA for comparison. HGF and PMA increased transcription from a luciferase reporter with the core ACE promoter, which contains a composite binding site for SP1/3 and Egr-1. Immunocytochemistry and electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that both HGF and PMA increased Egr-1 binding. HGF also increased SP3 binding, as measured by EMSA. However, HGF and PMA increased the cellular activity of only Egr-1, not SP3, as measured by luciferase reporter assays. Deletion of the Egr-1 site in the reporter construct completely abrogated HGF-induced transcription but only ~50% of PMA-induced activity. Expression of dominant negative Egr-1 and SP3 blocked up-regulation of the ACE promoter by HGF but only reduced up-regulation by PMA. These results show that HGF transiently increases gene transcription of ACE via activation of Egr-1, whereas PMA regulation involves Egr-1 and additional factor(s). PMID:14679188

  16. Nicotine plus a high-fat diet triggers cardiomyocyte apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Sinha-Hikim, Indrani; Friedman, Theodore C; Falz, Mark; Chalfant, Victor; Hasan, Mohammad Kamrul; Espinoza-Derout, Jorge; Lee, Desean L; Sims, Carl; Tran, Peter; Mahata, Sushil K; Sinha-Hikim, Amiya P

    2017-04-01

    Cigarette smoking is an important risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular disease and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The health risk associated with smoking can be aggravated by obesity. Smoking might also trigger cardiomyocyte (CM) apoptosis. Given that CM apoptosis has been implicated as a potential mechanism in the development of cardiomyopathy and heart failure, we characterize the key signaling pathways in nicotine plus high-fat diet (HFD)-induced CM apoptosis. Adult C57BL6 male mice were fed a normal diet (ND) or HFD and received twice-daily intraperitoneal (IP) injections of nicotine (0.75 mg/kg body weight [BW]) or saline for 16 weeks. An additional group of nicotine-treated mice on HFD received twice-daily IP injections of mecamylamine (1 mg/kg BW), a non-selective nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, for 16 weeks. Nicotine when combined with HFD led to a massive increase in CM apoptosis that was fully prevented by mecamylamine treatment. Induction of CM apoptosis was associated with increased oxidative stress and activation of caspase-2-mediated intrinsic pathway signaling coupled with inactivation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Furthermore, nicotine treatment significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated the HFD-induced decrease in fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) and silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1). We conclude that nicotine, when combined with HFD, triggers CM apoptosis through the generation of oxidative stress and inactivation of AMPK together with the activation of caspase-2-mediated intrinsic apoptotic signaling independently of FGF21 and SIRT1.

  17. Expression of Drosophila FOXO regulates growth and can phenocopy starvation

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Jamie M; Davidge, Jason T; Lockyer, Joseph M; Staveley, Brian E

    2003-01-01

    Background Components of the insulin signaling pathway are important regulators of growth. The FOXO (forkhead box, sub-group "O") transcription factors regulate cellular processes under conditions of low levels of insulin signaling. Studies in mammalian cell culture show that activation of FOXO transcription factors causes cell death or cell cycle arrest. The Caenorhabiditis elegans homologue of FOXO, Daf-16, is required for the formation of dauer larvae in response to nutritional stress. In addition, FOXO factors have been implicated in stress resistance and longevity. Results We have identified the Drosophila melanogaster homologue of FOXO (dFOXO), which is conserved in amino acid sequence compared with the mammalian FOXO homologues and Daf-16. Expression of dFOXO during early larval development causes inhibition of larval growth and alterations in feeding behavior. Inhibition of larval growth is reversible upon discontinuation of dFOXO expression. Expression of dFOXO during the third larval instar or at low levels during development leads to the generation of adults that are reduced in size. Analysis of the wings and eyes of these small flies indicates that the reduction in size is due to decreases in cell size and cell number. Overexpression of dFOXO in the developing eye leads to a characteristic phenotype with reductions in cell size and cell number. This phenotype can be rescued by co-expression of upstream insulin signaling components, dPI3K and dAkt, however, this rescue is not seen when FOXO is mutated to a constitutively active form. Conclusions dFOXO is conserved in both sequence and regulatory mechanisms when compared with other FOXO homologues. The establishment of Drosophila as a model for the study of FOXO transcription factors should prove beneficial to determining the biological role of these signaling molecules. The alterations in larval development seen upon overexpression of dFOXO closely mimic the phenotypic effects of starvation, suggesting a

  18. Molecular Characterization of Striated Muscle-Specific Gab1 Isoform as a Critical Signal Transducer for Neuregulin-1/ErbB Signaling in Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Yasui, Taku; Masaki, Takeshi; Arita, Yoh; Ishibashi, Tomohiko; Inagaki, Tadakatsu; Okazawa, Makoto; Oka, Toru; Shioyama, Wataru; Yamauchi-Takihara, Keiko; Komuro, Issei; Sakata, Yasushi; Nakaoka, Yoshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Grb2-associated binder (Gab) docking proteins regulate signals downstream of a variety of growth factors and receptor tyrosine kinases. Neuregulin-1 (NRG-1), a member of epidermal growth factor family, plays a critical role for cardiomyocyte proliferation and prevention of heart failure via ErbB receptors. We previously reported that Gab1 and Gab2 in the myocardium are essential for maintenance of myocardial function in the postnatal heart via transmission of NRG-1/ErbB-signaling through analysis of Gab1/Gab2 cardiomyocyte-specific double knockout mice. In that study, we also found that there is an unknown high-molecular weight (high-MW) Gab1 isoform (120 kDa) expressed exclusively in the heart, in addition to the ubiquitously expressed low-MW (100 kDa) Gab1. However, the high-MW Gab1 has been molecularly ill-defined to date. Here, we identified the high-MW Gab1 as a striated muscle-specific isoform. The high-MW Gab1 has an extra exon encoding 27 amino acid residues between the already-known 3rd and 4th exons of the ubiquitously expressed low-MW Gab1. Expression analysis by RT-PCR and immunostaining with the antibody specific for the high-MW Gab1 demonstrate that the high-MW Gab1 isoform is exclusively expressed in striated muscle including heart and skeletal muscle. The ratio of high-MW Gab1/ total Gab1 mRNAs increased along with heart development. The high-MW Gab1 isoform in heart underwent tyrosine-phosphorylation exclusively after intravenous administration of NRG-1, among several growth factors. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of the high-MW Gab1 induces more sustained activation of AKT after stimulation with NRG-1 in cardiomyocytes compared with that of β-galactosidase. On the contrary, siRNA-mediated knockdown of the high-MW Gab1 significantly attenuated AKT activation after stimulation with NRG-1 in cardiomyocytes. Taken together, these findings suggest that the striated muscle-specific high-MW isoform of Gab1 has a crucial role for NRG-1/ErbB signaling

  19. Regulation of growth hormone secretion by the growth hormone releasing hexapeptide (GHRP-6).

    PubMed

    Micic, D; Mallo, F; Peino, R; Cordido, F; Leal-Cerro, A; Garcia-Mayor, R V; Casanueva, F F

    1993-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) secretion is regulated by a complex system of central and peripheral signals. Recently, a new GH-releasing hexapeptide (His-D-Trp-Ala-Trp-D-Phe-Lys-NH2) called GHRP-6 which specifically releases GH has been studied. In the present work the mechanism of action of GHRP-6 has been addressed in experimental animal models as well as in obese subjects. GHRP-6 releases GH independently of the hypothalamic factors GHRH and somatostatin and is a powerful GH releaser in obesity.

  20. The growth factor myostatin, a key regulator in skeletal muscle growth and homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Matsakas, A; Diel, P

    2005-03-01

    Skeletal muscle possesses the ability to both respond and adapt to changing environmental stimuli, leading to a set of metabolic and morphological adaptations, which allow it to better meet the energy demands of sustained physical activity. Great progress has been achieved over the past years by means of innovative molecular techniques, which has led to the discovery of new growth factors and the identification of molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of muscle development. These findings provide new starting points to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the adaptation of skeletal muscle to exercise training. One of these new identified growth factors is myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor-beta family of proteins that has been demonstrated to play a fundamental role in the regulation of skeletal muscle growth during embryogenesis. Blocking of the myostatin signalling transduction pathway by specific inhibitors and genetic manipulations has been shown to result in a dramatic increase of skeletal muscle mass. This review focuses on the importance of myostatin in mediating skeletal muscle homeostasis in response to training as well as during the progress of myogenic disease, like atrophy or dystrophy. Manipulations of myostatin signalling may be useful for agriculture applications, treatment of muscle diseases, inhibition of muscle atrophy and last but not least as life style drugs in antiaging therapies or manipulations of the muscle to fat ratio. Drugs with the ability to modulate myostatin signalling may have the potential to enhance physical performance in athletes and therefore they probably represent a new class of doping substances.

  1. Cardiomyocytes with disrupted CFTR function require CaMKII and Ca2+-activated Cl− channel activity to maintain contraction rate

    PubMed Central

    Sellers, Zachary M; De Arcangelis, Vania; Xiang, Yang; Best, Philip M

    2010-01-01

    The physiological role of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in cardiomyocytes remains unclear. Using spontaneously beating neonatal ventricular cardiomyocytes from wild-type (WT) or CFTR knockout (KO) mice, we examined the role of CFTR in the modulation of cardiomyocyte contraction rate. Contraction rates of spontaneously beating myocytes were captured by video imaging. Real-time changes in intracellular ([Ca2+]i) and protein kinase A (PKA) activity were measured by fura-2 and fluorescence resonance energy transfer, respectively. Acute inhibition of CFTR in WT cardiomyocytes using the CFTR inhibitor CFTRinh-172 transiently inhibited the contraction rate. By contrast, cardiomyocytes from CFTR KO mice displayed normal contraction rates. Further investigation revealed that acute inhibition of CFTR activity in WT cardiomyoctyes activated L-type Ca2+ channels, leading to a transient increase of [Ca2+]i and inhibition of PKA activity. Additionally, we found that contraction rate normalization following acute CFTR inhibition in WT cardiomyocytes or chronic deletion in cardiomyocytes from CFTR KO mice requires the activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) and Ca2+-activated Cl− channels (CaCC) because simultaneous addition of myristoylated-autocamtide-2-related inhibitory peptide or niflumic acid and CFTRinh-172 to WT cardiomyocytes or treatment of cardiomyoctes from CFTR KO mice with these agents caused sustained attenuation of contraction rates. Our results demonstrate that regulation of cardiomyocyte contraction involves CFTR. They also reveal that activation of CaMKII and CaCC compensates for loss of CFTR function. Increased dependence on CaMKII upon loss of CFTR function might leave cystic fibrosis patients at increased risk of heart dysfunction and disease. PMID:20442264

  2. Disruption of a GATA4/Ankrd1 signaling axis in cardiomyocytes leads to sarcomere disarray: implications for anthracycline cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Billy; Zhong, Lin; Roush, Sarah F; Pentassuglia, Laura; Peng, Xuyang; Samaras, Susan; Davidson, Jeffrey M; Sawyer, Douglas B; Lim, Chee Chew

    2012-01-01

    Doxorubicin (Adriamycin) is an effective anti-cancer drug, but its clinical usage is limited by a dose-dependent cardiotoxicity characterized by widespread sarcomere disarray and loss of myofilaments. Cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (CARP, ANKRD1) is a transcriptional regulatory protein that is extremely susceptible to doxorubicin; however, the mechanism(s) of doxorubicin-induced CARP depletion and its specific role in cardiomyocytes have not been completely defined. We report that doxorubicin treatment in cardiomyocytes resulted in inhibition of CARP transcription, depletion of CARP protein levels, inhibition of myofilament gene transcription, and marked sarcomere disarray. Knockdown of CARP with small interfering RNA (siRNA) similarly inhibited myofilament gene transcription and disrupted cardiomyocyte sarcomere structure. Adenoviral overexpression of CARP, however, was unable to rescue the doxorubicin-induced sarcomere disarray phenotype. Doxorubicin also induced depletion of the cardiac transcription factor GATA4 in cardiomyocytes. CARP expression is regulated in part by GATA4, prompting us to examine the relationship between GATA4 and CARP in cardiomyocytes. We show in co-transfection experiments that GATA4 operates upstream of CARP by activating the proximal CARP promoter. GATA4-siRNA knockdown in cardiomyocytes inhibited CARP expression and myofilament gene transcription, and induced extensive sarcomere disarray. Adenoviral overexpression of GATA4 (AdV-GATA4) in cardiomyocytes prior to doxorubicin exposure maintained GATA4 levels, modestly restored CARP levels, and attenuated sarcomere disarray. Interestingly, siRNA-mediated depletion of CARP completely abolished the Adv-GATA4 rescue of the doxorubicin-induced sarcomere phenotype. These data demonstrate co-dependent roles for GATA4 and CARP in regulating sarcomere gene expression and maintaining sarcomeric organization in cardiomyocytes in culture. The data further suggests that concurrent depletion of GATA4

  3. Decreased inward rectifier potassium current IK1 in dystrophin-deficient ventricular cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Rubi, Lena; Koenig, Xaver; Kubista, Helmut; Todt, Hannes; Hilber, Karlheinz

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Kir2.x channels in ventricular cardiomyocytes (most prominently Kir2.1) account for the inward rectifier potassium current IK1, which controls the resting membrane potential and the final phase of action potential repolarization. Recently it was hypothesized that the dystrophin-associated protein complex (DAPC) is important in the regulation of Kir2.x channels. To test this hypothesis, we investigated potential IK1 abnormalities in dystrophin-deficient ventricular cardiomyocytes derived from the hearts of Duchenne muscular dystrophy mouse models. We found that IK1 was substantially diminished in dystrophin-deficient cardiomyocytes when compared to wild type myocytes. This finding represents the first functional evidence for a significant role of the DAPC in the regulation of Kir2.x channels. PMID:27560040

  4. Decreased inward rectifier potassium current IK1 in dystrophin-deficient ventricular cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Rubi, Lena; Koenig, Xaver; Kubista, Helmut; Todt, Hannes; Hilber, Karlheinz

    2017-03-04

    Kir2.x channels in ventricular cardiomyocytes (most prominently Kir2.1) account for the inward rectifier potassium current IK1, which controls the resting membrane potential and the final phase of action potential repolarization. Recently it was hypothesized that the dystrophin-associated protein complex (DAPC) is important in the regulation of Kir2.x channels. To test this hypothesis, we investigated potential IK1 abnormalities in dystrophin-deficient ventricular cardiomyocytes derived from the hearts of Duchenne muscular dystrophy mouse models. We found that IK1 was substantially diminished in dystrophin-deficient cardiomyocytes when compared to wild type myocytes. This finding represents the first functional evidence for a significant role of the DAPC in the regulation of Kir2.x channels.

  5. ATG16L1 phosphorylation is oppositely regulated by CSNK2/casein kinase 2 and PPP1/protein phosphatase 1 which determines the fate of cardiomyocytes during hypoxia/reoxygenation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Huiwen; Pu, Jun; Wang, Lin; Wu, Lihua; Xiao, Jianmin; Liu, Qigong; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Min; Liu, Yang; Ni, Mingke; Mo, Jinggang; Zheng, Yunliang; Wan, Deli; Cai, XiongJiu; Cao, Yaping; Xiao, Weiyi; Ye, Lei; Tu, Enyuan; Lin, Zhihai; Wen, Jianxin; Lu, Xiaoling; He, Jian; Peng, Yi; Su, Jing; Zhang, Heng; Zhao, Yongxiang; Lin, Meihua; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of ULK1 and ATG13 are related to autophagy activity. Although ATG16L1 is absolutely required for autophagy induction by affecting the formation of autophagosomes, the post-translational modification of ATG16L1 remains elusive. Here, we explored the regulatory mechanism and role of ATG16L1 phosphorylation for autophagy induction in cardiomyocytes. We showed that ATG16L1 was a phosphoprotein, because phosphorylation of ATG16L1 was detected in rat cardiomyocytes during hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R). We not only demonstrated that CSNK2 (casein kinase 2) phosphorylated ATG16L1, but also identified the highly conserved Ser139 as the critical phosphorylation residue for CSNK2. We further established that ATG16L1 associated with the ATG12-ATG5 complex in a Ser139 phosphorylation-dependent manner. In agreement with this finding, CSNK2 inhibitor disrupted the ATG12-ATG5-ATG16L1 complex. Importantly, phosphorylation of ATG16L1 on Ser139 was responsible for H/R-induced autophagy in cardiomyocytes, which protects cardiomyocytes from apoptosis. Conversely, we determined that wild-type PPP1 (protein phosphatase 1), but not the inactive mutant, associated with ATG16L1 and antagonized CSNK2-mediated phosphorylation of ATG16L1. Interestingly, one RVxF consensus site for PPP1 binding in the C-terminal tail of ATG16L1 was identified; mutation of this site disrupted its association with ATG16L1. Notably, CSNK2 also associated with PPP1, but ATG16L1 depletion impaired the interaction between CSNK2 and PPP1. Collectively, these data identify ATG16L1 as a bona fide physiological CSNK2 and PPP1 substrate, which reveals a novel molecular link from CSNK2 to activation of the autophagy-specific ATG12-ATG5-ATG16L1 complex and autophagy induction. PMID:26083323

  6. Combined renin-angiotensin system blockade and dietary sodium restriction impairs cardiomyocyte contractility.

    PubMed

    Trongtorsak, Petcharat; Morgan, Trefor O; Delbridge, Lea M D

    2003-12-01

    Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) by combined angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT(1)) antagonist treatment with reduced dietary sodium intake produces suppression of cardiac growth and regression of cardiac hypertrophy. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether cardiac growth suppression by combined RAS blockade under conditions of dietary sodium restriction is associated with cardiomyocyte atrophy and contractile dysfunction and whether this intervention modifies cardiomyocyte inotropic responsiveness to angiotensin II (Ang II). Rats were fed a high (4% w/w) or low (0.2% w/w) NaCl diet for six days. Both groups were then given a combined intraperitoneal injection of perindopril (6 mg/kg/day) and losartan (10 mg/kg/day) with maintained dietary treatment for another seven days. At the end of the treatment period, animals were anaesthetised and their hearts were removed and weighed. Left ventricular cardiomyocytes were isolated by enzymatic dissociation and cell dimensions were evaluated. A line scan camera and digital imaging technique were used to assess cardiomyocyte contraction and inotropic responses to exogenous Ang II (10 to 10(-8) M). Dietary treatment alone had no effect on body growth, whereas combined RAS blockade suppressed somatic growth in the low sodium (LS) group, compared with the high sodium (HS) group. This growth suppression in the LS group was also evident in the heart at the organ and cellular level. Studies of cardiomyocyte contraction showed that myocytes from the LS group exhibited contractile instability and depression of contractile performance. Compared with the HS group, myocytes from the LS group showed a significant reduction in maximum cell shortening (6.40+0.17 vs. 7.32+0.16% resting length, p<0.05), and maximum rate of shortening (3.85+0.14 vs. 4.29+0.11 cell length/ms, p<0.05). Myocytes of the HS group exhibited negative inotropic responses to Ang II at all

  7. Mesenchymal stem cell-cardiomyocyte interactions under defined contact modes on laser-patterned biochips.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhen; Yang, Huaxiao; Liu, Honghai; Xu, Meifeng; Runyan, Raymond B; Eisenberg, Carol A; Markwald, Roger R; Borg, Thomas K; Gao, Bruce Z

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how stem cells interact with cardiomyocytes is crucial for cell-based therapies to restore the cardiomyocyte loss that occurs during myocardial infarction and other cardiac diseases. It has been thought that functional myocardial repair and regeneration could be regulated by stem cell-cardiomyocyte contact. However, because various contact modes (junction formation, cell fusion, partial cell fusion, and tunneling nanotube formation) occur randomly in a conventional coculture system, the particular regulation corresponding to a specific contact mode could not be analyzed. In this study, we used laser-patterned biochips to define cell-cell contact modes for systematic study of contact-mediated cellular interactions at the single-cell level. The results showed that the biochip design allows defined stem cell-cardiomyocyte contact-mode formation, which can be used to determine specific cellular interactions, including electrical coupling, mechanical coupling, and mitochondria transfer. The biochips will help us gain knowledge of contact-mediated interactions between stem cells and cardiomyocytes, which are fundamental for formulating a strategy to achieve stem cell-based cardiac tissue regeneration.

  8. Hypertrophy changes 3D shape of hiPSC-cardiomyocytes: Implications for cellular maturation in regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Rupert, Cassady E; Chang, Heidi H; Coulombe, Kareen L K

    2017-02-01

    Advances in the use of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes for heart regeneration and in vitro disease models demand a greater understanding of how these cells grow and mature in 3-dimensional space. In this study, we developed an analysis methodology of single cardiomyocytes plated on 2D surfaces to assess their 3D myofilament volume and its z-height distribution, or shape, upon hypertrophic stimulation via phenylephrine (PE) treatment or long-term culture ("aging"). Cardiomyocytes were fixed and labeled with α-actinin for confocal microscopy imaging to obtain z-stacks for 3D myofilament volume analysis. In primary neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs), area increased 72% with PE, while volume increased 31%. In hiPSC-cardiomyocytes, area increased 70% with PE and 4-fold with aging; however, volume increased significantly only with aging by 2.3-fold. Analysis of z-height myofilament volume distribution in hiPSC-cardiomyocytes revealed a shift from a fairly uniform distribution in control cells to a basally located volume in a more flat and spread morphology with PE and even more so with aging, a shape that was akin to all NRVMs analyzed. These results suggest that 2D area is not a sufficient measure of hiPSC-cardiomyocyte growth and maturation, and that changes in 3D volume and its distribution are essential for understanding hiPSC-cardiomyocyte biology for disease modeling and regenerative medicine applications.

  9. MicroRNA-297 promotes cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via targeting sigma-1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Bao, Qinxue; Zhao, Mingyue; Chen, Li; Wang, Yu; Wu, Siyuan; Wu, Wenchao; Liu, Xiaojing

    2017-04-15

    Sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) is a ligand-regulated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone involved in cardiac hypertrophy, but it is not known whether Sig-1R is regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs). According to bioinformatic analysis, miR-297 was suggested as a potential target miRNA for Sig-1R. Therefore, we verified whether miR-297 could target Sig-1R and investigated the possible mechanisms underlying the role of miR-297 in cardiac hypertrophy. Bioinformatic analysis combined with laboratory experiments, including quantitative RT-PCR, Western blotting, and luciferase assay, were performed to identify the target miRNA of Sig-1R. Transverse aortic constriction (TAC) model and neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NCMs) stimulated with angiotensin II (AngII) were used to explore the relationship between miR-297 and Sig-1R. Additionally, the function of miR-297 in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and ER stress/unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathway was investigated by transfecting miR-297 mimics/inhibitor. miR-297 levels were increased in both TAC-induced hypertrophic heart tissue and AngII-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Up-regulation of miR-297 by specific mimics exacerbated AngII-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, whereas inhibition of miR-297 suppressed the process. During cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, Sig-1R expression, which was negatively regulated by miR-297 by directly targeting its 3'untranslated region (UTR), was decreased. Furthermore, attenuation of miR-297 inhibited the activation of X-box binding protein 1 (Xbp1) and activating transcriptional factor 4 (ATF4) signaling pathways in NCMs. Our data demonstrate that miR-297 promotes cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by inhibiting the expression of Sig-1R and activation of ER stress signaling, which provides a novel interpretation for cardiac hypertrophy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cytoprotective and Cytotoxic Effects of Rice Bran Extracts in Rat H9c2(2-1) Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xian Wen; Bhave, Mrinal; Fong, Alan Yean Yip; Matsuura, Eiji; Kobayashi, Kazuko; Shen, Lian Hua; Hwang, Siaw San

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed at preliminarily assessing the cytoprotective and antioxidative effects of rice bran extracts (RBEs) from a Sarawak local rice variety (local name: “BJLN”) and a commercial rice variety, “MR219,” on oxidative stress in rat H9c2(2-1) cardiomyocytes. The cardiomyocytes were incubated with different concentrations of RBE and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), respectively, to identify their respective IC50 values and safe dose ranges. Two nonlethal and close-to-IC50 doses of RBE were selected to evaluate their respective effects on H2O2 induced oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes. Both RBEs showed dose-dependent cytotoxicity effects on cardiomyocytes. H2O2 induction of cardiomyocytes pretreated with RBE further revealed the dose-dependent cytoprotective and antioxidative effects of RBE via an increase in IC50 values of H2O2. Preliminary analyses of induction effects of RBE and H2O2 on cellular antioxidant enzyme, catalase (CAT), also revealed their potential in regulating these activities and expression profile of related gene on oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes. Pretreated cardiomyocytes significantly upregulated the enzymatic activity and expression level of CAT under the exposure of H2O2 induced oxidative stress. This preliminary study has demonstrated the potential antioxidant effects of RBE in alleviating H2O2-mediated oxidative injuries via upregulation in enzymatic activities and expression levels of CAT. PMID:27239253

  11. Dual Modulation of the Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore and Redox Signaling Synergistically Promotes Cardiomyocyte Differentiation From Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung Woo; Park, Jin‐Sung; Heo, Hye Jin; Park, Sang‐Wook; Song, Sukhyun; Kim, Injune; Han, Yong‐Mahn; Yamashita, Jun K.; Youm, Jae Boum; Han, Jin; Koh, Gou Young

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiomyocytes that differentiate from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) provide a crucial cellular resource for cardiac regeneration. The mechanisms of mitochondrial metabolic and redox regulation for efficient cardiomyocyte differentiation are, however, still poorly understood. Here, we show that inhibition of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) by Cyclosporin A (CsA) promotes cardiomyocyte differentiation from PSCs. Methods and Results We induced cardiomyocyte differentiation from mouse and human PSCs and examined the effect of CsA on the differentiation process. The cardiomyogenic effect of CsA mainly resulted from mPTP inhibition rather than from calcineurin inhibition. The mPTP inhibitor NIM811, which does not have an inhibitory effect on calcineurin, promoted cardiomyocyte differentiation as much as CsA did, but calcineurin inhibitor FK506 only slightly increased cardiomyocyte differentiation. CsA‐treated cells showed an increase in mitochondrial calcium, mitochondrial membrane potential, oxygen consumption rate, ATP level, and expression of genes related to mitochondrial function. Furthermore, inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism reduced the cardiomyogenic effect of CsA while antioxidant treatment augmented the cardiomyogenic effect of CsA. Conclusions Our data show that mPTP inhibition by CsA alters mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and redox signaling, which leads to differentiation of functional cardiomyocytes from PSCs. PMID:24627421

  12. CDK9 and its repressor LARP7 modulate cardiomyocyte proliferation and response to injury in the zebrafish heart

    PubMed Central

    Matrone, Gianfranco; Wilson, Kathryn S.; Maqsood, Sana; Mullins, John J.; Tucker, Carl S.; Denvir, Martin A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cyclin dependent kinase (Cdk)9 acts through the positive transcription elongation factor-b (P-TEFb) complex to activate and expand transcription through RNA polymerase II. It has also been shown to regulate cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, with recent evidence linking it to cardiomyocyte proliferation. We hypothesised that modification of CDK9 activity could both impair and enhance the cardiac response to injury by modifying cardiomyocyte proliferation. Cdk9 expression and activity were inhibited in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo. We show that dephosphorylation of residue Ser2 on the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II is associated with impaired cardiac structure and function, and cardiomyocyte proliferation and also results in impaired functional recovery following cardiac laser injury. In contrast, de-repression of Cdk9 activity, through knockdown of La-related protein (Larp7) increases phosphorylation of Ser2 in RNA polymerase II and increases cardiomyocyte proliferation. Larp7 knockdown rescued the structural and functional phenotype associated with knockdown of Cdk9. The balance of Cdk9 and Larp7 plays a key role in cardiomyocyte proliferation and response to injury. Larp7 represents a potentially novel therapeutic target to promote cardiomyocyte proliferation and recovery from injury. PMID:26542022

  13. Ligand Receptor-Mediated Regulation of Growth in Plants.

    PubMed

    Haruta, Miyoshi; Sussman, Michael R

    2017-01-01

    Growth and development of multicellular organisms are coordinately regulated by various signaling pathways involving the communication of inter- and intracellular components. To form the appropriate body patterns, cellular growth and development are modulated by either stimulating or inhibiting these pathways. Hormones and second messengers help to mediate the initiation and/or interaction of the various signaling pathways in all complex multicellular eukaryotes. In plants, hormones include small organic molecules, as well as larger peptides and small proteins, which, as in animals, act as ligands and interact with receptor proteins to trigger rapid biochemical changes and induce the intracellular transcriptional and long-term physiological responses. During the past two decades, the availability of genetic and genomic resources in the model plant species, Arabidopsis thaliana, has greatly helped in the discovery of plant hormone receptors and the components of signal transduction pathways and mechanisms used by these immobile but highly complex organisms. Recently, it has been shown that two of the most important plant hormones, auxin and abscisic acid (ABA), act through signaling pathways that have not yet been recognized in animals. For example, auxins stimulate cell elongation by bringing negatively acting transcriptional repressor proteins to the proteasome to be degraded, thus unleashing the gene expression program required for increasing cell size. The "dormancy" inducing hormone, ABA, binds to soluble receptor proteins and inhibits a specific class of protein phosphatases (PP2C), which activates phosphorylation signaling leading to transcriptional changes needed for the desiccation of the seeds prior to entering dormancy. While these two hormone receptors have no known animal counterparts, there are also many similarities between animal and plant signaling pathways. For example, in plants, the largest single gene family in the genome is the protein kinase

  14. Wnt5a Regulates Midbrain Dopaminergic Axon Growth and Guidance

    PubMed Central

    Blakely, Brette D.; Bye, Christopher R.; Fernando, Chathurini V.; Horne, Malcolm K.; Macheda, Maria L.; Stacker, Steven A.; Arenas, Ernest; Parish, Clare L.

    2011-01-01

    During development, precise temporal and spatial gradients are responsible for guiding axons to their appropriate targets. Within the developing ventral midbrain (VM) the cues that guide dopaminergic (DA) axons to their forebrain targets remain to be fully elucidated. Wnts are morphogens that have been identified as axon guidance molecules. Several Wnts are expressed in the VM where they regulate the birth of DA neurons. Here, we describe that a precise temporo-spatial expression of Wnt5a accompanies the development of nigrostriatal projections by VM DA neurons. In mice at E11.5, Wnt5a is expressed in the VM where it was found to promote DA neurite and axonal growth in VM primary cultures. By E14.5, when DA axons are approaching their striatal target, Wnt5a causes DA neurite retraction in primary cultures. Co-culture of VM explants with Wnt5a-overexpressing cell aggregates revealed that Wnt5a is capable of repelling DA neurites. Antagonism experiments revealed that the effects of Wnt5a are mediated by the Frizzled receptors and by the small GTPase, Rac1 (a component of the non-canonical Wnt planar cell polarity pathway). Moreover, the effects were specific as they could be blocked by Wnt5a antibody, sFRPs and RYK-Fc. The importance of Wnt5a in DA axon morphogenesis was further verified in Wnt5a−/− mice, where fasciculation of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) as well as the density of DA neurites in the MFB and striatal terminals were disrupted. Thus, our results identify a novel role of Wnt5a in DA axon growth and guidance. PMID:21483795

  15. Black hole evolution - I. Supernova-regulated black hole growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Yohan; Volonteri, Marta; Silk, Joseph; Devriendt, Julien; Slyz, Adrianne; Teyssier, Romain

    2015-09-01

    The growth of a supermassive black hole (BH) is determined by how much gas the host galaxy is able to feed it, which in turn is controlled by the cosmic environment, through galaxy mergers and accretion of cosmic flows that time how galaxies obtain their gas, and also by internal processes in the galaxy, such as star formation and feedback from stars and the BH itself. In this paper, we study the growth of a 1012 M⊙ halo at z = 2, which is the progenitor of a group of galaxies at z = 0, and of its central BH by means of a high-resolution zoomed cosmological simulation, the Seth simulation. We study the evolution of the BH driven by the accretion of cold gas in the galaxy, and explore the efficiency of the feedback from supernovae (SNe). For a relatively inefficient energy input from SNe, the BH grows at the Eddington rate from early times, and reaches self-regulation once it is massive enough. We find that at early cosmic times z > 3.5, efficient feedback from SNe forbids the formation of a settled disc as well as the accumulation of dense cold gas in the vicinity of the BH and starves the central compact object. As the galaxy and its halo accumulate mass, they become able to confine the nuclear inflows provided by major mergers and the BH grows at a sustained near-to-Eddington accretion rate. We argue that this mechanism should be ubiquitous amongst low-mass galaxies, corresponding to galaxies with a stellar mass below ≲ 109 M⊙ in our simulations.

  16. Vanadate induces necrotic death in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes through mitochondrial membrane depolarization.

    PubMed

    Soares, Sandra Sofia; Henao, Fernando; Aureliano, Manuel; Gutiérrez-Merino, Carlos

    2008-03-01

    Besides the well-known inotropic effects of vanadium in cardiac muscle, previous studies have shown that vanadate can stimulate cell growth or induce cell death. In this work, we studied the toxicity to neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (cardiomyocytes) of two vanadate solutions containing different oligovanadates distribution, decavanadate (containing decameric vanadate, V 10) and metavanadate (containing monomeric vanadate and also di-, tetra-, and pentavanadate). Incubation for 24 h with decavanadate or metavanadate induced necrotic cell death of cardiomyocytes, without significant caspase-3 activation. Only 10 microM total vanadium of either decavanadate (1 microM V 10) or metavanadate (10 microM total vanadium) was needed to produce 50% loss of cell viability after 24 h (assessed with MTT and propidium iodide assays). Atomic absorption spectroscopy showed that vanadium accumulation in cardiomyocytes after 24 h was the same when incubation was done with decavanadate or metavanadate. A decrease of 75% of the rate of mitochondrial superoxide anion generation, monitored with dihydroethidium, and a sustained rise of cytosolic calcium (monitored with Fura-2-loaded cardiomyocytes) was observed after 24 h of incubation of cardiomyocytes with decavanadate or metavanadate concentrations close to those inducing 50% loss of cell viability produced. In addition, mitochondrial membrane depolarization within cardiomyocytes, monitored with tetramethylrhodamine ethyl esther or with 3,3',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolcarbocyanine iodide, were observed after only 6 h of incubation with decavanadate or metavanadate. The concentration needed for 50% mitochondrial depolarization was 6.5 +/- 1 microM total vanadium for both decavanadate (0.65 microM V 10) and metavanadate. In conclusion, mitochondrial membrane depolarization was an early event in decavanadate- and monovanadate-induced necrotic cell death of cardiomyocytes.

  17. A critical role of cardiac fibroblast-derived exosomes in activating renin angiotensin system in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Linmao; Wang, Hui; Li, Bin; Qin, Qingyun; Qi, Lei; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash; Janicki, Joseph S; Wang, Xing Li; Cui, Taixing

    2015-12-01

    Chronic activation of the myocardial renin angiotensin system (RAS) elevates the local level of angiotensin II (Ang II) thereby inducing pathological cardiac hypertrophy, which contributes to heart failure. However, the precise underlying mechanisms have not been fully delineated. Herein we report a novel paracrine mechanism between cardiac fibroblasts (CF)s and cardiomyocytes whereby Ang II induces pathological cardiac hypertrophy. In cultured CFs, Ang II treatment enhanced exosome release via the activation of Ang II receptor types 1 (AT1R) and 2 (AT2R), whereas lipopolysaccharide, insulin, endothelin (ET)-1, transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ)1 or hydrogen peroxide did not. The CF-derived exosomes upregulated the expression of renin, angiotensinogen, AT1R, and AT2R, downregulated angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, and enhanced Ang II production in cultured cardiomyocytes. In addition, the CF exosome-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was blocked by both AT1R and AT2R antagonists. Exosome inhibitors, GW4869 and dimethyl amiloride (DMA), inhibited CF-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy with little effect on Ang II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Mechanistically, CF exosomes upregulated RAS in cardiomyocytes via the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and Akt. Finally, Ang II-induced exosome release from cardiac fibroblasts and pathological cardiac hypertrophy were dramatically inhibited by GW4869 and DMA in mice. These findings demonstrate that Ang II stimulates CFs to release exosomes, which in turn increase Ang II production and its receptor expression in cardiomyocytes, thereby intensifying Ang II-induced pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Accordingly, specific targeting of Ang II-induced exosome release from CFs may serve as a novel therapeutic approach to treat cardiac pathological hypertrophy and heart failure.

  18. Growth differentiation factor 5 is a key physiological regulator of dendrite growth during development.

    PubMed

    Osório, Catarina; Chacón, Pedro J; Kisiswa, Lilian; White, Matthew; Wyatt, Sean; Rodríguez-Tébar, Alfredo; Davies, Alun M

    2013-12-01

    Dendrite size and morphology are key determinants of the functional properties of neurons. Here, we show that growth differentiation factor 5 (GDF5), a member of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) subclass of the transforming growth factor β superfamily with a well-characterised role in limb morphogenesis, is a key regulator of the growth and elaboration of pyramidal cell dendrites in the developing hippocampus. Pyramidal cells co-express GDF5 and its preferred receptors, BMP receptor 1B and BMP receptor 2, during development. In culture, GDF5 substantially increased dendrite, but not axon, elongation from these neurons by a mechanism that depends on activation of SMADs 1/5/8 and upregulation of the transcription factor HES5. In vivo, the apical and basal dendritic arbours of pyramidal cells throughout the hippocampus were markedly stunted in both homozygous and heterozygous Gdf5 null mutants, indicating that dendrite size and complexity are exquisitely sensitive to the level of endogenous GDF5 synthesis.

  19. Histone Methyltransferase G9a Is Required for Cardiomyocyte Homeostasis and Hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Papait, Roberto; Serio, Simone; Pagiatakis, Christina; Rusconi, Francesca; Carullo, Pierluigi; Mazzola, Marta; Salvarani, Nicolò; Miragoli, Michele; Condorelli, Gianluigi

    2017-09-26

    Correct gene expression programming of the cardiomyocyte underlies the normal functioning of the heart. Alterations to this can lead to the loss of cardiac homeostasis, triggering heart dysfunction. Although the role of some histone methyltransferases in establishing the transcriptional program of postnatal cardiomyocytes during heart development has been shown, the function of this class of epigenetic enzymes is largely unexplored in the adult heart. In this study, we investigated the role of G9a/Ehmt2, a histone methyltransferase that defines a repressive epigenetic signature, in defining the transcriptional program for cardiomyocyte homeostasis and cardiac hypertrophy. We investigated the function of G9a in normal and stressed cardiomyocytes with the use of a conditional, cardiac-specific G9a knockout mouse, a specific G9a inhibitor, and high-throughput approaches for the study of the epigenome (chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing) and transcriptome (RNA sequencing); traditional methods were used to assess cardiac function and cardiovascular disease. We found that G9a is required for cardiomyocyte homeostasis in the adult heart by mediating the repression of key genes regulating cardiomyocyte function via dimethylation of H3 lysine 9 and interaction with enhancer of zeste homolog 2, the catalytic subunit of polycomb repressive complex 2, and MEF2C-dependent gene expression by forming a complex with this transcription factor. The G9a-MEF2C complex was found to be required also for the maintenance of heterochromatin needed for the silencing of developmental genes in the adult heart. Moreover, G9a promoted cardiac hypertrophy by repressing antihypertrophic genes. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that G9a orchestrates critical epigenetic changes in cardiomyocytes in physiological and pathological conditions, thereby providing novel therapeutic avenues for cardiac pathologies associated with dysregulation of these mechanisms. © 2017 American Heart

  20. Humid heat exposure induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes through the angiotensin II signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaowu; Yuan, Binbin; Dong, Wenpeng; Yang, Bo; Yang, Yongchao; Lin, Xi; Gong, Gu

    2015-05-01

    Exposure to humid heat stress leads to the initiation of serious physiological dysfunction that may result in heat-related diseases, including heat stroke, heat cramp, heat exhaustion, and even death. Increasing evidences have shown that the humid heat stress-induced dysfunction of the cardiovascular system was accompanied with severe cardiomyocyte injury; however, the precise mechanism of heat stress-induced injury of cardiomyocyte remains unknown. In the present study, we hypothesized that humid heat stress promoted oxidative stress through the activation of angiotensin II (Ang II) in cardiomyocytes. To test our hypothesis, we established mouse models of humid heat stress. Using the animal models, we found that Ang II levels in serum were significantly up-regulated and that the Ang II receptor AT1 was increased in cardiomyocytes. The antioxidant ability in plasma and heart tissues which was detected by the ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay was also decreased with the increased ROS production under humid heat stress, as was the expression of antioxidant genes (SOD2, HO-1, GPx). Furthermore, we demonstrated that the Ang II receptor antagonist, valsartan, effectively relieved oxidative stress, blocked Ang II signaling pathway and suppressed cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by humid heat stress. In addition, overexpression of antioxidant genes reversed cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by Ang II. Overall, these results implied that humid heat stress increased oxidative stress and caused apoptosis of cardiomyocytes through the Ang II signaling pathway. Thus, targeting the Ang II signaling pathway may provide a promising approach for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases caused by humid heat stress.

  1. Evaluation of the control of mosquitoes with insect growth regulators.

    PubMed

    Ho, C M; Wu, S H; Wu, C C

    1990-07-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of eight insect growth regulators (IGRs) (chlorfluazuron, diflubenzuron, EL-494, flufenoxuron, teflubenzuron, juglone, plumbagin and methoprene) against five mosquito vectors (Armigeres subalbatus, Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, and Culex quinquefasciatus) was investigated in the laboratory. The EC50s of chlorfluazuron, diflubenzuron, EL-494, flufenoxuron, teflubenzuron, and methoprene against the five mosquitoes ranged from 0.0001 to 0.3 ppm and those of juglone and plumbagin from 3-25 ppm. The five mosquito species had similar tolerances to the test IGRs. At pH 5 to 9, the effectiveness of the first five chemicals was very stable. After ultraviolet irradiation or heat management (45 degrees C-60 degrees C), diflubenzuron and flufenoxuron were very stable. EL-494 was not stable when exposed to ultraviolet irradiation or heat. Under 0.1 ppm, teflubenzuron was not stable upon exposure to heat and chlorfluazuron and methoprene were not stable when exposed to ultraviolet irradiation. Piperonyl butoxide reduces the effectiveness of the five IGRs. Administration of diflubenzuron (1-5 ppm), flufenoxuron (0.025 ppm), and teflubenzuron (1-5 ppm) reduced Culex quinquefasciatus larvae in ditches by 40-90%. The administration of diflubenzuron (0.5 ppm) to containers reduced 97% of the Aedes albopictus larvae.

  2. Insect growth regulators and insect control: a critical appraisal.

    PubMed Central

    Siddall, J B

    1976-01-01

    Insect growth regulators (IGRs) of the juvenile hormone type alter physiological processes essential to insect development and appear to act specifically on insects. Three natural juvenile hormones have been found in insects but not in other organisms. Future use of antagonists or inhibitors of hormone synthesis may be technically possible as an advantageous extension of pest control by IGRs. A documented survey of the properties, metabolism, toxicology, and uses of the most commercially advanced chemical, methoprene, shows it to be environmentally acceptable and toxicologically innocuous. Derivation of its current use patterns is discussed and limitations on these are noted. Residue levels and their measurement in the ppb region have allowed exemption from the requirement of tolerances in the EPA registered use of methoprene for mosquito control. Tolerances for foods accompany its fully approved use for control of manure breeding flies through a cattle feed supplement. The human health effects of using this chemical appear to be purely beneficial, but further advances through new IGR chemicals appear unlikely without major changes in regulatory and legislative policy. PMID:976222

  3. Regulation and 3 dimensional culture of tertiary follicle growth.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Yong-Pil

    2012-09-01

    It has been revealed that multiple cohorts of tertiary follicles develop during some animal estrous cycle and the human menstrual cycle. To reach developmental competence, oocytes need the support of somatic cells. During embryogenesis, the primordial germ cells appear, travel to the gonadal rudiments, and form follicles. The female germ cells develop within the somatic cells of the ovary, granulosa cells, and theca cells. How the oocyte and follicle cells support each other has been seriously studied. The latest technologies in genes and proteins and genetic engineering have allowed us to collect a great deal of information about folliculogenesis. For example, a few web pages (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov; http://mrg.genetics.washington.edu) provide access to databases of genomes, sequences of transcriptomes, and various tools for analyzing and discovering genes important in ovarian development. Formation of the antrum (tertiary follicle) is the final phase of folliculogenesis and the transition from intraovarian to extraovian regulation. This final step coordinates with the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. On the other hand, currently, follicle physiology is under intense investigation, as little is known about how to overcome women's ovarian problems or how to develop competent oocytes from in vitro follicle culture or transplantation. In this review, some of the known roles of hormones and some of the genes involved in tertiary follicle growth and the general characteristics of tertiary follicles are summarized. In addition, in vitro culture of tertiary follicles is also discussed as a study model and an assisted reproductive technology model.

  4. Dechlorination of chloroacetanilide herbicides by plant growth regulator sodium bisulfite.

    PubMed

    Bian, Haitao; Chen, Jingwen; Cai, Xiyun; Liu, Ping; Wang, Ying; Huang, Liping; Qiao, Xianliang; Hao, Ce

    2009-08-01

    Chloroacetanilide herbicides are frequently detected in groundwater and surface waters, and pose high risks to aquatic biota. In this study, sodium bisulfite (NaHSO(3)), a plant growth regulator used in China, was used to remove three chloroacetanilide herbicides including alachlor, acetochlor and S-metolachlor. These herbicides were rapidly dechlorinated by NaHSO(3) in neutral conditions. The dechlorination was accelerated with increasing pH, temperature and NaHSO(3) concentrations. Kinetic analysis and mass spectrum identification revealed that the reaction followed S(N)2 nucleophilic substitution, in which the chlorine was replaced by the reactive specie sulfite. Alachlor and its isomer acetochlor had similar reaction rates, whereas they were more readily transformed than S-metolachlor that had larger steric hindrance and weaker electrophilicity. The transformation products were chloroacetanilide ethane sulfonic acids (ESAs), which were also encountered as major metabolites of these herbicides in natural environment via common metabolic pathways and were less toxic to green algae compared to the parent herbicides. These results indicate that NaHSO(3) can accelerate transformation of chloroacetanilide herbicides to the less toxic transformation products by nucleophilic substitution and dechlorination in aquatic environment. NaHSO(3) can be potentially used for the removal of chloroacetanilide herbicides from wastewater effluent, spill sites and accidental discharge.

  5. Branching geometry induced by lung self-regulated growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clément, Raphaël; Douady, Stéphane; Mauroy, Benjamin

    2012-12-01

    Branching morphogenesis is a widely spread phenomenon in nature. In organogenesis, it results from the inhomogeneous growth of the epithelial sheet, leading to its repeated branching into surrounding mesoderm. Lung morphogenesis is an emblematic example of tree-like organogenesis common to most mammals. The core signalling network is well identified, notably the Fgf10/Shh couple, required to initiate and maintain branching. In a previous study, we showed that the restriction by SHH of Fgf10 expression domain to distal mesenchyme spontaneously induces differential epithelial proliferation leading to branching. A simple Laplacian model qualitatively reproduced FGF10 dynamics in the mesenchyme and the spontaneous self-avoiding branching morphogenesis. However, early lung geometry has several striking features that remain to be addressed. In this paper, we investigate, through simulations and data analysis, if the FGF10-diffusion scenario accounts for the following aspects of lung morphology: size dispersion, asymmetry of branching events, and distal epithelium-mesothelium equilibrium. We report that they emerge spontaneously in the model, and that most of the underlying mechanisms can be understood as dynamical interactions between gradients and shape. This suggests that specific regulation may not be required for the emergence of these striking geometrical features.

  6. Regulation of scar formation by vascular endothelial growth factor

    PubMed Central

    Wilgus, Traci A.; Ferreira, Ahalia M.; Oberyszyn, Tatiana M.; Bergdall, Valerie K.; DiPietro, Luisa A.

    2009-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) is known for its effects on endothelial cells and as a positive mediator of angiogenesis. VEGF is thought to promote the repair of cutaneous wounds due to its pro-angiogenic properties, but its ability to regulate other aspects of wound repair, such as the generation of scar tissue has not been well studied. We examined the role of VEGF in scar tissue production utilizing models of scarless and fibrotic repair. Scarless fetal wounds had lower levels of VEGF and were less vascular than fibrotic fetal wounds, and the scarless phenotype could be converted to a scar-forming phenotype by adding exogenous VEGF. Similarly, neutralization of VEGF reduced vascularity and decreased scar formation in adult wounds. These results show that VEGF levels have a strong influence on scar tissue formation. Our data suggest that VEGF may not simply function as a mediator of wound angiogenesis, but instead may play a more diverse role in the wound repair process. PMID:18427552

  7. Circadian clock regulation of skeletal muscle growth and repair

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Somik; Ma, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the circadian clock, a transcriptional/translational feedback circuit that generates ~24-hour oscillations in behavior and physiology, is a key temporal regulatory mechanism involved in many important aspects of muscle physiology. Given the clock as an evolutionarily-conserved time-keeping mechanism that synchronizes internal physiology to environmental cues, locomotor activities initiated by skeletal muscle enable entrainment to the light-dark cycles on earth, thus ensuring organismal survival and fitness. Despite the current understanding of the role of molecular clock in preventing age-related sarcopenia, investigations into the underlying molecular pathways that transmit clock signals to the maintenance of skeletal muscle growth and function are only emerging. In the current review, the importance of the muscle clock in maintaining muscle mass during development, repair and aging, together with its contribution to muscle metabolism, will be discussed. Based on our current understandings of how tissue-intrinsic muscle clock functions in the key aspects muscle physiology, interventions targeting the myogenic-modulatory activities of the clock circuit may offer new avenues for prevention and treatment of muscular diseases. Studies of mechanisms underlying circadian clock function and regulation in skeletal muscle warrant continued efforts. PMID:27540471

  8. Hedgehog Signaling Regulates Bladder Cancer Growth And Tumorigenicity

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Dennis Liang; Sanchez-Mejias, Avencia; Wang, Zhiqiang; Flaveny, Colin; Long, Jun; Singh, Samer; Rodriguez-Blanco, Jezabel; Tokhunts, Robert; Giambelli, Camilla; Briegel, Karoline J.; Schulz, Wolfgang A.; Gandolfi, A. Jay; Karagas, Margaret; Zimmers, Teresa A.; Jorda, Merce; Bejarano, Pablo; Capobianco, Anthony J.; Robbins, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The role of HEDGEHOG (HH) signaling in bladder cancer remains controversial. The gene encoding the HH receptor and negative regulator PATCHED1 (PTCH1) resides on a region of chromosome 9q, one copy of which is frequently lost in bladder cancer. Inconsistent with PTCH1 functioning as a classic tumor suppressor gene, loss-of-function mutations in the remaining copy of PTCH1 are not commonly found. Here, we provide direct evidence for a critical role of HH signaling in bladder carcinogenesis. We show that transformed human urothelial cells and many urothelial carcinoma (UC) cell lines exhibit constitutive HH signaling, which is required for their growth and tumorigenic properties. Surprisingly, rather than originating from loss of PTCH1, the constitutive HH activity observed in UC cell lines was HH ligand-dependent. Consistent with this finding, increased levels of HH and the HH target gene product GLI1 were found in resected human primary bladder tumors. Furthermore, based on the difference in intrinsic HH dependence of UC cell lines, a gene expression signature was identified that correlated with bladder cancer progression. Our findings therefore indicate that therapeutic targeting of the HH signaling pathway may be beneficial in the clinical management of bladder cancer. PMID:22815529

  9. Circadian clock regulation of skeletal muscle growth and repair.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Somik; Ma, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the circadian clock, a transcriptional/translational feedback circuit that generates ~24-hour oscillations in behavior and physiology, is a key temporal regulatory mechanism involved in many important aspects of muscle physiology. Given the clock as an evolutionarily-conserved time-keeping mechanism that synchronizes internal physiology to environmental cues, locomotor activities initiated by skeletal muscle enable entrainment to the light-dark cycles on earth, thus ensuring organismal survival and fitness. Despite the current understanding of the role of molecular clock in preventing age-related sarcopenia, investigations into the underlying molecular pathways that transmit clock signals to the maintenance of skeletal muscle growth and function are only emerging. In the current review, the importance of the muscle clock in maintaining muscle mass during development, repair and aging, together with its contribution to muscle metabolism, will be discussed. Based on our current understandings of how tissue-intrinsic muscle clock functions in the key aspects muscle physiology, interventions targeting the myogenic-modulatory activities of the clock circuit may offer new avenues for prevention and treatment of muscular diseases. Studies of mechanisms underlying circadian clock function and regulation in skeletal muscle warrant continued efforts.

  10. Meis1 promotes poly (rC)-binding protein 2 expression and inhibits angiotensin II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunjiao; Si, Yi; Ma, Nan

    2016-01-01

    The poly(rC)-binding protein 2 (PCBP2) is currently reported to inhibit cardiac hypertrophy. However, how PCBP2 is regulated at transcriptional level remains unknown. Here, we show that Meis1, a PBX1-related homeobox gene, binds to PCBP2 promoter and promotes its transcription. In human failing heart tissues and murine hypertrophic heart tissues, the mRNA and protein levels of Meis1 are markedly downregulated, and the level of Meis1 significantly correlates with levels of Nppa, Myh7, and PCBP2. In neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, angiotensin II (Ang II) treatment induces hypertrophic growth of the cells (increase in cell size, enhanced protein synthesis, and hyperexpression of hypertrophic fetal genes), which are significantly inhibited by Meis1 overexpression or promoted by Meis1 knockdown. Meis1 also reduces Ang II-induced activation of Akt-mTOR pathway. Finally, we show that PCBP2 overexpression rescues the Meis1 effects of Akt-mTOR pathway and hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes. © 2015 IUBMB Life, 68(1):13-22, 2016.

  11. Urotensin II induction of neonatal cardiomyocyte hypertrophy involves the CaMKII/PLN/SERCA 2a signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hongtao; Han, Qinghua; Xu, Jianrong; Liu, Wenyuan; Chu, Tingting; Zhao, Li

    2016-05-25

    Although studies have shown that Urotensin II (UII) can induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and UII-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy model has been widely used for hypertrophy research, but its precise mechanism remains unknown. Recent researches have demonstrated that UII-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy has a relationship with the changes of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by UII and to explore whether the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)-mediated up-regulating of phospholamban (PLN) Thr17-phosphorylation signaling pathway contributed to UII-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Primary cultures of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were stimulated for 48h with UII. Cell size, protein/DNA contents and intracellular Ca(2+) were determined. Phosphorylated and total forms of CaMKII, PLN and the total amount of serco/endo-plasmic reticulum ATPases (SERCA 2a) were quantified by western blot. The responses of cardiomyocytes to UII were also evaluated after pretreatment with the CaMKII inhibitor, KN-93. These results showed that UII increased cell size, protein/DNA ratio and intracellular Ca(2+), consistent with a hypertrophic response. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of CaMKII and its downstream target PLN (Thr17), SERCA 2a levels were up-regulated by UII treatment. Conversely, treatment with KN-93 reversed all those effects of UII. Taken together, the results suggest that UII can induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through CaMKII-mediated up-regulating of PLN Thr17-phosphorylation signaling pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Redox mechanisms of cardiomyocyte mitochondrial protection

    PubMed Central

    Bartz, Raquel R.; Suliman, Hagir B.; Piantadosi, Claude A.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative and nitrosative stress are primary contributors to the loss of myocardial tissue in insults ranging from ischemia/reperfusion injury from coronary artery disease and heart transplantation to sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction and drug-induced myocardial damage. This cell damage caused by oxidative and nitrosative stress leads to mitochondrial protein, DNA, and lipid modifications, which inhibits energy production and contractile function, potentially leading to cell necrosis and/or apoptosis. However, cardiomyocytes have evolved an elegant set of redox-sensitive mechanisms that respond to and contain oxidative and nitrosative damage. These responses include the rapid induction of antioxidant enzymes, mitochondrial DNA repair mechanisms, selective mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy), and mitochondrial biogenesis. Coordinated cytoplasmic to nuclear cell-signaling and mitochondrial transcriptional responses to the presence of elevated cytoplasmic oxidant production, e.g., H2O2, allows nuclear translocation of the Nfe2l2 transcription factor and up-regulation of downstream cytoprotective genes such as heme oxygenase-1 which generates physiologic signals, such as CO that up-regulates Nfe212 gene transcription. Simultaneously, a number of other DNA binding transcription factors are expressed and/or activated under redox control, such as Nuclear Respiratory Factor-1 (NRF-1), and lead to the induction of genes involved in both intracellular and mitochondria-specific repair mechanisms. The same insults, particularly those related to vascular stress and inflammation also produce elevated levels of nitric oxide, which also has mitochondrial protein thiol-protective functions and induces mitochondrial biogenesis through cyclic GMP-dependent and perhaps other pathways. This brief review provides an overview of these pathways and interconnected cardiac repair mechanisms. PMID:26578967

  13. Cardiac fibroblast–derived microRNA passenger strand-enriched exosomes mediate cardiomyocyte hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Claudia; Batkai, Sandor; Dangwal, Seema; Gupta, Shashi Kumar; Foinquinos, Ariana; Holzmann, Angelika; Just, Annette; Remke, Janet; Zimmer, Karina; Zeug, Andre; Ponimaskin, Evgeni; Schmiedl, Andreas; Yin, Xiaoke; Mayr, Manuel; Halder, Rashi; Fischer, Andre; Engelhardt, Stefan; Wei, Yuanyuan; Schober, Andreas; Fiedler, Jan; Thum, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In response to stress, the heart undergoes extensive cardiac remodeling that results in cardiac fibrosis and pathological growth of cardiomyocytes (hypertrophy), which contribute to heart failure. Alterations in microRNA (miRNA) levels are associated with dysfunctional gene expression profiles associated with many cardiovascular disease conditions; however, miRNAs have emerged recently as paracrine signaling mediators. Thus, we investigated a potential paracrine miRNA crosstalk between cardiac fibroblasts and cardiomyocytes and found that cardiac fibroblasts secrete miRNA-enriched exosomes. Surprisingly, evaluation of the miRNA content of cardiac fibroblast–derived exosomes revealed a relatively high abundance of many miRNA passenger strands (“star” miRNAs), which normally undergo intracellular degradation. Using confocal imaging and coculture assays, we identified fibroblast exosomal–derived miR-21_3p (miR-21*) as a potent paracrine-acting RNA molecule that induces cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Proteome profiling identified sorbin and SH3 domain-containing protein 2 (SORBS2) and PDZ and LIM domain 5 (PDLIM5) as miR-21* targets, and silencing SORBS2 or PDLIM5 in cardiomyocytes induced hypertrophy. Pharmacological inhibition of miR-21* in a mouse model of Ang II–induced cardiac hypertrophy attenuated pathology. These findings demonstrate that cardiac fibroblasts secrete star miRNA–enriched exosomes and identify fibroblast-derived miR-21* as a paracrine signaling mediator of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy that has potential as a therapeutic target. PMID:24743145

  14. Cardiomyocyte FGF signaling is required for Cx43 phosphorylation and cardiac gap junction maintenance.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Takashi; Tsuchida, Mariko; Lampe, Paul D; Murakami, Masahiro

    2013-08-15

    Cardiac remodeling resulting from impairment of myocardial integrity leads to heart failure, through still incompletely understood mechanisms. The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) system has been implicated in tissue maintenance, but its role in the adult heart is not well defined. We hypothesized that the FGF system plays a role in the maintenance of cardiac homeostasis, and the impairment of cardiomyocyte FGF signaling leads to pathological cardiac remodeling. We showed that FGF signaling is required for connexin 43 (Cx43) localization at cell-cell contacts in isolated cardiomyocytes and COS7 cells. Lack of FGF signaling led to decreased Cx43 phosphorylation at serines 325/328/330 (S325/328/330), sites known to be important for assembly of gap junctions. Cx43 instability induced by FGF inhibition was restored by the Cx43 S325/328/330 phospho-mimetic mutant, suggesting FGF-dependent phosphorylation of these sites. Consistent with these in vitro findings, cardiomyocyte-specific inhibition of FGF signaling in adult mice demonstrated mislocalization of Cx43 at intercalated discs, whereas localization of N-cadherin and desmoplakin was not affected. This led to premature death resulting from impaired cardiac remodeling. We conclude that cardiomyocyte FGF signaling is essential for cardiomyocyte homeostasis through phosphorylation of Cx43 at S325/328/330 residues which are important for the maintenance of gap junction.

  15. VEGF-C and aortic cardiomyocytes guide coronary artery stem development

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Heidi I.; Poduri, Aruna; Numi, Harri; Kivela, Riikka; Saharinen, Pipsa; McKay, Andrew S.; Raftrey, Brian; Churko, Jared; Tian, Xueying; Zhou, Bin; Wu, Joseph C.; Alitalo, Kari; Red-Horse, Kristy

    2014-01-01

    Coronary arteries (CAs) stem from the aorta at 2 highly stereotyped locations, deviations from which can cause myocardial ischemia and death. CA stems form during embryogenesis when peritruncal blood vessels encircle the cardiac outflow tract and invade the aorta, but the underlying patterning mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, using murine models, we demonstrated that VEGF-C–deficient hearts have severely hypoplastic peritruncal vessels, resulting in delayed and abnormally positioned CA stems. We observed that VEGF-C is widely expressed in the outflow tract, while cardiomyocytes develop specifically within the aorta at stem sites where they surround maturing CAs in both mouse and human hearts. Mice heterozygous for islet 1 (Isl1) exhibited decreased aortic cardiomyocytes and abnormally low CA stems. In hearts with outflow tract rotation defects, misplaced stems were associated with shifted aortic cardiomyocytes, and myocardium induced ectopic connections with the pulmonary artery in culture. These data support a model in which CA stem development first requires VEGF-C to stimulate vessel growth around the outflow tract. Then, aortic cardiomyocytes facilitate interactions between peritruncal vessels and the aorta. Derangement of either step can lead to mispatterned CA stems. Studying this niche for cardiomyocyte development, and its relationship with CAs, has the potential to identify methods for stimulating vascular regrowth as a treatment for cardiovascular disease. PMID:25271623

  16. Age-Dependent Oxidative DNA Damage Does Not Correlate with Reduced Proliferation of Cardiomyocytes in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Li, Minghui; Liu, Jinfen; Jiang, Chuan; Zhang, Haibo; Ye, Lincai; Zheng, Jinghao

    2017-01-01

    Background Postnatal human cardiomyocyte proliferation declines rapidly with age, which has been suggested to be correlated with increases in oxidative DNA damage in mice and plays an important role in regulating cardiomyocyte proliferation. However, the relationship between oxidative DNA damage and age in humans is unclear. Methods Sixty right ventricular outflow myocardial tissue specimens were obtained from ventricular septal defect infant patients during routine congenital cardiac surgery. These specimens were divided into three groups based on age: group A (age 0–6 months), group B (age, 7–12 months), and group C (>12 months). Each tissue specimen was subjected to DNA extraction, RNA extraction, and immunofluorescence. Results Immunofluorescence and qRT-PCR analysis revealed that DNA damage markers—mitochondrial DNA copy number, oxoguanine 8, and phosphorylated ataxia telangiectasia mutated—were highest in Group B. However immunofluorescence and qRT-PCR demonstrated that two cell proliferation markers, Ki67 and cyclin D2, were decreased with age. In addition, wheat germ agglutinin-staining indicated that the average size of cardiomyocytes increased with age. Conclusions Oxidative DNA damage of cardiomyocytes was not correlated positively with age in human beings. Oxidative DNA damage is unable to fully explain the reduced proliferation of human cardiomyocytes. PMID:28099512

  17. Mena associates with Rac1 and modulates connexin 43 remodeling in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Ram, Rashmi; Wescott, Andrew P; Varandas, Katherine; Dirksen, Robert T; Blaxall, Burns C

    2014-01-01

    Mena, a member of the Ena/VASP family of actin regulatory proteins, modulates microfilaments and interacts with cytoskeletal proteins associated with heart failure. Mena is localized at the intercalated disc (ICD) of adult cardiac myocytes, colocalizing with numerous cytoskeletal proteins. Mena's role in the maintainence of mechanical myocardial stability at the cardiomyocyte ICD remains unknown. We hypothesized that Mena may modulate signals from the sarcolemma to the actin cytoskeleton at the ICD to regulate the expression and localization of connexin 43 (Cx43). The small GTPase Rac1 plays a pivotal role in the regulation of actin cytoskeletal reorganization and mediating morphological and transcriptional changes in cardiomyocytes. We found that Mena is associated with active Rac1 in cardiomyocytes and that RNAi knockdown of Mena increased Rac1 activity significantly. Furthermore, Mena knockdown increased Cx43 expression and altered Cx43 localization and trafficking at the ICD, concomitant with faster intercellular communication, as assessed by dye transfer between cardiomyocyte pairs. In mice overexpressing constitutively active Rac1, left ventricular Mena expression was increased significantly, concomitant with lateral redistribution of Cx43. These results suggest that Mena is a critical regulator of the ICD and is required for normal localization of Cx43 in part via regulation of Rac1.

  18. Regulation of senescence in bean leaf discs by light and chemical growth regulators.

    PubMed

    Goldthwaite, J J; Laetsch, W M

    1967-12-01

    The senescence of excised discs of primary leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris, L., var. Red Kidney was followed by measuring the net breakdown of protein and chlorophyll. The chemical growth regulators indoleacetic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxy-acetic acid, gibberellic acid, kinetin, and 6-benzylaminopurine were relatively ineffective in retarding senescence in this tissue. White light, on the other hand, was very effective in senescence retardation. The response to light did not have the characteristics of a low energy (phytochrome) response and was blocked by concentrations of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1, 1-dimethylurea which inhibited photosynthesis in the leaf discs. The light-induced retardation of senescence was concluded to be dependent on photosynthesis.

  19. Cholesterol Depletion Alters Cardiomyocyte Subcellular Signaling and Increases Contractility

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, Victoria J.; Abou Samra, Abdul B.; Mohammad, Ramzi M.; Lasley, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    Membrane cholesterol levels play an important factor in regulating cell function. Sarcolemmal cholesterol is concentrated in lipid rafts and caveolae, which are flask-shaped invaginations of the plasma membrane. The scaffolding protein caveolin permits the enrichment of cholesterol in caveolae, and caveolin interactions with numerous proteins regulate their function. The purpose of this study was to determine whether acute reductions in cardiomyocyte cholesterol levels alter subcellular protein kinase activation, intracellular Ca2+ and contractility. Methods: Ventricular myocytes, isolated from adult Sprague Dawley rats, were treated with the cholesterol reducing agent methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD, 5 mM, 1 hr, room temperature). Total cellular cholesterol levels, caveolin-3 localization, subcellular, ERK and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, contractility, and [Ca2+]i were assessed. Results: Treatment with MβCD reduced cholesterol levels by ~45 and shifted caveolin-3 from cytoskeleton and triton-insoluble fractions to the triton-soluble fraction, and increased ERK isoform phosphorylation in cytoskeletal, cytosolic, triton-soluble and triton-insoluble membrane fractions without altering their subcellular distributions. In contrast the primary effect of MβCD was on p38 subcellular distribution of p38α with little effect on p38 phosphorylation. Cholesterol depletion increased cardiomyocyte twitch amplitude and the rates of shortening and relaxation in conjunction with increased diastolic and systolic [Ca2+]i. Conclusions: These results indicate that acute reductions in membrane cholesterol levels differentially modulate basal cardiomyocyte subcellular MAPK signaling, as well as increasing [Ca2+]i and contractility. PMID:27441649

  20. Growth rate regulation of lac operon expression in Escherichia coli is cyclic AMP dependent.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Jong-Tar; Chang, Yu-Jen; Tseng, Ching-Ping

    2003-10-23

    In contrast to the ribosomal RNA gene expression increasing with growth rate, transcription of the lac operon is downregulated by cell growth rate. In continuous culture, growth rate regulation of lac promoter was independent of carbon substrate used and its location on the chromosome. Since the lac operon is activated by cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), which decreases with increasing cell growth rate, expression of plac-lacZ reporter fusion was analyzed in cya mutant under various growth conditions. The results demonstrated that expression of plac-lacZ in cya mutant was both lower and growth rate independent. In addition, ppGpp (guanosine tetraphosphate) was not involved in the mechanism of growth rate regulation of the lac promoter. Thus, the results of this study indicate that cAMP mediates the growth rate-dependent regulation of lac operon expression in Escherichia coli.

  1. FGF1-mediated cardiomyocyte cell cycle reentry depends on the interaction of FGFR-1 and Fn14.

    PubMed

    Novoyatleva, Tatyana; Sajjad, Amna; Pogoryelov, Denys; Patra, Chinmoy; Schermuly, Ralph T; Engel, Felix B

    2014-06-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) signal through FGF receptors (FGFRs) mediating a broad range of cellular functions during embryonic development, as well as disease and regeneration during adulthood. Thus, it is important to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms that modulate this system. Here, we show that FGFR-1 can interact with the TNF receptor superfamily member fibroblast growth factor-inducible molecule 14 (Fn14) resulting in cardiomyocyte cell cycle reentry. FGF1-induced cell cycle reentry in neonatal cardiomyocytes could be blocked by Fn14 inhibition, while TWEAK-induced cell cycle activation was inhibited by blocking FGFR-1 signaling. In addition, costimulation experiments revealed a synergistic effect of FGF1 and TWEAK in regard to cardiomyocyte cell cycle induction via PI3K/Akt signaling. Overexpression of Fn14 with either FGFR-1 long [FGFR-1(L)] or FGFR-1 short [FGFR-1(S)] isoforms resulted after FGF1/TWEAK stimulation in cell cycle reentry of >40% adult cardiomyocytes. Finally, coimmunoprecipitation and proximity ligation assays indicated that endogenous FGFR-1 and Fn14 interact with each other in cardiomyocytes. This interaction was strongly enhanced in the presence of their corresponding ligands, FGF1 and TWEAK. Taken together, our data suggest that FGFR-1/Fn14 interaction may represent a novel endogenous mechanism to modulate the action of these receptors and their ligands and to control cardiomyocyte cell cycle reentry.

  2. Rac regulates vascular endothelial growth factor stimulated motility.

    PubMed

    Soga, N; Connolly, J O; Chellaiah, M; Kawamura, J; Hruska, K A

    2001-01-01

    During angiogenesis endothelial cells migrate towards a chemotactic stimulus. Understanding the mechanism of endothelial cell migration is critical to the therapeutic manipulation of angiogenesis and ultimately cancer prevention. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent chemotactic stimulus of endothelial cells during angiogenesis. The endothelial cell signal transduction pathway of VEGF represents a potential target for cancer therapy, but the mechanisms of post-receptor signal transduction including the roles of rho family GTPases in regulating the cytoskeletal effects of VEGF in endothelial cells are not understood. Here we analyze the mechanisms of cell migration in the mouse brain endothelial cell line (bEND3). Stable transfectants containing a tetracycline repressible expression vector were used to induce expression of Rac mutants. Endothelial cell haptotaxis was stimulated by constitutively active V12Rac on collagen and vitronectin coated supports, and chemotaxis was further stimulated by VEGF. Osteopontin coated supports were the most stimulatory to bEND3 haptotaxis, but VEGF was not effective in further increasing migration on osteopontin coated supports. Haptotaxis on support coated with collagen, vitronectin, and to a lesser degree osteopontin was inhibited by N17 Rac. N17 Rac expression blocked stimulation of endothelial cell chemotaxis by VEGF. As part of the chemotactic stimulation, VEGF caused a loss of actin organization at areas of cell-cell contact and increased stress fiber expression in endothelial cells which were directed towards pores in the transwell membrane. N17 Rac prevented the stimulation of cell-cell contact disruption and the stress fiber stimulation by VEGF. These data demonstrate two pathways of regulating endothelial cell motility, one in which Rac is activated by matrix/integrin stimulation and is a crucial modulator of endothelial cell haptotaxis. The other pathway, in the presence of osteopontin, is Rac independent

  3. Prostaglandin E₂ promotes post-infarction cardiomyocyte replenishment by endogenous stem cells.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Ying-Chang; Wu, Jasmine M F; Yu, Chun-Keung; Wu, Kenneth K; Hsieh, Patrick C H

    2014-04-01

    Although self-renewal ability of adult mammalian heart has been reported, few pharmacological treatments are known to promote cardiomyocyte regeneration after injury. In this study, we demonstrate that the critical period of stem/progenitor cell-mediated cardiomyocyte replenishment is initiated within 7 days and saturates on day 10 post-infarction. Moreover, blocking the inflammatory reaction with COX-2 inhibitors may also reduce the capability of endogenous stem/progenitor cells to repopulate lost cells. Injection of the COX-2 product PGE2 enhances cardiomyocyte replenishment in young mice and recovers cell renewal through attenuating TGF-β1 signaling in aged mice. Further analyses suggest that cardiac stem cells are PGE2-responsive and that PGE2 may regulate stem cell activity directly through the EP2 receptor or indirectly by modulating its micro-environment in vivo. Our findings provide evidence that PGE2 holds great potential for cardiac regeneration.

  4. Dataset of integrin-linked kinase protein: Protein interactions in cardiomyocytes identified by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Traister, Alexandra; Lu, Mingliang; Coles, John G; Maynes, Jason T

    2016-06-01

    Using hearts from mice overexpressing integrin linked kinase (ILK) behind the cardiac specific promoter αMHC, we have performed immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry to identify novel ILK protein:protein interactions that regulate cardiomyocyte activity and calcium flux. Integrin linked kinase complexes were captured from mouse heart lysates using a commercial antibody, with subsequent liquid chromatography tandem mass spectral analysis. Interacting partners were identified using the MASCOT server, and important interactions verified using reverse immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry. All ILK interacting proteins were identified in a non-biased manner, and are stored in the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository (reference ID PRIDE: PXD001053). The functional role of identified ILK interactions in cardiomyocyte function and arrhythmia were subsequently confirmed in human iPSC-cardiomyocytes.

  5. Developmental regulation of human truncated nerve growth factor receptor

    SciTech Connect

    DiStefano, P.S.; Clagett-Dame, M.; Chelsea, D.M.; Loy, R. )

    1991-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (designated XIF1 and IIIG5) recognizing distinct epitopes of the human truncated nerve growth factor receptor (NGF-Rt) were used in a two-site radiometric immunosorbent assay to monitor levels of NGF-Rt in human urine as a function of age. Urine samples were collected from 70 neurologically normal subjects ranging in age from 1 month to 68 years. By using this sensitive two-site radiometric immunosorbent assay, NGF-Rt levels were found to be highest in urine from 1-month old subjects. By 2.5 months, NGF-Rt values were half of those seen at 1 month and decreased more gradually between 0.5 and 15 years. Between 15 and 68 years, urine NGF-Rt levels were relatively constant at 5% of 1-month values. No evidence for diurnal variation of adult NGF-Rt was apparent. Pregnant women in their third trimester showed significantly elevated urine NGF-Rt values compared with age-matched normals. Affinity labeling of NGF-Rt with 125I-NGF followed by immunoprecipitation with ME20.4-IgG and gel autoradiography indicated that neonatal urine contained high amounts of truncated receptor (Mr = 50 kd); decreasingly lower amounts of NGF-Rt were observed on gel autoradiograms with development, indicating that the two-site radiometric immunosorbent assay correlated well with the affinity labeling technique for measuring NGF-Rt. NGF-Rt in urines from 1-month-old and 36-year-old subjects showed no differences in affinities for NGF or for the monoclonal antibody IIIG5. These data show that NGF-Rt is developmentally regulated in human urine, and are discussed in relation to the development and maturation of the peripheral nervous system.

  6. Rat Prolactinoma cell growth regulation by Epidermal Growth Factor receptor ligands

    PubMed Central

    Vlotides, George; Siegel, Emily; Donangelo, Ines; Gutman, Shiri; Ren, Song-Guang; Melmed, Shlomo

    2008-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) regulates pituitary development, hormone synthesis and cell proliferation. Although ErbB receptor family members are expressed in pituitary tumors, effects of EGF signaling on pituitary tumors are not known. Immunoprecipitation and Western blot confirmed EGFR and p185c-neu protein expression in GH3 lacto-somatotroph but not in ACTH-secreting AtT20 pituitary tumor cells. EGF (5 nM) selectively enhanced baseline (~ 4-fold) and serum-induced (> 6-fold) PRL mRNA levels, while gefitinib, an EGFR antagonist, suppressed serum-induced cell proliferation and Pttg1 expression, blocked PRL gene expression, and reversed EGF-mediated somatotroph-lactotroph phenotype switching. Downstream EGFR signaling by ERK, but not PI3K or PKC, mediated the gefitinib-response. Tumors in athymic mice implanted sc with GH3 cells resulted in weight gain accompanied by increased serum PRL, GH and IGF-I levels. Gefitinib decreased tumor volumes and peripheral hormone levels by ~ 30% and restored normal mouse body weight patterns. Mice treated with gefitinib exhibited decreased tumor tissue ERK1/2 phosphorylation and downregulated tumor PRL and Pttg1 mRNA abundance. These results show that EGFR inhibition controls tumor growth and PRL secretion in experimental lacto-somatotroph tumors. EGFR inhibitors could therefore be useful for control of PRL secretion and tumor load in prolactinomas resistant to dopaminergic treatment, or for those prolactinomas undergoing rare malignant transformation. PMID:18676863

  7. Abnormal bone growth and selective translational regulation in basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Coffin, J D; Florkiewicz, R Z; Neumann, J; Mort-Hopkins, T; Dorn, G W; Lightfoot, P; German, R; Howles, P N; Kier, A; O'Toole, B A

    1995-01-01

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) is a pleiotropic growth factor detected in many different cells and tissues. Normally synthesized at low levels, FGF-2 is elevated in various pathologies, most notably in cancer and injury repair. To investigate the effects of elevated FGF-2, the human full-length cDNA was expressed in transgenic mice under control of a phosphoglycerate kinase promoter. Overexpression of FGF-2 caused a variety of skeletal malformations including shortening and flattening of long bones and moderate macrocephaly. Comparison by Western blot of FGF-2 transgenic mice to nontransgenic littermates showed expression of human FGF-2 protein in all major organs and tissues examined including brain, heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen, and skeletal muscle; however, different molar ratios of FGF-2 protein isoforms were observed between different organs and tissues. Some tissues preferentially synthesize larger isoforms of FGF-2 while other tissues produce predominantly smaller 18-kDa FGF-2. Translation of the high molecular weight isoforms initiates from unconventional CUG codons and translation of the 18-kDa isoform initiates from an AUG codon in the FGF-2 mRNA. Thus the Western blot data from the FGF-2 transgenic mice suggest that tissue-specific expression of FGF-2 isoforms is regulated translationally. Images PMID:8590811

  8. Effects of growth regulator herbicide on downy brome (Bromus tectorum) seed production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previous research showed growth regulator herbicides, such as picloram and aminopyralid, have a sterilizing effect on Japanese brome (Bromus japonicus Thunb.) that can reduce this invasive annual grass’s seed production nearly 100%. This suggests growth regulators might be used to control invasive ...

  9. Investigating Preservice Teachers' Professional Growth in Self-Regulated Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramarski, Bracha; Michalsky, Tova

    2009-01-01

    Educational reforms have suggested that the ability to self-regulate learning is essential for teachers' professional growth during their entire career as well as for their ability to promote these processes among students. This study observed teachers' professional growth along 3 dimensions: self-regulated learning (SRL) in pedagogical context,…

  10. Antioxidative activity and growth regulation of Brassicaceae induced by oxygen radical irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Nobuya; Ono, Reoto; Shiratani, Masaharu; Yonesu, Akira

    2015-06-01

    The growth regulation characteristics of plants are investigated when plant seeds are irradiated with atmospheric discharge plasma. Enhancement of the germination and lengths of the stem and root of plants are observed after seeding. The total length of the stem and root increases approximately 1.6 times after a cultivation period of 72 h. The growth regulation effect is found to be maintained for 80 h of cultivation after seeding. The growth regulation originates from the change in the antioxidative activity of plant cells induced by active oxygen species generated in the oxygen plasma, which leads to the production of growth factor in plants.

  11. Downregulation of miR-200c protects cardiomyocytes from hypoxia-induced apoptosis by targeting GATA-4.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhigang; Zhang, Shaoli; Guo, Changlei; Li, Jianhua; Sang, Wenfeng

    2017-06-01

    Hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis plays an important role in the development of ischemic heart disease. MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are emerging as critical regulators of hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. miR-200c is an miRNA that has been reported to be related to apoptosis in various pathological processes; however, its role in hypoxia‑induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis remains unclear. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the potential role and underlying mechanism of miR-200c in regulating hypoxia‑induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. We found that miR-200c was significantly upregulated by hypoxia in cardiomyocytes, as detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The lactate dehydrogenase, MTT, Annexin V/propidium iodide apoptosis and caspase-3 activity assays showed that downregulation of miR-200c markedly improved cell survival and suppressed the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes in response to hypoxia. Bioinformatics analysis and the dual-luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that miR-200c directly targeted the 3'-untranslated region of GATA-4, an important transcription factor for cardiomyocyte survival. RT-qPCR and western blot analysis showed that suppression of miR-200c significantly increased GATA-4 expression. Furthermore, downregulation of miR-200c upregulated the expression of the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2. However, the protective effects against hypoxia induced by the downregulation of miR‑200c were significantly abolished by GATA-4 knockdown. Taken together, our results suggest that downregulation of miR-200c protects cardiomyocytes from hypoxia-induced apoptosis by targeting GATA-4, providing a potential therapeutic molecular target for the treatment of ischemic heart disease.

  12. Increased expression of estrogen-related receptor β during adaptation of adult cardiomyocytes to sustained hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Kathryn F; Beeson, Gyda C; Beeson, Craig C; McDermott, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen-related Receptors (ERR) are members of the steroid hormone receptor superfamily of transcription factors that regulate expression of genes required for energy metabolism including mitochondrial biogenesis, fatty acid oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation. While ERRα and EPPγ isoforms are known to share a wide array of target genes in the adult myocardium, the function of ERRβ has not been characterized in cardiomyocytes. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of ERRβ in regulating energy metabolism in adult cardiomyocytes in primary culture. Adult feline cardiomyocytes were electrically stimulated to contract in either hypoxia (0.5% O2) or normoxia (21% O2). As compared to baseline values measured in normoxia, ERRβ mRNA levels increased significantly after 8 hours of hypoxia and remained elevated over 24 h. Conversely, ERRβ mRNA decreased to normoxic levels after 4 hours of reoxygenation. Hypoxia increased expression of the α and β isoforms of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Coactivator-1 (PGC-1) mRNA by 6-fold and 3-fold, respectively. Knockdown of ERRβ expression via adenoviral-mediated delivery of ERRβ shRNA blocked hypoxia-induced increases in PGC-1β mRNA, but not PGC-1α mRNA. Loss of ERRβ had no effect on mtDNA content as measured after 24 h of hypoxia. To determine whether loss of ERRβ affected mitochondrial function, oxygen consumption rates (OCR) were measured in contracting versus quiescent cardiomyocytes in normoxia. OCR was significantly lower in contracting cardiomyocytes expressing ERRβ shRNA than scrambled shRNA controls. Maximal OCR also was reduced by ERRβ knockdown. In conclusion: 1) hypoxia increases in ERRβ mRNA expression in contracting cardiomyocytes; 2) ERRβ is required for induction of the PGC-1β isoform in response to hypoxia; 3) ERRβ expression is required to sustain OCR in normoxic conditions. PMID:27335690

  13. Nrf2 is critical in defense against high glucose-induced oxidative damage in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoqing; Kan, Hong; Cai, Lu; Ma, Qiang

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of glucose induces the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cardiomyocytes that may contribute to the development of cardiomyopathy in diabetes. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) controls the antioxidant response element (ARE)-dependent gene regulation in response to oxidative stress. The role of Nrf2 in defense against high glucose-induced oxidative damage in cardiomyocytes was investigated. Glucose at high concentrations induced ROS production in both primary neonatal and adult cardiomyocytes from the Nrf2 wild type (WT) mouse heart, whereas, in Nrf2 knockout (KO) cells, ROS was significantly higher under basal conditions and high glucose markedly further increased ROS production in concentration and time-dependent manners. Concomitantly, high glucose induced significantly higher levels of apoptosis at lower concentrations and in shorter time in Nrf2 KO cells than in WT cells. Primary adult cardiomyocytes from control and diabetic mice also showed dependence on Nrf2 function for isoproterenol-stimulated contraction. Additionally, cardiomyocytes from Nrf2 KO mice exhibited increased sensitivity to 3-nitropropionic acid, an inhibitor of mitochondrial respiratory complex II, for both ROS production and apoptosis compared with Nrf2 WT cells, further emphasizing the role of Nrf2 in ROS defense in the cells. Mechanistically, Nrf2 was shown to mediate the basal expression and induction of ARE-controlled cytoprotective genes, Nqo1 and Ho1, at both mRNA and protein levels in cardiomyocytes, as both the basal and inducible expressions of the genes were lost in Nrf2 KO cells or largely reduced by Nrf2 SiRNA. The findings, for the first time, established Nrf2 as a critical regulator of defense against ROS in normal and diabetic hearts.

  14. [Regulation of uterine cellular proliferation with estrogens and growth factors].

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Rodríguez, C; Baiza-Guzmán, L A

    1996-09-01

    In this paper the role of estrogen and growth factors in the uterine cellular proliferation is analyzed. The evidences indicate that the estradiol-stimulate cell division is associated with the induction of expression of a variety of growth factors from the all major uterine cell types (epithelia, stroma and myometrium). These growth factors amplify the estrogen proliferation signal in autocrine and/or paracrin fashion. The best-studied growth factors in the uterine response to estradiol are epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1). Uterine cell proliferation is a complex process that involves interactions of several growth factors, ovarian steroids hormones action and cell to cell signaling.

  15. Simultaneous Assessment of Cardiomyocyte DNA Synthesis and Ploidy: A Method to Assist Quantification of Cardiomyocyte Regeneration and Turnover

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Gavin D.

    2016-01-01

    Although it is accepted that the heart has a limited potential to regenerate cardiomyocytes following injury and that low levels of cardiomyocyte turnover occur during normal ageing, quantification of these events remains challenging. This is in part due to the rarity of the process and the fact that multiple cellular sources contribute to myocardial maintenance. Furthermore, DNA duplication within cardiomyocytes often leads to a polyploid cardiomyocyte and only rarely leads to new cardiomyocytes by cellular division. In order to accurately quantify cardiomyocyte turnover discrimination between these processes is essential. The protocol described here employs long term nucleoside labeling in order to label all nuclei which have arisen as a result of DNA replication and cardiomyocyte nuclei identified by utilizing nuclei isolation and subsequent PCM1 immunolabeling. Together this allows the accurate and sensitive identification of the nucleoside labeling of the cardiomyocyte nuclei population. Furthermore, 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole labeling and analysis of nuclei ploidy, enables the discrimination of neo-cardiomyocyte nuclei from nuclei which have incorporated nucleoside during polyploidization. Although this method cannot control for cardiomyocyte binucleation, it allows a rapid and robust quantification of neo-cardiomyocyte nuclei while accounting for polyploidization. This method has a number of downstream applications including assessing the potential therapeutics to enhance cardiomyocyte regeneration or investigating the effects of cardiac disease on cardiomyocyte turnover and ploidy. This technique is also compatible with additional downstream immunohistological techniques, allowing quantification of nucleoside incorporation in all cardiac cell types. PMID:27285379

  16. Role of cardiomyocyte circadian clock in myocardial metabolic adaptation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Marked circadian rhythmicities in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology exist. The cardiomyocyte circadian clock has recently been linked to circadian rhythms in myocardial gene expression, metabolism, and contractile function. For instance, the cardiomyocyte circadian clock is essential f...

  17. 2D and 3D Self-Assembling Nanofiber Hydrogels for Cardiomyocyte Culture

    PubMed Central

    Ikonen, Liisa; Kerkelä, Erja; Metselaar, Gerald; Stuart, Marc C. A.; de Jong, Menno R.; Aalto-Setälä, Katriina

    2013-01-01

    Collagen is a widely used biomaterial in cardiac tissue engineering studies. However, as a natural material, it suffers from variability between batches that can complicate the standardization of culture conditions. In contrast, synthetic materials are modifiable, have well-defined structures and more homogeneous batches can be produced. In this study, several collagen-like synthetic self-assembling nanofiber hydrogels were examined for their suitability for cardiomyocyte culture in 2D and 3D. Six different nanofiber coatings were used in the 2D format with neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCs) and human embryonic stem-cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs). The viability, growth, and functionality of the 2D-cultured cardiomyocytes were evaluated. The best-performing nanofiber coatings were selected for 3D experiments. Hydrophilic pH-sensitive nanofiber hydrogel coassembled with hyaluronic acid performed best with both NRCs and hESC-CMs. Hydrophilic non-pH-sensitive nanofiber hydrogels supported the growth of NRCs; however, their ability to promote attachment and growth of hESC-CMs was limited. NRCs also grew on hydrophobic nanofiber hydrogels; however, the cell-supporting capacity of these hydrogels was inferior to that of the hydrophilic hydrogel materials. This is the first study demonstrating that hydrophilic self-assembling nanofiber hydrogels support the culture of both NRCs and hESC-CMs, which suggests that these biomaterials hold promise for cardiac tissue engineering. PMID:23573513

  18. miR-138 protects cardiomyocytes from hypoxia-induced apoptosis via MLK3/JNK/c-jun pathway

    SciTech Connect

    He, Siyi; Liu, Peng; Jian, Zhao; Li, Jingwei; Zhu, Yun; Feng, Zezhou; Xiao, Yingbin

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •First time to find miR-138 is up-regulated in hypoxic cardiomyocytes. •First time to find miR-138 targets MLK3 and regulates JNK/c-jun pathway. •Rare myocardial biopsy of patients with CHD were collected. •Both silence and overexpression of miR-138 were implemented. •Various methods were used to detect cell function. -- Abstract: Cardiomyocytes experience a series of complex endogenous regulatory mechanisms against apoptosis induced by chronic hypoxia. MicroRNAs are a class of endogenous small non-coding RNAs that regulate cellular pathophysiological processes. Recently, microRNA-138 (miR-138) has been found related to hypoxia, and beneficial for cell proliferation. Therefore, we intend to study the role of miR-138 in hypoxic cardiomyocytes and the main mechanism. Myocardial samples of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) were collected to test miR-138 expression. Agomir or antagomir of miR-138 was transfected into H9C2 cells to investigate its effect on cell apoptosis. Higher miR-138 expression was observed in patients with cyanotic CHD, and its expression gradually increased with prolonged hypoxia time in H9C2 cells. Using MTT and LDH assays, cell growth was significantly greater in the agomir group than in the negative control (NC) group, while antagomir decreased cell survival. Dual luciferase reporter gene and Western-blot results confirmed MLK3 was a direct target of miR-138. It was found that miR-138 attenuated hypoxia-induced apoptosis using TUNEL, Hoechst staining and Annexin V-PE/7-AAD flow cytometry analysis. We further detected expression of apoptosis-related proteins. In the agomir group, the level of pro-apoptotic proteins such as cleaved-caspase-3, cleaved-PARP and Bad significantly reduced, while Bcl-2 and Bcl-2/Bax ratio increased. Opposite changes were observed in the antagomir group. Downstream targets of MLK3, JNK and c-jun, were also suppressed by miR-138. Our study demonstrates that up-regulation of miR-138 plays

  19. Developmental regulation of insulin-like growth factor-I and growth hormone receptor gene expression.

    PubMed

    Shoba, L; An, M R; Frank, S J; Lowe, W L

    1999-06-25

    During development, the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) gene is expressed in a tissue specific manner; however, the molecular mechanisms governing its developmental regulation remain poorly defined. To examine the hypothesis that expression of the growth hormone (GH) receptor accounts, in part, for the tissue specific expression of the IGF-I gene during development, the developmental regulation of IGF-I and GH receptor gene expression in rat tissues was examined. The level of IGF-I and GH receptor mRNA was quantified in RNA prepared from rats between day 17 of gestation (E17) and 17 months of age (17M) using an RNase protection assay. Developmental regulation of IGF-I gene expression was tissue specific with four different patterns of expression seen. In liver, IGF-I mRNA levels increased markedly between E17 and postnatal day 45 (P45) and declined thereafter. In contrast, in brain, skeletal muscle and testis, IGF-I mRNA levels decreased between P5 and 4M but were relatively unchanged thereafter. In heart and kidney, a small increase in IGF-I mRNA levels was observed between the early postnatal period and 4 months, whereas in lung, minimal changes were observed during development. The changes in GH receptor mRNA levels were, in general, coordinate with the changes in IGF-I mRNA levels, except in skeletal muscle. Interestingly, quantification of GH receptor levels by Western blot analysis in skeletal muscle demonstrated changes coordinate with IGF-I mRNA levels. The levels of the proteins which mediate GH receptor signaling (STAT1, -3, and -5, and JAK2) were quantified by Western blot analysis. These proteins also are expressed in a tissue specific manner during development. In some cases, the pattern of expression was coordinate with IGF-I gene expression, whereas in others it was discordant. To further define molecular mechanisms for the developmental regulation of IGF-I gene expression, protein binding to IGFI-FP1, a protein binding site that is in the major

  20. Comparison of growth and metabolic regulation between wild, domesticated and transgenic salmonids.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To gain a better understanding of the aspects underlying normal and growth hormone enhanced growth in salmonids, quantitative expression analysis was performed for a number of genes related to muscle growth, metabolism, immunology and energy regulation. This analysis was performed in liver and musc...

  1. Hormonal regulation of wheat growth during hydroponic culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherell, Donald

    1988-01-01

    Hormonal control of root growth has been explored as one means to alleviate the crowding of plant root systems experienced in prototype hydroponic biomass production chambers being developed by the CELSS Breadboard Project. Four plant hormones, or their chemical analogs, which have been reported to selectively inhibit root growth, were tested by adding them to the nutrient solutions on day 10 of a 25 day growth test using spring wheat in hydroponic cultures. Growth and morphological changes is both shoot and root systems were evaluated. In no case was it possible to inhibit root growth without a comparable inhibition of shoot growth. It was concluded that this approach is unlikely to prove useful for wheat.

  2. Body size regulation and insulin-like growth factor signaling.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Seogang

    2013-07-01

    How animals achieve their specific body size is a fundamental, but still largely unresolved, biological question. Over the past decades, studies on the insect model system have provided some important insights into the process of body size determination and highlighted the importance of insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling. Fat body, the Drosophila counterpart of liver and adipose tissue, senses nutrient availability and controls larval growth rate by modulating peripheral insulin signaling. Similarly, insulin-like growth factor I produced from liver and muscle promotes postnatal body growth in mammals. Organismal growth is tightly coupled with the process of sexual maturation wherein the sex steroid hormone attenuates body growth. This review summarizes some important findings from Drosophila and mammalian studies that shed light on the general mechanism of animal size determination.

  3. Boundary genes in regulation and evolution of secondary growth.

    PubMed

    Yordanov, Yordan S; Busov, Victor

    2011-05-01

    Many extant land plants display secondary growth originating in a lateral meristem known as vascular cambium. A conspicuous product of secondary growth is wood which dominates terrestrial ecosystem biomass. Despite the economic and ecological significance of the process the underlying molecular mechanism are still poorly understood. We have recently shown that members of the LBD transcription factor family play function in control of secondary growth. Here we propose a mechanistic model of LBD regulatory roles. We also show how these roles may be linked to evolutionary changes in level and pattern of wood formation that provide structural and functional innovations in wood anatomy in relation to species growth habit and biology. 

  4. [The peculiarities of calcium metabolism regulation in different periods of growth and development].

    PubMed

    Moĭsa, S S; Nozdrachev, A D

    2014-01-01

    The review contains literature data about calcium metabolism regulation in different periods of growth and development. The analyses of retrospective and current sources of information about the regulation of calcium homeostasis under the theory of functional systems, the regulation of calcium metabolism in prenatal and postnatal periods of the development, the significance of calcium metabolism disturbances in the development of pathological conditions were showed.

  5. In situ mechanical analysis of cardiomyocytes at nano scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuansheng; Feng, Jiantao; Shi, Liang; Niu, Ruibin; Sun, Quanmei; Liu, Hao; Li, Jing; Guo, Jihong; Zhu, Jihong; Han, Dong

    2011-12-01

    Nanomechanical behaviors of single living cardiomyocytes are quantitatively observed using calculated torsions and deflections of an AFM cantilever. The lateral contractions are related to the calcium intensity within rather than the vertical beating power of the cardiomyocytes. Drug-induced nanomechanical changes of cardiomyocytes were further investigated by measuring lateral contractions in real time.

  6. Spinal cord injury causes systolic dysfunction and cardiomyocyte atrophy.

    PubMed

    Squair, Jordan W; DeVeau, Kathryn M; Harman, Kathryn A; Poormasjedi-Meibod, Malihe-Sadat; Hayes, Brian; Liu, Jie; Magnuson, David S K; Krassioukov, Andrei V; West, Christopher R

    2017-06-09

    Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) have been shown to exhibit systolic, and to a lesser extent, diastolic cardiac dysfunction. However, previous reports of cardiac dysfunction in this population are confounded by the changing loading conditions after SCI and as such, whether cardiac dysfunction per se is present is still unknown. Therefore, our aim was to establish if load-independent cardiac dysfunction is present after SCI, to understand the functional cardiac response to SCI, and to explore the changes within the cellular milieu of the myocardium. Here, we applied in vivo echocardiography and LV pressure-volume catheterization with Dobutamine infusions to our Wistar rodent model of cardiac dysfunction five weeks following high (T2) thoracic contusion SCI, whilst also examining the morphological and transcriptional alterations of cardiomyocytes. We found that SCI significantly impairs systolic function independent of loading conditions (End-systolic elastance in Control: 1.35 ± 0.15; SCI: 0.65 ± 0.19 mmHg/µl). The reduction in contractile indices is accompanied by a reduction in width and length of cardiomyocytes as well as alterations in the left-ventricular extracellular matrix. Importantly, we demonstrate that the reduction in the rate (dP/dtmax) of LV pressure rise can be offset with beta-adrenergic stimulation, thereby experimentally implicating the loss of descending sympatho-excitatory control of the heart as a principle cause of left-ventricular dysfunction in SCI. Our data provide evidence that SCI induces systolic cardiac dysfunction independent of loading conditions and concomitant cardiomyocyte atrophy that may be underpinned by changes in the genes regulating the cardiac extracellular matrix.

  7. Insulin Stimulates Mitochondrial Fusion and Function in Cardiomyocytes via the Akt-mTOR-NFκB-Opa-1 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Parra, Valentina; Verdejo, Hugo E.; Iglewski, Myriam; del Campo, Andrea; Troncoso, Rodrigo; Jones, Deborah; Zhu, Yi; Kuzmicic, Jovan; Pennanen, Christian; Lopez‑Crisosto, Camila; Jaña, Fabián; Ferreira, Jorge; Noguera, Eduard; Chiong, Mario; Bernlohr, David A.; Klip, Amira; Hill, Joseph A.; Rothermel, Beverly A.; Abel, Evan Dale; Zorzano, Antonio; Lavandero, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Insulin regulates heart metabolism through the regulation of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Studies have indicated that insulin can also regulate mitochondrial function. Relevant to this idea, mitochondrial function is impaired in diabetic individuals. Furthermore, the expression of Opa-1 and mitofusins, proteins of the mitochondrial fusion machinery, is dramatically altered in obese and insulin-resistant patients. Given the role of insulin in the control of cardiac energetics, the goal of this study was to investigate whether insulin affects mitochondrial dynamics in cardiomyocytes. Confocal microscopy and the mitochondrial dye MitoTracker Green were used to obtain three-dimensional images of the mitochondrial network in cardiomyocytes and L6 skeletal muscle cells in culture. Three hours of insulin treatment increased Opa-1 protein levels, promoted mitochondrial fusion, increased mitochondrial membrane potential, and elevated both intracellular ATP levels and oxygen consumption in cardiomyocytes in vitro and in vivo. Consequently, the silencing of Opa-1 or Mfn2 prevented all the metabolic effects triggered by insulin. We also provide evidence indicating that insulin increases mitochondrial function in cardiomyocytes through the Akt-mTOR-NFκB signaling pathway. These data demonstrate for the first time in our knowledge that insulin acutely regulates mitochondrial metabolism in cardiomyocytes through a mechanism that depends on increased mitochondrial fusion, Opa-1, and the Akt-mTOR-NFκB pathway. PMID:24009260

  8. SIRT1 regulates the mouse gastric emptying and intestinal growth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study addressed physiological significance of SIRT1 gene on mouse gastrointestinal growth and function (gastric emptying and intestinal growth). SIRT1 (a NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase) is a key cellular energy sensor, and involved in a wide variety of cellular functions including energy me...

  9. Signaling pathways regulating cartilage growth plate formation and activity.

    PubMed

    Samsa, William E; Zhou, Xin; Zhou, Guang

    2017-02-01

    The growth plate is a highly specialized and dynamic cartilage structure that serves many essential functions in skeleton patterning, growth and endochondral ossification in developing vertebrates. Major signaling pathways initiated by classical morphogens and by other systemic and tissue-specific factors are intimately involved in key aspects of growth plate development. As a corollary of these essential functions, disturbances in these pathways due to mutations or environmental factors lead to severe skeleton disorders. Here, we review these pathways and the most recent progress made in understanding their roles in chondrocyte differentiation in growth plate development and activity. Furthermore, we discuss newly uncovered pathways involved in growth plate formation, including mTOR, the circadian clock, and the COP9 signalosome.

  10. Identifying panaxynol, a natural activator of nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) from American ginseng as a suppressor of inflamed macrophage-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Chen; Li, Bin; Lai, Yimu; Li, Hechu; Windust, Anthony; Hofseth, Lorne J.; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash; Wang, Xing Li; Tang, Dongqi; Janicki, Joseph S.; Tian, Xingsong; Cui, Taixing

    2015-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance American ginseng is capable of ameliorating cardiac dysfunction and activating Nrf2, a master regulator of antioxidant defense, in the heart. This study was designed to isolate compounds from American ginseng and to determine those responsible for the Nrf2-mediated resolution of inflamed macrophage-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Materials and methods A standardized crude extract of American ginseng was supplied by the National Research Council of Canada, Institute for National Measurement Standards. A bioassay-based fractionization of American ginseng was performed to identify the putative substances which could activate Nrf2-mediated suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in macrophages and macrophage-mediated pro-hypertrophic growth in cardiomyocytes. Results A hexane fraction of an anti-inflammatory crude extract of American ginseng was found to be most effective in suppressing the inflammatory responses in macrophages. Preparative, reverse-phase HPLC and a comparative analysis by analytical scale LC–UV/MS revealed the hexane fraction contains predominantly C17 polyacetylenes and linolenic acid. Panaxynol, one of the major polyacetylenes, was found to be a potent Nrf2 activator.