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Sample records for regulates cyclin d1

  1. Cyclin D1 expression is regulated by the retinoblastoma protein.

    PubMed Central

    Müller, H; Lukas, J; Schneider, A; Warthoe, P; Bartek, J; Eilers, M; Strauss, M

    1994-01-01

    The product of the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene, pRb, acts as a tumor suppressor and loss of its function is involved in the development of various types of cancer. DNA tumor viruses are supposed to disturb the normal regulation of the cell cycle by inactivating pRb. However, a direct function of pRb in regulation of the cell cycle has hitherto not been shown. We demonstrate here that the cell cycle-dependent expression of one of the G1-phase cyclins, cyclin D1, is dependent on the presence of a functional Rb protein. Rb-deficient tumor cell lines as well as cells expressing viral oncoproteins (large tumor antigen of simian virus 40, early region 1A of adenovirus, early region 7 of papillomavirus) have low or barely detectable levels of cyclin D1. Expression of cyclin D1, but not of cyclins A and E, is induced by transfection of the Rb gene into Rb-deficient tumor cells. Cotransfection of a reporter gene under the control of the D1 promoter, together with the Rb gene, into Rb-deficient cell lines demonstrates stimulation of the D1 promoter by Rb, which parallels the stimulation of endogenous cyclin D1 gene expression. Our finding that pRb stimulates expression of a key component of cell cycle control, cyclin D1, suggests the existence of a regulatory loop between pRb and cyclin D1 and extends existing models of tumor suppressor function. Images PMID:8159685

  2. Calcineurin Regulates Cyclin D1 Accumulation in Growth-stimulated Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Kahl, Christina R.; Means, Anthony R.

    2004-01-01

    Calcium (Ca2+) and calmodulin (CaM) are required for progression of mammalian cells from quiescence into S phase. In multiple cell types, cyclosporin A causes a G1 cell cycle arrest, implicating the serine/threonine phosphatase calcineurin as one Ca2+/CaM-dependent enzyme required for G1 transit. Here, we show, in diploid human fibroblasts, that cyclosporin A arrested cells in G1 before cyclin D/cdk4 complex activation and retinoblastoma hyperphosphorylation. This arrest occurred in early G1 with low levels of cyclin D1 protein. Because cyclin D1 mRNA was induced normally in the cyclosporin A-treated cells, we analyzed the half-life of cyclin D1 in the presence of cyclosporin A and found no difference from control cells. However, cyclosporin A treatment dramatically reduced cyclin D1 protein synthesis. Although these pharmacological experiments suggested that calcineurin regulates cyclin D1 synthesis, we evaluated the effects of overexpression of activated calcineurin on cyclin D1 synthesis. In contrast to the reduction of cyclin D1 with cyclosporin A, ectopic expression of calcium/calmodulin-independent calcineurin promoted synthesis of cyclin D1 during G1 progression. Therefore, calcineurin is a Ca2+/CaM-dependent target that regulates cyclin D1 accumulation in G1. PMID:14767060

  3. BRCA1-IRIS regulates cyclin D1 expression in breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nakuci, Enkeleda; Mahner, Sven; DiRenzo, James; ElShamy, Wael M. . E-mail: wael_elshamy@dfci.harvard.edu

    2006-10-01

    The regulator of cell cycle progression, cyclin D1, is up-regulated in breast cancer cells; its expression is, in part, dependent on ER{alpha} signaling. However, many ER{alpha}-negative tumors and tumor cell lines (e.g., SKBR3) also show over-expression of cyclin D1. This suggests that, in addition to ER{alpha} signaling, cyclin D1 expression is under the control of other signaling pathways; these pathways may even be over-expressed in the ER{alpha}-negative cells. We previously noticed that both ER{alpha}-positive and -negative cell lines over-express BRCA1-IRIS mRNA and protein. Furthermore, the level of over-expression of BRCA1-IRIS in ER{alpha}-negative cell lines even exceeded its over-expression level in ER{alpha}-positive cell lines. In this study, we show that: (1) BRCA1-IRIS forms complex with two of the nuclear receptor co-activators, namely, SRC1 and SRC3 (AIB1) in an ER{alpha}-independent manner. (2) BRCA1-IRIS alone, or in connection with co-activators, is recruited to the cyclin D1 promoter through its binding to c-Jun/AP1 complex; this binding activates the cyclin D1 expression. (3) Over-expression of BRCA1-IRIS in breast cells over-activates JNK/c-Jun; this leads to the induction of cyclin D1 expression and cellular proliferation. (4) BRCA1-IRIS activation of JNK/c-Jun/AP1 appears to account for this, because in cells that were depleted from BRCA1-IRIS, JNK remained inactive. However, depletion of SRC1 or SRC3 instead reduced c-Jun expression. Our data suggest that this novel signaling pathway links BRCA1-IRIS to cellular proliferation through c-Jun/AP1 nuclear pathway; finally, this culminates in the increased expression of the cyclin D1 gene.

  4. Lefty inhibits in vitro decidualization by regulating P57 and cyclin D1 expressions.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Li, Hui; Bai, Liang; Yu, Hua

    2014-12-01

    Endometrial decidualization is highly important for successful construction and maintenance of embryo implantation and pregnancy. Lefty gene at different menstrual cycle phases has different expressions, indicating its regulatory significance. To study the mechanism of Lefty in decidualization, human endometrial stromal cells (hESCs) were cultured and induced with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and 8-bromoadenosine-cAMP (8-Br-cAMP) in vitro as a research model. Our results showed that Lefty1 overexpression inhibited MPA- and 8-Br-cAMP-induced hESC decidualization and significantly reduced the secretion of prolactin (PRL) and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1). With the inhibition of Lefty1 expression, hESC decidualization induced by MPA and 8-Br-cAMP became more remarkable, and the secretions of PRL and IGFBP-1 were higher too. Further tests indicated that during the process of decidualization, P57 expression increased, whereas cyclin D1 expression decreased. Although Lefty1 overexpression did not significantly change the expressions of P57 and cyclin D1, inhibition of Lefty1 expression resulted in more evident changes in P57 and cyclin D1 expressions. Meanwhile, cell cycle examination showed that Lefty1 overexpression reduced the cell cycle arrest at G1/S phase in the in vitro hESC decidualization model. Therefore, Lefty1 could regulate the cell cycle via modulating the expressions of P57 and cyclin D1 and then inhibit the decidualization in vitro. PMID:25339094

  5. Coordinated regulation of differentiation and proliferation of embryonic cardiomyocytes by a jumonji (Jarid2)-cyclin D1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Kuniko; Inagawa, Masayo; Uchida, Chiharu; Okada, Kumiko; Tane, Shoji; Kojima, Mizuyo; Kubota, Misae; Noda, Masatsugu; Ogawa, Satoko; Shirato, Haruki; Sato, Michio; Suzuki-Migishima, Rika; Hino, Toshiaki; Satoh, Yukio; Kitagawa, Masatoshi; Takeuchi, Takashi

    2011-05-01

    In general, cell proliferation and differentiation show an inverse relationship, and are regulated in a coordinated manner during development. Embryonic cardiomyocytes must support embryonic life by functional differentiation such as beating, and proliferate actively to increase the size of the heart. Therefore, progression of both proliferation and differentiation is indispensable. It remains unknown whether proliferation and differentiation are related in these embryonic cardiomyocytes. We focused on abnormal phenotypes, such as hyperproliferation, inhibition of differentiation and enhanced expression of cyclin D1 in cardiomyocytes of mice with mutant jumonji (Jmj, Jarid2), which encodes the repressor of cyclin D1. Analysis of Jmj/cyclin D1 double mutant mice showed that Jmj was required for normal differentiation and normal expression of GATA4 protein through cyclin D1. Analysis of transgenic mice revealed that enhanced expression of cyclin D1 decreased GATA4 protein expression and inhibited the differentiation of cardiomyocytes in a CDK4/6-dependent manner, and that exogenous expression of GATA4 rescued the abnormal differentiation. Finally, CDK4 phosphorylated GATA4 directly, which promoted the degradation of GATA4 in cultured cells. These results suggest that CDK4 activated by cyclin D1 inhibits differentiation of cardiomyocytes by degradation of GATA4, and that initiation of Jmj expression unleashes the inhibition by repression of cyclin D1 expression and allows progression of differentiation, as well as repression of proliferation. Thus, a Jmj-cyclin D1 pathway coordinately regulates proliferation and differentiation of cardiomyocytes.

  6. The Rho GTPase effector ROCK regulates cyclin A, cyclin D1, and p27Kip1 levels by distinct mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Croft, Daniel R; Olson, Michael F

    2006-06-01

    The members of the Rho GTPase family are well known for their regulation of actin cytoskeletal structures. In addition, they influence progression through the cell cycle. The RhoA and RhoC proteins regulate numerous effector proteins, with a central and vital signaling role mediated by the ROCK I and ROCK II serine/threonine kinases. The requirement for ROCK function in the proliferation of numerous cell types has been revealed by studies utilizing ROCK-selective inhibitors such as Y-27632. However, the mechanisms by which ROCK signaling promotes cell cycle progression have not been thoroughly characterized. Using a conditionally activated ROCK-estrogen receptor fusion protein, we found that ROCK activation is sufficient to stimulate G1/S cell cycle progression in NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblasts. Further analysis revealed that ROCK acts via independent pathways to alter the levels of cell cycle regulatory proteins: cyclin D1 and p21(Cip1) elevation via Ras and the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, increased cyclin A via LIM kinase 2, and reduction of p27(Kip1) protein levels. Therefore, the influence of ROCK on cell cycle regulatory proteins occurs by multiple independent mechanisms.

  7. Competitive Nuclear Export of Cyclin D1 and Hic-5 Regulates Anchorage Dependence of Cell Growth and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Kazunori; Hirao, Etsuko; Toya, Yosuke; Oshima, Yukiko; Ishikawa, Fumihiro; Nose, Kiyoshi

    2009-01-01

    Anchorage dependence of cell growth and survival is a critical trait that distinguishes nontransformed cells from transformed cells. We demonstrate that anchorage dependence is determined by anchorage-dependent nuclear retention of cyclin D1, which is regulated by the focal adhesion protein, Hic-5, whose CRM1-dependent nuclear export counteracts that of cyclin D1. An adaptor protein, PINCH, interacts with cyclin D1 and Hic-5 and potentially serves as an interface for the competition between cyclin D1 and Hic-5 for CRM1. In nonadherent cells, the nuclear export of Hic-5, which is redox-sensitive, was interrupted due to elevated production of reactive oxygen species, and cyclin D1 was exported from the nucleus. When an Hic-5 mutant that was continuously exported in a reactive oxygen species-insensitive manner was introduced into the cells, cyclin D1 was retained in the nucleus under nonadherent conditions, and a significant population of cells escaped from growth arrest or apoptosis. Interestingly, activated ras achieved predominant cyclin D1 nuclear localization and thus, growth in nonadherent cells. We report a failsafe system for anchorage dependence of cell growth and survival. PMID:18946086

  8. Cyclin D1 cooperates with p21 to regulate TGFβ-mediated breast cancer cell migration and tumor local invasion

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Deregulation of the cell cycle machinery is often found in human cancers. Modulations in the cell cycle regulator function and expression result not only in proliferative advantages, but also lead to tumor progression and invasiveness of the cancer. In particular, cyclin D1 and p21 are often over-expressed in human cancers, correlating with high tumor grade, poor prognosis and increased metastasis. This prompted us to investigate the role of the cyclin D1/p21 signaling axis downstream of transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) in breast cancer progression. Methods Cyclins mRNA and protein expressions were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot in triple negative breast cancer cell lines. Co-localization and interaction between cyclin D1 and p21 were performed by immunocytochemistry and co-immunoprecipitation, respectively. Cell migration was assessed by wound healing and quantitative time-lapse imaging assays. In addition, the effects of cyclin D1 on cellular structure and actin organization were examined by staining with F-actin marker phalloidin and mesenchymal intermediate filament vimentin. Finally, a mammary fat pad xenograft mouse model was used to assess mammary tumor growth and local invasion. Results We found TGFβ to specifically up-regulate the expression of cyclin D1 in triple negative breast cancer cells. Induction of cyclin D1 is also required for TGFβ-mediated cell migration. Suppression of cyclin D1 expression not only resulted in a rounded and epithelial-like phenotype, but also prevented TGFβ-induced vimentin and F-actin co-localization at the cell edge as well as invadopodia formation. Furthermore, TGFβ promoted the nuclear co-localization and physical interaction between cyclin D1 and p21. The co-expression of cyclin D1 and p21 proteins are required for the initial steps of tumor development, as double knockdown of these two molecules prevented primary tumor formation in a Xenograft mouse model. Moreover, the in

  9. Cyclin D1 functions in cell migration.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiping; Wang, Chenguang; Prendergast, George C; Pestell, Richard G

    2006-11-01

    Cell migration is essential for developmental morphogenesis, tissue repair, and tumor metastasis. A recent study reveals that cyclin D1 acts to promote cell migration by inhibiting Rho/ROCK signaling and expression of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), an extracellular matrix protein that regulates cell migration in many settings including cancer. Given the frequent overexpression of cyclin D1 in cancer cells, due to its upregulation by Ras, Rho, Src, and other genes that drive malignant development, the new findings suggest that cyclin D1 may have a central role in mediating invasion and metastasis of cancer cells by controlling Rho/ROCK signaling and matrix deposition of TSP-1.

  10. Tylophorine Analog DCB-3503 Inhibited Cyclin D1 Translation through Allosteric Regulation of Heat Shock Cognate Protein 70

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Lam, Wing; Chen, Shao-Ru; Guan, Fu-Lan; Dutchman, Ginger E.; Francis, Samson; Baker, David C.; Cheng, Yung-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Tylophorine analog DCB-3503 is a potential anticancer and immunosuppressive agent that suppresses the translation of cellular regulatory proteins, including cyclin D1, at the elongation step. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this phenomenon remains unknown. This study demonstrates that DCB-3503 preferentially binds to heat shock cognate protein 70 (HSC70), which is a determinant for cyclin D1 translation by binding to the 3′-untranslated region (3′ UTR) of its mRNA. DCB-3503 allosterically regulates the ATPase and chaperone activities of HSC70 by promoting ATP hydrolysis in the presence of specific RNA binding motifs (AUUUA) of cyclin D1 mRNA. The suppression of cyclin D1 translation by DCB-3503 is not solely caused by perturbation of the homeostasis of microRNAs, although the microRNA processing complex is dissociated with DCB-3503 treatment. This study highlights a novel regulatory mechanism of protein translation with AUUUA motifs in the 3′ UTR of mRNA by HSC70, and its activity can be allosterically modulated by DCB-3503. DCB-3503 may be used to treat malignancies, such as hepatocellular carcinoma or breast cancer with elevated expression of cyclin D1. PMID:27596272

  11. Tylophorine Analog DCB-3503 Inhibited Cyclin D1 Translation through Allosteric Regulation of Heat Shock Cognate Protein 70.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Lam, Wing; Chen, Shao-Ru; Guan, Fu-Lan; Dutchman, Ginger E; Francis, Samson; Baker, David C; Cheng, Yung-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Tylophorine analog DCB-3503 is a potential anticancer and immunosuppressive agent that suppresses the translation of cellular regulatory proteins, including cyclin D1, at the elongation step. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this phenomenon remains unknown. This study demonstrates that DCB-3503 preferentially binds to heat shock cognate protein 70 (HSC70), which is a determinant for cyclin D1 translation by binding to the 3'-untranslated region (3' UTR) of its mRNA. DCB-3503 allosterically regulates the ATPase and chaperone activities of HSC70 by promoting ATP hydrolysis in the presence of specific RNA binding motifs (AUUUA) of cyclin D1 mRNA. The suppression of cyclin D1 translation by DCB-3503 is not solely caused by perturbation of the homeostasis of microRNAs, although the microRNA processing complex is dissociated with DCB-3503 treatment. This study highlights a novel regulatory mechanism of protein translation with AUUUA motifs in the 3' UTR of mRNA by HSC70, and its activity can be allosterically modulated by DCB-3503. DCB-3503 may be used to treat malignancies, such as hepatocellular carcinoma or breast cancer with elevated expression of cyclin D1. PMID:27596272

  12. Cyclin D1 down-regulation is essential for DBC2's tumor suppressor function

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshihara, Takashi; Collado, Denise; Hamaguchi, Masaaki . E-mail: hamaguchi@fordham.edu

    2007-07-13

    The expression of tumor suppressor gene DBC2 causes certain breast cancer cells to stop growing [M. Hamaguchi, J.L. Meth, C. Von Klitzing, W. Wei, D. Esposito, L. Rodgers, T. Walsh, P. Welcsh, M.C. King, M.H. Wigler, DBC2, a candidate for a tumor suppressor gene involved in breast cancer, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99 (2002) 13647-13652]. Recently, DBC2 was found to participate in diverse cellular functions such as protein transport, cytoskeleton regulation, apoptosis, and cell cycle control [V. Siripurapu, J.L. Meth, N. Kobayashi, M. Hamaguchi, DBC2 significantly influences cell cycle, apoptosis, cytoskeleton, and membrane trafficking pathways. J. Mol. Biol. 346 (2005) 83-89]. Its tumor suppression mechanism, however, remains unclear. In this paper, we demonstrate that DBC2 suppresses breast cancer proliferation through down-regulation of Cyclin D1 (CCND1). Additionally, the constitutional overexpression of CCND1 prevented the negative impact of DBC2 expression on their growth. Under a CCND1 promoter, the expression of CCNE1 exhibited the same protective effect. Our results indicate that the down-regulation of CCND1 is an essential step for DBC2's growth suppression of cancer cells. We believe that this discovery contributes to a better understanding of DBC2's tumor suppressor function.

  13. Cyclin D1 Determines Mitochondrial Function In Vivo†

    PubMed Central

    Sakamaki, Toshiyuki; Casimiro, Mathew C.; Ju, Xiaoming; Quong, Andrew A.; Katiyar, Sanjay; Liu, Manran; Jiao, Xuanmao; Li, Anping; Zhang, Xueping; Lu, Yinan; Wang, Chenguang; Byers, Stephen; Nicholson, Robert; Link, Todd; Shemluck, Melvin; Yang, Jianguo; Fricke, Stanley T.; Novikoff, Phyllis M.; Papanikolaou, Alexandros; Arnold, Andrew; Albanese, Christopher; Pestell, Richard

    2006-01-01

    The cyclin D1 gene encodes a regulatory subunit of the holoenzyme that phosphorylates and inactivates the pRb tumor suppressor to promote nuclear DNA synthesis. cyclin D1 is overexpressed in human breast cancers and is sufficient for the development of murine mammary tumors. Herein, cyclin D1 is shown to perform a novel function, inhibiting mitochondrial function and size. Mitochondrial activity was enhanced by genetic deletion or antisense or small interfering RNA to cyclin D1. Global gene expression profiling and functional analysis of mammary epithelial cell-targeted cyclin D1 antisense transgenics demonstrated that cyclin D1 inhibits mitochondrial activity and aerobic glycolysis in vivo. Reciprocal regulation of these genes was observed in cyclin D1-induced mammary tumors. Cyclin D1 thus integrates nuclear DNA synthesis and mitochondrial function. PMID:16809779

  14. Cytoplasmic cyclin D1 regulates cell invasion and metastasis through the phosphorylation of paxillin

    PubMed Central

    Fusté, Noel P.; Fernández-Hernández, Rita; Cemeli, Tània; Mirantes, Cristina; Pedraza, Neus; Rafel, Marta; Torres-Rosell, Jordi; Colomina, Neus; Ferrezuelo, Francisco; Dolcet, Xavier; Garí, Eloi

    2016-01-01

    Cyclin D1 (Ccnd1) together with its binding partner Cdk4 act as a transcriptional regulator to control cell proliferation and migration, and abnormal Ccnd1·Cdk4 expression promotes tumour growth and metastasis. While different nuclear Ccnd1·Cdk4 targets participating in cell proliferation and tissue development have been identified, little is known about how Ccnd1·Cdk4 controls cell adherence and invasion. Here, we show that the focal adhesion component paxillin is a cytoplasmic substrate of Ccnd1·Cdk4. This complex phosphorylates a fraction of paxillin specifically associated to the cell membrane, and promotes Rac1 activation, thereby triggering membrane ruffling and cell invasion in both normal fibroblasts and tumour cells. Our results demonstrate that localization of Ccnd1·Cdk4 to the cytoplasm does not simply act to restrain cell proliferation, but constitutes a functionally relevant mechanism operating under normal and pathological conditions to control cell adhesion, migration and metastasis through activation of a Ccnd1·Cdk4-paxillin-Rac1 axis. PMID:27181366

  15. Expression patterns of cyclin D1 and related proteins regulating G1-S phase transition in uveal melanoma and retinoblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Coupland, S; Bechrakis, N; Schuler, A; Anagnostopoulos, I; Hummel, M; Bornfeld, N; Stein, H

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—A checkpoint mechanism in late G1, whose regulation via loss of retinoblastoma protein (pRB) or p16, or overexpression of cyclin D1 or cyclin dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), has been proposed to constitute a common pathway to malignancy. The aims of this study were (a) to compare markers of cell cycle G1-S phase transition in an intraocular tumour with known pRB deficiency (retinoblastoma) and compare it with one with an apparently functional pRB (uveal melanoma); (b) to determine if one of these markers may have a role in the pathogenesis of uveal melanoma; and (c) to determine if there is a difference in cell cycle marker expression following treatment of uveal melanoma and retinoblastoma.
METHODS—90 eyes were enucleated from 89 patients for retinoblastoma (n=24) or for choroidal or ciliary body melanoma (n=66). Conventional paraffin sections were assessed for cell type and degree of differentiation. Additional slides were investigated applying standard immunohistochemical methods with antibodies specific for cyclin D1 protein, pRB, p53, p21, p16, BCL-2, and MIB-1.
RESULTS—Cyclin D1 protein and pRB were negative in retinoblastoma using the applied antibodies. In contrast, cyclin D1 protein expression was observed in 65% of uveal melanomas; a positive correlation between cyclin D1 cell positivity and tumour cell type, location, growth fraction, as well as with pRB positivity was observed. p53, p21, and p16 could be demonstrated in both tumours. An inverse relation between p53 and p21 expression was demonstrated in most choroidal melanomas and in some retinoblastomas. Apart from a decrease in the growth fractions of the tumours as determined by MIB-1, a significant difference in the expression of G1-S phase transition markers in vital areas of uveal melanoma and retinoblastoma following treatment with radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy was not observed.
CONCLUSION—Retinoblastomas and uveal melanomas, two tumours of differing pRB status

  16. Arsenic trioxide-mediated growth inhibition in gallbladder carcinoma cells via down-regulation of Cyclin D1 transcription mediated by Sp1 transcription factor

    SciTech Connect

    Ai, Zhilong; Lu, Weiqi; Ton, Saixiong; Liu, Houbao; Sou, Tao; Shen, Zhenbin; Qin, Xinyu . E-mail: smc_jjh@yahoo.com.cn

    2007-08-31

    Gallbladder carcinoma (GBC), an aggressive and mostly lethal malignancy, is known to be resistant to a number of drug stimuli. Here, we demonstrated that arsenic trioxide inhibited the proliferation of gallbladder carcinoma in vivo and in vitro as well as the transcription of cell cycle-related protein Cyclin D1. And, Cyclin D1 overexpression inhibited the negative role of arsenic trioxide in cell cycle progression. We further explored the mechanisms by which arsenic trioxide affected Cyclin D1 transcription and found that the Sp1 transcription factor was down-regulated by arsenic trioxide, with a corresponding decrease in Cyclin D1 promoter activity. Taken together, these results suggested that arsenic trioxide inhibited gallbladder carcinoma cell proliferation via down-regulation of Cyclin D1 transcription in a Sp1-dependent manner, which provided a new mechanism of arsenic trioxide-involved cell proliferation and may have important therapeutic implications in gallbladder carcinoma patients.

  17. PACSIN 2 represses cellular migration through direct association with cyclin D1 but not its alternate splice form cyclin D1b

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jie; Li, Zhiping; Jiao, Xuanmao; Li, Wayne W; Plomann, Markus; Xu, Zhishun; Lisanti, Michael P

    2011-01-01

    Cyclin D1 overexpression is a common feature of many human malignancies. Genomic deletion analysis has demonstrated a key role for cyclin D1 in cellular proliferation, angiogenesis and cellular migration. To investigate the mechanisms contributing to cyclin D1 functions, we purified cyclin D1a-associated complexes by affinity chromatography and identified the PACSIN 2 (protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons 2) protein by mass spectrometry. The PACSIN 2, but not the related PACSIN 1 and 3, directly bound wild-type cyclin D1 (cyclin D1a) at the carboxyl terminus and failed to bind cyclin D1b, the alternative splicing variant of cyclin D1. PACSIN 2 knockdown induced cellular migration and reduced cell spreading in LNCaP cells expressing cyclin D1a. In cyclin D1−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), cyclin D1a, but not cyclin D1b, reduced the cell spreading to a polarized morphology. siPACSIN 2 had no effect on cellular migration of cyclin D1−/− MEFs. Cyclin D1a restored the migratory ability of cyclin D1−/− MEFs, which was further enhanced by knocking down PACSIN 2 with siRNA. The cyclin D1-associated protein, PACSIN 2, regulates cell spreading and migration, which are dependent on cyclin D1 expression. PMID:21200149

  18. Cyclin D1 Is Transcriptionally Down-Regulated by ZO-2 via an E Box and the Transcription Factor c-Myc

    PubMed Central

    Huerta, Miriam; Muñoz, Rodrigo; Tapia, Rocío; Soto-Reyes, Ernesto; Ramírez, Leticia; Recillas-Targa, Félix; González-Mariscal, Lorenza

    2007-01-01

    Recent reports have indicated the participation of tight junction (TJ) proteins in the regulation of gene expression and cell proliferation. Here, we have studied the role of zona occludens (ZO)-2, a TJ peripheral protein, in the regulation of cyclin D1 transcription. We found that ZO-2 down-regulates cyclin D1 transcription in a dose-dependent manner. To understand how ZO-2 represses cyclin D1 promoter activity, we used deletion analyses and found that ZO-2 negatively regulates cyclin D1 transcription via an E box and that it diminishes cell proliferation. Because ZO-2 does not associate directly with DNA, electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay were used to identify the transcription factors mediating the ZO-2–repressive effect. c-Myc was found to bind the E box present in the cyclin D1 promoter, and the overexpression of c-Myc augmented the inhibition generated by ZO-2 transfection. The presence of ZO-2 and c-Myc in the same complex was further demonstrated by immunoprecipitation. ChIP and reporter gene assays using histone deacetylases (HDACs) inhibitors demonstrated that HDACs are necessary for ZO-2 repression and that HDAC1 is recruited to the E box. We conclude that ZO-2 down-regulates cyclin D1 transcription by interacting with the c-Myc/E box element and by recruiting HDAC1. PMID:17881732

  19. Cyclin D1 is transcriptionally down-regulated by ZO-2 via an E box and the transcription factor c-Myc.

    PubMed

    Huerta, Miriam; Muñoz, Rodrigo; Tapia, Rocío; Soto-Reyes, Ernesto; Ramírez, Leticia; Recillas-Targa, Félix; González-Mariscal, Lorenza; López-Bayghen, Esther

    2007-12-01

    Recent reports have indicated the participation of tight junction (TJ) proteins in the regulation of gene expression and cell proliferation. Here, we have studied the role of zona occludens (ZO)-2, a TJ peripheral protein, in the regulation of cyclin D1 transcription. We found that ZO-2 down-regulates cyclin D1 transcription in a dose-dependent manner. To understand how ZO-2 represses cyclin D1 promoter activity, we used deletion analyses and found that ZO-2 negatively regulates cyclin D1 transcription via an E box and that it diminishes cell proliferation. Because ZO-2 does not associate directly with DNA, electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay were used to identify the transcription factors mediating the ZO-2-repressive effect. c-Myc was found to bind the E box present in the cyclin D1 promoter, and the overexpression of c-Myc augmented the inhibition generated by ZO-2 transfection. The presence of ZO-2 and c-Myc in the same complex was further demonstrated by immunoprecipitation. ChIP and reporter gene assays using histone deacetylases (HDACs) inhibitors demonstrated that HDACs are necessary for ZO-2 repression and that HDAC1 is recruited to the E box. We conclude that ZO-2 down-regulates cyclin D1 transcription by interacting with the c-Myc/E box element and by recruiting HDAC1.

  20. Biochemical characterizations reveal different properties between CDK4/cyclin D1 and CDK2/cyclin A.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Myung; Yang, Kyungmi; Yang, Beom-Seok

    2003-10-31

    CDK2 and CDK4 known promoter of cell cycling catalyze phosphorylation of RB protein. Enzyme specificity between two CDKs that work at a different cell cycle phase is not clearly understood. In order to define kinase properties of CDK2 and CDK4 in complex with cycline A or cycline D1 in relation to their respective role in cell cycling regulation, we examined enzymatic properties of both CDK4/cycline D1 and CDK2/cycline A in vitro. Association constant, Km for ATP in CDK4/cyclin D1 was found as 418 microM, a value unusually high whereas CDK2/cyclin A was 23 microM, a value close to most of other regulatory protein kinases. Turnover value for both CDK4/cyclin D1 and CDK2/cyclin A were estimated as 3.4 and 3.9 min(-1) respectively. Kinetic efficiency estimation indicates far over one order magnitude less efficiency for CDK4/cyclin D1 than the value of CDK2/cycline A (9.3 pM(-1) min(-1) and 170 pM(-1) min(-1) respectively). In addition, inhibition of cellular CDK4 caused increase of cellular levels of ATP, even though inhibition of CDK2 did not change it noticeably. These data suggest cellular CDK4/cyclin D1 activity is tightly associated with cellular ATP concentration. Also, analysis of phosphorylated serine/threonine sites on RB catalyzed by CDK4/cyclin D1 and CDK2/cyclin A showed significant differences in their preference of phosphorylation sites in RB C-terminal domain. Since RB is known to regulate various cellular proteins by binding and this binding is controlled by its phosphorylation, these data shown here clearly indicate significant difference in their biochemical properties between CDK4/cyclin D1 and CDK2/cyclin A affecting regulation of cellular RB function. PMID:14646596

  1. Altered expression of cell cycle regulators Cyclin D1, p14, p16, CDK4 and Rb in nodular melanomas.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Ingeborg M; Straume, Oddbjørn; Akslen, Lars A

    2004-12-01

    Cell cycle regulating proteins are important in tumour development. To investigate whether alterations in Cyclin D1, p14, CDK4 and Rb are associated with tumour cell proliferation, tumour progression and patient survival in malignant melanoma, we examined 202 vertical growth phase tumours and 68 corresponding metastases for expression of Cyclin D1, p14, CDK4 and Rb, and compared the results with Ki-67 expression, p16 and p53 expression, clinico-pathological variables, and survival data. Nuclear staining of Cyclin D1 was strong in 35% of cases, and correlated with high levels of Rb (p=0.05), but not with survival or other markers tested. Strong staining of p14 was found in 63% of nodular melanomas and was associated with strong p53 expression (p=0.014), and with high levels of CDK4 (p<0.0001). Low p14 expression was associated with increased tumour thickness (p=0.008) and increasing level of invasion (p=0.020). Strong nuclear staining for CDK4 was found in 81% of cases and was associated with tumour thickness below the median value of 3.7 mm and improved survival (log-rank test, p=0.024). Further, 56% of the tumours showed strong nuclear staining for Rb, and these cases were significantly associated with absent/low levels of p16 staining (p=0.030), high levels of p14 (p=0.010), as well as high Ki-67 expression (p=0.005). Our results seem to confirm that the p16-Rb pathway plays an important role in tumour progression and prognosis in vertical growth phase melanomas, whereas alterations in the p14-p53 pathway might be less important.

  2. Cyclin D1 expression and HHV8 in Kaposi sarcoma.

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, M M; Biddolph, S; Lucas, S B; Howells, D D; Picton, S; McGee, J O; Silva, I; Uhlmann, V; Luttich, K; O'Leary, J J

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) appears to be the agent responsible for Kaposi sarcoma. The mechanism remains undetermined but may involve cell cycle regulating genes including D type cyclins which are pivotal in cell cycle progression. Recent HHV8 genetic analysis has revealed the presence of a v-cyclin which is homologous to D type cyclins. AIMS: First, to assess whether there is an independent relation between endogenous cyclin D1 expression in Kaposi sarcoma and HHV8 status; second to determine whether v-cyclin mRNA expression varies with Kaposi sarcoma stage. METHODS: Cyclin D1 immunohistochemistry was performed on 17 paraffin embedded Kaposi sarcoma samples from 16 patients. HHV8 status was assessed in 15 of these using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to ORF 26 and the newly described technique of TaqMan PCR. An additional 10 fresh Kaposi sarcoma samples (early and nodular) were examined for HHV8 v-cyclin RNA. RESULTS: One case, which did not contain amplifiable HHV8, showed strong cyclin D1 staining. The remaining cases were negative or weakly staining; v-cyclin transcript load was higher in early Kaposi sarcoma. CONCLUSIONS: While endogenous cyclin D1 expression is independent of HHV8 status, v-cyclin transcription is higher in early lesions, supporting the "viral hit" hypothesis. Images PMID:10645225

  3. Matrine promotes G0/G1 arrest and down-regulates cyclin D1 expression in human rhabdomyosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, L; Xue, T Y; Xu, W; Gao, J Z

    2013-09-01

    Matrine has a broad-spectrum of anti-cancer effects and is efficient in the inhibition of proliferation of hepatoma cells, leukemia cells and neuroblastoma cell. However, its efficacy and tentative mechanisms in rhabdomyosarcoma have not been addressed before. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Matrine on cell cycle and expression of cyclin D1 in human rhabdomyosarcoma cells (RD cell line). RD cell line was treated with different concentrations (0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg/mL) of Matrine, and cell proliferation and cell cycle were evaluated using, respectively, MTT assay and flow cytometry. The effect of Matrine on cyclin D1 mRNA levels was measured by RT-PCR. There was a dose-dependent inhibition of proliferation in the matrine-treated group (inhibition of proliferation rate in control cells 12.70 ± 0.35%; Matrine-treated cells [0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg/mL]: 31.16 ± 0.11%, 42.96 ± 0.9%, and 57.26 ± 0.8%). The G0 / G1 ratio in study groups were, respectively, 58.44 ± 3.57%, 64.79 ± 2.03%, 69.97 ± 2.89% and 75.03 ± 1.23%.Cyclin D1 mRNA levels progressively diminished (control group ratio of cyclin D1 / β-actin: 0.59 ± 0.06; Matrine: 0.35 ± 0.05, 0.27 ± 0.02 and 0.04 ± 0.03). All aforementioned changes were significant (P<0.05). In conclusion, Matrine markedly suppresses cell proliferation in RD cells by decreasing expression of cyclin D1 mRNA and blocking the cell cycle at the G0 / G1 stage.

  4. CARMA3 is overexpressed in colon cancer and regulates NF-{kappa}B activity and cyclin D1 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, Zhifeng; Zhao, Tingting; Wang, Zhenning; Xu, Yingying; Song, Yongxi; Wu, Jianhua; Xu, Huimian

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CARMA3 expression is elevated in colon cancers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CARMA3 promotes proliferation and cell cycle progression in colon cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CARMA3 upregulates cyclinD1 through NF-{kappa}B activation. -- Abstract: CARMA3 was recently reported to be overexpressed in cancers and associated with the malignant behavior of cancer cells. However, the expression of CARMA3 and its biological roles in colon cancer have not been reported. In the present study, we analyzed the expression pattern of CARMA3 in colon cancer tissues and found that CARMA3 was overexpressed in 30.8% of colon cancer specimens. There was a significant association between CARMA3 overexpression and TNM stage (p = 0.0383), lymph node metastasis (p = 0.0091) and Ki67 proliferation index (p = 0.0035). Furthermore, knockdown of CARMA3 expression in HT29 and HCT116 cells with high endogenous expression decreased cell proliferation and cell cycle progression while overexpression of CARMA3 in LoVo cell line promoted cell proliferation and facilitated cell cycle transition. Further analysis showed that CARMA3 knockdown downregulated and its overexpression upregulated cyclin D1 expression and phospho-Rb levels. In addition, we found that CARMA3 depletion inhibited p-I{kappa}B levels and NF-{kappa}B activity and its overexpression increased p-I{kappa}B expression and NF-{kappa}B activity. NF-{kappa}B inhibitor BAY 11-7082 reversed the role of CARMA3 on cyclin D1 upregulation. In conclusion, our study found that CARMA3 is overexpressed in colon cancers and contributes to malignant cell growth by facilitating cell cycle progression through NF-{kappa}B mediated upregulation of cyclin D1.

  5. CARMA3 is overexpressed in colon cancer and regulates NF-κB activity and cyclin D1 expression.

    PubMed

    Miao, Zhifeng; Zhao, Tingting; Wang, Zhenning; Xu, Yingying; Song, Yongxi; Wu, Jianhua; Xu, Huimian

    2012-09-01

    CARMA3 was recently reported to be overexpressed in cancers and associated with the malignant behavior of cancer cells. However, the expression of CARMA3 and its biological roles in colon cancer have not been reported. In the present study, we analyzed the expression pattern of CARMA3 in colon cancer tissues and found that CARMA3 was overexpressed in 30.8% of colon cancer specimens. There was a significant association between CARMA3 overexpression and TNM stage (p=0.0383), lymph node metastasis (p=0.0091) and Ki67 proliferation index (p=0.0035). Furthermore, knockdown of CARMA3 expression in HT29 and HCT116 cells with high endogenous expression decreased cell proliferation and cell cycle progression while overexpression of CARMA3 in LoVo cell line promoted cell proliferation and facilitated cell cycle transition. Further analysis showed that CARMA3 knockdown downregulated and its overexpression upregulated cyclin D1 expression and phospho-Rb levels. In addition, we found that CARMA3 depletion inhibited p-IκB levels and NF-κB activity and its overexpression increased p-IκB expression and NF-κB activity. NF-κB inhibitor BAY 11-7082 reversed the role of CARMA3 on cyclin D1 upregulation. In conclusion, our study found that CARMA3 is overexpressed in colon cancers and contributes to malignant cell growth by facilitating cell cycle progression through NF-κB mediated upregulation of cyclin D1.

  6. Redox regulation of cell-cycle re-entry: cyclin D1 as a primary target for the mitogenic effects of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.

    PubMed

    Burch, Peter M; Heintz, Nicholas H

    2005-01-01

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species inhibit or promote cell proliferation by modulating the cell signaling pathways that dictate decisions between cell survival, proliferation, and death. In the growth factor-dependent pathways that regulate mitogenesis, numerous positive and negative effectors of signaling are influenced by physiological fluctuations of oxidants, including receptor tyrosine kinases, small GTPases, mitogen-activated protein kinases, protein phosphatases, and transcription factors. The same mitogenic pathways that are sensitive to oxidant levels also directly regulate the expression of cyclin D1, a labile factor required for progression through the G1 phase on the cell cycle. Because the transition from G0 to G1 is the only phase of the cell cycle that is not regulated by cyclin-dependent kinases, but rather by redox-dependent signaling pathways, expression of cyclin D1 represents a primary regulatory node for the dose-dependent effects of oxidants on the induction of cell growth. We suggest that expression of cyclin D1 represents a useful marker for assessing the integration of proliferative and growth inhibitory effects of oxidants on the redox-dependent signaling events that control reentry into the cell cycle.

  7. Nerve Growth Factor Regulation of Cyclin D1 in PC12 Cells through a p21RAS Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase Pathway Requires Cooperative Interactions between Sp1 and Nuclear Factor-κB

    PubMed Central

    Marampon, Francesco; Casimiro, Mathew C.; Fu, Maofu; Powell, Michael J.; Popov, Vladimir M.; Lindsay, Jaime; Zani, Bianca M.; Ciccarelli, Carmela; Watanabe, Genichi; Lee, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    The PC12 pheochromocytoma cell line responds to nerve growth factor (NGF) by exiting from the cell cycle and differentiating to induce extending neurites. Cyclin D1 is an important regulator of G1/S phase cell cycle progression, and it is known to play a role in myocyte differentiation in cultured cells. Herein, NGF induced cyclin D1 promoter, mRNA, and protein expression via the p21RAS pathway. Antisense- or small interfering RNA to cyclin D1 abolished NGF-mediated neurite outgrowth, demonstrating the essential role of cyclin D1 in NGF-mediated differentiation. Expression vectors encoding mutants of the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, and chemical inhibitors, demonstrated NGF induction of cyclin D1 involved cooperative interactions of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways downstream of p21RAS. NGF induced the cyclin D1 promoter via Sp1, nuclear factor-κB, and cAMP-response element/activated transcription factor sites. NGF induction via Sp1 involved the formation of a Sp1/p50/p107 complex. Cyclin D1 induction by NGF governs differentiation and neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. PMID:18367547

  8. ATM is required for rapid degradation of cyclin D1 in response to {gamma}-irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Choo, Dong Wan; Baek, Hye Jung; Motoyama, Noboru; Cho, Kwan Ho; Kim, Hye Sun; Kim, Sang Soo

    2009-01-23

    The cellular response to DNA damage induced by {gamma}-irradiation activates cell-cycle arrest to permit DNA repair and to prevent replication. Cyclin D1 is the key molecule for transition between the G1 and S phases of the cell-cycle, and amplification or overexpression of cyclin D1 plays pivotal roles in the development of several human cancers. To study the regulation of cyclin D1 in the DNA-damaged condition, we analyzed the proteolytic regulation of cyclin D1 expression upon {gamma}-irradiation. Upon {gamma}-irradiation, a rapid reduction in cyclin D1 levels was observed prior to p53 stabilization, indicating that the stability of cyclin D1 is controlled in a p53-independent manner. Further analysis revealed that irradiation facilitated ubiquitination of cyclin D1 and that a proteasome inhibitor blocked cyclin D1 degradation under the same conditions. Interestingly, after mutation of threonine residue 286 of cyclin D1, which is reported to be the GSK-3{beta} phosphorylation site, the mutant protein showed resistance to irradiation-induced proteolysis although inhibitors of GSK-3{beta} failed to prevent cyclin D1 degradation. Rather, ATM inhibition markedly prevented cyclin D1 degradation induced by {gamma}-irradiation. Our data indicate that communication between ATM and cyclin D1 may be required for maintenance of genomic integrity achieved by rapid arrest of the cell-cycle, and that disruption of this crosstalk may increase susceptibility to cancer.

  9. PIK3CA mutation uncouples tumor growth and Cyclin D1 regulation from MEK/ERK and mutant KRAS signaling

    PubMed Central

    Halilovic, Ensar; She, Qing-Bai; Ye, Qing; Pagliarini, Raymond; Sellers, William R.; Solit, David B.; Rosen, Neal

    2010-01-01

    Mutational activation of KRAS is a common event in human tumors. Identification of the key signaling pathways downstream of mutant KRAS is essential for our understanding of how to pharmacologically target these cancers in patients. We show that PD0325901, a small molecule MEK inhibitor, decreases MEK/ERK pathway signaling, and destabilizes Cyclin D1, resulting in significant anti-cancer activity in a subset of KRAS mutant tumors in vitro and in vivo. Mutational activation of PIK3CA, which commonly co-occurs with KRAS mutation, provides resistance to MEK inhibition through reactivation of AKT signaling. Genetic ablation of the mutant PIK3CA allele in MEK inhibitor-resistant cells restores MEK pathway sensitivity, and re-expression of mutant PIK3CA reinstates the resistance, highlighting the importance of this mutation in resistance to therapy in human cancers. In KRAS mutant tumors, PIK3CA mutation restores Cyclin D1 expression and G1/S cell cycle progression so that they are no longer dependent on KRAS and MEK/ERK signaling. Furthermore, the growth of KRAS mutant tumors with coexistent PIK3CA mutations in vivo is profoundly inhibited with combined pharmacologic inhibition of MEK and AKT. These data suggest that tumors with both KRAS and PI3K mutations are unlikely to respond to inhibition of the MEK pathway alone but will require effective inhibition of both MEK and PI3K/AKT pathway signaling. PMID:20699365

  10. Selective activation of p38alpha and p38gamma by hypoxia. Role in regulation of cyclin D1 by hypoxia in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Conrad, P W; Rust, R T; Han, J; Millhorn, D E; Beitner-Johnson, D

    1999-08-13

    Hypoxic/ischemic trauma is a primary factor in the pathology of a multitude of disease states. The effects of hypoxia on the stress- and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways were studied in PC12 cells. Exposure to moderate hypoxia (5% O(2)) progressively stimulated phosphorylation and activation of p38gamma in particular, and also p38alpha, two stress-activated protein kinases. In contrast, hypoxia had no effect on enzyme activity of p38beta, p38beta(2), p38delta, or on c-Jun N-terminal kinase, another stress-activated protein kinase. Prolonged hypoxia also induced phosphorylation and activation of p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase, although this activation was modest compared with nerve growth factor- and ultraviolet light-induced activation. Hypoxia also dramatically down-regulated immunoreactivity of cyclin D1, a gene that is known to be regulated negatively by p38 at the level of gene expression (Lavoie, J. N., L'Allemain, G., Brunet, A., Muller, R., and Pouyssegur, J. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 20608-20616). This effect was partially blocked by SB203580, an inhibitor of p38alpha but not p38gamma. Overexpression of a kinase-inactive form of p38gamma was also able to reverse in part the effect of hypoxia on cyclin D1 levels, suggesting that p38alpha and p38gamma converge to regulate cyclin D1 during hypoxia. These studies demonstrate that an extremely typical physiological stress (hypoxia) causes selective activation of specific p38 signaling elements; and they also identify a downstream target of these pathways. PMID:10438538

  11. LPLUNC1 Inhibits Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cell Growth via Down-Regulation of the MAP Kinase and Cyclin D1/E2F Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoling; Zhang, Wenling; Fan, Songqing; Shi, Lei; Li, Xiayu; Gong, Zhaojian; Ma, Jian; Zhou, Ming; Xiang, Juanjuan; Peng, Shuping; Xiang, Bo; Deng, Hao; Yang, Yunbo; Li, Yong; Xiong, Wei; Zeng, Zhaoyang; Li, Guiyuan

    2013-01-01

    Long-palate, lung and nasal epithelium clone 1 (LPLUNC1) gene expression is relatively tissue specific. It is highly expressed in nontumor nasopharyngeal epithelial tissues, but its expression is reduced in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), indicating that LPLUNC1 may be associated with the tumorigenesis of NPC. To study the effects of LPLUNC1 on NPC tumorigenesis, a full-length LPLUNC1 expression plasmid was stably transfected into the NPC cell line, 5-8F. Our data indicated that LPLUNC1 inhibited NPC cell proliferation in vitro and tumor formation in vivo. LPLUNC1 also delayed cell cycle progression from G1 to S phase and inhibited the expression of cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) and phosphorylated Rb. To further investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the suppressive effects of LPLUNC1 on NPC tumorigenesis, cDNA microarray was performed. These studies revealed that LPLUNC1 inhibited the expression of certain mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases (MAPK) kinases and cell cycle-related molecules. Western blotting confirmed that the expression of MEK1, phosphorylated ERK1/2, phosphorylated JNK1/2, c-Myc and c-Jun were inhibited by LPLUNC1. Furthermore, the transcriptional activity of AP-1 was down-regulated by LPLUNC1, suggesting that the MAPK signaling pathway is regulated by LPLUNC1. Taken together, the present study indicates that LPLUNC1 delays NPC cell growth by inhibiting the MAPK and cyclin D1/E2F pathways and suggests that LPLUNC1 may represent a promising candidate tumor suppressor gene associated with NPC. PMID:23650533

  12. Cyclin D1/cyclin dependent kinase 4 interacts with filamin A and affects the migration and invasion potential of breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Zhijiu; Yeow, Wen-Shuz; Zou, Chunhua; Wassell, Richard; Wang, Chenguang; Pestell, Richard G.; Quong, Judy N.; Quong, Andrew A.

    2010-01-01

    Cyclin D1 belongs to the family of proteins that regulates progression through the G1-S phase of the cell cycle through binding to cyclin dependent kinase 4 to phosphorylate the retinoblastoma protein and release E2F transcription factors for progression through cell cycle. Several cancers, including breast, colon and prostate over-express the cyclin D1 gene. However, the correlation between cyclin D1 over-expression with E2F target gene regulation or cyclin dependent kinase-dependent cyclin D1 activity with tumor development have not been identified. This suggests that the role of cyclin D1 in oncogenesis may be independent of its function as a cell cycle regulator. One such function is the role of cyclin D1 in cell adhesion and motility. Filamin A, a member of the actin-binding filamin protein family, regulates signaling events involved in cell motility and invasion. Filamin A has also been associated with a variety of cancers including lung, prostate, melanoma, human bladder cancer, and neuroblastoma. We hypothesized that elevated cyclin D1 facilitates motility in the invasive MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line. We show that MDA-MB-231 motility is affected by disturbing cyclin D1 levels or cyclin D1-cdk4/6 kinase activity. Using mass spectrometry, we found that cyclin D1 and Filamin A co-immunoprecipitate and that lower levels of cyclin D1 are associated with decreased phosphorylation of FLNa at serine 2152 and 1459. We also identify many proteins related to cytoskeletal function, biomolecular synthesis, organelle biogenesis, and calcium regulation whose levels of expression change concomitant with decreased cell motility induced by decreased cyclin D1 and cyclin D1-cdk4/6 activity. PMID:20179208

  13. Post-transcriptional regulation of cyclins D1, D3 and G1 and proliferation of human cancer cells depend on IMP-3 nuclear localization.

    PubMed

    Rivera Vargas, T; Boudoukha, S; Simon, A; Souidi, M; Cuvellier, S; Pinna, G; Polesskaya, A

    2014-05-29

    RNA-binding proteins of the IMP family (insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) mRNA-binding proteins 1-3) are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Multiple studies have linked high expression of IMP proteins, and especially of IMP-3, to an unfavorable prognosis in numerous types of cancer. The specific importance of IMP-3 for cancer transformation remains poorly understood. We here show that all three IMPs can directly bind the mRNAs of cyclins D1, D3 and G1 (CCND1, D3 and G1) in vivo and in vitro, and yet only IMP-3 regulates the expression of these cyclins in a significant manner in six human cancer cell lines of different origins. In the absence of IMP-3, the levels of CCND1, D3 and G1 proteins fall dramatically, and the cells accumulate in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, leading to almost complete proliferation arrest. Our results show that, compared with IMP-1 and IMP-2, IMP-3 is enriched in the nucleus, where it binds the transcripts of CCND1, D3 and G1. The nuclear localization of IMP-3 depends on its protein partner HNRNPM and is indispensable for the post-transcriptional regulation of expression of the cyclins. Cytoplasmic retention of IMP-3 and HNRNPM in human cancer cells leads to significant drop in proliferation. In conclusion, a nuclear IMP-3-HNRNPM complex is important for the efficient synthesis of CCND1, D3 and G1 and for the proliferation of human cancer cells.

  14. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) inhibits EGF-induced cell transformation via reduction of cyclin D1 mRNA stability

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jingjie; Ouyang, Weiming; Li, Jingxia; Zhang, Dongyun; Yu, Yonghui; Wang, York; Li, Xuejun; Huang, Chuanshu

    2012-09-01

    Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) inhibiting cancer cell growth has been associated with its downregulation of cyclin D1 protein expression at transcription level or translation level. Here, we have demonstrated that SAHA inhibited EGF-induced Cl41 cell transformation via the decrease of cyclin D1 mRNA stability and induction of G0/G1 growth arrest. We found that SAHA treatment resulted in the dramatic inhibition of EGF-induced cell transformation, cyclin D1 protein expression and induction of G0/G1 growth arrest. Further studies showed that SAHA downregulation of cyclin D1 was only observed with endogenous cyclin D1, but not with reconstitutionally expressed cyclin D1 in the same cells, excluding the possibility of SAHA regulating cyclin D1 at level of protein degradation. Moreover, SAHA inhibited EGF-induced cyclin d1 mRNA level, whereas it did not show any inhibitory effect on cyclin D1 promoter-driven luciferase reporter activity under the same experimental conditions, suggesting that SAHA may decrease cyclin D1 mRNA stability. This notion was supported by the results that treatment of cells with SAHA decreased the half-life of cyclin D1 mRNA from 6.95 h to 2.57 h. Consistent with downregulation of cyclin D1 mRNA stability, SAHA treatment also attenuated HuR expression, which has been well-characterized as a positive regulator of cyclin D1 mRNA stability. Thus, our study identifies a novel mechanism responsible for SAHA inhibiting cell transformation via decreasing cyclin D1 mRNA stability and induction of G0/G1 growth arrest in Cl41 cells. -- Highlights: ► SAHA inhibits cell transformation in Cl41 cells. ► SAHA suppresses Cyclin D1 protein expression. ► SAHA decreases cyclin D1 mRNA stability.

  15. Cytoplasmic sequestration of cyclin D1 associated with cell cycle withdrawal of neuroblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sumrejkanchanakij, Piyamas; Eto, Kazuhiro; Ikeda, Masa-Aki . E-mail: mikeda.emb@tmd.ac.jp

    2006-02-03

    The regulation of D-type cyclin-dependent kinase activity is critical for neuronal differentiation and apoptosis. We recently showed that cyclin D1 is sequestered in the cytoplasm and that its nuclear localization induces apoptosis in postmitotic primary neurons. Here, we further investigated the role of the subcellular localization of cyclin D1 in cell cycle withdrawal during the differentiation of N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells. We show that cyclin D1 became predominantly cytoplasmic after differentiation. Targeting cyclin D1 expression to the nucleus induced phosphorylation of Rb and cdk2 kinase activity. Furthermore, cyclin D1 nuclear localization promoted differentiated N1E-115 cells to reenter the cell cycle, a process that was inhibited by p16{sup INK4a}, a specific inhibitor of D-type cyclin activity. These results indicate that cytoplasmic sequestration of cyclin D1 plays a role in neuronal cell cycle withdrawal, and suggests that the abrogation of machinery involved in monitoring aberrant nuclear cyclin D1 activity contributes to neuronal tumorigenesis.

  16. Silymarin induces cyclin D1 proteasomal degradation via its phosphorylation of threonine-286 in human colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Eo, Hyun Ji; Park, Gwang Hun; Song, Hun Min; Lee, Jin Wook; Kim, Mi Kyoung; Lee, Man Hyo; Lee, Jeong Rak; Koo, Jin Suk; Jeong, Jin Boo

    2015-01-01

    Silymarin from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) plant has been reported to show anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects. For anti-cancer activity, silymarin is known to regulate cell cycle progression through cyclin D1 downregulation. However, the mechanism of silymarin-mediated cyclin D1 downregulation still remains unanswered. The current study was performed to elucidate the molecular mechanism of cyclin D1 downregulation by silymarin in human colorectal cancer cells. The treatment of silymarin suppressed the cell proliferation in HCT116 and SW480 cells and decreased cellular accumulation of exogenously-induced cyclin D1 protein. However, silymarin did not change the level of cyclin D1 mRNA. Inhibition of proteasomal degradation by MG132 attenuated silymarin-mediated cyclin D1 downregulation and the half-life of cyclin D1 was decreased in the cells treated with silymarin. In addition, silymarin increased phosphorylation of cyclin D1 at threonine-286 and a point mutation of threonine-286 to alanine attenuated silymarin-mediated cyclin D1 downregulation. Inhibition of NF-κB by a selective inhibitor, BAY 11-7082 suppressed cyclin D1 phosphorylation and downregulation by silymarin. From these results, we suggest that silymarin-mediated cyclin D1 downregulation may result from proteasomal degradation through its threonine-286 phosphorylation via NF-κB activation. The current study provides new mechanistic link between silymarin, cyclin D1 downregulation and cell growth in human colorectal cancer cells. PMID:25479723

  17. Silymarin induces cyclin D1 proteasomal degradation via its phosphorylation of threonine-286 in human colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Eo, Hyun Ji; Park, Gwang Hun; Song, Hun Min; Lee, Jin Wook; Kim, Mi Kyoung; Lee, Man Hyo; Lee, Jeong Rak; Koo, Jin Suk; Jeong, Jin Boo

    2015-01-01

    Silymarin from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) plant has been reported to show anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects. For anti-cancer activity, silymarin is known to regulate cell cycle progression through cyclin D1 downregulation. However, the mechanism of silymarin-mediated cyclin D1 downregulation still remains unanswered. The current study was performed to elucidate the molecular mechanism of cyclin D1 downregulation by silymarin in human colorectal cancer cells. The treatment of silymarin suppressed the cell proliferation in HCT116 and SW480 cells and decreased cellular accumulation of exogenously-induced cyclin D1 protein. However, silymarin did not change the level of cyclin D1 mRNA. Inhibition of proteasomal degradation by MG132 attenuated silymarin-mediated cyclin D1 downregulation and the half-life of cyclin D1 was decreased in the cells treated with silymarin. In addition, silymarin increased phosphorylation of cyclin D1 at threonine-286 and a point mutation of threonine-286 to alanine attenuated silymarin-mediated cyclin D1 downregulation. Inhibition of NF-κB by a selective inhibitor, BAY 11-7082 suppressed cyclin D1 phosphorylation and downregulation by silymarin. From these results, we suggest that silymarin-mediated cyclin D1 downregulation may result from proteasomal degradation through its threonine-286 phosphorylation via NF-κB activation. The current study provides new mechanistic link between silymarin, cyclin D1 downregulation and cell growth in human colorectal cancer cells.

  18. Cyclin D1 represses gluconeogenesis via inhibition of the transcriptional coactivator PGC1α.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Kavita; Liu, Wan-Ju; Thompson, Keyata; Anders, Lars; Devarakonda, Srikripa; Dewi, Ruby; Buckley, Stephanie; Hwang, Bor-Jang; Polster, Brian; Dorsey, Susan G; Sun, Yezhou; Sicinski, Piotr; Girnun, Geoffrey D

    2014-10-01

    Hepatic gluconeogenesis is crucial to maintain normal blood glucose during periods of nutrient deprivation. Gluconeogenesis is controlled at multiple levels by a variety of signal transduction and transcriptional pathways. However, dysregulation of these pathways leads to hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. While the effects of various signaling pathways on gluconeogenesis are well established, the downstream signaling events repressing gluconeogenic gene expression are not as well understood. The cell-cycle regulator cyclin D1 is expressed in the liver, despite the liver being a quiescent tissue. The most well-studied function of cyclin D1 is activation of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), promoting progression of the cell cycle. We show here a novel role for cyclin D1 as a regulator of gluconeogenic and oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) gene expression. In mice, fasting decreases liver cyclin D1 expression, while refeeding induces cyclin D1 expression. Inhibition of CDK4 enhances the gluconeogenic gene expression, whereas cyclin D1-mediated activation of CDK4 represses the gluconeogenic gene-expression program in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, we show that cyclin D1 represses gluconeogenesis and OxPhos in part via inhibition of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC1α) activity in a CDK4-dependent manner. Indeed, we demonstrate that PGC1α is novel cyclin D1/CDK4 substrate. These studies reveal a novel role for cyclin D1 on metabolism via PGC1α and reveal a potential link between cell-cycle regulation and metabolic control of glucose homeostasis.

  19. Bcl-2 induces cyclin D1 promoter activity in human breast epithelial cells independent of cell anchorage.

    PubMed

    Lin, H M; Lee, Y J; Li, G; Pestell, R G; Kim, H R

    2001-01-01

    Cyclin D1 expression is co-regulated by growth factor and cell adhesion signaling. Cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix activates focal adhesion kinase (FAK), which is essential for cyclin D1 expression. Upon the loss of cell adhesion, cyclin D1 expression is downregulated, followed by apoptosis in normal epithelial cells. Since bcl-2 prevents apoptosis induced by the loss of cell adhesion, we hypothesized that bcl-2 induces survival signaling complementary to cell adhesion-mediated gene regulation. In the present study, we investigated the role of bcl-2 on FAK activity and cyclin D1 expression. We found that bcl-2 overexpression induces cyclin D1 expression in human breast epithelial cell line MCF10A independent of cell anchorage. Increased cyclin D1 expression in stable bcl-2 transfectants is not related to bcl-2-increased G1 duration, but results from cyclin D1 promoter activation. Transient transfection studies confirmed anchorage-independent bcl-2 induction of cyclin D1 promoter activity in human breast epithelial cell lines (MCF10A, BT549, and MCF-7). We provide evidence that bcl-2 induction of cyclin D1 expression involves constitutive activation of focal adhesion kinase, regardless of cell adhesion. The present study suggests a potential oncogenic activity for bcl-2 through cyclin D1 induction, and provides an insight into the distinct proliferation-independent pathway leading to increased cyclin D1 expression in breast cancer.

  20. Cooperation between Dmp1 Loss and Cyclin D1 Overexpression in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Sinan; Mott, Ryan T.; Fry, Elizabeth A.; Taneja, Pankaj; Kulik, George; Sui, Guangchao; Inoue, Kazushi

    2014-01-01

    Cyclin D1 is a component of the core cell-cycle machinery and is frequently overexpressed in breast cancer. It physically interacts with the tumor suppressor Dmp1 that attenuates the oncogenic signals from Ras and HER2 by inducing Arf/p53-dependent cell-cycle arrest. Currently, the biological significance of Dmp1–cyclin D1 interplay in breast cancer has not been determined. Here, we show that cyclin D1 bound to Dmp1 to activate both Arf and Ink4a promoters and, consequently, induced apoptosis or G2/M cell-cycle delay in normal cells to protect them from neoplastic transformation. The cyclin D1–induced Ink4a/Arf gene expression was dependent on Dmp1 because the induction was not detected in Dmp1-deficient or DMP1-depleted cells. Arf/Ink4a expression was increased in pre-malignant mammary glands from Dmp1+/+;MMTV-cyclin D1 and Dmp1+/+;MMTV-D1T286A mice but significantly down-regulated in those from Dmp1-deficient mice. Selective Dmp1 deletion was found in 21% of the MMTV-D1 and D1T286A mammary carcinomas, and the Dmp1 heterozygous status significantly accelerated mouse mammary tumorigenesis with reduced apoptosis and increased metastasis. Overall, our study reveals a pivotal role of combined Dmp1 loss and cyclin D1 overexpression in breast cancer. PMID:23938323

  1. X-linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein (XIAP) Regulation of Cyclin D1 Protein Expression and Cancer Cell Anchorage-independent Growth via Its E3 Ligase-mediated Protein Phosphatase 2A/c-Jun Axis*

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zipeng; Zhang, Ruowen; Li, Jingxia; Huang, Haishan; Zhang, Dongyun; Zhang, Jingjie; Gao, Jimin; Chen, Jingyuan; Huang, Chuanshu

    2013-01-01

    The X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) is a well known potent inhibitor of apoptosis; however, it is also involved in other cancer cell biological behavior. In the current study, we discovered that XIAP and its E3 ligase played a crucial role in regulation of cyclin D1 expression in cancer cells. We found that deficiency of XIAP expression resulted in a marked reduction in cyclin D1 expression. Consistently, cell cycle transition and anchorage-independent cell growth were also attenuated in XIAP-deficient cancer cells compared with those of the parental wild-type cells. Subsequent studies demonstrated that E3 ligase activity within the RING domain of XIAP is crucial for its ability to regulate cyclin D1 transcription, cell cycle transition, and anchorage-independent cell growth by up-regulating transactivation of c-Jun/AP-1. Moreover, we found that E3 ligase within RING domain was required for XIAP inhibition of phosphatase PP2A activity by up-regulation of PP2A phosphorylation at Tyr-307 in its catalytic subunit. Such PP2A phosphorylation and inactivation resulted in phosphorylation and activation of its downstream target c-Jun in turn leading to cyclin D1 expression. Collectively, our studies uncovered a novel function of E3 ligase activity of XIAP in the up-regulation of cyclin D1 expression, providing significant insight into the understanding of the biomedical significance of overexpressed XIAP in cancer development, further offering a new molecular basis for utilizing XIAP E3 ligase as a cancer therapeutic target. PMID:23720779

  2. Cyclin D1 blocks the anti-proliferative function of RUNX3 by interfering with RUNX3-p300 interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Iwatani, Kazunori; Fujimoto, Tetsuhiro; Ito, Takaaki

    2010-09-24

    Research highlights: {yields} Cyclin D1 interacts with RUNX3 and inhibits the interaction and collaboration of RUNX3 with coactivator p300. {yields} Cyclin D1 blocks the ability of RUNX3 to induce the expression of cdk inhibitor p21. {yields} Cyclin D1 releases cancer cells from the inhibition of proliferation induced by RUNX3. -- Abstract: Transcriptional function of cyclin D1, whose deregulation is frequently observed in human cancers, has been suggested to contribute to cancer formation. In the present study, we show that cyclin D1 protein inhibits RUNX3 activity by directly binding to it and interfering with its interaction with p300 interaction in lung cancer cells. Cyclin D1 inhibits p300-dependent RUNX3 acetylation and negatively regulates cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) inhibitor p21 expression. These transcriptional effects of cyclin D1 do not require cdk4/6 kinase activation. We propose that cyclin D1 provides a transcriptional switch that allows the tumor suppressor activity of RUNX3 to be repressed in cancer cells. Since RUNX3 plays tumor suppressive roles in a wide range of cancers, a non-canonical cyclin D1 function may be critical for neoplastic transformation of the epithelial cells in which RUNX3 regulates proliferation.

  3. Stage-specific requirement for cyclin D1 in glial progenitor cells of the cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Nobs, Lionel; Baranek, Constanze; Nestel, Sigrun; Kulik, Akos; Kapfhammer, Josef; Nitsch, Cordula; Atanasoski, Suzana

    2014-05-01

    Despite the vast abundance of glial progenitor cells in the mouse brain parenchyma, little is known about the molecular mechanisms driving their proliferation in the adult. Here we unravel a critical role of the G1 cell cycle regulator cyclin D1 in controlling cell division of glial cells in the cortical grey matter. We detect cyclin D1 expression in Olig2-immunopositive (Olig2+) oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, as well as in Iba1+ microglia and S100β+ astrocytes in cortices of 3-month-old mice. Analysis of cyclin D1-deficient mice reveals a cell and stage-specific molecular control of cell cycle progression in the various glial lineages. While proliferation of fast dividing Olig2+ cells at early postnatal stages becomes gradually dependent on cyclin D1, this particular G1 regulator is strictly required for the slow divisions of Olig2+/NG2+ oligodendrocyte progenitors in the adult cerebral cortex. Further, we find that the population of mature oligodendrocytes is markedly reduced in the absence of cyclin D1, leading to a significant decrease in the number of myelinated axons in both the prefrontal cortex and the corpus callosum of 8-month-old mutant mice. In contrast, the pool of Iba1+ cells is diminished already at postnatal day 3 in the absence of cyclin D1, while the number of S100β+ astrocytes remains unchanged in the mutant.

  4. The prognostic significance and value of cyclin D1, CDK4 and p16 in human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Loss of the retinoblastoma protein tumor suppressor gene (RB) coding for a nuclear phosphoprotein that regulates the cell cycle is found in many human cancers and probably leads to disruption of the p16-cyclin D1-CDK4/6-RB pathway. Cyclin D1 is known to activate CDK4, which then phosphorylates the RB protein, leading to cell cycle progression. p16 inhibits CDK4, keeping RB hypophosphorylated and preventing cell cycle progression. The significance of these three markers, cyclin D1, CDK4 and p16, for breast cancer and carcinogenesis is nevertheless still controversial. Methods The material consisted of 102 formalin-fixed human breast cancer samples, in which cyclin D1, CDK4 and p16 expression was evaluated immunohistochemically. The amounts of cyclin D1 mRNA present were analyzed by quantitative real time PCR. Results High cyclin D1 expression statistically significantly correlated with lower tumor grade, estrogen and progesterone receptor positivity and lower proliferation activity in breast tumors and increased breast cancer-specific survival and overall survival. Tumors with high cyclin D1 protein had 1.8 times higher expression of cyclin D1 mRNA. CDK4 expression did not correlate with cyclin D1 expression or the survival data. p16 expression was associated with Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2) negativity and increased breast cancer-specific survival and disease-free survival. No statistical correlations between cyclin D1, CDK4 and p16 were found. Conclusions Cyclin D1 was associated with a good breast cancer prognosis but functioned independently of CDK4. High cyclin D1 expression may be partially due to increased CCND1 transcription. p16 correlated with a better prognosis and may function without CDK4. In conclusion, it appears that cyclin D1, CDK4 and p16 function independently in human breast cancer. PMID:23336272

  5. Regulation of IGF-1-dependent cyclin D1 and E expression by hEag1 channels in MCF-7 cells: the critical role of hEag1 channels in G1 phase progression.

    PubMed

    Borowiec, Anne-Sophie; Hague, Frédéric; Gouilleux-Gruart, Valérie; Lassoued, Kaiss; Ouadid-Ahidouch, Halima

    2011-05-01

    Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) plays a key role in breast cancer development and cell cycle regulation. It has been demonstrated that IGF-1 stimulates cyclin expression, thus regulating the G1 to S phase transition of the cell cycle. Potassium (K(+)) channels are involved in the G1 phase progression of the cell cycle induced by growth factors. However, mechanisms that allow growth factors to cooperate with K(+) channels in order to modulate the G1 phase progression and cyclin expression remain unknown. Here, we focused on hEag1 K(+) channels which are over-expressed in breast cancer and are involved in the G1 phase progression of breast cancer cells (MCF-7). As expected, IGF-1 increased cyclin D1 and E expression of MCF-7 cells in a cyclic manner, whereas the increase of CDK4 and 2 levels was sustained. IGF-1 stimulated p21(WAF1/Cip1) expression with a kinetic similar to that of cyclin D1, however p27(Kip1) expression was insensitive to IGF-1. Interestingly, astemizole, a blocker of hEag1 channels, but not E4031, a blocker of HERG channels, inhibited the expression of both cyclins after 6-8h of co-stimulation with IGF-1. However, astemizole failed to modulate CDK4, CDK2, p21(WAF1/Cip1) and p27(Kip1) expression. The down-regulation of hEag1 by siRNA provoked a decrease in cyclin expression. This study is the first to demonstrate that K(+) channels such as hEag1 are directly involved in the IGF-1-induced up-regulation of cyclin D1 and E expression in MCF-7 cells. By identifying more specifically the temporal position of the arrest site induced by the inhibition of hEag1 channels, we confirmed that hEag1 activity is predominantly upstream of the arrest site induced by serum-deprivation, prior to the up-regulation of both cyclins D1 and E. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 11th European Symposium on Calcium. PMID:21315112

  6. Rsf-1 is overexpressed in non-small cell lung cancers and regulates cyclinD1 expression and ERK activity

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Qingchang; Dong, Qianze; Wang, Enhua

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rsf-1 expression is elevated in non-small cell lung cancers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rsf-1 depletion inhibits proliferation and increased apoptosis in lung cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rsf-1 depletion decreases the level of cyclinD1 and phosphor-ERK expression. -- Abstract: Rsf-1 (HBXAP) was recently reported to be overexpressed in various cancers and associated with the malignant behavior of cancer cells. However, the expression of Rsf-1 in primary lung cancer and its biological roles in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have not been reported. The molecular mechanism of Rsf-1 in cancer aggressiveness remains ambiguous. In the present study, we analyzed the expression pattern of Rsf-1 in NSCLC tissues and found that Rsf-1 was overexpressed at both the mRNA and protein levels. There was a significant association between Rsf-1 overexpression and TNM stage (p = 0.0220) and poor differentiation (p = 0.0013). Furthermore, knockdown of Rsf-1 expression in H1299 and H460 cells with high endogenous Rsf-1 expression resulted in a decrease of colony formation ability and inhibition of cell cycle progression. Rsf-1 knockdown also induced apoptosis in these cell lines. Further analysis showed that Rsf-1 knockdown decreased cyclin D1 expression and phospho-ERK levels. In conclusion, Rsf-1 is overexpressed in NSCLC and contributes to malignant cell growth by cyclin D1 and ERK modulation, which makes Rsf-1 a candidate therapeutic target in lung cancer.

  7. Alternate cyclin D1 mRNA splicing modulates p27KIP1 binding and cell migration.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiping; Wang, Chenguang; Jiao, Xuanmao; Katiyar, Sanjay; Casimiro, Mathew C; Prendergast, George C; Powell, Michael J; Pestell, Richard G

    2008-03-14

    Cyclin D1 is an important cell cycle regulator, but in cancer its overexpression also increases cellular migration mediated by p27 KIP1 stabilization and RhoA inhibition. Recently, a common polymorphism at the exon 4-intron 4 boundary of the human cyclin D1 gene within a splice donor region was associated with an altered risk of developing cancer. Altered RNA splicing caused by this polymorphism gives rise to a variant cyclin D1 isoform termed cyclin D1b, which has the same N terminus as the canonical cyclin D1a isoform but a distinct C terminus. In this study we show that these different isoforms have unique properties with regard to the cellular migration function of cyclin D1. Although they displayed little difference in transcriptional co-repression assays on idealized reporter genes, microarray cDNA expression analysis revealed differential regulation of genes, including those that influence cellular migration. Additionally, whereas cyclin D1a stabilized p27 KIP1 and inhibited RhoA-induced ROCK kinase activity, promoting cellular migration, cyclin D1b failed to stabilize p27 KIP1 or inhibit ROCK kinase activity and had no effect on migration. Our findings argue that alternate splicing is an important determinant of the function of cyclin D1 in cellular migration.

  8. ClC-3 Chloride Channel Proteins Regulate the Cell Cycle by Up-regulating cyclin D1-CDK4/6 through Suppressing p21/p27 Expression in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Dong; Luo, Hai; Lai, Zhouyi; Zou, Lili; Zhu, Linyan; Mao, Jianwen; Jacob, Tim; Ye, Wencai; Wang, Liwei; Chen, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    It was shown in this study that knockdown of ClC-3 expression by ClC-3 siRNA prevented the activation of hypotonicity-induced chloride currents, and arrested cells at the G0/G1 phase in nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE-2Z cells. Reconstitution of ClC-3 expression with ClC-3 expression plasmids could rescue the cells from the cell cycle arrest caused by ClC-3 siRNA treatments. Transfection of cells with ClC-3 siRNA decreased the expression of cyclin D1, cyclin dependent kinase 4 and 6, and increased the expression of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs), p21 and p27. Pretreatments of cells with p21 and p27 siRNAs depleted the inhibitory effects of ClC-3 siRNA on the expression of CDK4 and CDK6, but not on that of cyclin D1, indicating the requirement of p21 and p27 for the inhibitory effects of ClC-3 siRNA on CDK4 and CDK6 expression. ClC-3 siRNA inhibited cells to progress from the G1 phase to the S phase, but pretreatments of cells with p21 and p27 siRNAs abolished the inhibitory effects of ClC-3 siRNA on the cell cycle progress. Our data suggest that ClC-3 may regulate cell cycle transition between G0/G1 and S phases by up-regulation of the expression of CDK4 and CDK6 through suppression of p21 and p27 expression. PMID:27451945

  9. WT1 Promotes Cell Proliferation in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Lines through Up-Regulating Cyclin D1 and p-pRb In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yang; Zhong, Zhaopeng; Liu, Xiang; Xu, Jing; Cui, Fei; Chen, Bin; Røe, Oluf Dimitri; Li, Aihong; Chen, Yijiang

    2013-01-01

    The Wilms’ tumor suppressor gene (WT1) has been identified as an oncogene in many malignant diseases such as leukaemia, breast cancer, mesothelioma and lung cancer. However, the role of WT1 in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) carcinogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we compared WT1 mRNA levels in NSCLC tissues with paired corresponding adjacent tissues and identified significantly higher expression in NSCLC specimens. Cell proliferation of three NSCLC cell lines positively correlated with WT1 expression; moreover, these associations were identified in both cell lines and a xenograft mouse model. Furthermore, we demonstrated that up-regulation of Cyclin D1 and the phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein (p-pRb) was mechanistically related to WT1 accelerating cells to S-phase. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that WT1 is an oncogene and promotes NSCLC cell proliferation by up-regulating Cyclin D1 and p-pRb expression. PMID:23936312

  10. Enhanced skin carcinogenesis and lack of thymus hyperplasia in transgenic mice expressing human cyclin D1b (CCND1b)

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Paola; Benavides, Fernando; Blando, Jorge; Perez, Carlos; Cardenas, Kim; Richie, Ellen; Knudsen, Erik S.; Johnson, David G.; Senderowicz, Adrian M.; Rodriguez-Puebla, Marcelo L.; Conti, Claudio J.

    2009-01-01

    Cyclin D1b is an alternative transcript of the cyclin D1 gene (CCND1) expressed in human tumors. Its abundance is regulated by a single base pair polymorphism at the exon 4/intron 4 boundary (nucleotide 870). Epidemiological studies have shown a correlation between the presence of the G870A allele (that favors the splicing for cyclin D1b) with increased risk and less favorable outcome in several forms of cancer. More recently, it has been shown that, unlike cyclin D1a, the alternative transcript D1b by itself has the capacity to transform fibroblasts in vitro. In order to study the oncogenic potential of cyclin D1b, we developed transgenic mice expressing human cyclin D1b under the control of the bovine K5 promoter (K5D1b mice). Seven founders were obtained and none of them presented any significant phenotype or developed spontaneous tumors. Interestingly, K5D1b mice do not develop the fatal thymic hyperplasia, which is characteristic of the cyclin D1a transgenic mice (K5D1a). Susceptibility to skin carcinogenesis was tested in K5D1b mice using two-stage carcinogenesis protocols. In two independent experiments, K5D1b mice developed higher papilloma multiplicity as compared with wild-type littermates. However, when K5D1b mice were crossed with cyclin D1KO mice, the expression of cyclin D1b was unable to rescue the carcinogenesis-resistant phenotype of the cyclin D1 KO mice. To further explore the role of cyclin D1b in mouse models of carcinogenesis we carried out in silico analysis and in vitro experiments to evaluate the existence of a mouse homologous of the human cyclin D1b transcript. We were unable to find any evidence of an alternatively spliced transcript in mouse Ccnd1. These results show that human cyclin D1b has different biological functions than cyclin D1a and confirm its oncogenic properties. PMID:18942117

  11. Nicotine induces cell proliferation in association with cyclin D1 up-regulation and inhibits cell differentiation in association with p53 regulation in a murine pre-osteoblastic cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Tsuyoshi Abe, Takahiro; Nakamoto, Norimichi; Tomaru, Yasuhisa; Koshikiya, Noboru; Nojima, Junya; Kokabu, Shoichiro; Sakata, Yasuaki; Kobayashi, Akio; Yoda, Tetsuya

    2008-12-05

    Recent studies have suggested that nicotine critically affects bone metabolism. Many studies have examined the effects of nicotine on proliferation and differentiation, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We examined cell cycle regulators involved in the proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. Nicotine induced cell proliferation in association with p53 down-regulation and cyclin D1 up-regulation. In differentiated cells, nicotine reduced alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralized nodule formation in dose-dependent manners. Furthermore, p53 expression was sustained in nicotine-treated cells during differentiation. These findings indicate that nicotine promotes the cell cycle and inhibits differentiation in association with p53 regulation in pre-osteoblastic cells.

  12. Functional Variants at the 11q13 Risk Locus for Breast Cancer Regulate Cyclin D1 Expression through Long-Range Enhancers

    PubMed Central

    French, Juliet D.; Ghoussaini, Maya; Edwards, Stacey L.; Meyer, Kerstin B.; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Ahmed, Shahana; Khan, Sofia; Maranian, Mel J.; O’Reilly, Martin; Hillman, Kristine M.; Betts, Joshua A.; Carroll, Thomas; Bailey, Peter J.; Dicks, Ed; Beesley, Jonathan; Tyrer, Jonathan; Maia, Ana-Teresa; Beck, Andrew; Knoblauch, Nicholas W.; Chen, Constance; Kraft, Peter; Barnes, Daniel; González-Neira, Anna; Alonso, M. Rosario; Herrero, Daniel; Tessier, Daniel C.; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Luccarini, Craig; Baynes, Caroline; Conroy, Don; Dennis, Joe; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Verhoef, Senno; Cornelissen, Sten; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Fasching, Peter A.; Loehberg, Christian R.; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Peto, Julian; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Johnson, Nichola; Aitken, Zoe; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J.; Miller, Nicola; Marme, Frederik; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Burwinkel, Barbara; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Menegaux, Florence; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Flyger, Henrik; Milne, Roger L.; Zamora, M. Pilar; Arias Perez, Jose Ignacio; Benitez, Javier; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Brenner, Hermann; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Meindl, Alfons; Lichtner, Peter; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Engel, Christoph; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Justenhoven, Christina; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Heikkilä, Päivi; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Sueta, Aiko; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Antonenkova, Natalia N.; Dörk, Thilo; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Wu, Anna H.; Tseng, Chiu-chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O.; Lambrechts, Diether; Peeters, Stephanie; Smeets, Ann; Floris, Giuseppe; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Nickels, Stefan; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Bonanni, Bernardo; Sardella, Domenico; Couch, Fergus J.; Wang, Xianshu; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Lee, Adam; Giles, Graham G.; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Simard, Jacques; Goldberg, Mark S.; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Teo, Soo Hwang; Yip, Cheng Har; Ng, Char-Hong; Vithana, Eranga Nishanthie; Kristensen, Vessela; Zheng, Wei; Deming-Halverson, Sandra; Shrubsole, Martha; Long, Jirong; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Devilee, Peter; Seynaeve, Caroline; García-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Czene, Kamila; Klevebring, Daniel; Schoof, Nils; Hooning, Maartje J.; Martens, John W.M.; Collée, J. Margriet; Tilanus-Linthorst, Madeleine; Hall, Per; Li, Jingmei; Liu, Jianjun; Humphreys, Keith; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Cai, Hui; Cox, Angela; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy P.; Blot, William; Signorello, Lisa B.; Cai, Qiuyin; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Healey, Catherine S.; Shah, Mitul; Pooley, Karen A.; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Noh, Dong-Young; Hartman, Mikael; Miao, Hui; Sng, Jen-Hwei; Sim, Xueling; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; McKay, James; Toland, Amanda E.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Godwin, Andrew K.; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Wu, Pei-Ei; Chen, Shou-Tung; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk J.; Ponder, Bruce A.J.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Brown, Melissa A.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.; Dunning, Alison M.

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of 4,405 variants in 89,050 European subjects from 41 case-control studies identified three independent association signals for estrogen-receptor-positive tumors at 11q13. The strongest signal maps to a transcriptional enhancer element in which the G allele of the best candidate causative variant rs554219 increases risk of breast cancer, reduces both binding of ELK4 transcription factor and luciferase activity in reporter assays, and may be associated with low cyclin D1 protein levels in tumors. Another candidate variant, rs78540526, lies in the same enhancer element. Risk association signal 2, rs75915166, creates a GATA3 binding site within a silencer element. Chromatin conformation studies demonstrate that these enhancer and silencer elements interact with each other and with their likely target gene, CCND1. PMID:23540573

  13. Kinase-independent role of cyclin D1 in chromosomal instability and mammary tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Casimiro, Mathew C; Di Sante, Gabriele; Crosariol, Marco; Loro, Emanuele; Dampier, William; Ertel, Adam; Yu, Zuoren; Saria, Elizabeth A; Papanikolaou, Alexandros; Li, Zhiping; Wang, Chenguang; Addya, Sankar; Lisanti, Michael P; Fortina, Paolo; Cardiff, Robert D; Tozeren, Aydin; Knudsen, Erik S; Arnold, Andrew; Pestell, Richard G

    2015-04-20

    Cyclin D1 is an important molecular driver of human breast cancer but better understanding of its oncogenic mechanisms is needed, especially to enhance efforts in targeted therapeutics. Currently, pharmaceutical initiatives to inhibit cyclin D1 are focused on the catalytic component since the transforming capacity is thought to reside in the cyclin D1/CDK activity. We initiated the following study to directly test the oncogenic potential of catalytically inactive cyclin D1 in an in vivo mouse model that is relevant to breast cancer. Herein, transduction of cyclin D1(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) with the kinase dead KE mutant of cyclin D1 led to aneuploidy, abnormalities in mitotic spindle formation, autosome amplification, and chromosomal instability (CIN) by gene expression profiling. Acute transgenic expression of either cyclin D1(WT) or cyclin D1(KE) in the mammary gland was sufficient to induce a high CIN score within 7 days. Sustained expression of cyclin D1(KE) induced mammary adenocarcinoma with similar kinetics to that of the wild-type cyclin D1. ChIP-Seq studies demonstrated recruitment of cyclin D1(WT) and cyclin D1(KE) to the genes governing CIN. We conclude that the CDK-activating function of cyclin D1 is not necessary to induce either chromosomal instability or mammary tumorigenesis. PMID:25940700

  14. Combined effect of cyclin D3 expression and abrogation of cyclin D1 prevent mouse skin tumor development

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xian; Sistrunk, Christopher; Miliani de Marval, Paula L; Kim, Yongbaek

    2012-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that ras-mediated skin tumorigenesis depends on signaling pathways that act preferentially through cyclin D1 and D2. Interestingly, the expression of cyclin D3 inhibits skin tumor development, an observation that conflicts with the oncogenic role of D-type cyclins in the mouse epidermis. Here, we show that simultaneous up and downregulation of particular members of the D-type cyclin family is a valuable approach to reduce skin tumorigenesis. We developed the K5D3/cyclin D1−/− compound mouse, which overexpresses cyclin D3 but lacks expression of cyclin D1 in the skin. Similar to K5D3 transgenic mice, keratinocytes from K5D3/cyclin D1−/− compound mice show a significant reduction of cyclin D2 levels. Therefore, this model allows us to determine the effect of cyclin D3 expression when combined with reduced or absent expression of the remaining two members of the D-type cyclin family in mouse epidermis. Our data show that induced expression of cyclin D3 compensates for the reduced level of cyclin D1 and D2, resulting in normal keratinocyte proliferation. However, simultaneous ablation of cyclin D1 and downregulation of cyclin D2 via cyclin D3 expression resulted in a robust reduction in ras-mediated skin tumorigenesis. We conclude that modulation of the levels of particular members of the D-type cyclin family could be useful to inhibit tumor development and, in particular, ras-mediated tumorigenesis. PMID:22214766

  15. Cyclin D1 is dispensable for G1 control in retinoblastoma gene-deficient cells independently of cdk4 activity.

    PubMed Central

    Lukas, J; Bartkova, J; Rohde, M; Strauss, M; Bartek, J

    1995-01-01

    To elucidate the regulator-versus-target relationship in the cyclin D1/cdk4/retinoblastoma protein (pRB) pathway, we examined fibroblasts from RB-1 gene-deficient and RB-1 wild-type littermate mouse embryos (ME) and in human tumor cell lines that differed in the status of the RB-1 gene. The RB+/+ and RB-/- ME fibroblasts expressed similar protein levels of D-type cyclins, cdk4, and cdk6, showed analogous spectra and abundance of cellular proteins complexed with cdk4 and/or cyclins D1 and D2, and exhibited comparable associated kinase activities. Of the two human cell lines established from the same sarcoma biopsy, the RB-positive SKUT1B cells contained cdk4 that was mainly associated with D-type cyclins, contrary to a predominant cdk4-p16INK4 complex in the RB-deficient SKUT1A cells. Antibody-mediated neutralization of cyclin D1 arrested the RB-positive ME and SKUT1B cells in G1, whereas this cyclin appeared dispensable in the RB-deficient ME and SKUT1A cells. Lack of requirement for cyclin D1 therefore correlated with absence of functional pRB, regardless of whether active cyclin D1/cdk4 holoenzyme was present in the cells under study. Consistent with a potential role of cyclin D/cdk4 in phosphorylation of pRB, monoclonal anti-cyclin D1 antibodies supporting the associated kinase activity failed to significantly affect proliferation of RB-positive cells, whereas the antibody DCS-6, unable to coprecipitate cdk4, efficiently inhibited G1 progression and prevented pRB phosphorylation in vivo. These data provide evidence for an upstream control function of cyclin D1/cdk4, and a downstream role for pRB, in the order of events regulating transition through late G1 phase of the mammalian cell division cycle. PMID:7739541

  16. Synergistic effects of AKAP95, Cyclin D1, Cyclin E1, and Cx43 in the development of rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Fengjie; Yuan, Yangyang; Zhi, Xuehong; Huang, Qian; Chen, Yuexin; Zhuang, Wenxin; Zhang, Dengcheng; Teng, Bogang; Kong, Xiangyu; Zhang, Yongxing

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the expression of A-kinase anchor protein 95 (AKAP95), Cyclin D1, Cyclin E1, and Connexin43 (Cx43) in rectal cancer tissues and assess the associations between each of the proteins and pathological parameters, as well as their inter-relationships. Methods: AKAP95, Cyclin D1, Cyclin E1, and Cx43 protein expression rates were evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 50 rectal cancer specimens and 16 pericarcinoma tissues. Results: The positive rates of AKAP95, Cyclin E1, and Cyclin D1 proteins were 54.00 vs. 18.75%, 62.00 vs. 6.25%, and 72.00 vs. 31.25% in rectal cancer specimens and pericarcinoma tissues, respectively, representing statistically significant differences (P < 0.05). The positive rate of Cx43 protein expression in rectal cancer tissues was 44.00% and 62.50% in pericarcinoma tissues, and the difference between them was not significant (P > 0.05). No significant associations were found between protein expression of AKAP95, Cyclin E1, Cyclin D1, and Cx43, and the degree of differentiation, histological type, and lymph node metastasis of rectal cancer (P > 0.05). However, significant correlations were obtained between the expression rates of AKAP95 and Cyclin E1, Cyclin E1 and Cyclin D1, Cyclin E1 and Cx43 protein, and Cyclin D1 and Cx43, respectively (P < 0.05). Conclusion: AKAP95, Cyclin E1, and Cyclin D1 protein expression rates were significantly higher in rectal cancer tissues compared with pericarcinoma samples, suggesting an association between these proteins and the development and progression of rectal cancer. In addition, the significant correlations between the proteins (AKAP95 and Cyclin E1, Cyclin E1 and Cyclin D1, Cyclin E1 and Cx43 protein, and Cyclin D1 and Cx43) indicate the possible synergistic effects of these factors in the development and progression of rectal cancer. PMID:25973052

  17. Placental estrogen suppresses cyclin D1 expression in the nonhuman primate fetal adrenal cortex.

    PubMed

    Dumitrescu, Adina; Aberdeen, Graham W; Pepe, Gerald J; Albrecht, Eugene D

    2014-12-01

    We have previously shown that estrogen selectively suppresses growth of the fetal zone of the baboon fetal adrenal cortex, which produces the C19-steroid precursors, eg, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, which are aromatized to estrogen within the placenta. In the present study, we determined whether fetal adrenal expression of cell cycle regulators are altered by estrogen and thus provide a mechanism by which estrogen regulates fetal adrenocortical development. Cyclin D1 mRNA levels in the whole fetal adrenal were increased 50% (P < .05), and the number of cells in the fetal adrenal definitive zone expressing cyclin D1 protein was increased 2.5-fold (P < .05), whereas the total number of cells in the fetal zone and fetal serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels were elevated 2-fold (P < .05) near term in baboons in which fetal serum estradiol levels were decreased by 95% (P < .05) after maternal administration of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole and restored to normal by concomitant administration of letrozole plus estradiol throughout second half of gestation. However, fetal adrenocortical expression of cyclin D2, the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)-2, Cdk4, and Cdk6, and Cdk regulatory proteins p27(Kip1) and p57(Kip2) were not changed by letrozole or letrozole plus estradiol administration. We suggest that estrogen controls the growth of the fetal zone of the fetal adrenal by down-regulating cyclin D1 expression and thus proliferation of progenitor cells within the definitive zone that migrate to the fetal zone. We propose that estrogen restrains growth and function of the fetal zone via cyclin D1 to maintain estrogen levels in a physiological range during primate pregnancy.

  18. Placental Estrogen Suppresses Cyclin D1 Expression in the Nonhuman Primate Fetal Adrenal Cortex*

    PubMed Central

    Dumitrescu, Adina; Aberdeen, Graham W.; Pepe, Gerald J.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously shown that estrogen selectively suppresses growth of the fetal zone of the baboon fetal adrenal cortex, which produces the C19-steroid precursors, eg, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, which are aromatized to estrogen within the placenta. In the present study, we determined whether fetal adrenal expression of cell cycle regulators are altered by estrogen and thus provide a mechanism by which estrogen regulates fetal adrenocortical development. Cyclin D1 mRNA levels in the whole fetal adrenal were increased 50% (P < .05), and the number of cells in the fetal adrenal definitive zone expressing cyclin D1 protein was increased 2.5-fold (P < .05), whereas the total number of cells in the fetal zone and fetal serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels were elevated 2-fold (P < .05) near term in baboons in which fetal serum estradiol levels were decreased by 95% (P < .05) after maternal administration of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole and restored to normal by concomitant administration of letrozole plus estradiol throughout second half of gestation. However, fetal adrenocortical expression of cyclin D2, the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)-2, Cdk4, and Cdk6, and Cdk regulatory proteins p27Kip1 and p57Kip2 were not changed by letrozole or letrozole plus estradiol administration. We suggest that estrogen controls the growth of the fetal zone of the fetal adrenal by down-regulating cyclin D1 expression and thus proliferation of progenitor cells within the definitive zone that migrate to the fetal zone. We propose that estrogen restrains growth and function of the fetal zone via cyclin D1 to maintain estrogen levels in a physiological range during primate pregnancy. PMID:25247468

  19. A jumonji (Jarid2) protein complex represses cyclin D1 expression by methylation of histone H3-K9.

    PubMed

    Shirato, Haruki; Ogawa, Satoko; Nakajima, Kuniko; Inagawa, Masayo; Kojima, Mizuyo; Tachibana, Makoto; Shinkai, Yoichi; Takeuchi, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    Covalent modifications of histone tails have critical roles in regulating gene expression. Previously, we identified the jumonji (jmj, Jarid2) gene, the jmjC domain, and a Jmj family. Recently, many Jmj family proteins have been shown to be histone demethylases, and jmjC is the catalytic domain. However, Jmj does not have histone demethylase activity because the jmjC domain lacks conserved residues for binding to cofactors. Independently of these studies, we previously showed that Jmj binds to the cyclin D1 promoter and represses the transcription of cyclin D1. Here, we show the mechanisms by which Jmj represses the transcription of cyclin D1. We found that a protein complex of Jmj had histone methyltransferase activity toward histone H3 lysine 9 (H3-K9). We also found that Jmj bound to the H3-K9 methyltransferases G9a and GLP. Expression of Jmj recruited G9a and GLP to the cyclin D1 promoter and increased H3-K9 methylation. Inactivation of both G9a and GLP, but not of only G9a, inhibited the methylation of H3-K9 in the cyclin D1 promoter and repression of cyclin D1 expression by Jmj. These results suggest that Jmj methylates H3-K9 and represses cyclin D1 expression through G9a and GLP, and that Jmj family proteins can regulate gene expression by not only histone demethylation but also other histone modification.

  20. Alternative splicing variants of human Fbx4 disturb cyclin D1 proteolysis in human cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Xiufeng; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Jie; Li, Meng; Zhang, Xiaolei; Tu, Jing; Sun, Shiqin; Chen, Xiangmei; Lu, Fengmin

    2014-04-25

    Highlights: • The expression of Fbx4 was significantly lower in HCC tissues. • Novel splicing variants of Fbx4 were identified. • These novel variants are much more abundant in human cancer tissues and cells. • The novel Fbx4 isoforms could promote cell proliferation and migration in vitro. • These isoforms showed less capability for cyclin D1 binding and degradation. - Abstract: Fbx4 is a specific substrate recognition component of SCF ubiquitin ligases that catalyzes the ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of cyclin D1 and Trx1. Two isoforms of human Fbx4 protein, the full length Fbx4α and the C-terminal truncated Fbx4β have been identified, but their functions remain elusive. In this study, we demonstrated that the mRNA level of Fbx4 was significantly lower in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues than that in the corresponding non-tumor tissues. More importantly, we identified three novel splicing variants of Fbx4: Fbx4γ (missing 168–245nt of exon1), Fbx4δ (missing exon6) and a N-terminal reading frame shift variant (missing exon2). Using cloning sequencing and RT-PCR, we demonstrated these novel splice variants are much more abundant in human cancer tissues and cell lines than that in normal tissues. When expressed in Sk-Hep1 and NIH3T3 cell lines, Fbx4β, Fbx4γ and Fbx4δ could promote cell proliferation and migration in vitro. Concordantly, these isoforms could disrupt cyclin D1 degradation and therefore increase cyclin D1 expression. Moreover, unlike the full-length isoform Fbx4α that mainly exists in cytoplasm, Fbx4β, Fbx4γ, and Fbx4δ locate in both cytoplasm and nucleus. Since cyclin D1 degradation takes place in cytoplasm, the nuclear distribution of these Fbx4 isoforms may not be involved in the down-regulation of cytoplasmic cyclin D1. These results define the impact of alternative splicing on Fbx4 function, and suggest that the attenuated cyclin D1 degradation by these novel Fbx4 isoforms provides a new insight for aberrant

  1. Cyclin D1b splice variant promotes αvβ3-mediated adhesion and invasive migration of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Feng-Hua; Luo, Li-Qiong; Liu, Yi; Zhan, Qiu-Xiao; Luo, Chao; Luo, Jing; Zhang, Gui-Mei; Feng, Zuo-Hua

    2014-12-01

    Cyclin D1b, a splice variant of the cell cycle regulator cyclin D1, holds oncogenic functions in human cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying cyclin D1b function remain poorly understood. Here we introduced wild-type cyclin D1a or cyclin D1b variant into non-metastatic MCF-7 cells. Our results show that ectopic expression of cyclin D1b promotes invasiveness of the cancer cells in a cyclin D1a independent manner. Specifically, cyclin D1b is found to modulate the expression of αvβ3, which characterizes the metastatic phenotype, and enhance tumor cell invasive potential in cooperating with HoxD3. Notably, cyclin D1b promotes αvβ3-mediated adhesion and invasive migration, which are associated with invasive potential of breast cancer cells. Further exploration indicates that cyclin D1b makes breast cancer cells more sensitive to toll-like receptor 4 ligand released from damaged tumor cells. These findings reveal a role of cyclin D1b as a possible mediator of αvβ3 transcription to promote tumor metastasis.

  2. Cyclin D1b splice variant promotes αvβ3-mediated adhesion and invasive migration of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Feng-Hua; Luo, Li-Qiong; Liu, Yi; Zhan, Qiu-Xiao; Luo, Chao; Luo, Jing; Zhang, Gui-Mei; Feng, Zuo-Hua

    2014-12-01

    Cyclin D1b, a splice variant of the cell cycle regulator cyclin D1, holds oncogenic functions in human cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying cyclin D1b function remain poorly understood. Here we introduced wild-type cyclin D1a or cyclin D1b variant into non-metastatic MCF-7 cells. Our results show that ectopic expression of cyclin D1b promotes invasiveness of the cancer cells in a cyclin D1a independent manner. Specifically, cyclin D1b is found to modulate the expression of αvβ3, which characterizes the metastatic phenotype, and enhance tumor cell invasive potential in cooperating with HoxD3. Notably, cyclin D1b promotes αvβ3-mediated adhesion and invasive migration, which are associated with invasive potential of breast cancer cells. Further exploration indicates that cyclin D1b makes breast cancer cells more sensitive to toll-like receptor 4 ligand released from damaged tumor cells. These findings reveal a role of cyclin D1b as a possible mediator of αvβ3 transcription to promote tumor metastasis. PMID:25193465

  3. Cyclin D1 inhibits whereas c-Myc enhances the cytotoxicity of cisplatin in mouse pancreatic cancer cells via regulation of several members of the NF-κB and Bcl-2 families

    PubMed Central

    El-Kady, Ayman; Sun, Yuan; Li, Ying-xia; Liao, D Joshua

    2011-01-01

    Background: Cisplatin (CDDP) is a drug used for treatment of many types of malignancy but pancreatic cancer is relatively resistant to it. This study aims to determine whether and how cyclin D1 (D1) and c-Myc influence the response of pancreatic cancer cells to CDDP. Materials and Methods: Ela-mycPT mouse pancreatic cancer cells were transfected with D1 or c-myc cDNA and treated with CDDP alone or together with NPCD, an inhibitor of cyclin dependent ckinase (CDK) 4 and 6. Reverse transcription followed by polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot assays were used to determine the mRNA and protein levels of interested genes. Cell viability was determined using 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Results: Treatment of Ela-mycPT1 cells with CDDP caused an increase in c-myc expression but a slightly latent decrease in D1 expression, whereas D1 and c-Myc proteins repressed each other. D1 or c-Myc rendered Ela-mycPT1 cells resistant or sensitive, respectively, to CDDP. D1 induced the expression of several members of the NF-κB family, including RelA, RelB, Nfκb1 and Nfκb2. D1 also induced BIRC5 and several pro-survival members of the Bcl-2 gene family, including Bcl-2 , Mcl-1 and Bad while it decreased the level of the pro-apoptotic Noxa. Inhibition of CDK4 or CDK6 kinase activity by NPCD did not affect these effects of D1. In contrast, c-Myc in Ela-mycPT1 and Ela-mycPT4 cells has the opposite effects to D1 on the expression of most of these apoptosis regulating genes. Conclusion: Our results suggest that induction of c-Myc and inhibition of D1 may be mechanisms for CDDP to elicit cytotoxicity. On the other hand, D1 induces whereas c-Myc represses the expression of key NF-κB family members to induce and repress, respectively, the expression of BIRC5 and several Bcl-2 family members, in turn inhibiting or enhancing the response to CDDP. PMID:22190866

  4. miR-340 inhibits glioblastoma cell proliferation by suppressing CDK6, cyclin-D1 and cyclin-D2

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xuesong; Gong, Xuhai; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Jinghui; Sun, Jiahang; Guo, Mian

    2015-05-08

    Glioblastoma development is often associated with alteration in the activity and expression of cell cycle regulators, such as cyclin-dependent kinases (CKDs) and cyclins, resulting in aberrant cell proliferation. Recent studies have highlighted the pivotal roles of miRNAs in controlling the development and growth of glioblastoma. Here, we provide evidence for a function of miR-340 in the inhibition of glioblastoma cell proliferation. We found that miR-340 is downregulated in human glioblastoma tissue samples and several established glioblastoma cell lines. Proliferation and neurosphere formation assays revealed that miR-340 plays an oncosuppressive role in glioblastoma, and that its ectopic expression causes significant defect in glioblastoma cell growth. Further, using bioinformatics, luciferase assay and western blot, we found that miR-340 specifically targets the 3′UTRs of CDK6, cyclin-D1 and cyclin-D2, leading to the arrest of glioblastoma cells in the G0/G1 cell cycle phase. Confirming these results, we found that re-introducing CDK6, cyclin-D1 or cyclin-D2 expression partially, but significantly, rescues cells from the suppression of cell proliferation and cell cycle arrest mediated by miR-340. Collectively, our results demonstrate that miR-340 plays a tumor-suppressive role in glioblastoma and may be useful as a diagnostic biomarker and/or a therapeutic avenue for glioblastoma. - Highlights: • miR-340 is downregulated in glioblastoma samples and cell lines. • miR-340 inhibits glioblastoma cell proliferation. • miR-340 directly targets CDK6, cyclin-D1, and cyclin-D2. • miR-340 regulates glioblastoma cell proliferation via CDK6, cyclin-D1 and cyclin-D2.

  5. Epigenetically altered miR-193b targets cyclin D1 in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kaukoniemi, Kirsi M; Rauhala, Hanna E; Scaravilli, Mauro; Latonen, Leena; Annala, Matti; Vessella, Robert L; Nykter, Matti; Tammela, Teuvo L J; Visakorpi, Tapio

    2015-01-01

    Micro-RNAs (miRNA) are important regulators of gene expression and often differentially expressed in cancer and other diseases. We have previously shown that miR-193b is hypermethylated in prostate cancer (PC) and suppresses cell growth. It has been suggested that miR-193b targets cyclin D1 in several malignancies. Here, our aim was to determine if miR-193b targets cyclin D1 in prostate cancer. Our data show that miR-193b is commonly methylated in PC samples compared to benign prostate hyperplasia. We found reduced miR-193b expression (P < 0.05) in stage pT3 tumors compared to pT2 tumors in a cohort of prostatectomy specimens. In 22Rv1 PC cells with low endogenous miR-193b expression, the overexpression of miR-193b reduced CCND1mRNA levels and cyclin D1 protein levels. In addition, the exogenous expression of miR-193b decreased the phosphorylation level of RB, a target of the cyclin D1-CDK4/6 pathway. Moreover, according to a reporter assay, miR-193b targeted the 3’UTR of CCND1 in PC cells and the CCND1 activity was rescued by expressing CCND1 lacking its 3’UTR. Immunohistochemical analysis of cyclin D1 showed that castration-resistant prostate cancers have significantly (P = 0.0237) higher expression of cyclin D1 compared to hormone-naïve cases. Furthermore, the PC cell lines 22Rv1 and VCaP, which express low levels of miR-193b and high levels of CCND1, showed significant growth retardation when treated with a CDK4/6 inhibitor. In contrast, the inhibitor had no effect on the growth of PC-3 and DU145 cells with high miR-193b and low CCND1 expression. Taken together, our data demonstrate that miR-193b targets cyclin D1 in prostate cancer. PMID:26129688

  6. Tumor suppressor SMAR1 mediates cyclin D1 repression by recruitment of the SIN3/histone deacetylase 1 complex.

    PubMed

    Rampalli, Shravanti; Pavithra, L; Bhatt, Altaf; Kundu, Tapas K; Chattopadhyay, Samit

    2005-10-01

    Matrix attachment region binding proteins have been shown to play an important role in gene regulation by altering chromatin in a stage- and tissue-specific manner. Our previous studies report that SMAR1, a matrix-associated protein, regresses B16-F1-induced tumors in mice. Here we show SMAR1 targets the cyclin D1 promoter, a gene product whose dysregulation is attributed to breast malignancies. Our studies reveal that SMAR1 represses cyclin D1 gene expression, which can be reversed by small interfering RNA specific to SMAR1. We demonstrate that SMAR1 interacts with histone deacetylation complex 1, SIN3, and pocket retinoblastomas to form a multiprotein repressor complex. This interaction is mediated by the SMAR1(160-350) domain. Our data suggest SMAR1 recruits a repressor complex to the cyclin D1 promoter that results in deacetylation of chromatin at that locus, which spreads to a distance of at least the 5 kb studied upstream of the cyclin D1 promoter. Interestingly, we find that the high induction of cyclin D1 in breast cancer cell lines can be correlated to the decreased levels of SMAR1 in these lines. Our results establish the molecular mechanism exhibited by SMAR1 to regulate cyclin D1 by modification of chromatin. PMID:16166625

  7. Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 3C Facilitates G1-S Transition by Stabilizing and Enhancing the Function of Cyclin D1

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Abhik; Halder, Sabyasachi; Upadhyay, Santosh K.; Lu, Jie; Kumar, Pankaj; Murakami, Masanao; Cai, Qiliang; Robertson, Erle S.

    2011-01-01

    EBNA3C, one of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded latent antigens, is essential for primary B-cell transformation. Cyclin D1, a key regulator of G1 to S phase progression, is tightly associated and aberrantly expressed in numerous human cancers. Previously, EBNA3C was shown to bind to Cyclin D1 in vitro along with Cyclin A and Cyclin E. In the present study, we provide evidence which demonstrates that EBNA3C forms a complex with Cyclin D1 in human cells. Detailed mapping experiments show that a small N-terminal region which lies between amino acids 130–160 of EBNA3C binds to two different sites of Cyclin D1- the N-terminal pRb binding domain (residues 1–50), and C-terminal domain (residues 171–240), known to regulate Cyclin D1 stability. Cyclin D1 is short-lived and ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation has been targeted as a means of therapeutic intervention. Here, we show that EBNA3C stabilizes Cyclin D1 through inhibition of its poly-ubiquitination, and also increases its nuclear localization by blocking GSK3β activity. We further show that EBNA3C enhances the kinase activity of Cyclin D1/CDK6 which enables subsequent ubiquitination and degradation of pRb. EBNA3C together with Cyclin D1-CDK6 complex also efficiently nullifies the inhibitory effect of pRb on cell growth. Moreover, an sh-RNA based strategy for knock-down of both cyclin D1 and EBNA3C genes in EBV transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) shows a significant reduction in cell-growth. Based on these results, we propose that EBNA3C can stabilize as well as enhance the functional activity of Cyclin D1 thereby facilitating the G1-S transition in EBV transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines. PMID:21347341

  8. Selective repression of the oncogene cyclin D1 by the tumor suppressor miR-206 in cancers.

    PubMed

    Elliman, S J; Howley, B V; Mehta, D S; Fearnhead, H O; Kemp, D M; Barkley, L R

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are deregulated in cancer and have been shown to exhibit both oncogenic and tumor suppressive functions. Although the functional effects of several miRNAs have been elucidated, those of many remain to be discovered. In silico analysis identified microRNA-206 (miR-206) binding sites in the 3'-untranslated regions (3'-UTR) of both the mouse and human CCND1 gene. Cyclin D1 is a recognized oncogene involved in direct phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein and promoting cell cycle transition from G1 to S. miR-206 specifically binds to the CCND1 3'-UTR and mediates reduction of both cyclin D1 protein and mRNA. Expression of miR-206 induced a G1 arrest and a decrease in cell proliferation in breast cancer cells. Ectopic expression of miRNA-resistant cyclin D1 was able to reverse the miR-206-induced decrease in cell proliferation. Therefore, we identified miR-206 as an activator of cell cycle arrest resulting in a decrease in cell proliferation that is dependent on the inhibition of cyclin D1. Interestingly, prostatic cancer (PCa) cells express low levels of miR-206 resulting in deregulated cyclin D1 expression compared with non-transformed primary prostatic epithelial cells (PrEC). Finally, we demonstrate that cyclin D1 is regulated by miR-206 in PrEC but not in PCa cells and this is due to the absence of a CCND1 3'-UTR in these cells. This suggests that miR-206-based anti-cyclin D1 targeted therapy would be beneficial in cancers where cyclin D1 is overexpressed and contains a 3'-UTR. PMID:25111862

  9. TSG101 expression in gynecological tumors: relationship to cyclin D1, cyclin E, p53 and p16 proteins.

    PubMed

    Bennett, N A; Pattillo, R A; Lin, R S; Hsieh, C Y; Murphy, T; Lyn, D

    2001-11-01

    Recent studies have shown that in vitro steady-state expression of the tumor susceptibility gene TSG101 is important for maintenance of genomic stability and cell cycle regulation. To determine the contribution of TSG101 expression in neoplastic formation, expression of TSG101 protein levels were evaluated in primary ovarian and endometrial adenocarcinoma tumors. Expression of TSG101 was also examined in various tumor cell lines (PA-1, AN3CA, HeLa, HS578T, HCT116). Full-length TSG101 protein was detected in these tumors and cell lines indicating that intragenic deletions were not characteristic of TSG101. In addition, TSG101 protein levels were compared with aberrations of prominent cell cycle regulatory molecules such as cyclin D1, cyclin E, p16 and p53. Reduced TSG101 protein was observed in 36% (8/22) of ovarian and 17% (1/6) of endometrial adenocarcinoma. Aberrant levels of p53, p16, cyclin D or E were comparable to published studies indicating that the clinicopathological distribution of these cases did not favor advanced stage tumors. Altogether, these findings suggest that a down-regulation of TSG101 is associated with tumorigenesis in a subgroup of gynecological tumors. PMID:11838966

  10. Synergistic cooperation of Sall4 and Cyclin D1 in transcriptional repression

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, Johann; Kaiser, Frank J.; Borozdin, Wiktor; Depping, Reinhard; Kohlhase, Juergen . E-mail: jkohlhase@humangenetik-freiburg.de

    2007-05-11

    Loss of function mutations in SALL4 cause Okihiro syndrome, an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by radial ray malformations associated with Duane anomaly. In zebrafish and mouse Sall4 interacts with TBX5 during limb and heart development and plays a crucial role for embryonic stem (ES) cell pluripotency. Here we report the nuclear interaction of murine Sall4 with Cyclin D1, one of the main regulators of G{sub 1} to S phase transition in cell cycle, verified by yeast two-hybrid assay, co-immunoprecipitation and intracellular co-localisation. Furthermore, using luciferase reporter gene assays we demonstrate that Sall4 operates as a transcriptional repressor located to heterochromatin and that this activity is modulated by Cyclin D1.

  11. Inhibition of Rac1 activity induces G1/S phase arrest through the GSK3/cyclin D1 pathway in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Linna; Zhang, Hongmei; Shi, Lei; Zhang, Wenjuan; Yuan, Juanli; Chen, Xiang; Liu, Juanjuan; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Zhipeng

    2014-10-01

    Rac1 has been shown to regulate the cell cycle in cancer cells. Yet, the related mechanism remains unclear. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the mechanism involved in the regulation of G1/S phase transition by Rac1 in cancer cells. Inhibition of Rac1 by inhibitor NSC23766 induced G1/S phase arrest and inhibited the proliferation of A431, SW480 and U2-OS cells. Suppression of GSK3 by shRNA partially rescued G1/S phase arrest and inhibition of proliferation. Incubation of cells with NSC23766 reduced p-AKT and inactivated p-GSK3α and p-GSK3β, increased p-cyclin D1 expression and decreased the level of cyclin D1 protein. Consequently, cyclin D1 targeting transcriptional factor E2F1 expression, which promotes G1 to S phase transition, was also reduced. In contrast, constitutive active Rac1 resulted in increased p-AKT and inactivated p-GSK3α and p-GSK3β, decreased p-cyclin D1 expression and enhanced levels of cyclin D1 and E2F1 expression. Moreover, suppression of GSK3 did not alter p-AKT or Rac1 activity, but decreased p-cyclin D1 and increased total cyclin D1 protein. However, neither Rac1 nor GSK3 inhibition altered cyclin D1 at the RNA level. Moreover, after inhibition of Rac1 or GSK3 following proteasome inhibitor MG132 treatment, cyclin D1 expression at the protein level remained constant, indicating that Rac1 and GSK3 may regulate cyclin D1 turnover through phosphorylation and degradation. Therefore, our findings suggest that inhibition of Rac1 induces cell cycle G1/S arrest in cancer cells by regulation of the GSK3/cyclin D1 pathway.

  12. Methanol extract of wheatgrass induces G1 cell cycle arrest in a p53-dependent manner and down regulates the expression of cyclin D1 in human laryngeal cancer cells-an in vitro and in silico approach

    PubMed Central

    Shakya, Garima; Balasubramanian, Sangeetha; Rajagopalan, Rukkumani

    2015-01-01

    Background: Deregs been implicated in the malignancy of cancer. Since many years investigation on the traditional herbs has been the focus to develop novel and effective drug for cancer remedies. Wheatgrass is a medicinal plant, used in folk medicine to cure various diseases. The present study was undertaken to gain insights into antiproliferative effect of methanol extract of wheatgrass. Materials Methods: Cell viability was assessed via 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and Lactate Dehydrogenase assays. Cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. Western blot was performed to determine the p53 and cyclin D1 levels. In silico docking interaction of the 14 active components (identified by high-performance liquid chromatography/gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy) of the methanol extract was tested with cyclin D1 (Protein Data Bank ID: 2W96) and compared with the reference cyclin D1/Cdk4 inhibitor. Results: Methanol extract of wheatgrass effectively reduced the cell viability. The cell cycle analysis showed that the extract treatment caused G1 arrest. The level of cyclin D1 was decreased, whereas p53 level was increased. Molecular docking studies revealed interaction of seven active compounds of the extract with the vital residues (Lys112/Glu141) of cyclin D1. Conclusion: These findings indicate that the methanol extract of wheatgrass inhibits human laryngeal cancer cell proliferation via cell cycle G1 arrest and p53 induction. The seven active compounds of the extract were also found to be directly involved in the inhibition of cyclin D1/Cdk4 binding, thus inhibiting the cell proliferation. PMID:26109759

  13. A cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinase 4 binding site within the C domain of the retinoblastoma protein.

    PubMed

    Pan, W; Cox, S; Hoess, R H; Grafström, R H

    2001-04-01

    Phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) by the cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) 4 complex (cdk4/D1) is a key regulatory step for maintaining the orderly progression of the cell cycle. The B domain of Rb contains a site that recognizes and binds the LXCXE motif found in D-type cyclins. This interaction is important for phosphorylation of Rb by cdk4/D1, although in vitro the Rb C domain alone is efficiently phosphorylated by cdk4/D1. A mutation in the C domain of Rb, L901Q, has been identified that completely abolishes cdk4/D1 phosphorylation of the isolated C domain. By contrast, the L901Q mutation has no effect on phosphorylation by either cyclin E/cdk2 or cyclin B/cdk1, suggesting that the interaction between L901Q and cdk4/D1 is specific. Introduction of the L901Q mutation into Rb containing the A, B, and C domains results in phosphorylation becoming predominantly dependent on the LXCXE binding region. However, when the LXCXE binding region of Rb is mutated, phosphorylation becomes dependent on the L901 site within the C domain. The L901 binding site can supplant the LXCXE binding site for the cdk4/D1-dependent phosphorylation of S780 and S795 but not S807/S811. Despite the limited homology between C domains of Rb, p107, and p130, the L901 site is conserved and introduction of the L925Q mutation into the isolated C domain of p107 also inhibits phosphorylation by cdk4/D1. These data support a model for cdk4/D1 recognizing two independent binding sites in Rb and suggests a conservation of this C domain binding motif for cyclin D1/cdk4 kinase among the Rb family of proteins. PMID:11306463

  14. Characterization of cytoplasmic cyclin D1 as a marker of invasiveness in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Santacana, Maria; Fernández-Hernández, Rita; Gatius, Sònia; Pedraza, Neus; Pallarés, Judit; Cemeli, Tània; Valls, Joan; Tarres, Marc; Ferrezuelo, Francisco; Dolcet, Xavier; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Garí, Eloi

    2016-01-01

    Cyclin D1 (Ccnd1) is a proto-oncogen amplified in many different cancers and nuclear accumulation of Ccnd1 is a characteristic of tumor cells. Ccnd1 activates the transcription of a large set of genes involved in cell cycle progress and proliferation. However, Ccnd1 also targets cytoplasmic proteins involved in the regulation of cell migration and invasion. In this work, we have analyzed by immunohistochemistry the localization of Ccnd1 in endometrial, breast, prostate and colon carcinomas with different types of invasion. The number of cells displaying membranous or cytoplasmic Ccnd1 was significantly higher in peripheral cells than in inner cells in both collective and pushing invasion patterns of endometrial carcinoma, and in collective invasion pattern of colon carcinoma. Also, the cytoplasmic localization of Ccnd1 was higher when tumors infiltrated as single cells, budding or small clusters of cells. To evaluate cytoplasmic function of cyclin D1, we have built a variant (Ccnd1-CAAX) that remains attached to the cell membrane therefore sequestering this cyclin in the cytoplasm. Tumor cells harboring Ccnd1-CAAX showed high levels of invasiveness and metastatic potential compared to those containing the wild type allele of Ccnd1. However, Ccnd1-CAAX expression did not alter proliferative rates of tumor cells. We hypothesize that the role of Ccnd1 in the cytoplasm is mainly associated with the invasive capability of tumor cells. Moreover, we propose that subcellular localization of Ccnd1 is an interesting guideline to measure cancer outcome. PMID:27105504

  15. Expression of Cyclin D1 and P16 in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Biswajit; Raphael, Vandana; Khonglah, Yookarin; GiriLynrah, Kyrshanlang

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the lethal cancers with a high incidence rate in Asia. Many genes including cyclin D1 and p16 play important role in its carcinogenesis. We aimed to analyze the expressions of cyclin D1 and p16 with the various clinicopathological characteristics of ESCC. METHODS We examined 30 biopsy samples of ESCC for cyclin D1 and p16 protein expressions using immunohistochemistry. Immunointensity was classified as no immunostaining (-), weakly immunostaining (+), weak immunostaining (++) and strongly positive immunostaining (+++). RESULTS Out of the 30 cases, positive expression of cyclin D1 was detected in 26 cases (86.7%). The percentage of tumors with invasion to the adventitia (88.2%), lymph node metastasis (87.5%), and tumors which were poorly differentiated (92.9%) were higher in cyclin D1 positive tumors than in the cyclin D1 negative tumors. However no significant association was found between cyclin D1 expression and the different clinicopathological parameters.There were 22 cases of ESCC (73.3 %) which showed negativity for p16. The percentage of tumors with invasion to the adventitia (82.4%) and poorly differentiated tumors (92.9%) were higher in the p16 negative tumors than in the p16 positive tumors. There was significant association between the histological grade and p16 expression (p=0.012). However, there were no significant association with regard to site, size and lymph node status of the tumors and p16 expression. CONCLUSION The study shows that alterations of cyclin D1 and p16 play an important role in ESCC. Loss of p16 expression was associated with poor differentiation. PMID:26609350

  16. Repression of cyclin D1 expression is necessary for the maintenance of cell cycle exit in adult mammalian cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Tane, Shoji; Kubota, Misae; Okayama, Hitomi; Ikenishi, Aiko; Yoshitome, Satoshi; Iwamoto, Noriko; Satoh, Yukio; Kusakabe, Aoi; Ogawa, Satoko; Kanai, Ayumi; Molkentin, Jeffery D; Nakamura, Kazuomi; Ohbayashi, Tetsuya; Takeuchi, Takashi

    2014-06-27

    The hearts of neonatal mice and adult zebrafish can regenerate after injury through proliferation of preexisting cardiomyocytes. However, adult mammals are not capable of cardiac regeneration because almost all cardiomyocytes exit their cell cycle. Exactly how the cell cycle exit is maintained and how many adult cardiomyocytes have the potential to reenter the cell cycle are unknown. The expression and activation levels of main cyclin-cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) complexes are extremely low or undetectable at adult stages. The nuclear DNA content of almost all cardiomyocytes is 2C, indicating the cell cycle exit from G1-phase. Here, we induced expression of cyclin D1, which regulates the progression of G1-phase, only in differentiated cardiomyocytes of adult mice. In these cardiomyocytes, S-phase marker-positive cardiomyocytes and the expression of main cyclins and CDKs increased remarkably, although cyclin B1-CDK1 activation was inhibited in an ATM/ATR-independent manner. The phosphorylation pattern of CDK1 and expression pattern of Cdc25 subtypes suggested that a deficiency in the increase in Cdc25 (a and -b), which is required for M-phase entry, inhibited the cyclin B1-CDK1 activation. Finally, analysis of cell cycle distribution patterns showed that >40% of adult mouse cardiomyocytes reentered the cell cycle by the induction of cyclin D1. The cell cycle of these binucleated cardiomyocytes was arrested before M-phase, and many mononucleated cardiomyocytes entered endoreplication. These data indicate that silencing the cyclin D1 expression is necessary for the maintenance of the cell cycle exit and suggest a mechanism that involves inhibition of M-phase entry.

  17. MicroRNA-143 is a critical regulator of cell cycle activity in stem cells with co-overexpression of Akt and angiopoietin-1 via transcriptional regulation of Erk5/cyclin D1 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Vien Khach; Ashraf, Muhammad; Jiang, Shujia

    2012-01-01

    We report that simultaneous expression of Akt and angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) transgenes supported mitogenesis in stem cells with a critical role for microRNA-143 (miR-143) downstream of FoxO1 transcription factor. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from young male rats were transduced with Ad-vectors encoding for Akt (AktMSC) and Ang-1 (Ang-1MSC) transgenes for their individual or simultaneous overexpression (AAMSC; > 5-fold gene level and > 4-fold Akt and Ang-1 protein expression in AAMSC vs. Ad-Empty transduced MSC; EmpMSC). AAMSC had higher phosphorylation of FoxO1, which activated Erk5, a distinct mitogen-induced MAPK that drove transcriptional activation of cyclin D1 and Cdk4. Flow cytometry showed > 10% higher S-phase cell population that was confirmed by BrdU assay (15%) and immunohistology for Ki67 (11%) in AAMSC using EmpMSC as controls. miR array supported by real-time PCR showed induction of miR-143 in AAMSC (4.73-fold vs. EmpMSC). Luciferase assay indicated a dependent relationship between miR-143 and Erk5 in AAMSC. FoxO1-specific siRNA upregulated miR-143, whereas inhibition of miR-143 did not change FoxO1 activation. However, miR-143 inhibition repressed phosphorylation of Erk5 and abrogated cyclin D1 with concomitant reduction in cells entering cell cycle. During in vivo studies, male GFP+ AAMSC transplanted into wild-type female infarcted rat hearts showed significantly higher numbers of Ki67-expressing cells (p < 0.05 vs. EmpMSC) 7 d after engraftment (n = 4 animals/group). In conclusion, co-overexpression of Akt and Ang-1 in MSC activated cell cycle progression by upregulation of miR-143 and stimulation of FoxO1 and Erk5 signaling. PMID:22374674

  18. SYT-SSX is critical for cyclin D1 expression in synovial sarcoma cells: a gain of function of the t(X;18)(p11.2;q11.2) translocation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yuntao; Skytting, Björn; Nilsson, Gunnar; Gasbarri, Alessandra; Haslam, Karl; Bartolazzi, Armando; Brodin, Bertha; Mandahl, Nils; Larsson, Olle

    2002-07-01

    The SYT-SSX fusion gene has been implicated in the malignant tumor cell growth of synovial sarcoma, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that SYT-SSX is critical for the protein level of cyclin D1 in synovial sarcoma cells. Antisense oligonucleotides to SYT-SSX mRNA rapidly and drastically decreased cyclin D1 and subsequently inhibited cell growth. This effect is specific for SYT-SSX, without involving the wild-type genes SYT or SSX. The decrease in cyclin D1 expression, which occurred shortly after inhibition of SYT-SSX expression, was found to be primarily dependent on an increased degradation of the cyclin D1 protein, as assessed by pulse-chase experiments using [(35)S]methionine. Furthermore, transfection of mouse fibroblasts with SYT-SSX cDNA increased the stability of cyclin D1. Because treatment with a proteasome inhibitor restored cyclin D1 expression, it seems like SYT-SSX interferes with ubiquitin-dependent degradation of cyclin D1. However, SYT-SSX-regulated cyclin D1 expression was proven to be independent of the glycogen synthetase kinase-3beta pathway. Taken together, our study provides evidence that SYT-SSX stabilizes cyclin D1 and is critical for cyclin D1 expression in synovial sarcoma cells. SYT-SSX-dependent expression of cyclin D1 may be an important mechanism in the development and progression of synovial sarcoma and also raises the possibility for targeted therapy.

  19. DNA tumor virus oncoproteins and retinoblastoma gene mutations share the ability to relieve the cell's requirement for cyclin D1 function in G1

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The retinoblastoma gene product (pRB) participates in the regulation of the cell division cycle through complex formation with numerous cellular regulatory proteins including the potentially oncogenic cyclin D1. Extending the current view of the emerging functional interplay between pRB and D-type cyclins, we now report that cyclin D1 expression is positively regulated by pRB. Cyclin D1 mRNA and protein is specifically downregulated in cells expressing SV40 large T antigen, adenovirus E1A, and papillomavirus E7/E6 oncogene products and this effect requires intact RB-binding, CR2 domain of E1A. Exceptionally low expression of cyclin D1 is also seen in genetically RB-deficient cell lines, in which ectopically expressed wild-type pRB results in specific induction of this G1 cyclin. At the functional level, antibody-mediated cyclin D1 knockout experiments demonstrate that the cyclin D1 protein, normally required for G1 progression, is dispensable for passage through the cell cycle in cell lines whose pRB is inactivated through complex formation with T antigen, E1A, or E7 oncoproteins as well as in cells which have suffered loss-of-function mutations of the RB gene. The requirement for cyclin D1 function is not regained upon experimental elevation of cyclin D1 expression in cells with mutant RB, while reintroduction of wild-type RB into RB-deficient cells leads to restoration of the cyclin D1 checkpoint. These results strongly suggest that pRB serves as a major target of cyclin D1 whose cell cycle regulatory function becomes dispensable in cells lacking functional RB. Based on available data including this study, we propose a model for an autoregulatory feedback loop mechanism that regulates both the expression of the cyclin D1 gene and the activity of pRB, thereby contributing to a G1 phase checkpoint control in cycling mammalian cells. PMID:8175885

  20. DNA tumor virus oncoproteins and retinoblastoma gene mutations share the ability to relieve the cell's requirement for cyclin D1 function in G1.

    PubMed

    Lukas, J; Müller, H; Bartkova, J; Spitkovsky, D; Kjerulff, A A; Jansen-Dürr, P; Strauss, M; Bartek, J

    1994-05-01

    The retinoblastoma gene product (pRB) participates in the regulation of the cell division cycle through complex formation with numerous cellular regulatory proteins including the potentially oncogenic cyclin D1. Extending the current view of the emerging functional interplay between pRB and D-type cyclins, we now report that cyclin D1 expression is positively regulated by pRB. Cyclin D1 mRNA and protein is specifically downregulated in cells expressing SV40 large T antigen, adenovirus E1A, and papillomavirus E7/E6 oncogene products and this effect requires intact RB-binding, CR2 domain of E1A. Exceptionally low expression of cyclin D1 is also seen in genetically RB-deficient cell lines, in which ectopically expressed wild-type pRB results in specific induction of this G1 cyclin. At the functional level, antibody-mediated cyclin D1 knockout experiments demonstrate that the cyclin D1 protein, normally required for G1 progression, is dispensable for passage through the cell cycle in cell lines whose pRB is inactivated through complex formation with T antigen, E1A, or E7 oncoproteins as well as in cells which have suffered loss-of-function mutations of the RB gene. The requirement for cyclin D1 function is not regained upon experimental elevation of cyclin D1 expression in cells with mutant RB, while reintroduction of wild-type RB into RB-deficient cells leads to restoration of the cyclin D1 checkpoint. These results strongly suggest that pRB serves as a major target of cyclin D1 whose cell cycle regulatory function becomes dispensable in cells lacking functional RB. Based on available data including this study, we propose a model for an autoregulatory feedback loop mechanism that regulates both the expression of the cyclin D1 gene and the activity of pRB, thereby contributing to a G1 phase checkpoint control in cycling mammalian cells. PMID:8175885

  1. Disruption of nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of cyclin D1 and topoisomerase II by sanguinarine

    PubMed Central

    Holy, Jon; Lamont, Genelle; Perkins, Edward

    2006-01-01

    Background The quaternary isoquinoline alkaloid sanguinarine is receiving increasing attention as a potential chemotherapeutic agent in the treatment of cancer. Previous studies have shown that this DNA-binding phytochemical can arrest a number of different types of transformed cells in G0/G1, and upregulate the CKIs p21 and p27 while downregulating multiple cyclins and CDKs. To more closely examine the responses of some of these cell cycle regulatory molecules to sanguinarine, we used immunocytochemical methods to visualize cyclin D1 and topoisomerase II behavior in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Results 5 – 10 μM sanguinarine effectively inhibits MCF-7 proliferation after a single application of drug. This growth inhibition is accompanied by a striking relocalization of cyclin D1 and topoisomerase II from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, and this effect persists for at least three days after drug addition. DNA synthesis is transiently inhibited by sanguinarine, but cells recover their ability to synthesize DNA within 24 hours. Taking advantage of the fluorescence characteristics of sanguinarine to follow its uptake and distribution suggests that these effects arise from a window of activity of a few hours immediately after drug addition, when sanguinarine is concentrated in the nucleus. These effects occur in morphologically healthy-looking cells, and thus do not simply represent part of an apoptotic response. Conclusion It appears that sub-apoptotic concentrations of sanguinarine can suppress breast cancer cell proliferation for extended lengths of time, and that this effect results from a relatively brief period of activity when the drug is concentrated in the nucleus. Sanguinarine transiently inhibits DNA synthesis, but a novel mechanism of action appears to involve disrupting the trafficking of a number of molecules involved in cell cycle regulation and progression. The ability of sub-apoptotic concentrations of sanguinarine to inhibit cell growth may be a useful

  2. Cyclin D1-CDK4 Controls Glucose Metabolism Independently of Cell Cycle Progression

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoonjin; Dominy, John E.; Choi, Yoon Jong; Jurczak, Michael; Tolliday, Nicola; Camporez, Joao Paulo; Chim, Helen; Lim, Ji-Hong; Ruan, Hai-Bin; Yang, Xiaoyong; Vazquez, Francisca; Sicinski, Piotr; Shulman, Gerald I.; Puigserver, Pere

    2014-01-01

    Insulin constitutes a major evolutionarily conserved hormonal axis for maintaining glucose homeostasis1-3; dysregulation of this axis causes diabetes2,4. PGC-1α links insulin signaling to the expression of glucose and lipid metabolic genes5-7. GCN5 acetylates PGC-1α and suppresses its transcriptional activity, whereas SIRT1 deacetylates and activates PGC-1α8,9. Although insulin is a mitogenic signal in proliferative cells10,11, whether components of the cell cycle machinery contribute to insulin’s metabolic action is poorly understood. Herein, we report that insulin activates cyclin D1-CDK4, which, in turn, increases GCN5 acetyltransferase activity and suppresses hepatic glucose production independently of cell cycle progression. Through a cell-based high throughput chemical screen, we identified a CDK4 inhibitor that potently decreases PGC-1α acetylation. Insulin/GSK3β signaling induces cyclin D1 protein stability via sequestering cyclin D1 in the nucleus. In parallel, dietary amino acids increase hepatic cyclin D1 mRNA transcripts. Activated cyclin D1-CDK4 kinase phosphorylates and activates GCN5, which then acetylates and inhibits PGC-1α activity on gluconeogenic genes. Loss of hepatic cyclin D1 results in increased gluconeogenesis and hyperglycemia. In diabetic models, cyclin D1-CDK4 is chronically elevated and refractory to fasting/feeding transitions; nevertheless further activation of this kinase normalizes glycemia. Our findings show that insulin uses components of the cell cycle machinery in post-mitotic cells to control glucose homeostasis independently of cell division. PMID:24870244

  3. The tight junction protein ZO-2 blocks cell cycle progression and inhibits cyclin D1 expression.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Mariscal, Lorenza; Tapia, Rocio; Huerta, Miriam; Lopez-Bayghen, Esther

    2009-05-01

    ZO-2 is an adaptor protein of the tight junction that belongs to the MAGUK protein family. ZO-2 is a dual localization protein that in sparse cultures is present at the cell borders and the nuclei, whereas in confluent cultures it is concentrated at the cell boundaries. Here we have studied whether ZO-2 is able to regulate the expression of cyclin D1 (CD1) and cell proliferation. We have demonstrated that ZO-2 negatively regulates CD1 transcription by interacting with c-Myc at an E box present in CD1 promoter. We have further found that ZO-2 transfection into epithelial MDCK cells triggers a diminished expression of CD1 protein and decreases the rate of cell proliferation in a wound-healing assay.

  4. Prognostic Importance of Cell Cycle Regulators Cyclin D1 (CCND1) and Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1B (CDKN1B/p27) in Sporadic Gastric Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Minarikova, Petra; Halkova, Tereza; Belsanova, Barbora; Tuckova, Inna; Belina, Frantisek; Dusek, Ladislav; Zavoral, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Background. Gastric cancer is known for a notable variety in the course of the disease. Clinical factors, such as tumor stage, grade, and localization, are key in patient survival. It is expected that molecular factors such as somatic mutations and gene amplifications are also underlying tumor biological behavior and may serve as factors for prognosis estimation. Aim. The purpose of this study was to examine gene amplifications from a panel of genes to uncover potential prognostic marker candidates. Methods. A panel of gene amplifications including 71 genes was tested by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) technique in 76 gastric cancer samples from a Caucasian population. The correlation of gene amplification status with patient survival was determined by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results. The amplification of two cell cycle regulators, CCND1 and CDKN1B, was identified to have a negative prognostic role. The medial survival of patients with gastric cancer displaying amplification compared to patients without amplification was 192 versus 725 days for CCND1 (P = 0.0012) and 165 versus 611 days for CDKN1B (P = 0.0098). Conclusion. Gene amplifications of CCND1 and CDKN1B are potential candidates to serve as prognostic markers for the stratification of patients based on the estimate of survival in the management of gastric cancer patients. PMID:27781065

  5. Differentiation-inducing factor-1 suppresses gene expression of cyclin D1 in tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yasmin, Tania; Takahashi-Yanaga, Fumi . E-mail: yanaga@clipharm.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Mori, Jun; Miwa, Yoshikazu; Hirata, Masato; Watanabe, Yutaka; Morimoto, Sachio; Sasaguri, Toshiyuki

    2005-12-16

    To determine the mechanism by which differentiation-inducing factor-1 (DIF-1), a morphogen of Dictyostelium discoideum, inhibits tumor cell proliferation, we examined the effect of DIF-1 on the gene expression of cyclin D1. DIF-1 strongly reduced the expression of cyclin D1 mRNA and correspondingly decreased the amount of {beta}-catenin in HeLa cells and squamous cell carcinoma cells. DIF-1 activated glycogen synthase kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) and inhibition of GSK-3{beta} attenuated the DIF-1-induced {beta}-catenin degradation, indicating the involvement of GSK-3{beta} in this effect. Moreover, DIF-1 reduced the activities of T-cell factor (TCF)/lymphoid enhancer factor (LEF) reporter plasmid and a reporter gene driven by the human cyclin D1 promoter. Eliminating the TCF/LEF consensus site from the cyclin D1 promoter diminished the effect of DIF-1. These results suggest that DIF-1 inhibits Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling, resulting in the suppression of cyclin D1 promoter activity.

  6. Lysine Acetyltransferase GCN5 Potentiates the Growth of Non-small Cell Lung Cancer via Promotion of E2F1, Cyclin D1, and Cyclin E1 Expression*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Long; Wei, Tingyi; Si, Xiaoxing; Wang, Qianqian; Li, Yan; Leng, Ye; Deng, Anmei; Chen, Jie; Wang, Guiying; Zhu, Songcheng; Kang, Jiuhong

    2013-01-01

    The lysine acetyltransferases play crucial but complex roles in cancer development. GCN5 is a lysine acetyltransferase that generally regulates gene expression, but its role in cancer development remains largely unknown. In this study, we report that GCN5 is highly expressed in non-small cell lung cancer tissues and that its expression correlates with tumor size. We found that the expression of GCN5 promotes cell growth and the G1/S phase transition in multiple lung cancer cell lines. Further study revealed that GCN5 regulates the expression of E2F1, cyclin D1, and cyclin E1. Our reporter assays indicated that the expression of GCN5 enhances the activities of the E2F1, cyclin D1, and cyclin E1 promoters. ChIP experiments suggested that GCN5 binds directly to these promoters and increases the extent of histone acetylation within these regions. Mechanistic studies suggested that GCN5 interacts with E2F1 and is recruited by E2F1 to the E2F1, cyclin D1, and cyclin E1 promoters. The function of GCN5 in lung cancer cells is abrogated by the knockdown of E2F1. Finally, we confirmed that GCN5 regulates the expression of E2F1, cyclin D1, and cyclin E1 and potentiates lung cancer cell growth in a mouse tumor model. Taken together, our results demonstrate that GCN5 specifically potentiates lung cancer growth by directly promoting the expression of E2F1, cyclin D1, and cyclin E1 in an E2F1-dependent manner. Our study identifies a specific and novel function of GCN5 in lung cancer development and suggests that the GCN5-E2F1 interaction represents a potential target for lung cancer treatment. PMID:23543735

  7. Hyper sensitive protein detection by Tandem-HTRF reveals Cyclin D1 dynamics in adult mouse

    PubMed Central

    Zampieri, Alexandre; Champagne, Julien; Auzemery, Baptiste; Fuentes, Ivanna; Maurel, Benjamin; Bienvenu, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    We present here a novel method for the semi-quantitative detection of low abundance proteins in solution that is both fast and simple. It is based on Homogenous Time Resolved Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (HTRF), between a lanthanide labeled donor antibody and a d2 or XL665 labeled acceptor antibody that are both raised against different epitopes of the same target. This novel approach we termed “Tandem-HTRF”, can specifically reveal rare polypeptides from only a few microliters of cellular lysate within one hour in a 384-well plate format. Using this sensitive approach, we observed surprisingly that the core cell cycle regulator Cyclin D1 is sustained in fully developed adult organs and harbors an unexpected expression pattern affected by environmental challenge. Thus our method, Tandem-HTRF offers a promising way to investigate subtle variations in the dynamics of sparse proteins from limited biological material. PMID:26503526

  8. Cyclin D1/cdk4, estrogen receptors α and β, in N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine-induced rat gastric carcinogenesis: immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Motohashi, Masaya; Wakui, Shin; Muto, Tomoko; Suzuki, Yoshihiko; Shirai, Masaru; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Hano, Hiroshi

    2011-06-01

    Hyperproliferative cell growth due to cyclin D1/cdk4, marker of cellular proliferation, is considered to be regulated by the expression of estrogen receptors (ERs). We investigated the immunohistochemical expression of cyclin D1/cdk4 and ERs in N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-induced rat gastric carcinogenesis. The gastric cancer incidence and expression of cyclin D1/ckd4 in gastric carcinogenesis were significantly higher in males than females. Although the ERα expression index was similar in both sexes, the ERβ expression in preneoplastic hyperplastic lesions as well as gastric cancers was significantly higher in females than in males. The present study revealed a gender difference in MNNG-induced rat gastric carcinogenesis that seemed to involve the sex difference in cyclin D1/cdk4 expression, and ERβ expression became evident at the preneoplastic promotion stage in gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:21628965

  9. Role of cyclin D1 amplification and expression in vulvar carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Choschzick, Matthias; Hess, Stephan; Tennstedt, Pierre; Holst, Frederik; Bohlken, Hiltila; Gieseking, Frederike; Mahner, Sven; Woelber, Linn; Simon, Ronald; Sauter, Guido

    2012-09-01

    Cyclin D1 (CCND1) belongs to the family of D-type cyclins involved in cell cycle progression, transcriptional regulation, and cell migration. CCND1 was found to be amplified and overexpressed in a variety of cancers, including some vulvar carcinoma cell lines. To determine the relationship of CCND1 copy number changes and CCND1 protein expression with clinicopathologic features and prognosis, 183 vulvar carcinomas were analyzed on a tissue microarray. Amplification was observed in 32 (22.4%) vulvar cancer specimens and was statistically related to the presence of regional lymph node metastases (P < .001). Detectable CCND1 expression was found in 139 (83.2%) of vulvar carcinomas, and 76 (45.5%) exhibited a moderate or strong expression. Increased levels of CCND1 expression were significantly related to higher patient age (P = .013), positive pN category (P = .004), and negative human papillomavirus status (P < .001). Basaloid as well as verrucous, warty-type, and mixed vulvar carcinomas showed lower CCND1 expression levels than keratinizing or nonkeratinizing tumors (P < .001 and P = .032, respectively). Elevated CCND1 expression levels and amplification of the CCND1 gene were closely connected in the present analysis (P < .001). Patient prognosis was independent from CCND1 amplification status and expression level (P = .57 each). In conclusion, CCND1 is amplified and overexpressed in a substantial proportion of vulvar carcinomas and associated with the occurrence of locoregional lymph node metastases, especially in human papillomavirus-negative tumors.

  10. Antisense inhibition of cyclin D1 expression is equivalent to flavopiridol for radiosensitization of zebrafish embryos

    SciTech Connect

    McAleer, Mary Frances; Duffy, Kevin T.; Davidson, William R.; Kari, Gabor; Dicker, Adam P.; Rodeck, Ulrich; Wickstrom, Eric . E-mail: eric@tesla.jci.tju.edu

    2006-10-01

    Purpose: Flavopiridol, a small molecule pan-cyclin inhibitor, has been shown to enhance Radiation response of tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo. The clinical utility of flavopiridol, however, is limited by toxicity, previously attributed to pleiotropic inhibitory effects on several targets affecting multiple signal transduction pathways. Here we used zebrafish embryos to investigate radiosensitizing effects of flavopiridol in normal tissues. Methods and Materials: Zebrafish embryos at the 1- to 4-cell stage were treated with 500 nM flavopiridol or injected with 0.5 pmol antisense hydroxylprolyl-phosphono nucleic acid oligomers to reduce cyclin D1 expression, then subjected to ionizing radiation (IR) or no radiation. Results: Flavopiridol-treated embryos demonstrated a twofold increase in mortality after exposure to 40 Gy by 96 hpf and developed distinct radiation-induced defects in midline development (designated as the 'curly up' phenotype) at higher rates when compared with embryos receiving IR only. Cyclin D1-deficient embryos had virtually identical IR sensitivity profiles when compared with embryos treated with flavopiridol. This was particularly evident for the IR-induced curly up phenotype, which was greatly exacerbated by both flavopriridol and cyclin D1 downregulation. Conclusions: Treatment of zebrafish embryos with flavopiridol enhanced radiation sensitivity of zebrafish embryos to a degree that was very similar to that associated with downregulation of cyclin D1 expression. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that inhibition of cyclin D1 is sufficient to account for the radiosensitizing action of flavopiridol in the zebrafish embryo vertebrate model.

  11. Transgenic expression of cyclin D1 in thymic epithelial precursors promotes epithelial and T cell development.

    PubMed

    Klug, D B; Crouch, E; Carter, C; Coghlan, L; Conti, C J; Richie, E R

    2000-02-15

    We previously reported that precursors within the keratin (K) 8+5+ thymic epithelial cell (TEC) subset generate the major cortical K8+5- TEC population in a process dependent on T lineage commitment. This report demonstrates that expression of a cyclin D1 transgene in K8+5+ TECs expands this subset and promotes TEC and thymocyte development. Cyclin D1 transgene expression is not sufficient to induce TEC differentiation in the absence of T lineage-committed thymocytes because TECs from both hCD3epsilon transgenic and hCD3epsilon/cyclin D1 double transgenic mice remain blocked at the K8+5+ maturation stage. However, enforced cyclin D1 expression does expand the developmental window during which K8+5+ cells can differentiate in response to normal hemopoietic precursors. Thus, enhancement of thymic function may be achieved by manipulating the growth and/or survival of TEC precursors within the K8+5+ subset.

  12. PAC exhibits potent anti-colon cancer properties through targeting cyclin D1 and suppressing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Al-Qasem, Abeer; Al-Howail, Huda A; Al-Swailem, Mashael; Al-Mazrou, Amer; Al-Otaibi, Basem; Al-Jammaz, Ibrahim; Al-Khalaf, Huda H; Aboussekhra, Abdelilah

    2016-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of cancer morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although response rates and overall survival have been improved in recent years, resistance to multiple drug combinations is inevitable. Therefore, the development of more efficient drugs, with fewer side effects is urgently needed. To this end, we have investigated in the present report the effect of PAC, a novel cucumin analogue, on CRC cells both in vitro and in vivo. We have shown that PAC induces apoptosis, mainly via the internal mitochondrial route, and inhibits cell proliferation through delaying the cell cycle at G2/M phase. Interestingly, the pro-apoptotic effect was mediated through STAT3-dependent down-regulation of cyclin D1 and its downstream target survivin. Indeed, change in the expression level of cyclin D1 modulated the expression of survivin and the response of CRC cells to PAC. Furthermore, using the ChIP assay, we have shown PAC-dependent reduction in the binding of STAT3 to the cyclin D1 promoter in vivo. Additionally, PAC suppressed the epithelial-to-mesenchymal process through down-regulating the mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin, vimentin and Twist1) and inhibiting the invasion/migration abilities of the CRC cells via repressing the pro-migration/invasion protein kinases AKT and ERK1/2. In addition, PAC inhibited tumor growth and repressed the JAK2/STAT3, AKT/mTOR and MEK/ERK pathways as well as their common downstream effectors cyclin D1 and survivin in humanized CRC xenografts. Collectively, these results indicate that PAC has potent anti-CRC effects, and therefore could constitute an effective alternative chemotherapeutic agent, which may consolidate the adjuvant treatment of colon cancer.

  13. Cyclin D1 and Ki-67 expression correlates to tumor staging in tongue squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    de Carli, Marina-Lara; Sperandio, Felipe-Fornias; Hanemann, João-Adolfo-Costa; Pereira, Alessandro-Antônio-Costa

    2015-01-01

    Background The immunohistochemical expression of Cyclin D1 and Ki-67 were analyzed in tongue squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), relating them to the clinical and morphological exhibition of these tumors. Material and Methods Twenty-nine patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria; clinical data included gender, age, ethnicity and use of licit drugs such as alcohol and tobacco. The TNM staging and histopathological differentiation grading was assessed for each case. In addition, T1 patients were gathered with T2 patients; and T3 patients were gathered with T4 patients to assemble two distinct groups: (T1/T2) and (T3/T4). Results The mean follow-up time was 24 months and 30% of the patients died as a consequence of the disease, while 23.3% lived with the disease and 46.7% lived lesion-free. T1 and T2 tumors showed statistically lesser Ki-67 and Cyclin D1 staining when compared to T3 and T4 tumors. Conclusions Ki-67 and Cyclin D1 pose as auxiliary tools when determining the progression of tongue SCC at the time of diagnosis. Key words:Carcinoma, squamous cell, cyclin D, immunohistochemistry, Ki-67 antigen, prognosis. PMID:26449430

  14. Expression of pRb, p53, p16 and cyclin D1 and their clinical implications in urothelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyungji; Jung, Eun Sun; Choi, Young-Jin; Lee, Kyo Young; Lee, Ahwon

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess immunohistochemical expression of p53, pRb, p16, and cyclin D1, alone or in combination, as prognostic indicators and to investigate their correlation with clinocopathologic features of urothelial carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining for p53, pRb, p16, and cyclin D1 was performed on a tissue microarray from 103 patients with urothelial carcinoma who underwent radical cystectomy. Of the patient samples analyzed, 36 (35%), 61 (59%), 47 (46%) and 30 (29%) had altered expression of p53, pRb, p16, and cyclin D1, respectively. Abnormal expression of p53 and pRb correlated with depth of invasion (P=0.040 and P=0.044, respectively). Cyclin D1 expression was associated with tumor stage and recurrence (P=0.017 and P=0.036, respectively). Altered pRb was significantly correlated with overall survival (P=0.040). According to the expression pattern of pRb and p53, p53/pRb (altered/normal) had worse survival than p53/pRb (normal/altered) (P=0.022). Alteration of all markers had worse survival than all normal (P=0.029). As determined by multivariate analysis, tumor stage, lymph node metastasis and the combined expression of p53 and pRb are independent prognostic factors. In conclusion, immunohistochemical evaluation of cell cycle regulators, especially the p53/pRb combination, might be useful in planning appropriate treatment strategies.

  15. leptin-induced growth stimulation of breast cancer cells involves recruitment of histone acetyltransferases and mediator complex to CYCLIN D1 promoter via activation of Stat3.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Neeraj K; Vertino, Paula M; Anania, Frank A; Sharma, Dipali

    2007-05-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies documented that obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer development in postmenopausal women. Leptin, the key player in the regulation of energy balance and body weight control also acts as a growth factor on certain organs in both normal and disease state. In this study, we analyzed the role of leptin and the molecular mechanism(s) underlying its action in breast cancer cells that express both short and long isoforms of leptin receptor. Leptin increased MCF7 cell population in the S-phase of the cell cycle along with a robust increase in CYCLIN D1 expression. Also, leptin induced Stat3-phosphorylation-dependent proliferation of MCF7 cells as blocking Stat3 phosphorylation with a specific inhibitor, AG490, abolished leptin-induced proliferation. Using deletion constructs of CYCLIN D1 promoter and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, we show that leptin induced increase in CYCLIN D1 promoter activity is mediated through binding of activated Stat3 at the Stat binding sites and changes in histone acetylation and methylation. We also show specific involvement of coactivator molecules, histone acetyltransferase SRC1, and mediator complex in leptin-mediated regulation of CYCLIN D1 promoter. Importantly, silencing of SRC1 and Med1 abolished the leptin induced increase in CYCLIN D1 expression and MCF7 cell proliferation. Intriguingly, recruitment of both SRC1 and Med1 was dependent on phosphorylated Stat3 as AG490 treatment inhibited leptin-induced recruitment of these coactivators to CYCLIN D1 promoter. Our data suggest that CYCLIN D1 may be a target gene for leptin mediated growth stimulation of breast cancer cells and molecular mechanisms involve activated Stat3-mediated recruitment of distinct coactivator complexes.

  16. Prognostic significance of cyclinD1 amplification and the co-alteration of cyclinD1/pRb/ppRb in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, M-T; Chen, G; An, S-J; Chen, Z-H; Huang, Z-M; Xiao, P; Ben, X-S; Xie, Z; Chen, S-L; Luo, D-L; Tang, J-M; Lin, J-Y; Zhang, X-C; Wu, Y-L

    2012-01-01

    CyclinD1/pRb/ppRb is one of the most important pathways regulating the cell cycle, and related with the development of many cancers. However, the co-alteration of CyclinD1/pRb/ppRb in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas is less understood. This study aims to analyze the combined prognostic significance of cyclinD1 (CCND1) DNA amplification and the co-alteration of CCND1/pRb/ppRB in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. CCND1 DNA amplification and the protein expression of CCND1, pRb, and ppRb on 100 tumor specimens and 11 normal tissues were detected using real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Their prognosis significance was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method. We found that 41% of the patients had CCND1 DNA amplification, which had a short survival time compared with the patients without CCND1 amplification (25.63 months vs. not reached, P=0.007). The patients with the co-alternation of CCND1(+) /pRb(-) /ppRb(+) protein expression levels have a poorer overall survival than the others (11.4 vs. 43.4 months, P=0.001). Cox regression analysis showed that the co-alternation of CCND1/pRb/ppRb and CyclinD1 amplification were the two most independent prognosis factors of patients with esophageal cancer. These findings suggested that CCND1 amplification and co-alternation of CCND1(+) /pRb(-) /ppRb(+) may play a crucial role in the prognostic evaluation of patients with esophageal cancer, and the patients with CCND1(+) /pRb(-) /ppRb(+) have the worst prognosis in all the patients. The results also indicated that the patients with CCND1 amplification or co-alternation of CyclinD1(+) /pRb(-) /ppRb(+) might be the preponderant people for therapy targeting the CCND1/pRb/ppRb pathway in the future.

  17. Differential roles of cyclin D1 and D3 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The cyclin D1 (CCND1) and cyclin D3 (CCND3) are frequently co-overexpressed in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Here we examine their differential roles in PDAC. Results CCND1 and CCND3 expression were selectively suppressed by shRNA in PDAC cell lines with expression levels of equal CCND1 and CCND3 (BxPC3), enhanced CCND1 (HPAC) or enhanced CCND3 (PANC1). Suppression of cell proliferation was greater with CCND3 than CCND1 downregulation. CCND3 suppression led to a reduced level of phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein (Ser795p-Rb/p110) and resulted in decreased levels of cyclin A mRNA and protein. A global gene expression analysis identified deregulated genes in D1- or D3-cyclin siRNA-treated PANC1 cells. The downregulated gene targets in CCND3 suppressed cells were significantly enriched in cell cycle associated processes (p < 0.005). In contrast, focal adhesion/actin cytoskeleton, MAPK and NF B signaling appeared to characterize the target genes and their interacting proteins in CCND1 suppressed PANC1 cells. Conclusions Our results suggest that CCND3 is the primary driver of the cell cycle, in cooperation with CCND1 that integrates extracellular mitogenic signaling. We also present evidence that CCND1 plays a role in tumor cell migration. The results provide novel insights for common and differential targets of CCND1 and CCND3 overexpression during pancreatic duct cell carcinogenesis. PMID:20113529

  18. Age Dependent Switching Role of Cyclin D1 in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rinaldi, Carmela; Malara, Natalia Maria; D’Angelo, Rosalia; Sidoti, Antonina; Leotta, Attilio; Lio, Santo; Caparello, Basilio; Ruggeri, Alessia; Mollace, Vincenzo; Amato, Aldo

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cyclin D1 gene (CCND1) plays pivotal roles in the development of several human cancers, including breast cancer, functioning as an oncogene. The aim of this study was to better understand the molecular dynamics of ductal carcinomas with regard to proliferation and the ageing process. Methods: 130 cases of ductal breast cancer in postmenopausal women, aged 52–96 in 3 age classes were selected. Tumoral tissues preserved in formaldehyde solution and subsequently embedded in paraffin were subjected to analysis Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH), Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT- PCR) and immuno-histochemical tests. The molecular variables studied were estimated in relation to the patients’ age. Results: The results obtained suggest that the increment of the levels of cyclin D1 in intra-ductal breast tumors in older woman that we have examined is significantly associated with a lower proliferation rate. Conclusion: Cyclin D1, which characterizes tumor in young women as molecular director involved in strengthening tumoral proliferation mechanisms, may be seen as a potential blocking molecular switch in corresponding tumours in old women. PMID:22231956

  19. Early B-cell-specific inactivation of ATM synergizes with ectopic CyclinD1 expression to promote pre-germinal center B-cell lymphomas in mice.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, K; Lee, B J; Li, C; Dubois, R L; Hobeika, E; Bhagat, G; Zha, S

    2015-06-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) kinase is a master regulator of the DNA damage response. ATM is frequently inactivated in human B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas, including ~50% of mantle cell lymphomas (MCLs) characterized by ectopic expression of CyclinD1. Here we report that early and robust deletion of ATM in precursor/progenitor B cells causes cell autonomous, clonal mature B-cell lymphomas of both pre- and post-germinal center (GC) origins. Unexpectedly, naive B-cell-specific deletion of ATM is not sufficient to induce lymphomas in mice, highlighting the important tumor suppressor function of ATM in immature B cells. Although EμCyclinD1 is not sufficient to induce lymphomas, EμCyclinD1 accelerates the kinetics and increases the incidence of clonal lymphomas in ATM-deficient B-cells and skews the lymphomas toward pre-GC-derived small lymphocytic neoplasms, sharing morphological features of human MCL. This is in part due to CyclinD1-driven expansion of ATM-deficient naive B cells with genomic instability, which promotes the deletions of additional tumor suppressor genes (i.e. Trp53, Mll2, Rb1 and Cdkn2a). Together these findings define a synergistic function of ATM and CyclinD1 in pre-GC B-cell proliferation and lymphomagenesis and provide a prototypic animal model to study the pathogenesis of human MCL. PMID:25676421

  20. CyclinD1 protein plays different roles in modulating chemoresponses in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 cells

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yuan; Luo, Dianzhong; Liao, D. Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Background: CyclinD1 is an essential sensor and activator of cell cycle initiation and progression; overexpression of cyclinD1 is linked to various human cancers, including breast cancer. The elevated cyclinD1 in some types of cancers is believed to be associated with tumor progression and response to systemic treatments. Aims: In this study, we anticipate to address the questions in human breast cancer; the function of cyclinD1 in mediating chemoresponses; and the signaling pathway cooperating with cyclinD1 to interfere with the drug functions. Materials and Methods: Using the cell clones, concurrent ectopic expression of the wild-type or K112E-mutated human cyclinD1 protein in the MCF7 and MDA-MB231 (MB231) breast cancer cells to study the function of cyclinD1 in responses to the chemotherapeutic treatments. Three drugs, cisplatin (CDDP), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and Gemzar were used in this study; the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, cell cycle and cell death analysis, clonogenic survival assay, acridine orange (AO)/ethidium bromide (EB) staining, and Western blot assay were conducted to evaluate the drugs’ effects in the cell clones. Results: The cell clones expressing the D1 protein in MCF7 and MB231 cells result in distinct effects on the responses to chemotherapeutic treatments. Particularly with Gemzar, ectopic expression of cyclinD1 protein in MCF7 cells results in a potentiated effect, which is CDK4 kinase activity dependent, whereas in MB231 cells, an opposite effect was observed. Moreover, our results suggested that the distinct chemosensitivities among those cell clones were not resulted from accelerated cell cycle, cell proliferation driven by the cyclinD1CDK4/6-Rb-E2F signaling chain, rather, they were results of the cell cycle-independent functions led by cyclinD1 alone or in complex with CDK4. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the functions of cyclinD1 protein in modulating chemoresponses in the MCF7

  1. Endoglin inhibits ERK-induced c-Myc and cyclin D1 expression to impede endothelial cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Christopher C.; Bloodworth, Jeffrey C.; Mythreye, Karthikeyan; Lee, Nam Y.

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endoglin inhibits ERK activation in endothelial cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endoglin is a regulator of c-Myc and cyclin D1 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {beta}-arrestin2 interaction with endoglin is required for ERK/c-Myc repression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endoglin impedes cellular proliferation by targeting ERK-induced mitogenic signaling. -- Abstract: Endoglin is an endothelial-specific transforming growth factor beta (TGF-{beta}) co-receptor essential for angiogenesis and vascular remodeling. Endoglin regulates a wide range of cellular processes, including cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation, through TGF-{beta} signaling to canonical Smad and Smad-independent pathways. Despite its overall pro-angiogenic role in the vasculature, the underlying mechanism of endoglin action is poorly characterized. We previously identified {beta}-arrestin2 as a binding partner that causes endoglin internalization from the plasma membrane and inhibits ERK signaling towards endothelial migration. In the present study, we examined the mechanistic role of endoglin and {beta}-arrestin2 in endothelial cell proliferation. We show that endoglin impedes cell growth through sustained inhibition of ERK-induced c-Myc and cyclin D1 expression in a TGF-{beta}-independent manner. The down-regulation of c-Myc and cyclin D1, along with growth-inhibition, are reversed when the endoglin/{beta}-arrestin2 interaction is disrupted. Given that TGF-{beta}-induced Smad signaling potently represses c-Myc in most cell types, our findings here show a novel mechanism by which endoglin augments growth-inhibition by targeting ERK and key downstream mitogenic substrates.

  2. NFκB-mediated cyclin D1 expression by microRNA-21 influences renal cancer cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Bera, Amit; Ghosh-Choudhury, Nandini; Dey, Nirmalya; Das, Falguni; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S; Abboud, Hanna E; Choudhury, Goutam Ghosh

    2013-12-01

    MicroRNAs regulate post-transcriptomic landscape in many tumors including renal cell carcinoma. We have recently shown significantly increased expression of miR-21 in renal tumors and that this miRNA contributes to the proliferation of renal cancer cells in culture. However, the mechanism by which miR-21 regulates renal cancer cell proliferation is poorly understood. Addiction to constitutive NFκB activity is hallmark of many cancers including renal cancer. Using miR-21 Sponge in renal cancer cells to block endogenous function of miR-21, we show inhibition of phosphorylation of p65 subunit of NFκB, IKKβ and IκB, which results in attenuation of NFκB transcriptional activity. Subtle reduction in the tumor suppressor PTEN has been linked to various malignancies. We showed previously that miR-21 targeted PTEN in renal cancer cells. Inhibition of PTEN by siRNAs restored miR-21 Sponge-induced suppression of phosphorylation of p65, IKKβ, IκB and NFκB transcriptional activity along with reversal of miR-21 Sponge-reduced phosphorylation of Akt. Expression of constitutively active Akt protected against miR-21 Sponge- and PTEN-mediated decrease in p65/IKKβ/IκB phosphorylation and NFκB transcriptional activity. Furthermore, IKKβ and p65 were required for miR-21-induced renal cancer cell proliferation. Interestingly, miR-21 controlled the expression of cyclin D1 through NFκB-dependent transcription. Finally, we demonstrate that miR-21-regulated renal cancer cell proliferation is mediated by cyclin D1 and CDK4. Together, our results establish a molecular order of a phosphatase-kinase couple involving PTEN/Akt/IKKβ and NFκB-dependent cyclin D1 expression for renal carcinoma cell proliferation by increased miR-21 levels.

  3. Correlation between cyclin D1 expression and standard clinicopathological variables in invasive breast cancer in Eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Santanu; Kanoi, Aditya; Bain, Jayanta; Gayen, Rajarshi; Das, Kashi Nath

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Breast cancer is the leading oncogenic threat in South-East Asian women showing an inexplicable biological aggressiveness. High expression of cyclin D1, a key molecule in breast cancer pathogenesis, has been shown by previous studies in the Western world to be associated with favorable tumoral characteristics. Apart from determining the correlation between cyclin D1 expression and standard clinicopathological variables in invasive breast cancer in Eastern India, questions that we aimed to answer through this study included: Is there a significant regional difference in expression patterns of this protein? And if yes, can it possibly account for the epidemiological differences in breast cancer occurrence and biological behavior? Finally, is testing for overexpression of this protein in regions with limited resources beneficial? Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out on 110 previously untreated, female patients with primary breast carcinoma. Cyclin D1 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry using specific anti-cyclin D1 monoclonal antibodies. Results: Overexpression of cyclin Dl was found in 78 of 110 cases (70.9%). High expression of cyclin D1 showed a significant negative correlation with tumor size (P = 0.023) and tumor grade (P = 0.045). Estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor positive cases showed a significantly positive correlation with cyclin D1 overexpression (P = 0.026 and 0.046, respectively). Interestingly, cyclin D1 positivity showed a strong correlation with the type of surgical procedure performed (P = 0.002). Conclusion: Cyclin D1 overexpression in breast cancer is associated with less aggressive tumoral characteristics. Furthermore, its potential epidemiological role and utility as a prognostic marker have been discussed. PMID:26981504

  4. SOX11 expression is highly specific for mantle cell lymphoma and identifies the cyclin D1-negative subtype

    PubMed Central

    Mozos, Ana; Royo, Cristina; Hartmann, Elena; De Jong, Daphne; Baró, Cristina; Valera, Alexandra; Fu, Kai; Weisenburger, Dennis D.; Delabie, Jan; Chuang, Shih-Sung; Jaffe, Elaine S.; Ruiz-Marcellan, Carmen; Dave, Sandeep; Rimsza, Lisa; Braziel, Rita; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Solé, Francisco; López-Guillermo, Armando; Colomer, Dolors; Staudt, Louis M.; Rosenwald, Andreas; Ott, German; Jares, Pedro; Campo, Elias

    2009-01-01

    Background Cyclin D1-negative mantle cell lymphoma is difficult to distinguish from other small B-cell lymphomas. The clinical and pathological characteristics of patients with this form of lymphoma have not been well defined. Overexpression of the transcription factor SOX11 has been observed in conventional mantle cell lymphoma. The aim of this study was to determine whether this gene is expressed in cyclin D1-negative mantle cell lymphoma and whether its detection may be useful to identify these tumors. Design and Methods The microarray database of 238 mature B-cell neoplasms was re-examined. SOX11 protein expression was investigated immunohistochemically in 12 cases of cyclin D1-negative mantle cell lymphoma, 54 cases of conventional mantle cell lymphoma, and 209 additional lymphoid neoplasms. Results SOX11 mRNA was highly expressed in conventional and cyclin D1-negative mantle cell lymphoma and in 33% of the cases of Burkitt’s lymphoma but not in any other mature lymphoid neoplasm. SOX11 nuclear protein was detected in 50 cases (93%) of conventional mantle cell lymphoma and also in the 12 cyclin D1-negative cases of mantle cell lymphoma, the six cases of lymphoblastic lymphomas, in two of eight cases of Burkitt’s lymphoma, and in two of three T-prolymphocytic leukemias but was negative in the remaining lymphoid neoplasms. Cyclin D2 and D3 mRNA levels were significantly higher in cyclin D1-negative mantle cell lymphoma than in conventional mantle cell lymphoma but the protein expression was not discriminative. The clinico-pathological features and outcomes of the patients with cyclin D1-negative mantle cell lymphoma identified by SOX11 expression were similar to those of patients with conventional mantle cell lymphoma. Conclusions SOX11 mRNA and nuclear protein expression is a highly specific marker for both cyclin D1-positive and negative mantle cell lymphoma. PMID:19880778

  5. Detection of cyclin D1 mRNA by hybridization sensitive NIC-oligonucleotide probe.

    PubMed

    Kovaliov, Marina; Segal, Meirav; Kafri, Pinhas; Yavin, Eylon; Shav-Tal, Yaron; Fischer, Bilha

    2014-05-01

    A large group of fluorescent hybridization probes, includes intercalating dyes for example thiazole orange (TO). Usually TO is coupled to nucleic acids post-synthetically which severely limits its use. Here, we have developed a phosphoramidite monomer, 10, and prepared a 2'-OMe-RNA probe, labeled with 5-(trans-N-hexen-1-yl-)-TO-2'-deoxy-uridine nucleoside, dU(TO), (Nucleoside bearing an Inter-Calating moiety, NIC), for selective mRNA detection. We investigated a series of 15-mer 2'-OMe-RNA probes, targeting the cyclin D1 mRNA, containing one or several dU(TO) at various positions. dU(TO)-2'-OMe-RNA exhibited up to 7-fold enhancement of TO emission intensity upon hybridization with the complementary RNA versus that of the oligomer alone. This NIC-probe was applied for the specific detection of a very small amount of a breast cancer marker, cyclin D1 mRNA, in total RNA extract from cancerous cells (250 ng/μl). Furthermore, this NIC-probe was found to be superior to our related NIF (Nucleoside with Intrinsic Fluorescence)-probe which could detect cyclin D1 mRNA target only at high concentrations (1840 ng/μl). Additionally, dU(T) can be used as a monomer in solid-phase oligonucleotide synthesis, thus avoiding the need for post-synthetic modification of oligonucleotide probes. Hence, we propose dU(TO) oligonucleotides, as hybridization probes for the detection of specific RNA in homogeneous solutions and for the diagnosis of breast cancer.

  6. Protocatechualdehyde possesses anti-cancer activity through downregulating cyclin D1 and HDAC2 in human colorectal cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Jin Boo; Lee, Seong-Ho

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Protocatechualdehyde (PCA) suppressed cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCA enhanced transcriptional downregulation of cyclin D1 gene. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCA suppressed HDAC2 expression and activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These findings suggest that anti-cancer activity of PCA may be mediated by reducing HDAC2-derived cyclin D1 expression. -- Abstract: Protocatechualdehyde (PCA) is a naturally occurring polyphenol found in barley, green cavendish bananas, and grapevine leaves. Although a few studies reported growth-inhibitory activity of PCA in breast and leukemia cancer cells, the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. Thus, we performed in vitro study to investigate if treatment of PCA affects cell proliferation and apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells and define potential mechanisms by which PCA mediates growth arrest and apoptosis of cancer cells. Exposure of PCA to human colorectal cancer cells (HCT116 and SW480 cells) suppressed cell growth and induced apoptosis in dose-dependent manner. PCA decreased cyclin D1 expression in protein and mRNA level and suppressed luciferase activity of cyclin D1 promoter, indicating transcriptional downregulation of cyclin D1 gene by PCA. We also observed that PCA treatment attenuated enzyme activity of histone deacetylase (HDAC) and reduced expression of HDAC2, but not HDAC1. These findings suggest that cell growth inhibition and apoptosis by PCA may be a result of HDAC2-mediated cyclin D1 suppression.

  7. NF-κB-dependent transcriptional upregulation of cyclin D1 exerts cytoprotection against hypoxic injury upon EGFR activation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-Dong; Xu, Liang; Tang, Kan-Kai; Gong, Fang-Xiao; Liu, Jing-Quan; Ni, Yin; Jiang, Ling-Zhi; Hong, Jun; Han, Fang; Li, Qian; Yang, Xiang-Hong; Sun, Ren-Hua; Mo, Shi-Jing

    2016-09-10

    Apoptosis of neural cells is one of the main pathological features in hypoxic/ischemic brain injury. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) might be a potential therapeutic target for hypoxic/ischemic brain injury since NF-κB has been found to be inactivated after hypoxia exposure, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms of NF-κB inactivation are largely unknown. Here we report that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation prevents neuron-like PC12 cells apoptosis in response to hypoxia via restoring NF-κB-dependent transcriptional upregulation of cyclin D1. Functionally, EGFR activation by EGF stimulation mitigates hypoxia-induced PC12 cells apoptosis in both dose- and time-dependent manner. Of note, EGFR activation elevates IKKβ phosphorylation, increases IκBα ubiquitination, promotes P65 nuclear translocation and recruitment at cyclin D1 gene promoter as well as upregulates cyclin D1 expression. EGFR activation also abrogates the decrease of IKKβ phosphorylation, reduction of IκBα ubiquitination, blockade of P65 nuclear translocation and recruitment at cyclin D1 gene promoter as well as downregulation of cyclin D1 expression induced by hypoxia. Furthermore, NF-κB-dependent upregulation of cyclin D1 is instrumental for the EGFR-mediated cytoprotection against hypoxic apoptosis. In addition, the dephosphorylation of EGFR induced by either EGF siRNA transfection or anti-HB-EGF neutralization antibody treatment enhances hypoxic cytotoxicity, which are attenuated by EGF administration. Our results highlight the essential role of NF-κB-dependent transcriptional upregulation of cyclin D1 in EGFR-mediated cytoprotective effects under hypoxic preconditioning and support further investigation of EGF in clinical trials of patients with hypoxic/ischemic brain injury.

  8. The expression status of TRX, AR, and cyclin D1 correlates with clinicopathological characteristics and ER status in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Weisun; Nie, Weiwei; Zhang, Wenwen; Wang, Yanru; Zhu, Aiyu; Guan, Xiaoxiang

    2016-01-01

    Background The ER signaling pathway plays a critical role in breast cancer. ER signaling pathway-related proteins, such as TRX, AR, and cyclin D1, may have an important function in breast cancer. However, the ways that they influence breast cancer development and progression are still unclear. Patients and methods A total of 101 Chinese female patients diagnosed with invasive ductal breast adenocarcinoma were retrospectively enrolled in the study. The expression levels of TRX, AR, and cyclin D1 were detected by immunohistochemistry and analyzed via correlation with clinicopathological characteristics and the expression status of ER, PR, and HER2. Results The expression status of TRX, AR, and cyclin D1 was not associated with the patient’s age, menopausal status, tumor size, or histological differentiation (P>0.05), but was positively correlated with ER and PR (P<0.001, respectively). Most (66/76, 86.8) TRX-positive patients were also HER2-positive (P=0.003). Of AR- or cyclin D1-positive patients, most had relatively earlier I–II tumor stage (P=0.005 and P=0.047, respectively) and no metastatic lymph node involvement (P=0.008 and P=0.005, respectively). Conclusion TRX was found to be positively correlated with ER and PR expression, whereas it was negatively correlated with HER2 expression. In addition, we found that the positive expression of AR and cyclin D1 was correlated with lower TNM stage and fewer metastatic lymph nodes, and it was more common in ER-positive breast cancer than in the basal-like subtype. This may indicate that AR and cyclin D1 are good predictive and prognostic factors and closely interact with ER signaling pathway. Further studies will be necessary to investigate the response and clinical outcomes of treatment targeting TRX, AR, and cyclin D1. PMID:27499632

  9. Functional, chemical genomic, and super-enhancer screening identify sensitivity to cyclin D1/CDK4 pathway inhibition in Ewing sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Crompton, Brian; Cowley, Glenn; Vazquez, Francisca; Weir, Barbara A.; Tsherniak, Aviad; Parasuraman, Sudha; Kim, Sunkyu; Alexe, Gabriela; Stegmaier, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma is an aggressive bone and soft tissue tumor in children and adolescents, with treatment remaining a clinical challenge. This disease is mediated by somatic chromosomal translocations of the EWS gene and a gene encoding an ETS transcription factor, most commonly, FLI1. While direct targeting of aberrant transcription factors remains a pharmacological challenge, identification of dependencies incurred by EWS/FLI1 expression would offer a new therapeutic avenue. We used a combination of super-enhancer profiling, near-whole genome shRNA-based and small-molecule screening to identify cyclin D1 and CDK4 as Ewing sarcoma-selective dependencies. We revealed that super-enhancers mark Ewing sarcoma specific expression signatures and EWS/FLI1 target genes in human Ewing sarcoma cell lines. Particularly, a super-enhancer regulates cyclin D1 and promotes its expression in Ewing sarcoma. We demonstrated that Ewing sarcoma cells require CDK4 and cyclin D1 for survival and anchorage-independent growth. Additionally, pharmacologic inhibition of CDK4 with selective CDK4/6 inhibitors led to cytostasis and cell death of Ewing sarcoma cell lines in vitro and growth delay in an in vivo Ewing sarcoma xenograft model. These results demonstrated a dependency in Ewing sarcoma on CDK4 and cyclin D1 and support exploration of CDK4/6 inhibitors as a therapeutic approach for patients with this disease. PMID:26337082

  10. Human RAD6 promotes G1-S transition and cell proliferation through upregulation of cyclin D1 expression.

    PubMed

    Cai, Fengfeng; Chen, Ping; Chen, Li; Biskup, Ewelina; Liu, Yan; Chen, Pei-Chao; Chang, Jian-Feng; Jiang, Wenjie; Jing, Yuanya; Chen, Youwei; Jin, Hui; Chen, Su

    2014-01-01

    Protein ubiquitinylation regulates protein stability and activity. RAD6, an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, which that has been substantially biochemically characterized, functions in a number of biologically relevant pathways, including cell cycle progression. In this study, we show that RAD6 promotes the G1-S transition and cell proliferation by regulating the expression of cyclin D1 (CCND1) in human cells. Furthermore, our data indicate that RAD6 influences the transcription of CCND1 by increasing monoubiquitinylation of histone H2B and trimethylation of H3K4 in the CCND1 promoter region. Our study presents, for the first time, an evidence for the function of RAD6 in cell cycle progression and cell proliferation in human cells, raising the possibility that RAD6 could be a new target for molecular diagnosis and prognosis in cancer therapeutics.

  11. Human RAD6 Promotes G1-S Transition and Cell Proliferation through Upregulation of Cyclin D1 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Biskup, Ewelina; Liu, Yan; Chen, Pei-Chao; Chang, Jian-Feng; Jiang, Wenjie; Jing, Yuanya; Chen, Youwei; Jin, Hui; Chen, Su

    2014-01-01

    Protein ubiquitinylation regulates protein stability and activity. RAD6, an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, which that has been substantially biochemically characterized, functions in a number of biologically relevant pathways, including cell cycle progression. In this study, we show that RAD6 promotes the G1-S transition and cell proliferation by regulating the expression of cyclin D1 (CCND1) in human cells. Furthermore, our data indicate that RAD6 influences the transcription of CCND1 by increasing monoubiquitinylation of histone H2B and trimethylation of H3K4 in the CCND1 promoter region. Our study presents, for the first time, an evidence for the function of RAD6 in cell cycle progression and cell proliferation in human cells, raising the possibility that RAD6 could be a new target for molecular diagnosis and prognosis in cancer therapeutics. PMID:25409181

  12. Human RAD6 promotes G1-S transition and cell proliferation through upregulation of cyclin D1 expression.

    PubMed

    Cai, Fengfeng; Chen, Ping; Chen, Li; Biskup, Ewelina; Liu, Yan; Chen, Pei-Chao; Chang, Jian-Feng; Jiang, Wenjie; Jing, Yuanya; Chen, Youwei; Jin, Hui; Chen, Su

    2014-01-01

    Protein ubiquitinylation regulates protein stability and activity. RAD6, an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, which that has been substantially biochemically characterized, functions in a number of biologically relevant pathways, including cell cycle progression. In this study, we show that RAD6 promotes the G1-S transition and cell proliferation by regulating the expression of cyclin D1 (CCND1) in human cells. Furthermore, our data indicate that RAD6 influences the transcription of CCND1 by increasing monoubiquitinylation of histone H2B and trimethylation of H3K4 in the CCND1 promoter region. Our study presents, for the first time, an evidence for the function of RAD6 in cell cycle progression and cell proliferation in human cells, raising the possibility that RAD6 could be a new target for molecular diagnosis and prognosis in cancer therapeutics. PMID:25409181

  13. Crystal Structure of Human Cyclin K, A Positive Regulator of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 9

    SciTech Connect

    Baek,K.; Brown, R.; Birrane, G.; Ladias, J.

    2007-01-01

    K and the closely related cyclins T1, T2a, and T2b interact with cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) forming multiple nuclear complexes, referred to collectively as positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb). Through phosphorylation of the C-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase II largest subunit, distinct P-TEFb species regulate the transcriptional elongation of specific genes that play central roles in human physiology and disease development, including cardiac hypertrophy and human immunodeficiency virus-1 pathogenesis. We have determined the crystal structure of human cyclin K (residues 11-267) at 1.5 {angstrom} resolution, which represents the first atomic structure of a P-TEFb subunit. The cyclin K fold comprises two typical cyclin boxes with two short helices preceding the N-terminal box. A prominent feature of cyclin K is an additional helix (H4a) in the first cyclin box that obstructs the binding pocket for the cell-cycle inhibitor p27{sup Kip1}. Modeling of CDK9 bound to cyclin K provides insights into the structural determinants underlying the formation and regulation of this complex. A homology model of human cyclin T1 generated using the cyclin K structure as a template reveals that the two proteins have similar structures, as expected from their high level of sequence identity. Nevertheless, their CDK9-interacting surfaces display significant structural differences, which could potentially be exploited for the design of cyclin-targeted inhibitors of the CDK9-cyclin K and CDK9-cyclin T1 complexes.

  14. Cyclin D1 and E2F-1 immunoreactivity in bone marrow biopsy specimens of multiple myeloma: relationship to proliferative activity, cytogenetic abnormalities and DNA ploidy.

    PubMed

    Wilson, C S; Butch, A W; Lai, R; Medeiros, L J; Sawyer, J R; Barlogie, B; McCourty, A; Kelly, K; Brynes, R K

    2001-03-01

    Cyclin D1, encoded by the CCND1 gene, is immunohistochemically detectable in up to one-third of cases of multiple myeloma (MM). To examine the mechanism of cyclin D1 overexpression, we compared cyclin D1 immunoreactivity with the results of conventional cytogenetics to determine if the t(11;14)(q13;q32) or other abnormalities of 11q11-14 explained cyclin D1 overexpression. Karyotypic abnormalities were found in 45 out of 67 (67%) MM cases; the t(11;14) was present in seven cases (10%). Additional 11q11-14 abnormalities were not identified. The t(11;14) correlated with cyclin D1 upregulation in low to intermediately proliferative MM, but was not present in highly proliferative tumours (assessed using bromodeoxyuridine labelling index). Cyclin D1 indirectly activates the transcription factor E2F-1. In the bone marrow biopsy specimens of MM cases, E2F-1 was concurrently expressed with cyclin D1 (P = 0.001), indicating that cyclin D1 is functional. However, as neither E2F-1 nor cyclin D1 expression correlated with proliferative activity, the speculation that t(11;14) upregulates the CCND1 gene to induce higher proliferation and possibly more aggressive disease is not supported. We conclude that in low to intermediately proliferative MM cases, cyclin D1 is probably upregulated by t(11;14), but an alternative mechanism is more probable in highly proliferative MM.

  15. Baicalein induces G1 arrest in oral cancer cells by enhancing the degradation of cyclin D1 and activating AhR to decrease Rb phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Ya-Hsin; Li, Lih-Ann; Lin, Pinpin; Cheng, Li-Chuan; Hung, Chein-Hui; Chang, Nai Wen; Lin, Chingju

    2012-09-15

    Baicalein is a flavonoid, known to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. As an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand, baicalein at high concentrations blocks AhR-mediated dioxin toxicity. Because AhR had been reported to play a role in regulating the cell cycle, we suspected that the anti-cancer effect of baicalein is associated with AhR. This study investigated the molecular mechanism involved in the anti-cancer effect of baicalein in oral cancer cells HSC-3, including whether such effect would be AhR-mediated. Results revealed that baicalein inhibited cell proliferation and increased AhR activity in a dose-dependent manner. Cell cycle was arrested at the G1 phase and the expression of CDK4, cyclin D1, and phosphorylated retinoblastoma (pRb) was decreased. When the AhR was suppressed by siRNA, the reduction of pRb was partially reversed, accompanied by a decrease of cell population at G1 phase and an increase at S phase, while the reduction of cyclin D1 and CDK4 did not change. This finding suggests that the baicalein activation of AhR is indeed associated with the reduction of pRb, but is independent of the reduction of cyclin D1 and CDK4. When cells were pre-treated with LiCl, the inhibitor of GSK-3β, the decrease of cyclin D1 was blocked and the reduction of pRb was recovered. The data indicates that in HSC-3 the reduction of pRb is both mediated by baicalein through activation of AhR and facilitation of cyclin D1 degradation, which causes cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase, and results in the inhibition of cell proliferation. -- Highlights: ► Baicalein causes the G1 phase arrest by decreasing Rb phosphorylation. ► Baicalein modulates AhR-mediated cell proliferation. ► Both AhR activation and cyclin D1 degradation results in hypophosphorylation of Rb. ► Baicalein facilitates cyclin D1 degradation by signalling the GSK-3β pathway.

  16. Overexpression of PIN1 Enhances Cancer Growth and Aggressiveness with Cyclin D1 Induction in EBV-Associated Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Meng; Cheung, Chartia Ching-Mei; Chow, Chit; Lun, Samantha Wei-Man; Cheung, Siu-Tim; Lo, Kwok-Wai

    2016-01-01

    Background Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a peculiar Epstein Barr virus (EBV)-associated malignancy that is prevalent in South-East Asia. Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase NIMA-interacting 1 (PIN1) isomerizes specific phosphorylated amino acid residues, which makes it an important regulator in cell survival and apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the contribution made by PIN1 in NPC tumorigenesis and PIN1’s potential role as a therapeutic target. Methods The expression of PIN1 was examined in a panel of NPC cell lines, xenografts and primary tumors. The functional roles of PIN1 in NPC cells were elucidated by the knockdown and overexpression of PIN1 in in vitro and in vivo nude mice models by siRNA and lenti-viral transfection, respectively. The antitumor effects of the PIN1 inhibitor Juglone in NPC cells were also evaluated. Results We revealed the consistent overexpression of PIN1 in almost all EBV-associated NPC cell lines, xenografts and primary tumors. PIN1 suppression was capable of inhibiting cyclin D1 expression and activating caspase-3 in NPC cells. It positively regulated NPC cell proliferation, colony formation and anchorage-independent growth. The inhibition of PIN1 suppressed tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions This study demonstrates the oncogenic role of PIN1 in NPC tumorigenesis, and shows that its overexpression can enhance tumor cell growth via the upregulation of cyclinD1. Our findings inform the development of novel treatments targeting PIN1 for NPC patients. PMID:27258148

  17. DYRK1A-mediated Cyclin D1 Degradation in Neural Stem Cells Contributes to the Neurogenic Cortical Defects in Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Najas, Sònia; Arranz, Juan; Lochhead, Pamela A; Ashford, Anne L; Oxley, David; Delabar, Jean M; Cook, Simon J; Barallobre, María José; Arbonés, Maria L

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in cerebral cortex connectivity lead to intellectual disability and in Down syndrome, this is associated with a deficit in cortical neurons that arises during prenatal development. However, the pathogenic mechanisms that cause this deficit have not yet been defined. Here we show that the human DYRK1A kinase on chromosome 21 tightly regulates the nuclear levels of Cyclin D1 in embryonic cortical stem (radial glia) cells, and that a modest increase in DYRK1A protein in transgenic embryos lengthens the G1 phase in these progenitors. These alterations promote asymmetric proliferative divisions at the expense of neurogenic divisions, producing a deficit in cortical projection neurons that persists in postnatal stages. Moreover, radial glial progenitors in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome have less Cyclin D1, and Dyrk1a is the triplicated gene that causes both early cortical neurogenic defects and decreased nuclear Cyclin D1 levels in this model. These data provide insights into the mechanisms that couple cell cycle regulation and neuron production in cortical neural stem cells, emphasizing that the deleterious effect of DYRK1A triplication in the formation of the cerebral cortex begins at the onset of neurogenesis, which is relevant to the search for early therapeutic interventions in Down syndrome. PMID:26137553

  18. The Role of EGFR/PI3K/Akt/cyclinD1 Signaling Pathway in Acquired Middle Ear Cholesteatoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Ren, Hongmiao; Ren, Jihao; Yin, Tuanfang; Hu, Bing; Xie, Shumin; Dai, Yinghuan; Wu, Weijing; Xiao, Zian; Yang, Xinming; Xie, Dinghua

    2013-01-01

    Cholesteatoma is a benign keratinizing and hyper proliferative squamous epithelial lesion of the temporal bone. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is one of the most important cytokines which has been shown to play a critical role in cholesteatoma. In this investigation, we studied the effects of EGF on the proliferation of keratinocytes and EGF-mediated signaling pathways underlying the pathogenesis of cholesteatoma. We examined the expressions of phosphorylated EGF receptor (p-EGFR), phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), cyclinD1, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in 40 cholesteatoma samples and 20 samples of normal external auditory canal (EAC) epithelium by immunohistochemical method. Furthermore, in vitro studies were performed to investigate EGF-induced downstream signaling pathways in primary external auditory canal keratinocytes (EACKs). The expressions of p-EGFR, p-Akt, cyclinD1, and PCNA in cholesteatoma epithelium were significantly increased when compared with those of control subjects. We also demonstrated that EGF led to the activation of the EGFR/PI3K/Akt/cyclinD1 signaling pathway, which played a critical role in EGF-induced cell proliferation and cell cycle progression of EACKs. Both EGFR inhibitor AG1478 and PI3K inhibitor wortmannin inhibited the EGF-induced EGFR/PI3K/Akt/cyclinD1 signaling pathway concomitantly with inhibition of cell proliferation and cell cycle progression of EACKs. Taken together, our data suggest that the EGFR/PI3K/Akt/cyclinD1 signaling pathway is active in cholesteatoma and may play a crucial role in cholesteatoma epithelial hyper-proliferation. This study will facilitate the development of potential therapeutic targets for intratympanic drug therapy for cholesteatoma. PMID:24311896

  19. Cyclin D1, a novel molecular marker of minimal residual disease, in metastatic neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Irene Y; Feng, Yi; Vickers, Andrew; Gerald, William; Cheung, Nai-Kong V

    2007-04-01

    Accurate monitoring of minimal residual disease (MRD) is critical for the management of metastatic neuroblastoma (NB). We evaluated cyclin D1 (CCND1), a cell-cycle control gene, as a novel MRD marker of NB. Using quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, we studied CCND1 expression in 133 solid tumors of different histological types, including 39 NB tumors, and examined its potential clinical utility as an early response marker in the bone marrows before and after treatment of 118 stage 4 patients enrolled after induction chemotherapy in an immunotherapy protocol. Based on 40 normal marrow and peripheral blood samples, a CCND1 transcript value greater than the mean + 2 SD was defined as positive. Sensitivity of this assay was one NB cell in 10(6) normal mononuclear cells. CCND1 transcript levels were high in NB, breast cancer, and Ewing family tumors. Among the NB patients evaluated, early (2.5 months from protocol entry) marrow response was strongly associated with both progression-free (P=0.0001) and overall survival (P=0.0006). CCND1 response remained predictive of survival among a subset of 66 patients who had no histological evidence of marrow disease before immunotherapy. We conclude that CCND1 has potential clinical utility as a novel molecular marker of MRD in the bone marrow of patients with metastatic NB.

  20. Dixdc1 targets CyclinD1 and p21 via PI3K pathway activation to promote Schwann cell proliferation after sciatic nerve crush.

    PubMed

    Wu, Weijie; Liu, Qingqing; Liu, Yuxi; Yu, Zhaohui; Wang, Youhua

    2016-09-16

    Dixdc1 (DIX domain containing-1), the mammalian homolog of Ccd1 (Coiled-coil-Dishevelled-Axin1), is a protein containing a coiled-coil domain and a Dishevelled-Axin (DIX) domain. As a novel component of the Wnt pathway, Dixdc1 has been reported to be able to promote neural progenitor proliferation and neuronal differentiation via Wnt/β-catenin signaling. But there still remains something unknown about Dixdc1 distribution and functions in the lesion and regeneration of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), so we tried to investigate dynamic changes of Dixdc1 expression in a rat sciatic nerve crush (SNC) model in this study. First of all, we detected SNC-induced increased levels of Dixdc1 in Schwann cells and interestingly identified parallel expression of PCNA (proliferation cell nuclear antigen) with Dixdc1. Besides, we observed up-regulated Dixdc1 during the process of TNF-α-induced Schwann cell proliferation. Also, we discovered that Dixdc1 could promote G1-S phase transition accompanied with the up-regulation of CyclinD1 and down-regulation of p21. More importantly, enhanced effects of Dixdc1 on cell proliferation were confirmed to be associated with PI3K activation. Not only blocking of the PI3K but Dixdc1 knockdown led to significantly decreased ability for proliferation, as well as down-regulation of CyclinD1 and up-regulation of p21. In summary, these data demonstrated that Dixdc1 might participate in Schwann cell proliferation by targeting CyclinD1 and p21 at least partially through the PI3K/AKT activation. PMID:27521891

  1. Regulation of cyclin E stability in Xenopus laevis embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt-(Webb), Yekaterina

    Cyclin-Cdk complexes positively regulate cell cycle progression. Cyclins are regulatory subunits that bind to and activate cyclin-dependent kinases or Cdks. Cyclin E associates with Cdk2 to mediate G1/S phase transition of the cell cycle. Cyclin E is overexpressed in breast, lung, skin, gastrointestinal, cervical, and ovarian cancers. Its overexpression correlates with poor patient prognosis and is involved in the etiology of breast cancer. We have been studying how this protein is downregulated during development in order to determine if these mechanisms are disrupted during tumorigenesis, leading to its overexpression. Using Xenopus laevis embryos as a model, we have shown previously that during the first 12 embryonic cell cycles Cyclin E levels remain constant yet Cdk2 activity oscillates twice per cell cycle. Cyclin E is abruptly destabilized by an undefined mechanism after the 12th cell cycle, which corresponds to the midblastula transition (MBT). Based on work our work and work by others, we have hypothesized that differential phosphorylation and a change in localization result in Cyclin E degradation by the 26S proteasome at the MBT. To test this, we generated a series of point mutations in conserved threonine/serine residues implicated in degradation of human Cyclin E. Using Western blot analysis, we show that similarly to human Cyclin E, mutation of these residues to unphosphorylatable alanine stabilizes Cyclin E past the MBT when they are expressed in vivo. Cyclin E localization was studied by immunofluorescence analysis of endogenous and exogenous protein in pre-MBT, MBT, and post-MBT embryos. In addition, we developed a novel method of conjugating recombinant His6-tagged Cyclin E to fluorescent (CdSe)ZnS nanoparticles (quantum dots) capped with dihydrolipoic acid. Confocal microscopy was used to visualize His6Cyclin E-quantum dot complexes inside embryo cells in real time. We found that re-localization at the MBT from the cytoplasm to the nucleus

  2. Association of cyclin D1 genotype with breast cancer risk and survival.

    PubMed

    Shu, Xiao Ou; Moore, Derek B; Cai, Qiuyin; Cheng, Jiarong; Wen, Wanqing; Pierce, Larry; Cai, Hui; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2005-01-01

    Cyclin D1 (CCND1) is a key cell cycle regulatory protein that governs cell cycle progression from the G(1) to S phase. A common polymorphism (A870G) in exon 4 of the CCND1 gene produces an alternate transcript (transcript-b) that preferentially encodes a protein with enhanced cell transformation activity and possible prolonged half-life. We evaluated the association of CCND1 A870G polymorphism with breast cancer risk and survival in 1,130 breast cancer cases and 1,196 controls who participated in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study. Approximately 81% of cases and 79% of controls carried the A allele at A870G of the CCND1 gene [odds ratio, 1.1; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.9-1.4]. As lightly stronger but nonsignificant association was found for the A allele among younger women (odds ratio, 1.3; 95% CI, 0.9-1.8). However, this polymorphism seems to modify the effect of hormonal exposures on postmenopausal breast cancer, as the positive associations of postmenopausal breast cancer with body mass index (Pfor interaction = 0.02) and waist-to-hip ratios (P for interaction < 0.03; all Ps are two sided) were only observed among women who carry the A allele at A870G of the CCND1 gene. Following up with this cohort of patients for an average of 4.84 years, we found that the CCND1 A870G polymorphism was inversely associated with overall and disease-free survival, particularly among women with late stage or estrogen/progesterone receptor-negative breast cancer. The adjusted hazard ratios for disease-free survival associated with GA and AA genotypes were 0.94 (95% CI, 0.49-1.82) and 0.41 (95% CI, 0.19-0.91) for tumor-node-metastasis stage III to IV breast cancer, and 0.35 (95% CI, 0.15-0.80) and 0.32 (95% CI, 0.13-0.79) for estrogen/progesterone receptor-negative breast cancer. This study suggests that CCND1 A870G polymorphism may modify the postmenopausal breast cancer risk associated with hormonal exposure and predict survival after breast cancer diagnosis. PMID:15668481

  3. Targeting the AKT/GSK3{beta}/Cyclin D1/Cdk4 Survival Signaling Pathway for Eradication of Tumor Radioresistance Acquired by Fractionated Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Shimura, Tsutomu; Kakuda, Satoshi; Ochiai, Yasushi; Kuwahara, Yoshikazu; Takai, Yoshihiro; Fukumoto, Manabu

    2011-06-01

    Purpose: Radioresistance is a major cause of treatment failure of radiotherapy (RT) in human cancer. We have recently revealed that acquired radioresistance of tumor cells induced by fractionated radiation is attributable to cyclin D1 overexpression as a consequence of the downregulation of GSK3{beta}-dependent cyclin D1 proteolysis mediated by a constitutively activated serine-threonine kinase, AKT. This prompted us to hypothesize that targeting the AKT/GSK3{beta}/cyclin D1 pathway may improve fractionated RT by suppressing acquired radioresistance of tumor cells. Methods and Materials: Two human tumor cell lines with acquired radioresistance were exposed to X-rays after incubation with either an AKT inhibitor, AKT/PKB signaling inhibitor-2 (API-2), or a Cdk4 inhibitor (Cdk4-I). Cells were then subjected to immunoblotting, clonogenic survival assay, cell growth analysis, and cell death analysis with TUNEL and annexin V staining. In vivo radiosensitivity was assessed by growth of human tumors xenografted into nude mice. Results: Treatment with API-2 resulted in downregulation of cyclin D1 expression in cells with acquired radioresistance. Cellular radioresistance disappeared completely both in vitro and in vivo with accompanying apoptosis when treated with API-2. Furthermore, inhibition of cyclin D1/Cdk4 by Cdk4-I was sufficient for abolishing radioresistance. Treatment with either API-2 or Cdk4-I was also effective in suppressing resistance to cis-platinum (II)-diamine-dichloride in the cells with acquired radioresistance. Interestingly, the radiosensitizing effect of API-2 was canceled by overexpression of cyclin D1 whereas Cdk4-I was still able to sensitize cells with cyclin D1 overexpression. Conclusion: Cyclin D1/Cdk4 is a critical target of the AKT survival signaling pathway responsible for tumor radioresistance. Targeting the AKT/GSK3{beta}/cyclin D1/Cdk4 pathway would provide a novel approach to improve fractionated RT and would have an impact on tumor

  4. Transforming growth factor beta stabilizes p15INK4B protein, increases p15INK4B-cdk4 complexes, and inhibits cyclin D1-cdk4 association in human mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, C; Garbe, J; Bhattacharya, N; Daksis, J; Pan, C H; Yaswen, P; Koh, J; Slingerland, J M; Stampfer, M R

    1997-01-01

    The effects of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) were studied in closely related human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC), both finite-life-span 184 cells and immortal derivatives, 184A1S, and 184A1L5R, which differ in their cell cycle responses to TGF-beta but express type I and type II TGF-beta receptors and retain TGF-beta induction of extracellular matrix. The arrest-resistant phenotype was not due to loss of cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) inhibitors. TGF-beta was shown to regulate p15INK4B expression at at least two levels: mRNA accumulation and protein stability. In TGF-beta-arrested HMEC, there was not only an increase in p15 mRNA but also a major increase in p5INK4B protein stability. As cdk4- and cdk6-associated p15INK4B increased during TGF-beta arrest of sensitive cells, there was a loss of cyclin D1, p21Cip1, and p27Kip1 from these kinase complexes, and cyclin E-cdk2-associated p27Kip1 increased. In HMEC, p15INK4B complexes did not contain detectable cyclin. p15INK4B from both sensitive and resistant cells could displace in vitro cyclin D1, p21Cip1, and p27Kip1 from cdk4 isolated from sensitive cells. Cyclin D1 could not be displaced from cdk4 in the resistant 184A1L5R cell lysates. Thus, in TGF-beta arrest, p15INK4B may displace already associated cyclin D1 from cdks and prevent new cyclin D1-cdk complexes from forming. Furthermore, p27Kip1 binding shifts from cdk4 to cyclin E-cdk2 during TGF-beta-mediated arrest. The importance of posttranslational regulation of p15INK4B by TGF-beta is underlined by the observation that in TGF-beta-resistant 184A1L5R, although the p15 transcript increased, p15INK4B protein was not stabilized and did not accumulate, and cyclin D1-cdk association and kinase activation were not inhibited. PMID:9111314

  5. A cyclin D1-negative mantle cell lymphoma with an IGL-CCND2 translocation that relapsed with blastoid morphology and aggressive clinical behavior.

    PubMed

    Kurita, Daisuke; Takeuchi, Kengo; Kobayashi, Sumiko; Hojo, Atsuko; Uchino, Yoshihito; Sakagami, Masashi; Ohtake, Shimon; Takahashi, Hiromichi; Miura, Katsuhiro; Iriyama, Noriyoshi; Sugitani, Masahiko; Miyoshi, Hiroaki; Hatta, Yoshihiro; Ohshima, Koichi; Takei, Masami

    2016-10-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a B cell neoplasm characterized by cyclin D1 overexpression; its prognosis is poor, especially when it exhibits a blastoid morphology. Cyclin D1-negative MCL is rare, and its pathogenesis and progression remain unclear. Herein, we describe a cyclin D1-negative, cyclin D2-positive MCL with a CCND2 and immunoglobulin lambda light chain (IGL) translocation. The patient was initially diagnosed with cyclin D1-negative MCL and achieved complete remission via combination chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation. After relapsing, he was diagnosed with a blastoid variant of MCL that showed lymphoid cells with dispersed chromatin and more mitotic figures and higher p53 expression compared with the initial MCL. Despite salvage therapies, the disease became refractory, and the patient died 28 months after initiating chemotherapy. This case demonstrates that blastoid morphology in cyclin D1-negative MCL with IGL-CCND2 translocation indicates progression to a more aggressive neoplasm, similar to cyclin D1-positive MCL.

  6. The Ras oncogene signals centrosome amplification in mammary epithelial cells through cyclin D1/Cdk4 and Nek2

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, X; Shaikh, FY; Harrison, MK; Adon, AM; Trimboli, AJ; Carroll, KA; Sharma, N; Timmers, C; Chodosh, LA; Leone, G; Saavedra, HI

    2010-01-01

    Centrosome amplification (CA) contributes to carcinogenesis by generating aneuploidy. Elevated frequencies of CA in most benign breast lesions and primary tumors suggest a causative role for CA in breast cancers. Clearly, identifying which and how altered signal transduction pathways contribute to CA is crucial to breast cancer control. Although a causative and cooperative role for c-Myc and Ras in mammary tumorigenesis is well documented, their ability to generate CA during mammary tumor initiation remains unexplored. To answer that question, K-RasG12D and c-Myc were induced in mouse mammary glands. Although CA was observed in mammary tumors initiated by c-Myc or K-RasG12D, it was detected only in premalignant mammary lesions expressing K-RasG12D. CA, both in vivo and in vitro, was associated with increased expression of the centrosome-regulatory proteins, cyclin D1 and Nek2. Abolishing the expression of cyclin D1, Cdk4 or Nek2 in MCF10A human mammary epithelial cells expressing H-RasG12V abrogated Ras-induced CA, whereas silencing cyclin E1 or B2 had no effect. Thus, we conclude that CA precedes mammary tumorigenesis, and interfering with centrosome-regulatory targets suppresses CA. PMID:20581865

  7. ATF7 is stabilized during mitosis in a CDK1-dependent manner and contributes to cyclin D1 expression.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, Etienne; Vigneron, Marc; Sibler, Annie-Paule; Oulad-Abdelghani, Mustapha; Chatton, Bruno; Donzeau, Mariel

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor ATF7 undergoes multiple post-translational modifications, each of which has distinct effects upon ATF7 function. Here, we show that ATF7 phosphorylation on residue Thr112 exclusively occurs during mitosis, and that ATF7 is excluded from the condensed chromatin. Both processes are CDK1/cyclin B dependent. Using a transduced neutralizing monoclonal antibody directed against the Thr112 epitope in living cells, we could demonstrate that Thr112 phosphorylation protects endogenous ATF7 protein from degradation, while it has no effect on the displacement of ATF7 from the condensed chromatin. The crucial role of Thr112 phosphorylation in stabilizing ATF7 protein during mitosis was confirmed using phospho-mimetic and phospho-deficient mutants. Finally, silencing ATF7 by CRISPR/Cas9 technology leads to a decrease of cyclin D1 protein expression levels. We propose that mitotic stabilized ATF7 protein re-localizes onto chromatin at the end of telophase and contributes to induce the cyclin D1 gene expression.

  8. Altered cerebellum development and impaired motor coordination in mice lacking the Btg1 gene: Involvement of cyclin D1.

    PubMed

    Ceccarelli, Manuela; Micheli, Laura; D'Andrea, Giorgio; De Bardi, Marco; Scheijen, Blanca; Ciotti, MariaTeresa; Leonardi, Luca; Luvisetto, Siro; Tirone, Felice

    2015-12-01

    Cerebellar granule neurons develop postnatally from cerebellar granule precursors (GCPs), which are located in the external granule layer (EGL) where they massively proliferate. Thereafter, GCPs become postmitotic, migrate inward to form the internal granule layer (IGL), further differentiate and form synapses with Purkinje cell dendrites. We previously showed that the Btg family gene, Tis21/Btg2, is required for normal GCP migration. Here we investigated the role in cerebellar development of the related gene, Btg1, which regulates stem cell quiescence in adult neurogenic niches, and is expressed in the cerebellum. Knockout of Btg1 in mice caused a major increase of the proliferation of the GCPs in the EGL, whose thickness increased, remaining hyperplastic even after postnatal day 14, when the EGL is normally reduced to a few GCP layers. This was accompanied by a slight decrease of differentiation and migration of the GCPs and increase of apoptosis. The GCPs of double Btg1/Tis21-null mice presented combined major defects of proliferation and migration outside the EGL, indicating that each gene plays unique and crucial roles in cerebellar development. Remarkably, these developmental defects lead to a permanent increase of the adult cerebellar volume in Btg1-null and double mutant mice, and to impairment in all mutants, including Tis21-null, of the cerebellum-dependent motor coordination. Gain- and loss-of-function strategies in a GCP cell line revealed that Btg1 regulates the proliferation of GCPs selectively through cyclin D1. Thus, Btg1 plays a critical role for cerebellar maturation and function.

  9. The p-ERK–p-c-Jun–cyclinD1 pathway is involved in proliferation of smooth muscle cells after exposure to cigarette smoke extract

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tianjia; Song, Ting; Ni, Leng; Yang, Genhuan; Song, Xitao; Wu, Lifei; Liu, Bao; Liu, Changwei

    2014-10-24

    Highlights: • Smooth muscle cells proliferated after exposure to cigarette smoke extract. • The p-ERK, p-c-Jun, and cyclinD1 expressions increased in the process. • The p-ERK inhibitor, U0126, can reverse these effects. • The p-ERK → p-c-Jun → cyclinD1 pathway is involved in the process. - Abstract: An epidemiological survey has shown that smoking is closely related to atherosclerosis, in which excessive proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) plays a key role. To investigate the mechanism underlying this unusual smoking-induced proliferation, cigarette smoke extract (CSE), prepared as smoke-bubbled phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), was used to induce effects mimicking those exerted by smoking on SMCs. As assessed by Cell Counting Kit-8 detection (an improved MTT assay), SMC viability increased significantly after exposure to CSE. Western blot analysis demonstrated that p-ERK, p-c-Jun, and cyclinD1 expression increased. When p-ERK was inhibited using U0126 (inhibitor of p-ERK), cell viability decreased and the expression of p-c-Jun and cyclinD1 was reduced accordingly, suggesting that p-ERK functions upstream of p-c-Jun and cyclinD1. When a c-Jun over-expression plasmid was transfected into SMCs, the level of cyclinD1 in these cells increased. Moreover, when c-Jun was knocked down by siRNA, cyclinD1 levels decreased. In conclusion, our findings indicate that the p-ERK–p-c-Jun–cyclinD1 pathway is involved in the excessive proliferation of SMCs exposed to CSE.

  10. Rapamycin inhibits prostate cancer cell growth through cyclin D1 and enhances the cytotoxic efficacy of cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Imrali, Ahmet; Mao, Xueying; Yeste-Velasco, Marc; Shamash, Jonathan; Lu, Yongjie

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in Western men and hormone refractory cancer (HRPC) kills most of the patients. Chemo-resistance is a major obstacle for the treatment of prostate cancer. Platinum-complexes have been used to treat a number of malignancies including prostate cancer. However, it has limited effect to prostate cancer and with significant toxicity at higher doses. In recent years, increasing numbers of new agents targeting cancer specific pathways have become available and with low toxic side-effects. Rapamycin (Sirolimus) is an mTORC1 inhibitor, which inhibits the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway, which is commonly altered in prostate cancer. We determined the expression of cyclin D1 and phosphorylated-mTOR proteins in association with the response to rapamycin in two androgen sensitive (22RV1 and LNCaP) and two androgen independent (DU145 and PC3) prostate cancer cell lines and found that the base-line and changes of cyclin D1 level, but not the expression level of p-mTOR, correlated with rapamycin sensitivity. We evaluated the cell killing effect of combined rapamycin and cisplatin treatment and showed that the combination had a more than additive effect in both androgen dependent and independent prostate cancer cells, which may be partially explained by the reduction of cyclin D1 expression by rapamycin. We also evaluated a range of combined treatment schedules, simultaneously or sequentially and found that continuous rapamycin treatment after a short cisplatin exposure was effective. The clinical application of these findings for prostate cancer treatment should be further investigated. PMID:27648364

  11. Rapamycin inhibits prostate cancer cell growth through cyclin D1 and enhances the cytotoxic efficacy of cisplatin

    PubMed Central

    Imrali, Ahmet; Mao, Xueying; Yeste-Velasco, Marc; Shamash, Jonathan; Lu, Yongjie

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in Western men and hormone refractory cancer (HRPC) kills most of the patients. Chemo-resistance is a major obstacle for the treatment of prostate cancer. Platinum-complexes have been used to treat a number of malignancies including prostate cancer. However, it has limited effect to prostate cancer and with significant toxicity at higher doses. In recent years, increasing numbers of new agents targeting cancer specific pathways have become available and with low toxic side-effects. Rapamycin (Sirolimus) is an mTORC1 inhibitor, which inhibits the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway, which is commonly altered in prostate cancer. We determined the expression of cyclin D1 and phosphorylated-mTOR proteins in association with the response to rapamycin in two androgen sensitive (22RV1 and LNCaP) and two androgen independent (DU145 and PC3) prostate cancer cell lines and found that the base-line and changes of cyclin D1 level, but not the expression level of p-mTOR, correlated with rapamycin sensitivity. We evaluated the cell killing effect of combined rapamycin and cisplatin treatment and showed that the combination had a more than additive effect in both androgen dependent and independent prostate cancer cells, which may be partially explained by the reduction of cyclin D1 expression by rapamycin. We also evaluated a range of combined treatment schedules, simultaneously or sequentially and found that continuous rapamycin treatment after a short cisplatin exposure was effective. The clinical application of these findings for prostate cancer treatment should be further investigated. PMID:27648364

  12. Zebrafish cyclin Dx is required for development of motor neuron progenitors, and its expression is regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor 2α.

    PubMed

    Lien, Huang-Wei; Yuan, Rey-Yue; Chou, Chih-Ming; Chen, Yi-Chung; Hung, Chin-Chun; Hu, Chin-Hwa; Hwang, Sheng-Ping L; Hwang, Pung-Pung; Shen, Chia-Ning; Chen, Chih-Lung; Cheng, Chia-Hsiung; Huang, Chang-Jen

    2016-06-21

    Cyclins play a central role in cell-cycle regulation; in mammals, the D family of cyclins consists of cyclin D1, D2, and D3. In Xenopus, only homologs of cyclins D1 and D2 have been reported, while a novel cyclin, cyclin Dx (ccndx), was found to be required for the maintenance of motor neuron progenitors during embryogenesis. It remains unknown whether zebrafish possess cyclin D3 or cyclin Dx. In this study, we identified a zebrafish ccndx gene encoding a protein which can form a complex with Cdk4. Through whole-mount in situ hybridization, we observed that zccndx mRNA is expressed in the motor neurons of hindbrain and spinal cord during development. Analysis of a 4-kb promoter sequence of the zccndx gene revealed the presence of HRE sites, which can be regulated by HIF2α. Morpholino knockdown of zebrafish Hif2α and cyclin Dx resulted in the abolishment of isl1 and oligo2 expression in the precursors of motor neurons, and also disrupted axon growth. Overexpression of cyclin Dx mRNA in Hif2α morphants partially rescued zccndx expression. Taken together, our data indicate that zebrafish cyclin Dx plays a role in maintaining the precursors of motor neurons.

  13. Zebrafish cyclin Dx is required for development of motor neuron progenitors, and its expression is regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor 2α.

    PubMed

    Lien, Huang-Wei; Yuan, Rey-Yue; Chou, Chih-Ming; Chen, Yi-Chung; Hung, Chin-Chun; Hu, Chin-Hwa; Hwang, Sheng-Ping L; Hwang, Pung-Pung; Shen, Chia-Ning; Chen, Chih-Lung; Cheng, Chia-Hsiung; Huang, Chang-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Cyclins play a central role in cell-cycle regulation; in mammals, the D family of cyclins consists of cyclin D1, D2, and D3. In Xenopus, only homologs of cyclins D1 and D2 have been reported, while a novel cyclin, cyclin Dx (ccndx), was found to be required for the maintenance of motor neuron progenitors during embryogenesis. It remains unknown whether zebrafish possess cyclin D3 or cyclin Dx. In this study, we identified a zebrafish ccndx gene encoding a protein which can form a complex with Cdk4. Through whole-mount in situ hybridization, we observed that zccndx mRNA is expressed in the motor neurons of hindbrain and spinal cord during development. Analysis of a 4-kb promoter sequence of the zccndx gene revealed the presence of HRE sites, which can be regulated by HIF2α. Morpholino knockdown of zebrafish Hif2α and cyclin Dx resulted in the abolishment of isl1 and oligo2 expression in the precursors of motor neurons, and also disrupted axon growth. Overexpression of cyclin Dx mRNA in Hif2α morphants partially rescued zccndx expression. Taken together, our data indicate that zebrafish cyclin Dx plays a role in maintaining the precursors of motor neurons. PMID:27323909

  14. Zebrafish cyclin Dx is required for development of motor neuron progenitors, and its expression is regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor 2α

    PubMed Central

    Lien, Huang-Wei; Yuan, Rey-Yue; Chou, Chih-Ming; Chen, Yi-Chung; Hung, Chin-Chun; Hu, Chin-Hwa; Hwang, Sheng-Ping L.; Hwang, Pung-Pung; Shen, Chia-Ning; Chen, Chih-Lung; Cheng, Chia-Hsiung; Huang, Chang-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Cyclins play a central role in cell-cycle regulation; in mammals, the D family of cyclins consists of cyclin D1, D2, and D3. In Xenopus, only homologs of cyclins D1 and D2 have been reported, while a novel cyclin, cyclin Dx (ccndx), was found to be required for the maintenance of motor neuron progenitors during embryogenesis. It remains unknown whether zebrafish possess cyclin D3 or cyclin Dx. In this study, we identified a zebrafish ccndx gene encoding a protein which can form a complex with Cdk4. Through whole-mount in situ hybridization, we observed that zccndx mRNA is expressed in the motor neurons of hindbrain and spinal cord during development. Analysis of a 4-kb promoter sequence of the zccndx gene revealed the presence of HRE sites, which can be regulated by HIF2α. Morpholino knockdown of zebrafish Hif2α and cyclin Dx resulted in the abolishment of isl1 and oligo2 expression in the precursors of motor neurons, and also disrupted axon growth. Overexpression of cyclin Dx mRNA in Hif2α morphants partially rescued zccndx expression. Taken together, our data indicate that zebrafish cyclin Dx plays a role in maintaining the precursors of motor neurons. PMID:27323909

  15. MicroRNA-520b Inhibits Growth of Hepatoma Cells by Targeting MEKK2 and Cyclin D1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junping; Wang, Tao; Ye, Lihong; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2012-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the deregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) contributes to the tumorigenesis. We previously revealed that microRNA-520b (miR-520b) was involved in the complement attack and migration of breast cancer cells. In this report, we show that miR-520b is an important miRNA in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Our data showed that the expression levels of miR-520b were significantly reduced in clinical HCC tissues and hepatoma cell lines. We observed that the introduction of miR-520b dramatically suppressed the growth of hepatoma cells by colony formation assays, 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation assays and 3-(4,5- dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays. Moreover, ectopic expression of miR-520b was able to inhibit the growth of hepatoma cells in nude mice. Further studies revealed that the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 2 (MEKK2) and cyclin D1 were two of direct target genes of miR-520b. Silencing of MEKK2 or cyclin D1 was able to inhibit the growth of hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo, which is consistent with the effect of miR-520b overexpression on the growth of hepatoma cells. In addition, miR-520b significantly decreased the phosphorylation levels of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK, a downstream effector of MEKK2) or retinoblastoma (p-Rb, a downstream effector of cyclin D1). In conclusion, miR-520b is able to inhibit the growth of hepatoma cells by targeting MEKK2 or cyclin D1 in vitro and in vivo. Our findings provide new insights into the role of miR-520b in the development of HCC, and implicate the potential application of miR-520b in cancer therapy. PMID:22319632

  16. Fangchinoline inhibits cell proliferation via Akt/GSK-3beta/ cyclin D1 signaling and induces apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chang-Dong; Yuan, Cheng-Fu; Bu, You-Quan; Wu, Xiang-Mei; Wan, Jin-Yuan; Zhang, Li; Hu, Ning; Liu, Xian-Jun; Zu, Yong; Liu, Ge-Li; Song, Fang-Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Fangchinoline (Fan) inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in several cancer cell lines. The effects of Fan on cell growth and proliferation in breast cancer cells remain to be elucidated. Here, we show that Fan inhibited cell proliferation in the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line through suppression of the AKT/Gsk- 3beta/cyclin D1 signaling pathway. Furthermore, Fan induced apoptosis by increasing the expression of Bax (relative to Bcl-2), active caspase 3 and cytochrome-c. Fan significantly inhibited cell proliferation of MDA- MB-231 cells in a concentration and time dependent manner as determined by MTT assay. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that Fan treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells resulted in cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase, which correlated with apparent downregulation of both mRNA and protein levels of both PCNA and cyclin D1. Further analysis demonstrated that Fan decreased the phosphorylation of AKT and GSK-3beta. In addition, Fan up-regulated active caspase3, cytochrome-c protein levels and the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, accompanied by apoptosis. Taken together, these results suggest that Fan is a potential natural product for the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:24568493

  17. Coffee Polyphenols Change the Expression of STAT5B and ATF-2 Modifying Cyclin D1 Levels in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Oleaga, Carlota; Ciudad, Carlos J.; Noé, Véronique; Izquierdo-Pulido, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Background. Epidemiological studies suggest that coffee consumption reduces the risk of cancer, but the molecular mechanisms of its chemopreventive effects remain unknown. Objective. To identify differentially expressed genes upon incubation of HT29 colon cancer cells with instant caffeinated coffee (ICC) or caffeic acid (CA) using whole-genome microarrays. Results. ICC incubation of HT29 cells caused the overexpression of 57 genes and the underexpression of 161, while CA incubation induced the overexpression of 12 genes and the underexpression of 32. Using Venn-Diagrams, we built a list of five overexpressed genes and twelve underexpressed genes in common between the two experimental conditions. This list was used to generate a biological association network in which STAT5B and ATF-2 appeared as highly interconnected nodes. STAT5B overexpression was confirmed at the mRNA and protein levels. For ATF-2, the changes in mRNA levels were confirmed for both ICC and CA, whereas the decrease in protein levels was only observed in CA-treated cells. The levels of cyclin D1, a target gene for both STAT5B and ATF-2, were downregulated by CA in colon cancer cells and by ICC and CA in breast cancer cells. Conclusions. Coffee polyphenols are able to affect cyclin D1 expression in cancer cells through the modulation of STAT5B and ATF-2. PMID:22919439

  18. Cyclin D1 silencing suppresses tumorigenicity, impairs DNA double strand break repair and thus radiosensitizes androgen-independent prostate cancer cells to DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Xiaoming; Vetuschi, Antonella; Sferra, Roberta; Casimiro, Mathew C.; Pompili, Simona; Festuccia, Claudio; Colapietro, Alessandro; Gaudio, Eugenio; Di Cesare, Ernesto; Tombolini, Vincenzo; Pestell, Richard G.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with hormone-resistant prostate cancer (PCa) have higher biochemical failure rates following radiation therapy (RT). Cyclin D1 deregulated expression in PCa is associated with a more aggressive disease: however its role in radioresistance has not been determined. Cyclin D1 levels in the androgen-independent PC3 and 22Rv1 PCa cells were stably inhibited by infecting with cyclin D1-shRNA. Tumorigenicity and radiosensitivity were investigated using in vitro and in vivo experimental assays. Cyclin D1 silencing interfered with PCa oncogenic phenotype by inducing growth arrest in the G1 phase of cell cycle and reducing soft agar colony formation, migration, invasion in vitro and tumor formation and neo-angiogenesis in vivo. Depletion of cyclin D1 significantly radiosensitizes PCa cells by increasing the RT-induced DNA damages by affecting the NHEJ and HR pathways responsible of the DNA double-strand break repair. Following treatment of cells with RT the abundance of a biomarker of DNA damage, γ-H2AX, was dramatically increased in sh-cyclin D1 treated cells compared to shRNA control. Concordant with these observations DNA-PKcs-activation and RAD51-accumulation, part of the DNA double-strand break repair machinery, were reduced in shRNA-cyclin D1 treated cells compared to shRNA control. We further demonstrate the physical interaction between CCND1 with activated-ATM, -DNA-PKcs and RAD51 is enhanced by RT. Finally, siRNA-mediated silencing experiments indicated DNA-PKcs and RAD51 are downstream targets of CCND1-mediated PCa cells radioresistance. In summary, these observations suggest that CCND1 is a key mediator of PCa radioresistance and could represent a potential target for radioresistant hormone-resistant PCa. PMID:26689991

  19. Immortalization of Fetal Bovine Colon Epithelial Cells by Expression of Human Cyclin D1, Mutant Cyclin Dependent Kinase 4, and Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase: An In Vitro Model for Bacterial Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Kengo; Kiyono, Tohru; Isogai, Emiko; Masuda, Mizuki; Narita, Moe; Okuno, Katsuya; Koyanagi, Yukako; Fukuda, Tomokazu

    2015-01-01

    Cattle are the economically important animals in human society. They are essential for the production of livestock products such as milk and meats. The production efficiency of livestock products is negatively impacted by infection with zoonotic pathogens. To prevent and control infectious diseases, it is important to understand the interaction between cattle tissue and pathogenic bacteria. In this study, we established an in vitro infection model of an immortalized bovine colon-derived epithelial cell line by transducing the cells with lentiviral vectors containing genes encoding cell cycle regulators cyclin D1, mutant cyclin dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT). The established cell line showed continuous cell proliferation, expression of epithelial markers, and an intact karyotype, indicating that the cells maintained their original nature as colon-derived epithelium. Furthermore, we exposed the established cell line to two strains of Salmonella enterica and EHEC. Interestingly, S. Typhimurium showed higher affinity for the established cell line and invaded the cytoplasm than S. Enteritidis. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that gene expression of Toll-like receptor 1 (TLR1), TLR 2 and TLR 3, whereas TLR 4, 5 and 6 were not detectable in established cells. Our established immortalized colon-derived epithelial cell should be a useful tool for studies evaluating the molecular mechanisms underlying bacterial infection. PMID:26624883

  20. Effects of MEK and DNMT inhibitors on arsenic-treated human uroepithelial cells in relation to Cyclin-D1 and p16.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya-Chun; Hung, Wen-Chun; Chen, Wan-Tzu; Jiang, Wen-Hong; Yu, Hsin-Su; Chai, Chee-Yin

    2011-01-15

    Arsenic compounds are well-known toxic and carcinogenic agents, and they are widely distributed throughout the earth's crust. These compounds are associated with various human malignancies. It has been reported that there is an elevated risk of bladder cancer in an area highly contaminated with arsenic on the southwest coast of Taiwan. However, the underlying mechanisms of arsenic-associated carcinogenesis are still unclear. The cell cycle regulatory proteins are important indicators in control of cell cycle progression. Moreover, the high expression of Cyclin-D1 and loss of p16 has been associated with a worse prognosis in a variety of human cancers. Therefore, we investigated the effect of arsenic on Cyclin-D1 and p16 expression and evaluated the role of the ERK signaling pathway and DNA methylation in arsenic carcinogenesis. Our study results showed that Cyclin-D1 high expression was found in 56.3% (9/16) of urothelial carcinomas (UC) from a blackfoot disease (BFD) area and 6.3% (1/16) of UC from a non-BFD area (p=0.002). The p16 low expression in 81.2% (13/16) of UC from BFD areas was significantly lower than in non-BFD areas (25.0%; 4/16) (p=0.001). In addition, the Cyclin-D1 increased expression but decreased p16 expression in arsenite-treated SV-HUC-1 cells. However, when cells were pretreated with inhibitors (5-aza-CdR or U0126), the effects of arsenite on Cyclin-D1 and p16 expression were suppressed. Finally, these results indicated that Cyclin-D1 and p16 both might play important roles in carcinogenesis as a result of arsenic.

  1. Differentiation-inducing factor-1 induces cyclin D1 degradation through the phosphorylation of Thr{sup 286} in squamous cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, Jun; Takahashi-Yanaga, Fumi . E-mail: yanaga@clipharm.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Miwa, Yoshikazu; Watanabe, Yutaka; Hirata, Masato; Morimoto, Sachio; Shirasuna, Kanemitsu; Sasaguri, Toshiyuki

    2005-11-01

    Differentiation-inducing factors (DIFs) are morphogens which induce cell differentiation in Dictyostelium. We reported that DIF-1 and DIF-3 inhibit proliferation and induce differentiation in mammalian cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of DIF-1 on oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines NA and SAS, well differentiated and poorly differentiated cell lines, respectively. Although DIF-1 did not induce the expression of cell differentiation makers in these cell lines, it inhibited the proliferation of NA and SAS in a dose-dependent manner by restricting the cell cycle in the G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase. DIF-1 induced cyclin D1 degradation, but this effect was prevented by treatment with lithium chloride and SB216763, the inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}). Depletion of endogenous GSK-3{beta} by RNA interference also attenuated the effect of DIF-1 on cyclin D1 degradation. Therefore, we investigated the effect of DIF-1 on GSK-3{beta} and found that DIF-1 dephosphorylated GSK-3{beta} on Ser{sup 9} and induced the nuclear translocation of GSK-3{beta}, suggesting that DIF-1 activated GSK-3{beta}. Then, we examined the effect of DIF-1 on cyclin D1 mutants (Thr286Ala, Thr288Ala, and Thr286/288Ala). We revealed that Thr286Ala and Thr286/288Ala mutants were highly resistant to DIF-1-induced degradation compared with wild-type cyclin D1, indicating that the phosphorylation of Thr{sup 286} was critical for cyclin D1 degradation induced by DIF-1. These results suggest that DIF-1 induces degradation of cyclin D1 through the GSK-3{beta}-mediated phosphorylation of Thr{sup 286}.

  2. High nuclear grade, frequent mitotic activity, cyclin D1 and p53 overexpression are associated with stromal invasion in mammary intracystic papillary carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cunxian; Zhang, Peng; Hao, Jie; Quddus, M Ruhul; Steinhoff, Margaret M; Sung, C James

    2005-01-01

    Stromal invasion is identified with difficulty in routine hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections of core needle biopsy specimens from mammary intracystic papillary carcinomas. The goal of this study was to determine if nuclear grade, mitotic activity, and immunohistochemical stains for p53 and cyclin D1 would assist in differentiating intracystic papillary carcinomas without stromal invasion (ICPC) from tumors with stromal invasion (ICPC-INVA). Eight cases of ICPC and 12 cases of ICPC-INVA were reviewed. Hematoxylin-eosin slides were examined to determine the histologic features. Immunohistochemistry was performed using monoclonal antibodies to human p53 and cyclin D1. Fisher's exact test was used to compare the nuclear grade, mitotic activity, and immunoreactivity between ICPC and ICPC-INVA. High nuclear grade was more often associated with ICPC-INVA than with ICPC, although the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.069). Frequent mitotic activity was associated with ICPC-INVA more than with ICPC (p = 0.0198). All cases of ICPC were negative for either p53 or cyclin D1, whereas 7 of 12 cases (58.3%) of ICPC-INVA were positive for either cyclin D1 alone (3 cases), p53 alone (3 cases), or both cyclin D1 and p53 (1 case) (p = 0.0147). Identical nuclear grade, mitotic activity, and immunostaining patterns were seen in the intracystic and the invasive components, and in the core biopsy and the excision of the same tumor. When any one of the positive indicators (high nuclear grade, frequent mitotic activity, or positive immunostains for cyclin D1 and/or p53) was present, the positive predictive value for stromal invasion was 91.7%. When none of the positive indicators was present, the negative predictive value was 87.5%.

  3. Overexpression of microRNA-95-3p suppresses brain metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma through downregulation of cyclin D1.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Su Jin; Lee, Hye Won; Kim, Hye Ree; Song, Hye Jin; Lee, Dong Heon; Lee, Hong; Shin, Chang Hoon; Joung, Je-Gun; Kim, Duk-Hwan; Joo, Kyeung Min; Kim, Hyeon Ho

    2015-08-21

    Despite great efforts to improve survival rates, the prognosis of lung cancer patients is still very poor, mainly due to high invasiveness. We developed brain metastatic PC14PE6/LvBr4 cells through intracardiac injection of lung adenocarcinoma PC14PE6 cells. Western blot and RT-qPCR analyses revealed that PC14PE6/LvBr4 cells had mesenchymal characteristics and higher invasiveness than PC14PE6 cells. We found that cyclin D1 was upregulated, miR-95-3p was inversely downregulated, and pri-miR-95 and its host gene, ABLIM2, were consistently decreased in PC14PE6/LvBr4 cells. MiR-95-3p suppressed cyclin D1 expression through direct binding to the 3' UTR of cyclin D1 mRNA and suppressed invasiveness, proliferation, and clonogenicity of PC14PE6/LvBr4 cells. Ectopic cyclin D1 reversed miR-95-3p-mediated inhibition of invasiveness and clonogenicity, demonstrating cyclin D1 downregulation is involved in function of miR-95-3p. Using bioluminescence imaging, we found that miR-95-3p suppressed orthotopic tumorigenicity and brain metastasis in vivo and increased overall survival and brain metastasis-free survival. Consistent with in vitro metastatic cells, the levels of miR-95-3p, pri-miR-95, and ABLIM2 mRNA were decreased in brain metastatic tissues compared with lung cancer tissues and higher cyclin D1 expression was involved in poor prognosis. Taken together, our results demonstrate that miR-95-3p is a potential therapeutic target for brain metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma cells.

  4. Down-regulation of SOSTDC1 promotes thyroid cancer cell proliferation via regulating cyclin A2 and cyclin E2

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiaoying; Ke, Weijian; Xu, Lijuan; Liu, Liehua; Xiao, Haipeng; Li, Yanbing

    2015-01-01

    Sclerostin domain containing protein 1 (SOSTDC1) is down-regulated and acts as a tumor suppressor in some kinds of cancers. However, the expression pattern and biological significance of SOSTDC1 in thyroid cancer are largely unknown. We demonstrated that SOSTDC1 was significantly down-regulated in thyroid cancer. Ectopic over-expression of SOSTDC1 inhibited proliferation and induced G1/S arrest in thyroid cancer cells. Moreover, SOSTDC1 over-expression suppressed the growth of tumor xenografts in nude mice. We also found that elevated SOSTDC1 led to inhibition of cyclin A2 and cyclin E2. Together, our results demonstrate that SOSTDC1 is down-regulated in thyroid cancer and might be a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of thyroid cancer. PMID:26378658

  5. Abrogation of p53 by its antisense in MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells increases cyclin D1 via activation of Akt and promotion of cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Chhipa, Rishi Raj; Kumari, Ratna; Upadhyay, Ankur Kumar; Bhat, Manoj Kumar

    2007-11-15

    The p53 protein has been a subject of intense research interest since its discovery as about 50% of human cancers carry p53 mutations. Mutations in the p53 gene are the most frequent genetic lesions in breast cancers suggesting a critical role of p53 in breast cancer development, growth and chemosensitivity. This report describes the derivation and characterization of MCF-7As53, an isogenic cell line derived from MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells in which p53 was abrogated by antisense p53 cDNA. Similar to MCF-7 and simultaneously selected hygromycin resistant MCF-7H cells, MCF-7As53 cells have consistent basal epithelial phenotype, morphology, and estrogen receptor expression levels at normal growth conditions. Present work documents investigation of molecular variations, growth kinetics, and cell cycle related studies in relation to absence of wild-type p53 protein and its transactivation potential as well. Even though wild-type tumor suppressor p53 is an activator of cell growth arrest and apoptosis-mediator genes such as p21, Bax, and GADD45 in MCF-7As53 cells, no alterations in expression levels of these genes were detected. The doubling time of these cells decreased due to depletion of G0/G1 cell phase because of constitutive activation of Akt and increase in cyclin D1 protein levels. This proliferative property was abrogated by wortmannin, an inhibitor of PI3-K/Akt signaling pathway. Therefore this p53 null cell line indicates that p53 is an indispensable component of cellular signaling system which is regulated by caveolin-1 expression, involving Akt activation and increase in cyclin D1, thereby promoting proliferation of breast cancer cells.

  6. The coffee diterpene kahweol suppresses the cell proliferation by inducing cyclin D1 proteasomal degradation via ERK1/2, JNK and GKS3β-dependent threonine-286 phosphorylation in human colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Gwang Hun; Song, Hun Min; Jeong, Jin Boo

    2016-09-01

    Kahweol as a coffee-specific diterpene has been reported to exert anti-cancer properties. However, the mechanism responsible for the anti-cancer effects of kahweol is not fully understood. The main aim of this investigation was to determine the effect of kahweol on cell proliferation and the possible mechanisms in human colorectal cancer cells. Kahweol inhibited markedly the proliferation of human colorectal cancer cell lines such as HCT116, SW480. Kahweol decreased cyclin D1 protein level in HCT116 and SW480 cells. Contrast to protein levels, cyclin D1 mRNA level and promoter activity did not be changed by kahweol treatment. MG132 treatment attenuated kahweol-mediated cyclin D1 downregulation and the half-life of cyclin D1 was decreased in kahweol-treated cells. Kahweol increased phosphorylation of cyclin D1 at threonine-286 and a point mutation of threonine-286 to alanine attenuated cyclin D1 degradation by kahweol. Inhibition of ERK1/2 by PD98059, JNK by SP600125 or GSK3β by LiCl suppressed cyclin D1 phosphorylation and downregulation by kahweol. Furthermore, the inhibition of nuclear export by LMB attenuated cyclin D1 degradation by kahweol. In conclusion, kahweol-mediated cyclin D1 degradation may contribute to the inhibition of the proliferation in human colorectal cancer cells. PMID:27424123

  7. The coffee diterpene kahweol suppresses the cell proliferation by inducing cyclin D1 proteasomal degradation via ERK1/2, JNK and GKS3β-dependent threonine-286 phosphorylation in human colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Gwang Hun; Song, Hun Min; Jeong, Jin Boo

    2016-09-01

    Kahweol as a coffee-specific diterpene has been reported to exert anti-cancer properties. However, the mechanism responsible for the anti-cancer effects of kahweol is not fully understood. The main aim of this investigation was to determine the effect of kahweol on cell proliferation and the possible mechanisms in human colorectal cancer cells. Kahweol inhibited markedly the proliferation of human colorectal cancer cell lines such as HCT116, SW480. Kahweol decreased cyclin D1 protein level in HCT116 and SW480 cells. Contrast to protein levels, cyclin D1 mRNA level and promoter activity did not be changed by kahweol treatment. MG132 treatment attenuated kahweol-mediated cyclin D1 downregulation and the half-life of cyclin D1 was decreased in kahweol-treated cells. Kahweol increased phosphorylation of cyclin D1 at threonine-286 and a point mutation of threonine-286 to alanine attenuated cyclin D1 degradation by kahweol. Inhibition of ERK1/2 by PD98059, JNK by SP600125 or GSK3β by LiCl suppressed cyclin D1 phosphorylation and downregulation by kahweol. Furthermore, the inhibition of nuclear export by LMB attenuated cyclin D1 degradation by kahweol. In conclusion, kahweol-mediated cyclin D1 degradation may contribute to the inhibition of the proliferation in human colorectal cancer cells.

  8. Cyclin D1, p16(INK) (4A) and p27(Kip1) in pancreatic adenocarcinoma: assessing prognostic implications through quantitative image analysis.

    PubMed

    Georgiadou, Despoina; Sergentanis, Theodoros N; Sakellariou, Stratigoula; Filippakis, George M; Zagouri, Flora; Vlachodimitropoulos, Dimitris; Psaltopoulou, Theodora; Lazaris, Andreas C; Patsouris, Efstratios; Zografos, George C

    2014-12-01

    The prognostic significance of cyclin D1, p16(INK) (4A) and p27(Kip1) expression has been documented in several human malignancies; however, their prognostic potential in pancreatic adenocarcinoma is still unclear. This study aimed to assess the correlation of the aforementioned molecules with clinicopathological parameters and prognosis. Sixty patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma underwent surgical resection at a single institution; immunohistochemical staining of the studied markers was quantified by Ιmage analysis system. Cyclin D1 overexpression was positively associated with grade, neural infiltration and vascular invasion, whereas p27 positively correlated with age. Higher cyclin D1 expression indicated poorer survival (adjusted HR = 9.75, 95%CI: 1.48-64.31, p = 0.018, increment: one unit in H-score), whereas a marginal trend toward an association between p16 positivity and improved survival was observed (adjusted HR = 0.58, 95%CI: 0.32-1.05, p = 0.072 regarding positive vs negative cases). No significant association with overall survival was noted regarding p27. In conclusion, cyclin D1 overexpression and possibly p16 loss of expression in pancreatic adenocarcinoma seem to be adverse prognostic factors, whereas p27 expression did not seem to possess such prognostic properties. Further validation of the present findings in studies encompassing larger samples seems to be needed.

  9. The novel agent phospho-glycerol-ibuprofen-amide (MDC-330) inhibits glioblastoma growth in mice: an effect mediated by cyclin D1.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Lauren E; Mattheolabakis, George; Vaeth, Brandon M; LaComb, Joseph F; Wang, Ruixue; Zhi, Jizu; Komninou, Despina; Rigas, Basil; Mackenzie, Gerardo G

    2016-04-01

    Given that glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is associated with poor prognosis, new agents are urgently needed. We developed phospho-glycerol-ibuprofen-amide (PGIA), a novel ibuprofen derivative, and evaluated its safety and efficacy in preclinical models of GBM, and its mechanism of action using human GBM cells and animal tumor models. Furthermore, we explored whether formulating PGIA in polymeric nanoparticles could enhance its levels in the brain. PGIA was 3.7- to 5.1-fold more potent than ibuprofen in suppressing the growth of human GBM cell lines. PGIA 0.75× IC50 inhibited cell proliferation by 91 and 87% in human LN-229 and U87-MG GBM cells, respectively, and induced strong G1/S arrest.In vivo, compared with control, PGIA reduced U118-MG and U87-MG xenograft growth by 77 and 56%, respectively (P< 0.05), and was >2-fold more efficacious than ibuprofen. Normal human astrocytes were resistant to PGIA, indicating selectivity. Mechanistically, PGIA reduced cyclin D1 levels in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in GBM cells and in xenografts. PGIA induced cyclin D1 degradation via the proteasome pathway and induced dephosphorylation of GSK3β, which was required for cyclin D1 turnover. Furthermore, cyclin D1 overexpression rescued GBM cells from the cell growth inhibition by PGIA. Moreover, the formulation of PGIA in poly-(L)-lactic acid poly(ethylene glycol) polymeric nanoparticles improved its pharmacokinetics in mice, delivering PGIA to the brain. PGIA displays strong efficacy against GBM, crosses the blood-brain barrier when properly formulated, reaching the target tissue, and establishes cyclin D1 as an important molecular target. Thus, PGIA merits further evaluation as a potential therapeutic option for GBM.

  10. Differential expression of p16(INK4A) and cyclin D1 in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors: a study of 44 Cases.

    PubMed

    Jour, G; West, K; Ghali, V; Shank, D; Ephrem, G; Wenig, B M

    2013-09-01

    Salivary gland tumors (SGT) are a heterogeneous group of lesions. There is conflicting data concerning the molecular events involving the tumour suppressor retinoblastoma protein (pRb) pathway in these tumors. Few studies examined the alterations in components of the Rb pathway by immunohistochemical (IHC) methods in benign and malignant SGTs. Furthermore, recent evidence implicates human papillomavirus (HPV) in mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) carcinogenesis. The purpose of our study is to examine p16(INK4A) and cyclin D1 expression in a variety of benign and malignant salivary gland tumors, and to investigate p16(INK4A) expression as a surrogate marker for HPV infection in MEC. Our series includes 30 malignant tumors [14 MEC, 6 acinic cell carcinomas (ACC), 5 polymorphous low grade adenocarcinomas (PLGA), 5 (AdCC)] and 14 benign tumors (4 benign cysts, 5 Warthin tumors and 5 pleomorphic adenomas (PA). All cases were tested by IHC for p16(INK4A) and cyclin D1. Testing for HPV wide spectrum (HPV-WS) was performed by in situ hybridization in all MEC cases. Staining intensity was recorded semi quantitatively (on a scale from 0 to 4+). Fisher's exact test and Pearson X2 test with a p < 0.05 were used. Cyclin D1 and p16(INK4A) are expressed similarly in malignant and benign tumors (p = 0.146 and p = 0.543, respectively). None of the MEC cases showed nuclear reactivity for HPV-WS. Statistical analysis showed positive correlation between cyclin D1 and p16(INK4A) expression. Our findings suggest that p16(INK4A) overexpression is likely secondary to cyclin D1 gene upregulation or amplification. Further molecular studies are warranted.

  11. Zona occludens-2 inhibits cyclin D1 expression and cell proliferation and exhibits changes in localization along the cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Tapia, Rocio; Huerta, Miriam; Islas, Socorro; Avila-Flores, Antonia; Lopez-Bayghen, Esther; Weiske, Jörg; Huber, Otmar; González-Mariscal, Lorenza

    2009-02-01

    Here, we have studied the effect of the tight junction protein zona occludens (ZO)-2 on cyclin D1 (CD1) protein expression. CD1 is essential for cell progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle. We have found that in cultures of synchronized Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, ZO-2 inhibits cell proliferation at G0/G1 and decreases CD1 protein level. These effects occur in response to a diminished CD1 translation and an augmented CD1 degradation at the proteosome triggered by ZO-2. ZO-2 overexpression decreases the amount of Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta phosphorylated at Ser9 and represses beta-catenin target gene expression. We have also explored the expression of ZO-2 through the cell cycle and demonstrate that ZO-2 enters the nucleus at the late G1 phase and leaves the nucleus when the cell is in mitosis. These results thus explain why in confluent quiescent epithelia ZO-2 is absent from the nucleus and localizes at the cellular borders, whereas in sparse proliferating cultures ZO-2 is conspicuously present at the nucleus.

  12. Zona Occludens-2 Inhibits Cyclin D1 Expression and Cell Proliferation and Exhibits Changes in Localization along the Cell Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Tapia, Rocio; Huerta, Miriam; Islas, Socorro; Avila-Flores, Antonia; Lopez-Bayghen, Esther; Weiske, Jörg; Huber, Otmar; González-Mariscal, Lorenza

    2009-01-01

    Here, we have studied the effect of the tight junction protein zona occludens (ZO)-2 on cyclin D1 (CD1) protein expression. CD1 is essential for cell progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle. We have found that in cultures of synchronized Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, ZO-2 inhibits cell proliferation at G0/G1 and decreases CD1 protein level. These effects occur in response to a diminished CD1 translation and an augmented CD1 degradation at the proteosome triggered by ZO-2. ZO-2 overexpression decreases the amount of Glycogen synthase kinase-3β phosphorylated at Ser9 and represses β-catenin target gene expression. We have also explored the expression of ZO-2 through the cell cycle and demonstrate that ZO-2 enters the nucleus at the late G1 phase and leaves the nucleus when the cell is in mitosis. These results thus explain why in confluent quiescent epithelia ZO-2 is absent from the nucleus and localizes at the cellular borders, whereas in sparse proliferating cultures ZO-2 is conspicuously present at the nucleus. PMID:19056685

  13. Nonlinear ionizing radiation-induced changes in eye lens cell proliferation, cyclin D1 expression and lens shape

    PubMed Central

    Markiewicz, Ewa; Barnard, Stephen; Haines, Jackie; Coster, Margaret; van Geel, Orry; Wu, Weiju; Richards, Shane; Ainsbury, Elizabeth; Rothkamm, Kai; Bouffler, Simon; Quinlan, Roy A.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated cataract risk after radiation exposure was established soon after the discovery of X-rays in 1895. Today, increased cataract incidence among medical imaging practitioners and after nuclear incidents has highlighted how little is still understood about the biological responses of the lens to low-dose ionizing radiation (IR). Here, we show for the first time that in mice, lens epithelial cells (LECs) in the peripheral region repair DNA double strand breaks (DSB) after exposure to 20 and 100 mGy more slowly compared with circulating blood lymphocytes, as demonstrated by counts of γH2AX foci in cell nuclei. LECs in the central region repaired DSBs faster than either LECs in the lens periphery or lymphocytes. Although DSB markers (γH2AX, 53BP1 and RAD51) in both lens regions showed linear dose responses at the 1 h timepoint, nonlinear responses were observed in lenses for EdU (5-ethynyl-2′-deoxy-uridine) incorporation, cyclin D1 staining and cell density after 24 h at 100 and 250 mGy. After 10 months, the lens aspect ratio was also altered, an indicator of the consequences of the altered cell proliferation and cell density changes. A best-fit model demonstrated a dose-response peak at 500 mGy. These data identify specific nonlinear biological responses to low (less than 1000 mGy) dose IR-induced DNA damage in the lens epithelium. PMID:25924630

  14. Overexpression of Reg3alpha increases cell growth and the levels of cyclin D1 and CDK4 in insulinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Cui, Wei; De Jesus, Kristine; Zhao, Hong; Takasawa, Shin; Shi, Bingyin; Srikant, Coimbatore B; Liu, Jun-Li

    2009-06-01

    Regenerating gene (Reg) family protein Reg3alpha is normally expressed in pancreatic acinar and endocrine cells. In order to explore its effect on islet beta-cell replication, insulinoma MIN6 cells were stably transfected with murine Reg3alpha cDNA. Determined using real-time PCR and Western blots, the levels of Reg3alpha mRNA and protein in Reg3alpha-transfected clones were increased 10- and 6-fold, respectively. Western blots also revealed that the protein was released into the culture medium, consistent with an endocrine effect. In MTT cell proliferation assay, Reg3alpha-overexpressing cells exhibited a 2-fold increase in the rate of cell growth. In order to investigate the intracellular mechanism, we studied cell cycle regulatory proteins. In Reg3alpha-expressing cells, we detected 2.2- and 2.5-fold increased levels of cyclin D1 and CDK4, respectively, which paralleled a 1.8-fold increase in the rate of Akt phosphorylation. It is established that beta-cell replication is associated with increased cyclin D1 and CDK4 levels; deficiency in CDK4 or cyclin D2 results in reduced beta-cell mass and diabetes. Our results suggest that Reg3alpha stimulates beta-cell replication, by activating Akt kinase and increasing the levels of cyclin D1/CDK4.

  15. Disruption of transforming growth factor-beta signaling through beta-spectrin ELF leads to hepatocellular cancer through cyclin D1 activation.

    PubMed

    Kitisin, K; Ganesan, N; Tang, Y; Jogunoori, W; Volpe, E A; Kim, S S; Katuri, V; Kallakury, B; Pishvaian, M; Albanese, C; Mendelson, J; Zasloff, M; Rashid, A; Fishbein, T; Evans, S R T; Sidawy, A; Reddy, E P; Mishra, B; Johnson, L B; Shetty, K; Mishra, L

    2007-11-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signaling members, TGF-beta receptor type II (TBRII), Smad2, Smad4 and Smad adaptor, embryonic liver fodrin (ELF), are prominent tumor suppressors in gastrointestinal cancers. Here, we show that 40% of elf(+/-) mice spontaneously develop hepatocellular cancer (HCC) with markedly increased cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4), c-Myc and MDM2 expression. Reduced ELF but not TBRII, or Smad4 was observed in 8 of 9 human HCCs (P<0.017). ELF and TBRII are also markedly decreased in human HCC cell lines SNU-398 and SNU-475. Restoration of ELF and TBRII in SNU-398 cells markedly decreases cyclin D1 as well as hyperphosphorylated-retinoblastoma (hyperphosphorylated-pRb). Thus, we show that TGF-beta signaling and Smad adaptor ELF suppress human hepatocarcinogenesis, potentially through cyclin D1 deregulation. Loss of ELF could serve as a primary event in progression toward a fully transformed phenotype and could hold promise for new therapeutic approaches in human HCCs.

  16. Cyclin Y regulates the proliferation, migration, and invasion of ovarian cancer cells via Wnt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haiyuan; Shi, Honghui; Fan, Qingbo; Sun, Xiangxiu

    2016-08-01

    This study is designated to investigate the roles of cyclin Y (CCNY) and Wnt signaling pathway in regulating ovarian cancer (OC) cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), Western blot, MTT assay, cell scratch, and transwell test were used in our study, and transplanted tumor model was constructed on nude mice. C-Myc, cyclin D1, PFTK1, ki67, OGT, and β-catenin protein expressions in tumor tissues were detected. CCNY was significantly upregulated in OC cell lines and tissues (both P < 0.05); significant association was observed between CCNY expression and clinicopathological stage, lymph node metastasis (LNM) (P < 0.05); and the CCNY expression in stages III to IV was higher than that in stages I to II, and patients with LNM had higher CCNY expression when compared with those in patients without LNM (P < 0.05); expressions of c-Myc, cyclin D, PFTK1, ki67, and OGT were upregulated in OC tissues compared with ovarian benign tissues, suggesting that these expressions were significantly different between the two groups (P < 0.05); CCNY significantly exacerbated proliferation, migration, and invasion of A2780 cells; c-Myc and cyclin D1 protein expressions increased as the expression of CCNY increased (P < 0.001); β-catenin expressions in A2780 cells with over-expression of CCNY were significantly increased in the nucleus, but significantly decreased in the cytoplasm (both P < 0.05); high expressions of CCNY exacerbated the proliferation of A2780 cells in nude mice and significantly increased c-Myc, cyclin D1, PFTK1, ki67, and OGT protein expressions in tumor tissues which were transplanted into nude mice (P < 0.01). CCNY might exacerbate the proliferation, migration, and invasion of OC cells via activating the Wnt signaling pathway. Thus, this study provides a theoretical foundation for the development of therapeutic drugs that are able to cure OC by targeting CCNY. PMID:26831658

  17. MEK2 controls the activation of MKK3/MKK6-p38 axis involved in the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell survival: Correlation with cyclin D1 expression.

    PubMed

    Huth, Hugo W; Albarnaz, Jonas D; Torres, Alice A; Bonjardim, Claudio A; Ropert, Catherine

    2016-09-01

    The Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK1/2 signaling pathway regulates fundamental processes in malignant cells. However, the exact contributions of MEK1 and MEK2 to the development of cancer remain to be established. We studied the effects of MEK small-molecule inhibitors (PD98059 and U0126) and MEK1 and MEK2 knock-down on cell proliferation, apoptosis and MAPK activation. We showed a diminution of cell viability that was associated with a downregulation of cyclin D1 expression and an increase of apoptosis marker in MEK2 silenced cells; by contrast, a slight increase of cell survival was observed in the absence of MEK1 that correlated with an augment of cyclin D1 expression. These data indicate that MEK2 but not MEK1 is essential for MDA-MB-231 cell survival. Importantly, the role of MEK2 in cell survival appeared independent on ERK1/2 phosphorylation since its absence did not alter the level of activated ERK1/2. Indeed, we have reported an unrevealed link between MEK2 and MKK3/MKK6-p38 MAPK axis where MEK2 was essential for the phosphorylation of MKK3/MKK6 and p38 MAPK that directly impacted on cyclin D1 expression. Importantly, the MEK1 inhibitor PD98059, like MEK1 silencing, induced an augment of cyclin D1 expression that correlated with an increase of MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation suggesting that MEK1 may play a regulatory role in these cells. In sum, the crucial role of MEK2 in MDA-MB-231 cell viability and the unknown relationship between MEK2 and MKK3/MKK6-p38 axis here revealed may open new therapeutic strategies for aggressive breast cancer.

  18. Retinoblastoma Protein and MyoD Function Together to Effect the Repression of Fra-1 and in Turn Cyclin D1 during Terminal Cell Cycle Arrest Associated with Myogenesis*

    PubMed Central

    Rajabi, Hasan N.; Takahashi, Chiaki; Ewen, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    The acquisition of skeletal muscle-specific function and terminal cell cycle arrest represent two important features of the myogenic differentiation program. These cellular processes are distinct and can be separated genetically. The lineage-specific transcription factor MyoD and the retinoblastoma protein pRb participate in both of these cellular events. Whether and how MyoD and pRb work together to effect terminal cell cycle arrest is uncertain. To address this question, we focused on cyclin D1, whose stable repression is required for terminal cell cycle arrest and execution of myogenesis. MyoD and pRb are both required for the repression of cyclin D1; their actions, however, were found not to be direct. Rather, they operate to regulate the immediate early gene Fra-1, a critical player in mitogen-dependent induction of cyclin D1. Two conserved MyoD-binding sites were identified in an intronic enhancer of Fra-1 and shown to be required for the stable repression of Fra-1 and, in turn, cyclin D1. Localization of MyoD alone to the intronic enhancer of Fra-1 in the absence of pRb was not sufficient to elicit a block to Fra-1 induction; pRb was also recruited to the intronic enhancer in a MyoD-dependent manner. These observations suggest that MyoD and pRb work together cooperatively at the level of the intronic enhancer of Fra-1 during terminal cell cycle arrest. This work reveals a previously unappreciated link between a lineage-specific transcription factor, a tumor suppressor, and a proto-oncogene in the control of an important facet of myogenic differentiation. PMID:25006242

  19. Quercetin reduces cyclin D1 activity and induces G1 phase arrest in HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, JIN; LI, LU; FANG, LI; XIE, HUA; YAO, WENXIU; ZHOU, XIANG; XIONG, ZHUJUAN; WANG, LI; LI, ZHIXI; LUO, FENG

    2016-01-01

    Quercetin is able to inhibit proliferation of malignant tumor cells; however, the exact mechanism involved in this biological process remains unclear. The current study utilized a quantitative proteomic analysis to explore the antitumor mechanisms of quercetin. The leucine of HepG2 cells treated with quercetin was labeled as d3 by stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC). The isotope peaks of control HepG2 cells were compared with the d3-labeled HepG2 cells by mass spectrometry (MS) to identify significantly altered proteins. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analyses were subsequently employed to verify the results of the MS analysis. A flow cytometry assay was designed to observe the influence of various quercetin treatment concentrations on the cell cycle distribution of HepG2 cells. The results indicated that quercetin is able to substantially inhibit proliferation of HepG2 cells and induce an obvious morphological alteration of cells. According to the MS results, the 70 credibly-changed proteins that were identified may play important roles in multiple cellular processes, including protein synthesis, signaling, cytoskeletal processes and metabolism. Among these functional proteins, the expression of cyclin D1 (CCND1) was found to be significantly decreased. RT-PCR and western blot analyses verified the SILAC-MS results of decreased CCND1 expression. In summary, flow cytometry revealed that quercetin is able to induce G1 phase arrest in HepG2 cells. Based on the aforementioned observations, it is suggested that quercetin exerts antitumor activity in HepG2 cells through multiple pathways, including interfering with CCND1 gene expression to disrupt the cell cycle and proliferation of HepG2 cells. In the future, we aim to explore this effect in vivo. PMID:27347174

  20. Cdk5-mediated inhibition of APC/C-Cdh1 switches on the cyclin D1-Cdk4-pRb pathway causing aberrant S-phase entry of postmitotic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Veas-Pérez de Tudela, Miguel; Maestre, Carolina; Delgado-Esteban, María; Bolaños, Juan P.; Almeida, Angeles

    2015-01-01

    The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that regulates cell cycle progression in proliferating cells. To enter the S-phase, APC/C must be inactivated by phosphorylation of its cofactor, Cdh1. In post-mitotic cells such as neurons APC/C-Cdh1 complex is highly active and responsible for the continuous degradation of mitotic cyclins. However, the specific molecular pathway that determines neuronal cell cycle blockade in post-mitotic neurons is unknown. Here, we show that activation of glutamatergic receptors in rat cortical primary neurons endogenously triggers cyclin-dependent kinase-5 (Cdk5)-mediated phosphorylation of Cdh1 leading to its cytoplasmic accumulation and disassembly from the APC3 core protein, causing APC/C inactivation. Conversely, pharmacological or genetic inhibition of Cdk5 promotes Cdh1 ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Furthermore, we show that Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation and inactivation of Cdh1 leads to p27 depletion, which switches on the cyclin D1-cyclin-dependent kinase-4 (Cdk4)-retinoblastoma protein (pRb) pathway to allow the S-phase entry of neurons. However, neurons do not proceed through the cell cycle and die by apoptosis. These results indicate that APC/C-Cdh1 actively suppresses an aberrant cell cycle entry and death of neurons, highlighting its critical function in neuroprotection. PMID:26658992

  1. Gain of 11q/cyclin D1 overexpression is an essential early step in skin cancer development and causes abnormal tissue organization and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Burnworth, B; Popp, S; Stark, H-J; Steinkraus, V; Bröcker, E B; Hartschuh, W; Birek, C; Boukamp, P

    2006-07-27

    Non-melanoma skin cancers, in particular keratoacanthomas (KAs) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), have become highly frequent tumor types especially in immune-suppressed transplant patients. Nevertheless, little is known about essential genetic changes. As a paradigm of 'early' changes, that is, changes still compatible with tumor regression, we studied KAs by comparative genomic hybridization and show that gain of chromosome 11q is not only one of the most frequent aberration (8/18), but in four tumors also the only aberration. Furthermore, 11q gain correlated with amplification of the cyclin D1 locus (10/14), as determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and overexpression of cyclin D1 protein (25/31), as detected by immunohistochemistry. For unraveling the functional consequence, we overexpressed cyclin D1 in HaCaT skin keratinocytes. These cells only gained little growth advantage in conventional and in organotypic co-cultures. However, although the control vector-transfected cells formed a well-stratified and orderly differentiated epidermis-like epithelium, they showed deregulation of tissue architecture with an altered localization of proliferation and impaired differentiation. The most severe phenotype was seen in a clone that additionally upregulated cdk4 and p21. These cells lacked terminal differentiation, exhibited a more autonomous growth in vitro and in vivo and even formed tumors in two injection sites with a growth pattern resembling that of human KAs. Thus, our results identify 11q13 gain/cyclin D1 overexpression as an important step in KA formation and point to a function that exceeds its known role in proliferation by disrupting tissue organization and thereby allowing abnormal growth.

  2. c-Jun/AP-1 pathway-mediated cyclin D1 expression participates in low dose arsenite-induced transformation in mouse epidermal JB6 Cl41 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Dongyun; Li Jingxia; Gao Jimin; Huang Chuanshu

    2009-02-15

    Arsenic is a well-documented human carcinogen associated with skin carcinogenesis. Our previous work reveals that arsenite exposure is able to induce cell transformation in mouse epidermal cell JB6 Cl41 through the activation of ERK, rather than JNK pathway. Our current studies further evaluate downstream pathway in low dose arsenite-induced cell transformation in JB6 Cl41 cells. Our results showed that treatment of cells with low dose arsenite induced activation of c-Jun/AP-1 pathway, and ectopic expression of dominant negative mutant of c-Jun (TAM67) blocked arsenite-induced transformation. Furthermore, our data indicated that cyclin D1 was an important downstream molecule involved in c-Jun/AP-1-mediated cell transformation upon low dose arsenite exposure, because inhibition of cyclin D1 expression by its specific siRNA in the JB6 Cl41 cells resulted in impairment of anchorage-independent growth of cells induced by low dose arsenite. Collectively, our results demonstrate that c-Jun/AP-1-mediated cyclin D1 expression is at least one of the key events implicated in cell transformation upon low dose arsenite exposure.

  3. MiR-34a Promotes Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells via the RBP2/NOTCH1/CYCLIN D1 Coregulatory Network.

    PubMed

    Fan, Cong; Jia, Lingfei; Zheng, Yunfei; Jin, Chanyuan; Liu, Yunsong; Liu, Hao; Zhou, Yongsheng

    2016-08-01

    MiR-34a was demonstrated to be upregulated during the osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs). Overexpression of miR-34a significantly increased alkaline phosphatase activity, mineralization capacity, and the expression of osteogenesis-associated genes in hASCs in vitro. Enhanced heterotopic bone formation in vivo was also observed upon overexpression of miR-34a in hASCs. Mechanistic investigations revealed that miR-34a inhibited the expression of retinoblastoma binding protein 2 (RBP2) and reduced the luciferase activity of reporter gene construct comprising putative miR-34a binding sites in the 3' UTR of RBP2. Moreover, miR-34a downregulated the expression of NOTCH1 and CYCLIN D1 and upregulated the expression of RUNX2 by targeting RBP2, NOTCH1, and CYCLIN D1. Taken together, our results suggested that miR-34a promotes the osteogenic differentiation of hASCs via the RBP2/NOTCH1/CYCLIN D1 coregulatory network, indicating that miR-34a-targeted therapy could be a valuable approach to promote bone regeneration. PMID:27453008

  4. Association between cyclin D1 G870A polymorphism and hepatocellular carcinoma risk: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Tao; Chen, Jie; Liu, Jun-Jie; Li, Hang; You, Xue-Mei; Wang, Hong-Liang; Zhu, Shao-Liang; Li, Le-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Background Cyclin D1 (CCND1) G870A polymorphism may be associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk, but the results of previous studies were inconsistent. Available evidence was meta-analyzed to assess their potential association. Methods Databases PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Chinese Biomedical Literature database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Google Scholar were systematically searched. Meta-analyses were performed to investigate the association of G870A polymorphism with HCC risk by calculating odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from the data of relevant case–control studies. Results Results of this meta-analysis of six case–control studies involving 1,030 cases and 1,683 controls indicate that G870A polymorphism was not associated with HCC risk in any of the five genetic models tested (recessive model: AA vs GG + AG: OR =1.38, 95% CI =0.95–2.00, P=0.09; dominant model: AG + AA vs GG: OR =1.38, 95% CI =0.87–2.20, P=0.17; homozygous model: AA vs GG: OR =1.60, 95% CI =0.87–2.94, P=0.13; heterozygous model: AG vs GG: OR =1.24, 95% CI =0.86–1.79, P=0.25; allelic model: A vs G: OR =1.30, 95% CI =0.95–1.80, P=0.10). Subgroup analyses according to ethnicity showing marginally significant association between this single nucleotide polymorphism and HCC risk indicate that G870A may be significantly associated with HCC risk in Caucasian populations (recessive model: AA vs GG + AG: OR =2.34, 95% CI =1.60–3.42, P<0.0001; dominant model: AG + AA vs GG: OR =2.44, 95% CI =1.19–4.97, P=0.01; homozygous model: AA vs GG: OR =3.42, 95% CI =1.80–6.50, P=0.0002; allelic model: A vs G: OR =2.06, 95% CI =1.31–3.24, P=0.002), but not in Asian populations. Conclusion Available evidence suggests that no significant association between G870A polymorphism and HCC risk was found in either total populations or Asian populations. However, significant association was found in Caucasian populations. These

  5. Translation initiation of ornithine decarboxylase and nucleocytoplasmic transport of cyclin D1 mRNA are increased in cells overexpressing eukaryotic initiation factor 4E.

    PubMed Central

    Rousseau, D; Kaspar, R; Rosenwald, I; Gehrke, L; Sonenberg, N

    1996-01-01

    The structure of m7GpppN (where N is any nucleotide), termed cap, is present at the 5' end of all eukaryotic cellular mRNAs (except organellar). The eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF-4E) binds to the cap and facilitates the formation of translation initiation complexes. eIF-4E is implicated in control of cell growth, as its overexpression causes malignant transformation of rodent cells and deregulates HeLa cell growth. It was suggested that overexpression of eIF-4E results in the enhanced translation of poorly translated mRNAs that encode growth-promoting proteins. Indeed, enhanced expression of several proteins, including cyclin D1 and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), was documented in eIF-4E-overexpressing NTH 3T3 cells. However, the mechanism underlying this increase has not been elucidated. Here, we studied the mode by which eIF-4E increases the expression of cyclin D1 and ODC. We show that the increase in the amount of cyclin D1 and ODC is directly proportional to the degree of eIF-4E overexpression. Two mechanisms, which are not mutually exclusive, are responsible for the increase. In eIF-4E-overexpressing cells the rate of translation initiation of ODC mRNA was increased inasmuch as the mRNA sedimented with heavier polysomes. For cyclin D1 mRNA, translation initiation was not increased, but rather its amount in the cytoplasm increased, without a significant increase in total mRNA. Whereas, in the parental NIH 3T3 cell line, a large proportion of the cyclin D1 mRNA was confined to the nucleus, in eIF-4E-overexpressing cells the vast majority of the mRNA was present in the cytoplasm. These results indicate that eIF-4E affects directly or indirectly mRNA nucleocytoplasmic transport, in addition to its role in translation initiation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8577715

  6. The Down syndrome-related protein kinase DYRK1A phosphorylates p27Kip1 and Cyclin D1 and induces cell cycle exit and neuronal differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Soppa, Ulf; Schumacher, Julian; Florencio Ortiz, Victoria; Pasqualon, Tobias; Tejedor, Francisco J; Becker, Walter

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental question in neurobiology is how the balance between proliferation and differentiation of neuronal precursors is maintained to ensure that the proper number of brain neurons is generated. Substantial evidence implicates DYRK1A (dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A) as a candidate gene responsible for altered neuronal development and brain abnormalities in Down syndrome. Recent findings support the hypothesis that DYRK1A is involved in cell cycle control. Nonetheless, how DYRK1A contributes to neuronal cell cycle regulation and thereby affects neurogenesis remains poorly understood. In the present study we have investigated the mechanisms by which DYRK1A affects cell cycle regulation and neuronal differentiation in a human cell model, mouse neurons, and mouse brain. Dependent on its kinase activity and correlated with the dosage of overexpression, DYRK1A blocked proliferation of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells within 24 h and arrested the cells in G1 phase. Sustained overexpression of DYRK1A induced G0 cell cycle exit and neuronal differentiation. Furthermore, we provide evidence that DYRK1A modulated protein stability of cell cycle-regulatory proteins. DYRK1A reduced cellular Cyclin D1 levels by phosphorylation on Thr286, which is known to induce proteasomal degradation. In addition, DYRK1A phosphorylated p27Kip1 on Ser10, resulting in protein stabilization. Inhibition of DYRK1A kinase activity reduced p27Kip1 Ser10 phosphorylation in cultured hippocampal neurons and in embryonic mouse brain. In aggregate, these results suggest a novel mechanism by which overexpression of DYRK1A may promote premature neuronal differentiation and contribute to altered brain development in Down syndrome. PMID:24806449

  7. An apolar extract of Critonia morifolia inhibits c-Myc, cyclin D1, Cdc25A, Cdc25B, Cdc25C and Akt and induces apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Unger, Christine; Popescu, Ruxandra; Giessrigl, Benedikt; Rarova, Lucie; Herbacek, Irene; Seelinger, Mareike; Diaz, Rene; Wallnöfer, Bruno; Fritzer-Szekeres, Monika; Szekeres, Thomas; Frisch, Richard; Doležal, Karel; Strnad, Miroslav; De Martin, Rainer; Grusch, Michael; Kopp, Brigitte; Krupitza, Georg

    2012-06-01

    Investigating the bioactivity of traditional medical remedies under the controlled conditions of a laboratory is an option to find additional applications, novel formulations or lead structures for the development of new drugs. The present work analysed the anti‑neoplastic activity of increasing polar extracts of the rainforest plant Critonia morifolia (Asteraceae) that has been successfully used as traditional remedy to treat various inflammatory conditions in the long-lasting medical tradition of the Central American Maya, which was here also confirmed in vitro. The apolar petroleum ether extract exhibited the most potent anti‑proliferative and pro‑apoptotic effects in HL‑60 cells and triggered down-regulation of Cdc25C and cyclin D1 within 30 min followed by the inhibition of c-Myc expression and the onset of caspase-3 activation within 2 h. Subsequent to these very rapid molecular responses Chk2 and H2AX became phosphorylated (γ‑H2AX) after 4 h. Analysis of the cell cycle distribution showed an accumulation of cells in the G2-M phase within 8 h and after 24 h in S-phase. This was temporally paralleled by the down-regulation of Cdc25A, Cdc25B, Wee1 and Akt. Therefore, the attenuation of cell cycle progression in the G2-M phase was consistent with the known role of Chk2 for G2-M arrest and with the role of Cdc25B in S-phase progression. These findings suggest the presence of two distinct active principles in the petroleum ether extract of C. moriflia. These facilitated the strong apoptotic response evidenced by the rapid activation of caspase-3 that was later enforced by the inhibition of the survival kinase Akt. Importantly, the efficient down-regulation of Akt, which is successfully tested in current clinical trials, is a unique property of C. morifolia. PMID:22446629

  8. The Down syndrome-related protein kinase DYRK1A phosphorylates p27(Kip1) and Cyclin D1 and induces cell cycle exit and neuronal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Soppa, Ulf; Schumacher, Julian; Florencio Ortiz, Victoria; Pasqualon, Tobias; Tejedor, Francisco J; Becker, Walter

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental question in neurobiology is how the balance between proliferation and differentiation of neuronal precursors is maintained to ensure that the proper number of brain neurons is generated. Substantial evidence implicates DYRK1A (dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A) as a candidate gene responsible for altered neuronal development and brain abnormalities in Down syndrome. Recent findings support the hypothesis that DYRK1A is involved in cell cycle control. Nonetheless, how DYRK1A contributes to neuronal cell cycle regulation and thereby affects neurogenesis remains poorly understood. In the present study we have investigated the mechanisms by which DYRK1A affects cell cycle regulation and neuronal differentiation in a human cell model, mouse neurons, and mouse brain. Dependent on its kinase activity and correlated with the dosage of overexpression, DYRK1A blocked proliferation of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells within 24 h and arrested the cells in G₁ phase. Sustained overexpression of DYRK1A induced G₀ cell cycle exit and neuronal differentiation. Furthermore, we provide evidence that DYRK1A modulated protein stability of cell cycle-regulatory proteins. DYRK1A reduced cellular Cyclin D1 levels by phosphorylation on Thr286, which is known to induce proteasomal degradation. In addition, DYRK1A phosphorylated p27(Kip1) on Ser10, resulting in protein stabilization. Inhibition of DYRK1A kinase activity reduced p27(Kip1) Ser10 phosphorylation in cultured hippocampal neurons and in embryonic mouse brain. In aggregate, these results suggest a novel mechanism by which overexpression of DYRK1A may promote premature neuronal differentiation and contribute to altered brain development in Down syndrome.

  9. The Down syndrome-related protein kinase DYRK1A phosphorylates p27(Kip1) and Cyclin D1 and induces cell cycle exit and neuronal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Soppa, Ulf; Schumacher, Julian; Florencio Ortiz, Victoria; Pasqualon, Tobias; Tejedor, Francisco J; Becker, Walter

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental question in neurobiology is how the balance between proliferation and differentiation of neuronal precursors is maintained to ensure that the proper number of brain neurons is generated. Substantial evidence implicates DYRK1A (dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A) as a candidate gene responsible for altered neuronal development and brain abnormalities in Down syndrome. Recent findings support the hypothesis that DYRK1A is involved in cell cycle control. Nonetheless, how DYRK1A contributes to neuronal cell cycle regulation and thereby affects neurogenesis remains poorly understood. In the present study we have investigated the mechanisms by which DYRK1A affects cell cycle regulation and neuronal differentiation in a human cell model, mouse neurons, and mouse brain. Dependent on its kinase activity and correlated with the dosage of overexpression, DYRK1A blocked proliferation of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells within 24 h and arrested the cells in G₁ phase. Sustained overexpression of DYRK1A induced G₀ cell cycle exit and neuronal differentiation. Furthermore, we provide evidence that DYRK1A modulated protein stability of cell cycle-regulatory proteins. DYRK1A reduced cellular Cyclin D1 levels by phosphorylation on Thr286, which is known to induce proteasomal degradation. In addition, DYRK1A phosphorylated p27(Kip1) on Ser10, resulting in protein stabilization. Inhibition of DYRK1A kinase activity reduced p27(Kip1) Ser10 phosphorylation in cultured hippocampal neurons and in embryonic mouse brain. In aggregate, these results suggest a novel mechanism by which overexpression of DYRK1A may promote premature neuronal differentiation and contribute to altered brain development in Down syndrome. PMID:24806449

  10. PinX1 suppresses bladder urothelial carcinoma cell proliferation via the inhibition of telomerase activity and p16/cyclin D1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background PIN2/TRF1-interacting telomerase inhibitor1 (PinX1) was recently suggested as a putative tumor suppressor in several types of human cancer, based on its binding to and inhibition of telomerase. Moreover, loss of PinX1 has been detected in many human malignancies. However, the possible involvement of PinX1 and its clinical/prognostic significance in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) are unclear. Methods The PinX1 expression profile was examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), western blotting, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in UCB tissues and adjacent normal urothelial bladder epithelial tissues. PinX1 was overexpressed and silenced in UCB cell lines to determine its role in tumorigenesis, development of UCB, and the possible mechanism. Results PinX1 expression in UCB was significantly down-regulated at both mRNA and protein level as compared with that in normal urothelial bladder epithelial tissues. PinX1 levels were inversely correlated with tumor multiplicity, advanced N classification, high proliferation index (Ki-67), and poor survival (P < 0.05). Moreover, overexpression of PinX1 in UCB cells significantly inhibited cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo, whereas silencing PinX1 dramatically enhanced cell proliferation. Overexpression of PinX1 resulted in G1/S phase arrest and cell growth/proliferation inhibition, while silencing PinX1 led to acceleration of G1/S transition, and cell growth/proliferation promotion by inhibiting/enhancing telomerase activity and via the p16/cyclin D1 pathway. Conclusions These findings suggest that down-regulation of PinX1 play an important role in the tumorigenesis and development of UCB and that the expression of PinX1 as detected by IHC is an independent molecular marker in patients with UCB. PMID:24268029

  11. Co-expressed Cyclin D variants cooperate to regulate proliferation of germline nuclei in a syncytium.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Gunasekaran; Campsteijn, Coen; Thompson, Eric M

    2015-01-01

    The role of the G1-phase Cyclin D-CDK 4/6 regulatory module in linking germline stem cell (GSC) proliferation to nutrition is evolutionarily variable. In invertebrate Drosophila and C. elegans GSC models, G1 is nearly absent and Cyclin E is expressed throughout the cell cycle, whereas vertebrate spermatogonial stem cells have a distinct G1 and Cyclin D1 plays an important role in GSC renewal. In the invertebrate, chordate, Oikopleura, where germline nuclei proliferate asynchronously in a syncytium, we show a distinct G1-phase in which 2 Cyclin D variants are co-expressed. Cyclin Dd, present in both somatic endocycling cells and the germline, localized to germline nuclei during G1 before declining at G1/S. Cyclin Db, restricted to the germline, remained cytoplasmic, co-localizing in foci with the Cyclin-dependent Kinase Inhibitor, CKIa. These foci showed a preferential spatial distribution adjacent to syncytial germline nuclei at G1/S. During nutrient-restricted growth arrest, upregulated CKIa accumulated in arrested somatic endoreduplicative nuclei but did not do so in germline nuclei. In the latter context, Cyclin Dd levels gradually decreased. In contrast, the Cyclin Dbβ splice variant, lacking the Rb-interaction domain and phosphodegron, was specifically upregulated and the number of cytoplasmic foci containing this variant increased. This upregulation was dependent on stress response MAPK p38 signaling. We conclude that under favorable conditions, Cyclin Dbβ-CDK6 sequesters CKIa in the cytoplasm to cooperate with Cyclin Dd-CDK6 in promoting germline nuclear proliferation. Under nutrient-restriction, this sequestration function is enhanced to permit continued, though reduced, cycling of the germline during somatic growth arrest.

  12. Blockade of Rac1 activity induces G1 cell cycle arrest or apoptosis in breast cancer cells through downregulation of cyclin D1, survivin, and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Tatsushi; Zhang, Yaqin; Rivera Rosado, Leslie A; Chen, Junjie; Khan, Tahira; Moon, Sun Young; Zhang, Baolin

    2010-06-01

    Rac1 GTPase regulates a variety of signaling pathways that are implicated in malignant phenotypes. Here, we show that selective inhibition of Rac1 activity by the pharmacologic inhibitor NSC23766 suppressed cell growth in a panel of human breast cancer cell lines, whereas it had little toxicity to normal mammary epithelial cells. NSC23766 elicits its cytotoxicity via two distinct mechanisms in a cell line-dependent manner: induction of G(1) cell cycle arrest in cell lines (MDA-MB-231, MCF7, and T47D) that express retinoblastoma (Rb) protein or apoptosis in Rb-deficient MDA-MB-468 cells. In MDA-MB-231 cells, Rac1 inhibition induced G(1) cell cycle arrest through downregulation of cyclin D1 and subsequent dephosphorylation/inactivation of Rb. By contrast, MDA-MB-468 cells underwent substantial apoptosis that was associated with loss of antiapoptotic proteins survivin and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP). Rac1 knockdown by RNAi interference confirmed the specificity of NSC23766 and requirement for Rac1 in the regulation of cyclin D1, survivin, and XIAP in breast cancer cells. Further, NF-kappaB, but not c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase or p38 pathways, mediates the survival signal from Rac1. Overall, our results indicate that Rac1 plays a central role in breast cancer cell survival through regulation of NF-kappaB-dependent gene products.

  13. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Regulation of Diurnal Transcription in Chlamydomonas

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Frederick R.

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed global transcriptome changes during synchronized cell division in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The Chlamydomonas cell cycle consists of a long G1 phase, followed by an S/M phase with multiple rapid, alternating rounds of DNA replication and segregation. We found that the S/M period is associated with strong induction of ∼2300 genes, many with conserved roles in DNA replication or cell division. Other genes, including many involved in photosynthesis, are reciprocally downregulated in S/M, suggesting a gene expression split correlating with the temporal separation between G1 and S/M. The Chlamydomonas cell cycle is synchronized by light-dark cycles, so in principle, these transcriptional changes could be directly responsive to light or to metabolic cues. Alternatively, cell-cycle-periodic transcription may be directly regulated by cyclin-dependent kinases. To distinguish between these possibilities, we analyzed transcriptional profiles of mutants in the kinases CDKA and CDKB, as well as other mutants with distinct cell cycle blocks. Initial cell-cycle-periodic expression changes are largely CDK independent, but later regulation (induction and repression) is under differential control by CDKA and CDKB. Deviation from the wild-type transcriptional program in diverse cell cycle mutants will be an informative phenotype for further characterization of the Chlamydomonas cell cycle. PMID:26475866

  14. The impact of cyclin D1 mRNA isoforms, morphology and p53 in mantle cell lymphoma: p53 alterations and blastoid morphology are strong predictors of a high proliferation index

    PubMed Central

    Slotta-Huspenina, Julia; Koch, Ina; de Leval, Laurence; Keller, Gisela; Klier, Margit; Bink, Karin; Kremer, Marcus; Raffeld, Mark; Fend, Falko; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia

    2012-01-01

    Background Mantle cell lymphoma is a clinically heterogeneous disease characterized by overexpression of cyclin D1 protein. Blastoid morphology, high proliferation, and secondary genetic aberrations are markers of aggressive behavior. Expression profiling of mantle cell lymphoma revealed that predominance of the 3’UTR-deficient, short cyclin D1 mRNA isoform was associated with high cyclin D1 levels, a high “proliferation signature” and poor prognosis. Design and Methods Sixty-two cases of mantle cell lymphoma were analyzed for cyclin D1 mRNA isoforms and total cyclin D1 levels by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and TP53 alterations were assessed by immunohistochemistry and molecular analysis. Results were correlated with proliferation index and clinical outcome. Results Predominance of the short cyclin D1 mRNA was found in 14 (23%) samples, including four with complete loss of the standard transcript. TP53 alterations were found in 15 (24%) cases. Predominance of 3’UTR-deficient mRNA was significantly associated with high cyclin D1 mRNA levels (P=0.009) and more commonly found in blastoid mantle cell lymphoma (5/11, P=0.060) and cases with a proliferation index of >20% (P=0.026). Both blastoid morphology (11/11, P<0.001) and TP53 alterations (15/15, P<0.001) were significantly correlated with a high proliferation index. A proliferation index of 10% was determined to be a significant threshold for survival in multivariate analysis (P=0.01). Conclusions TP53 alterations are strongly associated with a high proliferation index and aggressive behavior in mantle cell lymphoma. Predominance of the 3’UTR-deficient transcript correlates with higher cyclin D1 levels and may be a secondary contributing factor to high proliferation, but failed to reach prognostic significance in this study. PMID:22315488

  15. Frequent loss of PTEN expression is linked to elevated phosphorylated Akt levels, but not associated with p27 and cyclin D1 expression, in primary epithelial ovarian carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Kurose, K; Zhou, X P; Araki, T; Cannistra, S A; Maher, E R; Eng, C

    2001-06-01

    PTEN (MMAC1/TEP1), a tumor suppressor gene on chromosome subband 10q23.3, is variably mutated and/or deleted in a variety of human cancers. Germline mutations in PTEN, which encode a dual-specificity phosphatase, have been implicated in at least two hamartoma tumor syndromes that exhibit some clinical overlap, Cowden syndrome and Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome. Among several series of ovarian cancers, the frequency of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of markers flanking and within PTEN, is approximately 30 to 50%, and the somatic intragenic PTEN mutation frequency is <10%. In this study, we screened primary adenocarcinomas of the ovary for LOH of polymorphic markers within and flanking the PTEN gene and for intragenic mutations of the PTEN gene and compared them to PTEN expression using immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, we sought to detect the expression of the presumed downstream targets of PTEN, such as P-Akt, p27, and cyclin D1 by immunohistochemistry. LOH at 10q23 was observed in 29 of 64 (45%) cases. Of the 117 samples, 6 somatic intragenic PTEN mutations, 1 germline mutation, and 1 novel polymorphism were found in 7 (6%) patients. Immunostaining of 49 ovarian cancer samples revealed that 13 (27%) were PTEN immunostain-negative, 25 (51%) had reduced staining, and the rest (22%) were PTEN expression-positive. Among the 44 informative tumors assessed for 10q23 LOH and PTEN immunostaining, there was an association between 10q23 LOH and decreased or absent staining (P = 0.0317). Of note, there were five (11%) tumors with neither mutation nor deletion that exhibited no PTEN expression and 10 (25%) others without mutation or deletion but had decreased PTEN expression. Among the 49 tumors available for immunohistochemistry, 28 (57%) showed P-Akt-positive staining, 24 (49%) had decreased p27 staining, and cyclin D1 was overexpressed in 35 (79%) cases. In general, P-Akt expression was inversely correlated with PTEN expression (P = 0.0083). These data suggest that

  16. Immunohistochemical Expression of Cyclin D1, Cytokeratin 20, and Uroplakin III in Proliferative Urinary Bladder Lesions Induced by o-Nitroanisole in Fischer 344/N Rats.

    PubMed

    Willson, C J; Flake, G P; Sills, R C; Kissling, G E; Cesta, M F

    2016-05-01

    o-Nitroanisole is an intermediate in the manufacture of azo dyes. In a National Toxicology Program stop-exposure study,o-nitroanisole induced hyperplasia, papillomas, and papillary carcinomas in the urinary bladder of Fischer 344/N rats.o-Nitroanisole was investigated since occupational or environmental exposure to aniline and azo dyes is a risk factor for urinary bladder cancer in humans. The current study describes the morphology of urinary bladder neoplasms seen in rats with respect to those observed in humans. This study also evaluated immunohistochemical expression of the cell cycle-related proteins cyclin D1 and p53 and the differentiation markers cytokeratin 20 and uroplakin III in hyperplastic (n= 11) and neoplastic (n= 6 papillomas,n= 11 carcinomas) lesions of the urinary bladder epithelium from rats treated with o-nitroanisole and in normal (n= 6) urinary bladders from untreated rats. The tumors observed were more similar to the papillary type rather than the muscle-invasive type of urinary bladder cancer in humans. The preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions observed suggest progression from hyperplasia to papilloma to papillary carcinoma. With neoplastic progression (hyperplasia to papilloma to carcinoma), cyclin D1 immunoreactivity progressively increased in intensity, percentage of cells staining, and distribution. Overexpression of p53 was not found. Cytokeratin 20 staining decreased in superficial cells, while uroplakin III staining increased in intermediate and basal cells with progression from hyperplasia to carcinoma. The results are consistent with increased cell cycle dysregulation or proliferation (cyclin D1), decreased differentiation (cytokeratin 20), and abnormal differentiation (uroplakin III) as lesions progress toward malignancy.

  17. The expression of HER-2/neu (c-erbB2), survivin and cycline D1 in serous ovarian neoplasms: their correlation with clinicopathological variables.

    PubMed

    Turan, Gulay; Usta, Ceyda Sancakli; Usta, Akin; Kanter, Mehmet; Tavli, Lema; Karacan, Meric; Celik, Cetin; Eser, Metin

    2014-12-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most common cause of death among all gynecologic malignancies and a result of complex interaction of multiple oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. The aim of this study was to evaluate expression of HER-2/neu (c-erbB2), survivin and cycline D1 biomarkers in serous ovarian neoplasms and their correlations with clinicopathological variables in serous ovarian cancers. We analyzed pathological specimens of 62 patients with benign (n = 25), borderline (n = 14) and malignant (n = 23) serous ovarian neoplasms. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens. Significantly more immunoreactivity with HER-2/neu was detected in malignant tumors (100 %) compared to borderline (78.6 %) and benign tumors (48 %) (P < 0.01). Survivin expression was significantly higher in malignant tumors (91.3 %) than those found in borderline (71.4 %) and benign tumors (24 %) (P < 0.001). Similarly, higher cyclin D1 expression was observed in malignant tumors (95.6 %) compared to borderline (85.7 %) and benign tumors (48 %) (P < 0.001). Expression of all biomarkers analyzed significantly and gradually increased from benign to borderline and borderline to malignant serous tumors. In terms of clinicopathological variables, only tumor grade was associated with the expression of all biomarkers others exhibited different correlations in serous ovarian cancers. The expressions of HER-2/neu (c-erbB2), survivin and cycline D1 are positively correlated with the malignant potential of serous ovarian neoplasms.

  18. Dosage of Dyrk1a shifts cells within a p21-cyclin D1 signaling map to control the decision to enter the cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Yun; Lin, Jia-Ren; Tsai, Feng-Chiao; Meyer, Tobias

    2013-10-10

    Mammalian cells have a remarkable capacity to compensate for heterozygous gene loss or extra gene copies. One exception is Down syndrome (DS), where a third copy of chromosome 21 mediates neurogenesis defects and lowers the frequency of solid tumors. Here we combine live-cell imaging and single-cell analysis to show that increased dosage of chromosome 21-localized Dyrk1a steeply increases G1 cell cycle duration through direct phosphorylation and degradation of cyclin D1 (CycD1). DS-derived fibroblasts showed analogous cell cycle changes that were reversed by Dyrk1a inhibition. Furthermore, reducing Dyrk1a activity increased CycD1 expression to force a bifurcation, with one subpopulation of cells accelerating proliferation and the other arresting proliferation by costabilizing CycD1 and the CDK inhibitor p21. Thus, dosage of Dyrk1a repositions cells within a p21-CycD1 signaling map, directing each cell to either proliferate or to follow two distinct cell cycle exit pathways characterized by high or low CycD1 and p21 levels. PMID:24119401

  19. Citrus auraptene suppresses cyclin D1 and significantly delays N-methyl nitrosourea induced mammary carcinogenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is a major problem in the United States leading to tens of thousands of deaths each year. Although citrus auraptene suppresses cancer in numerous rodent models, its role in breast cancer prevention previously has not been reported. Thus, our goal was to determine the anticarcinogenic effects of auraptene against breast cancer. Methods The effects of auraptene on cell proliferation of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cells in culture was assessed by measuring metabolism of a substrate to a formazan dye. Dietary effects of auraptene on tumor incidence, multiplicity and latency were studied in the N-methyl nitrosourea (MNU) induced mammary carcinogenesis model in female Sprague Dawley rats. The concentration of auraptene in rat tissues was analyzed by reverse phase HPLC. Cyclin D1 expression in MCF-7 cells and rat tumors was measured by western blot. Results Auraptene (500 ppm) significantly delayed median time to tumor by 39 days compared to the MNU only group (p < 0.05, n = 24–26). Auraptene (10 μM) reduced Insulin like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1, 10 ng/mL)-induced cyclin D1 expression by 40% in MCF-7 cells. In comparison, western blot analysis of rat mammary tumors (n = 10 per group) confirmed that auraptene (500 ppm) significantly reduced (p < 0.05) cyclin D1 expression by 49% compared to the MNU only group. Analysis of rat mammary tissue extract by HPLC with fluorescence detection indicated an average concentration (means ± S.E.) of 1.4 ± 0.5 μM and 1.8 ± 0.3 μM in the normal mammary glands of the auraptene 200 ppm and 500 ppm groups, respectively. The concentration (means ± S.E.) of auraptene in the mammary tumors of the auraptene 200 ppm group was 0.31 ± 0.98 μM. Conclusion Overall, these observations suggest that the predominant effect of auraptene was to delay the development of tumors possibly through the suppression of cyclin D1 expression. These results point to the potential chemopreventive effects of auraptene

  20. Rictor regulates FBXW7-dependent c-Myc and cyclin E degradation in colorectal cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Zheng; Zhou, Yuning; Evers, B. Mark; Wang, Qingding

    2012-02-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rictor associates with FBXW7 to form an E3 complex. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of rictor decreases ubiquitination of c-Myc and cylin E. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of rictor increases protein levels of c-Myc and cylin E. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of rictor induces the degradation of c-Myc and cyclin E proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rictor regulation of c-Myc and cyclin E requires FBXW7. -- Abstract: Rictor (Rapamycin-insensitive companion of mTOR) forms a complex with mTOR and phosphorylates and activates Akt. Activation of Akt induces expression of c-Myc and cyclin E, which are overexpressed in colorectal cancer and play an important role in colorectal cancer cell proliferation. Here, we show that rictor associates with FBXW7 to form an E3 complex participating in the regulation of c-Myc and cyclin E degradation. The Rictor-FBXW7 complex is biochemically distinct from the previously reported mTORC2 and can be immunoprecipitated independently of mTORC2. Moreover, knocking down of rictor in serum-deprived colorectal cancer cells results in the decreased ubiquitination and increased protein levels of c-Myc and cyclin E while overexpression of rictor induces the degradation of c-Myc and cyclin E proteins. Genetic knockout of FBXW7 blunts the effects of rictor, suggesting that rictor regulation of c-Myc and cyclin E requires FBXW7. Our findings identify rictor as an important component of FBXW7 E3 ligase complex participating in the regulation of c-Myc and cyclin E protein ubiquitination and degradation. Importantly, our results suggest that elevated growth factor signaling may contribute to decrease rictor/FBXW7-mediated ubiquitination of c-Myc and cyclin E, thus leading to accumulation of cyclin E and c-Myc in colorectal cancer cells.

  1. Mechanisms and regulation of the degradation of cyclin B.

    PubMed Central

    Hershko, A

    1999-01-01

    The degradation of the cyclin B subunit of protein kinase Cdk1/cyclin B is required for inactivation of the kinase and exit from mitosis. Cyclin B is degraded by the ubiquitin pathway, a system involved in most selective protein degradation in eukaryotic cells. In this pathway, proteins are targeted for degradation by ligation to ubiquitin, a process carried out by the sequential action of three enzymes: the ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1, a ubiquitin-carrier protein E2 and a ubiquitin-protein ligase E3. In the system responsible for cyclin B degradation, the E3-like function is carried out by a large complex called cyclosome or anaphase-promoting complex (APC). In the early embryonic cell cycles, the cyclosome is inactive in the interphase, but becomes active at the end of mitosis. Activation requires phosphorylation of the cyclosome/APC by protein kinase Cdk1/cyclin B. The lag kinetics of cyclosome activation may be explained by Suc1-assisted multiple phosphorylations of partly phosphorylated complex. The presence of a Fizzy/Cdc20-like protein is necessary for maximal activity of the mitotic form of cyclosome/APC in cyclin-ubiquitin ligation. PMID:10582242

  2. Dihydroartemisinin inhibits cell proliferation via AKT/GSK3β/cyclinD1 pathway and induces apoptosis in A549 lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Kui; Li, Juan; Wang, Zhiling

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death in the world. The main types of lung cancer are small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC); non small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) includes squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), adenocarcinoma and large cell carcinoma, Non small cell lung carcinoma accounts for about 80% of the total lung cancer cases. Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in several cancer cell lines. The effects of DHA on cell growth and proliferation in lung cancer cells remain to be elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that DHA inhibited cell proliferation in the A549 lung cancer cell line through suppression of the AKT/Gsk-3β/cyclin D1 signaling pathway. DHA significantly inhibited cell proliferation of A549 cells in a concentration and time dependent manner as determined by MTS assay. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that DHA treatment of A549 cells resulted in cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase, which correlated with apparent downregulation of both mRNA and protein levels of both PCNA and cyclin D1. These results suggest that DHA is a potential natural product for the treatment of lung cancer. PMID:25674233

  3. Inhibition of PHLPP2/cyclin D1 protein translation contributes to the tumor suppressive effect of NFκB2 (p100).

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiawei; Wang, Yulei; Hua, Xiaohui; Xu, Jiheng; Tian, Zhongxian; Jin, Honglei; Li, Jingxia; Wu, Xue-Ru; Huang, Chuanshu

    2016-06-01

    Although the precursor protein of NFκB2 (p100) is thought to act as a tumor suppressor in mammalian cells, the molecular mechanism of its anti-tumor activity is far from clear. Here, we are, for the first time, to report that p100 protein expression was dramatically decreased in bladder cancers of N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)-nitrosamine (BBN)-treated mice and human patients. Knockdown of p100 in cultured human bladder cancer cells promoted anchorage-independent growth accompanied with elevating abundance of cell-cycle-related proteins and accelerated cell-cycle progression. Above effects could be completely reversed by ectopically expression of p100, but not p52. Mechanistically, p100 inhibited Cyclin D1 protein translation by activating the transcription of LARP7 and its hosted miR-302d, which could directly bind to 3'-UTR of cyclin d1 mRNA and inhibited its protein translation. Furthermore, p100 suppressed the expression of PHLPP2 (PH domain and leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatases 2), thus promoting CREB phosphorylation at Ser133 and subsequently leading to miR-302d transcription. Taken together, our studies not only for the first time establish p100 as a key tumor suppressor of bladder cancer growth, but also identify a novel molecular cascade of PHLPP2/CREB/miR-302d that mediates the tumor suppressive function of p100. PMID:27095572

  4. CD99 correlates with low cyclin D1, high topoisomerase 2 status and triple negative molecular phenotype but is prognostically irrelevant in breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Czapiewski, Piotr; Wełnicka-Jaśkiewicz, Marzena; Seroczyńska, Barbara; Skokowski, Jarosław; Sejda, Aleksandra; Szade, Jolanta; Wiewiora, Claudia; Biernat, Wojciech; Żaczek, Anna

    2015-09-01

    CD99 is a protein initially described in the Ewing sarcoma family of tumors, but growing evidence has shown its expression in other tumors of mesenchymal, hematopoietic and even epithelial origin. Some articles report CD99 in metaplastic carcinoma of the breast, a subtype of breast carcinoma (BC) with pronounced epithelial to mesenchymal (EMT) phenotype. Our aim was to analyse the potential relationship between CD99 and selected EMT (vimentin, E-cadherin, Twist) and proliferation markers (Ki-67, c-myc, cyclin D1, topoisomerase 2), molecular subtypes of BC, as well as overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). In a group of 122 cases CD99 membrane expression was seen in 14 (11.5%) cases: strong in 11 (9%) and moderate in 3 (2.5%). Expression of CD99 correlated with low cyclin D1 index, high level of topoisomerase 2 expression and lack of progesterone receptor (PR) but not with EMT characteristics. Additionally, strong expression of CD99 correlated with triple negative molecular BC phenotype. CD99 was prognostically irrelevant for OS and PFS. CD99 correlates with selected proliferative markers and low ER/PR receptor status but not with patients' outcome in BC. Further studies are required to explain precisely its role in molecular pathogenesis of BC. PMID:26619106

  5. Modulations of benzo[a]pyrene-induced DNA adduct, cyclin D1 and PCNA in oral tissue by 1,4-phenylenebis(methylene)selenocyanate

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Kun-Ming; Sacks, Peter G.; Spratt, Thomas E.; Lin, Jyh-Ming; Boyiri, Telih; Schwartz, Joel; Richie, John P.; Calcagnotto, Ana; Das, Arunangshu; Bortner, James; Zhao, Zonglin; Amin, Shantu; Guttenplan, Joseph; El-Bayoumy, Karam

    2009-05-22

    Tobacco smoking is an important cause of human oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Tobacco smoke contains multiple carcinogens include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons typified by benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). Surgery is the conventional treatment approach for SCC, but it remains imperfect. However, chemoprevention is a plausible strategy and we had previously demonstrated that 1,4-phenylenebis(methylene)selenocyanate (p-XSC) significantly inhibited tongue tumors-induced by the synthetic 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (not present in tobacco smoke). In this study, we demonstrated that p-XSC is capable of inhibiting B[a]P-DNA adduct formation, cell proliferation, cyclin D1 expression in human oral cells in vitro. In addition, we showed that dietary p-XSC inhibits B[a]P-DNA adduct formation, cell proliferation and cyclin D1 protein expression in the mouse tongue in vivo. The results of this study are encouraging to further evaluate the chemopreventive efficacy of p-XSC initially against B[a]P-induced tongue tumors in mice and ultimately in the clinic.

  6. Marine steroids as potential anticancer drug candidates: In silico investigation in search of inhibitors of Bcl-2 and CDK-4/Cyclin D1.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Surovi; Kolita, Bhaskor; Dutta, Partha P; Dutta, Deep J; Neipihoi; Nath, Shyamalendu; Bordoloi, Manobjyoti; Quan, Pham Minh; Thuy, Tran Thu; Phuong, Doan Lan; Long, Pham Quoc

    2015-10-01

    Star fishes (Asteroidea) are rich in polar steroids with diverse structural characteristics. The structural modifications of star fish steroids occur at 3β, 4β, 5α, 6α (or β), 7α (or β), 8, 15α (or β) and 16β positions of the steroidal nucleus and in the side chain. Widely found polar steroids in starfishes include polyhydroxysteroids, steroidal sulfates, glycosides, steroid oligoglycosides etc. Bioactivity of these steroids is less studied; only a few reports like antibacterial, cytotoxic activity etc. are available. In continuation of our search for bioactive molecules from natural sources, we undertook in silico screening of steroids from star fishes against Bcl-2 and CDK-4/Cyclin D1 - two important targets of progression and proliferation of cancer cells. We have screened 182 natural steroids from star fishes occurring in different parts of the world and their 282 soft-derivatives by in silico methods. Their physico-chemical properties, drug-likeliness, binding potential with the selected targets, ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, toxicity) were predicted. Further, the results were compared with those of existing steroidal and non steroidal drugs and inhibitors of Bcl-2 and CDK-4/Cyclin D1. The results are promising and unveil that some of these steroids can be potent leads for cancer treatments.

  7. Inhibition of PHLPP2/cyclin D1 protein translation contributes to the tumor suppressive effect of NFκB2 (p100)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiawei; Wang, Yulei; Hua, Xiaohui; Xu, Jiheng; Tian, Zhongxian; Jin, Honglei; Li, Jingxia; Wu, Xue-Ru; Huang, Chuanshu

    2016-01-01

    Although the precursor protein of NFκB2 (p100) is thought to act as a tumor suppressor in mammalian cells, the molecular mechanism of its anti-tumor activity is far from clear. Here, we are, for the first time, to report that p100 protein expression was dramatically decreased in bladder cancers of N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)-nitrosamine (BBN)-treated mice and human patients. Knockdown of p100 in cultured human bladder cancer cells promoted anchorage-independent growth accompanied with elevating abundance of cell-cycle-related proteins and accelerated cell-cycle progression. Above effects could be completely reversed by ectopically expression of p100, but not p52. Mechanistically, p100 inhibited Cyclin D1 protein translation by activating the transcription of LARP7 and its hosted miR-302d, which could directly bind to 3′-UTR of cyclin d1 mRNA and inhibited its protein translation. Furthermore, p100 suppressed the expression of PHLPP2 (PH domain and leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatases 2), thus promoting CREB phosphorylation at Ser133 and subsequently leading to miR-302d transcription. Taken together, our studies not only for the first time establish p100 as a key tumor suppressor of bladder cancer growth, but also identify a novel molecular cascade of PHLPP2/CREB/miR-302d that mediates the tumor suppressive function of p100. PMID:27095572

  8. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species-mediated genomic instability in low-dose irradiated human cells through nuclear retention of cyclin D1.

    PubMed

    Shimura, Tsutomu; Kunugita, Naoki

    2016-06-01

    Mitochondria are associated with various radiation responses, including adaptive responses, mitophagy, the bystander effect, genomic instability, and apoptosis. We recently identified a unique radiation response in the mitochondria of human cells exposed to low-dose long-term fractionated radiation (FR). Such repeated radiation exposure inflicts chronic oxidative stresses on irradiated cells via the continuous release of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decrease in cellular levels of the antioxidant glutathione. ROS-induced oxidative mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage generates mutations upon DNA replication. Therefore, mtDNA mutation and dysfunction can be used as markers to assess the effects of low-dose radiation. In this study, we present an overview of the link between mitochondrial ROS and cell cycle perturbation associated with the genomic instability of low-dose irradiated cells. Excess mitochondrial ROS perturb AKT/cyclin D1 cell cycle signaling via oxidative inactivation of protein phosphatase 2A after low-dose long-term FR. The resulting abnormal nuclear accumulation of cyclin D1 induces genomic instability in low-dose irradiated cells. PMID:27078622

  9. Up-regulation of cyclin E in breast cancer via estrogen receptor pathway.

    PubMed

    Niu, Dehong; Wang, Gang; Wang, Xiuwen

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that cell cycle dysregulation plays an important role in breast cancer. The mechanism, however, is not fully understood. In this study, we aimed to explore whether estrogen and estrogen receptor pathway play a role in the regulation of cell cycle protein cyclin E expression, and whether the expression of cyclin E is associated with breast cancer prognosis. We first examined the level of cyclin E expression in breast cancer by immunohistochemistry. Benign fibroadenoma was used as controls. Next we cultured MCF-7 cells with different concentration of 17β-estradiol or tamoxifen for 48 hours. Then we employ qRT-PCR to determine changes of cyclin E in MCF-7 cells. Cyclin E is overexpressed in breast cancer and its expression is associated with the status of estrogen receptor and lymph node metastasis. After treatment with 17β-estradiol, the gene expression of cyclin E was enhanced, and as the concentration increased, the enhancement increased. After treatment with tamoxifen, the gene expression of cyclin E was inhibited, and as the concentration decreased, the inhibition increased. We demonstrated that estrogen induces, while tamoxifen inhibits cyclin E expression. This indicate that estrogen receptor pathway play a critical role in cell cycle dysregulation in breast cancer.

  10. Protein Kinase D1-Dependent Phosphorylation of Dopamine D1 Receptor Regulates Cocaine-Induced Behavioral Responses

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ning; Su, Ping; Zhang, Ying; Lu, Jie; Xing, Baoming; Kang, Kai; Li, Wenqi; Wang, Yun

    2014-01-01

    The dopamine (DA) D1 receptor (D1R) is critically involved in reward and drug addiction. Phosphorylation-mediated desensitization or internalization of D1R has been extensively investigated. However, the potential for upregulation of D1R function through phosphorylation remains to be determined. Here we report that acute cocaine exposure induces protein kinase D1 (PKD1) activation in the rat striatum, and knockdown of PKD1 in the rat dorsal striatum attenuates cocaine-induced locomotor hyperactivity. Moreover, PKD1-mediated phosphorylation of serine 421 (S421) of D1R promotes surface localization of D1R and enhances downstream extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling in D1R-transfected HEK 293 cells. Importantly, injection of the peptide Tat-S421, an engineered Tat fusion-peptide targeting S421 (Tat-S421), into the rat dorsal striatum inhibits cocaine-induced locomotor hyperactivity and injection of Tat-S421 into the rat hippocampus or the shell of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) also inhibits cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP). However, injection of Tat-S421 into the rat NAc shell does not establish CPP by itself and injection of Tat-S421 into the hippocampus does not influence spatial learning and memory. Thus, targeting S421 of D1R represents a promising strategy for the development of pharmacotherapeutic treatments for drug addiction and other disorders that result from DA imbalances. PMID:24362306

  11. Resolvin D1 and aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 regulate histamine-stimulated conjunctival goblet cell secretion.

    PubMed

    Li, D; Hodges, R R; Jiao, J; Carozza, R B; Shatos, M A; Chiang, N; Serhan, C N; Dartt, D A

    2013-11-01

    Resolution of inflammation is an active process mediated by pro-resolution lipid mediators. As resolvin (Rv) D1 is produced in the cornea, pro-resolution mediators could be effective in regulating inflammatory responses to histamine in allergic conjunctivitis. Two key mediators of resolution are the D-series resolvins RvD1 or aspirin-triggered RvD1 (AT-RvD1). We used cultured conjunctival goblet cells to determine whether histamine actions can be terminated during allergic responses. We found cross-talk between two types of G protein-coupled receptors (GPRs), as RvD1 interacts with its receptor GPR32 to block histamine-stimulated H1 receptor increases in intracellular [Ca(2+)] ([Ca(2+)]i) preventing H1 receptor-mediated responses. In human and rat conjunctival goblet cells, RvD1 and AT-RvD1 each block histamine-stimulated secretion by preventing its increase in [Ca(2+)]i and activation of extracellular regulated-protein kinase (ERK)1/2. We suggest that D-series resolvins regulate histamine responses in the eye and offer new treatment approaches for allergic conjunctivitis or other histamine-dependent pathologies.

  12. Regulation of cyclin D-dependent kinase 4 (cdk4) by cdk4-activating kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Kato, J Y; Matsuoka, M; Strom, D K; Sherr, C J

    1994-01-01

    The accumulation of assembled holoenzymes composed of regulatory D-type cyclins and their catalytic partner, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (cdk4), is rate limiting for progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle in mammalian fibroblasts. Both the synthesis and assembly of D-type cyclins and cdk4 depend upon serum stimulation, but even when both subunits are ectopically overproduced, they do not assemble into complexes in serum-deprived cells. When coexpressed from baculoviral vectors in intact Sf9 insect cells, cdk4 assembles with D-type cyclins to form active protein kinases. In contrast, recombinant D-type cyclin and cdk4 subunits produced in insect cells or in bacteria do not assemble as efficiently into functional holoenzymes when combined in vitro but can be activated in the presence of lysates obtained from proliferating mammalian cells. Assembly of cyclin D-cdk4 complexes in coinfected Sf9 cells facilitates phosphorylation of cdk4 on threonine 172 by a cdk-activating kinase (CAK). Assembly can proceed in the absence of this modification, but cdk4 mutants which cannot be phosphorylated by CAK remain catalytically inactive. Therefore, formation of the cyclin D-cdk4 complex and phosphorylation of the bound catalytic subunit are independently regulated, and in addition to the requirement for CAK activity, serum stimulation is required to promote assembly of the complexes in mammalian cells. Images PMID:8139570

  13. Cell cycle arrest mediated by a pyridopyrimidine is not abrogated by over-expression of Bcl-2 and cyclin D1.

    PubMed

    Soni, R; Chaudhuri, B

    2001-05-01

    Inhibition of cyclin dependent kinases (Cdks) is of pivotal importance in tumor cell biology as these kinases are the drivers of cell proliferation. This inhibition can be achieved either by naturally occurring biological proteins or by small molecule compounds. They cause cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis depending upon the specificity and efficacy of the inhibitor in question. We have reported earlier that specific pyridopyrimidines (novel Cdk inhibitors) cause cell cycle arrest in mink lung epithelial cells and the arrest is abrogated by over-expression of Cdk4. In contrast, we show here that one of these inhibitors effectively maintains cell cycle arrest in a leukemic or a breast cancer cell line even after the respective cells over-express an oncogene, either Bcl-2 or cyclin D1. However, in the leukemic cells, Bcl-2 over-expression suppresses apoptosis induced by the pyridopyrimidine. Thus, novel Cdk inhibitors can prove to be useful chemical genetics tools for understanding the underlying mechanisms of growth arrest and/or apoptosis in normal versus tumor cells. This could also lead to the development of improved inhibitors of cell proliferation.

  14. BRAF inhibitor therapy-associated melanocytic lesions lack the BRAF V600E mutation and show increased levels of cyclin D1 expression.

    PubMed

    Mudaliar, Kumaran; Tetzlaff, Michael T; Duvic, Madeleine; Ciurea, Ana; Hymes, Sharon; Milton, Denái R; Tsai, Kenneth Y; Prieto, Victor G; Torres-Cabala, Carlos A; Curry, Jonathan L

    2016-04-01

    Newly appearing or changing melanocytic lesions (MLs) are a recently reported toxicity of BRAF inhibitor (BRAFi) therapy. Morphologically, MLs associated with BRAFi therapy (BRAFi-MLs) may demonstrate alarming features of melanoma with an epithelioid cell phenotype with notable cytologic atypia. We sought to characterize the clinicopathological and molecular features of BRAFi-MLs. A retrospective review over a 4-year period revealed 20 patients in which 44 MLs (including 11 control nevi) were characterized by histopathology, review of clinical medical records, and immunohistochemical (IHC) studies (with anti-BRAF V600E, anti-BAP1, anti-cyclin D1, and anti-p16); the percentage of IHC+ cells was scored. Of the 20 patients, 3 (15%) whose BRAFi-MLs were biopsied had a second primary cutaneous melanoma. Of the 44 BRAFi-MLs tested, 37 (100%) of 37 MLs available for BRAF V600E testing lacked expression in contrast to 1 (9%) of 11 control nevi (lesions not associated with targeted therapy). A significantly higher level of cyclin D1 expression (>50% IHC+ cells) was more commonly seen in BRAFi-MLs (44%) than in control nevi (9%). No difference in p16 expression in melanocytes was seen between the 2 groups. BRAF mutation status distinctly differs between BRAFi-MLs from melanomas and nevi biopsied in patients who do not receive BRAFi therapy. Morphologically, BRAFi-MLs demonstrate a greater degree of atypia than do control nevi. Furthermore, BRAFi-MLs with coexisting cutaneous keratinocyte toxicity developed during fewer days of targeted therapy. Paradoxical activation of the MAPK pathway in BRAF(WT) melanocytes may account for ~15% to 21% of patients developing a second new primary melanoma within a year of starting BRAFi therapy; thus, close clinical surveillance is warranted.

  15. Toll-Like Receptor 1/2 and 5 Ligands Enhance the Expression of Cyclin D1 and D3 and Induce Proliferation in Mantle Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Mastorci, Katy; Muraro, Elena; Pasini, Elisa; Furlan, Chiara; Sigalotti, Luca; Cinco, Marina; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Fratta, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma with a still undefined etiology. Several lines of evidence are consistent with the possible involvement of peculiar microenvironmental stimuli sustaining tumor cell growth and survival, as the activation of Toll-like receptors (TLR) 4 and 9. However, little is known about the contribution of other TLRs of pathogenic relevance in the development of MCL. This study reports evidence that MCL cell lines and primary MCL cells express different levels of TLR2 and TLR5, and that their triggering is able to further activate the Akt, MAPK, and NF-κB signaling cascades, known to be altered in MCL cells. This leads to the enhancement of cyclin D1 and D3 over-expression, occurring at post-translational level through a mechanism that likely involves the Akt/GSK-3α/β pathway. Interestingly, in primary B cells, TLR1/2 or TLR5 ligands increase protein level of cyclin D1, which is not usually expressed in normal B cells, and cyclin D3 when associated with CD40 ligand (CD40L), IL-4, and anti-human-IgM co-stimulus. Finally, the activation of TLR1/2 and TLR5 results in an increased proliferation of MCL cell lines and, in the presence of co-stimulation with CD40L, IL-4, and anti-human-IgM also of primary MCL cells and normal B lymphocytes. These effects befall together with an enhanced IL-6 production in primary cultures. Overall, our findings suggest that ligands for TLR1/2 or TLR5 may provide critical stimuli able to sustain the growth and the malignant phenotype of MCL cells. Further studies aimed at identifying the natural source of these TLR ligands and their possible pathogenic association with MCL are warranted in order to better understand MCL development, but also to define new therapeutic targets for counteracting the tumor promoting effects of lymphoma microenvironment. PMID:27123851

  16. Expression of Cyclin d1 protein and CCND1 та PNKP genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in clean up worker of Chornobyl accident with different state of immune system.

    PubMed

    Bazyka, D A; Kubashko, A V; Ilyenko, I M; Belyaev, O A; Pleskach, O J

    2015-12-01

    Meta. Doslidyty zminy rivniv Cyclin D1+ klityn ta asotsiyovanykh geniv CCND1 ta PNKP u mononuklearakh peryfe rychnoI krovi v uchasnykiv likvidatsiI naslidkiv avariI (ULNA) na ChAES z riznym imunnym statusom v zalezhnosti vid dozy oprominennia.Materialy i metody. Proanalizovano vidnosnyy riven' Cyclin D1+ klityn u mononuklearakh peryferychnoI krovi 39 ULNA na ChAES, cholovikiv, oprominenykh u dozi u diapazoni (0,01–2,00) Gr. Imunologichnyy status obstezhenykh vyz nachavsia za rivnem CD3/19, CD4/8, CD3/HLA DR, SD3/16/56 metodom protochnoI tsytofluorymetriI ta za vmistom Ig klasiv A,M,G metodom imunofermentnogo analizu u krovi. Ekspresiia geniv CCND1 ta PNKP, iaki pov’iazani z Syclin D1, provodylos' za metodom polimeraznoI lantsiugovoI reaktsiI u real'nomu chasi. Porivniannia rezul'tativ zdiysniuva los' iz vidpovidnymy danymy, otrymanymy vid 18 zdorovykh cholovikiv, iaki ne maly kontaktu z ionizuiuchym vyp rominiuvanniam vyshche pryrodn'ogo fonu.Rezul'taty. Pokazano, shcho vidsotok Suclin D1+ klityn zbil'shuiet'sia za normu v osib, oprominenykh u dozi > 0,1 Gr, ta koreliuie z dozoiu oprominennia (rs = 0,417, p = 0,048). Vidkhylennia rivnia Cyclin D1+ klityn za mezhi kontrol'nykh zna chen' pov’iazuiet'sia zi zminamy v klitynniy ta gumoral'niy lankakh imunitetu. Zmenshennia vidsotku Cyclin D1+ klityn za mezhi kontrol'nykh znachen' v ULNA na ChAES iz dozoiu < 0,35 Gr suprovodzhuiet'sia znyzhenniam rivniv CD3+ ta pidvy shchenniam CD3 16+56+ limfotsytiv; u osib, oprominenykh u dozi > 0,35 Gr, zbil'shennia vidsotku Cyclin D1+ klityn asotsiiuiet'sia zi znyzhenniam CD3+ ta tendentsiieiu shchodo znyzhennia CD3+16+56+ limfotsytiv u poiednanni zi zbil'shen niam rivnia IgG. Zbil'shennia rivniv CD4+, CD19+, Ireg. ta IgG suprovodzhuiet'sia poiavoiu koreliatsiynykh zv’iazkiv mizh Cyclin D1+ ta CD3 16+56+ klitynamy (rs = 0,872, p = 0,049), Cyclin D1+ ta CD8+ i IgG (rs = 0,683, p = 0,042; rs = 0,809, p = 0,014), Cyclin D1+ ta CD4+ (rs = 0,602, p = 0,029), Cyclin D1+ ta CD19+ i

  17. Hesperetin exerts apoptotic effect on A431 skin carcinoma cells by regulating mitogen activated protein kinases and cyclins.

    PubMed

    Smina, T P; Mohan, A; Ayyappa, K A; Sethuraman, S; Krishnan, U M

    2015-10-30

    Dietary agents and phytochemicals have been utilised for the management of cancer for many years. Hesperetin, a dietary flavonoid found abundantly in citrus fruits, was evaluated for its cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic activities in A431 human skin carcinoma cells. Effect of hesperetin in regulating MAPK (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase) signalling pathway and levels of various cyclins and other downstream apoptotic proteins were investigated. Its critical role in regulating other apoptotic proteins especially p21, Bcl-2 and Bax were also assessed. Hesperetin stimulated alterations in MAPK (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase) signalling pathway by modulating the expression levels of ERK (Extracellular signal Regulated Kinase), JNK (c-Jun NH2-terminal Kinase) and p38; thereby induced apoptosis in A431 cells. Hesperetin regulated the levels of cyclin A2, B1, D1, D3 and E1. It also modulated the levels of various proteins involved in apoptotic pathway especially p21, Bcl-2 and Bax. The study revealed the efficiency of hesperetin against human skin carcinoma cells and proposed its mechanism of action; there by opens up new avenues for the use of this dietary flavonoid against skin malignancies.

  18. Involvement of cyclin D1/CDK4 and pRb mediated by PI3K/AKT pathway activation in Pb{sup 2+}-induced neuronal death in cultured hippocampal neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Li Chenchen Xing Tairan Tang Mingliang Yong Wu Yan Dan Deng Hongmin Wang Huili Wang Ming Chen Jutao Ruan Diyun

    2008-06-15

    Lead (Pb) is widely recognized as a neurotoxicant. One of the suggested mechanisms of lead neurotoxicity is apoptotic cell death. And the mechanism by which Pb{sup 2+} causes neuronal death is not well understood. The present study sought to examine the obligate nature of cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), phosphorylation of its substrate retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and its select upstream signal phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway in the death of primary cultured rat hippocampal neurons evoked by Pb{sup 2+}. Our data showed that lead treatment of primary hippocampal cultures results in dose-dependent cell death. Inhibition of CDK4 prevented Pb{sup 2+}-induced neuronal death significantly but was incomplete. In addition, we demonstrated that the levels of cyclin D1 and pRb/p107 were increased during Pb{sup 2+} treatment. These elevated expression persisted up to 48 h, returning to control levels after 72 h. We also presented pharmacological and morphological evidences that cyclin D1/CDK4 and pRb/p107 were required for such kind of neuronal death. Addition of the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 (30 {mu}M) or wortmannin (100 nM) significantly rescued the cultured hippocampal neurons from death caused by Pb{sup 2+}. And that Pb{sup 2+}-elicited phospho-AKT (Ser473) participated in the induction of cyclin D1 and partial pRb/p107 expression. These results provide evidences that cell cycle elements play a required role in the death of neurons evoked by Pb{sup 2+} and suggest that certain signaling elements upstream of cyclin D1/CDK4 are modified and/or required for this form of neuronal death.

  19. DACH1 regulates cell cycle progression of myeloid cells through the control of cyclin D, Cdk 4/6 and p21{sup Cip1}

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jae-Woong; Kim, Hyeng-Soo; Kim, Seonggon; Hwang, Junmo; Kim, Young Hun; Lim, Ga Young; Sohn, Wern-Joo; Yoon, Suk-Ran; Kim, Jae-Young; Park, Tae Sung; Park, Kwon Moo; Ryoo, Zae Young; Lee, Sanggyu

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DACH1 increases cyclin D, F and Cdk 1, 4, 6 in mouse myeloid progenitor cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The knockdown of DACH1 blocked the cell cycle progression of HL-60 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The novel effect of DACH1 related with cell cycle regulation and leukemogenesis. -- Abstract: The cell-fate determination factor Dachshund, a component of the Retinal Determination Gene Network (RDGN), has a role in breast tumor proliferation through the repression of cyclin D1 and several key regulators of embryonic stem cell function, such as Nanog and Sox2. However, little is known about the role of DACH1 in a myeloid lineage as a cell cycle regulator. Here, we identified the differential expression levels of extensive cell cycle regulators controlled by DACH1 in myeloid progenitor cells. The forced expression of DACH1 induced p27{sup Kip1} and repressed p21{sup Cip1}, which is a pivotal characteristic of the myeloid progenitor. Furthermore, DACH1 significantly increased the expression of cyclin D1, D3, F, and Cdk 1, 4, and 6 in myeloid progenitor cells. The knockdown of DACH1 blocked the cell cycle progression of HL-60 promyeloblastic cells through the decrease of cyclin D1, D3, F, and Cdk 1, 4, and 6 and increase in p21{sup Cip1}, which in turn decreased the phosphorylation of the Rb protein. The expression of Sox2, Oct4, and Klf4 was significantly up-regulated by the forced expression of DACH1 in mouse myeloid progenitor cells.

  20. Cdc2/cyclin B1 regulates centrosomal Nlp proteolysis and subcellular localization.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xuelian; Jin, Shunqian; Song, Yongmei; Zhan, Qimin

    2010-11-01

    The formation of proper mitotic spindles is required for appropriate chromosome segregation during cell division. Aberrant spindle formation often causes aneuploidy and results in tumorigenesis. However, the underlying mechanism of regulating spindle formation and chromosome separation remains to be further defined. Centrosomal Nlp (ninein-like protein) is a recently characterized BRCA1-regulated centrosomal protein and plays an important role in centrosome maturation and spindle formation. In this study, we show that Nlp can be phosphorylated by cell cycle protein kinase Cdc2/cyclin B1. The phosphorylation sites of Nlp are mapped at Ser185 and Ser589. Interestingly, the Cdc2/cyclin B1 phosphorylation site Ser185 of Nlp is required for its recognition by PLK1, which enable Nlp depart from centrosomes to allow the establishment of a mitotic scaffold at the onset of mitosis . PLK1 fails to dissociate the Nlp mutant lacking Ser185 from centrosome, suggesting that Cdc2/cyclin B1 might serve as a primary kinase of PLK1 in regulating Nlp subcellular localization. However, the phosphorylation at the site Ser589 by Cdc2/cyclin B1 plays an important role in Nlp protein stability probably due to its effect on protein degradation. Furthermore, we show that deregulated expression or subcellular localization of Nlp lead to multinuclei in cells, indicating that scheduled levels of Nlp and proper subcellular localization of Nlp are critical for successful completion of normal cell mitosis, These findings demonstrate that Cdc2/cyclin B1 is a key regulator in maintaining appropriate degradation and subcellular localization of Nlp, providing novel insights into understanding on the role of Cdc2/cyclin B1 in mitotic progression.

  1. Protein Expression for Novel Prognostic Markers (Cyclins D1, D2, D3, B1, B2, ITGβ7, FGFR3, PAX5) Correlate With Previously Reported Gene Expression Profile Patterns in Plasma Cell Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Mansoor, Adnan; Akhter, Ariz; Pournazari, Payam; Mahe, Etienne; Shariff, Sami; Farooq, Fahad; Elyamany, Ghaleb; Shahbani-Rad, Meer-Taher; Rashid-Kolvear, Fariborz

    2015-01-01

    Among plasma cell myeloma (PCM) patients, gene expression profiling (GEP)-based molecular classification has proven to be an independent predictor of survival, after autologous stem cell transplantation. However, GEP has limited routine clinical applicability given its complex methodology, high cost, and limited availability in clinical laboratories. In this study, we have evaluated biomarkers identified from GEP discoveries, utilizing immunohistochemistry (IHC) platform in a cohort of PCM patients. IHC staining for cyclins B1, B2, D1, D2, D3, FGFR3, PAX5, and integrin β7 (ITGβ7) was performed on the bone marrow biopsies of 93 newly diagnosed PCM patients. Expression of FGFR3 was noted in 10 (11%) samples correlating completely with t(4;14)(p16;q32) results (P<0.001); however, the association between FGFR3 and cyclin D2 expression was not significant (P=0.14). ITGβ7 expression was present in 9/93 (9%) patients and all these samples also demonstrated upregulated expression of cyclin D2 (P=0.014). Expression of cyclins D1, D2, and D3 was variable in this cohort. Positive protein expression of cyclin D1 was noted in 30/93 (32%), D2 in 17/93 (18%), and D3 in 5/93 (5%) samples. Coexpression of cyclins D1 and D2 was observed in 13/93 (14%) samples, whereas 28 (30%) samples were negative for all the 3 cyclin D proteins. Cyclin B1 was not expressed in any sample, despite adequate staining in positive controls. Cyclin B2 was expressed in 33/93 (35%) and PAX5 protein was noted in 7/93 (8%) samples. In summary, we have demonstrated that mRNA-based prognostic markers can be detected by routine IHC in decalcified bone marrow samples. This approach may provide a useful tool for the wider adoption of prognostic makers for risk stratification of PCM patients. We anticipate that such an approach might allow patients with high-risk immunoprofiles to be considered for other potential novel therapeutic agents, potentially sparing some patients the toxicity of stem cell transplant.

  2. NFAT1 transcription factor regulates cell cycle progression and cyclin E expression in B lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Leonardo K; Carrossini, Nina; Sécca, Cristiane; Kroll, José E; DaCunha, Déborah C; Faget, Douglas V; Carvalho, Lilian D S; de Souza, Sandro J; Viola, João P B

    2016-09-01

    The NFAT family of transcription factors has been primarily related to T cell development, activation, and differentiation. Further studies have shown that these ubiquitous proteins are observed in many cell types inside and outside the immune system, and are involved in several biological processes, including tumor growth, angiogenesis, and invasiveness. However, the specific role of the NFAT1 family member in naive B cell proliferation remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that NFAT1 transcription factor controls Cyclin E expression, cell proliferation, and tumor growth in vivo. Specifically, we show that inducible expression of NFAT1 inhibits cell cycle progression, reduces colony formation, and controls tumor growth in nude mice. We also demonstrate that NFAT1-deficient naive B lymphocytes show a hyperproliferative phenotype and high levels of Cyclin E1 and E2 upon BCR stimulation when compared to wild-type B lymphocytes. NFAT1 transcription factor directly regulates Cyclin E expression in B cells, inhibiting the G1/S cell cycle phase transition. Bioinformatics analysis indicates that low levels of NFAT1 correlate with high expression of Cyclin E1 in different human cancers, including Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphomas (DLBCL). Together, our results demonstrate a repressor role for NFAT1 in cell cycle progression and Cyclin E expression in B lymphocytes, and suggest a potential function for NFAT1 protein in B cell malignancies.

  3. ASPM regulates symmetric stem cell division by tuning Cyclin E ubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Capecchi, Mario R.; Pozner, Amir

    2016-01-01

    We generate a mouse model for the human microcephaly syndrome by mutating the ASPM locus, and demonstrate a premature exhaustion of the neuronal progenitor pool due to dysfunctional self-renewal processes. Earlier studies have linked ASPM mutant progenitor excessive cell cycle exit to a mitotic orientation defect. Here, we demonstrate a mitotic orientation-independent effect of ASPM on cell cycle duration. We pinpoint the cell fate-determining factor to the length of time spent in early G1 before traversing the restriction point. Characterization of the molecular mechanism reveals an interaction between ASPM and the Cdk2/Cyclin E complex, regulating the Cyclin activity by modulating its ubiquitination, phosphorylation and localization into the nucleus, before the cell is fated to transverse the restriction point. Thus, we reveal a novel function of ASPM in mediating the tightly coordinated Ubiquitin- Cyclin E- Retinoblastoma- E2F bistable-signalling pathway controlling restriction point progression and stem cell maintenance. PMID:26581405

  4. The flavonoid Baohuoside-I inhibits cell growth and downregulates survivin and cyclin D1 expression in esophageal carcinoma via β-catenin-dependent signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lifang; Lu, An; Liu, Xiaoxia; Sang, Meixiang; Shan, Baoen; Meng, Fanru; Cao, Qing; Ji, Xin

    2011-11-01

    Esophageal cancer is one of the most common malignancies and is associated with a dismal prognosis. Although treatment options have increased for some patients, overall progress has been modest. Thus, there is a great need to develop new treatments. We found that Baohuoside-I, a flavonoid extracted from a Chinese medicinal plant, exhibits anticancer activity. Here, we demonstrated that Baohuoside-I significantly inhibited Eca109 human esophageal squamous carcinoma cell proliferation and induced Eca109 cell apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. The growth inhibitory effect of Baohuoside-I on the Eca109 tumor cell line was examined by MTT assay; the induction of apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. Eca109-luc cells were injected into the subcutaneous tissue of nude mice to establish xenograft tumors. Our results revealed that Baohuoside-I caused a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of cell growth and an induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, Baohuoside-I-treated cells were characterized by decreased expression of the β-catenin gene and protein in the total cell lysates. Thus, the gene and protein expression of the downstream elements survivin and cyclin D1 was downregulated. To determine the precise inhibitory mechanisms involved, further in-depth in vivo studies of Baohuoside-I are warranted. Our study provides the first evidence that Baohuoside-I inhibits tumor growth and induces apoptosis by inhibiting β-catenin-dependent signaling pathways. Thus, Baohuoside-I is a potential candidate in ESCC disease therapy. PMID:21785828

  5. miR-1 suppresses the growth of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in vivo and in vitro through the downregulation of MET, cyclin D1 and CDK4 expression

    PubMed Central

    JIANG, SEN; ZHAO, CHAO; YANG, XIAODI; LI, XIANGYANG; PAN, QING; HUANG, HAIJIN; WEN, XUYANG; SHAN, HUSHENG; LI, QIANWEN; DU, YUNXIANG; ZHAO, YAPING

    2016-01-01

    Several aberrant microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) have been implicated in esophageal cancer (EC), which is widely prevalent in China. However, their role in EC tumorigenesis has not yet been fully elucidated. In the present study, we determined that miR-1 was downregulated in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) tissues compared with adjacent non-neoplastic tissues using RT-qPCR, and confirmed this using an ESCC cell line. Using a nude mouse xenograft model, we confirmed that the re-expression of miR-1 significantly inhibited ESCC tumor growth. A tetrazolium assay and a trypan blue exclusion assay revealed that miR-1 suppressed ESCC cell proliferation and increased apoptosis, whereas the silencing of miR-1 promoted cell proliferation and decreased apoptosis, suggesting that miR-1 is a novel tumor suppressor. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of action of miR-1 in ESCC, we investigated putative targets using bioinformatics tools. MET, cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), which are involved in the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/MET signaling pathway, were found to be targets of miR-1. miR-1 expression inversely correlated with MET, cyclin D1 and CDK4 expression in ESCC cells. miR-1 directly targeted MET, cyclin D1 and CDK4, suppressing ESCC cell growth. The newly identified miR-1/MET/cyclin D1/CDK4 axis provides new insight into the molecular mechanisms of ESCC pathogenesis and indicates a novel strategy for the diagnosis and treatment of ESCC. PMID:27247259

  6. Drosophila cyclin D/Cdk4 regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and aging and sensitizes animals to hypoxic stress

    PubMed Central

    Icreverzi, Amalia; Flor de la Cruz, Aida; Van Voorhies, Wayne A

    2012-01-01

    Drosophila cyclin D (CycD) is the single fly ortholog of the mammalian cyclin D1 and promotes both cell cycle progression and cellular growth. However, little is known about how CycD promotes cell growth. We show here that CycD/Cdk4 hyperactivity leads to increased mitochondrial biogenesis (mitobiogenesis), mitochondrial mass, NRF-1 activity (Tfam transcript levels) and metabolic activity in Drosophila, whereas loss of CycD/Cdk4 activity has the opposite effects. Surprisingly, both CycD/Cdk4 addition and loss of function increase mitochondrial superoxide production and decrease lifespan, indicating that an imbalance in mitobiogenesis may lead to oxidative stress and aging. In addition, we provide multiple lines of evidence indicating that CycD/Cdk4 activity affects the hypoxic status of cells and sensitizes animals to hypoxia. Both mitochondrial and hypoxia-related effects can be detected at global transcriptional level. We propose that mitobiogenesis and the hypoxic stress response have an antagonistic relationship, and that CycD/Cdk4 levels regulate mitobiogenesis contemporaneous to the cell cycle, such that only when cells are sufficiently oxygenated can they proliferate. PMID:22293404

  7. Distinction between Asymptomatic Monoclonal B-cell Lymphocytosis with Cyclin D1 Overexpression and Mantle Cell Lymphoma: From Molecular Profiling to Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Espinet, Blanca; Ferrer, Ana; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Nonell, Lara; Salar, Antonio; Fernández-Rodríguez, Concepción; Puigdecanet, Eulàlia; Gimeno, Javier; Garcia-Garcia, Mar; Carmen Vela, Maria; Luño, Elisa; Collado, Rosa; Navarro, José Tomás; de la Banda, Esmeralda; Abrisqueta, Pau; Arenillas, Leonor; Serrano, Cristina; Lloreta, Josep; Miñana, Belén; Cerutti, Andrea; Florensa, Lourdes; Orfao, Alberto; Sanz, Ferran; Solé, Francesc; Dominguez-Sola, David; Serrano, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Purpose According to current diagnostic criteria, mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) encompasses the usual, aggressive variants and rare, nonnodal cases with monoclonal asymptomatic lymphocytosis, cyclin D1–positive (MALD1). We aimed to understand the biology behind this clinical heterogeneity and to identify markers for adequate identification of MALD1 cases. Experimental Design We compared 17 typical MCL cases with a homogeneous group of 13 untreated MALD1 cases (median follow-up, 71 months). We conducted gene expression profiling with functional analysis in five MCL and five MALD1. Results were validated in 12 MCL and 8 MALD1 additional cases by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and in 24 MCL and 13 MALD1 cases by flow cytometry. Classification and regression trees strategy was used to generate an algorithm based on CD38 and CD200 expression by flow cytometry. Results We found 171 differentially expressed genes with enrichment of neoplastic behavior and cell proliferation signatures in MCL. Conversely, MALD1 was enriched in gene sets related to immune activation and inflammatory responses. CD38 and CD200 were differentially expressed between MCL and MALD1 and confirmed by flow cytometry (median CD38, 89% vs. 14%; median CD200, 0% vs. 24%, respectively). Assessment of both proteins allowed classifying 85% (11 of 13) of MALD1 cases whereas 15% remained unclassified. SOX11 expression by qRT-PCR was significantly different between MCL and MALD1 groups but did not improve the classification. Conclusion We show for the first time that MALD1, in contrast to MCL, is characterized by immune activation and driven by inflammatory cues. Assessment of CD38/CD200 by flow cytometry is useful to distinguish most cases of MALD1 from MCL in the clinical setting. MALD1 should be identified and segregated from the current MCL category to avoid overdiagnosis and unnecessary treatment. PMID:24352646

  8. Silencing of the Menkes copper-transporting ATPase (Atp7a) gene increases cyclin D1 protein expression and impairs proliferation of rat intestinal epithelial (IEC-6) cells.

    PubMed

    Gulec, Sukru; Collins, James F

    2014-10-01

    The Menkes copper-transporting ATPase (Atp7a) has dual roles in mammalian enterocytes: pumping copper into the trans-Golgi network (to support cuproenzyme synthesis) and across the basolateral membrane (to deliver dietary copper to the blood). Atp7a is strongly induced in the rodent duodenum during iron deprivation, suggesting that copper influences iron homeostasis. To investigate this possibility, Atp7a was silenced in rat intestinal epithelial (IEC-6) cells. Irrespective of its influence on iron homeostasis, an unexpected observation was made in the Atp7a knockdown (KD) cells: the cells grew slower (∼40% fewer cells at 96h) and were larger than negative-control shRNA-transfected cells. Lack of Atp7a activity thus perturbed cell cycle control. To elucidate a possible molecular mechanism, expression of two important cell cycle control proteins was assessed. Cyclin D1 (CD1) protein expression increased in Atp7a KD cells whereas proliferating-cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression was unaltered. Increased CD1 expression is consistent with impaired cell cycle progression. Expression of additional cell proliferation marker genes (p21 and Ki67) was also investigated; p21 expression increased, whereas Ki67 decreased, both consistent with diminished cell growth. Further experiments were designed to determine whether increased cellular copper content was the trigger for the altered growth phenotype of the Atp7a KD cells. Copper loading, however, did not influence the expression patterns of CD1, p21 or Ki67. Overall, these findings demonstrate that Atp7a is required for normal proliferation of IEC-6 cells. How Atp7a influences cell growth is unclear, but the underlying mechanism could relate to its roles in intracellular copper distribution or cuproenzyme synthesis.

  9. STAR syndrome-associated CDK10/Cyclin M regulates actin network architecture and ciliogenesis.

    PubMed

    Guen, Vincent J; Gamble, Carly; Perez, Dahlia E; Bourassa, Sylvie; Zappel, Hildegard; Gärtner, Jutta; Lees, Jacqueline A; Colas, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    CDK10/CycM is a protein kinase deficient in STAR (toe Syndactyly, Telecanthus and Anogenital and Renal malformations) syndrome, which results from mutations in the X-linked FAM58A gene encoding Cyclin M. The biological functions of CDK10/CycM and etiology of STAR syndrome are poorly understood. Here, we report that deficiency of CDK10/Cyclin M promotes assembly and elongation of primary cilia. We establish that this reflects a key role for CDK10/Cyclin M in regulation of actin network organization, which is known to govern ciliogenesis. In an unbiased screen, we identified the RhoA-associated kinase PKN2 as a CDK10/CycM phosphorylation substrate. We establish that PKN2 is a bone fide regulator of ciliogenesis, acting in a similar manner to CDK10/CycM. We discovered that CDK10/Cyclin M binds and phosphorylates PKN2 on threonines 121 and 124, within PKN2's core RhoA-binding domain. Furthermore, we demonstrate that deficiencies in CDK10/CycM or PKN2, or expression of a non-phosphorylatable version of PKN2, destabilize both the RhoA protein and the actin network architecture. Importantly, we established that ectopic expression of RhoA is sufficient to override the induction of ciliogenesis resulting from CDK10/CycM knockdown, indicating that RhoA regulation is critical for CDK10/CycM's negative effect on ciliogenesis. Finally, we show that kidney sections from a STAR patient display dilated renal tubules and abnormal, elongated cilia. Altogether, these results reveal CDK10/CycM as a key regulator of actin dynamics and a suppressor of ciliogenesis through phosphorylation of PKN2 and promotion of RhoA signaling. Moreover, they suggest that STAR syndrome is a ciliopathy.

  10. Cell cycle-regulated degradation of Xenopus cyclin B2 requires binding to p34cdc2.

    PubMed Central

    van der Velden, H M; Lohka, M J

    1994-01-01

    The protein kinase activity of the cell cycle regulator p34cdc2 is inactivated when the mitotic cyclin to which it is bound is degraded. The amino (N)-terminus of mitotic cyclins includes a conserved "destruction box" sequence that is essential for degradation. Although the N-terminus of sea urchin cyclin B confer cell cycle-regulated degradation to a fusion protein, a truncated protein containing only the N-terminus of Xenopus cyclin B2, including the destruction box, is stable under conditions where full length molecules are degraded. In an attempt to identify regions of cyclin B2, other than the destruction box, involved in degradation, the stability of proteins encoded by C-terminal deletion mutants of cyclin B2 was examined in Xenopus egg extracts. Truncated cyclin with only the first 90 amino acids was stable, but other C-terminal deletions lacking between 14 and 187 amino acids were unstable and were degraded by a mechanism that was neither cell cycle regulated nor dependent upon the destruction box. None of the C-terminal deletion mutants bound p34cdc2. To investigate whether the binding of p34cdc2 is required for cell cycle-regulated degradation, the behavior of proteins encoded by a series of full length Xenopus cyclin B2 cDNA with point mutations in conserved amino acids in the p34cdc2-binding domain was examined. All of the point mutants failed to form stable complexes with p34cdc, and their degradation was markedly reduced compared to wild-type cyclin. Similar results were obtained when the mutant cyclins were synthesized in reticulocyte lysates and when cyclin mRNA was translated directly in a Xenopus egg extract. These results indicate that mutations that interfere with p34cdc2 binding also interfere with cyclin destruction, suggesting that p34cdc2 binding is required for the cell cycle-regulated destruction of Xenopus cyclin B2. Images PMID:7812041

  11. MicroRNA-16 Modulates HuR Regulation of Cyclin E1 in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xun; Connick, Melanie C.; Vanderhoof, Jennifer; Ishak, Mohammad-Ali; Hartley, Rebecca S.

    2015-01-01

    RNA binding protein (RBPs) and microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression that are implicated in development of cancers. Although their individual roles have been studied, the crosstalk between RBPs and miRNAs is under intense investigation. Here, we show that in breast cancer cells, cyclin E1 upregulation by the RBP HuR is through specific binding to regions in the cyclin E1 mRNA 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) containing U-rich elements. Similarly, miR-16 represses cyclin E1, dependent on its cognate binding sites in the cyclin E1 3'UTR. Evidence in the literature indicates that HuR can regulate miRNA expression and recruit or dissociate RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISC). Despite this, miR-16 and HuR do not affect the other’s expression level or binding to the cyclin E1 3'UTR. While HuR overexpression partially blocks miR-16 repression of a reporter mRNA containing the cyclin E1 3'UTR, it does not block miR-16 repression of endogenous cyclin E1 mRNA. In contrast, miR-16 blocks HuR-mediated upregulation of cyclin E1. Overall our results suggest that miR-16 can override HuR upregulation of cyclin E1 without affecting HuR expression or association with the cyclin E1 mRNA. PMID:25830480

  12. MicroRNA-16 modulates HuR regulation of cyclin E1 in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xun; Connick, Melanie C; Vanderhoof, Jennifer; Ishak, Mohammad-Ali; Hartley, Rebecca S

    2015-03-30

    RNA binding protein (RBPs) and microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression that are implicated in development of cancers. Although their individual roles have been studied, the crosstalk between RBPs and miRNAs is under intense investigation. Here, we show that in breast cancer cells, cyclin E1 upregulation by the RBP HuR is through specific binding to regions in the cyclin E1 mRNA 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) containing U-rich elements. Similarly, miR-16 represses cyclin E1, dependent on its cognate binding sites in the cyclin E1 3'UTR. Evidence in the literature indicates that HuR can regulate miRNA expression and recruit or dissociate RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISC). Despite this, miR-16 and HuR do not affect the other's expression level or binding to the cyclin E1 3'UTR. While HuR overexpression partially blocks miR-16 repression of a reporter mRNA containing the cyclin E1 3'UTR, it does not block miR-16 repression of endogenous cyclin E1 mRNA. In contrast, miR-16 blocks HuR-mediated upregulation of cyclin E1. Overall our results suggest that miR-16 can override HuR upregulation of cyclin E1 without affecting HuR expression or association with the cyclin E1 mRNA.

  13. A molecular beacon strategy for the thermodynamic characterization of triplex DNA: triplex formation at the promoter region of cyclin D1.

    PubMed

    Antony, T; Thomas, T; Sigal, L H; Shirahata, A; Thomas, T J

    2001-08-01

    We studied the formation of triplex DNA in the purine-pyrimidine-rich promoter site sequence of cyclin D1, located at -116 to -99 from the transcription initiation site, with a molecular beacon comprised of a G-rich 18-mer triplex forming oligodeoxyribonucleotide. Formation of triplex DNA was monitored by enhanced fluorescence of the beacon, due to the weakening of fluorescence energy transfer, upon its binding to the target duplex. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay confirmed triplex DNA formation by these oligonucleotides. In low salt buffer (10 mM Na(+)), triplex DNA formation was not observed in the absence of a ligand such as spermine. At room temperature (22 degrees C), the equilibrium association constant (K(a)) calculated in the presence of 1 microM spermine and 10 mM Na(+) was 3.2 x 10(8) M(-1). The K(a) value was 1.0 x 10(9) M(-1) in the presence of 150 mM Na(+), and it increased by 10-fold by the addition of 1 mM spermine. Delta H, Delta S, and Delta G of triplex DNA formation, calculated from the temperature dependence of K(a) in the range of 20--45 degrees C, were -35.9 kcal/mol, -77 cal/(mol.K), and -13 kcal/mol, respectively, in the presence of 150 mM NaCl. The corresponding values were -52.9 kcal/mol, -132.5 cal/(mol.K), and -13.4 kcal/mol in the presence of 150 mM NaCl and 1 mM spermine. Structurally related polyamines exerted different degrees of triplex DNA stabilization, as determined by binding constant measurements. Comparison of spermine versus hexamine showed a 17-fold increase in the equilibrium association constant, whereas bis(ethyl) derivatization lead to a 4-fold decrease of this value. In the absence of added duplex and polyamines, the molecular beacon dissociated with a melting temperature of 67 degrees C. Thermodynamic parameters of beacon melting were calculated from the melting curve, and the Delta H, Delta S, and Delta G values were 37.8 kcal/mol, 112 cal/(mol.K), and 4.4 kcal/mol, respectively. These results demonstrate that

  14. Securin and not CDK1/cyclin B1 regulates sister chromatid disjunction during meiosis II in mouse eggs.

    PubMed

    Nabti, Ibtissem; Reis, Alexandra; Levasseur, Mark; Stemmann, Olaf; Jones, Keith T

    2008-09-15

    Mammalian eggs remain arrested at metaphase of the second meiotic division (metII) for an indeterminate time before fertilization. During this period, which can last several hours, the continued attachment of sister chromatids is thought to be achieved by inhibition of the protease separase. Separase is known to be inhibited by binding either securin or Maturation (M-Phase)-Promoting Factor, a heterodimer of CDK1/cyclin B1. However, the relative contribution of securin and CDK/cyclin B1 to sister chromatid attachment during metII arrest has not been assessed. Although there are conditions in which either CDK1/cyclinB1 activity or securin can prevent sister chromatid disjunction, principally by overexpression of non-degradable cyclin B1 or securin, we find here that separase activity is primarily regulated by securin and not CDK1/cyclin B1. Thus the CDK1 inhibitor roscovitine and an antibody we designed to block the interaction of CDK1/cyclin B1 with separase, both failed to induce sister disjunction. In contrast, securin morpholino knockdown specifically induced loss of sister attachment, that could be restored by securin cRNA rescue. During metII arrest separase appears primarily regulated by securin binding, not CDK1/cyclin B1. PMID:18639540

  15. BAFF induces spleen CD4{sup +} T cell proliferation by down-regulating phosphorylation of FOXO3A and activates cyclin D2 and D3 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Fang; Chen, Rongjing; Liu, Baojun; Zhang, Xiaoping; Han, Junli; Wang, Haining; Shen, Gang; Tao, Jiang

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Firstly analyze the mechanism of BAFF and anti-CD3 co-stimulation on purified mouse splenic CD4{sup +} T cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carrying out siRNA technology to study FOXO3A protein function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Helpful to understand the T cell especially CD4{sup +} T cell's role in immunological reaction. -- Abstract: The TNF ligand family member 'B cell-activating factor belonging to the TNF family' (BAFF, also called BLyS, TALL-1, zTNF-4, and THANK) is an important survival factor for B and T cells. In this study, we show that BAFF is able to induce CD4{sup +} spleen T cell proliferation when co-stimulated with anti-CD3. Expression of phosphorylated FOXO3A was notably down-regulated and cyclins D2 and D3 were up-regulated and higher in the CD4{sup +} T cells when treated with BAFF and anti-CD3, as assessed by Western blotting. Furthermore, after FOXO3A was knocked down, expression of cyclin D1 was unchanged, compared with control group levels, but the expression of cyclins D2 and D3 increased, compared with the control group. In conclusion, our results suggest that BAFF induced CD4{sup +} spleen T cell proliferation by down-regulating the phosphorylation of FOXO3A and then activating cyclin D2 and D3 expression, leading to CD4{sup +} T cell proliferation.

  16. Mechanisms for Antagonistic Regulation of AMPA and NMDA-D1 Receptor Complexes at Postsynaptic Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann; Scheler, Gabriele

    2004-01-01

    From the analysis of these pathways we conclude that postsynaptic processes that regulate synaptic transmission undergo significant cross-talk with respect to glutamatergic and neuromodulatory (dopamine) signals. The main hypothesis is that of a compensatory regulation, a competitive switch between the induction of increased AMPA conductance by CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation and reduced expression of PP2A, and increased D1 receptor sensitivity and expression by increased PKA, PP2A and decreased PP-1/calcineurin expression. Both types of plasticity are induced by NMDA receptor activation and increased internal calcium, they require different internal conditions to become expressed. Specifically we propose that AMPA regulation and D1 regulation are inversely coupled;The net result may be a bifurcation of synaptic state into predominantly AMPA or NMDA-D1 synapses. This could have functional consequences: stable connections for AMPA and conditional gating for NMDA-D1 synapses.

  17. Molecular basis of cyclin-CDK-CKI regulation by reversible binding of an inositol pyrophosphate

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Sam; Huang, Kexin; Quiocho, Florante A; O’Shea, Erin K

    2008-01-01

    When Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells are starved of inorganic phosphate, the Pho80-Pho85 cyclin–cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) is inactivated by the Pho81 CDK inhibitor (CKI). The regulation of Pho80-Pho85 is distinct from previously characterized mechanisms of CDK regulation: the Pho81 CKI is constitutively associated with Pho80-Pho85, and a small-molecule ligand, inositol heptakisphosphate (IP7), is required for kinase inactivation. We investigated the molecular basis of the IP7- and Pho81-dependent Pho80-Pho85 inactivation using electrophoretic mobility shift assays, enzyme kinetics and fluorescence spectroscopy. We found that IP7 interacts noncovalently with Pho80-Pho85-Pho81 and induces additional interactions between Pho81 and Pho80-Pho85 that prevent substrates from accessing the kinase active site. Using synthetic peptides corresponding to Pho81, we define regions of Pho81 responsible for constitutive Pho80-Pho85 binding and IP7-regulated interaction and inhibition. These findings expand our understanding of the mechanisms of cyclin-CDK regulation and of the biochemical mechanisms of IP7 action. PMID:18059263

  18. FGF2 and insulin signaling converge to regulate cyclin D expression in multipotent neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Adepoju, Adedamola; Micali, Nicola; Ogawa, Kazuya; Hoeppner, Daniel J; McKay, Ronald D G

    2014-03-01

    The ex vivo expansion of stem cells is making major contribution to biomedical research. The multipotent nature of neural precursors acutely isolated from the developing central nervous system has been established in a series of studies. Understanding the mechanisms regulating cell expansion in tissue culture would support their expanded use either in cell therapies or to define disease mechanisms. Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) and insulin, ligands for tyrosine kinase receptors, are sufficient to sustain neural stem cells (NSCs) in culture. Interestingly, real-time imaging shows that these cells become multipotent every time they are passaged. Here, we analyze the role of FGF2 and insulin in the brief period when multipotent cells are present. FGF2 signaling results in the phosphorylation of Erk1/2, and activation of c-Fos and c-Jun that lead to elevated cyclin D mRNA levels. Insulin signals through the PI3k/Akt pathway to regulate cyclins at the post-transcriptional level. This precise Boolean regulation extends our understanding of the proliferation of multipotent NSCs and provides a basis for further analysis of proliferation control in the cell states defined by real-time mapping of the cell lineages that form the central nervous system.

  19. Cell cycle regulation of cyclin A gene expression by the cyclic AMP-responsive transcription factors CREB and CREM.

    PubMed Central

    Desdouets, C; Matesic, G; Molina, C A; Foulkes, N S; Sassone-Corsi, P; Brechot, C; Sobczak-Thepot, J

    1995-01-01

    Cyclin A is a pivotal regulatory protein which, in mammalian cells, is involved in the S phase of the cell cycle. Transcription of the human cyclin A gene is cell cycle regulated. We have investigated the role of the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent signalling pathway in this cell cycle-dependent control. In human diploid fibroblasts (Hs 27), induction of cyclin A gene expression at G1/S is stimulated by 8-bromo-cAMP and suppressed by the protein kinase A inhibitor H89, which was found to delay S phase entry. Transfection experiments showed that the cyclin A promoter is inducible by activation of the adenylyl cyclase signalling pathway. Stimulation is mediated predominantly via a cAMP response element (CRE) located at positions -80 to -73 with respect to the transcription initiation site and is able to bind CRE-binding proteins and CRE modulators. Moreover, activation by phosphorylation of the activators CRE-binding proteins and CRE modulator tau and levels of the inducible cAMP early repressor are cell cycle regulated, which is consistent with the pattern of cyclin A inducibility by cAMP during the cell cycle. These results suggest that the CRE is, at least partly, implicated in stimulation of cyclin A transcription at G1/S. PMID:7760825

  20. Sodium butyrate down-regulates tristetraprolin-mediated cyclin B1 expression independent of the formation of processing bodies.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiang-Tao; Xiao, Xiao-Qiang; Dai, Ju-Ji

    2015-12-01

    Butyrate regulates multiple host cellular events including the cell cycle; however, little is known about the molecular mechanism by which butyrate induces a global down-regulation of the expression of genes associated with the cell cycle. Here, we demonstrate that treating HEK293T cells and the non-small-cell lung cancer cell line A549 with a high concentration of sodium butyrate reduces cyclin B1 expression. The underlying mechanism is related to the destabilization of its mRNA by tristetraprolin, which is up-regulated in response to sodium butyrate. Specifically, the sodium butyrate stimulation reduces the mRNA and protein expression of cyclin B1 and, conversely, upregulates tristetraprolin expression. Importantly, the overexpression of tristetraprolin in HEK293T decreases the mRNA and protein expression of cyclin B1; in contrast, knockdown of tristetraprolin mediated by small interfering RNA increases its expression in response to sodium butyrate treatment for both HEK293T and A549 cells. Furthermore, results from luciferase reporter assays and RNA immunoprecipitation indicate that sodium butyrate accelerates 3' UTR-dependent cyclin B1 decay by enhancing the binding of tristetraprolin to the 3' untranslated region of cyclin B1. Surprisingly, the overexpression of tristetraprolin prevents the formation of processing bodies, and the siRNA-mediated silencing of EDC4 does not restore the sodium butyrate-induced reduction of cyclin B1 expression. Thus, we confirm that NaBu regulates ZFP36-mediated cyclin B1 expression in a manner that is independent of the formation of P-bodies. The above findings disclose a novel mechanism of sodium butyrate-mediated gene expression regulation and might benefit its application in tumor treatment.

  1. Microcystic Stromal Tumor: A Distinctive Ovarian Sex Cord-Stromal Neoplasm Characterized by FOXL2, SF-1, WT-1, Cyclin D1, and β-catenin Nuclear Expression and CTNNB1 Mutations.

    PubMed

    Irving, Julie A; Lee, Cheng-Han; Yip, Stephen; Oliva, Esther; McCluggage, W Glenn; Young, Robert H

    2015-10-01

    Since our first description of the microcystic stromal tumor (MST) of the ovary, a rare and distinctive neoplasm with a definitional, usually striking microcystic pattern and a CD10+/vimentin+/inhibin-/calretinin- immunophenotype, 3 examples with β-catenin nuclear localization, and CTNNB1 mutation have been reported. We undertook a detailed immunohistochemical study and molecular analysis of CTNNB1 and FOXL2 of 15 cases of MST to further characterize this neoplasm and establish its histogenesis. Diffuse nuclear staining for FOXL2, WT-1, cyclin D1, and β-catenin was present in all tumors tested, and 12/15 were positive for steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1). Heterozygous missense point mutations in exon 3 of CTNNB1 were detected in 8 of 14 cases, resulting in amino acid changes at codons 32, 34, 35, and 37. There was no correlation between CTNNB1 exon 3 mutation status and tumor immunophenotype. All 14 cases tested showed wild-type FOXL2. Our study establishes that MST of the ovary exhibits a characteristic FOXL2/SF-1/WT-1/cyclin D1/nuclear β-catenin-positive immunohistochemical profile, which may be useful in diagnosis and in the exclusion of histologic mimics. The presence of diffuse nuclear FOXL2 and WT-1 immunostaining in all cases and SF-1 in most supports the classification of MST within the sex cord-stromal category. Aberrant nuclear β-catenin expression, detected in all MSTs, appears to be the result of stabilizing CTNNB1 mutations in 57% of cases, providing further evidence that dysregulation of the Wnt/B-catenin pathway is involved in the tumorigenesis of MST and may involve activation of β-catenin with upregulation of cyclin D1.

  2. DOG1, cyclin D1, CK7, CD117 and vimentin are useful immunohistochemical markers in distinguishing chromophobe renal cell carcinoma from clear cell renal cell carcinoma and renal oncocytoma.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Tian, Bo; Wu, Chao; Peng, Yan; Wang, Hui; Gu, Wen-Li; Gao, Feng-Hou

    2015-04-01

    The distinction between chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC), clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CRCC) and renal oncocytoma may cause a diagnostic dilemma. The usefulness of DOG1, cyclin D1, CK7, CD117 and vimentin in the differential diagnosis of these renal epithelial tumors was investigated. DOG1 was positive in ChRCC (32 of 32, 100%) and in renal oncocytoma (21 of 21, 100%). In contrast, DOG1 was absent in all CRCC (0 of 30). Cyclin D1 was positive in renal oncocytomas (17 of 21, 81%) but negative in the ChRCC (0/23) and CRCC (0 of 30). CK7 was positive in ChRCC (30 of 32, 94%), but was negative in oncocytoma (only scattered single positive cells), and was only focal positive in two cases of CRCC. CD117 was expressed in 88% of ChRCC (28 of 32), 86% of renal oncocytoma (18 of 21), and was negative in all CRCC (0 of 30). Twenty-six of the 30 cases of CRCC were positive (87%) for vimentin with prominent membrane staining patterns. All 23 chromophobe carcinomas were negative for vimentin and 15 of 21 oncocytomas demonstrated focal vimentin positivity, but less than 10%. The above results demonstrate that: (1) DOG1 was very sensitive and specific marker for distinguish ChRCC from CRCC; (2) Cyclin D1 was a useful marker to discriminate between ChRCC and renal oncocytoma; (3) CK7 and CD117 were useful markers to distinguish ChRCC from renal oncocytoma and CRCC. (4) Vimentin was helpful for distinguishing clear cell RCC from chromophobe and oncocytoma (87% of clear cell RCC positive, negative in chromophobe, only focally positive in oncocytoma). (5) CK8/18, CK19, CD10, β-catenin and E-cadherin could not be used to distinguish ChRCC from renal oncocytoma and CRCC. PMID:25596994

  3. DRG2 Regulates G2/M Progression via the Cyclin B1-Cdk1 Complex

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Soo Hwa; Kim, Ah-Ram; Park, Neung-Hwa; Park, Jeong Woo; Han, In-Seob

    2016-01-01

    Developmentally regulated GTP-binding protein 2 (DRG2) plays an important role in cell growth. Here we explored the linkage between DRG2 and G2/M phase checkpoint function in cell cycle progression. We observed that knockdown of DRG2 in HeLa cells affected growth in a wound-healing assay, and tumorigenicity in nude mice xenografts. Flow cytometry assays and [3H] incorporation assays indicated that G2/M phase arrest was responsible for the decreased proliferation of these cells. Knockdown of DRG2 elicited down-regulation of the major mitotic promoting factor, the cyclin B1/Cdk1 complex, but up-regulation of the cell cycle arresting proteins, Wee1, Myt1, and p21. These findings identify a novel role of DRG2 in G2/M progression. PMID:27669826

  4. DRG2 Regulates G2/M Progression via the Cyclin B1-Cdk1 Complex.

    PubMed

    Jang, Soo Hwa; Kim, Ah-Ram; Park, Neung-Hwa; Park, Jeong Woo; Han, In-Seob

    2016-09-01

    Developmentally regulated GTP-binding protein 2 (DRG2) plays an important role in cell growth. Here we explored the linkage between DRG2 and G2/M phase checkpoint function in cell cycle progression. We observed that knockdown of DRG2 in HeLa cells affected growth in a wound-healing assay, and tumorigenicity in nude mice xenografts. Flow cytometry assays and [(3)H] incorporation assays indicated that G2/M phase arrest was responsible for the decreased proliferation of these cells. Knockdown of DRG2 elicited down-regulation of the major mitotic promoting factor, the cyclin B1/Cdk1 complex, but up-regulation of the cell cycle arresting proteins, Wee1, Myt1, and p21. These findings identify a novel role of DRG2 in G2/M progression. PMID:27669826

  5. Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Viral Interferon Regulatory Factor 4 (vIRF4) Perturbs the G1-S Cell Cycle Progression via Deregulation of the cyclin D1 Gene.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Ra; Mitra, Jaba; Lee, Stacy; Gao, Shou-Jiang; Oh, Tae-Kwang; Kim, Myung Hee; Ha, Taekjip; Jung, Jae U

    2016-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection modulates the host cell cycle to create an environment optimal for its viral-DNA replication during the lytic life cycle. We report here that KSHV vIRF4 targets the β-catenin/CBP cofactor and blocks its occupancy on the cyclin D1 promoter, suppressing the G1-S cell cycle progression and enhancing KSHV replication. This shows that KSHV vIRF4 suppresses host G1-S transition, possibly providing an intracellular milieu favorable for its replication. PMID:26491150

  6. Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Viral Interferon Regulatory Factor 4 (vIRF4) Perturbs the G1-S Cell Cycle Progression via Deregulation of the cyclin D1 Gene.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Ra; Mitra, Jaba; Lee, Stacy; Gao, Shou-Jiang; Oh, Tae-Kwang; Kim, Myung Hee; Ha, Taekjip; Jung, Jae U

    2015-10-21

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection modulates the host cell cycle to create an environment optimal for its viral-DNA replication during the lytic life cycle. We report here that KSHV vIRF4 targets the β-catenin/CBP cofactor and blocks its occupancy on the cyclin D1 promoter, suppressing the G1-S cell cycle progression and enhancing KSHV replication. This shows that KSHV vIRF4 suppresses host G1-S transition, possibly providing an intracellular milieu favorable for its replication.

  7. Cyclin E-dependent protein kinase activity regulates niche retention of Drosophila ovarian follicle stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhu A.; Kalderon, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Whether stem cells have unique cell cycle machineries and how they integrate with niche interactions remains largely unknown. We identified a hypomorphic cyclin E allele WX that strongly impairs the maintenance of follicle stem cells (FSCs) in the Drosophila ovary but does not reduce follicle cell proliferation or germline stem cell maintenance. CycEWX protein can still bind to the cyclin-dependent kinase catalytic subunit Cdk2, but forms complexes with reduced protein kinase activity measured in vitro. By creating additional CycE variants with different degrees of kinase dysfunction and expressing these and CycEWX at different levels, we found that higher CycE-Cdk2 kinase activity is required for FSC maintenance than to support follicle cell proliferation. Surprisingly, cycEWX FSCs were lost from their niches rather than arresting proliferation. Furthermore, FSC function was substantially restored by expressing either excess DE-cadherin or excess E2F1/DP, the transcription factor normally activated by CycE-Cdk2 phosphorylation of retinoblastoma proteins. These results suggest that FSC maintenance through niche adhesion is regulated by inputs that normally control S phase entry, possibly as a quality control mechanism to ensure adequate stem cell proliferation. We speculate that a positive connection between central regulators of the cell cycle and niche retention may be a common feature of highly proliferative stem cells. PMID:19966222

  8. Cyclin Y Is Involved in the Regulation of Adipogenesis and Lipid Production

    PubMed Central

    An, Weiwei; Zhang, Zhuzhen; Zeng, Liyong; Yang, Ying; Zhu, Xueliang; Wu, Jiarui

    2015-01-01

    A new member of the cyclin family cyclin Y (CCNY) is involved in the regulation of various physiological processes. In this study, the role of CCNY in energy metabolism was characterized. We found that compared with wild-type (WT) mice, Ccny knockout (KO) mice had both lower body weight and lower fat content. The Ccny KO mice also had a higher metabolic rate, resisted the stress of a high-fat diet, and were sensitive to calorie restriction. The expression levels of UCP1 and PGC1α were significantly higher in the brown adipose tissue (BAT) of the Ccny KO mice than that of the WT littermate controls, whereas there was no significant difference in BAT weight between the WT and the Ccny KO mice. In addition, the down-regulation of Ccny resulted in suppression of white adipocyte differentiation both in vivo and in vitro, while the expression of Ccny was up-regulated by C/EBPα. Furthermore, both hepatocytes and HepG2 cells that were depleted of Ccny were insensitive to insulin stimulation, consistent with the significant inhibition of insulin sensitivity in the liver of the Ccny KO mice, but no significant changes in WAT and muscle, indicating that CCNY is involved in regulating the hepatic insulin signaling pathway. The hepatic insulin resistance generated by Ccny depletion resulted in down-regulation of the sterol-regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP1) and fatty acid synthase (FASN). Together, these results provide a new link between CCNY and lipid metabolism in mice, and suggest that inhibition of CCNY may offer a therapeutic approach to obesity and diabetes. PMID:26161966

  9. EGFR-mediated Akt and MAPKs signal pathways play a crucial role in patulin-induced cell proliferation in primary murine keratinocytes via modulation of Cyclin D1 and COX-2 expression.

    PubMed

    Alam, Shamshad; Pal, Anu; Kumar, Rahul; Dwivedi, Premendra D; Das, Mukul; Ansari, Kausar M

    2014-12-01

    Patulin (PAT), a present day major contaminant of commercial apple and apple products is reported to be carcinogenic, embryotoxic, and immunotoxic. While oral and inhalation are considered to be the most prevalent routes of exposure to this toxin, exposure through skin is now being extensively investigated. Our previous study showed that short-term dermal exposure to PAT resulted in toxicological injury to the skin, while long-term exposure induced skin tumorigenesis. In this study, we explore the mechanism involve in proliferation of mouse keratinocytes by PAT. Our study revealed that PAT rapidly induces phosphorylation of EGFR, activation of the Ras/MAPKs, and Akt pathways. This in-turn leads to the activation of NF-κB/AP-1 transcription factors which then binds to the promoter region of the cell growth regulatory genes Cyclin D1 and COX-2 inducing their expression leading ultimately to PMKs proliferation. Inhibition of EGFR or the Ras/MAPKs, PI3/Akt pathways with different pharmacological inhibitors or knockdown of NF-κB, c-jun, c-fos, Cyclin D1, and COX-2 with siRNA inhibited PAT-induced PMKs proliferation. PMID:23813870

  10. Garcinone D, a natural xanthone promotes C17.2 neural stem cell proliferation: Possible involvement of STAT3/Cyclin D1 pathway and Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaohong; Wang, Shengnan; Ouyang, Ying; Tu, Yaling; Liu, Anmin; Tian, Yinghong; He, Mingliang; Pi, Rongbiao

    2016-07-28

    Garcinia mangostana L. (Mangosteen) has been used to treat various pathological conditions, including inflammation and urinary tract infections. Here, we observed that garcinone D, a natural xanthone from mangosteen, promoted the proliferation of C17.2 neural progenitor cells and also resulted in a larger percentage of cells in S phase compared with the control group. Moreover, garcinone D increased the protein levels of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3) and Cyclin D1 in concentration- and time- dependent manners. Garcinone D also increased the protein levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in concentration- and time- dependent manners, and inhibiting Nrf2 activation by brusatol could partly reverse garcinone D-induced C17.2 cell proliferation. Taken together, it is the first time to show that garcinone D promotes the proliferation of C17.2 neural stem cells, which may involve the STAT3/Cyclin D1 pathway and Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. It would provide new inspiration to develop garcinone D as a lead compound to promote the proliferation of endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs). PMID:27177723

  11. Paullinia cupana Mart. var. sorbilis, guarana, increases survival of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) bearing mice by decreasing cyclin-D1 expression and inducing a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in EAC cells.

    PubMed

    Fukumasu, Heidge; Latorre, Andreia Oliveira; Zaidan-Dagli, Maria Lucia

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work is to report the antiproliferative effect of P. cupana treatment in Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC)-bearing animals. Female mice were treated with three doses of powdered P. cupana (100, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg) for 7 days, injected with 10(5) EAC cells and treated up to day 21. In addition, a survival experiment was carried out with the same protocol. P. cupana decreased the ascites volume (p = 0.0120), cell number (p = 0.0004) and hemorrhage (p = 0.0054). This occurred through a G1-phase arrest (p < 0.01) induced by a decreased gene expression of Cyclin D1 in EAC cells. Furthermore, P. cupana significantly increased the survival of EAC-bearing animals (p = 0.0012). In conclusion, the P. cupana growth control effect in this model was correlated with a decreased expression of cyclin D1 and a G1 phase arrest. These results reinforce the cancer therapeutic potential of this Brazilian plant.

  12. Bromodichloromethane induces cell proliferation in different tissues of male F344 rats by suppression of E-cadherin expression via hypermethylation or transcriptional activation of c-myc and cyclin D1.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jing; Li, Xiao-Feng; Zhou, Shun-Chang; Luo, Yan; Liu, Ai-Lin; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2013-11-25

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of bromodichloromethane (BDCM) - induced cell proliferation in different tissues of male F344 rats. Rats were administered at doses of 0 and 100mg/kg/day BDCM dissolved in corn oil by gavage for 5 days/week for 1, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Then the colon, kidney and liver were collected. No histologic lesions were observed in the colon of rats exposed to BDCM, while there were mild nephrotoxicity and marginal hepatotoxicity related to BDCM treatment. Moreover, BDCM enhanced cell proliferation in the colon and kidney but not in the liver. In colons, hypermethylation in E-cadherin promoter might be associated with inhibition of mRNA and protein expression after 12 weeks of BDCM exposure. In kidneys, BDCM decreased E-cadherin mRNA expression, accompanying with transcriptional activation of c-myc and cyclin D1. However, suppression of E-cadherin mRNA and protein expression occurred in the absence of significant changes in DNA methylation. Therefore, suppression of E-cadherin expression via hypermethylation or transcriptional activation of c-myc and cyclin D1 may be involved in BDCM-induced cell proliferation in different tissues of male F344 rats.

  13. Dopamine D1 Receptors Regulate the Light Dependent Development of Retinal Synaptic Responses

    PubMed Central

    He, Quanhua; Xu, Hong-ping; Wang, Ping; Tian, Ning

    2013-01-01

    Retinal synaptic connections and function are developmentally regulated. Retinal synaptic activity plays critical roles in the development of retinal synaptic circuitry. Dopamine receptors have been thought to play important roles in the activity-dependent synaptic plasticity in central nervous system. The primary goal of this study is to determine whether dopamine D1 receptor regulates the activity-dependent development of retinal light responsiveness. Accordingly, we recorded electroretinogram from wild type mice and mice with genetic deletion of D1 dopamine receptor (D1−/− mice) raised under cyclic light conditions and constant darkness. Our results demonstrated that D1−/− mice have reduced amplitudes of all three major components of electroretinogram in adulthood. When the relative strength of the responses is considered, the D1−/− mice have selective reduction of the amplitudes of a-wave and oscillatory potentials evoked by low-intermediate intensities of lights. During postnatal development, D1−/− mice have increased amplitude of b-wave at the time of eye-opening but reduced developmental increase of the amplitude of b-wave after eye opening. Light deprivation from birth significantly reduced the amplitudes of b-wave and oscillatory potentials, increased the outer retinal light response gain and altered the light response kinetics of both a- and b-waves of wild type mice. In D1−/− mice, the effect of dark rearing on the amplitude of oscillatory potentials was diminished and dark rearing induced effects on the response gain of outer retina and the kinetics of a-wave were reversed. These results demonstrated roles of dopamine D1 receptor in the activity-dependent functional development of mouse retina. PMID:24260267

  14. Cyclin D3 coordinates the cell cycle during differentiation to regulate erythrocyte size and number.

    PubMed

    Sankaran, Vijay G; Ludwig, Leif S; Sicinska, Ewa; Xu, Jian; Bauer, Daniel E; Eng, Jennifer C; Patterson, Heide Christine; Metcalf, Ryan A; Natkunam, Yasodha; Orkin, Stuart H; Sicinski, Piotr; Lander, Eric S; Lodish, Harvey F

    2012-09-15

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified a genetic variant of moderate effect size at 6p21.1 associated with erythrocyte traits in humans. We show that this variant affects an erythroid-specific enhancer of CCND3. A Ccnd3 knockout mouse phenocopies these erythroid phenotypes, with a dramatic increase in erythrocyte size and a concomitant decrease in erythrocyte number. By examining human and mouse primary erythroid cells, we demonstrate that the CCND3 gene product cyclin D3 regulates the number of cell divisions that erythroid precursors undergo during terminal differentiation, thereby controlling erythrocyte size and number. We illustrate how cell type-specific specialization can occur for general cell cycle components-a finding resulting from the biological follow-up of unbiased human genetic studies.

  15. Mutual regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase and the mitotic exit network

    PubMed Central

    König, Cornelia; Maekawa, Hiromi

    2010-01-01

    The mitotic exit network (MEN) is a spindle pole body (SPB)–associated, GTPase-driven signaling cascade that controls mitotic exit. The inhibitory Bfa1–Bub2 GTPase-activating protein (GAP) only associates with the daughter SPB (dSPB), raising the question as to how the MEN is regulated on the mother SPB (mSPB). Here, we show mutual regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) and the MEN. In early anaphase Cdk1 becomes recruited to the mSPB depending on the activity of the MEN kinase Cdc15. Conversely, Cdk1 negatively regulates binding of Cdc15 to the mSPB. In addition, Cdk1 phosphorylates the Mob1 protein to inhibit the activity of Dbf2–Mob1 kinase that regulates Cdc14 phosphatase. Our data revise the understanding of the spatial regulation of the MEN. Although MEN activity in the daughter cells is controlled by Bfa1–Bub2, Cdk1 inhibits MEN activity at the mSPB. Consistent with this model, only triple mutants that lack BUB2 and the Cdk1 phosphorylation sites in Mob1 and Cdc15 show mitotic exit defects. PMID:20123997

  16. Ethylene-Mediated Regulation of A2-Type CYCLINs Modulates Hyponastic Growth in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Polko, Joanna K.; van Rooij, Jop A.; Vanneste, Steffen; Pierik, Ronald; Ammerlaan, Ankie M.H.; Vergeer-van Eijk, Marleen H.; McLoughlin, Fionn; Gühl, Kerstin; Van Isterdael, Gert; Voesenek, Laurentius A.C.J.; Millenaar, Frank F.; Beeckman, Tom; Peeters, Anton J.M.; Marée, Athanasius F.M.; van Zanten, Martijn

    2015-01-01

    Upward leaf movement (hyponastic growth) is frequently observed in response to changing environmental conditions and can be induced by the phytohormone ethylene. Hyponasty results from differential growth (i.e. enhanced cell elongation at the proximal abaxial side of the petiole relative to the adaxial side). Here, we characterize Enhanced Hyponasty-d, an activation-tagged Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) line with exaggerated hyponasty. This phenotype is associated with overexpression of the mitotic cyclin CYCLINA2;1 (CYCA2;1), which hints at a role for cell divisions in regulating hyponasty. Indeed, mathematical analysis suggested that the observed changes in abaxial cell elongation rates during ethylene treatment should result in a larger hyponastic amplitude than observed, unless a decrease in cell proliferation rate at the proximal abaxial side of the petiole relative to the adaxial side was implemented. Our model predicts that when this differential proliferation mechanism is disrupted by either ectopic overexpression or mutation of CYCA2;1, the hyponastic growth response becomes exaggerated. This is in accordance with experimental observations on CYCA2;1 overexpression lines and cyca2;1 knockouts. We therefore propose a bipartite mechanism controlling leaf movement: ethylene induces longitudinal cell expansion in the abaxial petiole epidermis to induce hyponasty and simultaneously affects its amplitude by controlling cell proliferation through CYCA2;1. Further corroborating the model, we found that ethylene treatment results in transcriptional down-regulation of A2-type CYCLINs and propose that this, and possibly other regulatory mechanisms affecting CYCA2;1, may contribute to this attenuation of hyponastic growth. PMID:26041787

  17. Ethylene-Mediated Regulation of A2-Type CYCLINs Modulates Hyponastic Growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Polko, Joanna K; van Rooij, Jop A; Vanneste, Steffen; Pierik, Ronald; Ammerlaan, Ankie M H; Vergeer-van Eijk, Marleen H; McLoughlin, Fionn; Gühl, Kerstin; Van Isterdael, Gert; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Millenaar, Frank F; Beeckman, Tom; Peeters, Anton J M; Marée, Athanasius F M; van Zanten, Martijn

    2015-09-01

    Upward leaf movement (hyponastic growth) is frequently observed in response to changing environmental conditions and can be induced by the phytohormone ethylene. Hyponasty results from differential growth (i.e. enhanced cell elongation at the proximal abaxial side of the petiole relative to the adaxial side). Here, we characterize Enhanced Hyponasty-d, an activation-tagged Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) line with exaggerated hyponasty. This phenotype is associated with overexpression of the mitotic cyclin CYCLINA2;1 (CYCA2;1), which hints at a role for cell divisions in regulating hyponasty. Indeed, mathematical analysis suggested that the observed changes in abaxial cell elongation rates during ethylene treatment should result in a larger hyponastic amplitude than observed, unless a decrease in cell proliferation rate at the proximal abaxial side of the petiole relative to the adaxial side was implemented. Our model predicts that when this differential proliferation mechanism is disrupted by either ectopic overexpression or mutation of CYCA2;1, the hyponastic growth response becomes exaggerated. This is in accordance with experimental observations on CYCA2;1 overexpression lines and cyca2;1 knockouts. We therefore propose a bipartite mechanism controlling leaf movement: ethylene induces longitudinal cell expansion in the abaxial petiole epidermis to induce hyponasty and simultaneously affects its amplitude by controlling cell proliferation through CYCA2;1. Further corroborating the model, we found that ethylene treatment results in transcriptional down-regulation of A2-type CYCLINs and propose that this, and possibly other regulatory mechanisms affecting CYCA2;1, may contribute to this attenuation of hyponastic growth.

  18. Incomplete Folding upon Binding Mediates Cdk4/Cyclin D Complex Activation by Tyrosine Phosphorylation of Inhibitor p27 Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Li; Ferreira, Antonio M.; Otieno, Steve; Xiao, Limin; Bashford, Donald; Kriwacki, Richard W.

    2011-01-01

    p27Kip1 (p27), an intrinsically disordered protein, regulates the various Cdk/cyclin complexes that control cell cycle progression. The kinase inhibitory domain of p27 contains a cyclin-binding subdomain (D1), a Cdk-binding subdomain (D2), and a linker helix subdomain that connects D1 and D2. Here, we report that, despite extensive sequence conservation between Cdk4/cyclin D1 (hereafter Cdk4/cyclin D) and Cdk2/cyclin A, the thermodynamic details describing how the individual p27 subdomains contribute to equally high affinity binding to these two Cdk/cyclin complexes are strikingly different. Differences in enthalpy/entropy compensation revealed that the D2 subdomain of p27 folds incompletely when binding Cdk4/cyclin D versus Cdk2/cyclin A. Incomplete binding-induced folding exposes tyrosine 88 of p27 for phosphorylation by the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Abl. Importantly, tyrosine phosphorylation (of p27) relieves Cdk inhibition by p27, enabling cell cycle entry. Furthermore, the interaction between a conserved hydrophobic patch on cyclin D and subdomain D1 is much weaker than that with cyclin A; consequently, a construct containing subdomains D1 and LH (p27-D1LH) does not inhibit substrate binding to Cdk4/cyclin D as it does to Cdk2/cyclin A. Our results provide a mechanism by which Cdk4 (within the p27/Cdk4/cyclin D complex) is poised to be activated by extrinsic mitogenic signals that impinge upon p27 at the earliest stage of cell division. More broadly, our results further illustrate the regulatory versatility of intrinsically disordered proteins. PMID:21715330

  19. Positive Regulation of Neocortical Synapse Formation by the Plexin-D1 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Levitt, P.

    2015-01-01

    Synapse formation is a critical process during neural development and is coordinated by multiple signals. Several lines of evidence implicate the Plexin-D1 receptor in synaptogenesis. Studies have shown that Plexin-D1 signaling is involved in synaptic specificity and synapse formation in spinal cord and striatum. Expression of Plexin-D1 and its principal neural ligand, Sema3E, by neocortical neurons is temporally and spatially regulated, reaching the highest level at the time of synaptogenesis in mice. In this study, we examined the function of Plexin-D1 in synapse formation by primary neocortical neurons in vitro. A novel, automated image analysis method was developed to quantitate synapse formation under baseline conditions and with manipulation of Plexin-D1 levels. shRNA and overexpression manipulations caused opposite changes, with reduction resulting in less synapse formation, an effect distinct from that reported in the striatum. The data indicate that Plexin-D1 operates in a cell context-specific fashion, mediating different synaptogenic outcomes depending upon neuron type. PMID:25976775

  20. D-type cyclins and G1 progression during liver development in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Boylan, Joan M. . E-mail: Joan_Boylan@brown.edu; Gruppuso, Philip A. . E-mail: Philip_Gruppuso@brown.edu

    2005-05-13

    Initiation and progression through G1 requires the activity of signaling complexes containing cyclins (D- or E-type) and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK4/6 and CDK2, respectively). We set out to identify the G1-phase cyclins and CDKs that are operative during late gestation liver development in the rat. This is a period during which hepatocytes show a high rate of proliferation that is, at least in part, independent of the mitogenic signaling pathways that are functional in mature hepatocytes. RNase protection assay and Western immunoblotting indicated that cyclin D1 is expressed at similar levels in fetal and adult liver. When cyclin D1 was induced after partial hepatectomy, its predominant CDK-binding partner was CDK4. In contrast, cyclins D2 and D3 predominated in fetal liver and were complexed with both CDK4 and CDK6. Little CDK6 protein was expressed in quiescent or regenerating adult liver. Cyclins E1 and E2 were both transcriptionally up-regulated in fetal liver. Activity of complexes containing cyclins E1 and E2 was higher in fetal liver, as was content of the cell cycle regulator, Rb. In fetal liver, Rb was highly phosphorylated at both cyclin D- and cyclin E-dependent sites. In conclusion, liver development is associated with a switch from cyclin D2/D3-containing complexes to cyclin D1:CDK4 complexes. We speculate that the switch in D-type cyclins may be associated with the dependence on mitogenic signaling that develops as hepatocytes mature.

  1. NR1D1 ameliorates Mycobacterium tuberculosis clearance through regulation of autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Vemika; Bhagyaraj, Ella; Nanduri, Ravikanth; Ahuja, Nancy; Gupta, Pawan

    2015-01-01

    NR1D1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group D, member 1), an adopted orphan nuclear receptor, is widely known to orchestrate the expression of genes involved in various biological processes such as adipogenesis, skeletal muscle differentiation, and lipid and glucose metabolism. Emerging evidence suggests that various members of the nuclear receptor superfamily perform a decisive role in the modulation of autophagy. Recently, NR1D1 has been implicated in augmenting the antimycobacterial properties of macrophages and providing protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection by downregulating the expression of the IL10 gene in human macrophages. This antiinfective property of NR1D1 suggests the need for an improved understanding of its role in other host-associated antimycobacterial pathways. The results presented here demonstrate that in human macrophages either ectopic expression of NR1D1 or treatment with its agonist, GSK4112, enhanced the number of acidic vacuoles as well as the level of MAP1LC3-II, a signature molecule for determination of autophagy progression, in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Conversely, a decrease in NR1D1 in knockdown cells resulted in the reduced expression of lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1, LAMP1, commensurate with a decrease in the level of transcription factor EB, TFEB. This is indicative of that NR1D1 may have a regulatory role in lysosome biogenesis. NR1D1 being a repressor, its positive regulation on LAMP1 and TFEB is suggestive of an indirect byzantine mechanism of action. Its role in the modulation of autophagy and lysosome biogenesis together with its ability to repress IL10 gene expression supports the theory that NR1D1 has a pivotal antimycobacterial function in human macrophages. PMID:26390081

  2. The G1/S Specific Cyclin D2 Is a Regulator of HIV-1 Restriction in Non-proliferating Cells

    PubMed Central

    Badia, Roger; Pujantell, Maria; Riveira-Muñoz, Eva; Puig, Teresa; Torres-Torronteras, Javier; Martí, Ramón; Clotet, Bonaventura; Ampudia, Rosa M.; Ballana, Ester

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages are a heterogeneous cell population strongly influenced by differentiation stimuli that become susceptible to HIV-1 infection after inactivation of the restriction factor SAMHD1 by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK). Here, we have used primary human monocyte-derived macrophages differentiated through different stimuli to evaluate macrophage heterogeneity on cell activation and proliferation and susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. Stimulation of monocytes with GM-CSF induces a non-proliferating macrophage population highly restrictive to HIV-1 infection, characterized by the upregulation of the G1/S-specific cyclin D2, known to control early steps of cell cycle progression. Knockdown of cyclin D2, enhances HIV-1 replication in GM-CSF macrophages through inactivation of SAMHD1 restriction factor by phosphorylation. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments show that cyclin D2 forms a complex with CDK4 and p21, a factor known to restrict HIV-1 replication by affecting the function of the downstream cascade that leads to SAMHD1 deactivation. Thus, we demonstrate that cyclin D2 acts as regulator of cell cycle proteins affecting SAMHD1-mediated HIV-1 restriction in non-proliferating macrophages. PMID:27541004

  3. An enhancer trap line associated with a D-class cyclin gene in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, K; Yang, Y; Grotz, N; Campisi, L; Jack, T

    2000-12-01

    In yeast and animals, cyclins have been demonstrated to be important regulators of cell cycle progression. In recent years, a large number of A-, B-, and D-class cyclins have been isolated from a variety of plant species. One class of cyclins, the D-class cyclins, is important for progression through G1 phase of the cell cycle. In Arabidopsis, four D-class cyclins have been isolated and characterized (CYCLIN-D1;1, CYCLIN-D2;1, CYCLIN-D3;1, and CYCLIN-D4;1). In this report we describe the characterization of a fifth D-class cyclin gene, CYCLIN-D3;2 (CYCD3;2), from Arabidopsis. An enhancer trap line, line 5580, contains a T-DNA insertion in CYCD3;2. Enhancer trap line 5580 exhibits expression in young vegetative and floral primordia. In line 5580, T-DNA is inserted in the first exon of the CYCD3;2 gene; in homozygous 5580 plants CYCD3;2 RNA is not detectable. Even though CYCD3;2 gene function is eliminated, homozygous 5580 plants do not exhibit an obvious growth or developmental phenotype. Via in situ hybridization we demonstrate that CYCD3;2 RNA is expressed in developing vegetative and floral primordia. In addition, CYCD3;2 is also capable of rescuing a yeast strain that is deficient in G1 cyclin activity. PMID:11115883

  4. DEC1 regulates breast cancer cell proliferation by stabilizing cyclin E protein and delays the progression of cell cycle S phase

    PubMed Central

    Bi, H; Li, S; Qu, X; Wang, M; Bai, X; Xu, Z; Ao, X; Jia, Z; Jiang, X; Yang, Y; Wu, H

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer that is accompanied by a high level of cyclin E expression usually exhibits poor prognosis and clinical outcome. Several factors are known to regulate the level of cyclin E during the cell cycle progression. The transcription factor DEC1 (also known as STRA13 and SHARP2) plays an important role in cell proliferation and apoptosis. Nevertheless, the mechanism of its role in cell proliferation is poorly understood. In this study, using the breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and T47D, we showed that DEC1 could inhibit the cell cycle progression of breast cancer cells independently of its transcriptional activity. The cell cycle-dependent timing of DEC1 overexpression could affect the progression of the cell cycle through regulating the level of cyclin E protein. DEC1 stabilized cyclin E at the protein level by interacting with cyclin E. Overexpression of DEC1 repressed the interaction between cyclin E and its E3 ligase Fbw7α, consequently reducing the level of polyunbiquitinated cyclin E and increased the accumulation of non-ubiquitinated cyclin E. Furthermore, DEC1 also promoted the nuclear accumulation of Cdk2 and the formation of cyclin E/Cdk2 complex, as well as upregulating the activity of the cyclin E/Cdk2 complex, which inhibited the subsequent association of cyclin A with Cdk2. This had the effect of prolonging the S phase and suppressing the growth of breast cancers in a mouse xenograft model. These events probably constitute the essential steps in DEC1-regulated cell proliferation, thus opening up the possibility of a protein-based molecular strategy for eliminating cancer cells that manifest a high-level expression of cyclin E. PMID:26402517

  5. Regulation of μ and δ opioid receptor functions: involvement of cyclin-dependent kinase 5

    PubMed Central

    Beaudry, H; Mercier-Blais, A-A; Delaygue, C; Lavoie, C; Parent, J-L; Neugebauer, W; Gendron, L

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Phosphorylation of δ opioid receptors (DOP receptors) by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) was shown to regulate the trafficking of this receptor. Therefore, we aimed to determine the role of CDK5 in regulating DOP receptors in rats treated with morphine or with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). As μ (MOP) and DOP receptors are known to be co-regulated, we also sought to determine if CDK5-mediated regulation of DOP receptors also affects MOP receptor functions. Experimental Approach The role of CDK5 in regulating opioid receptors in CFA- and morphine-treated rats was studied using roscovitine as a CDK inhibitor and a cell-penetrant peptide mimicking the second intracellular loop of DOP receptors (C11-DOPri2). Opioid receptor functions were assessed in vivo in a series of behavioural experiments and correlated by measuring ERK1/2 activity in dorsal root ganglia homogenates. Key Results Chronic roscovitine treatment reduced the antinociceptive and antihyperalgesic effects of deltorphin II (Dlt II) in morphine- and CFA-treated rats respectively. Repeated administrations of C11-DOPri2 also robustly decreased Dlt II-induced analgesia. Interestingly, DAMGO-induced analgesia was significantly increased by roscovitine and C11-DOPri2. Concomitantly, in roscovitine-treated rats the Dlt II-induced ERK1/2 activation was decreased, whereas the DAMGO-induced ERK1/2 activation was increased. An acute roscovitine treatment had no effect on Dlt II- or DAMGO-induced analgesia. Conclusions and Implications Together, our results demonstrate that CDK5 is a key player in the regulation of DOP receptors in morphine- and CFA-treated rats and that the regulation of DOP receptors by CDK5 is sufficient to modulate MOP receptor functions through an indirect process. PMID:25598508

  6. CYCD3 D-type cyclins regulate cambial cell proliferation and secondary growth in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Carl; Maruthi, N. M.; Jahn, Courtney E.

    2015-01-01

    A major proportion of plant biomass is derived from the activity of the cambium, a lateral meristem responsible for vascular tissue formation and radial organ enlargement in a process termed secondary growth. In contrast to our relatively good understanding of the regulation of primary meristems, remarkably little is known concerning the mechanisms controlling secondary growth, particularly how cambial cell divisions are regulated and integrated with vascular differentiation. A genetic loss-of-function approach was used here to reveal a rate-limiting role for the Arabidopsis CYCLIN D3 (CYCD3) subgroup of cell-cycle genes in the control of cambial cell proliferation and secondary growth, providing conclusive evidence of a direct link between the cell cycle and vascular development. It is shown that all three CYCD3 genes are specifically expressed in the cambium throughout vascular development. Analysis of a triple loss-of-function CYCD3 mutant revealed a requirement for CYCD3 in promoting the cambial cell cycle since mutant stems and hypocotyls showed a marked reduction in diameter linked to reduced mitotic activity in the cambium. Conversely, loss of CYCD3 provoked an increase in xylem cell size and the expression of differentiation markers, showing that CYCD3 is required to restrain the differentiation of xylem precursor cells. Together, our data show that tight control of cambial cell division through developmental- and cell type-specific regulation of CYCD3 is required for normal vascular development, constituting part of a novel mechanism controlling organ growth in higher plants. PMID:26022252

  7. A Limited Role for the Cell Cycle Regulator Cyclin A1 in Murine Leukemogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bäumer, Nicole; Bäumer, Sebastian; Haak, Miriam; Koschmieder, Steffen; Schönig, Kai; Berdel, Wolfgang E.; Müller-Tidow, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    The quest for novel therapeutic targets in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is still ongoing. One of such targets, cyclin A1, was shown to be overexpressed in AML including AML stem cells. However, the function of cyclin A1 in AML is largely unknown, and the data on its impact on patients´ survival remain controversial. Therefore, we developed a transgenic mouse model of stem cell-directed inducible cyclin A1 overexpression and crossed these mice with PML-RARα-knockin mice, which develop an AML M3-like phenotype. To observe the effects of cyclin A1 loss-of-function, we also crossed PML-RARα-knockin mice to cyclin A1-knockout mice. Neither overexpression nor loss of cyclin A1 significantly altered leukemogenesis in PML-RARα-knockin mice. These findings imply that upregulation of cyclin A1 is not essential for leukemogenesis. Our data suggest that cyclin A1 does not represent a suitable target for AML therapy. PMID:26080083

  8. Modulation of extracellular signal-related kinase, cyclin D1, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and vimentin expression in estradiol-pretreated astrocyte cultures treated with competence and progression growth factors.

    PubMed

    Bramanti, Vincenzo; Grasso, Sonia; Tibullo, Daniele; Giallongo, Cesarina; Raciti, Giuseppina; Viola, Maria; Avola, Roberto

    2015-09-01

    The present study seeks to elucidate the interactions between the "competence" growth factor basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and/or estrogen 17β-estradiol and the "progression" growth factors epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and insulin (INS) on DNA labeling and also cyclin D1, extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and vimentin expression in astroglial cultures under different experimental conditions. Pretreatment for 24 hr with bFGF and subsequent exposure for 36 hr to estradiol (E2 ) and EGF, IGF-I, or INS stimulated DNA labeling in the last 12 hr, especially when the cultures were treated with progression growth factors. bFGF pretreatment and subsequent treatment with E2 for 36 hr stimulated DNA labeling. The 36-hr E2 treatment alone did not significantly decrease DNA labeling, but contemporary addition of E2 with two or three growth factors stimulated DNA labeling remarkably. When E2 was coadded with growth factors, a significantly increased DNA labeling was observed, demonstrating an astroglial synergistic mitogenic effect evoked by contemporary treatment with growth factors in the presence of estrogens. Cyclin D1 expression was markedly increased when astrocyte cultures were pretreated for 36 hr with E2 and subsequently treated with two or three competence and progression growth factors. A highly significant increase of ERK1/2 expression was observed after all the treatments (EGF, bFGF, INS, IGF-I alone or in combination with two or three growth factors). GFAP and vimentin expression was markedly increased when the cultures were treated with two or three growth factors. In conclusion, our data demonstrate estradiol-growth factor cross-talk during astroglial cell proliferation and differentiation in culture.

  9. An EBV recombinant deleted for residues 130-159 in EBNA3C can deregulate p53/Mdm2 and Cyclin D1/CDK6 which results in apoptosis and reduced cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    El-Naccache, Darine W.; Robertson, Erle S.

    2016-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a gamma herpes virus is associated with B-cell malignancies. EBNA-3C is critical for in vitro primary B-cell transformation. Interestingly, the N terminal domain of EBNA3C which contains residues 130–159, interacts with various cellular proteins, such as p53, Mdm2, CyclinD1/Cdk6 complex, and E2F1. In the current reverse genetics study, we deleted the residues 130-159 aa within EBNA3C open reading frame (ORF) by BACmid recombinant engineering methodology. Our experiments demonstrated that deletion of the 130-159 aa showed a reduction in cell proliferation. Also, this recombinant virus showed with higher infectivity of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) compared to wild type EBV. PBMCs- infected with recombinant EBV deleted for 130-159 residues have differential expression patterns for the p53/Mdm2, CyclinD1/Cdk6 and pRb/E2F1 pathways compared to wild type EBV-infected PBMCs. PBMCs infected with recombinant virus showed increased apoptotic cell death which further resulted in activation of polymerase 1 (PARP1), an important contributor to apoptotic signaling. Interestingly, cells infected with this recombinant virus showed a dramatic decrease in chromosomal instability, indicated by the presence of increased multinucleation and micronucleation. In addition infection with recombinant virus have increased cells in G0/G1 phase and decreased cells in S-G2M phase when compared to wild type infected cells. Thus, these differences in signaling activities due to 29 amino acid residues of EBNA3C is of particular significance in deregulation of cell proliferation in EBV-infected cells. PMID:26908453

  10. mTORC1 Down-Regulates Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 8 (CDK8) and Cyclin C (CycC)

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Daorong; Youn, Dou Yeon; Zhao, Xiaoping; Gao, Yanguang; Quinn, William J.; Xiaoli, Alus M.; Sun, Yan; Birnbaum, Morris J.; Pessin, Jeffrey E.; Yang, Fajun

    2015-01-01

    In non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and insulin resistance, hepatic de novo lipogenesis is often elevated, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Recently, we show that CDK8 functions to suppress de novo lipogenesis. Here, we identify the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) as a critical regulator of CDK8 and its activating partner CycC. Using pharmacologic and genetic approaches, we show that increased mTORC1 activation causes the reduction of the CDK8-CycC complex in vitro and in mouse liver in vivo. In addition, mTORC1 is more active in three mouse models of NAFLD, correlated with the lower abundance of the CDK8-CycC complex. Consistent with the inhibitory role of CDK8 on de novo lipogenesis, nuclear SREBP-1c proteins and lipogenic enzymes are accumulated in NAFLD models. Thus, our results suggest that mTORC1 activation in NAFLD and insulin resistance results in down-regulation of the CDK8-CycC complex and elevation of lipogenic protein expression. PMID:26042770

  11. CREB activity in dopamine D1 receptor expressing neurons regulates cocaine-induced behavioral effects

    PubMed Central

    Bilbao, Ainhoa; Rieker, Claus; Cannella, Nazzareno; Parlato, Rosanna; Golda, Slawomir; Piechota, Marcin; Korostynski, Michal; Engblom, David; Przewlocki, Ryszard; Schütz, Günther; Spanagel, Rainer; Parkitna, Jan R.

    2014-01-01

    It is suggested that striatal cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) regulates sensitivity to psychostimulants. To test the cell-specificity of this hypothesis we examined the effects of a dominant-negative CREB protein variant expressed in dopamine receptor D1 (D1R) neurons on cocaine-induced behaviors. A transgenic mouse strain was generated by pronuclear injection of a BAC-derived transgene harboring the A-CREB sequence under the control of the D1R gene promoter. Compared to wild-type, drug-naïve mutants showed moderate alterations in gene expression, especially a reduction in basal levels of activity-regulated transcripts such as Arc and Egr2. The behavioral responses to cocaine were elevated in mutant mice. Locomotor activity after acute treatment, psychomotor sensitization after intermittent drug injections and the conditioned locomotion after saline treatment were increased compared to wild-type littermates. Transgenic mice had significantly higher cocaine conditioned place preference, displayed normal extinction of the conditioned preference, but showed an augmented cocaine-seeking response following priming-induced reinstatement. This enhanced cocaine-seeking response was associated with increased levels of activity-regulated transcripts and prodynorphin. The primary reinforcing effects of cocaine were not altered in the mutant mice as they did not differ from wild-type in cocaine self-administration under a fixed ratio schedule at the training dose. Collectively, our data indicate that expression of a dominant-negative CREB variant exclusively in neurons expressing D1R is sufficient to recapitulate the previously reported behavioral phenotypes associated with virally expressed dominant-negative CREB. PMID:24966820

  12. CREB activity in dopamine D1 receptor expressing neurons regulates cocaine-induced behavioral effects.

    PubMed

    Bilbao, Ainhoa; Rieker, Claus; Cannella, Nazzareno; Parlato, Rosanna; Golda, Slawomir; Piechota, Marcin; Korostynski, Michal; Engblom, David; Przewlocki, Ryszard; Schütz, Günther; Spanagel, Rainer; Parkitna, Jan R

    2014-01-01

    It is suggested that striatal cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) regulates sensitivity to psychostimulants. To test the cell-specificity of this hypothesis we examined the effects of a dominant-negative CREB protein variant expressed in dopamine receptor D1 (D1R) neurons on cocaine-induced behaviors. A transgenic mouse strain was generated by pronuclear injection of a BAC-derived transgene harboring the A-CREB sequence under the control of the D1R gene promoter. Compared to wild-type, drug-naïve mutants showed moderate alterations in gene expression, especially a reduction in basal levels of activity-regulated transcripts such as Arc and Egr2. The behavioral responses to cocaine were elevated in mutant mice. Locomotor activity after acute treatment, psychomotor sensitization after intermittent drug injections and the conditioned locomotion after saline treatment were increased compared to wild-type littermates. Transgenic mice had significantly higher cocaine conditioned place preference, displayed normal extinction of the conditioned preference, but showed an augmented cocaine-seeking response following priming-induced reinstatement. This enhanced cocaine-seeking response was associated with increased levels of activity-regulated transcripts and prodynorphin. The primary reinforcing effects of cocaine were not altered in the mutant mice as they did not differ from wild-type in cocaine self-administration under a fixed ratio schedule at the training dose. Collectively, our data indicate that expression of a dominant-negative CREB variant exclusively in neurons expressing D1R is sufficient to recapitulate the previously reported behavioral phenotypes associated with virally expressed dominant-negative CREB. PMID:24966820

  13. High Expression of PTGR1 Promotes NSCLC Cell Growth via Positive Regulation of Cyclin-Dependent Protein Kinase Complex

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Weihe; Zhang, Yuefeng; Liu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer has been the most common cancer and the main cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide for several decades. PTGR1 (prostaglandin reductase 1), as a bifunctional enzyme, has been involved in the occurrence and progression of cancer. However, its impact on human lung cancer is rarely reported. In this study, we found that PTGR1 was overexpressed in lung cancer based on the analyses of Oncomine. Moreover, lentivirus-mediated shRNA knockdown of PTGR1 reduced cell viability in human lung carcinoma cells 95D and A549 by MTT and colony formation assay. PTGR1 depletion led to G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and increased the proportion of apoptotic cells in 95D cells by flow cytometry. Furthermore, silencing PTGR1 in 95D cells resulted in decreased levels of cyclin-dependent protein kinase complex (CDK1, CDK2, cyclin A2, and cyclin B1) by western blotting and then PTGR1 is positively correlated with cyclin-dependent protein by using the data mining of the Oncomine database. Therefore, our findings suggest that PTGR1 may play a role in lung carcinogenesis through regulating cell proliferation and is a potential new therapeutic strategy for lung cancer. PMID:27429979

  14. Down-regulating cyclin-dependent kinase 9 of alloreactive CD4+ T cells prolongs allograft survival

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Yang; Han, Yeming; Sun, Hukui; Liang, Ting; Zhang, Chao; Song, Jing; Hou, Guihua

    2016-01-01

    CDK9 (Cyclin-dependent kinase 9)/Cyclin T1/RNA polymerase II pathway has been demonstrated to promote the development of several inflammatory diseases, such as arthritis or atherosclerosis, however, its roles in allotransplantation rejection have not been addressed. Here, we found that CDK9/Cyclin T1 were apparently up-regulated in the allogeneic group, which was positively correlated with allograft damage. CDK9 was inhibited obviously in naive splenic CD4+ T cells treated 6 h with 3 μM PHA767491 (a CDK9 inhibitor), and adoptive transfer of these CD4+ T cells into allografted SCID mice resulted in prolonged survival compared with the group without PHA767491 pretreated. Decelerated rejection was correlated with enhanced IL-4 and IL-10 production and with decreased IFN-γ production by alloreactive T cells. More interestingly, we found that CDK942, not CDK955, was high expressed in allorejection group, which could be prominently dampened with PHA767491 treatment. The expression of CDK942 was consistent with its downstream molecule RNA polymerase II. Altogether, our findings revealed the crucial role of CDK9/Cyclin T1/Pol II pathway in promoting allorejection at multiple levels and may provide a new approach for transplantation tolerance induction through targeting CDK9. PMID:27102157

  15. Cyclin G Functions as a Positive Regulator of Growth and Metabolism in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Adriana; Preiss, Anette; Nagel, Anja C.

    2015-01-01

    In multicellular organisms, growth and proliferation is adjusted to nutritional conditions by a complex signaling network. The Insulin receptor/target of rapamycin (InR/TOR) signaling cascade plays a pivotal role in nutrient dependent growth regulation in Drosophila and mammals alike. Here we identify Cyclin G (CycG) as a regulator of growth and metabolism in Drosophila. CycG mutants have a reduced body size and weight and show signs of starvation accompanied by a disturbed fat metabolism. InR/TOR signaling activity is impaired in cycG mutants, combined with a reduced phosphorylation status of the kinase Akt1 and the downstream factors S6-kinase and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein (4E-BP). Moreover, the expression and accumulation of Drosophila insulin like peptides (dILPs) is disturbed in cycG mutant brains. Using a reporter assay, we show that the activity of one of the first effectors of InR signaling, Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K92E), is unaffected in cycG mutants. However, the metabolic defects and weight loss in cycG mutants were rescued by overexpression of Akt1 specifically in the fat body and by mutants in widerborst (wdb), the B'-subunit of the phosphatase PP2A, known to downregulate Akt1 by dephosphorylation. Together, our data suggest that CycG acts at the level of Akt1 to regulate growth and metabolism via PP2A in Drosophila. PMID:26274446

  16. Negative regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 targets by protein kinase C

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Bogachan; Hawasli, Ammar H.; Greene, Robert W.; Molkentin, Jeffery D.; Bibb, James A.

    2008-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a proline-directed protein serine/threonine kinase essential for brain development and implicated in synaptic plasticity, dopaminergic neurotransmission, drug addiction, and neurodegenerative disorders. Relatively little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate the activity of Cdk5 in vivo. In order to determine whether protein kinase C (PKC) regulates Cdk5 activity in the central nervous system, the phosphorylation levels of two Cdk5 substrates were evaluated under conditions of altered PKC activity in vivo. Treatment of acute striatal slices with a PKC-activating phorbol ester caused a time- and dose-dependent decrease in the levels of phospho-Ser6 inhibitor-1, phospho-Ser67 inhibitor-1, and phospho-Thr75 dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein, Mr 32,000 (DARPP-32). This effect was reversed by the PKC inhibitor, Ro-32-0432. Moreover, phospho-Ser6 inhibitor-1, phospho-Ser67 inhibitor-1, and phospho-Thr75 DARPP-32 levels were elevated in brain tissue from mice lacking the gene for PKC-α. PKC did not phosphorylate Cdk5 or its cofactor, p25, in vitro. Striatal levels of the Cdk5 cofactor, p35, did not change in response to phorbol ester treatment. Furthermore, Cdk5 immunoprecipitated from striatal slices treated with phorbol ester had unaltered activity toward a control substrate in vitro. These results suggest that PKC exerts its effects on the phosphorylation state of Cdk5 substrates through an indirect mechanism that may involve the regulatory binding partners of Cdk5 other than its neuronal cofactors. PMID:18190909

  17. Differential regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors in neuroblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Qiao, Lan; Paul, Pritha; Lee, Sora; Qiao, Jingbo; Wang, Yongsheng; Chung, Dai H.

    2013-05-31

    Highlights: •GRP-R signaling differentially regulated the expression of p21 and p27. •Silencing GRP/GRP-R downregulated p21, while p27 expression was upregulated. •Inhibition of GRP/GRP-R signaling enhanced PTEN expression, correlative to the increased expression of p27. •PTEN and p27 co-localized in cytoplasm and silencing PTEN decreased p27 expression. -- Abstract: Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and its receptor (GRP-R) are highly expressed in undifferentiated neuroblastoma, and they play critical roles in oncogenesis. We previously reported that GRP activates the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway to promote DNA synthesis and cell cycle progression in neuroblastoma cells. Conversely, GRP-R silencing induces cell cycle arrest. Here, we speculated that GRP/GRP-R signaling induces neuroblastoma cell proliferation via regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors. Surprisingly, we found that GRP/GRP-R differentially induced expressions of p21 and p27. Silencing GRP/GRP-R decreased p21, but it increased p27 expressions in neuroblastoma cells. Furthermore, we found that the intracellular localization of p21 and p27 in the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments, respectively. In addition, we found that GRP/GRP-R silencing increased the expression and accumulation of PTEN in the cytoplasm of neuroblastoma cells where it co-localized with p27, thus suggesting that p27 promotes the function of PTEN as a tumor suppressor by stabilizing PTEN in the cytoplasm. GRP/GRP-R regulation of CDK inhibitors and tumor suppressor PTEN may be critical for tumoriogenesis of neuroblastoma.

  18. Negative regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 targets by protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Bogachan; Hawasli, Ammar H; Greene, Robert W; Molkentin, Jeffery D; Bibb, James A

    2008-03-10

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a proline-directed protein serine/threonine kinase essential for brain development and implicated in synaptic plasticity, dopaminergic neurotransmission, drug addiction, and neurodegenerative disorders. Relatively little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate the activity of Cdk5 in vivo. In order to determine whether protein kinase C (PKC) regulates Cdk5 activity in the central nervous system, the phosphorylation levels of two Cdk5 substrates were evaluated under conditions of altered PKC activity in vivo. Treatment of acute striatal slices with a PKC-activating phorbol ester caused a time- and dose-dependent decrease in the levels of phospho-Ser6 inhibitor-1, phospho-Ser67 inhibitor-1, and phospho-Thr75 dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein, Mr 32,000 (DARPP-32). This effect was reversed by the PKC inhibitor, Ro-32-0432. Moreover, phospho-Ser6 inhibitor-1, phospho-Ser67 inhibitor-1, and phospho-Thr75 DARPP-32 levels were elevated in brain tissue from mice lacking the gene for PKC-alpha. PKC did not phosphorylate Cdk5 or its cofactor, p25, in vitro. Striatal levels of the Cdk5 cofactor, p35, did not change in response to phorbol ester treatment. Furthermore, Cdk5 immunoprecipitated from striatal slices treated with phorbol ester had unaltered activity toward a control substrate in vitro. These results suggest that PKC exerts its effects on the phosphorylation state of Cdk5 substrates through an indirect mechanism that may involve the regulatory binding partners of Cdk5 other than its neuronal cofactors.

  19. Cyclin-dependent kinase regulates the length of S phase through TICRR/TRESLIN phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Goins, Duane; Siefert, Joseph C.; Clowdus, Emily A.

    2015-01-01

    S-phase cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) stimulate replication initiation and accelerate progression through the replication timing program, but it is unknown which CDK substrates are responsible for these effects. CDK phosphorylation of the replication factor TICRR (TopBP1-interacting checkpoint and replication regulator)/TRESLIN is required for DNA replication. We show here that phosphorylated TICRR is limiting for S-phase progression. Overexpression of a TICRR mutant with phosphomimetic mutations at two key CDK-phosphorylated residues (TICRRTESE) stimulates DNA synthesis and shortens S phase by increasing replication initiation. This effect requires the TICRR region that is necessary for its interaction with MDM two-binding protein. Expression of TICRRTESE does not grossly alter the spatial organization of replication forks in the nucleus but does increase replication clusters and the number of replication forks within each cluster. In contrast to CDK hyperactivation, the acceleration of S-phase progression by TICRRTESE does not induce DNA damage. These results show that CDK can stimulate initiation and compress the replication timing program by phosphorylating a single protein, suggesting a simple mechanism by which S-phase length is controlled. PMID:25737283

  20. The cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk1 directly regulates vacuole inheritance.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yutian; Weisman, Lois S

    2008-09-01

    In budding yeast, vacuole inheritance is tightly coordinated with the cell cycle. The movement of vacuoles and several other organelles is actin-based and is mediated by interaction between the yeast myosin V motor Myo2 and organelle-specific adaptors. Myo2 binds to vacuoles via the adaptor protein Vac17, which binds to the vacuole membrane protein Vac8. Here we show that the yeast cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk1 phosphorylates Vac17 and that phosphorylation of Vac17 parallels cell cycle-dependent movement of the vacuole. Substitution of the Cdk1 sites in Vac17 decreases its interaction with Myo2 and causes a partial defect in vacuole inheritance. This defect is enhanced in the presence of Myo2 with mutated phosphorylation sites. Thus, Cdk1 appears to control the timing of vacuole movement. The presence of multiple predicted Cdk1 sites in other organelle-specific myosin V adaptors suggests that the inheritance of other cytoplasmic organelles may be regulated by a similar mechanism.

  1. Real time detection of cell cycle regulator cyclin A on living tumor cells with europium emission.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongguang; Chadbourne, Frances L; Lan, Rongfeng; Chan, Chi-Fai; Chan, Wai-Lun; Law, Ga-Lai; Lee, Chi-Sing; Cobb, Steven L; Wong, Ka-Leung

    2013-10-01

    Six water-soluble europium complexes (Eu-L1-P(n) and Eu-L2-P(n), n = 1, 2 and 3) with one antenna chromophore, two different linkers (L1 and L2) and three proposed cyclin A specific peptides (P1: -GAKRRLIF-NH2; P2: -GGAKRRLIF-NH2; P3: -Hex- GAKRRLIF-NH2) have been synthesized. With structural information available, comparisons of the cyclin grooves of cyclin A and the six europium complexes have been made, and insights have been gained into the determinants for peptide binding and the foundation of differential binding. Experiment-wise, the linear and two-photon induced photophysical properties of these conjugates were monitored in aqueous solution. Numerous in situ/in vitro biological assays have been carried out, such as responsive emission changes in situ/in vitro, Western blot and cellular uptake. As imaging agents, complexes with peptides P3: -Hex-GAKRRLIF-NH2 showed high selectivity to cyclin A in numerous cancer cells. When it comes to responsive optical signal changes, complex Eu-L2-P3 exhibited a threefold emission enhancement upon binding with cyclin A (100 nM cyclin A, ϕ = 8% to 21%, log KB = 5.83, detection limit = 5 nM), and this could be initiated by the shortened distance between the antenna and the lanthanide after they bind/get into cyclin A. It is promising that our compounds (especially compound Eu-L2-P3) could serve as the template for structure-guided efforts to develop potential imaging therapeutics on the basis of selective imaging of CDK2/cyclin A activity.

  2. The Secreted Enzyme PM20D1 Regulates Lipidated Amino Acid Uncouplers of Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Long, Jonathan Z; Svensson, Katrin J; Bateman, Leslie A; Lin, Hua; Kamenecka, Theodore; Lokurkar, Isha A; Lou, Jesse; Rao, Rajesh R; Chang, Mi Ra; Jedrychowski, Mark P; Paulo, Joao A; Gygi, Steven P; Griffin, Patrick R; Nomura, Daniel K; Spiegelman, Bruce M

    2016-07-14

    Brown and beige adipocytes are specialized cells that express uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and dissipate chemical energy as heat. These cells likely possess alternative UCP1-independent thermogenic mechanisms. Here, we identify a secreted enzyme, peptidase M20 domain containing 1 (PM20D1), that is enriched in UCP1(+) versus UCP1(-) adipocytes. We demonstrate that PM20D1 is a bidirectional enzyme in vitro, catalyzing both the condensation of fatty acids and amino acids to generate N-acyl amino acids and also the reverse hydrolytic reaction. N-acyl amino acids directly bind mitochondria and function as endogenous uncouplers of UCP1-independent respiration. Mice with increased circulating PM20D1 have augmented respiration and increased N-acyl amino acids in blood. Lastly, administration of N-acyl amino acids to mice improves glucose homeostasis and increases energy expenditure. These data identify an enzymatic node and a family of metabolites that regulate energy homeostasis. This pathway might be useful for treating obesity and associated disorders. PMID:27374330

  3. Post-transcriptional regulation of dopamine D1 receptor expression in caudate-putamen of cocaine-sensitized mice.

    PubMed

    Tobón, Krishna E; Catuzzi, Jennifer E; Cote, Samantha R; Sonaike, Adenike; Kuzhikandathil, Eldo V

    2015-07-01

    The dopamine D1 receptor is centrally involved in mediating the effects of cocaine and is essential for cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization. Changes in D1 receptor expression have been reported in various models of cocaine addiction; however, the mechanisms that mediate these changes in D1 receptor expression are not well understood. Using preadolescent drd1a-EGFP mice and a binge cocaine treatment protocol we demonstrate that the D1 receptor is post-transcriptionally regulated in the caudate-putamen of cocaine-sensitized animal. While cocaine-sensitized mice express high levels of steady-state D1 receptor mRNA, the expression of D1 receptor protein is not elevated. We determined that the post-transcriptional regulation of D1 receptor mRNA is rapidly attenuated and D1 receptor protein levels increase within 30 min when the sensitized mice are challenged with cocaine. The rapid increase in D1 receptor protein levels requires de novo protein synthesis and correlates with the cocaine-induced hyperlocomotor activity in the cocaine-sensitized mice. The increase in D1 receptor protein levels in the caudate-putamen inversely correlated with the levels of microRNA 142-3p and 382, both of which regulate D1 receptor protein expression. The levels of these two microRNAs decreased significantly within 5 min of cocaine challenge in sensitized mice. The results provide novel insights into the previously unknown rapid kinetics of D1 receptor protein expression which occurs in a time scale that is comparable to the expression of immediate early genes. Furthermore, the results suggest a potential novel role for inherently labile microRNAs in regulating the rapid expression of D1 receptor protein in cocaine-sensitized animals. PMID:25900179

  4. Post-transcriptional regulation of dopamine D1 receptor expression in caudate-putamen of cocaine-sensitized mice

    PubMed Central

    Tobón, Krishna E.; Catuzzi, Jennifer E.; Cote, Samantha R.; Sonaike, Adenike; Kuzhikandathil, Eldo V.

    2015-01-01

    The dopamine D1 receptor is centrally involved in mediating the effects of cocaine and is essential for cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization. Changes in D1 receptor expression has been reported in various models of cocaine addiction; however, the mechanisms that mediate these changes in D1 receptor expression are not well understood. Using preadolescent drd1a-EGFP mice and a binge cocaine treatment protocol we demonstrate that the D1 receptor is post-transcriptionally regulated in the caudate-putamen of cocaine-sensitized animal. While cocaine-sensitized mice express high levels of steady state D1 receptor mRNA, the expression of D1 receptor protein is not elevated. We determined that the post-transcriptional regulation of D1 receptor mRNA is rapidly attenuated and D1 receptor protein levels increase within thirty minutes when the sensitized mice are challenged with cocaine. The rapid increase in D1 receptor protein levels requires de novo protein synthesis and correlates with the cocaine-induced hyperlocomotor activity in the cocaine-sensitized mice. The increase in D1 receptor protein levels in the caudate-putamen inversely correlated to the levels of microRNA 142-3p and 382, both of which regulate D1 receptor protein expression. The levels of these two microRNAs decreased significantly within five minutes of cocaine challenge in sensitized mice. The results provide novel insights into the previously unknown rapid kinetics of D1 receptor protein expression which occurs in a time scale that is comparable to the expression of immediate early genes. Furthermore, the results suggests a potential novel role for inherently labile microRNAs in regulating the rapid expression of D1 receptor protein in cocaine-sensitized animals. PMID:25900179

  5. CDK8-Cyclin C Mediates Nutritional Regulation of Developmental Transitions through the Ecdysone Receptor in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xiao-Jun; Hsu, Fu-Ning; Gao, Xinsheng; Xu, Wu; Ni, Jian-Quan; Xing, Yue; Huang, Liying; Hsiao, Hao-Ching; Zheng, Haiyan; Wang, Chenguang; Zheng, Yani; Xiaoli, Alus M.; Yang, Fajun; Bondos, Sarah E.; Ji, Jun-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The steroid hormone ecdysone and its receptor (EcR) play critical roles in orchestrating developmental transitions in arthropods. However, the mechanism by which EcR integrates nutritional and developmental cues to correctly activate transcription remains poorly understood. Here, we show that EcR-dependent transcription, and thus, developmental timing in Drosophila, is regulated by CDK8 and its regulatory partner Cyclin C (CycC), and the level of CDK8 is affected by nutrient availability. We observed that cdk8 and cycC mutants resemble EcR mutants and EcR-target genes are systematically down-regulated in both mutants. Indeed, the ability of the EcR-Ultraspiracle (USP) heterodimer to bind to polytene chromosomes and the promoters of EcR target genes is also diminished. Mass spectrometry analysis of proteins that co-immunoprecipitate with EcR and USP identified multiple Mediator subunits, including CDK8 and CycC. Consistently, CDK8-CycC interacts with EcR-USP in vivo; in particular, CDK8 and Med14 can directly interact with the AF1 domain of EcR. These results suggest that CDK8-CycC may serve as transcriptional cofactors for EcR-dependent transcription. During the larval–pupal transition, the levels of CDK8 protein positively correlate with EcR and USP levels, but inversely correlate with the activity of sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP), the master regulator of intracellular lipid homeostasis. Likewise, starvation of early third instar larvae precociously increases the levels of CDK8, EcR and USP, yet down-regulates SREBP activity. Conversely, refeeding the starved larvae strongly reduces CDK8 levels but increases SREBP activity. Importantly, these changes correlate with the timing for the larval–pupal transition. Taken together, these results suggest that CDK8-CycC links nutrient intake to developmental transitions (EcR activity) and fat metabolism (SREBP activity) during the larval–pupal transition. PMID:26222308

  6. The transcription factor, the Cdk, its cyclin and their regulator: directing the transcriptional response to a nutritional signal.

    PubMed Central

    Hirst, K; Fisher, F; McAndrew, P C; Goding, C R

    1994-01-01

    The Pho80-Pho85 cyclin-cdk complex prevents transcription of PHO5 by inhibiting the ability of the basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factor Pho4 to activate transcription in response to high phosphate conditions. In low phosphate the Pho80-Pho85 complex is inactivated and Pho4 is then able to activate the acid phosphatase gene PHO5. We show here that Pho4 and the homeobox protein Pho2 interact in vivo and act cooperatively to activate the PHO5 UAS, with interaction being regulated by the phosphate switch. In addition, we also demonstrate that an additional factor, Pho81, interacts in high phosphate with both the Pho80 cyclin and with Pho4. In low phosphate, Pho80 and Pho81 dissociate from Pho4, but retain the ability to interact with each other. The evidence presented here supports the idea that Pho81 acts as a phosphate-sensitive trigger that regulates the ability of the Pho80-Pho85 cyclin-cdk complex to bind Pho4, while DNA binding by Pho4 is dependent on the phosphate-sensitive interaction with Pho2. Images PMID:7957107

  7. Phosphorylation of AIB1 at Mitosis Is Regulated by CDK1/CYCLIN B

    PubMed Central

    Ferrero, Macarena; Ferragud, Juan; Orlando, Leonardo; Valero, Luz; Sánchez del Pino, Manuel; Farràs, Rosa; Font de Mora, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    Background Although the AIB1 oncogene has an important role during the early phase of the cell cycle as a coactivator of E2F1, little is known about its function during mitosis. Methodology/Principal Findings Mitotic cells isolated by nocodazole treatment as well as by shake-off revealed a post-translational modification occurring in AIB1 specifically during mitosis. This modification was sensitive to the treatment with phosphatase, suggesting its modification by phosphorylation. Using specific inhibitors and in vitro kinase assays we demonstrate that AIB1 is phosphorylated on Ser728 and Ser867 by Cdk1/cyclin B at the onset of mitosis and remains phosphorylated until exit from M phase. Differences in the sensitivity to phosphatase inhibitors suggest that PP1 mediates dephosphorylation of AIB1 at the end of mitosis. The phosphorylation of AIB1 during mitosis was not associated with ubiquitylation or degradation, as confirmed by western blotting and flow cytometry analysis. In addition, luciferase reporter assays showed that this phosphorylation did not alter the transcriptional properties of AIB1. Importantly, fluorescence microscopy and sub-cellular fractionation showed that AIB1 phosphorylation correlated with the exclusion from the condensed chromatin, thus preventing access to the promoters of AIB1-dependent genes. Phospho-specific antibodies developed against Ser728 further demonstrated the presence of phosphorylated AIB1 only in mitotic cells where it was localized preferentially in the periphery of the cell. Conclusions Collectively, our results describe a new mechanism for the regulation of AIB1 during mitosis, whereby phosphorylation of AIB1 by Cdk1 correlates with the subcellular redistribution of AIB1 from a chromatin-associated state in interphase to a more peripheral localization during mitosis. At the exit of mitosis, AIB1 is dephosphorylated, presumably by PP1. This exclusion from chromatin during mitosis may represent a mechanism for governing the

  8. Regulation of hippocampal and behavioral excitability by cyclin-dependent kinase 5.

    PubMed

    Hawasli, Ammar H; Koovakkattu, Della; Hayashi, Kanehiro; Anderson, Anne E; Powell, Craig M; Sinton, Christopher M; Bibb, James A; Cooper, Donald C

    2009-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase that has been implicated in learning, synaptic plasticity, neurotransmission, and numerous neurological disorders. We previously showed that conditional loss of Cdk5 in adult mice enhanced hippocampal learning and plasticity via modulation of calpain-mediated N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR) degradation. In the present study, we characterize the enhanced synaptic plasticity and examine the effects of long-term Cdk5 loss on hippocampal excitability in adult mice. Field excitatory post-synaptic potentials (fEPSPs) from the Schaffer collateral CA1 subregion of the hippocampus (SC/CA1) reveal that loss of Cdk5 altered theta burst topography and enhanced post-tetanic potentiation. Since Cdk5 governs NMDAR NR2B subunit levels, we investigated the effects of long-term Cdk5 knockout on hippocampal neuronal excitability by measuring NMDAR-mediated fEPSP magnitudes and population-spike thresholds. Long-term loss of Cdk5 led to increased Mg(2+)-sensitive potentials and a lower threshold for epileptiform activity and seizures. Biochemical analyses were performed to better understand the role of Cdk5 in seizures. Induced-seizures in wild-type animals led to elevated amounts of p25, the Cdk5-activating cofactor. Long-term, but not acute, loss of Cdk5 led to decreased p25 levels, suggesting that Cdk5/p25 may be activated as a homeostatic mechanism to attenuate epileptiform activity. These findings indicate that Cdk5 regulates synaptic plasticity, controls neuronal and behavioral stimulus-induced excitability and may be a novel pharmacological target for cognitive and anticonvulsant therapies. PMID:19529798

  9. Triphala Extract Suppresses Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis in Human Colon Cancer Stem Cells via Suppressing c-Myc/Cyclin D1 and Elevation of Bax/Bcl-2 Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Vadde, Ramakrishna; Radhakrishnan, Sridhar; Reddivari, Lavanya; Vanamala, Jairam K. P.

    2015-01-01

    Colon cancer is the second leading cause of cancer related deaths in the USA. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have the ability to drive continued expansion of the population of malignant cells. Therefore, strategies that target CSCs could be effective against colon cancer and in reducing the risk of relapse and metastasis. In this study, we evaluated the antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects of triphala, a widely used formulation in Indian traditional medicine, on HCT116 colon cancer cells and human colon cancer stem cells (HCCSCs). The total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and phytochemical composition (LC-MS-MS) of methanol extract of triphala (MET) were also measured. We observed that MET contains a variety of phenolics including naringin, quercetin, homoorientin, and isorhamnetin. MET suppressed proliferation independent of p53 status in HCT116 and in HCCSCs. MET also induced p53-independent apoptosis in HCCSCs as indicated by elevated levels of cleaved PARP. Western blotting data suggested that MET suppressed protein levels of c-Myc and cyclin D1, key proteins involved in proliferation, and induced apoptosis through elevation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Furthermore, MET inhibited HCCSCs colony formation, a measure of CSCs self-renewal ability. Anticancer effects of triphala observed in our study warrant future studies to determine its efficacy in vivo. PMID:26167492

  10. Maple polyphenols, ginnalins A-C, induce S- and G2/M-cell cycle arrest in colon and breast cancer cells mediated by decreasing cyclins A and D1 levels.

    PubMed

    González-Sarrías, Antonio; Ma, Hang; Edmonds, Maxwell E; Seeram, Navindra P

    2013-01-15

    Polyphenols are bioactive compounds found in plant foods. Ginnalins A-C are polyphenols present in the sap and other parts of the sugar and red maple species which are used to produce maple syrup. Here we evaluated the antiproliferative effects of ginnalins A-C on colon (HCT-116) and breast (MCF-7) tumourigenic and non-tumourigenic colon (CCD-18Co) cells and investigated whether these effects were mediated through cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis. Ginnalins A-C were twofold more effective against the tumourigenic than non-tumourigenic cells. Among the polyphenols, ginnalin A (84%, HCT-116; 49%, MCF-7) was more effective than ginnalins B and C (50%, HCT-116; 30%, MCF-7) at 50 μM concentrations. Ginnalin A did not induce apoptosis of the cancer cells but arrested cell cycle (in the S- and G(2)/M-phases) and decreased cyclins A and D1 protein levels. These results suggest that maple polyphenols may have potential cancer chemopreventive effects mediated through cell cycle arrest. PMID:23122108

  11. Tis21 is required for adult neurogenesis in the subventricular zone and for olfactory behavior regulating cyclins, BMP4, Hes1/5 and Ids.

    PubMed

    Farioli-Vecchioli, Stefano; Ceccarelli, Manuela; Saraulli, Daniele; Micheli, Laura; Cannas, Sara; D'Alessandro, Francesca; Scardigli, Raffaella; Leonardi, Luca; Cinà, Irene; Costanzi, Marco; Mattera, Andrea; Cestari, Vincenzo; Tirone, Felice

    2014-01-01

    Bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) and the Notch pathway regulate quiescence and self-renewal of stem cells of the subventricular zone (SVZ), an adult neurogenic niche. Here we analyze the role at the intersection of these pathways of Tis21 (Btg2/PC3), a gene regulating proliferation and differentiation of adult SVZ stem and progenitor cells. In Tis21-null SVZ and cultured neurospheres, we observed a strong decrease in the expression of BMP4 and its effectors Smad1/8, while the Notch anti-neural mediators Hes1/5 and the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) inhibitors Id1-3 increased. Consistently, expression of the proneural bHLH gene NeuroD1 decreased. Moreover, cyclins D1/2, A2, and E were strongly up-regulated. Thus, in the SVZ Tis21 activates the BMP pathway and inhibits the Notch pathway and the cell cycle. Correspondingly, the Tis21-null SVZ stem cells greatly increased; nonetheless, the proliferating neuroblasts diminished, whereas the post-mitotic neuroblasts paradoxically accumulated in SVZ, failing to migrate along the rostral migratory stream to the olfactory bulb. The ability, however, of neuroblasts to migrate from SVZ explants was not affected, suggesting that Tis21-null neuroblasts do not migrate to the olfactory bulb because of a defect in terminal differentiation. Notably, BMP4 addition or Id3 silencing rescued the defective differentiation observed in Tis21-null neurospheres, indicating that they mediate the Tis21 pro-differentiative action. The reduced number of granule neurons in the Tis21-null olfactory bulb led to a defect in olfactory detection threshold, without effect on olfactory memory, also suggesting that within olfactory circuits new granule neurons play a primary role in odor sensitivity rather than in memory.

  12. miR-206 is down-regulated in breast cancer and inhibits cell proliferation through the up-regulation of cyclinD2

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Jing; Tian, Ye; Li, Juan; Lu, Binbin; Sun, Ming; Zou, Yanfen; Kong, Rong; Luo, Yanhong; Shi, Yongguo; Wang, Keming; Ji, Guozhong

    2013-04-05

    Highlights: ► miR-206 was downexpressed in tumor samples compared with matched normal samples. ► Enhanced expression of miR-206 could inhibit breast cancer growth in vitro. ► Luciferase confirmed miR-206 functions as an anti-oncogene by targeting cyclinD2. ► A reverse correlation between miR-206 and cyclinD2 in breast cancer was found. -- Abstract: MicroRNAs act as important gene regulators in human genomes, and their aberrant expression is linked to many malignancies. Aberrant expression of miR-206 has been frequently reported in cancer studies; however, the role and mechanism of its function in breast cancer remains unclear. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to detect the relative expression levels of miR-206 in breast cancer and normal breast tissues. Lower expression of miR-206 in breast cancer tissues was associated with larger tumour size and a more advanced clinical stage. Further in vitro observations showed that the enforced expression of miR-206 in MCF-7 breast cancer cells inhibited cell growth by blocking the G1/S transition and suppressed cell proliferation and colony formation, implying that miR-206 functions as a tumour suppressor in the progression of breast cancer. Interestingly, Luciferase assays first revealed that miR-206 inhibited cyclinD2 expression by targeting two binding sites in the 3′-untranslated region of cyclinD2 mRNA. qRT-PCR and Western blot assays verified that miR-206 reduced cyclinD2 expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. A reverse correlation between miR-206 and cyclinD2 expression was noted in breast cancer tissues. Altogether, our results identify a crucial tumour suppressive role of miR-206 in the progression of breast cancer, at least partly via up-regulation of the expression of cyclinD2, and suggest that miR-206 might be a candidate prognostic predictor or an anticancer therapeutic target for breast cancer patients.

  13. The regulators of yeast PHO system participate in the transcriptional regulation of G1 cyclin under alkaline stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Masafumi

    2015-03-01

    The yeast Pho85 kinase oversees whether environmental conditions are favourable for cell growth and enables yeast cells to express only genes that are appropriate for the conditions. Alkaline stress perturbs transport of molecules across the plasma membrane that is vital for cell survival. Progression through the cell cycle is halted until the cells can adapt to the stress conditions. I found that Pho85 is required for CLN2 expression and that overproduction of the transcription factors Pho4, Rim101 and Crz1, all targets of Pho85, inhibited CLN2 expression. CLN2 expression in the absence of Pho85 could be recovered only when all the three transcription factors were deleted. Whi5, a functional homologue of the mammalian Rb protein, represses CLN2 expression and is inactivated when phosphorylated by either of the CDK-cyclin complexes, Cdc28-Cln3 or Pho85-Pcl9. Under alkaline conditions, the absence of Whi5 caused an increase in CLN2 expression but failed to do so when Pho85 was also absent, or when Pho4 was overproduced. The expression level of CLN2 in a Δpho85 Δpho4 Δrim101 Δcrz1 quadruple mutant was stimulated when the Whi5 activity was repressed by overproduction of Pho85-Pcl9. These results indicate that Whi5 is also under control of alkaline stress. The inhibitory function of Whi5 on CLN2 is dependent on Rpd3 HDAC, and the absence of Rpd3 could also suppress the inhibitory effect of Pho4 overproduction. Based on these findings, a model is presented in which Pho85 and Pho4 functions in CLN2 regulation under alkaline conditions.

  14. Cyclin E/Cdk2, P/CAF, and E1A regulate the transactivation of the c-myc promoter by FOXM1

    SciTech Connect

    Wierstra, Inken Alves, Juergen

    2008-03-28

    FOXM1c transactivates the c-myc promoter by binding directly to its TATA-boxes. The present study demonstrates that the transactivation of the c-myc promoter by FOXM1c is enhanced by the key proliferation signal cyclin E/Cdk2, but repressed by P/CAF and the adenoviral oncoprotein E1A. Furthermore, FOXM1c interacts with the coactivator and histone acetyltransferase P/CAF. This study shows that, on the c-myc-P1 TATA-box, FOXM1c does not function simply as normal transcription factor just binding to an unusual site. Moreover, the inhibitory N-terminus of FOXM1c does not inhibit its transrepression domain or its EDA. Others reported that a cyclin/Cdk-binding LXL-motif of the splice variant FoxM1b is required for its interaction with Cdk2, Cdk1, and p27, its phosphorylation by Cdk1 and its activation by Cdc25B. In contrast, we now demonstrate that this LXL-motif is not required for the activation of FOXM1c by cyclin D1/Cdk4, cyclin E/Cdk and cyclin A/Cdk2 or for the repression of FOXM1c by p27.

  15. Regulation of Cdc28 Cyclin-Dependent Protein Kinase Activity during the Cell Cycle of the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Mendenhall, Michael D.; Hodge, Amy E.

    1998-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) encoded by CDC28 is the master regulator of cell division in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. By mechanisms that, for the most part, remain to be delineated, Cdc28 activity controls the timing of mitotic commitment, bud initiation, DNA replication, spindle formation, and chromosome separation. Environmental stimuli and progress through the cell cycle are monitored through checkpoint mechanisms that influence Cdc28 activity at key cell cycle stages. A vast body of information concerning how Cdc28 activity is timed and coordinated with various mitotic events has accrued. This article reviews that literature. Following an introduction to the properties of CDKs common to many eukaryotic species, the key influences on Cdc28 activity—cyclin-CKI binding and phosphorylation-dephosphorylation events—are examined. The processes controlling the abundance and activity of key Cdc28 regulators, especially transcriptional and proteolytic mechanisms, are then discussed in detail. Finally, the mechanisms by which environmental stimuli influence Cdc28 activity are summarized. PMID:9841670

  16. Semaphorin 3E–Plexin-D1 signaling regulates VEGF function in developmental angiogenesis via a feedback mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jiha; Oh, Won-Jong; Gaiano, Nicholas; Yoshida, Yutaka; Gu, Chenghua

    2011-01-01

    Blood vessel networks are typically formed by angiogenesis, a process in which new vessels form by sprouting of endothelial cells from pre-existing vessels. This process is initiated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated tip cell selection and subsequent angiogenic sprouting. Surprisingly, we found that VEGF directly controls the expression of Plexin-D1, the receptor for the traditional repulsive axon guidance cue, semaphorin 3E (Sema3E). Sema3E–Plexin-D1 signaling then negatively regulates the activity of the VEGF-induced Delta-like 4 (Dll4)–Notch signaling pathway, which controls the cell fate decision between tip and stalk cells. Using the mouse retina as a model system, we show that Plexin-D1 is selectively expressed in endothelial cells at the front of actively sprouting blood vessels and its expression is tightly controlled by VEGF secreted by surrounding tissues. Therefore, although the Sema3E secreted by retinal neurons is evenly distributed throughout the retina, Sema3E–Plexin-D1 signaling is spatially controlled by VEGF through its regulation of Plexin-D1. Moreover, we show that gain and loss of function of Sema3E and Plexin-D1 disrupts normal Dll4 expression, Notch activity, and tip/stalk cell distribution in the retinal vasculature. Finally, the retinal vasculature of mice lacking sema3E or plexin-D1 has an uneven growing front, a less-branched vascular network, and abnormal distribution of dll4-positive cells. Lowering Notch activity in the mutant mice can reverse this defect, solidifying the observation that Dll4–Notch signaling is regulated by Sema3E–Plexin-D1 and is required for its function in vivo. Together, these data reveal a novel role of Sema3E–Plexin-D1 function in modulating angiogenesis via a VEGF-induced feedback mechanism. PMID:21724832

  17. Enhanced expression of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases in aniline-induced cell proliferation in rat spleen.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianling; Wang, Gangduo; Ma, Huaxian; Khan, M Firoze

    2011-01-15

    Aniline exposure is associated with toxicity to the spleen leading to splenomegaly, hyperplasia, fibrosis and a variety of sarcomas of the spleen on chronic exposure. In earlier studies, we have shown that aniline exposure leads to iron overload, oxidative stress and activation of redox-sensitive transcription factors, which could regulate various genes leading to a tumorigenic response in the spleen. However, molecular mechanisms leading to aniline-induced cellular proliferation in the spleen remain largely unknown. This study was, therefore, undertaken on the regulation of G1 phase cell cycle proteins (cyclins), expression of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (pRB) and cell proliferation in the spleen, in an experimental condition preceding a tumorigenic response. Male SD rats were treated with aniline (0.5 mmol/kg/day via drinking water) for 30 days (controls received drinking water only), and splenocyte proliferation, protein expression of G1 phase cyclins, CDKs and pRB were measured. Aniline treatment resulted in significant increases in splenocyte proliferation, based on cell counts, cell proliferation markers including proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), nuclear Ki67 protein (Ki67) and minichromosome maintenance (MCM), MTT assay and flow cytometric analysis. Western blot analysis of splenocyte proteins from aniline-treated rats showed significantly increased expression of cyclins D1, D2, D3 and E, as compared to the controls. Similarly, real-time PCR analysis showed significantly increased mRNA expression for cyclins D1, D2, D3 and E in the spleens of aniline-treated rats. The overexpression of these cyclins was associated with increases in the expression of CDK4, CDK6, CDK2 as well as phosphorylation of pRB protein. Our data suggest that increased expression of cyclins, CDKs and phosphorylation of pRB protein could be critical in cell proliferation, and may contribute to aniline-induced tumorigenic response in

  18. Enhanced expression of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases in aniline-induced cell proliferation in rat spleen

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Jianling; Wang Gangduo; Ma Huaxian; Khan, M. Firoze

    2011-01-15

    Aniline exposure is associated with toxicity to the spleen leading to splenomegaly, hyperplasia, fibrosis and a variety of sarcomas of the spleen on chronic exposure. In earlier studies, we have shown that aniline exposure leads to iron overload, oxidative stress and activation of redox-sensitive transcription factors, which could regulate various genes leading to a tumorigenic response in the spleen. However, molecular mechanisms leading to aniline-induced cellular proliferation in the spleen remain largely unknown. This study was, therefore, undertaken on the regulation of G1 phase cell cycle proteins (cyclins), expression of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (pRB) and cell proliferation in the spleen, in an experimental condition preceding a tumorigenic response. Male SD rats were treated with aniline (0.5 mmol/kg/day via drinking water) for 30 days (controls received drinking water only), and splenocyte proliferation, protein expression of G1 phase cyclins, CDKs and pRB were measured. Aniline treatment resulted in significant increases in splenocyte proliferation, based on cell counts, cell proliferation markers including proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), nuclear Ki67 protein (Ki67) and minichromosome maintenance (MCM), MTT assay and flow cytometric analysis. Western blot analysis of splenocyte proteins from aniline-treated rats showed significantly increased expression of cyclins D1, D2, D3 and E, as compared to the controls. Similarly, real-time PCR analysis showed significantly increased mRNA expression for cyclins D1, D2, D3 and E in the spleens of aniline-treated rats. The overexpression of these cyclins was associated with increases in the expression of CDK4, CDK6, CDK2 as well as phosphorylation of pRB protein. Our data suggest that increased expression of cyclins, CDKs and phosphorylation of pRB protein could be critical in cell proliferation, and may contribute to aniline-induced tumorigenic response in

  19. Functional selectivity of dopamine D1 receptor agonists in regulating the fate of internalized receptors *

    PubMed Central

    Ryman-Rasmussen, Jessica P.; Griffith, Adam; Oloff, Scott; Vaidehi, Nagarajan; Brown, Justin T.; Goddard, William A.; Mailman, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that D1 agonists can cause functionally selective effects when the endpoints of receptor internalization and adenylate cyclase activation are compared. The present study was designed to probe the phenomenon of functional selectivity at the D1 receptor further by testing the hypothesis that structurally dissimilar agonists with efficacies at these endpoints that equal or exceed those of dopamine would differ in ability to influence receptor fate after internalization, a functional endpoint largely unexplored for the D1 receptor. We selected two novel agonists of therapeutic interest that meet these criteria (the isochroman A-77636, and the isoquinoline dinapsoline), and compared the fates of the D1 receptor after internalization in response to these two compounds with that of dopamine. We found that dopamine caused the receptor to be rapidly recycled to the cell surface within 1 h of removal. Conversely, A-77636 caused the receptor to be retained intracellularly up to 48 h after agonist removal. Most surprisingly, the D1 receptor recovered to the cell surface 48 h after removal of dinapsoline. Taken together, these data indicate that these agonists target the D1 receptor to different intracellular trafficking pathways, demonstrating that the phenomenon of functional selectivity at the D1 receptor is operative for cellular events that are temporally downstream of immediate receptor activation. We hypothesize that these differential effects result from interactions of the synthetic ligands with aspects of the D1 receptor that are distal from the ligand binding domain. PMID:17067639

  20. CC2D1A Regulates Human Intellectual and Social Function as well as NF-κB Signaling Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Manzini, M. Chiara; Xiong, Lan; Shaheen, Ranad; Tambunan, Dimira E.; Di Costanzo, Stefania; Mitisalis, Vanessa; Tischfield, David J.; Cinquino, Antonella; Ghaziuddin, Mohammed; Christian, Mehtab; Jiang, Qin; Laurent, Sandra; Nanjiani, Zohair A.; Rasheed, Saima; Hill, R. Sean; Lizarraga, Sofia B.; Gleason, Danielle; Sabbagh, Diya; Salih, Mustafa A.; Alkuraya, Fowzan S.; Walsh, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) are often comorbid, but the extent to which they share common genetic causes remains controversial. Here, we present two autosomal-recessive “founder” mutations in the CC2D1A gene causing fully penetrant cognitive phenotypes, including mild-to-severe ID, ASD, as well as seizures, suggesting shared developmental mechanisms. CC2D1A regulates multiple intracellular signaling pathways, and we found its strongest effect to be on the transcription factor nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). Cc2d1a gain and loss of function both increase activation of NF-κB, revealing a critical role of Cc2d1a in homeostatic control of intra-cellular signaling. Cc2d1a knockdown in neurons reduces dendritic complexity and increases NF-κB activity, and the effects of Cc2d1a depletion can be rescued by inhibiting NF-κB activity. Homeostatic regulation of neuronal signaling pathways provides a mechanism whereby common founder mutations could manifest diverse symptoms in different patients. PMID:25066123

  1. Activity of D1/2 Receptor Expressing Neurons in the Nucleus Accumbens Regulates Running, Locomotion, and Food Intake.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xianglong; Ottenheimer, David; DiLeone, Ralph J

    2016-01-01

    While weight gain is clearly promoted by excessive energy intake and reduced expenditure, the underlying neural mechanisms of energy balance remain unclear. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is one brain region that has received attention for its role in the regulation of energy balance; its D1 and D2 receptor containing neurons have distinct functions in regulating reward behavior and require further examination. The goal of the present study is to investigate how activation and inhibition of D1 and D2 neurons in the NAc influences behaviors related to energy intake and expenditure. Specific manipulation of D1 vs. D2 neurons was done in both low expenditure and high expenditure (wheel running) conditions to assess behavioral effects in these different states. Direct control of neural activity was achieved using a designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD) strategy. Activation of NAc D1 neurons increased food intake, wheel running and locomotor activity. In contrast, activation of D2 neurons in the NAc reduced running and locomotion while D2 neuron inhibition had opposite effects. These results highlight the importance of considering both intake and expenditure in the analysis of D1 and D2 neuronal manipulations. Moreover, the behavioral outcomes from NAc D1 neuronal manipulations depend upon the activity state of the animals (wheel running vs. non-running). The data support and complement the hypothesis of specific NAc dopamine pathways facilitating energy expenditure and suggest a potential strategy for human weight control. PMID:27147989

  2. Activity of D1/2 Receptor Expressing Neurons in the Nucleus Accumbens Regulates Running, Locomotion, and Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xianglong; Ottenheimer, David; DiLeone, Ralph J.

    2016-01-01

    While weight gain is clearly promoted by excessive energy intake and reduced expenditure, the underlying neural mechanisms of energy balance remain unclear. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is one brain region that has received attention for its role in the regulation of energy balance; its D1 and D2 receptor containing neurons have distinct functions in regulating reward behavior and require further examination. The goal of the present study is to investigate how activation and inhibition of D1 and D2 neurons in the NAc influences behaviors related to energy intake and expenditure. Specific manipulation of D1 vs. D2 neurons was done in both low expenditure and high expenditure (wheel running) conditions to assess behavioral effects in these different states. Direct control of neural activity was achieved using a designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD) strategy. Activation of NAc D1 neurons increased food intake, wheel running and locomotor activity. In contrast, activation of D2 neurons in the NAc reduced running and locomotion while D2 neuron inhibition had opposite effects. These results highlight the importance of considering both intake and expenditure in the analysis of D1 and D2 neuronal manipulations. Moreover, the behavioral outcomes from NAc D1 neuronal manipulations depend upon the activity state of the animals (wheel running vs. non-running). The data support and complement the hypothesis of specific NAc dopamine pathways facilitating energy expenditure and suggest a potential strategy for human weight control. PMID:27147989

  3. Curcumin improves the efficacy of cisplatin by targeting cancer stem-like cells through p21 and cyclin D1-mediated tumour cell inhibition in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Baharuddin, Puteri; Satar, Nazilah; Fakiruddin, Kamal Shaik; Zakaria, Norashikin; Lim, Moon Nian; Yusoff, Narazah Mohd; Zakaria, Zubaidah; Yahaya, Badrul Hisham

    2016-01-01

    Natural compounds such as curcumin have the ability to enhance the therapeutic effectiveness of common chemotherapy agents through cancer stem-like cell (CSC) sensitisation. In the present study, we showed that curcumin enhanced the sensitivity of the double-positive (CD166+/EpCAM+) CSC subpopulation in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines (A549 and H2170) to cisplatin-induced apoptosis and inhibition of metastasis. Our results revealed that initial exposure of NSCLC cell lines to curcumin (10-40 µM) markedly reduced the percentage of viability to an average of ~51 and ~54% compared to treatment with low dose cisplatin (3 µM) with only 94 and 86% in both the A549 and H2170 cells. Moreover, sensitisation of NSCLC cell lines to curcumin through combined treatment enhanced the single effect induced by low dose cisplatin on the apoptosis of the double-positive CSC subpopulation by 18 and 20% in the A549 and H2170 cells, respectively. Furthermore, we found that curcumin enhanced the inhibitory effects of cisplatin on the highly migratory CD166+/EpCAM+ subpopulation, marked by a reduction in cell migration to 9 and 21% in the A549 and H2170 cells, respectively, indicating that curcumin may increase the sensitivity of CSCs to cisplatin-induced migratory inhibition. We also observed that the mRNA expression of cyclin D1 was downregulated, while a substantial increased in p21 expression was noted, followed by Apaf1 and caspase-9 activation in the double-positive (CD166+/EpCAM+) CSC subpopulation of A549 cells, suggested that the combined treatments induced cell cycle arrest, therefore triggering CSC growth inhibition via the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. In conclusion, we provided novel evidence of the previously unknown therapeutic effects of curcumin, either alone or in combination with cisplatin on the inhibition of the CD166+/EpCAM+ subpopulation of NSCLC cell lines. This finding demonstrated the potential therapeutic approach of using curcumin that may

  4. Induced ICER I{gamma} down-regulates cyclin A expression and cell proliferation in insulin-producing {beta} cells

    SciTech Connect

    Inada, Akari; Weir, Gordon C.; Bonner-Weir, Susan . E-mail: susan.bonner-weir@joslin.harvard.edu

    2005-04-15

    We have previously found that cyclin A expression is markedly reduced in pancreatic {beta}-cells by cell-specific overexpression of repressor inducible cyclic AMP early repressor (ICER I{gamma}) in transgenic mice. Here we further examined regulatory effects of ICER I{gamma} on cyclin A gene expression using Min6 cells, an insulin-producing cell line. The cyclin A promoter luciferase assay showed that ICER I{gamma} directly repressed cyclin A gene transcription. In addition, upon ICER I{gamma} overexpression, cyclin A mRNA levels markedly decreased, thereby confirming an inhibitory effect of ICER I{gamma} on cyclin A expression. Suppression of cyclin A results in inhibition of BrdU incorporation. Under normal culture conditions endogenous cyclin A is abundant in these cells, whereas ICER is hardly detectable. However, serum starvation of Min6 cells induces ICER I{gamma} expression with a concomitant very low expression level of cyclin A. Cyclin A protein is not expressed unless the cells are in active DNA replication. These results indicate a potentially important anti-proliferative effect of ICER I{gamma} in pancreatic {beta} cells. Since ICER I{gamma} is greatly increased in diabetes as well as in FFA- or high glucose-treated islets, this effect may in part exacerbate diabetes by limiting {beta}-cell proliferation.

  5. Disruption of the G1/S transition in human papillomavirus type 16 E7-expressing human cells is associated with altered regulation of cyclin E.

    PubMed

    Martin, L G; Demers, G W; Galloway, D A

    1998-02-01

    The development of neoplasia frequently involves inactivation of the p53 and retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor pathways and disruption of cell cycle checkpoints that monitor the integrity of replication and cell division. The human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) oncoproteins, E6 and E7, have been shown to bind p53 and Rb, respectively. To further delineate the mechanisms by which E6 and E7 affect cell cycle control, we examined various aspects of the cell cycle machinery. The low-risk HPV-6 E6 and E7 proteins did not cause any significant change in the levels of cell cycle proteins analyzed. HPV-16 E6 resulted in very low levels of p53 and p21 and globally elevated cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activity. In contrast, HPV-16 E7 had a profound effect on several aspects of the cell cycle machinery. A number of cyclins and CDKs were elevated, and despite the elevation of the levels of at least two CDK inhibitors, p21 and p16, CDK activity was globally increased. Most strikingly, cyclin E expression was deregulated both transcriptionally and posttranscriptionally and persisted at high levels in S and G2/M. Transit through G1 was shortened by the premature activation of cyclin E-associated kinase activity. Elevation of cyclin E levels required both the CR1 and CR2 domains of E7. These data suggest that cyclin E may be a critical target of HPV-16 E7 in the disruption of G1/S cell cycle progression and that the ability of E7 to regulate cyclin E involves activities in addition to the release of E2F. PMID:9444990

  6. Differential Roles of Two Homologous Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Genes in Regulating Cell Cycle and Innate Immunity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Hamdoun, Safae; Zhang, Chong; Gill, Manroop; Kumar, Narender; Churchman, Michelle; Larkin, John C; Kwon, Ashley; Lu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Precise cell-cycle control is critical for plant development and responses to pathogen invasion. Two homologous cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor genes, SIAMESE (SIM) and SIM-RELATED 1 (SMR1), were recently shown to regulate Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) defense based on phenotypes conferred by a sim smr1 double mutant. However, whether these two genes play differential roles in cell-cycle and defense control is unknown. In this report, we show that while acting synergistically to promote endoreplication, SIM and SMR1 play different roles in affecting the ploidy of trichome and leaf cells, respectively. In addition, we found that the smr1-1 mutant, but not sim-1, was more susceptible to a virulent Pseudomonas syringae strain, and this susceptibility could be rescued by activating salicylic acid (SA)-mediated defense. Consistent with these results, smr1-1 partially suppressed the dwarfism, high SA levels, and cell death phenotypes in acd6-1, a mutant used to gauge the change of defense levels. Thus, SMR1 functions partly through SA in defense control. The differential roles of SIM and SMR1 are due to differences in temporal and spatial expression of these two genes in Arabidopsis tissues and in response to P. syringae infection. In addition, flow-cytometry analysis of plants with altered SA signaling revealed that SA is necessary, but not sufficient, to change cell-cycle progression. We further found that a mutant with three CYCD3 genes disrupted also compromised disease resistance to P. syringae. Together, this study reveals differential roles of two homologous cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors in regulating cell-cycle progression and innate immunity in Arabidopsis and provides insights into the importance of cell-cycle control during host-pathogen interactions. PMID:26561564

  7. CPEB and miR-15/16 Co-Regulate Translation of Cyclin E1 mRNA during Xenopus Oocyte Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Wilczynska, Ania; Git, Anna; Argasinska, Joanna; Belloc, Eulàlia; Standart, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Cell cycle transitions spanning meiotic maturation of the Xenopus oocyte and early embryogenesis are tightly regulated at the level of stored inactive maternal mRNA. We investigated here the translational control of cyclin E1, required for metaphase II arrest of the unfertilised egg and the initiation of S phase in the early embryo. We show that the cyclin E1 mRNA is regulated by both cytoplasmic polyadenylation elements (CPEs) and two miR-15/16 target sites within its 3’UTR. Moreover, we provide evidence that maternal miR-15/16 microRNAs co-immunoprecipitate with CPE-binding protein (CPEB), and that CPEB interacts with the RISC component Ago2. Experiments using competitor RNA and mutated cyclin E1 3’UTRs suggest cooperation of the regulatory elements to sustain repression of the cyclin E1 mRNA during early stages of maturation when CPEB becomes limiting and cytoplasmic polyadenylation of repressed mRNAs begins. Importantly, injection of anti-miR-15/16 LNA results in the early polyadenylation of endogenous cyclin E1 mRNA during meiotic maturation, and an acceleration of GVBD, altogether strongly suggesting that the proximal CPEB and miRNP complexes act to mutually stabilise each other. We conclude that miR-15/16 and CPEB co-regulate cyclin E1 mRNA. This is the first demonstration of the co-operation of these two pathways. PMID:26829217

  8. Lipin1 Regulates Skeletal Muscle Differentiation through Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase (ERK) Activation and Cyclin D Complex-regulated Cell Cycle Withdrawal*

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Weihua; Zhu, Jing; Zhuang, Xun; Zhang, Xiping; Luo, Tao; Esser, Karyn A.; Ren, Hongmei

    2015-01-01

    Lipin1, an intracellular protein, plays critical roles in controlling lipid synthesis and energy metabolism through its enzymatic activity and nuclear transcriptional functions. Several mouse models of skeletal muscle wasting are associated with lipin1 mutation or altered expression. Recent human studies have suggested that children with homozygous null mutations in the LPIN1 gene suffer from rhabdomyolysis. However, the underlying pathophysiologic mechanism is still poorly understood. In the present study we examined whether lipin1 contributes to regulating muscle regeneration. We characterized the time course of skeletal muscle regeneration in lipin1-deficient fld mice after injury. We found that fld mice exhibited smaller regenerated muscle fiber cross-sectional areas compared with wild-type mice in response to injury. Our results from a series of in vitro experiments suggest that lipin1 is up-regulated and translocated to the nucleus during myoblast differentiation and plays a key role in myogenesis by regulating the cytosolic activation of ERK1/2 to form a complex and a downstream effector cyclin D3-mediated cell cycle withdrawal. Overall, our study reveals a previously unknown role of lipin1 in skeletal muscle regeneration and expands our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle regeneration. PMID:26296887

  9. Transcription factor FBI-1 acts as a dual regulator in adipogenesis by coordinated regulation of cyclin-A and E2F-4.

    PubMed

    Laudes, Matthias; Bilkovski, Roman; Oberhauser, Frank; Droste, Andrea; Gomolka, Matthias; Leeser, Uschi; Udelhoven, Michael; Krone, Wilhelm

    2008-05-01

    Generation of new adipocytes plays a major role in the development of obesity. We previously have shown that transcriptional repressor factor that binds to IST (FBI)-1 exerts a dual effect in the process of adipogenesis by inhibiting proliferation and promoting differentiation of preadipocytes. The aim of the present study was to identify FBI-1 regulated molecular effectors that could account for these effects. Overexpressing FBI-1 in preadipocytes resulted in reduced expression of the cell cycle regulator cyclin A, which may explain FBI-1 induced inhibition of proliferation. Interestingly, FBI-1 repressed cyclin A promoter activity through an indirect mechanisms that did not involve direct binding of FBI-1 to the promoter sequence, but rather FBI-1 inhibition of transcriptional activator Sp1 binding to a regulatory element at -452 to -443. We also show that FBI-1 promotes terminal preadipocyte differentiation through a mechanism involving decreased levels of expression of the PPARgamma inhibitor E2F-4. FBI-1 significantly reduced E2F-4 promoter activity. Contrary to cyclin A, we found FBI-1-induced repression of E2F-4 is mediated by a direct mechanism via a FBI-1 regulatory element at -11 to -5. As function of transcriptional repressors normally depends on the presence of regulatory co-factors we also performed expression profiling of potential FBI-1 co-repressors throughout adipogenesis. In these experiments Sin3A and histon deacetylase (HDAC)-1 showed a similar expression pattern compared to FBI-1. Strikingly, co-immunoprecipitation studies revealed that FBI-1 binds Sin3A and HDAC-1 to form a repressor complex. Furthermore, by mutational analysis the amino terminal Poxvirus (POZ) domain of FBI-1 was found to be important for Sin3A and HDAC-1 binding. Taken together, FBI-1 is the first transcriptional repressor shown to act as a dual regulator in adipogenesis exerting repressor activities on target genes by both, direct and indirect mechanisms.

  10. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 controls adult neural stem cell expansion by regulating Sox2 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Marqués-Torrejón, M Ángeles; Porlan, Eva; Banito, Ana; Gómez-Ibarlucea, Esther; Lopez-Contreras, Andrés J; Fernández-Capetillo, Oscar; Vidal, Anxo; Gil, Jesús; Torres, Josema; Fariñas, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    In the adult brain, continual neurogenesis of olfactory neurons is sustained by the existence of neural stem cells (NSCs) in the subependymal niche. Elimination of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21) leads to premature exhaustion of the subependymal NSC pool, suggesting a relationship between cell cycle control and long-term self-renewal, but the molecular mechanisms underlying NSC maintenance by p21 remain unexplored. Here we identify a function of p21 in the direct regulation of the expression of pluripotency factor Sox2, a key regulator of the specification and maintenance of neural progenitors. We observe that p21 directly binds a Sox2 enhancer and negatively regulates Sox2 expression in NSCs. Augmented levels of Sox2 in p21 null cells induce replicative stress and a DNA damage response that leads to cell growth arrest mediated by increased levels of p19(Arf) and p53. Our results show a regulation of NSC expansion driven by a p21/Sox2/p53 axis.

  11. Regulation of protein phosphatase inhibitor-1 by cyclin-dependent kinase 5.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Chan; Nishi, Akinori; Kansy, Janice W; Fernandez, Joseph; Hayashi, Kanehiro; Gillardon, Frank; Hemmings, Hugh C; Nairn, Angus C; Bibb, James A

    2007-06-01

    Inhibitor-1, the first identified endogenous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 1 (PP-1), was previously reported to be a substrate for cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) at Ser67. Further investigation has revealed the presence of an additional Cdk5 site identified by mass spectrometry and confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis as Ser6. Basal levels of phospho-Ser6 inhibitor-1, as detected by a phosphorylation state-specific antibody against the site, existed in specific regions of the brain and varied with age. In the striatum, basal in vivo phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of Ser6 were mediated by Cdk5, PP-2A, and PP-1, respectively. Additionally, calcineurin contributed to dephosphorylation under conditions of high Ca2+. In biochemical assays the function of Cdk5-dependent phosphorylation of inhibitor-1 at Ser6 and Ser67 was demonstrated to be an intramolecular impairment of the ability of inhibitor-1 to be dephosphorylated at Thr35; this effect was recapitulated in two systems in vivo. Dephosphorylation of inhibitor-1 at Thr35 is equivalent to inactivation of the protein, as inhibitor-1 only serves as an inhibitor of PP-1 when phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent kinase (PKA) at Thr35. Thus, inhibitor-1 serves as a critical junction between kinase- and phosphatase-signaling pathways, linking PP-1 to not only PKA and calcineurin but also Cdk5.

  12. The mechanisms regulating cyclin-dependent kinase 5 in hippocampus during systemic inflammatory response: The effect on inflammatory gene expression.

    PubMed

    Czapski, Grzegorz A; Gąssowska, Magdalena; Wilkaniec, Anna; Chalimoniuk, Małgorzata; Strosznajder, Joanna B; Adamczyk, Agata

    2016-02-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is critical for nervous system's development and function, and its aberrant activation contributes to pathomechanism of Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. It was recently suggested that Cdk5 may participate in regulation of inflammatory signalling. The aim of this study was to analyse the mechanisms involved in regulating Cdk5 activity in the brain during systemic inflammatory response (SIR) as well as the involvement of Cdk5 in controlling the expression of inflammatory genes. Genetic and biochemical alterations in hippocampus were analysed 3 and 12 h after intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide. We observed an increase in both Cdk5 gene expression and protein level. Moreover, phosphorylation of Cdk5 on Ser159 was significantly enhanced. Also transcription of Cdk5-regulatory protein (p35/Cdk5r1) was augmented, and the level of p25, calpain-dependent cleavage product of p35, was increased. All these results demonstrated rapid activation of Cdk5 in the brain during SIR. Hyperactivity of Cdk5 contributed to enhanced phosphorylation of tau and glycogen synthase kinase 3β. Inhibition of Cdk5 with Roscovitine reduced activation of NF-κB and expression of inflammation-related genes, demonstrating the critical role of Cdk5 in regulation of gene transcription during SIR.

  13. The RNA-binding protein Spo5 promotes meiosis II by regulating cyclin Cdc13 in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Arata, Mayumi; Sato, Masamitsu; Yamashita, Akira; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2014-03-01

    Meiosis comprises two consecutive nuclear divisions, meiosis I and II. Despite this unique progression through the cell cycle, little is known about the mechanisms controlling the sequential divisions. In this study, we carried out a genetic screen to identify factors that regulate the initiation of meiosis II in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We identified mutants deficient in meiosis II progression and repeatedly isolated mutants defective in spo5, which encodes an RNA-binding protein. Using fluorescence microscopy to visualize YFP-tagged protein, we found that spo5 mutant cells precociously lost Cdc13, the major B-type cyclin in fission yeast, before meiosis II. Importantly, the defect in meiosis II was rescued by increasing CDK activity. In wild-type cells, cdc13 transcripts increased during meiosis II, but this increase in cdc13 expression was weaker in spo5 mutants. Thus, Spo5 is a novel regulator of meiosis II that controls the level of cdc13 expression and promotes de novo synthesis of Cdc13. We previously reported that inhibition of Cdc13 degradation is necessary to initiate meiosis II; together with the previous information, the current findings indicate that the dual control of Cdc13 by de novo synthesis and suppression of proteolysis ensures the progression of meiosis II.

  14. Exit from mitosis is regulated by Drosophila fizzy and the sequential destruction of cyclins A, B and B3.

    PubMed Central

    Sigrist, S; Jacobs, H; Stratmann, R; Lehner, C F

    1995-01-01

    While entry into mitosis is triggered by activation of cdc2 kinase, exit from mitosis requires inactivation of this kinase. Inactivation results from proteolytic degradation of the regulatory cyclin subunits during mitosis. At least three different cyclin types, cyclins A, B and B3, associate with cdc2 kinase in higher eukaryotes and are sequentially degraded in mitosis. We show here that mutations in the Drosophila gene fizzy (fzy) block the mitotic degradation of these cyclins. Moreover, expression of mutant cyclins (delta cyclins) lacking the destruction box motif required for mitotic degradation affects mitotic progression at distinct stages. Deltacyclin A results in a delay in metaphase, deltacyclin B in an early anaphase arrest and deltacyclin B3 in a late anaphase arrest, suggesting that mitotic progression beyond metaphase is ordered by the sequential degradation of these different cyclins. Coexpression of deltacyclins A, B and B3 allows a delayed separation of sister chromosomes, but interferes wit chromosome segregation to the poles. Mutations in fzy block both sister chromosome separation and segregation, indicating that fzy plays a crucial role in the metaphase/anaphase transition. Images PMID:7588612

  15. Expression of a TGF-{beta} regulated cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor in normal and immortalized airway epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, L.A.; Bloomfield, C.; Johnson, N.F.

    1995-12-01

    Tumors arising from epithelial cells, including lung cancers are frequently resistant to factors that regulate growth and differentiation in normal in normal cells. Once such factor is transforming growth factor-{Beta} (TGF-{Beta}). Escape from the growth-inhibitory effects of TGF-{Beta} is thought to be a key step in the transformation of airway epithelial cells. most lung cancer cell lines require serum for growth. In contrast, normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells are exquisitely sensitive to growth-inhibitory and differentiating effects of TGF-{Beta}. The recent identification of a novel cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p15{sup INK4B}, which is regulated by TGF-{Beta}, suggests a mechanism by which TGF-{Beta} mediates growth arrest in NHBE cells. The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to determine if p15{sup INK4B} is induced by TGF-{Beta} in NHBE cells or immortalized bronchial epithelial (R.1) cells and if that induction corresponds to a G1/S cell-cycle arrest; (2) to determine the temporal relationship between p15{sup INK4B} induction, cell-cycle arrest, and the phosphorylation state of the pRB because it is thought that p15{sup INK4B} acts indirectly by preventing phosphorylation of the RB gene product. In this study, expression of p15{sup INK4B} was examined in NHBE cells and R.1 cells at different time intervals following TGF-{Beta} treatment. The expression of this kinase inhibitor and its relationship to the cell and the pRb phosphorylation state were examined in cells that were both sensitive (NHBE) and resistant (R.1) to the effects of TGF-{Beta}. These results suggest that the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p15{sup INK4B}, is involved in airway epithelial cell differentiation and that loss or reduction of expression plays a role in the resistance of transformed or neoplastic cells to the growth-inhibitory effects of TGF-{Beta}.

  16. Regulation of Fumonisin B1 Biosynthesis and Conidiation in Fusarium verticillioides by a Cyclin-Like (C-Type) Gene, FCC1†

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Won-Bo; Woloshuk, Charles P.

    2001-01-01

    Fumonisins are a group of mycotoxins produced in corn kernels by the plant-pathogenic fungus Fusarium verticillioides. A mutant of the fungus, FT536, carrying a disrupted gene named FCC1 (for Fusarium cyclin C1) resulting in altered fumonisin B1 biosynthesis was generated. FCC1 contains an open reading frame of 1,018 bp, with one intron, and encodes a putative 319-amino-acid polypeptide. This protein is similar to UME3 (also called SRB11 or SSN8), a cyclin C of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and contains three conserved motifs: a cyclin box, a PEST-rich region, and a destruction box. Also similar to the case for C-type cyclins, FCC1 was constitutively expressed during growth. When strain FT536 was grown on corn kernels or on defined minimal medium at pH 6, conidiation was reduced and FUM5, the polyketide synthase gene involved in fumonisin B1 biosynthesis, was not expressed. However, when the mutant was grown on a defined minimal medium at pH 3, conidiation was restored, and the blocks in expression of FUM5 and fumonisin B1 production were suppressed. Our data suggest that FCC1 plays an important role in signal transduction regulating secondary metabolism (fumonisin biosynthesis) and fungal development (conidiation) in F. verticillioides. PMID:11282612

  17. Cyclin C is a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Na; Fassl, Anne; Chick, Joel; Inuzuka, Hiroyuki; Li, Xiaoyu; Mansour, Marc R.; Liu, Lijun; Wang, Haizhen; King, Bryan; Shaik, Shavali; Gutierrez, Alejandro; Ordureau, Alban; Otto, Tobias; Kreslavsky, Taras; Baitsch, Lukas; Bury, Leah; Meyer, Clifford A.; Ke, Nan; Mulry, Kristin A.; Kluk, Michael J.; Roy, Moni; Kim, Sunkyu; Zhang, Xiaowu; Geng, Yan; Zagozdzon, Agnieszka; Jenkinson, Sarah; Gale, Rosemary E.; Linch, David C.; Zhao, Jean J.; Mullighan, Charles G.; Harper, J. Wade; Aster, Jon C.; Aifantis, Iannis; von Boehmer, Harald; Gygi, Steven P.; Wei, Wenyi; Look, A. Thomas; Sicinski, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Cyclin C was cloned as a growth-promoting G1 cyclin, and was also shown to regulate gene transcription. Here we report that in vivo cyclin C acts as a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor, by controlling Notch1 oncogene levels. Cyclin C activates an “orphan” CDK19 kinase, as well as CDK8 and CDK3. These cyclin C-CDK complexes phosphorylate Notch1 intracellular domain (ICN1) and promote ICN1 degradation. Genetic ablation of cyclin C blocks ICN1 phosphorylation in vivo, thereby elevating ICN1 levels in cyclin C-knockout mice. Cyclin C ablation or heterozygosity collaborate with other oncogenic lesions and accelerate development of T-cell-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Furthermore, the cyclin C gene is heterozygously deleted in a significant fraction of human T-ALL, and these tumors express reduced cyclin C levels. We also describe point mutations in human T-ALL that render cyclin C-CDK unable to phosphorylate ICN1. Hence, tumor cells may develop different strategies to evade cyclin C inhibitory function. PMID:25344755

  18. Regulation of N-type voltage-gated calcium channels and presynaptic function by cyclin-dependent kinase 5

    PubMed Central

    Su, Susan C.; Seo, Jinsoo; Pan, Jen Q.; Samuels, Benjamin Adam; Rudenko, Andrii; Ericsson, Maria; Neve, Rachael L.; Yue, David T.; Tsai, Li-Huei

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY N-type voltage-gated calcium channels (CaV2.2) localize to presynaptic nerve terminals and mediate key events including synaptogenesis and neurotransmission. While several kinases have been implicated in the modulation of calcium channels, their impact on presynaptic functions remains unclear. Here we report that the N-type calcium channel is a substrate for cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5). The pore-forming α1 subunit of the N-type calcium channel is phosphorylated in the C-terminal domain, and phosphorylation results in enhanced calcium influx due to increased channel open probability. Phosphorylation of the N-type calcium channel by Cdk5 facilitates neurotransmitter release and alters presynaptic plasticity by increasing the number of docked vesicles at the synaptic cleft. These effects are mediated by an altered interaction between N-type calcium channels and RIM1, which tethers presynaptic calcium channels to the active zone. Collectively, our results highlight a molecular mechanism by which N-type calcium channels are regulated by Cdk5 to affect presynaptic functions. PMID:22920258

  19. Regulators of cyclin-dependent kinases are crucial for maintaining genome integrity in S phase

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Halfdan; Nähse, Viola; Larsen, Marie Sofie Yoo; Groth, Petra; Clancy, Trevor; Lees, Michael; Jørgensen, Mette; Helleday, Thomas; Syljuåsen, Randi G.

    2010-01-01

    Maintenance of genome integrity is of critical importance to cells. To identify key regulators of genomic integrity, we screened a human cell line with a kinome small interfering RNA library. WEE1, a major regulator of mitotic entry, and CHK1 were among the genes identified. Both kinases are important negative regulators of CDK1 and -2. Strikingly, WEE1 depletion rapidly induced DNA damage in S phase in newly replicated DNA, which was accompanied by a marked increase in single-stranded DNA. This DNA damage is dependent on CDK1 and -2 as well as the replication proteins MCM2 and CDT1 but not CDC25A. Conversely, DNA damage after CHK1 inhibition is highly dependent on CDC25A. Furthermore, the inferior proliferation of CHK1-depleted cells is improved substantially by codepletion of CDC25A. We conclude that the mitotic kinase WEE1 and CHK1 jointly maintain balanced cellular control of Cdk activity during normal DNA replication, which is crucial to prevent the generation of harmful DNA lesions during replication. PMID:20194642

  20. Genome-wide association study follow-up identifies cyclin A2 as a regulator of the transition through cytokinesis during terminal erythropoiesis.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Leif S; Cho, Hyunjii; Wakabayashi, Aoi; Eng, Jennifer C; Ulirsch, Jacob C; Fleming, Mark D; Lodish, Harvey F; Sankaran, Vijay G

    2015-05-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) hold tremendous promise to improve our understanding of human biology. Recent GWAS have revealed over 75 loci associated with erythroid traits, including the 4q27 locus that is associated with red blood cell size (mean corpuscular volume). The close linkage disequilibrium block at this locus harbors the CCNA2 gene that encodes cyclin A2. CCNA2 mRNA is highly expressed in human and murine erythroid progenitor cells and regulated by the essential erythroid transcription factor GATA1. To understand the role of cyclin A2 in erythropoiesis, we have reduced expression of this gene using short hairpin RNAs in a primary murine erythroid culture system. We demonstrate that cyclin A2 levels affect erythroid cell size by regulating the passage through cytokinesis during the final cell division of terminal erythropoiesis. Our study provides new insight into cell cycle regulation during terminal erythropoiesis and more generally illustrates the value of functional GWAS follow-up to gain mechanistic insight into hematopoiesis.

  1. Genome-wide association study follow-up identifies cyclin A2 as a regulator of the transition through cytokinesis during terminal erythropoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Leif S.; Cho, Hyunjii; Wakabayashi, Aoi; Eng, Jennifer C.; Ulirsch, Jacob C.; Fleming, Mark D.; Lodish, Harvey F.; Sankaran, Vijay G.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) hold tremendous promise to improve our understanding of human biology. Recent GWAS have revealed over 75 loci associated with erythroid traits, including the 4q27 locus that is associated with red blood cell size (mean corpuscular volume, MCV). The close linkage disequilibrium block at this locus harbors the CCNA2 gene that encodes cyclin A2. CCNA2 mRNA is highly expressed in human and murine erythroid progenitor cells and regulated by the essential erythroid transcription factor GATA1. To understand the role of cyclin A2 in erythropoiesis, we have reduced expression of this gene using short hairpin RNAs in a primary murine erythroid culture system. We demonstrate that cyclin A2 levels affect erythroid cell size by regulating the passage through cytokinesis during the final cell division of terminal erythropoiesis. Our study provides new insight into cell cycle regulation during terminal erythropoiesis and more generally illustrates the value of functional GWAS follow-up to gain mechanistic insight into hematopoiesis. PMID:25615569

  2. DNA-binding activity of the transcription factor upstream stimulatory factor 1 (USF-1) is regulated by cyclin-dependent phosphorylation.

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, E; Mayr, P; Coda-Zabetta, F; Woodman, P G; Boam, D S

    1999-01-01

    The ubiquitous transcription factor upstream stimulatory factor (USF) 1 is a member of the bzHLH (leucine zipper-basic-helix-loop-helix) family, which is structurally related to the Myc family of proteins. It plays a role in the regulation of many genes, including the cyclin B1 gene, which is active during the G2/M and M phases of the cell cycle and may also play a role in the regulation of cellular proliferation. We show that the affinity of recombinant USF-1 for DNA is greatly increased by treatment with active cyclin A2-p34(cdc2) or cyclin B1-p34(cdc2) complexes and that its interaction with DNA is dependent on p34(cdc2)-mediated phosphorylation. We have localized the phosphorylation site(s) to a region that lies outside the minimal DNA-binding domain but overlaps with the previously identified USF-specific region. Deletion studies of USF-1 suggest that amino acids 143-197 regulate DNA-binding activity in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. PMID:10548544

  3. The protein kinase D1 COOH terminus: marker or regulator of enzyme activity?

    PubMed

    Qiu, Weihua; Zhang, Fan; Steinberg, Susan F

    2014-10-01

    Protein kinase D1 (PKD1) is a Ser/Thr kinase implicated in a wide variety of cellular responses. PKD1 activation is generally attributed to a PKC-dependent pathway that leads to phosphorylation of the activation loop at Ser(744)/Ser(748). This modification increases catalytic activity, including that toward an autophosphorylation site (Ser(916)) in a postsynaptic density-95/disks large/zonula occludens-1 (PDZ)-binding motif at the extreme COOH terminus. However, there is growing evidence that PKD1 activation can also result from a PKC-independent autocatalytic reaction at Ser(744)/Ser(748) and that certain stimuli increase in PKD1 phosphorylation at Ser(744)/S(748) without an increase in autophosphorylation at Ser(916). This study exposes a mechanism that results in a discrepancy between PKD1 COOH-terminal autocatalytic activity and activity toward other substrates. We show that PKD1 constructs harboring COOH-terminal epitope tags display high levels of in vitro activation loop autocatalytic activity and activity toward syntide-2 (a peptide substrate), but no Ser(916) autocatalytic activity. Cell-based studies show that the COOH-terminal tag, adjacent to PKD1's PDZ1-binding motif, does not grossly influence PKD1 partitioning between soluble and particulate fractions in resting cells or PKD1 translocation to the particulate fraction following treatment with PMA. However, a COOH-terminal tag that confers a high level of activation loop autocatalytic activity decreases the PKC requirement for agonist-dependent PKD1 activation in cells. The recognition that COOH-terminal tags alter PKD1's pharmacological profile is important from a technical standpoint. The altered dynamics and activation mechanisms for COOH-terminal-tagged PKD1 enzymes also could model the signaling properties of localized pools of enzyme anchored through the COOH terminus to PDZ domain-containing scaffolding proteins.

  4. MiR-22-silenced Cyclin A Expression in Colon and Liver Cancer Cells Is Regulated by Bile Acid Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fan; Hu, Ying; Liu, Hui-Xin; Wan, Yu-Jui Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Because of the significant tumor-suppressive role of microRNA-22 (miR-22), the current study was designed to understand the regulation of miR-22 and to identify additional downstream miR-22 targets in liver and colon cells. The data showed that miR-22 was transcriptionally regulated by bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) through direct binding to an invert repeat 1 motif located at −1012 to −1025 bp upstream from miR-22. Among the studied primary and secondary bile acids, chenodeoxycholic acid, which has the highest binding affinity to FXR, induced miR-22 level in both Huh7 liver and HCT116 colon cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, cyclin A2 (CCNA2) was identified as a miR-22 novel target in liver and colon cancer cells. The sequence of miR-22, which is conserved in mice, rats, humans, and other mammalians, aligns with the sequence of 3′-UTR of CCNA2. Chenodeoxycholic acid treatment and miR-22 mimics reduced CCNA2 protein and increased the number of G0/G1 Huh7 and HCT116 cells. In FXR KO mice, reduction of miR-22 was accompanied by elevated hepatic and ileal CCNA2 protein, as well as an increased number of hepatic and colonic Ki-67-positive cells. In humans, the expression levels of miR-22 and CCNA2 are inversely correlated in liver and colon cancers. Taken together, our data showed that bile acid-activated FXR stimulates miR-22-silenced CCNA2, a novel pathway for FXR to exert its protective effect in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:25596928

  5. MicroRNA-206 induces G1 arrest in melanoma by inhibition of CDK4 and Cyclin D.

    PubMed

    Georgantas, Robert W; Streicher, Katie; Luo, Xiaobing; Greenlees, Lydia; Zhu, Wei; Liu, Zheng; Brohawn, Philip; Morehouse, Christopher; Higgs, Brandon W; Richman, Laura; Jallal, Bahija; Yao, Yihong; Ranade, Koustubh

    2014-03-01

    Expression profiling of microRNAs in melanoma lesional skin biopsies compared with normal donor skin biopsies, as well as melanoma cell lines compared with normal melanocytes, revealed that hsa-miR-206 was down-regulated in melanoma (-75.4-fold, P = 1.7 × 10(-4)). MiR-206 has been implicated in a large number of cancers, including breast, lung, colorectal, ovarian, and prostate cancers; however, its role in tumor development remains largely unknown, its biologic function is poorly characterized, and its targets affecting cancer cells are largely unknown. MiR-206 reduced growth and migration/invasion of multiple melanoma cell lines. Bioinformatics identified cell cycle genes CDK2, CDK4, Cyclin C, and Cyclin D1 as strong candidate targets. Western blots and 3'UTR reporter gene assays revealed that miR-206 inhibited translation of CDK4, Cyclin D1, and Cyclin C. Additionally, hsa-miR-206 transfection induced G1 arrest in multiple melanoma cell lines. These observations support hsa-miR-206 as a tumor suppressor in melanoma and identify Cyclin C, Cyclin D1, and CDK4 as miR-206 targets.

  6. MicroRNA-206 induces G1 arrest in melanoma by inhibition of CDK4 and Cyclin D.

    PubMed

    Georgantas, Robert W; Streicher, Katie; Luo, Xiaobing; Greenlees, Lydia; Zhu, Wei; Liu, Zheng; Brohawn, Philip; Morehouse, Christopher; Higgs, Brandon W; Richman, Laura; Jallal, Bahija; Yao, Yihong; Ranade, Koustubh

    2014-03-01

    Expression profiling of microRNAs in melanoma lesional skin biopsies compared with normal donor skin biopsies, as well as melanoma cell lines compared with normal melanocytes, revealed that hsa-miR-206 was down-regulated in melanoma (-75.4-fold, P = 1.7 × 10(-4)). MiR-206 has been implicated in a large number of cancers, including breast, lung, colorectal, ovarian, and prostate cancers; however, its role in tumor development remains largely unknown, its biologic function is poorly characterized, and its targets affecting cancer cells are largely unknown. MiR-206 reduced growth and migration/invasion of multiple melanoma cell lines. Bioinformatics identified cell cycle genes CDK2, CDK4, Cyclin C, and Cyclin D1 as strong candidate targets. Western blots and 3'UTR reporter gene assays revealed that miR-206 inhibited translation of CDK4, Cyclin D1, and Cyclin C. Additionally, hsa-miR-206 transfection induced G1 arrest in multiple melanoma cell lines. These observations support hsa-miR-206 as a tumor suppressor in melanoma and identify Cyclin C, Cyclin D1, and CDK4 as miR-206 targets. PMID:24289491

  7. Rab GAPs AS160 and Tbc1d1 play nonredundant roles in the regulation of glucose and energy homeostasis in mice.

    PubMed

    Hargett, Stefan R; Walker, Natalie N; Keller, Susanna R

    2016-02-15

    The related Rab GTPase-activating proteins (Rab GAPs) AS160 and Tbc1d1 regulate the trafficking of the glucose transporter GLUT4 that controls glucose uptake in muscle and fat cells and glucose homeostasis. AS160- and Tbc1d1-deficient mice exhibit different adipocyte- and skeletal muscle-specific defects in glucose uptake, GLUT4 expression and trafficking, and glucose homeostasis. A recent study analyzed male mice with simultaneous deletion of AS160 and Tbc1d1 (AS160(-/-)/Tbc1d1(-/-) mice). Herein, we describe abnormalities in male and female AS160(-/-)/Tbc1d1(-/-) mice on another strain background. We confirm the earlier observation that GLUT4 expression and glucose uptake defects of single-knockout mice join in AS160(-/-)/Tbc1d1(-/-) mice to affect all skeletal muscle and adipose tissues. In large mixed fiber-type skeletal muscles, changes in relative basal GLUT4 plasma membrane association in AS160(-/-) and Tbc1d1(-/-) mice also combine in AS160(-/-)/Tbc1d1(-/-) mice. However, we found different glucose uptake abnormalities in isolated skeletal muscles and adipocytes than reported previously, resulting in different interpretations of how AS160 and Tbc1d1 regulate GLUT4 translocation to the cell surface. In support of a larger role for AS160 in glucose homeostasis, in contrast with the previous study, we find similarly impaired glucose and insulin tolerance in AS160(-/-)/Tbc1d1(-/-) and AS160(-/-) mice. However, in vivo glucose uptake abnormalities in AS160(-/-)/Tbc1d1(-/-) skeletal muscles differ from those observed previously in AS160(-/-) mice, indicating additional defects due to Tbc1d1 deletion. Similar to AS160- and Tbc1d1-deficient mice, AS160(-/-)/Tbc1d1(-/-) mice show sex-specific abnormalities in glucose and energy homeostasis. In conclusion, our study supports nonredundant functions for AS160 and Tbc1d1. PMID:26625902

  8. Rab GAPs AS160 and Tbc1d1 play nonredundant roles in the regulation of glucose and energy homeostasis in mice.

    PubMed

    Hargett, Stefan R; Walker, Natalie N; Keller, Susanna R

    2016-02-15

    The related Rab GTPase-activating proteins (Rab GAPs) AS160 and Tbc1d1 regulate the trafficking of the glucose transporter GLUT4 that controls glucose uptake in muscle and fat cells and glucose homeostasis. AS160- and Tbc1d1-deficient mice exhibit different adipocyte- and skeletal muscle-specific defects in glucose uptake, GLUT4 expression and trafficking, and glucose homeostasis. A recent study analyzed male mice with simultaneous deletion of AS160 and Tbc1d1 (AS160(-/-)/Tbc1d1(-/-) mice). Herein, we describe abnormalities in male and female AS160(-/-)/Tbc1d1(-/-) mice on another strain background. We confirm the earlier observation that GLUT4 expression and glucose uptake defects of single-knockout mice join in AS160(-/-)/Tbc1d1(-/-) mice to affect all skeletal muscle and adipose tissues. In large mixed fiber-type skeletal muscles, changes in relative basal GLUT4 plasma membrane association in AS160(-/-) and Tbc1d1(-/-) mice also combine in AS160(-/-)/Tbc1d1(-/-) mice. However, we found different glucose uptake abnormalities in isolated skeletal muscles and adipocytes than reported previously, resulting in different interpretations of how AS160 and Tbc1d1 regulate GLUT4 translocation to the cell surface. In support of a larger role for AS160 in glucose homeostasis, in contrast with the previous study, we find similarly impaired glucose and insulin tolerance in AS160(-/-)/Tbc1d1(-/-) and AS160(-/-) mice. However, in vivo glucose uptake abnormalities in AS160(-/-)/Tbc1d1(-/-) skeletal muscles differ from those observed previously in AS160(-/-) mice, indicating additional defects due to Tbc1d1 deletion. Similar to AS160- and Tbc1d1-deficient mice, AS160(-/-)/Tbc1d1(-/-) mice show sex-specific abnormalities in glucose and energy homeostasis. In conclusion, our study supports nonredundant functions for AS160 and Tbc1d1.

  9. Evidence for a role of the (alpha)-tubulin C terminus in the regulation of cyclin B synthesis in developing oocytes.

    PubMed

    Vée, S; Lafanechère, L; Fisher, D; Wehland, J; Job, D; Picard, A

    2001-03-01

    Microinjected mAb YL1/2, an (alpha)-tubulin antibody specific for the tyrosinated form of the protein, blocks the cell cycle in developing oocytes. Here, we have investigated the mechanism involved in the mAb effect. Both developing starfish and Xenopus oocytes were injected with two different (alpha)-tubulin C terminus antibodies. The injected antibodies blocked cell entry into mitosis through specific inhibition of cyclin B synthesis. The antibody effect was independent of the presence or absence of polymerized microtubules and was mimicked by injected synthetic peptides corresponding to the tyrosinated (alpha)-tubulin C terminus, whereas peptides lacking the terminal tyrosine were ineffective. These results indicate that tyrosinated (alpha)-tubulin, or another protein sharing the same C-terminal epitope, is involved in specific regulation of cyclin B synthesis in developing oocytes.

  10. Dopamine D1 receptor activation regulates the expression of the estrogen synthesis gene aromatase B in radial glial cells

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Lei; McDonald, Heather; Da Fonte, Dillon F.; Gutierrez-Villagomez, Juan M.; Trudeau, Vance L.

    2015-01-01

    Radial glial cells (RGCs) are abundant stem-like non-neuronal progenitors that are important for adult neurogenesis and brain repair, yet little is known about their regulation by neurotransmitters. Here we provide evidence for neuronal-glial interactions via a novel role for dopamine to stimulate RGC function. Goldfish were chosen as the model organism due to the abundance of RGCs and regenerative abilities of the adult central nervous system. A close anatomical relationship was observed between tyrosine hydroxylase-positive catecholaminergic cell bodies and axons and dopamine-D1 receptor expressing RGCs along the ventricular surface of telencephalon, a site of active neurogenesis. A primary cell culture model was established and immunofluorescence analysis indicates that in vitro RGCs from female goldfish retain their major characteristics in vivo, including expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and brain lipid binding protein. The estrogen synthesis enzyme aromatase B is exclusively found in RGCs, but this is lost as cells differentiate to neurons and other glial types in adult teleost brain. Pharmacological experiments using the cultured RGCs established that specific activation of dopamine D1 receptors up-regulates aromatase B mRNA through a cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent molecular mechanism. These data indicate that dopamine enhances the steroidogenic function of this neuronal progenitor cell. PMID:26388722

  11. The novel quantitative trait locus GL3.1 controls rice grain size and yield by regulating Cyclin-T1;3.

    PubMed

    Qi, Peng; Lin, You-Shun; Song, Xian-Jun; Shen, Jin-Bo; Huang, Wei; Shan, Jun-Xiang; Zhu, Mei-Zhen; Jiang, Liwen; Gao, Ji-Ping; Lin, Hong-Xuan

    2012-12-01

    Increased crop yields are required to support rapid population growth worldwide. Grain weight is a key component of rice yield, but the underlying molecular mechanisms that control it remain elusive. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of a new quantitative trait locus (QTL) for the control of rice grain length, weight and yield. This locus, GL3.1, encodes a protein phosphatase kelch (PPKL) family - Ser/Thr phosphatase. GL3.1 is a member of the large grain WY3 variety, which is associated with weaker dephosphorylation activity than the small grain FAZ1 variety. GL3.1-WY3 influences protein phosphorylation in the spikelet to accelerate cell division, thereby resulting in longer grains and higher yields. Further studies have shown that GL3.1 directly dephosphorylates its substrate, Cyclin-T1;3, which has only been rarely studied in plants. The downregulation of Cyclin-T1;3 in rice resulted in a shorter grain, which indicates a novel function for Cyclin-T in cell cycle regulation. Our findings suggest a new mechanism for the regulation of grain size and yield that is driven through a novel phosphatase-mediated process that affects the phosphorylation of Cyclin-T1;3 during cell cycle progression, and thus provide new insight into the mechanisms underlying crop seed development. We bred a new variety containing the natural GL3.1 allele that demonstrated increased grain yield, which indicates that GL3.1 is a powerful tool for breeding high-yield crops. PMID:23147796

  12. Participation of cyclin A in Myc-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, A T; Cohen, K J; Barrett, J F; Bergstrom, D A; Dang, C V

    1994-01-01

    The involvement of c-Myc in cellular proliferation or apoptosis has been linked to differential cyclin gene expression. We observed that in both proliferating cells and cells undergoing apoptosis, cyclin A (but not B, C, D1, and E) mRNA level was elevated in unsynchronized Myc-overexpressing cells when compared with parental Rat1a fibroblasts. We further demonstrated that Zn(2+)-inducible cyclin A expression was sufficient to cause apoptosis. When Myc-induced apoptosis was blocked by coexpression of Bcl-2, the levels of cyclin C, D1, and E mRNAs were also elevated. Thus, while apoptosis induced by c-Myc is associated with an elevated cyclin A mRNA level, protection from apoptosis by coexpressed Bcl-2 is associated with a complementary increase in cyclin C, D1, and E mRNAs. Images PMID:8041712

  13. Compatibility of Astragalus and Salvia extract inhibits myocardial fibrosis and ventricular remodeling by regulation of protein kinase D1 protein

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Bingyu; Nuan, Liu; Yang, Lei; Zeng, Xiaotao

    2015-01-01

    Aims: This study is to determine the effect of astragalus and salvia extract on the alteration of myocardium in a rat model of myocardial infarction. Methods: A total of 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the sham-operated group, the control group, the Astragalus group, the Salvia group, and the compatibility of Astragalus and Salvia and group. The cardiac functions were determined at 8 weeks after treatment. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was performed to observe the morphology and arrangement of cardiomyocytes. Masson’s trichrome staining was performed to investigate the distribution of myocardial interstitial collagen. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to determine the expression ofprotein kinase D1 in myocardial tissues. Results: In the sham-operated group, the Astragalus group, the Salvia group, and the compatibility of Astragalus and Salvia group, the left ventricular systolic pressure and the maximum rate of left ventricular pressure were significantly increased while the left ventricular end diastolic pressure were significantly decreased when compared with those in the control group (P < 0.05). Normal morphology and arrangement of cardiomyocytes were maintained in the compatibility of Astragalus and Salvia group. Contents of collagen fibers in myocardial tissues were decreased in the compatibility of Astragalus and Salvia group (P < 0.05). Expression levels of protein kinase D1 were significantly decreased in cardiomyocytes of the compatibility of Astragalus and Salvia group. Conclusions: Compatibility of Astragalus and Salvia extract may inhibit myocardial fibrosis and ventricular remodeling by regulation of protein kinase D1 protein in a rat model of myocardial infarction. PMID:26064267

  14. Overexpression of miR-155 promotes the proliferation and invasion of oral squamous carcinoma cells by regulating BCL6/cyclin D2

    PubMed Central

    ZENG, QI; TAO, XIAOAN; HUANG, FANG; WU, TONG; WANG, JUAN; JIANG, XIAO; KUANG, ZIRONG; CHENG, BIN

    2016-01-01

    Although microRNA-155 (miR-155) is known to play an important role in many cancers, its expression and function in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) was not fully understood. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the expression of miR-155 and also the role this miR plays in OSCC. We used the OSCC cell line (CAL27) and paired tumor and non-tumor tissue samples from patients with OSCC in order to detect the expression of miR-155. Cell proliferation, migration and invasion assays were then undertaken in order to determine the effect of miR-155 on the biological behavior of CAL27 cells following transient transfection with miR-155 mimic and antagomir. The regulatory effect of miR-155 on its target gene B-cell CLL/lymphoma 6 (BCL6) and downstream gene cyclin D2 (CCND2) was also analyzed. We found that miR-155 expression in OSCC cell and tumor tissues was significantly higher than that of the controls. We noted that the miR-155 mimic enhanced CAL27 cell proliferation, migration and invasion ability, downregulated BCL6 levels, and increased cyclin D2 expression. However, we noted that abrogating miR-155 with the miR-155 antagomir suppressed CAL27 cell proliferation, migration and invasion, upregulated BCL6 and reduced cyclin D2 expression. These results indicate that miR-155 plays a tumor-promoting role in OSCC by regulating the BCL6/cyclin D2 axis. PMID:26986233

  15. MyD-1 (SIRPalpha) regulates T cell function in the absence of exogenous danger signals, via a TNFalpha-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vanshree; Smith, Rosemary E; Serra, Alessandro; Brooke, Gareth; Howard, Christopher J; Rigley, Kevin P

    2002-07-01

    Signal inhibitory regulatory proteins are a family of transmembrane glycoproteins involved in the negative regulation of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathways. MyD-1 is a recently described member of this family. In this report we have assessed the function of MyD-1 in regulating T cell function utilizing an anti-MyD-1-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb). We show that ligating MyD-1 on antigen-presenting cells (APC) inhibits subsequent T cell activation induced by either anti-CD3 mAb or by allogeneic APC but has no effect on responses to either tuberculin purified protein derivative or tetanus toxoid antigens. Moreover, we show that the inhibition of T cell responses is not due to any change of costimulatory molecule expression on APC. We observed that the production of TNFalpha, a cytokine that we have earlier identified as important in the mechanism of MyD-1 immune regulation, is inhibited by cross-linking of MyD-1. We further show that TNFalpha is critically important in the regulation of T cell responses in the absence of danger signals, and indeed addition of TNFalpha can overcome the inhibitory effects of anti-MyD-1 antibody. This information may lead to a better understanding of the regulation of T cell responses in the absence of danger and therefore offer a possible therapeutic target to modulate aberrant immune responses. PMID:12115605

  16. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 kip1 regulates radial stem cell quiescence and neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Andreu, Zoraida; Khan, Muhammad Amir; González-Gómez, Pilar; Negueruela, Santiago; Hortigüela, Rafael; San Emeterio, Juana; Ferrón, Sacri R; Martínez, Gloria; Vidal, Anxo; Fariñas, Isabel; Lie, Dieter Chichung; Mira, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Members of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-inhibitory protein (CIP)/kinase-inhibitory protein (KIP) family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors regulate proliferation and cell cycle exit of mammalian cells. In the adult brain, the CIP/KIP protein p27(kip1) has been related to the regulation of intermediate progenitor cells located in neurogenic niches. Here, we uncover a novel function of p27(kip1) in the adult hippocampus as a dual regulator of stem cell quiescence and of cell-cycle exit of immature neurons. In vivo, p27(kip1) is detected in radial stem cells expressing SOX2 and in newborn neurons of the dentate gyrus. In vitro, the Cdkn1b gene encoding p27(kip1) is transcriptionally upregulated by quiescence signals such as BMP4. The nuclear accumulation of p27(kip1) protein in adult hippocampal stem cells encompasses the BMP4-induced quiescent state and its overexpression is able to block proliferation. p27(kip1) is also expressed in immature neurons upon differentiation of adult hippocampal stem cell cultures. Loss of p27(kip1) leads to an increase in proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult dentate gyrus, which results from both a decrease in the percentage of radial stem cells that are quiescent and a delay in cell cycle exit of immature neurons. Analysis of animals carrying a disruption in the cyclin-CDK interaction domain of p27(kip1) indicates that the CDK inhibitory function of the protein is necessary to control the activity of radial stem cells. Thus, we report that p27(kip1) acts as a central player of the molecular program that keeps adult hippocampal stem cells out of the cell cycle.

  17. CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE G1 is associated with the spliceosome to regulate CALLOSE SYNTHASE5 splicing and pollen wall formation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xue-Yong; Niu, Jin; Sun, Ming-Xi; Zhu, Jun; Gao, Ju-Fang; Yang, Jun; Zhou, Que; Yang, Zhong-Nan

    2013-02-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana CYCLIN-DEPEDENT KINASE G1 (CDKG1) belongs to the family of cyclin-dependent protein kinases that were originally characterized as cell cycle regulators in eukaryotes. Here, we report that CDKG1 regulates pre-mRNA splicing of CALLOSE SYNTHASE5 (CalS5) and, therefore, pollen wall formation. The knockout mutant cdkg1 exhibits reduced male fertility with impaired callose synthesis and abnormal pollen wall formation. The sixth intron in CalS5 pre-mRNA, a rare type of intron with a GC 5' splice site, is abnormally spliced in cdkg1. RNA immunoprecipitation analysis suggests that CDKG1 is associated with this intron. CDKG1 contains N-terminal Ser/Arg (RS) motifs and interacts with splicing factor Arginine/Serine-Rich Zinc Knuckle-Containing Protein33 (RSZ33) through its RS region to regulate proper splicing. CDKG1 and RS-containing Zinc Finger Protein22 (SRZ22), a splicing factor interacting with RSZ33 and U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (snRNP) component U1-70k, colocalize in nuclear speckles and reside in the same complex. We propose that CDKG1 is recruited to U1 snRNP through RSZ33 to facilitate the splicing of the sixth intron of CalS5.

  18. CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE G1 Is Associated with the Spliceosome to Regulate CALLOSE SYNTHASE5 Splicing and Pollen Wall Formation in Arabidopsis[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xue-Yong; Niu, Jin; Sun, Ming-Xi; Zhu, Jun; Gao, Ju-Fang; Yang, Jun; Zhou, Que; Yang, Zhong-Nan

    2013-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana CYCLIN-DEPEDENT KINASE G1 (CDKG1) belongs to the family of cyclin-dependent protein kinases that were originally characterized as cell cycle regulators in eukaryotes. Here, we report that CDKG1 regulates pre-mRNA splicing of CALLOSE SYNTHASE5 (CalS5) and, therefore, pollen wall formation. The knockout mutant cdkg1 exhibits reduced male fertility with impaired callose synthesis and abnormal pollen wall formation. The sixth intron in CalS5 pre-mRNA, a rare type of intron with a GC 5′ splice site, is abnormally spliced in cdkg1. RNA immunoprecipitation analysis suggests that CDKG1 is associated with this intron. CDKG1 contains N-terminal Ser/Arg (RS) motifs and interacts with splicing factor Arginine/Serine-Rich Zinc Knuckle-Containing Protein33 (RSZ33) through its RS region to regulate proper splicing. CDKG1 and RS-containing Zinc Finger Protein22 (SRZ22), a splicing factor interacting with RSZ33 and U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (snRNP) component U1-70k, colocalize in nuclear speckles and reside in the same complex. We propose that CDKG1 is recruited to U1 snRNP through RSZ33 to facilitate the splicing of the sixth intron of CalS5. PMID:23404887

  19. The SH2 domain regulates c-Abl kinase activation by a cyclin-like mechanism and remodulation of the hinge motion.

    PubMed

    Dölker, Nicole; Górna, Maria W; Sutto, Ludovico; Torralba, Antonio S; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Gervasio, Francesco L

    2014-10-01

    Regulation of the c-Abl (ABL1) tyrosine kinase is important because of its role in cellular signaling, and its relevance in the leukemiogenic counterpart (BCR-ABL). Both auto-inhibition and full activation of c-Abl are regulated by the interaction of the catalytic domain with the Src Homology 2 (SH2) domain. The mechanism by which this interaction enhances catalysis is not known. We combined computational simulations with mutagenesis and functional analysis to find that the SH2 domain conveys both local and global effects on the dynamics of the catalytic domain. Locally, it regulates the flexibility of the αC helix in a fashion reminiscent of cyclins in cyclin-dependent kinases, reorienting catalytically important motifs. At a more global level, SH2 binding redirects the hinge motion of the N and C lobes and changes the conformational equilibrium of the activation loop. The complex network of subtle structural shifts that link the SH2 domain with the activation loop and the active site may be partially conserved with other SH2-domain containing kinases and therefore offer additional parameters for the design of conformation-specific inhibitors.

  20. D1-like receptors regulate NADPH oxidase activity and subunit expression in lipid raft microdomains of renal proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Hewang; Han, Weixing; Villar, Van Anthony M; Keever, Lindsay B; Lu, Quansheng; Hopfer, Ulrich; Quinn, Mark T; Felder, Robin A; Jose, Pedro A; Yu, Peiying

    2009-06-01

    NADPH oxidase (Nox)-dependent reactive oxygen species production is implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that oxidase subunits are differentially regulated in renal proximal tubules from normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats. Basal Nox2 and Nox4, but not Rac1, in immortalized renal proximal tubule cells and brush border membranes were greater in hypertensive than in normotensive rats. However, more Rac1 was expressed in lipid rafts in cells from hypertensive rats than in cells from normotensive rats; the converse was observed with Nox4, whereas Nox2 expression was similar. The D(1)-like receptor agonist fenoldopam decreased Nox2 and Rac1 protein in lipid rafts to a greater extent in hypertensive than in normotensive rats. Basal oxidase activity was 3-fold higher in hypertensive than in normotensive rats but was inhibited to a greater extent by fenoldopam in normotensive (58+/-3.3%) than in hypertensive rats (31+/-5.2%; P<0.05; n=6 per group). Fenoldopam decreased the amount of Nox2 that coimmunoprecipitated with p67(phox) in cells from normotensive rats. D(1)-like receptors may decrease oxidase activity by disrupting the distribution and assembly of oxidase subunits in cell membrane microdomains. The cholesterol-depleting reagent methyl-beta-cyclodextrin decreased oxidase activity and cholesterol content to a greater extent in hypertensive than in normotensive rats. The greater basal levels of Nox2 and Nox4 in cell membranes and Nox2 and Rac1 in lipid rafts in hypertensive rats than in normotensive rats may explain the increased basal oxidase activity in hypertensive rats. PMID:19380616

  1. Cyclin B interaction with microtubule-associated protein 4 (MAP4) targets p34cdc2 kinase to microtubules and is a potential regulator of M-phase microtubule dynamics

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    We previously demonstrated (Ookata et al., 1992, 1993) that the p34cdc2/cyclin B complex associates with microtubules in the mitotic spindle and premeiotic aster in starfish oocytes, and that microtubule- associated proteins (MAPs) might be responsible for this interaction. In this study, we have investigated the mechanism by which p34cdc2 kinase associates with the microtubule cytoskeleton in primate tissue culture cells whose major MAP is known to be MAP4. Double staining of primate cells with anti-cyclin B and anti-MAP4 antibodies demonstrated these two antigens were colocalized on microtubules and copartitioned following two treatments that altered MAP4 distribution. Detergent extraction before fixation removed cyclin B as well as MAP4 from the microtubules. Depolymerization of some of the cellular microtubules with nocodazole preferentially retained the microtubule localization of both cyclin B and MAP4. The association of p34cdc2/cyclin B kinase with microtubules was also shown biochemically to be mediated by MAP4. Cosedimentation of purified p34cdc2/cyclin B with purified microtubule proteins containing MAP4, but not with MAP-free microtubules, as well as binding of MAP4 to GST-cyclin B fusion proteins, demonstrated an interaction between cyclin B and MAP4. Using recombinant MAP4 fragments, we demonstrated that the Pro-rich C-terminal region of MAP4 is sufficient to mediate the cyclin B-MAP4 interaction. Since p34cdc2/cyclin B physically associated with MAP4, we examined the ability of the kinase complex to phosphorylate MAP4. Incubation of a ternary complex of p34cdc2, cyclin B, and the COOH-terminal domain of MAP4, PA4, with ATP resulted in intracomplex phosphorylation of PA4. Finally, we tested the effects of MAP4 phosphorylation on microtubule dynamics. Phosphorylation of MAP4 by p34cdc2 kinase did not prevent its binding to microtubules, but abolished its microtubule stabilizing activity. Thus, the cyclin B/MAP4 interaction we have described may be

  2. CYCLIN H;1 Regulates Drought Stress Responses and Blue Light-Induced Stomatal Opening by Inhibiting Reactive Oxygen Species Accumulation in Arabidopsis1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiao Feng; Jin, Yin Hua; Yoo, Chan Yul; Lin, Xiao-Li; Kim, Woe-Yeon; Yun, Dae-Jin; Bressan, Ray A.; Hasegawa, Paul M.; Jin, Jing Bo

    2013-01-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE Ds (CDKDs) phosphorylate the C-terminal domain of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. Arabidopsis CYCLIN H;1 (CYCH;1) interacts with and activates CDKDs; however, the physiological function of CYCH;1 has not been determined. Here, we report that CYCH;1, which is localized to the nucleus, positively regulates blue light-induced stomatal opening. Reduced-function cych;1 RNA interference (cych;1 RNAi) plants exhibited a drought tolerance phenotype. CYCH;1 is predominantly expressed in guard cells, and its expression was substantially down-regulated by dehydration. Transpiration of intact leaves was reduced in cych;1 RNAi plants compared with the wild-type control in light but not in darkness. CYCH;1 down-regulation impaired blue light-induced stomatal opening but did not affect guard cell development or abscisic acid-mediated stomatal closure. Microarray and real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses indicated that CYCH;1 did not regulate the expression of abscisic acid-responsive genes or light-induced stomatal opening signaling determinants, such as MYB60, MYB61, Hypersensitive to red and blue1, and Protein phosphatase7. CYCH;1 down-regulation induced the expression of redox homeostasis genes, such as LIPOXYGENASE3 (LOX3), LOX4, ARABIDOPSIS GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE 7 (ATGPX7), EARLY LIGHT-INDUCIBLE PROTEIN1 (ELIP1), and ELIP2, and increased hydrogen peroxide production in guard cells. Furthermore, loss-of-function mutations in CDKD;2 or CDKD;3 did not affect responsiveness to drought stress, suggesting that CYCH;1 regulates the drought stress response in a CDKD-independent manner. We propose that CYCH;1 regulates blue light-mediated stomatal opening by controlling reactive oxygen species homeostasis. PMID:23656895

  3. Regulation of the Action of Early Mitotic Inhibitor 1 on the Anaphase-promoting Complex/Cyclosome by Cyclin-dependent Kinases*

    PubMed Central

    Moshe, Yakir; Bar-On, Ortal; Ganoth, Dvora; Hershko, Avram

    2011-01-01

    Cell cycle regulation is characterized by alternating activities of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and of the ubiquitin ligase anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C). During S-phase APC/C is inhibited by early mitotic inhibitor 1 (Emi1) to allow the accumulation of cyclins A and B and to prevent re-replication. Emi1 is degraded at prophase by a Plk1-dependent pathway. Recent studies in which the degradation pathway of Emi1 was disrupted have shown that APC/C is activated at mitotic entry despite stabilization of Emi1. These results suggested the possibility of additional mechanisms other than degradation of Emi1, which release APC/C from inhibition by Emi1 upon entry into mitosis. In this study we report one such mechanism, by which the ability of Emi1 to inhibit APC/C is negatively regulated by CDKs. We show that in Plk1-inhibited cells Emi1 is stabilized and phosphorylated, that Emi1 is phosphorylated by CDKs in mitotic but not S-phase cell extracts, and that Emi1 phosphorylation by mitotic cell extracts or purified CDKs markedly reduces the ability of Emi1 to bind and to inhibit APC/C. Finally, we show that the addition of extracts from S-phase cells to extracts from mitotic cells protects Emi1 from CDK-mediated inactivation. PMID:21454540

  4. Conformational Equilibrium of CDK/Cyclin Complexes by Molecular Dynamics with Excited Normal Modes

    PubMed Central

    Floquet, Nicolas; Costa, Mauricio G.S.; Batista, Paulo R.; Renault, Pedro; Bisch, Paulo M.; Raussin, Florent; Martinez, Jean; Morris, May C.; Perahia, David

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and their associated regulatory cyclins are central for timely regulation of cell-cycle progression. They constitute attractive pharmacological targets for development of anticancer therapeutics, since they are frequently deregulated in human cancers and contribute to sustained, uncontrolled tumor proliferation. Characterization of their structural/dynamic features is essential to gain in-depth insight into structure-activity relationships. In addition, the identification of druggable pockets or key intermediate conformations yields potential targets for the development of novel classes of inhibitors. Structural studies of CDK2/cyclin A have provided a wealth of information concerning monomeric/heterodimeric forms of this kinase. There is, however, much less structural information for other CDK/cyclin complexes, including CDK4/cyclin D1, which displays an alternative (open) position of the cyclin partner relative to CDK, contrasting with the closed CDK2/cyclin A conformation. In this study, we carried out normal-mode analysis and enhanced sampling simulations with our recently developed method, molecular dynamics with excited normal modes, to understand the conformational equilibrium on these complexes. Interestingly, the lowest-frequency normal mode computed for each complex described the transition between the open and closed conformations. Exploration of these motions with an explicit-solvent representation using molecular dynamics with excited normal modes confirmed that the closed conformation is the most stable for the CDK2/cyclin A complex, in agreement with their experimentally available structures. On the other hand, we clearly show that an open↔closed equilibrium may exist in CDK4/cyclin D1, with closed conformations resembling that captured for CDK2/cyclin A. Such conformational preferences may result from the distinct distributions of frustrated contacts in each complex. Using the same approach, the putative roles of

  5. Cyclin D2 and the CDK substrate p220(NPAT) are required for self-renewal of human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Becker, Klaus A; Ghule, Prachi N; Lian, Jane B; Stein, Janet L; van Wijnen, Andre J; Stein, Gary S

    2010-02-01

    Self-renewal of pluripotent human embryonic stem (hES) cells utilizes an abbreviated cell cycle that bypasses E2F/pRB-dependent growth control. We investigated whether self-renewal is alternatively regulated by cyclin/CDK phosphorylation of the p220(NPAT)/HiNF-P complex to activate histone gene expression at the G1/S phase transition. We show that cyclin D2 is prominently expressed in pluripotent hES cells, but cyclin D1 eclipses cyclin D2 during differentiation. Depletion of cyclin D2 or p220(NPAT) causes a cell cycle defect in G1 reflected by diminished phosphorylation of p220(NPAT), decreased cell cycle dependent histone H4 expression and reduced S phase progression. Thus, cyclin D2 and p220(NPAT) are principal cell cycle regulators that determine competency for self-renewal in pluripotent hES cells. While pRB/E2F checkpoint control is relinquished in human ES cells, fidelity of physiological regulation is secured by cyclin D2 dependent activation of the p220(NPAT)/HiNF-P mechanism that may explain perpetual proliferation of hES cells without transformation or tumorigenesis. PMID:19890848

  6. Cyclin D2 and the CDK substrate p220(NPAT) are required for self-renewal of human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Becker, Klaus A; Ghule, Prachi N; Lian, Jane B; Stein, Janet L; van Wijnen, Andre J; Stein, Gary S

    2010-02-01

    Self-renewal of pluripotent human embryonic stem (hES) cells utilizes an abbreviated cell cycle that bypasses E2F/pRB-dependent growth control. We investigated whether self-renewal is alternatively regulated by cyclin/CDK phosphorylation of the p220(NPAT)/HiNF-P complex to activate histone gene expression at the G1/S phase transition. We show that cyclin D2 is prominently expressed in pluripotent hES cells, but cyclin D1 eclipses cyclin D2 during differentiation. Depletion of cyclin D2 or p220(NPAT) causes a cell cycle defect in G1 reflected by diminished phosphorylation of p220(NPAT), decreased cell cycle dependent histone H4 expression and reduced S phase progression. Thus, cyclin D2 and p220(NPAT) are principal cell cycle regulators that determine competency for self-renewal in pluripotent hES cells. While pRB/E2F checkpoint control is relinquished in human ES cells, fidelity of physiological regulation is secured by cyclin D2 dependent activation of the p220(NPAT)/HiNF-P mechanism that may explain perpetual proliferation of hES cells without transformation or tumorigenesis.

  7. Identification of a mouse B-type cyclin which exhibits developmentally regulated expression in the germ line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, D. L.; Wolgemuth, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    To begin to examine the function of cyclins in mammalian germ cells, we have screened an adult mouse testis cDNA library for the presence of B-type cyclins. We have isolated cDNAs that encode a murine B-type cyclin, which has been designated cycB1. cycB1 was shown to be expressed in several adult tissues and in the midgestation mouse embryo. In the adult tissues, the highest levels of cycB1 transcripts were seen in the testis and ovary, which contain germ cells at various stages of differentiation. The major transcripts corresponding to cycB1 are 1.7 and 2.5 kb, with the 1.7 kb species being the predominant testicular transcript and the 2.5 kb species more abundant in the ovary. Examination of cDNAs corresponding to the 2.5 kb and 1.7 kb mRNAs revealed that these transcripts encode identical proteins, differing only in the polyadenylation signal used and therefore in the length of their 3' untranslated regions. Northern blot and in situ hybridization analyses revealed that the predominant sites of cycB1 expression in the testis and ovary were in the germinal compartment, particularly in early round spermatids in the testis and growing oocytes in the ovary. Thus cycB1 is expressed in both meiotic and postmeiotic cells. This pattern of cycB1 expression further suggests that cycB1 may have different functions in the two cell types, only one of which correlates with progression of the cell cycle.

  8. Cyclin A regulates a cell-cycle-dependent expression of CKAP2 through phosphorylation of Sp1

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Du-Seock; Hong, Kyeong-Man; Park, Joobae; Bae, Chang-Dae

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We identified a GC box and a CHR element in human CKAP2 minimal promoter. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The CHR element repressed the CKAP2 minimal promoter activity at the G1/S phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The GC box was essential for the basic promoter activity of human CKAP2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The GC box was also essential for the cyclic expression of human CKAP2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phosphorylation of Sp1, mediated by Cyclin A, underlies the cyclic expression. -- Abstract: CKAP2 plays crucial roles in proper chromosome segregation and maintaining genomic stability. CKAP2 protein showed cell-cycle-dependent expression, which reached a maximum level at the G2/M phase and disappeared at the onset of G1 phase. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying cell cycle-dependent expression of CKAP2, we cloned and analyzed the human CKAP2 promoter. The upstream 115-bp region from the transcription start site was sufficient for minimal CKAP2 promoter activity. We identified 2 regulatory sequences; a CHR (-110 to -104 bp) and a GC box (-41 to -32 bp). We confirmed Sp1 bound to the GC box using a supershift assay and a ChIP assay. Mutation in the GC box resulted in a near complete loss of CKAP2 promoter activity while mutation in the CHR decreased the promoter activity by 50%. The CHR mutation showed enhanced activity at the G1/S phase, but still retained cyclic activity. The Chromatin IP revealed that the amount of Sp1 bound to the GC box gradually increased and reached a maximum level at the G2/M phase. The amount of Sp1 bound to the GC box was greatly reduced when Cyclin A was depleted, which was restored by adding Cyclin A/Cdk2 complex back into the nuclear extracts. Together, we concluded that the GC box was responsible for the cyclic activity of human CKAP2 promoter through the phosphorylation of Sp1, possibly by Cyclin A/Cdk complex.

  9. Plexin D1 determines body fat distribution by regulating the type V collagen microenvironment in visceral adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Minchin, James E N; Dahlman, Ingrid; Harvey, Christopher J; Mejhert, Niklas; Singh, Manvendra K; Epstein, Jonathan A; Arner, Peter; Torres-Vázquez, Jesús; Rawls, John F

    2015-04-01

    Genome-wide association studies have implicated PLEXIN D1 (PLXND1) in body fat distribution and type 2 diabetes. However, a role for PLXND1 in regional adiposity and insulin resistance is unknown. Here we use in vivo imaging and genetic analysis in zebrafish to show that Plxnd1 regulates body fat distribution and insulin sensitivity. Plxnd1 deficiency in zebrafish induced hyperplastic morphology in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and reduced lipid storage. In contrast, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) growth and morphology were unaffected, resulting in altered body fat distribution and a reduced VAT:SAT ratio in zebrafish. A VAT-specific role for Plxnd1 appeared conserved in humans, as PLXND1 mRNA was positively associated with hypertrophic morphology in VAT, but not SAT. In zebrafish plxnd1 mutants, the effect on VAT morphology and body fat distribution was dependent on induction of the extracellular matrix protein collagen type V alpha 1 (col5a1). Furthermore, after high-fat feeding, zebrafish plxnd1 mutant VAT was resistant to expansion, and excess lipid was disproportionately deposited in SAT, leading to an even greater exacerbation of altered body fat distribution. Plxnd1-deficient zebrafish were protected from high-fat-diet-induced insulin resistance, and human VAT PLXND1 mRNA was positively associated with type 2 diabetes, suggesting a conserved role for PLXND1 in insulin sensitivity. Together, our findings identify Plxnd1 as a novel regulator of VAT growth, body fat distribution, and insulin sensitivity in both zebrafish and humans.

  10. Aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 down-regulates inflammatory responses and protects against endotoxin-induced acute kidney injury

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jiao; Shetty, Sreerama; Zhang, Ping; Gao, Rong; Hu, Yuxin; Wang, Shuxia; Li, Zhenyu; Fu, Jian

    2014-06-01

    The presence of endotoxin in blood can lead to acute kidney injury (AKI) and septic shock. Resolvins, the endogenous lipid mediators derived from docosahexaenoic acid, have been reported to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory action. Using a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced AKI, we investigated the effects of aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 (AT-RvD1) on inflammatory kidney injury. Administration of AT-RvD1 1 h after LPS challenge protected the mice from kidney injury as indicated by the measurements of blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and morphological alterations associated with tubular damage. The protective effects were evidenced by decreased neutrophil infiltration in the kidney indicating reduction in inflammation. AT-RvD1 treatment restored kidney cell junction protein claudin-4 expression, which was otherwise reduced after LPS challenge. AT-RvD1 treatment inhibited endotoxin-induced NF-κB activation and suppressed LPS-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in the kidney. Moreover, AT-RvD1 treatment markedly decreased LPS-induced IL-6 level in the kidney and blocked IL-6-mediated signaling including STAT3 and ERK phosphorylation. Our findings demonstrate that AT-RvD1 is a potent anti-inflammatory mediator in LPS-induced kidney injury, and AT-RvD1 has therapeutic potential against AKI during endotoxemia.

  11. NeuroD1 mediates nicotine-induced migration and invasion via regulation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits in a subset of neural and neuroendocrine carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Jihan K; Guerra, Marcy L; Gonzales, Joshua X; McMillan, Elizabeth A; Minna, John D; Cobb, Melanie H

    2014-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for acquisition of small cell lung cancer (SCLC). A role has been demonstrated for the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor NeuroD1 in the pathogenesis of neural and neuroendocrine lung cancer, including SCLC. In the present study we investigate the possible function of NeuroD1 in established tumors, as well as actions early on in pathogenesis, in response to nicotine. We demonstrate that nicotine up-regulates NeuroD1 in immortalized normal bronchial epithelial cells and a subset of undifferentiated carcinomas. Increased expression of NeuroD1 subsequently leads to regulation of expression and function of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit cluster of α3, α5, and β4. In addition, we find that coordinated expression of these subunits by NeuroD1 leads to enhanced nicotine-induced migration and invasion, likely through changes in intracellular calcium. These findings suggest that aspects of the pathogenesis of neural and neuroendocrine lung cancers may be affected by a nicotine- and NeuroD1-induced positive feedback loop.

  12. NeuroD1 mediates nicotine-induced migration and invasion via regulation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits in a subset of neural and neuroendocrine carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, Jihan K.; Guerra, Marcy L.; Gonzales, Joshua X.; McMillan, Elizabeth A.; Minna, John D.; Cobb, Melanie H.

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for acquisition of small cell lung cancer (SCLC). A role has been demonstrated for the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor NeuroD1 in the pathogenesis of neural and neuroendocrine lung cancer, including SCLC. In the present study we investigate the possible function of NeuroD1 in established tumors, as well as actions early on in pathogenesis, in response to nicotine. We demonstrate that nicotine up-regulates NeuroD1 in immortalized normal bronchial epithelial cells and a subset of undifferentiated carcinomas. Increased expression of NeuroD1 subsequently leads to regulation of expression and function of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit cluster of α3, α5, and β4. In addition, we find that coordinated expression of these subunits by NeuroD1 leads to enhanced nicotine-induced migration and invasion, likely through changes in intracellular calcium. These findings suggest that aspects of the pathogenesis of neural and neuroendocrine lung cancers may be affected by a nicotine- and NeuroD1-induced positive feedback loop. PMID:24719457

  13. Cyclin Dl expression in B-cell non Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Aref, Salah; Mossad, Y; El-Khodary, T; Awad, M; El-Shahat, E

    2006-10-01

    Disorders of the cell cycle regulatory machinery play a key role in the pathogenesis of cancer. Over-expression of cyclin D1 protein has been reported in several solid tumors and certain lymphoid malignancies, but little is known about the effect of its expression on clinical behavior and outcome in B-cell Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). In this study, we investigated the expression of cyclin Dl in group of patients with NHL and correlated the results with the clinical and laboratory data. The degree of expression of cyclin Dl protein was evaluated by flow cytometry in a group of NHL patients (n = 46) and in normal control group (n = 10). Cyclin Dl over expression was detected in 10 out of 46 (21.7%) patients; they were 5/5-mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) (100%) and 5/28 large B-cell lymphoma (17.8%). All other NHL subtypes showed normal cyclin D1 expression. The clinical signs (hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and B-symptoms, clinical staging) and laboratory data (hemoglobin, white cell count (WBCs), platelet count, and bone marrow infiltration) were not significantly different between NHL subgroup with cyclin Dl over expression and that with normal cyclin Dl expression. Serum lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) levels and lymphadenopathy were significantly higher in NHL group with cyclin D1 over expression as compared to those without. Also, cyclin D1 over expression is associated with poor outcome of NHL patients. Cyclin Dl over expression was evident among all cases of MCL and few cases of large B-cell lymphoma. Cyclin Dl over expression might be used as adjuvant tool for diagnosis of MCL; has role in NHL biology and is bad prognostic index in NHL. PMID:17607588

  14. Dietary phosphorus transcriptionally regulates 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1alpha-hydroxylase gene expression in the proximal renal tubule.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Martin Y H; Wang, Xuemei; Wang, Jonathan T; Compagnone, Nathalie A; Mellon, Synthia H; Olson, Jean L; Tenenhouse, Harriet S; Miller, Walter L; Portale, Anthony A

    2002-02-01

    Synthesis of the hormone 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, the biologically active form of vitamin D, occurs in the kidney and is catalyzed by the mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme, 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1alpha-hydroxylase (1alpha-hydroxylase). We sought to characterize the effects of changes in dietary phosphorus on the kinetics of renal mitochondrial 1alpha-hydroxylase activity and the renal expression of P450c1alpha and P450c24 mRNA, to localize the nephron segments involved in such regulation, and to determine whether transcriptional mechanisms are involved. In intact mice, restriction of dietary phosphorus induced rapid, sustained, approximately 6- to 8-fold increases in renal mitochondrial 1alpha-hydroxylase activity and renal P450c1alpha mRNA abundance. Immunohistochemical analysis of renal sections from mice fed the control diet revealed the expression of 1alpha-hydroxylase protein in the proximal convoluted and straight tubules, epithelial cells of Bowman's capsule, thick ascending limb of Henle's loop, distal tubule, and collecting duct. In mice fed a phosphorus-restricted diet, immunoreactivity was significantly increased in the proximal convoluted and proximal straight tubules and epithelial cells of Bowman's capsule, but not in the distal nephron. Dietary phosphorus restriction induced a 2-fold increase in P450c1alpha gene transcription, as shown by nuclear run-on assays. Thus, the increase in renal synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D induced in normal mice by restricting dietary phosphorus can be attributed to an increase in the renal abundance of P450c1alpha mRNA and protein. The increase in P450c1alpha gene expression, which occurs exclusively in the proximal renal tubule, is due at least in part to increased transcription of the P450c1alpha gene.

  15. Genome-wide analysis of the cyclin family in Arabidopsis and comparative phylogenetic analysis of plant cyclin-like proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanfang; Kong, Hongzhi; Sun, Yujin; Zhang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Wei; Altman, Naomi; DePamphilis, Claude W; Ma, Hong

    2004-06-01

    Cyclins are primary regulators of the activity of cyclin-dependent kinases, which are known to play critical roles in controlling eukaryotic cell cycle progression. While there has been extensive research on cell cycle mechanisms and cyclin function in animals and yeasts, only a small number of plant cyclins have been characterized functionally. In this paper, we describe an exhaustive search for cyclin genes in the Arabidopsis genome and among available sequences from other vascular plants. Based on phylogenetic analysis, we define 10 classes of plant cyclins, four of which are plant-specific, and a fifth is shared between plants and protists but not animals. Microarray and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analyses further provide expression profiles of cyclin genes in different tissues of wild-type Arabidopsis plants. Comparative phylogenetic studies of 174 plant cyclins were also performed. The phylogenetic results imply that the cyclin gene family in plants has experienced more gene duplication events than in animals. Expression patterns and phylogenetic analyses of Arabidopsis cyclin genes suggest potential gene redundancy among members belonging to the same group. We discuss possible divergence and conservation of some plant cyclins. Our study provides an opportunity to rapidly assess the position of plant cyclin genes in terms of evolution and classification, serving as a guide for further functional study of plant cyclins.

  16. Differential Roles of Two Homologous Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Genes in Regulating Cell Cycle and Innate Immunity in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hamdoun, Safae; Zhang, Chong; Gill, Manroop; Churchman, Michelle; Larkin, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Precise cell-cycle control is critical for plant development and responses to pathogen invasion. Two homologous cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor genes, SIAMESE (SIM) and SIM-RELATED 1 (SMR1), were recently shown to regulate Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) defense based on phenotypes conferred by a sim smr1 double mutant. However, whether these two genes play differential roles in cell-cycle and defense control is unknown. In this report, we show that while acting synergistically to promote endoreplication, SIM and SMR1 play different roles in affecting the ploidy of trichome and leaf cells, respectively. In addition, we found that the smr1-1 mutant, but not sim-1, was more susceptible to a virulent Pseudomonas syringae strain, and this susceptibility could be rescued by activating salicylic acid (SA)-mediated defense. Consistent with these results, smr1-1 partially suppressed the dwarfism, high SA levels, and cell death phenotypes in acd6-1, a mutant used to gauge the change of defense levels. Thus, SMR1 functions partly through SA in defense control. The differential roles of SIM and SMR1 are due to differences in temporal and spatial expression of these two genes in Arabidopsis tissues and in response to P. syringae infection. In addition, flow-cytometry analysis of plants with altered SA signaling revealed that SA is necessary, but not sufficient, to change cell-cycle progression. We further found that a mutant with three CYCD3 genes disrupted also compromised disease resistance to P. syringae. Together, this study reveals differential roles of two homologous cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors in regulating cell-cycle progression and innate immunity in Arabidopsis and provides insights into the importance of cell-cycle control during host-pathogen interactions. PMID:26561564

  17. Essential role of D1R in the regulation of mTOR complex1 signaling induced by cocaine.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Laurie P; Caron, Marc G

    2015-12-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine kinase that is involved in neuronal adaptions that underlie cocaine-induced sensitization and reward. mTOR exists in two functionally distinct multi-component complexes known as mTORC1 and mTORC2. In this study, we show that increased mTORC1 activity induced by cocaine is mediated by the dopamine D1 receptor (D1R). Specifically, cocaine treatment increased the phosphorylation on residues Thr2446 and Ser2481 but not on Ser2448 in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and that this increase in phosphorylated mTOR levels was also apparent when complexed with its binding partner Raptor. Furthermore, the increase in phosphorylated mTOR levels, as well as phosphorylated 4E-BP1 and S6K, downstream targets of mTORC1 were blocked with SCH23390 treatment. Similar results were also observed in the dopamine-transporter knockout mice as the increase in phosphorylated mTOR Thr2446 and Ser2481 was blocked by SCH23390 but not with raclopride. To further validate D1R role in mTORC1 signaling, decrease in phosphorylated mTOR levels were observed in D1R knockout mice, whereas administration of SKF81297 elevated phosphorylated mTOR in the NAc. Lastly deletion of mTOR or Raptor in D1R expressing neurons reduced cocaine-induced locomotor activity. Together, our data supports a mechanism whereby mTORC1 signaling is activated by cocaine administration through the stimulation of D1R.

  18. Treatment with bisphenol A and methoxychlor results in the growth of human breast cancer cells and alteration of the expression of cell cycle-related genes, cyclin D1 and p21, via an estrogen receptor-dependent signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Rim; Hwang, Kyung-A; Park, Min-Ah; Yi, Bo-Rim; Jeung, Eui-Bae; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2012-05-01

    Various endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous compounds found in the environment and have the potential to interfere with the endocrine system and hormonal regulation. Among EDCs, bisphenol A (BPA) and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-methoxyphenol)-ethane [methoxychlor (MXC)] have estrogenic activity resulting in a variety of dysfunctions in the E2-mediated response by binding to estrogen receptors (ERs), causing human health problems such as abnormal reproduction and carcinogenesis. In this study, we investigated the effects of BPA and MXC on cell proliferation facilitated by ER signaling in human breast cancer cells. MCF-7 cells are known to be ERα-positive and to be a highly E2-responsive cancer cell line; these cells are, therefore, a useful in vitro model for detecting estrogenic activity in response to EDCs. We evaluated cancer cell proliferation following BPA and MXC treatment using an MTT assay. We analyzed alterations in the expression of genes associated with the cell cycle in MCF-7 cells by semi-quantitative reverse-transcription PCR following treatment with BPA or MXC compared to EtOH. To determine whether BPA and MXC stimulate cancer cell growth though ER signaling, we co-treated the cells with agonists (propyl pyrazoletriol, PPT; and diarylpropionitrile, DPN) or an antagonist (ICI 182,780) of ER signaling and reduced ERα gene expression via siRNA in MCF-7 cells before treatment with EDCs. These studies confirmed the carcinogenicity of EDCs in vitro. As a result, BPA and MXC induced the cancer cell proliferation by the upregulation of genes that promote the cell cycle and the downregulation of anti-proliferative genes, especially ones affecting the G1/S transition via ERα signaling. These collective results confirm the carcinogenicity of these EDCs in vitro. Further studies are required to determine whether EDCs promote carcinogenesis in vivo.

  19. Inhibition of cyclin D-CDK4/CDK6 activity is associated with an E2F-mediated induction of cyclin kinase inhibitor activity.

    PubMed

    Khleif, S N; DeGregori, J; Yee, C L; Otterson, G A; Kaye, F J; Nevins, J R; Howley, P M

    1996-04-30

    Alterations of various components of the cell cycle regulatory machinery that controls the progression of cells from a quiescent to a growing state contribute to the development of many human cancers. Such alterations include the deregulated expression of G1 cyclins, the loss of function of activities such as those of protein p16INK4a that control G1 cyclin-dependent kinase activity, and the loss of function of the retinoblastoma protein (RB), which is normally regulated by the G1 cyclin-dependent kinases. Various studies have revealed an inverse relationship in the expression of p16INK4a protein and the presence of functional RB in many cell lines. In this study we show that p16INK4a is expressed in cervical cancer cell lines in which the RB gene, Rb, is not functional, either as a consequence of Rb mutation or expression of the human papillomavirus E7 protein. We also demonstrate that p16INK4a levels are increased in primary cells in which RB has been inactivated by DNA tumor virus proteins. Given the role of RB in controlling E2F transcription factor activity, we investigated the role of E2F in controlling p16INK4a expression. We found that E2F1 overexpression leads to an inhibition of cyclin D1-dependent kinase activity and induces the expression of a p16-related transcript. We conclude that the accumulation of G1 cyclin-dependent kinase activity during normal G1 progression leads to E2F accumulation through the inactivation of RB, and that this then leads to the induction of cyclin kinase inhibitor activity and a shutdown of G1 kinase activity.

  20. Direct Regulation of Aromatase B Expression by 17β-Estradiol and Dopamine D1 Receptor Agonist in Adult Radial Glial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Lei; Esau, Crystal; Trudeau, Vance L.

    2016-01-01

    Aromatase cytochrome P450arom (cyp19) is the only enzyme that has the ability to convert androgens into estrogens. Estrogens, which are produced locally in the vertebrate brain play many fundamental roles in neuroendocrine functions, reproductive functions, socio-sexual behaviors, and neurogenesis. Radial glial cells (RGCs) are neuronal progenitor cells that are abundant in fish brains and are the exclusive site of aromatase B expression and neuroestrogen synthesis. Using a novel in vitro RGC culture preparation we studied the regulation of aromatase B by 17β-estradiol (E2) and dopamine (DA). We have established that activation of the dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) by SKF 38393 up-regulates aromatase B gene expression most likely through the phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB). This up-regulation can be enhanced by low concentration of E2 (100 nM) through increasing the expression of D1R and the level of p-CREB protein. However, a high concentration of E2 (1 μM) and D1R agonist together failed to up-regulate aromatase B, potentially due to attenuation of esr2b expression and p-CREB levels. Furthermore, we found the up-regulation of aromatase B by E2 and DA both requires the involvement of esr1 and esr2a. The combined effect of E2 and DA agonist indicates that aromatase B in the adult teleost brain is under tight control by both steroids and neurotransmitters to precisely regulate neuroestrogen levels. PMID:26793050

  1. Cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-1 (cIAP1) can regulate E2F1 transcription factor-mediated control of cyclin transcription.

    PubMed

    Cartier, Jessy; Berthelet, Jean; Marivin, Arthur; Gemble, Simon; Edmond, Valérie; Plenchette, Stéphanie; Lagrange, Brice; Hammann, Arlette; Dupoux, Alban; Delva, Laurent; Eymin, Béatrice; Solary, Eric; Dubrez, Laurence

    2011-07-29

    The inhibitor of apoptosis protein cIAP1 (cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-1) is a potent regulator of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family and NF-κB signaling pathways in the cytoplasm. However, in some primary cells and tumor cell lines, cIAP1 is expressed in the nucleus, and its nuclear function remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the N-terminal part of cIAP1 directly interacts with the DNA binding domain of the E2F1 transcription factor. cIAP1 dramatically increases the transcriptional activity of E2F1 on synthetic and CCNE promoters. This function is not conserved for cIAP2 and XIAP, which are cytoplasmic proteins. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that cIAP1 is recruited on E2F binding sites of the CCNE and CCNA promoters in a cell cycle- and differentiation-dependent manner. cIAP1 silencing inhibits E2F1 DNA binding and E2F1-mediated transcriptional activation of the CCNE gene. In cells that express a nuclear cIAP1 such as HeLa, THP1 cells and primary human mammary epithelial cells, down-regulation of cIAP1 inhibits cyclin E and A expression and cell proliferation. We conclude that one of the functions of cIAP1 when localized in the nucleus is to regulate E2F1 transcriptional activity.

  2. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 is a crucial target for histone deacetylase 1 as a regulator of cellular proliferation.

    PubMed

    Zupkovitz, Gordin; Grausenburger, Reinhard; Brunmeir, Reinhard; Senese, Silvia; Tischler, Julia; Jurkin, Jennifer; Rembold, Martina; Meunier, Dominique; Egger, Gerda; Lagger, Sabine; Chiocca, Susanna; Propst, Fritz; Weitzer, Georg; Seiser, Christian

    2010-03-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are chromatin-modifying enzymes that are involved in the regulation of proliferation, differentiation and development. HDAC inhibitors induce cell cycle arrest, differentiation, or apoptosis in tumor cells and are therefore promising antitumor agents. Numerous genes were found to be deregulated upon HDAC inhibitor treatment; however, the relevant target enzymes are still unidentified. HDAC1 is required for mouse development and unrestricted proliferation of embryonic stem cells. We show here that HDAC1 reversibly regulates cellular proliferation and represses the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 in embryonic stem cells. Disruption of the p21 gene rescues the proliferation phenotype of HDAC1(-/-) embryonic stem cells but not the embryonic lethality of HDAC1(-/-) mice. In the absence of HDAC1, mouse embryonic fibroblasts scarcely undergo spontaneous immortalization and display increased p21 expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrate a direct regulation of the p21 gene by HDAC1 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Transformation with simian virus 40 large T antigen or ablation of p21 restores normal immortalization of primary HDAC1(-/-) fibroblasts. Our data demonstrate that repression of the p21 gene is crucial for HDAC1-mediated control of proliferation and immortalization. HDAC1 might therefore be one of the relevant targets for HDAC inhibitors as anticancer drugs.

  3. An RNAi screen identifies metabolic regulators NR1D1 and PBP as novel survival factors for breast cancer cells with the ERBB2 signature

    PubMed Central

    Kourtidis, Antonis; Jain, Ritu; Carkner, Richard D.; Eifert, Cheryl; Brosnan, M. Julia; Conklin, Douglas S.

    2010-01-01

    Overexpression of the adverse prognostic marker ERBB2 occurs in 30% of breast cancers, however, therapies targeting this gene have not proven to be as effective as was initially hoped. Transcriptional profiling meta-analyses have shown that there are approximately 150 genes co-overexpressed with ERBB2, suggesting that these genes may represent alternative factors influencing ERBB2-positive tumors. Here we describe an RNA interference-based analysis of these genes that identifies transcriptional regulators of fat synthesis and storage as being critical for the survival of these cells. These transcription factors, NR1D1 and PBP, both reside on ERBB2-containing 17q12-21 amplicons and are part of the ERBB2 expression signature. We show that NR1D1 and PBP act through a common pathway in upregulating several genes in the de novo fatty acid synthesis network that is highly active in ERBB2-positive breast cancer cells. MDH1 and ME1, enzymes that link glycolysis and fatty acid synthesis, are also regulated by NR1D1. The resulting high-level fat production from increased expression of these genes likely contributes to an abnormal cellular energy metabolism based on aerobic glycolysis. Together, these results demonstrate that the cells of this aggressive form of breast cancer are genetically preprogrammed to depend on NR1D1 and PBP for the energy production necessary for survival. PMID:20160030

  4. Striatal dopamine modulates basal ganglia output and regulates social context-dependent behavioral variability through D1 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Leblois, Arthur; Wendel, Benjamin J.; Perkel, David J

    2010-01-01

    Cortico–basal ganglia (BG) circuits are thought to promote the acquisition of motor skills through reinforcement learning. In songbirds, a specialized portion of the BG is responsible for song learning and plasticity. This circuit generates song variability that underlies vocal experimentation in young birds and modulates song variability depending on the social context in adult birds. When male birds sing in the presence of a female, a social context associated with decreased BG-induced song variability, the extracellular dopamine (DA) level is increased in the avian BG nucleus Area X. These results suggest that DA could trigger song variability changes through its action in Area X. Consistent with this hypothesis, we report that DA delivered to Area X weakens the output signal of the avian cortico-BG circuit. Acting through D1 receptors, DA reduced responses in Area X to song playback and to electrical stimulation of its afferent cortical nucleus HVC. Specifically, DA reduced the response to direct excitatory input and decreased firing variability in Area X pallidal neurons, which provide the output to the thalamus. As a consequence, DA delivery in Area X also decreased responses to song playback in the cortical output nucleus of the BG loop, the lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium (LMAN). Further, interfering with D1 receptor transmission in Area X abolished social context-related changes in song variability. In conclusion, we propose that DA acts on D1 receptors in Area X to modulate the BG output signal and trigger changes in song variability. PMID:20410125

  5. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 acts as a critical determinant of AKT-dependent proliferation and regulates differential gene expression by the androgen receptor in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lindqvist, Julia; Imanishi, Susumu Y; Torvaldson, Elin; Malinen, Marjo; Remes, Mika; Örn, Fanny; Palvimo, Jorma J; Eriksson, John E

    2015-06-01

    Contrary to cell cycle-associated cyclin-dependent kinases, CDK5 is best known for its regulation of signaling processes in differentiated cells and its destructive activation in Alzheimer's disease. Recently, CDK5 has been implicated in a number of different cancers, but how it is able to stimulate cancer-related signaling pathways remains enigmatic. Our goal was to study the cancer-promoting mechanisms of CDK5 in prostate cancer. We observed that CDK5 is necessary for proliferation of several prostate cancer cell lines. Correspondingly, there was considerable growth promotion when CDK5 was overexpressed. When examining the reasons for the altered proliferation effects, we observed that CDK5 phosphorylates S308 on the androgen receptor (AR), resulting in its stabilization and differential expression of AR target genes including several growth-priming transcription factors. However, the amplified cell growth was found to be separated from AR signaling, further corroborated by CDK5-dependent proliferation of AR null cells. Instead, we found that the key growth-promoting effect was due to specific CDK5-mediated AKT activation. Down-regulation of CDK5 repressed AKT phosphorylation by altering its intracellular localization, immediately followed by prominent cell cycle inhibition. Taken together, these results suggest that CDK5 acts as a crucial signaling hub in prostate cancer cells by controlling androgen responses through AR, maintaining and accelerating cell proliferation through AKT activation, and releasing cell cycle breaks. PMID:25851605

  6. Cyclin D2 Overexpression in Transgenic Mice Induces Thymic and Epidermal Hyperplasia whereas Cyclin D3 Expression Results Only in Epidermal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Puebla, Marcelo L.; LaCava, Margaret; Miliani de Marval, Paula L.; Jorcano, Jose L.; Richie, Ellen R.; Conti, Claudio J.

    2000-01-01

    In a previous report, we described the effects of cyclin D1 expression in epithelial tissues of transgenic mice. To study the involvement of D-type cyclins (D1, D2, and D3) in epithelial growth and differentiation and their putative role as oncogenes in skin, transgenic mice were developed which carry cyclin D2 or D3 genes driven by a keratin 5 promoter. As expected, both transgenic lines showed expression of these proteins in most of the squamous tissues analyzed. Epidermal proliferation increased in transgenic animals and basal cell hyperplasia was observed. All of the animals also had a minor thickening of the epidermis. The pattern of expression of keratin 1 and keratin 5 indicated that epidermal differentiation was not affected. Transgenic K5D2 mice developed mild thymic hyperplasia that reversed at 4 months of age. On the other hand, high expression of cyclin D3 in the thymus did not produce hyperplasia. This model provides in vivo evidence of the action of cyclin D2 and cyclin D3 as mediators of proliferation in squamous epithelial cells. A direct comparison among the three D-type cyclin transgenic mice suggests that cyclin D1 and cyclin D2 have similar roles in epithelial thymus cells. However, overexpression of each D-type cyclin produces a distinct phenotype in thymic epithelial cells. PMID:10980142

  7. Immunohistochemical study of cyclins D and E and cyclin dependent kinase (cdk) 2 and 4 in human endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ito, K; Sasano, H; Yoshida, Y; Sato, S; Yajima, A

    1998-01-01

    We studied the immunolocalization of cyclins D1 and E and their corresponding partner cyclin dependent kinases (cdk), cdk4 and cdk2 in 39 cases of human endometrioid endometrial carcinoma and examined the correlations between the labeling indexes of the cyclins, cdks and clinicopathologic parameters and the clinical outcome of the patients. Cyclin D1 immunoreactivity was observed exclusively in the nuclei of tumor cells in 22/39 (56%) of the cases examined. Immunoreactivity for cyclin E, cdk2, and cdk4 was detected in carcinoma cells of 37/39 (95%), 39/39 and 36/39 cases, respectively. There were no significant correlations between the labeling indices of any of the parameters examined. Cyclins D1 and E labeling indices were not significantly correlated with any of the clinicopathologic parameters examined. However, there was a significant correlation between cdk2 labeling index and the histological grade of carcinoma (p < 0.0001), and a significant correlation (p = 0.015) was also detected between the cdk4 labeling index and pathologic stages. There was no significant difference in clinical outcome of the patients according to the cyclin and ckd4 immunostaining patterns. These results indicate that cdk2 and cdk4 overexpression may be involved in the development and/or progression of human endometrioid endometrial carcinoma. PMID:9673386

  8. The Anaphase-Promoting Complex is a dual integrator that regulates both microRNA-mediated transcriptional regulation of Cyclin B1 and degradation of Cyclin B1 during Arabidopsis male gametophyte development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), an essential ubiquitin protein ligase, regulates mitotic progression and exit by enhancing degradation of cell cycle regulatory proteins, such as CYCB1;1, whose transcripts are upregulated by DUO POLLEN1 (DUO1). DUO1 is required for cell division in ...

  9. The Anaphase-Promoting Complex Is a Dual Integrator That Regulates Both MicroRNA-Mediated Transcriptional Regulation of Cyclin B1 and Degradation of Cyclin B1 during Arabidopsis Male Gametophyte Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), an essential ubiquitin protein ligase, regulates mitotic progression and exit by enhancing degradation of cell cycle regulatory proteins, such as CYCB1;1, whose transcripts are upregulated by DUO POLLEN1 (DUO1). DUO1 is required for cell division in ...

  10. Down-regulation of the PTTG1 proto-oncogene contributes to the melanoma suppressive effects of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor PHA-848125.

    PubMed

    Caporali, Simona; Alvino, Ester; Levati, Lauretta; Esposito, Alessia I; Ciomei, Marina; Brasca, Maria G; Del Bufalo, Donatella; Desideri, Marianna; Bonmassar, Enzo; Pfeffer, Ulrich; D'Atri, Stefania

    2012-09-01

    We previously demonstrated that PHA-848125, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor presently under Phase II clinical investigation, impairs melanoma cell growth. In this study, gene expression profiling showed that PHA-848125 significantly modulated the expression of 128 genes, predominantly involved in cell cycle control, in the highly drug-sensitive GL-Mel (p53 wild-type) melanoma cells. Up-regulation of 4 selected genes (PDCD4, SESN2, DDIT4, DEPDC6), and down-regulation of 6 selected genes (PTTG1, CDC25A, AURKA, AURKB, PLK1, BIRC5) was confirmed at protein levels. The same protein analysis performed in PHA-848125-treated M10 melanoma cells - p53 mutated and less sensitive to the drug than GL-Mel cells - revealed no DEPDC6 expression and no changes of PTTG1, PDCD4 and BIRC5 levels. Upon PHA-848125 treatment, a marked PTTG1 down-modulation was also observed in A375 cells (p53 wild-type) but not in CN-Mel cells (p53 mutated). PTTG1 silencing significantly inhibited melanoma cell proliferation and induced senescence, with effects less pronounced in p53 mutated cells. PTTG1 silencing increased PHA-848125 sensitivity of p53 mutated cells but not that of A375 or GL-Mel cells. Accordingly, in M10 but not in A375 cells a higher level of senescence was detected in PHA-848125-treated/PTTG1-silenced cells with respect to PHA-848125-treated controls. In A375 and GL-Mel cells, TP53 silencing attenuated PHA-848125-induced down-modulation of PTTG1 and decreased cell sensitivity to the drug. These findings indicate that PHA-848125-induced down-regulation of PTTG1 depends, at least in part, on p53 function and contributes to the antiproliferative activity of the drug. Our study provides further molecular insight into the antitumor mechanism of PHA-848125.

  11. A triangular connection between Cyclin G, PP2A and Akt1 in the regulation of growth and metabolism in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Patrick; Preiss, Anette; Nagel, Anja C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Size and weight control is a tightly regulated process, involving the highly conserved Insulin receptor/target of rapamycin (InR/TOR) signaling cascade. We recently identified Cyclin G (CycG) as an important modulator of InR/TOR signaling activity in Drosophila. cycG mutant flies are underweight and show a disturbed fat metabolism resembling TOR mutants. In fact, InR/TOR signaling activity is disturbed in cycG mutants at the level of Akt1, the central kinase linking InR and TORC1. Akt1 is negatively regulated by protein phosphatase PP2A. Notably the binding of the PP2A B′-regulatory subunit Widerborst (Wdb) to Akt1 is differentially regulated in cycG mutants, presumably by a direct interaction of CycG and Wdb. Since the metabolic defects of cycG mutant animals are abrogated by a concomitant loss of Wdb, CycG presumably influences Akt1 activity at the PP2A nexus. Here we show that Well rounded (Wrd), another B' subunit of PP2A in Drosophila, binds CycG similar to Wdb, and that its loss ameliorates some, but not all, of the metabolic defects of cycG mutants. We propose a model, whereby the binding of CycG to a particular B′-regulatory subunit influences the tissue specific activity of PP2A, required for the fine tuning of the InR/TOR signaling cascade in Drosophila. PMID:26980713

  12. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 Modulates the Transcriptional Activity of the Mineralocorticoid Receptor and Regulates Expression of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor

    PubMed Central

    Kino, Tomoshige; Jaffe, Howard; Amin, Niranjana D.; Chakrabarti, Mayukh; Zheng, Ya-Li; Chrousos, George P.; Pant, Harish C.

    2010-01-01

    Glucocorticoids, major end effectors of the stress response, play an essential role in the homeostasis of the central nervous system (CNS) and contribute to memory consolidation and emotional control through their intracellular receptors, the glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5), on the other hand, plays important roles in the morphogenesis and functions of the central nervous system, and its aberrant activation has been associated with development of neurodegenerative disorders. We previously reported that CDK5 phosphorylated the glucocorticoid receptor and modulated its transcriptional activity. Here we found that CDK5 also regulated mineralocorticoid receptor-induced transcriptional activity by phosphorylating multiple serine and threonine residues located in its N-terminal domain through physical interaction. Aldosterone and dexamethasone, respectively, increased and suppressed mRNA/protein expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in rat cortical neuronal cells, whereas the endogenous glucocorticoid corticosterone showed a biphasic effect. CDK5 enhanced the effect of aldosterone and dexamethasone on BDNF expression. Because this neurotrophic factor plays critical roles in neuronal viability, synaptic plasticity, consolidation of memory, and emotional changes, we suggest that aberrant activation of CDK5 might influence these functions through corticosteroid receptors/BDNF. PMID:20357208

  13. Lack of sik1 in mouse embryonic stem cells impairs cardiomyogenesis by down-regulating the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p57kip2.

    PubMed

    Romito, Antonio; Lonardo, Enza; Roma, Guglielmo; Minchiotti, Gabriella; Ballabio, Andrea; Cobellis, Gilda

    2010-02-03

    Sik1 (salt inducible kinase 1) is a serine/threonine kinase that belongs to the stress- and energy-sensing AMP-activated protein kinase family. During murine embryogenesis, sik1 marks the monolayer of future myocardial cells that will populate first the primitive ventricle, and later the primitive atrium suggesting its involvement in cardiac cell differentiation and/or heart development. Despite that observation, the involvement of sik1 in cardiac differentiation is still unknown. We examined the sik1 function during cardiomyocyte differentiation using the ES-derived embryoid bodies. We produced a null embryonic stem cell using a gene-trap cell line carrying an insertion in the sik1 locus. In absence of the sik1 protein, the temporal appearance of cardiomyocytes is delayed. Expression profile analysis revealed sik1 as part of a genetic network that controls the cell cycle, where the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p57(Kip2) is directly involved. Collectively, we provided evidence that sik1-mediated effects are specific for cardiomyogenesis regulating cardiomyoblast cell cycle exit toward terminal differentiation.

  14. Lack of Sik1 in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells Impairs Cardiomyogenesis by Down-Regulating the Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p57kip2

    PubMed Central

    Romito, Antonio; Lonardo, Enza; Roma, Guglielmo; Minchiotti, Gabriella; Ballabio, Andrea; Cobellis, Gilda

    2010-01-01

    Sik1 (salt inducible kinase 1) is a serine/threonine kinase that belongs to the stress- and energy-sensing AMP-activated protein kinase family. During murine embryogenesis, sik1 marks the monolayer of future myocardial cells that will populate first the primitive ventricle, and later the primitive atrium suggesting its involvement in cardiac cell differentiation and/or heart development. Despite that observation, the involvement of sik1 in cardiac differentiation is still unknown. We examined the sik1 function during cardiomyocyte differentiation using the ES-derived embryoid bodies. We produced a null embryonic stem cell using a gene-trap cell line carrying an insertion in the sik1 locus. In absence of the sik1 protein, the temporal appearance of cardiomyocytes is delayed. Expression profile analysis revealed sik1 as part of a genetic network that controls the cell cycle, where the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p57Kip2 is directly involved. Collectively, we provided evidence that sik1-mediated effects are specific for cardiomyogenesis regulating cardiomyoblast cell cycle exit toward terminal differentiation. PMID:20140255

  15. The upstream open reading frame of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A mRNA negatively regulates translation of the downstream main open reading frame

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kyoung Mi; Cho, Hana; Kim, Yoon Ki

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CDKN1A mRNA is a bona fide NMD substrate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The uORF of CDKN1A mRNA is efficiently translated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Translation of downstream main ORF is negatively regulated by translation of uORF in CDKN1A mRNA. -- Abstract: The first round of translation occurs on mRNAs bound by nuclear cap-binding complex (CBC), which is composed of nuclear cap-binding protein 80 and 20 (CBP80/20). During this round of translation, aberrant mRNAs are recognized and downregulated in abundance by nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), which is one of the mRNA quality control mechanisms. Here, our microarray analysis reveals that the level of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A; also known as Waf1/p21) mRNAs increases in cells depleted of cellular NMD factors. Intriguingly, CDKN1A mRNA contains an upstream open reading frame (uORF), which is a NMD-inducing feature. Using chimeric reporter constructs, we find that the uORF of CDKN1A mRNA negatively modulates translation of the main downstream ORF. These findings provide biological insights into the possible role of NMD in diverse biological pathways mediated by CDKN1A.

  16. 17 CFR 240.14d-1 - Scope of and definitions applicable to Regulations 14D and 14E.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., Quebec, British Columbia or Alberta (or, if the issuer of the subject securities is not a reporting... security is a “margin security” within the meaning of Regulation T (12 CFR 220.2) and the issuer undertakes... CFR 220.2) the issuer undertakes to provide, upon the request of any U.S. holder or the...

  17. 17 CFR 240.14d-1 - Scope of and definitions applicable to Regulations 14D and 14E.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., Quebec, British Columbia or Alberta (or, if the issuer of the subject securities is not a reporting... security is a “margin security” within the meaning of Regulation T (12 CFR 220.2) and the issuer undertakes... CFR 220.2) the issuer undertakes to provide, upon the request of any U.S. holder or the...

  18. 17 CFR 240.14d-1 - Scope of and definitions applicable to Regulations 14D and 14E.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., Quebec, British Columbia or Alberta (or, if the issuer of the subject securities is not a reporting... security is a “margin security” within the meaning of Regulation T (12 CFR 220.2) and the issuer undertakes... CFR 220.2) the issuer undertakes to provide, upon the request of any U.S. holder or the...

  19. 17 CFR 240.14d-1 - Scope of and definitions applicable to Regulations 14D and 14E.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... security is a “margin security” within the meaning of Regulation T (12 CFR 220.2) and the issuer undertakes... CFR 220.2) the issuer undertakes to provide, upon the request of any U.S. holder or the Commission... informational document to U.S. holders, including any amendments thereto, in English, on a comparable basis...

  20. Arabidopsis PCNAs form complexes with selected D-type cyclins

    PubMed Central

    Strzalka, Wojciech K.; Aggarwal, Chhavi; Krzeszowiec, Weronika; Jakubowska, Agata; Sztatelman, Olga; Banas, Agnieszka K.

    2015-01-01

    Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) is a key nuclear protein of eukaryotic cells. It has been shown to form complexes with cyclin dependent kinases, cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors and the D-type cyclins which are involved in the cell cycle control. In Arabidopsis two genes coding for PCNA1 and PCNA2 proteins have been identified. In this study by analyzing Arabidopsis PCNA/CycD complexes we tested the possible functional differentiation of PCNA1/2 proteins in cell cycle control. Most out of the 10 cyclins investigated showed only nuclear localization except CycD2;1, CycD4;1, and CycD4;2 which were observed both in the nucleus and cytoplasm. Using the Y2H, BiFC and FLIM-FRET techniques we identified D-type cyclins which formed complexes with either PCNA1 or PCNA2. Among the candidates tested only CycD1;1, CycD3;1, and CycD3;3 were not detected in a complex with the PCNA proteins. Moreover, our results indicate that the formation of CycD3;2/PCNA and CycD4;1/PCNA complexes can be regulated by other as yet unidentified factor(s). Additionally, FLIM-FRET analyses suggested that in planta the distance between PCNA1/CycD4;1, PCNA1/CycD6;1, PCNA1/CycD7;1, and PCNA2/CycD4;2 proteins was shorter than that between PCNA2/CycD4;1, PCNA2/CycD6;1, PCNA2/CycD7;1, and PCNA1/CycD4;2 pairs. These data indicate that the nine amino acid differences between PCNA1 and PCNA2 have an impact on the architecture of Arabidopsis CycD/PCNA complexes. PMID:26379676

  1. Regulation of GATA-binding protein 2 levels via ubiquitin-dependent degradation by Fbw7: involvement of cyclin B-cyclin-dependent kinase 1-mediated phosphorylation of THR176 in GATA-binding protein 2.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Tomomi; Kitagawa, Kyoko; Ohhata, Tatsuya; Sakai, Satoshi; Uchida, Chiharu; Shibata, Kiyoshi; Minegishi, Naoko; Yumimoto, Kanae; Nakayama, Keiichi I; Masumoto, Kazuma; Katou, Fuminori; Niida, Hiroyuki; Kitagawa, Masatoshi

    2015-04-17

    A GATA family transcription factor, GATA-binding protein 2 (GATA2), participates in cell growth and differentiation of various cells, such as hematopoietic stem cells. Although its expression level is controlled by transcriptional induction and proteolytic degradation, the responsible E3 ligase has not been identified. Here, we demonstrate that F-box/WD repeat-containing protein 7 (Fbw7/Fbxw7), a component of Skp1, Cullin 1, F-box-containing complex (SCF)-type E3 ligase, is an E3 ligase for GATA2. GATA2 contains a cell division control protein 4 (Cdc4) phosphodegron (CPD), a consensus motif for ubiquitylation by Fbw7, which includes Thr(176). Ectopic expression of Fbw7 destabilized GATA2 and promoted its proteasomal degradation. Substitution of threonine 176 to alanine in GATA2 inhibited binding with Fbw7, and the ubiquitylation and degradation of GATA2 by Fbw7 was suppressed. The CPD kinase, which mediates the phosphorylation of Thr(176), was cyclin B-cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1). Moreover, depletion of endogenous Fbw7 stabilized endogenous GATA2 in K562 cells. Conditional Fbw7 depletion in mice increased GATA2 levels in hematopoietic stem cells and myeloid progenitors at the early stage. Increased GATA2 levels in Fbw7-conditional knock-out mice were correlated with a decrease in a c-Kit high expressing population of myeloid progenitor cells. Our results suggest that Fbw7 is a bona fide E3 ubiquitin ligase for GATA2 in vivo.

  2. Accelerated Stem Growth Rates and Improved Fiber Properties of Loblolly Pine: Functional Analysis Of CyclinD from Pinus taeda

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. John Cairney, School of Biology and Institute of Paper Science and Technology @ Georgia Tech, Georgia Institute of Technology; Dr. Gary Peter, University of Florida; Dr. Ulrika Egertsdotter, Dept. of Forestry, Virgina Tech; Dr. Armin Wagner, New Zealand Forest Research Institute Ltd.

    2005-11-30

    A sustained supply of low-cost, high quality raw materials is essential for the future success of the U.S. forest products industry. To maximize stem (trunk) growth, a fundamental understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate cell divisions within the cambial meristem is essential. We hypothesize that auxin levels within the cambial meristem regulate cyclin gene expression and this in turn controls cell cycle progression as occurs in all eukaryotic cells. Work with model plant species has shown that ectopic overexpression of cyclins promotes cell division thereby increasing root growth > five times. We intended to test whether ectopic overexpression of cambial cyclins in the cambial zone of loblolly pine also promotes cell division rates that enhance stem growth rates. Results generated in model annual angiosperm systems cannot be reliably extrapolated to perennial gymnosperms, thus while the generation and development of transgenic pine is time consuming, this is the necessary approach for meaningful data. We succeeded in isolating a cyclin D gene and Clustal analysis to the Arabidopsis cyclin D gene family indicates that it is more closely related to cyclin D2 than D1 or D3 Using this gene as a probe we observed a small stimulation of cyclin D expression in somatic embryo culture upon addition of auxin. We hypothesized that trees with more cells in the vascular cambial and expansion zones will have higher cyclin mRNA levels. We demonstrated that in trees under compressive stress where the rates of cambial divisions are increased on the underside of the stem relative to the top or opposite side, there was a 20 fold increase in the level of PtcyclinD1 mRNA on the compressed side of the stem relative to the opposite. This suggests that higher secondary growth rates correlate with PtcyclinD1 expression. We showed that larger diameter trees show more growth during each year and that the increased growth in loblolly pine trees correlates with more cell

  3. Cinnamon and its Components Suppress Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation by Up-Regulating Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyeeun; Lee, Jung-Jin; Lee, Ji-Hye; Cho, Won-Kyung; Gu, Min Jung; Lee, Kwang Jin; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamomum cassia bark has been used in traditional herbal medicine to treat a variety of cardiovascular diseases. However, the antiproliferative effect of cinnamon extract on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and the corresponding restenosis has not been explored. Hence, after examining the effect of cinnamon extract on VSMC proliferation, we investigated the possible involvement of signal transduction pathways associated with early signal and cell cycle analysis, including regulatory proteins. Besides, to identify the active components, we investigated the components of cinnamon extract on VSMC proliferation. Cinnamon extract inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced VSMC proliferation and suppressed the PDGF-stimulated early signal transduction. In addition, cinnamon extract arrested the cell cycle and inhibited positive regulatory proteins. Correspondingly, the protein levels of p21 and p27 not only were increased in the presence of cinnamon extract, also the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was inhibited by cinnamon extract. Besides, among the components of cinnamon extract, cinnamic acid (CA), eugenol (EG) and cinnamyl alcohol significantly inhibited the VSMC proliferation. Overall, the present study demonstrates that cinnamon extract inhibited the PDGF-BB-induced proliferation of VSMCs through a G0/G1 arrest, which down-regulated the expression of cell cycle positive regulatory proteins by up-regulating p21 and p27 expression.

  4. Plant cyclins: a unified nomenclature for plant A-, B- and D-type cyclins based on sequence organization.

    PubMed

    Renaudin, J P; Doonan, J H; Freeman, D; Hashimoto, J; Hirt, H; Inzé, D; Jacobs, T; Kouchi, H; Rouzé, P; Sauter, M; Savouré, A; Sorrell, D A; Sundaresan, V; Murray, J A

    1996-12-01

    The comparative analysis of a large number of plant cyclins of the A/B family has recently revealed that plants possess two distinct B-type groups and three distinct A-type groups of cyclins. Despite earlier uncertainties, this large-scale comparative analysis has allowed an unequivocal definition of plant cyclins into either A or B classes. We present here the most important results obtained in this study, and extend them to the case of plant D-type cyclins, in which three groups are identified. For each of the plant cyclin groups, consensus sequences have been established and a new, rational, plant-wide naming system is proposed in accordance with the guidelines of the Commission on Plant Gene Nomenclature. This nomenclature is based on the animal system indicating cyclin classes by an upper-case roman letter, and distinct groups within these classes by an arabic numeral suffix. The naming of plant cyclin classes is chosen to indicate homology to their closest animal class. The revised nomenclature of all described plant cyclins is presented, with their classification into groups CycA1, CycA2, CycA3, CycB1, CycB2, CycD1, CycD2 and CycD3. PMID:9002599

  5. AKAP95 promotes cell cycle progression via interactions with cyclin E and low molecular weight cyclin E

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiang-Yu; Zhang, Deng-Cheng; Zhuang, Wen-Xin; Hua, Su-Hang; Dai, Yue; Yuan, Yang-Yang; Feng, Li-Li; Huang, Qian; Teng, Bo-Gang; Yu, Xiu-Yi; Liu, Wen-Zhi; Zhang, Yong-Xing

    2016-01-01

    AKAP95 in lung cancer tissues showed higher expression than in paracancerous tissues. AKAP95 can bind with cyclin D and cyclin E during G1/S cell cycle transition, but its molecular mechanisms remain unclear. To identify the mechanism of AKAP95 in cell cycle progression, we performed AKAP95 transfection and silencing in A549 cells, examined AKAP95, cyclin E1 and cyclin E2 expression, and the interactions of AKAP95 with cyclins E1 and E2. Results showed that over-expression of AKAP95 promoted cell growth and AKAP95 bound cyclin E1 and E2, low molecular weight cyclin E1 (LWM-E1) and LWM-E2. Additionally AKAP95 bound cyclin E1 and LMW-E2 in the nucleus during G1/S transition, bound LMW-E1 during G1, S and G2/M, and bound cyclin E2 mainly on the nuclear membrane during interphase. Cyclin E2 and LMW-E2 were also detected. AKAP95 over-expression increased cyclin E1 and LMW-E2 expression but decreased cyclin E2 levels. Unlike cyclin E1 and LMW-E2 that were nuclear located during the G1, S and G1/S phases, cyclin E2 and LMW-E1 were expressed in all cell cycle phases, with cyclin E2 present in the cytoplasm and nuclear membrane, with traces in the nucleus. LMW-E1 was present in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. The 20 kDa form of LMW-E1 showed only cytoplasmic expression, while the 40 kDa form was nuclear expressed. The expression of AKAP95, cyclin E1, LMW-E1 and -E2, might be regulated by cAMP. We conclude that AKAP95 might promote cell cycle progression by interacting with cyclin E1 and LMW-E2. LMW-E2, but not cyclin E2, might be involved in G1/S transition. The binding of AKAP95 and LMW-E1 was found throughout cell cycle. PMID:27158371

  6. Self-Renewal and High Proliferative Colony Forming Capacity of Late-Outgrowth Endothelial Progenitors Is Regulated by Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors Driven by Notch Signaling.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jatin; Wong, Ho Yi; Wang, Weili; Alexis, Josue; Shafiee, Abbas; Stevenson, Alexander J; Gabrielli, Brian; Fisk, Nicholas M; Khosrotehrani, Kiarash

    2016-04-01

    Since the discovery of endothelial colony forming cells (ECFC), there has been significant interest in their therapeutic potential to treat vascular injuries. ECFC cultures display significant heterogeneity and a hierarchy among cells able to give rise to high proliferative versus low proliferative colonies. Here we aimed to define molecularly this in vitro hierarchy. Based on flow cytometry, CD34 expression levels distinguished two populations. Only CD34 + ECFC had the capacity to reproduce high proliferative potential (HPP) colonies on replating, whereas CD34- ECFCs formed only small clusters. CD34 + ECFCs were the only ones to self-renew in stringent single-cell cultures and gave rise to both CD34 + and CD34- cells. Upon replating, CD34 + ECFCs were always found at the centre of HPP colonies and were more likely in G0/1 phase of cell cycling. Functionally, CD34 + ECFC were superior at restoring perfusion and better engrafted when injected into ischemic hind limbs. Transcriptomic analysis identified cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) cell cycle inhibiting genes (p16, p21, and p57), the Notch signaling pathway (dll1, dll4, hes1, and hey1), and the endothelial cytokine il33 as highly expressed in CD34 + ECFC. Blocking the Notch pathway using a γ-secretase inhibitor (DAPT) led to reduced expression of cell cycle inhibitors, increased cell proliferation followed by a loss of self-renewal, and HPP colony formation capacity reflecting progenitor exhaustion. Similarly shRNA knockdown of p57 strongly affected self-renewal of ECFC colonies. ECFC hierarchy is defined by Notch signalling driving cell cycle regulators, progenitor quiescence and self-renewal potential. PMID:26732848

  7. Insulin-stimulated plasma membrane fusion of Glut4 glucose transporter-containing vesicles is regulated by phospholipase D1.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ping; Altshuller, Yelena M; Hou, June Chunqiu; Pessin, Jeffrey E; Frohman, Michael A

    2005-06-01

    Insulin stimulates glucose uptake in fat and muscle by mobilizing Glut4 glucose transporters from intracellular membrane storage sites to the plasma membrane. This process requires the trafficking of Glut4-containing vesicles toward the cell periphery, docking at exocytic sites, and plasma membrane fusion. We show here that phospholipase D (PLD) production of the lipid phosphatidic acid (PA) is a key event in the fusion process. PLD1 is found on Glut4-containing vesicles, is activated by insulin signaling, and traffics with Glut4 to exocytic sites. Increasing PLD1 activity facilitates glucose uptake, whereas decreasing PLD1 activity is inhibitory. Diminished PA production does not substantially hinder trafficking of the vesicles or their docking at the plasma membrane, but it does impede fusion-mediated extracellular exposure of the transporter. The fusion block caused by RNA interference-mediated PLD1 deficiency is rescued by exogenous provision of a lipid that promotes fusion pore formation and expansion, suggesting that the step regulated by PA is late in the process of vesicle fusion. PMID:15772157

  8. APOLLON Protein Promotes Early Mitotic CYCLIN A Degradation Independent of the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint*

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Ryo; Ohata, Hirokazu; Ohoka, Nobumichi; Kawabata, Atsushi; Naito, Mikihiko

    2014-01-01

    In the mammalian cell cycle, both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B are required for entry into mitosis, and their elimination is also essential to complete the process. During mitosis, CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B are ubiquitylated by the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) and then subjected to proteasomal degradation. However, CYCLIN A, but not CYCLIN B, begins to be degraded in the prometaphase when APC/C is inactivated by the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). Here, we show that APOLLON (also known as BRUCE or BIRC6) plays a role in SAC-independent degradation of CYCLIN A in early mitosis. APPOLON interacts with CYCLIN A that is not associated with cyclin-dependent kinases. APPOLON also interacts with APC/C, and it facilitates CYCLIN A ubiquitylation. In APPOLON-deficient cells, mitotic degradation of CYCLIN A is delayed, and the total, but not the cyclin-dependent kinase-bound, CYCLIN A level was increased. We propose APPOLON to be a novel regulator of mitotic CYCLIN A degradation independent of SAC. PMID:24302728

  9. The CDK4/6 inhibitor PD0332991 reverses epithelial dysplasia associated with abnormal activation of the Cyclin-CDK-Rb pathway

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, M. Carla; Díaz-Cruz, Edgar S.; Kallakury, Bhaskar V. S.; Pishvaian, Michael J.; Grubbs, Clinton J.; Muccio, Donald D.; Furth, Priscilla A.

    2012-01-01

    Loss of normal growth control is a hallmark of cancer progression. Therefore, understanding the early mechanisms of normal growth regulation and the changes that occur during preneoplasia may provide insights of both diagnostic and therapeutic importance. Models of dysplasia that help elucidate the mechanisms responsible for disease progression are useful in highlighting potential targets for prevention. An important strategy in cancer prevention treatment programs is to reduce hyperplasia and dysplasia. This study identified abnormal up-regulation of cell cycle related proteins Cyclin D1, CDK4, CDK6 and phosphorylated pRb as mechanisms responsible for maintenance of hyperplasia and dysplasia following down-regulation of the initiating viral oncoprotein Simian Virus 40 T Antigen. Significantly, p53 was not required for successful reversal of hyperplasia and dysplasia. Ligand-induced activation of RXR and PPAR gamma agonists attenuated Cyclin D1 and CDK6 but not CDK4 or phosphorylated pRb upregulation with limited reversal of hyperplasia and dysplasia. PD0332991, an orally available CDK4/6 inhibitor, was able to prevent upregulation of Cyclin D1 and CDK6 as well as CDK4 and phosphorylated pRb and this correlated with a more profound reversal of hyperplasia and dysplasia. In summary, the study distinguished CDK4 and phosphorylated pRb as targets for chemoprevention regimens targeting reversal of hyperplasia and dysplasia. PMID:22508966

  10. Dopamine D1/D5 receptor signaling regulates synaptic cooperation and competition in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons via sustained ERK1/2 activation

    PubMed Central

    Shivarama Shetty, Mahesh; Gopinadhan, Suma

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Synaptic cooperation and competition are important components of synaptic plasticity that tune synapses for the formation of associative long‐term plasticity, a cellular correlate of associative long‐term memory. We have recently reported that coincidental activation of weak synapses within the vicinity of potentiated synapses will alter the cooperative state of synapses to a competitive state thus leading to the slow decay of long‐term plasticity, but the molecular mechanism underlying this is still unknown. Here, using acute hippocampal slices of rats, we have examined how increasing extracellular dopamine concentrations interact and/or affect electrically induced long‐term potentiation (LTP) in the neighboring synapses. We demonstrate that D1/D5‐receptor‐mediated potentiation at the CA1 Schaffer collateral synapses differentially regulates synaptic co‐operation and competition. Further investigating the molecular players involved, we reveal an important role for extracellular signal‐regulated kinases‐1 and 2 (ERK1/2) as signal integrators and dose‐sensors. Interestingly, a sustained activation of ERK1/2 pathway seems to be involved in the differential regulation of synaptic associativity. The concentration‐dependent effects of the modulatory transmitter, as demonstrated for dopaminergic signaling in the present study, might offer additional computational power by fine tuning synaptic associativity processes for establishing long‐term associative memory in neural networks. © 2015 The Authors Hippocampus Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26194339

  11. Dopaminergic tone regulates transient potassium current maximal conductance through a translational mechanism requiring D1Rs, cAMP/PKA, Erk and mTOR

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dopamine (DA) can produce divergent effects at different time scales. DA has opposing immediate and long-term effects on the transient potassium current (IA) within neurons of the pyloric network, in the Panulirus interruptus stomatogastric ganglion. The lateral pyloric neuron (LP) expresses type 1 DA receptors (D1Rs). A 10 min application of 5-100 μM DA decreases LP IA by producing a decrease in IA maximal conductance (Gmax) and a depolarizing shift in IA voltage dependence through a cAMP-Protein kinase A (PKA) dependent mechanism. Alternatively, a 1 hr application of DA (≥5 nM) generates a persistent (measured 4 hr after DA washout) increase in IA Gmax in the same neuron, through a mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) dependent translational mechanism. We examined the dose, time and protein dependencies of the persistent DA effect. Results We found that disrupting normal modulatory tone decreased LP IA. Addition of 500 pM-5 nM DA to the saline for 1 hr prevented this decrease, and in the case of a 5 nM DA application, the effect was sustained for >4 hrs after DA removal. To determine if increased cAMP mediated the persistent effect of 5nM DA, we applied the cAMP analog, 8-bromo-cAMP alone or with rapamycin for 1 hr, followed by wash and TEVC. 8-bromo-cAMP induced an increase in IA Gmax, which was blocked by rapamycin. Next we tested the roles of PKA and guanine exchange factor protein activated by cAMP (ePACs) in the DA-induced persistent change in IA using the PKA specific antagonist Rp-cAMP and the ePAC specific agonist 8-pCPT-2′-O-Me-cAMP. The PKA antagonist blocked the DA induced increases in LP IA Gmax, whereas the ePAC agonist did not induce an increase in LP IA Gmax. Finally we tested whether extracellular signal regulated kinase (Erk) activity was necessary for the persistent effect by co-application of Erk antagonists PD98059 or U0126 with DA. Erk antagonism blocked the DA induced persistent increase in LP IA. Conclusions These

  12. miR-497 and miR-302b Regulate Ethanol-induced Neuronal Cell Death through BCL2 Protein and Cyclin D2*

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Sanjay; Pandey, Ankita; Shukla, Aruna; Talwelkar, Sarang S.; Kumar, Ashutosh; Pant, Aditya B.; Parmar, Devendra

    2011-01-01

    In chronic alcoholism, brain shrinkage and cognitive defects because of neuronal death are well established, although the sequence of molecular events has not been fully explored yet. We explored the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in ethanol-induced apoptosis of neuronal cells. Ethanol-sensitive miRNAs in SH-SY5Y, a human neuroblastoma cell line, were identified using real-time PCR-based TaqMan low-density arrays. Long-term exposure to ethanol (0.5% v/v for 72 h) produced a maximum increase in expression of miR-497 (474-fold) and miR-302b (322-fold). Similar to SH-SY5Y, long-term exposure to ethanol induced miR-497 and miR-302b in IMR-32, another human neuroblastoma cell line. Using in silico approaches, BCL2 and cyclin D2 (CCND2) were identified as probable target genes of these miRNAs. Cotransfection studies with 3′-UTR of these genes and miRNA mimics have demonstrated that BCL2 is a direct target of miR-497 and that CCND2 is regulated negatively by either miR-302b or miR-497. Overexpression of either miR-497 or miR-302b reduced expression of their identified target genes and increased caspase 3-mediated apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells. However, overexpression of only miR-497 increased reactive oxygen species formation, disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential, and induced cytochrome c release (mitochondria-related events of apoptosis). Moreover, ethanol induced changes in miRNAs, and their target genes were substantially prevented by pre-exposure to GSK-3B inhibitors. In conclusion, our studies have shown that ethanol-induced neuronal apoptosis follows both the mitochondria-mediated (miR-497- and BCL2-mediated) and non-mitochondria-mediated (miR-302b- and CCND2-mediated) pathway. PMID:21878650

  13. Berberine inhibits growth, induces G1 arrest and apoptosis in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells by regulating Cdki-Cdk-cyclin cascade, disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and cleavage of caspase 3 and PARP.

    PubMed

    Mantena, Sudheer K; Sharma, Som D; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2006-10-01

    Chemotherapeutic approach using non-toxic botanicals may be one of the strategies for the management of the skin cancers. Here we report that in vitro treatment of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells with berberine, a naturally occurring isoquinoline alkaloid, decreased cell viability (3-77%, P < 0.05-0.001) and induced cell death (3-51%, P < 0.01-0.001) in a dose (5-75 microM)- and time (12-72 h)-dependent manner, which was associated with an increase in G(1) arrest. G(0)/G(1) phase of the cell cycle is known to be controlled by cyclin dependent kinases (Cdk), cyclin kinase inhibitors (Cdki) and cyclins. Our western blot analysis showed that berberine-induced G(1) cell cycle arrest was mediated through the increased expression of Cdki proteins (Cip1/p21 and Kip1/p27), a simultaneous decrease in Cdk2, Cdk4, Cdk6 and cyclins D1, D2 and E and enhanced binding of Cdki-Cdk. In additional studies, treatment of A431 cells with berberine (15-75 microM) for 72 h resulted in a significant dose-dependent increase in apoptosis (31-60%, P < 0.05-0.001) than non-berberine-treated control (11.7%), which was associated with an increased expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bax, decreased expression of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl, disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential, and activation of caspases 9, 3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Pretreatment of A431 cells with the pan-caspase inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk) significantly blocked the berberine-induced apoptosis in A431 cells confirmed that berberine-induced apoptosis is mediated through activation of caspase 3-dependent pathway. Together, this study for the first time identified berberine as a chemotherapeutic agent against human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells in vitro, further in vivo studies are required to determine whether berberine could be an effective chemotherapeutic agent for the management of non-melanoma skin cancers.

  14. Mutagenic analysis of the destruction signal of mitotic cyclins and structural characterization of ubiquitinated intermediates.

    PubMed Central

    King, R W; Glotzer, M; Kirschner, M W

    1996-01-01

    Mitotic cyclins are abruptly degraded at the end of mitosis by a cell-cycle-regulated ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic system. To understand how cyclin is recognized for ubiquitin conjugation, we have performed a mutagenic analysis of the destruction signal of mitotic cyclins. We demonstrate that an N-terminal cyclin B segment as short as 27 residues, containing the 9-amino-acid destruction box, is sufficient to destabilize a heterologous protein in mitotic Xenopus extracts. Each of the three highly conserved residues of the cyclin B destruction box is essential for ubiquitination and subsequent degradation. Although an intact destruction box is essential for the degradation of both A- and B-type cyclins, we find that the Xenopus cyclin A1 destruction box cannot functionally substitute for its B-type counterpart, because it does not contain the highly conserved asparagine necessary for cyclin B proteolysis. Physical analysis of ubiquitinated cyclin B intermediates demonstrates that multiple lysine residues function as ubiquitin acceptor sites, and mutagenic studies indicate that no single lysine residue is essential for cyclin B degradation. This study defines the key residues of the destruction box that target cyclin for ubiquitination and suggests there are important differences in the way in which A- and B-type cyclins are recognized by the cyclin ubiquitination machinery. Images PMID:8885231

  15. Phylogenetic analysis of CDK and cyclin proteins in premetazoan lineages

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The molecular history of animal evolution from single-celled ancestors remains a major question in biology, and little is known regarding the evolution of cell cycle regulation during animal emergence. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive evolutionary analysis of CDK and cyclin proteins in metazoans and their unicellular relatives. Results Our analysis divided the CDK family into eight subfamilies. Seven subfamilies (CDK1/2/3, CDK5, CDK7, CDK 20, CDK8/19, CDK9, and CDK10/11) are conserved in metazoans and fungi, with the remaining subfamily, CDK4/6, found only in eumetazoans. With respect to cyclins, cyclin C, H, L, Y subfamilies, and cyclin K and T as a whole subfamily, are generally conserved in animal, fungi, and amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. In contrast, cyclin subfamilies B, A, E, and D, which are cell cycle-related, have distinct evolutionary histories. The cyclin B subfamily is generally conserved in D. discoideum, fungi, and animals, whereas cyclin A and E subfamilies are both present in animals and their unicellular relatives such as choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis and filasterean Capsaspora owczarzaki, but are absent in fungi and D. discoideum. Although absent in fungi and D. discoideum, cyclin D subfamily orthologs can be found in the early-emerging, non-opisthokont apusozoan Thecamonas trahens. Within opisthokonta, the cyclin D subfamily is conserved only in eumetazoans, and is absent in fungi, choanoflagellates, and the basal metazoan Amphimedon queenslandica. Conclusions Our data indicate that the CDK4/6 subfamily and eumetazoans emerged simultaneously, with the evolutionary conservation of the cyclin D subfamily also tightly linked with eumetazoan appearance. Establishment of the CDK4/6-cyclin D complex may have been the key step in the evolution of cell cycle control during eumetazoan emergence. PMID:24433236

  16. The 3' Untranslated Region of the Cyclin B mRNA Is Not Sufficient to Enhance the Synthesis of Cyclin B during a Mitotic Block in Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schnerch, Dominik; Follo, Marie; Felthaus, Julia; Engelhardt, Monika; Wäsch, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Antimitotic agents are frequently used to treat solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. However, one major limitation of antimitotic approaches is mitotic slippage, which is driven by slow degradation of cyclin B during a mitotic block. The extent to which cyclin B levels decline is proposed to be governed by an equilibrium between cyclin B synthesis and degradation. It was recently shown that the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the murine cyclin B mRNA contributes to the synthesis of cyclin B during mitosis in murine cells. Using a novel live-cell imaging-based technique allowing us to study synthesis and degradation of cyclin B simultaneously at the single cell level, we tested here the role of the human cyclin B 3'UTR in regulating cyclin B synthesis during mitosis in human cells. We observed that the cyclin B 3'UTR was not sufficient to enhance cyclin B synthesis in human U2Os, HeLa or hTERT RPE-1 cells. A better understanding of how the equilibrium of cyclin B is regulated in mitosis may contribute to the development of improved therapeutic approaches to prevent mitotic slippage in cancer cells treated with antimitotic agents. PMID:24058555

  17. Phylogenetic analysis reveals the evolution and diversification of cyclins in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhaowu; Wu, Yuliang; Jin, Jialu; Yan, Jun; Kuang, Shuzhen; Zhou, Mi; Zhang, Yuexuan; Guo, An-Yuan

    2013-03-01

    Cyclins are a family of diverse proteins that play fundamental roles in regulating cell cycle progression in Eukaryotes. Cyclins have been identified from protists to higher Eukaryotes, while its evolution remains vague and the findings turn out controversial. Current classification of cyclins is mainly based on their functions, which may not be appropriate for the systematic evolutionary analysis. In this work, we performed comparative and phylogenetic analysis of cyclins to investigate their classification, origin and evolution. Cyclins originated in early Eukaryotes and evolved from protists to plants, fungi and animals. Based on the phylogenetic tree, cyclins can be divided into three major groups designated as the group I, II and III with different functions and features. Group I plays key roles in cell cycle, group II varied in actions are kingdom (plant, fungi and animal) specific, and group III functions in transcription regulation. Our results showed that the dominating cyclins (group I) diverged from protists to plants, fungi and animals, while divergence of the other cyclins (groups II and III) has occurred in protists. We also discussed the evolutionary relationships between cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and found that the cyclins have undergone divergence in protists before the divergence of animal CDKs. This reclassification and evolutionary analysis of cyclins might facilitate understanding eukaryotic cell cycle control.

  18. Mechanisms of MEOX1 and MEOX2 Regulation of the Cyclin Dependent Kinase Inhibitors p21CIP1/WAF1 and p16INK4a in Vascular Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Douville, Josette M.; Cheung, David Y. C.; Herbert, Krista L.; Moffatt, Teri; Wigle, Jeffrey T.

    2011-01-01

    Senescence, the state of permanent cell cycle arrest, has been associated with endothelial cell dysfunction and atherosclerosis. The cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors p21CIP1/WAF1 and p16INK4a govern the G1/S cell cycle checkpoint and are essential for determining whether a cell enters into an arrested state. The homeodomain transcription factor MEOX2 is an important regulator of vascular cell proliferation and is a direct transcriptional activator of both p21CIP1/WAF1 and p16INK4a. MEOX1 and MEOX2 have been shown to be partially functionally redundant during development, suggesting that they regulate similar target genes in vivo. We compared the ability of MEOX1 and MEOX2 to activate p21CIP1/WAF1 and p16INK4a expression and induce endothelial cell cycle arrest. Our results demonstrate for the first time that MEOX1 regulates the MEOX2 target genes p21CIP1/WAF1 and p16INK4a. In addition, increased expression of either of the MEOX homeodomain transcription factors leads to cell cycle arrest and endothelial cell senescence. Furthermore, we show that the mechanism of transcriptional activation of these cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor genes by MEOX1 and MEOX2 is distinct. MEOX1 and MEOX2 activate p16INK4a in a DNA binding dependent manner, whereas they induce p21CIP1/WAF1 in a DNA binding independent manner. PMID:22206000

  19. Protein Kinase D1 regulates focal adhesion dynamics and cell adhesion through Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase type-l γ

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Nisha; Bastea, Ligia I.; Long, Jason; Döppler, Heike; Ling, Kun; Storz, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Focal adhesions (FAs) are highly dynamic structures that are assembled and disassembled on a continuous basis. The balance between the two processes mediates various aspects of cell behavior, ranging from cell adhesion and spreading to directed cell migration. The turnover of FAs is regulated at multiple levels and involves a variety of signaling molecules and adaptor proteins. In the present study, we show that in response to integrin engagement, a subcellular pool of Protein Kinase D1 (PKD1) localizes to the FAs. PKD1 affects FAs by decreasing turnover and promoting maturation, resulting in enhanced cell adhesion. The effects of PKD1 are mediated through direct phosphorylation of FA-localized phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase type-l γ (PIP5Klγ) at serine residue 448. This phosphorylation occurs in response to Fibronectin-RhoA signaling and leads to a decrease in PIP5Klγs’ lipid kinase activity and binding affinity for Talin. Our data reveal a novel function for PKD1 as a regulator of FA dynamics and by identifying PIP5Klγ as a novel PKD1 substrate provide mechanistic insight into this process. PMID:27775029

  20. D1-type dopamine receptors inhibit growth cone motility in cultured retina neurons: evidence that neurotransmitters act as morphogenic growth regulators in the developing central nervous system.

    PubMed Central

    Lankford, K L; DeMello, F G; Klein, W L

    1988-01-01

    Precedent exists for the early development and subsequent down-regulation of neurotransmitter receptor systems in the vertebrate central nervous system, but the function of such embryonic receptors has not been established. Here we show that stimulation of early-developing dopamine receptors in avian retina cells greatly inhibits the motility of neuronal growth cones. Neurons from embryonic chicken retinas were cultured in low-density monolayers, and their growth cones were observed with phase-contrast or video-enhanced-contrast-differential-interference-contrast (VEC-DIC) microscopy. Approximately 25% of the neurons responded to micromolar dopamine with a rapid reduction in filopodial activity followed by a flattening of growth cones and retraction of neurites. The response occurred at all ages examined (embryonic day-8 retinal neurons cultured on polylysine-coated coverslips for 1-7 days), although neurite retraction was greatest in younger cultures. Effects of dopamine on growth cone function could be reversed by haloperidol or (+)-SCH 23390, whereas forskolin elicited a response similar to dopamine; these data show the response was receptor-mediated, acting through a D1-type system, and are consistent with the use of cAMP as a second messenger. The experiments provide strong support for the hypothesis that neurotransmitters, besides mediating transynaptic signaling in the adult, may have a role in neuronal differentiation as growth regulators. Images PMID:3380807

  1. D1-type dopamine receptors inhibit growth cone motility in cultured retina neurons: evidence that neurotransmitters act as morphogenic growth regulators in the developing central nervous system.

    PubMed Central

    Lankford, K L; DeMello, F G; Klein, W L

    1988-01-01

    Precedent exists for the early development and subsequent down-regulation of neurotransmitter receptor systems in the vertebrate central nervous system, but the function of such embryonic receptors has not been established. Here we show that stimulation of early-developing dopamine receptors in avian retina cells greatly inhibits the motility of neuronal growth cones. Neurons from embryonic chicken retinas were cultured in low-density monolayers, and their growth cones were observed with phase-contrast or video-enhanced-contrast-differential-interference-contrast (VEC-DIC) microscopy. Approximately 25% of the neurons responded to micromolar dopamine with a rapid reduction in filopodial activity followed by a flattening of growth cones and retraction of neurites. The response occurred at all ages examined (embryonic day-8 retinal neurons cultured on polylysine-coated coverslips for 1-7 days), although neurite retraction was greatest in younger cultures. Effects of dopamine on growth cone function could be reversed by haloperidol or (+)-SCH 23390, whereas forskolin elicited a response similar to dopamine; these data show the response was receptor-mediated, acting through a D1-type system, and are consistent with the use of cAMP as a second messenger. The experiments provide strong support for the hypothesis that neurotransmitters, besides mediating transynaptic signaling in the adult, may have a role in neuronal differentiation as growth regulators. Images PMID:3357895

  2. Cyclin-dependent kinases.

    PubMed

    Malumbres, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are protein kinases characterized by needing a separate subunit - a cyclin - that provides domains essential for enzymatic activity. CDKs play important roles in the control of cell division and modulate transcription in response to several extra- and intracellular cues. The evolutionary expansion of the CDK family in mammals led to the division of CDKs into three cell-cycle-related subfamilies (Cdk1, Cdk4 and Cdk5) and five transcriptional subfamilies (Cdk7, Cdk8, Cdk9, Cdk11 and Cdk20). Unlike the prototypical Cdc28 kinase of budding yeast, most of these CDKs bind one or a few cyclins, consistent with functional specialization during evolution. This review summarizes how, although CDKs are traditionally separated into cell-cycle or transcriptional CDKs, these activities are frequently combined in many family members. Not surprisingly, deregulation of this family of proteins is a hallmark of several diseases, including cancer, and drug-targeted inhibition of specific members has generated very encouraging results in clinical trials. PMID:25180339

  3. Copper Uptake in Mammary Epithelial Cells Activates Cyclins and Triggers Antioxidant Response.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Nathália Villa; Matias, Andreza Cândido; Higa, Guilherme Shigueto Vilar; Kihara, Alexandre Hiroaki; Cerchiaro, Giselle

    2015-01-01

    The toxicologic effects of copper (Cu) on tumor cells have been studied during the past decades, and it is suggested that Cu ion may trigger antiproliferative effects in vitro. However, in normal cells the toxicologic effects of high exposures of free Cu are not well understood. In this work, Cu uptake, the expression of genes associated with cell cycle regulation, and the levels of ROS production and related oxidative processes were evaluated in Cu-treated mammary epithelial MCF10A nontumoral cells. We have shown that the Cu additive is associated with the activation of cyclin D1 and cyclin B1, as well as cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2). These nontumor cells respond to Cu-induced changes in the oxidative balance by increase of the levels of reduced intracellular glutathione (GSH), decrease of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and accumulation during progression of the cell cycle, thus preventing the cell abnormal proliferation or death. Taken together, our findings revealed an effect that contributes to prevent a possible damage of normal cells exposed to chemotherapeutic effects of drugs containing the Cu ion.

  4. Dopamine D1 Receptors Regulate Protein Synthesis-Dependent Long-Term Recognition Memory via Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2 in the Prefrontal Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagai, Taku; Takuma, Kazuhiro; Kamei, Hiroyuki; Ito, Yukio; Nakamichi, Noritaka; Ibi, Daisuke; Nakanishi, Yutaka; Murai, Masaaki; Mizoguchi, Hiroyuki; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Yamada, Kiyofumi

    2007-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) and dopaminergic system is involved in learning and memory. However, it remains to be determined if the dopaminergic system and ERK1/2 pathway contribute to cognitive function in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The amount of phosphorylated ERK1/2 was increased in…

  5. Ectopic expression of cyclin D3 corrects differentiation of DM1 myoblasts through activation of RNA CUG-binding protein, CUGBP1

    SciTech Connect

    Salisbury, Elizabeth; Sakai, Keiko; Schoser, Benedikt; Huichalaf, Claudia; Schneider-Gold, Christiane; Nguyen, Heather; Wang, Gou-Li; Albrecht, Jeffrey H.; Timchenko, Lubov T.

    2008-07-01

    Differentiation of myocytes is impaired in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1, DM1. CUG repeat binding protein, CUGBP1, is a key regulator of translation of proteins that are involved in muscle development and differentiation. In this paper, we present evidence that RNA-binding activity of CUGBP1 and its interactions with initiation translation complex eIF2 are differentially regulated during myogenesis by specific phosphorylation and that this regulation is altered in DM1. In normal myoblasts, Akt kinase phosphorylates CUGBP1 at Ser28 and increases interactions of CUGBP1 with cyclin D1 mRNA. During differentiation, CUGBP1 is phosphorylated by cyclinD3-cdk4/6 at Ser302, which increases CUGBP1 binding with p21 and C/EBP{beta} mRNAs. While cyclin D3 and cdk4 are elevated in normal myotubes; DM1 differentiating cells do not increase these proteins. In normal myotubes, CUGBP1 interacts with cyclin D3/cdk4/6 and eIF2; however, interactions of CUGBP1 with eIF2 are reduced in DM1 differentiating cells and correlate with impaired muscle differentiation in DM1. Ectopic expression of cyclin D3 in DM1 cells increases the CUGBP1-eIF2 complex, corrects expression of differentiation markers, myogenin and desmin, and enhances fusion of DM1 myoblasts. Thus, normalization of cyclin D3 might be a therapeutic approach to correct differentiation of skeletal muscle in DM1 patients.

  6. Transforming growth factor-β1 induces cell cycle arrest by activating atypical cyclin-dependent kinase 5 through up-regulation of Smad3-dependent p35 expression in human MCF10A mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong Ji; Yang, Sun Woo; Kim, Byung-Chul

    2016-04-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) play important roles in control of cell division. Cdk5 is an atypical member of Cdk family with non-cyclin-like regulatory subunit, p35, but its role in cell cycle progression is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of Cdk5/p35 on transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-induced cell cycle arrest. In human MCF10A mammary epithelial cells, TGF-β1 induced cell cycle arrest at G1 phase and increased p27KIP1 expression. Interestingly, pretreatment with roscovitine, an inhibitor of Cdk5, or transfection with small interfering (si) RNAs specific to Cdk5 and p35 significantly attenuated the TGF-β1-induced p27KIP1 expression and cell cycle arrest. TGF-β1 increased Cdk5 activity via up-regulation of p35 gene at transcriptional level, and these effects were abolished by transfection with Smad3 siRNA or infection of adenovirus carrying Smad3 mutant at the C-tail (3SA). Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay further revealed that wild type Smad3, but not mutant Smad3 (3SA), binds to the region of the p35 promoter region (-1000--755) in a TGF-β1-dependent manner. These results for the first time demonstrate a role of Cdk5/p35 in the regulation of cell cycle progression modulated by TGF-β1. PMID:26966064

  7. Transforming growth factor-β1 induces cell cycle arrest by activating atypical cyclin-dependent kinase 5 through up-regulation of Smad3-dependent p35 expression in human MCF10A mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong Ji; Yang, Sun Woo; Kim, Byung-Chul

    2016-04-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) play important roles in control of cell division. Cdk5 is an atypical member of Cdk family with non-cyclin-like regulatory subunit, p35, but its role in cell cycle progression is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of Cdk5/p35 on transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-induced cell cycle arrest. In human MCF10A mammary epithelial cells, TGF-β1 induced cell cycle arrest at G1 phase and increased p27KIP1 expression. Interestingly, pretreatment with roscovitine, an inhibitor of Cdk5, or transfection with small interfering (si) RNAs specific to Cdk5 and p35 significantly attenuated the TGF-β1-induced p27KIP1 expression and cell cycle arrest. TGF-β1 increased Cdk5 activity via up-regulation of p35 gene at transcriptional level, and these effects were abolished by transfection with Smad3 siRNA or infection of adenovirus carrying Smad3 mutant at the C-tail (3SA). Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay further revealed that wild type Smad3, but not mutant Smad3 (3SA), binds to the region of the p35 promoter region (-1000--755) in a TGF-β1-dependent manner. These results for the first time demonstrate a role of Cdk5/p35 in the regulation of cell cycle progression modulated by TGF-β1.

  8. Expression of δ-cyclins of Brassica rapa L. embryos by clinorotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemenko, O. A.

    Cyclins is one of the important regulators of cell cycle. There are several types of cyclins exists. They are responding for different phases of cycle and have high homology in plant's and mammalian's cells. δ -cyclins are specific for plants and controlling the presynthetic phase events. These cyclins likes to mammalian D-cyclins and have similar functions. This class consist three types of cyclins -- δ 1, δ 2 and δ 3. Cyclin δ 1 is responding for events in cell, which take place before exiting from stage of quiet (G0). Cyclin δ 1 is responding for entering and outputting from G0, and cyclin δ 3 -- for events, which happen in cell after stage of quiet, by entering to S-phase (phase of DNA's synthesis). In present research was used δ 1- and δ 3-cyclins. For determination of δ -cyclins gene's expression level was excreted RNA from embryos: 3-days (spherical stage), 6-days (heart-shaped stage) and 9-days (generated stage) seedlings of Brassica rapa L. in control and under clinorotation. For definition the cyclins gene's expression level applied Northern Blot Analysis. Obtained data testify about difference in level of gene's expression of cyclin δ 1 between control and clinorotation variants. After three days by pollination the expression of this gene in embryos was observed in control only. By clinorotation the gene's expression was detected on 6 days later, but it level was lower than in control variant. On 9 days it was gently expressed by clinorotation, where as by control it was not detected absolutely. Cyclin δ 3 gene's expression was observed during all time of the experiment. These data also confirm known one about expression δ 1- cyclin, which expressed on beginning of cell cycle only. And δ 3 --cyclin that express during whole presinthetic phase of cell cycle (Sony et al., 1995, Murray, 1994, Inze et al, 1999, Umeda, 2000).

  9. TReP-132 Controls Cell Proliferation by Regulating the Expression of the Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors p21WAF1/Cip1 and p27Kip1

    PubMed Central

    Gizard, Florence; Robillard, Romain; Barbier, Olivier; Quatannens, Brigitte; Faucompré, Anne; Révillion, Françoise; Peyrat, Jean-Philippe; Staels, Bart; Hum, Dean W.

    2005-01-01

    The transcriptional regulating protein of 132 kDa (TReP-132) has been identified in steroidogenic tissues, where it acts as a coactivator of steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1). We show here that TReP-132 plays a role in the control of cell proliferation. In human HeLa cells, TReP-132 knockdown by using small interfering RNA resulted in increased G1→S cell cycle progression. The growth-inhibitory effects of TReP-132 was further shown to be mediated by induction of G1 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21WAF1 (p21) and p27KIP1 (p27) expression levels. As a consequence, G1 cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase activities and pRB phosphorylation were markedly reduced, and cell cycle progression was blocked in the G1 phase. The stimulatory effect of TReP-132 on p21 and p27 gene transcription involved interaction of TReP-132 with the transcription factor Sp1 at proximal Sp1-binding sites in their promoters. Moreover, in different breast tumor cell lines, endogenous TReP-132 expression was positively related with a lower proliferation rate. In addition, TReP-132 knockdown resulted in enhanced cell proliferation and lowered p21 and p27 mRNA levels in the steroid-responsive and nonresponsive T-47D and MDA-MB-231 cell lines, respectively. Finally, a statistic profiling of human breast tumor samples highlighted that expression of TReP-132 is correlated with p21 and p27 levels and is associated with lower tumor incidence and aggressiveness. Together, these results identify TReP-132 as a basal cell cycle regulatory protein acting, at least in part, by interacting with Sp1 to activate the p21 and p27 gene promoters. PMID:15899840

  10. Cyclin A–CDK phosphorylates Sp1 and enhances Sp1-mediated transcription

    PubMed Central

    de Borja, Patrick Fojas; Collins, N.Keith; Du, Ping; Azizkhan-Clifford, Jane; Mudryj, Maria

    2001-01-01

    Cyclin A-mediated activation of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) is essential for cell cycle transversal. Cyclin A activity is regulated on several levels and cyclin A elevation in a number of cancers suggests a role in tumorigenesis. In the present study, we used a modified DNA binding site selection and PCR amplification procedure to identify DNA binding proteins that are potential substrates of cyclin A–CDK. One of the sequences identified is the Sp1 transcription factor binding site. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments show that cyclin A and Sp1 can interact physically. In vitro and in vivo phosphorylation studies indicate that cyclin A–CDK complexes can phosphorylate Sp1. The phosphorylation site is located in the N-terminal region of the protein. Cells overexpressing cyclin A have elevated levels of Sp1 DNA binding activity, suggesting that cyclin A–CDK-mediated phosphorylation augments Sp1 DNA binding properties. In co-transfection studies, cyclin A expression stimulated transcription from an Sp1-regulated promoter. Mutation of the phosphorylation site abrogated cyclin A–CDK-dependent phosphorylation, augmentation of Sp1 transactivation function and DNA binding activity. PMID:11598016

  11. Protecting effect of phosphorylation on oxidative damage of D1 protein by down-regulating the production of superoxide anion in photosystem II membranes under high light.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liangbing; Jia, Hongying; Tian, Qiu; Du, Libo; Gao, Yanli; Miao, Xiaoxiang; Liu, Yang

    2012-06-01

    The physiological significance of photosystem II (PSII) core protein phosphorylation has been suggested to facilitate the migration of oxidative damaged D1 and D2 proteins, but meanwhile the phosphorylation seems to be associated with the suppression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and it also relates to the degradation of PSII reaction center proteins. To more clearly elucidate the possible protecting effect of the phosphorylation on oxidative damage of D1 protein, the degradation of oxidized D1 protein and the production of superoxide anion in the non-phosphorylated and phosphorylated PSII membranes were comparatively detected using the Western blotting and electron spin resonance spin-trapping technique, respectively. Obviously, all of three ROS components, including superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical are responsible for the degradation of oxidized D1 protein, and the protection of the D1 protein degradation by phosphorylation is accompanied by the inhibition of superoxide anion production. Furthermore, the inhibiting effect of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU), a competitor to Q(B), on superoxide anion production and its protecting effect on D1 protein degradation are even more obvious than those of phosphorylation. Both DCMU effects are independent of whether PSII membranes are phosphorylated or not, which reasonably implies that the herbicide DCMU and D1 protein phosphorylation probably share the same target site in D1 protein of PSII. So, altogether it can be concluded that the phosphorylation of D1 protein reduces the oxidative damage of D1 protein by decreasing the production of superoxide anion in PSII membranes under high light.

  12. Disordered regulation of renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1alpha-hydroxylase gene expression by phosphorus in X-linked hypophosphatemic (hyp) mice.

    PubMed

    Azam, Nasreen; Zhang, Martin Y H; Wang, Xuemei; Tenenhouse, Harriet S; Portale, Anthony A

    2003-08-01

    X-linked hypophosphatemic (Hyp) mice exhibit hypophosphatemia, impaired renal phosphate reabsorption, defective skeletal mineralization, and disordered regulation of vitamin D metabolism: In Hyp mice, restriction of dietary phosphorus induces a decrease in serum concentration of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and renal activity of 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1alpha-hydroxylase (1alpha-hydroxylase), and induces an increase in renal activity of 25-hydroxyvitamin D-24-hydroxylase (24-hydroxylase). In contrast, in wild-type mice, phosphorus restriction stimulates renal 1alpha-hydroxylase gene expression and suppresses that of 24-hydroxylase. To determine the molecular basis for the disordered regulation of vitamin D metabolism in Hyp mice, we determined renal mitochondrial 1alpha-hydroxylase activity and the renal abundance of p450c1alpha and p450c24 mRNA in wild-type and Hyp mice fed either control, low-, or high-phosphorus diets for 5 d. In wild-type mice, phosphorus restriction increased 1alpha-hydroxylase activity and p450c1alpha mRNA expression by 6-fold and 3-fold, respectively, whereas in the Hyp strain the same diet induced changes of similar magnitude but opposite in direction. Phosphorus supplementation was without effect in wild-type mice, whereas in Hyp mice the same diet induced 3-fold and 2-fold increases, respectively, in enzyme activity and p450c1alpha mRNA abundance. In wild-type mice, both renal 1alpha-hydroxylase activity and p450c1alpha mRNA abundance varied inversely and significantly with serum phosphorus concentrations, whereas in Hyp mice the relationship between both renal parameters and serum phosphorus concentration was direct. In Hyp mice, phosphorus restriction induced a significant increase in renal p450c24 mRNA abundance, in contrast to the lack of effect observed in wild-type mice. The present findings demonstrate that regulation of both the p450c1alpha and p45024 genes by phosphorus is disordered in Hyp mice at the level of renal 1alpha

  13. Specificity of the ModA11, ModA12 and ModD1 epigenetic regulator N6-adenine DNA methyltransferases of Neisseria meningitidis

    PubMed Central

    Seib, Kate L.; Jen, Freda E.-C.; Tan, Aimee; Scott, Adeana L.; Kumar, Ritesh; Power, Peter M.; Chen, Li-Tzu; Wu, Hsing-Ju; Wang, Andrew H.-J.; Hill, Dorothea M. C.; Luyten, Yvette A.; Morgan, Richard D.; Roberts, Richard J.; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Boitano, Matthew; Clark, Tyson A.; Korlach, Jonas; Rao, Desirazu N.; Jennings, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Phase variation (random ON/OFF switching) of gene expression is a common feature of host-adapted pathogenic bacteria. Phase variably expressed N6-adenine DNA methyltransferases (Mod) alter global methylation patterns resulting in changes in gene expression. These systems constitute phase variable regulons called phasevarions. Neisseria meningitidis phasevarions regulate genes including virulence factors and vaccine candidates, and alter phenotypes including antibiotic resistance. The target site recognized by these Type III N6-adenine DNA methyltransferases is not known. Single molecule, real-time (SMRT) methylome analysis was used to identify the recognition site for three key N. meningitidis methyltransferases: ModA11 (exemplified by M.NmeMC58I) (5′-CGYm6AG-3′), ModA12 (exemplified by M.Nme77I, M.Nme18I and M.Nme579II) (5′-ACm6ACC-3′) and ModD1 (exemplified by M.Nme579I) (5′-CCm6AGC-3′). Restriction inhibition assays and mutagenesis confirmed the SMRT methylome analysis. The ModA11 site is complex and atypical and is dependent on the type of pyrimidine at the central position, in combination with the bases flanking the core recognition sequence 5′-CGYm6AG-3′. The observed efficiency of methylation in the modA11 strain (MC58) genome ranged from 4.6% at 5′-GCGCm6AGG-3′ sites, to 100% at 5′-ACGTm6AGG-3′ sites. Analysis of the distribution of modified sites in the respective genomes shows many cases of association with intergenic regions of genes with altered expression due to phasevarion switching. PMID:25845594

  14. NMDA and dopamine D1 receptors within NAc-shell regulate IEG proteins expression in reward circuit during cocaine memory reconsolidation.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Ge, S; Li, N; Chen, L; Zhang, S; Wang, J; Wu, H; Wang, X; Wang, X

    2016-02-19

    Reactivation of consolidated memory initiates a memory reconsolidation process, during which the reactivated memory is susceptible to strengthening, weakening or updating. Therefore, effective interference with the memory reconsolidation process is expected to be an important treatment for drug addiction. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) has been well recognized as a pathway component that can prevent drug relapse, although the mechanism underlying this function is poorly understood. We aimed to clarify the regulatory role of the NAc in the cocaine memory reconsolidation process, by examining the effect of applying different pharmacological interventions to the NAc on Zif 268 and Fos B expression in the entire reward circuit after cocaine memory reactivation. Through the cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) model, immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence staining for Zif 268 and Fos B were used to explore the functional activated brain nuclei after cocaine memory reactivation. Our results showed that the expression of Zif 268 and Fos B was commonly increased in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), the infralimbic cortex (IL), the NAc-core, the NAc-shell, the hippocampus (CA1, CA2, and CA3 subregions), the amygdala, the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and the supramammillary nucleus (SuM) following memory reconsolidation, and Zif 268/Fos B co-expression was commonly observed (for Zif 268: 51-68%; for Fos B: 52-66%). Further, bilateral NAc-shell infusion of MK 801 and SCH 23390, but not raclopride or propranolol, prior to addictive memory reconsolidation, decreased Zif 268 and Fos B expression in the entire reward circuit, except for the amygdala, and effectively disturbed subsequent CPP-related behavior. In summary, N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and dopamine D1 receptors, but not dopamine D2 or β adrenergic receptors, within the NAc-shell, may regulate Zif 268 and Fos B expression in most brain nuclei of the reward circuit after cocaine memory reactivation

  15. NMDA and dopamine D1 receptors within NAc-shell regulate IEG proteins expression in reward circuit during cocaine memory reconsolidation.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Ge, S; Li, N; Chen, L; Zhang, S; Wang, J; Wu, H; Wang, X; Wang, X

    2016-02-19

    Reactivation of consolidated memory initiates a memory reconsolidation process, during which the reactivated memory is susceptible to strengthening, weakening or updating. Therefore, effective interference with the memory reconsolidation process is expected to be an important treatment for drug addiction. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) has been well recognized as a pathway component that can prevent drug relapse, although the mechanism underlying this function is poorly understood. We aimed to clarify the regulatory role of the NAc in the cocaine memory reconsolidation process, by examining the effect of applying different pharmacological interventions to the NAc on Zif 268 and Fos B expression in the entire reward circuit after cocaine memory reactivation. Through the cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) model, immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence staining for Zif 268 and Fos B were used to explore the functional activated brain nuclei after cocaine memory reactivation. Our results showed that the expression of Zif 268 and Fos B was commonly increased in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), the infralimbic cortex (IL), the NAc-core, the NAc-shell, the hippocampus (CA1, CA2, and CA3 subregions), the amygdala, the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and the supramammillary nucleus (SuM) following memory reconsolidation, and Zif 268/Fos B co-expression was commonly observed (for Zif 268: 51-68%; for Fos B: 52-66%). Further, bilateral NAc-shell infusion of MK 801 and SCH 23390, but not raclopride or propranolol, prior to addictive memory reconsolidation, decreased Zif 268 and Fos B expression in the entire reward circuit, except for the amygdala, and effectively disturbed subsequent CPP-related behavior. In summary, N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and dopamine D1 receptors, but not dopamine D2 or β adrenergic receptors, within the NAc-shell, may regulate Zif 268 and Fos B expression in most brain nuclei of the reward circuit after cocaine memory reactivation

  16. Expression of the SH2D1A gene is regulated by a combination of transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Susumu; Ji, Hongbin; Howie, Duncan; Clarke, Kareem; Gullo, Charles; Manning, Stephen; Coyle, Anthony J; Terhorst, Cox

    2004-11-01

    The SH2D1A gene, which is altered or deleted in patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative disease, encodes the small protein SAP (for SLAM-associated protein) that is expressed in T and NK cells. A 22-bp fragment in close proximity to an initiator-like site was defined as the basal promoter of mouse SH2D1A, and a highly homologous 33-bp segment was defined as the human basal promoter. When an Ets consensus site was mutated, no reporter activity was detectable. Gel mobility supershift assays revealed that the two transcription factors Ets-1 and Ets-2 bind to the human and mouse sequences. The involvement of Ets-1 and Ets-2 in expression of SH2D1A was functionally confirmed by overexpression studies of their dominant-negative forms. We also found that SH2D1A mRNA decays very rapidly in mouse T cells, and its 3' untranslated region (UTR) has RNA-destabilizing activity in transfection studies with reporter/3' UTR constructs. As judged by RNA-gel mobility shift assays, this rapid degradation of SH2D1A mRNA was due to a balance in binding of the factors AUF1 and HuR to its 3' UTR. Although the SH2D1A mRNA level decreased upon triggering of the T cell receptor (TCR), the RNA degradation rate itself was not altered by TCR engagement.

  17. Cytotoxicity of diacetoxyscirpenol is associated with apoptosis by activation of caspase-8 and interruption of cell cycle progression by down-regulation of cdk4 and cyclin B1 in human Jurkat T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jun, Do Youn; Kim, Jun Seok; Park, Hae Sun; Song, Woo Sun; Bae, Young Seuk; Kim, Young Ho . E-mail: ykim@knu.ac.kr

    2007-07-15

    To understand the mechanism underlying T-cell toxicity of diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS) from Fusarium sambucinum, its apoptogenic as well as growth retardation activity was investigated in human Jurkat T cells. Exposure to DAS (0.01-0.15 {mu}M) caused apoptotic DNA fragmentation along with caspase-8 activation, Bid cleavage, mitochondrial cytochrome c release, activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, and PARP degradation, without any alteration in the levels of Fas or FasL. Under these conditions, necrosis was not accompanied. The cytotoxicity of DAS was not blocked by the anti-Fas neutralizing antibody ZB-4. Although the DAS-induced apoptotic events were completely prevented by overexpression of Bcl-xL, the cells overexpressing Bcl-xL were unable to divide in the presence of DAS, resulting from the failure of cell cycle progression possibly due to down-regulation in the protein levels of cdk4 and cyclin B1. The DAS-mediated apoptosis and activation of caspase-8, -9, and -3 were abrogated by either pan-caspase inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk) or caspase-8 inhibitor (z-IETD-fmk). While the DAS-mediated apoptosis and activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 were slightly suppressed by the mitochondrial permeability transition pore inhibitor (CsA), both caspase-8 activation and Bid cleavage were not affected by CsA. The activated normal peripheral T cells possessed a similar susceptibility to the cytotoxicity of DAS. These results demonstrate that the T-cell toxicity of DAS is attributable to not only apoptosis initiated by caspase-8 activation and subsequent mitochondrion-dependent or -independent activation of caspase cascades, which can be regulated by Bcl-xL, but also interruption of cell cycle progression caused by down-regulation of cdk4 and cyclin B1 proteins.

  18. The circadian clock regulates autophagy directly through the nuclear hormone receptor Nr1d1/Rev-erbα and indirectly via Cebpb/(C/ebpβ) in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guodong; Zhang, Fanmiao; Ye, Qiang; Wang, Han

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Autophagy is a highly conserved intracellular degradation system, and recently was shown to display circadian rhythms in mice. The mechanisms underlying circadian regulation of autophagy, however, are still unclear. Here, we observed that numbers of autophagosomes and autolysosomes exhibit daily rhythms in the zebrafish liver, and cebpb/(c/ebpβ) and various autophagy genes are rhythmically expressed in zebrafish larvae but significantly upregulated in per1b and TALEN-generated nr1d1/rev-erbα mutant fish, indicating that both Per1b and Nr1d1 play critical roles in autophagy rhythms. Luciferase reporter and ChIP assays show that the circadian clock directly regulates autophagy genes through Nr1d1, and also regulates transcription of cebpb through Per1b. We also found that fasting leads to altered expression of both circadian clock genes and autophagy genes in zebrafish adult peripheral organs. Further, transcriptome analysis reveals multiple functions of Nr1d1 in zebrafish. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for how the circadian clock regulates autophagy, imply that nutritional signaling affects both circadian regulation and autophagy activities in peripheral organs, and shed light on how circadian gene mutations act through autophagy to contribute to common metabolic diseases such as obesity. PMID:27171500

  19. L-DOPA Oppositely Regulates Synaptic Strength and Spine Morphology in D1 and D2 Striatal Projection Neurons in Dyskinesia

    PubMed Central

    Suarez, Luz M; Solis, Oscar; Aguado, Carolina; Lujan, Rafael; Moratalla, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine depletion in Parkinson's disease (PD) produces dendritic spine loss in striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and increases their excitability. However, the synaptic changes that occur in MSNs in PD, in particular those induced by chronic L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) treatment, are still poorly understood. We exposed BAC-transgenic D1-tomato and D2-eGFP mice to PD and dyskinesia model paradigms, enabling cell type-specific assessment of changes in synaptic physiology and morphology. The distinct fluorescence markers allowed us to identify D1 and D2 MSNs for analysis using intracellular sharp electrode recordings, electron microscopy, and 3D reconstructions with single-cell Lucifer Yellow injections. Dopamine depletion induced spine pruning in both types of MSNs, affecting mushroom and thin spines equally. Dopamine depletion also increased firing rate in both D1- and D2-MSNs, but reduced evoked-EPSP amplitude selectively in D2-MSNs. L-DOPA treatment that produced dyskinesia differentially affected synaptic properties in D1- and D2-MSNs. In D1-MSNs, spine density remained reduced but the remaining spines were enlarged, with bigger heads and larger postsynaptic densities. These morphological changes were accompanied by facilitation of action potential firing triggered by synaptic inputs. In contrast, although L-DOPA restored the number of spines in D2-MSNs, it resulted in shortened postsynaptic densities. These changes in D2-MSNs correlated with a decrease in synaptic transmission. Our findings indicate that L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia is associated with abnormal spine morphology, modified synaptic transmission, and altered EPSP-spike coupling, with distinct effects in D1- and D2-MSNs. PMID:27613437

  20. Dopamine D1–D2 Receptor Heteromer in Dual Phenotype GABA/Glutamate-Coexpressing Striatal Medium Spiny Neurons: Regulation of BDNF, GAD67 and VGLUT1/2

    PubMed Central

    Perreault, Melissa L.; Fan, Theresa; Alijaniaram, Mohammed; O'Dowd, Brian F.; George, Susan R.

    2012-01-01

    In basal ganglia a significant subset of GABAergic medium spiny neurons (MSNs) coexpress D1 and D2 receptors (D1R and D2R) along with the neuropeptides dynorphin (DYN) and enkephalin (ENK). These coexpressing neurons have been recently shown to have a region-specific distribution throughout the mesolimbic and basal ganglia circuits. While the functional relevance of these MSNs remains relatively unexplored, they have been shown to exhibit the unique property of expressing the dopamine D1–D2 receptor heteromer, a novel receptor complex with distinct pharmacology and cell signaling properties. Here we showed that MSNs coexpressing the D1R and D2R also exhibited a dual GABA/glutamate phenotype. Activation of the D1R–D2R heteromer in these neurons resulted in the simultaneous, but differential regulation of proteins involved in GABA and glutamate production or vesicular uptake in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), ventral tegmental area (VTA), caudate putamen and substantia nigra (SN). Additionally, activation of the D1R–D2R heteromer in NAc shell, but not NAc core, differentially altered protein expression in VTA and SN, regions rich in dopamine cell bodies. The identification of a MSN with dual inhibitory and excitatory intrinsic functions provides new insights into the neuroanatomy of the basal ganglia and demonstrates a novel source of glutamate in this circuit. Furthermore, the demonstration of a dopamine receptor complex with the potential to differentially regulate the expression of proteins directly involved in GABAergic inhibitory or glutamatergic excitatory activation in VTA and SN may potentially provide new insights into the regulation of dopamine neuron activity. This could have broad implications in understanding how dysregulation of neurotransmission within basal ganglia contributes to dopamine neuronal dysfunction. PMID:22428025

  1. Hypertonic stress regulates amino acid transport and cell cycle proteins in chick embryo hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Bruscalupi, Giovannella; Massimi, Mara; Spagnuolo, Silvana; Fiore, Anna Maria; Leoni, Silvia

    2012-02-01

    Hyperosmotic stress affects cell growth, decreasing cell volume and increasing the uptake of organic osmolytes. However, the sensitivity of embryonic cells to osmotic treatment remains to be established. We have analysed some aspects of cell-cycle control and amino-acid transport in hypertonic conditions during prenatal life. The effects of hyperosmotic stress on amino-acid uptake mediated by system A, (3)H-thymidine incorporation, and regulation of cell-cycle proteins were analysed in chick embryo hepatocytes. Hypertonic stress increased system A activity and caused cell-cycle delay. Effects on amino-acid transport involved p38 kinase activation and new carrier synthesis. Cyclin D1, cdk4 (cyclin-dependent kinase 4) and PCNA (proliferating-cell nuclear antigen) levels decreased, whereas cyclin E, p21 and p53 levels were unchanged. Incorporation of (3)H-leucine indicated decreased synthesis of cyclin D1. In contrast, analysis of mRNA by qRT-PCR (quantitative real-time PCR) showed a net increase of cyclin D1 transcripts, suggesting post-transcriptional regulation. The data show that chick embryo hepatocytes respond to hyperosmotic conditions by arresting cell growth to prevent DNA damage and increasing osmolyte uptake to regulate cell volume, indicating that the adaptive response to environmental stress exists during prenatal life.

  2. The α-subunit of the rice heterotrimeric G protein, RGA1, regulates drought tolerance during the vegetative phase in the dwarf rice mutant d1.

    PubMed

    Ferrero-Serrano, Ángel; Assmann, Sarah M

    2016-05-01

    Essential in the Green Revolution was the development of high-yielding dwarf varieties of rice (Oryza sativa L.), but their selection was not based on responses to water limitation. We studied physiological responses to progressive drought of the dwarf rice mutant, d1, in which the RGA1 gene, which encodes the GTP-binding α-subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein, is non-functional. Wild-type (WT) plants cease net carbon fixation 11 days after water is withheld, while d1 plants maintain net photosynthesis for an additional week. During drought, d1 plants exhibit greater stomatal conductance than the WT, but both genotypes exhibit the same transpirational water loss per unit leaf area. This is explained by a smaller driving force for water loss in d1 owing to its lower leaf temperatures, consistent with its more erect architecture. As drought becomes more severe, WT plants show an accelerated decline in photosynthesis, which may be exacerbated by the higher leaf temperatures in the WT. We thus show how a rice mutant with dwarf and erect leaves has a decreased susceptibility to water stress. Accordingly, it may be useful to incorporate RGA1 mutation in breeding or biotechnological strategies for development of drought-resistant rice. PMID:27194741

  3. The α-subunit of the rice heterotrimeric G protein, RGA1, regulates drought tolerance during the vegetative phase in the dwarf rice mutant d1

    PubMed Central

    Ferrero-Serrano, Ángel; Assmann, Sarah M.

    2016-01-01

    Essential in the Green Revolution was the development of high-yielding dwarf varieties of rice (Oryza sativa L.), but their selection was not based on responses to water limitation. We studied physiological responses to progressive drought of the dwarf rice mutant, d1, in which the RGA1 gene, which encodes the GTP-binding α-subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein, is non-functional. Wild-type (WT) plants cease net carbon fixation 11 days after water is withheld, while d1 plants maintain net photosynthesis for an additional week. During drought, d1 plants exhibit greater stomatal conductance than the WT, but both genotypes exhibit the same transpirational water loss per unit leaf area. This is explained by a smaller driving force for water loss in d1 owing to its lower leaf temperatures, consistent with its more erect architecture. As drought becomes more severe, WT plants show an accelerated decline in photosynthesis, which may be exacerbated by the higher leaf temperatures in the WT. We thus show how a rice mutant with dwarf and erect leaves has a decreased susceptibility to water stress. Accordingly, it may be useful to incorporate RGA1 mutation in breeding or biotechnological strategies for development of drought-resistant rice. PMID:27194741

  4. Lhx4 Deficiency: Increased Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Expression and Pituitary Hypoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Gergics, Peter; Brinkmeier, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Defects in the Lhx4, Lhx3, and Pitx2 genes can cause combined pituitary hormone deficiency and pituitary hypoplasia in both humans and mice. Not much is known about the mechanism underlying hypoplasia in these mutants beyond generally increased cell death and poorly maintained proliferation. We identified both common and unique abnormalities in developmental regulation of key cell cycle regulator gene expression in each of these three mutants. All three mutants exhibit reduced expression of the proliferative marker Ki67 and the transitional marker p57. We discovered that expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1a (Cdkn1a or p21) is expanded dorsally in the pituitary primordium of both Lhx3 and Lhx4 mutants. Uniquely, Lhx4 mutants exhibit reduced cyclin D1 expression and have auxiliary pouch-like structures. We show evidence for indirect and direct effects of LHX4 on p21 expression in αT3-1 pituitary cells. In summary, Lhx4 is necessary for efficient pituitary progenitor cell proliferation and restriction of p21 expression. PMID:25668206

  5. Modulated expression of genes encoding estrogen metabolizing enzymes by G1-phase cyclin-dependent kinases 6 and 4 in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yi; Domenico, Joanne; Swasey, Christina; Wang, Meiqin; Gelfand, Erwin W; Lucas, Joseph J

    2014-01-01

    G1-phase cell cycle defects, such as alterations in cyclin D1 or cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) levels, are seen in most tumors. For example, increased cyclin D1 and decreased cdk6 levels are seen in many human breast tumors. Overexpression of cdk6 in breast tumor cells in culture has been shown to suppress proliferation, unlike the growth stimulating effects of its close homolog, cdk4. In addition to directly affecting proliferation, alterations in cdk6 or cdk4 levels in breast tumor cells also differentially influence levels of numerous steroid metabolic enzymes (SMEs), including those involved in estrogen metabolism. Overexpression of cdk6 in tumor cell lines having low cdk6 resulted in decreased levels of mRNAs encoding aldo-keto reductase (AKR)1C1, AKR1C2 and AKR1C3, which are hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs) involved in steroid hormone metabolism. In contrast, increasing cdk4 dramatically increased these transcript levels, especially those encoding AKR1C3, an enzyme that converts estron