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Sample records for regulates minor process

  1. Self-Regulation in Children and Minors in Institutional Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hrbackova, Karla; Vavrova, Sona

    2015-01-01

    The study deals with self-regulation in children and minors (aged 11 to 19 years) living in so-called "total institutions". It examines the degree of self-regulation of behaviour from the perspective of the children and minors themselves and from the perspective of their key workers. Children and minors and their key workers differ…

  2. Minor Planet Center: data processing challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudenko, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Minor Planet Center receives up to several million astrometric observations of minor planets and comets each month. Given the volume of observations, the sheer number of known objects against which to possibly match, the shortness of the time interval over which each object was likely observed, and the uncertainties in the positions, and occasionally possible errors in times, reported, a number of data processing challenges present themselves. These include: Identifying observations of objects reported as new with already known objects; linking together sets of observations from different nights which may belong to the same object; determining if a set of observations has been assigned to the wrong object; determining if an object with a very short arc is possibly a Near-Earth object; prioritizing newly discovered objects in order of need of follow up; and, efficiently matching one or more observations with known objects.

  3. Minor Planet Center Data Processing Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudenko, Michael

    2015-08-01

    The Minor Planet Center (MPC) is the single worldwide location for receipt and distribution of positional measurements of minor planets, comets and outer irregular natural satellites of the major planets. The MPC is responsible for the identification, designation and orbit computation for all of these objects.Over 2 million observations are received each month via the internet, and are validated and processed in near real time. The observations come in batches whose formats are checked and whose observations are run through a number of other routine checks such as departure from great circle motion, prior publication, single observations, near duplicates, etc. Some or all of a batch of observations may be returned to its sender if they fail one or more of the checks. After the observations have been validated, they are processed to produce orbits of newly discovered objects or used to update the orbits of known objects.Given the volume of observations, the sheer number of known objects against which to possibly match, the shortness of the time interval over which each object was likely observed, and the uncertainties in the positions, and occasionally possible errors in times, reported, a number of data processing challenges face the MPC. These include the following: Identifying observations of objects reported as new with already known objects; linking together sets of observations from different nights (possibly at different apparitions) which may belong to the same object; determining if a set of observations has been assigned to the wrong object; determining if an object with a very short arc is possibly a Near-Earth object; determining and examining the range of possible variant orbits of newly discovered Near-Earth objects with very short observation arcs for cases which indicate an object is potentially on a collision course with Earth; linking observations to known artificial satellites and/or booster stages and other space "junk"; prioritizing newly

  4. Emotion regulation and internalizing symptoms in a longitudinal study of sexual minority and heterosexual adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Background Sexual minority adolescents appear to be at increased risk for internalizing disorders relative to their heterosexual peers, but there is a paucity of research explaining this elevated risk. Emotion regulation deficits are increasingly understood as important predictors of internalizing psychopathology among general samples of adolescents. The present study sought to examine whether deficits in emotion regulation could account for disparities in internalizing symptoms between sexual minority and heterosexual adolescents. Methods The present study utilized longitudinal data from a racially/ethnically diverse (68% non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic/Latino) community sample of 1,071 middle school students (ages 11–14). Results Adolescents who endorsed same-sex attraction evidenced higher rates of internalizing symptoms at both time points. Structural equation modeling indicated that sexual minority adolescents exhibited greater deficits in emotion regulation (rumination and poor emotional awareness) than their heterosexual peers. Emotion regulation deficits in turn mediated the relationship between sexual minority status and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Conclusions The results demonstrate the importance of considering normative psychological processes in the development of internalizing symptomatology among sexual minority adolescents, and suggest emotion regulation deficits as specific targets of prevention and intervention efforts with this population. Future studies are needed to determine whether stigma-related stressors are responsible for emotion regulation deficits among sexual minority youth. PMID:18564066

  5. Perturbed GUE Minor Process and Warren's Process with Drifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Patrik L.; Frings, René

    2013-11-01

    We consider the minor process of (Hermitian) matrix diffusions with constant diagonal drifts. At any given time, this process is determinantal and we provide an explicit expression for its correlation kernel. This is a measure on the Gelfand-Tsetlin pattern that also appears in a generalization of Warren's process (Electron. J. Probab. 12:573-590, 2007), in which Brownian motions have level-dependent drifts. Finally, we show that this process arises in a diffusion scaling limit from an interacting particle system in the anisotropic KPZ class in 2+1 dimensions introduced in Borodin and Ferrari (Commun. Math. Phys., 2008). Our results generalize the known results for the zero drift situation.

  6. 34 CFR 637.3 - What regulations apply to the Minority Science and Engineering Improvement Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What regulations apply to the Minority Science and... Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MINORITY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM General § 637.3 What regulations apply to the Minority Science and...

  7. 34 CFR 637.3 - What regulations apply to the Minority Science and Engineering Improvement Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What regulations apply to the Minority Science and... Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MINORITY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM General § 637.3 What regulations apply to the Minority Science and...

  8. 34 CFR 637.3 - What regulations apply to the Minority Science and Engineering Improvement Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What regulations apply to the Minority Science and... Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MINORITY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM General § 637.3 What regulations apply to the Minority Science and...

  9. 34 CFR 637.3 - What regulations apply to the Minority Science and Engineering Improvement Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What regulations apply to the Minority Science and... Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MINORITY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM General § 637.3 What regulations apply to the Minority Science and...

  10. 34 CFR 637.3 - What regulations apply to the Minority Science and Engineering Improvement Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What regulations apply to the Minority Science and... Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MINORITY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM General § 637.3 What regulations apply to the Minority Science and...

  11. Some Minorants and Majorants of Random Walks and Levy Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramson, Joshua Simon

    This thesis consists of four chapters, all relating to some sort of minorant or majorant of random walks or Levy processes. In Chapter 1 we provide an overview of recent work on descriptions and properties of the convex minorant of random walks and Levy processes as detailed in Chapter 2, [72] and [73]. This work rejuvenated the field of minorants, and led to the work in all the subsequent chapters. The results surveyed include point process descriptions of the convex minorant of random walks and Levy processes on a fixed finite interval, up to an independent exponential time, and in the infinite horizon case. These descriptions follow from the invariance of these processes under an adequate path transformation. In the case of Brownian motion, we note how further special properties of this process, including time-inversion, imply a sequential description for the convex minorant of the Brownian meander. This chapter is based on [3], which was co-written with Jim Pitman, Nathan Ross and Geronimo Uribe Bravo. Chapter 1 serves as a long introduction to Chapter 2, in which we offer a unified approach to the theory of concave majorants of random walks. The reasons for the switch from convex minorants to concave majorants are discussed in Section 1.1, but the results are all equivalent. This unified theory is arrived at by providing a path transformation for a walk of finite length that leaves the law of the walk unchanged whilst providing complete information about the concave majorant - the path transformation is different from the one discussed in Chapter 1, but this is necessary to deal with a more general case than the standard one as done in Section 2.6. The path transformation of Chapter 1, which is discussed in detail in Section 2.8, is more relevant to the limiting results for Levy processes that are of interest in Chapter 1. Our results lead to a description of a walk of random geometric length as a Poisson point process of excursions away from its concave

  12. Unique Contributions of Fathering to Emerging Self-Regulation in Low-Income Ethnic Minority Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Margaret Tresch; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Hurst, Jamie R.; Amos, Melissa; Hasanizadeh, Nazly; Mata-Otero, Ana-Maria

    2013-01-01

    Self-regulation ability is an important component of school readiness and predictor of academic success, but few studies of self-regulation examine contributions of fathering to the emergence of self-regulation in low-income ethnic minority preschoolers. Associations were examined between parental child-oriented parenting support and preschoolers'…

  13. Unique Contributions of Fathering to Emerging Self-Regulation in Low-Income Ethnic Minority Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Margaret Tresch; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Hurst, Jamie R.; Amos, Melissa; Hasanizadeh, Nazly; Mata-Otero, Ana-Maria

    2013-01-01

    Self-regulation ability is an important component of school readiness and predictor of academic success, but few studies of self-regulation examine contributions of fathering to the emergence of self-regulation in low-income ethnic minority preschoolers. Associations were examined between parental child-oriented parenting support and preschoolers'…

  14. Constitutional Law: Abortion, Parental Consent, Minors' Right to Due Process, Equal Protection and Privacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child, Barbara

    1975-01-01

    In State v. Koome, the Washington Supreme Court has striken that state's statute regarding parental consent for a minor's abortion. Implications of the finding for a minor's right to due process, equal protection, and privacy are discussed. (LBH)

  15. 12 CFR 361.1 - Why do minority- and women-owned businesses need this outreach regulation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Why do minority- and women-owned businesses... CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY MINORITY AND WOMEN OUTREACH PROGRAM CONTRACTING § 361.1 Why do minority- and women-owned businesses need this outreach regulation? The purpose of the...

  16. 12 CFR 361.1 - Why do minority- and women-owned businesses need this outreach regulation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Why do minority- and women-owned businesses... CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY MINORITY AND WOMEN OUTREACH PROGRAM CONTRACTING § 361.1 Why do minority- and women-owned businesses need this outreach regulation? The purpose of the...

  17. 12 CFR 361.1 - Why do minority- and women-owned businesses need this outreach regulation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Why do minority- and women-owned businesses... CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY MINORITY AND WOMEN OUTREACH PROGRAM CONTRACTING § 361.1 Why do minority- and women-owned businesses need this outreach regulation? The purpose of the...

  18. 12 CFR 361.1 - Why do minority- and women-owned businesses need this outreach regulation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Why do minority- and women-owned businesses... CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY MINORITY AND WOMEN OUTREACH PROGRAM CONTRACTING § 361.1 Why do minority- and women-owned businesses need this outreach regulation? The purpose of the...

  19. 12 CFR 361.1 - Why do minority- and women-owned businesses need this outreach regulation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Why do minority- and women-owned businesses... CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY MINORITY AND WOMEN OUTREACH PROGRAM CONTRACTING § 361.1 Why do minority- and women-owned businesses need this outreach regulation? The purpose of the...

  20. A minority stress--emotion regulation model of sexual compulsivity among highly sexually active gay and bisexual men.

    PubMed

    Pachankis, John E; Rendina, H Jonathon; Restar, Arjee; Ventuneac, Ana; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2015-08-01

    Sexual compulsivity represents a significant public health concern among gay and bisexual men, given its co-occurrence with other mental health problems and HIV infection. The purpose of this study was to examine a model of sexual compulsivity based on minority stress theory and emotion regulation models of mental health among gay and bisexual men. Gay and bisexual men in New York City reporting at least nine past-90-day sexual partners (n = 374) completed measures of distal minority stressors (i.e., boyhood gender nonconformity and peer rejection, adulthood perceived discrimination), hypothesized proximal minority stress mediators (i.e., rejection sensitivity, internalized homonegativity), hypothesized universal mediators (i.e., emotion dysregulation, depression, and anxiety), and sexual compulsivity. The hypothesized model fit the data well (RMSEA = 0.05, CFI = 0.98, TLI = 0.95, SRMR = 0.03). Distal minority stress processes (e.g., adulthood discrimination) were generally found to confer risk for both proximal minority stressors (e.g., internalized homonegativity) and emotion dysregulation. Proximal minority stressors and emotion dysregulation, in turn, generally predicted sexual compulsivity both directly and indirectly through anxiety and depression. The final model suggests that gay-specific (e.g., internalized homonegativity) and universal (e.g., emotion dysregulation) processes represent potential treatment targets to attenuate the impact of minority stress on gay and bisexual men's sexual health. Tests of interventions that address these targets to treat sexual compulsivity among gay and bisexual men represent a promising future research endeavor. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. A Minority Stress – Emotion Regulation Model of Sexual Compulsivity among Highly Sexually Active Gay and Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Pachankis, John E.; Rendina, H. Jonathon; Restar, Arjee; Ventuneac, Ana; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sexual compulsivity represents a significant public health concern among gay and bisexual men given its co-occurrence with other mental health problems and HIV infection. The purpose of this study was to examine a model of sexual compulsivity based on minority stress theory and emotion regulation models of mental health among gay and bisexual men. Method Gay and bisexual men in New York City reporting at least nine past-90-day sexual partners (n = 374) completed measures of distal minority stressors (i.e., boyhood gender nonconformity and peer rejection, adulthood perceived discrimination), hypothesized proximal minority stress mediators (i.e., rejection sensitivity, internalized homonegativity), hypothesized universal mediators (i.e., emotion dysregulation, depression and anxiety), and sexual compulsivity. Results The hypothesized model fit the data well (RMSEA = 0.05, CFI = 0.98, TLI = 0.95, SRMR = 0.03). Distal minority stress processes (e.g., peer rejection) were generally found to confer risk for both proximal minority stressors (e.g., internalized homonegativity) and emotion dysregulation. Proximal minority stressors and emotion dysregulation, in turn, generally predicted sexual compulsivity both directly and indirectly through anxiety and depression. Conclusions The final model suggests that gay-specific (e.g., internalized homonegativity) and universal (e.g., emotion dysregulation) processes represent potential treatment targets to attenuate the impact of minority stress on gay and bisexual men's sexual health. Tests of interventions that address these targets to treat sexual compulsivity among gay and bisexual men represent a promising future research endeavor. PMID:25528179

  2. Minor introns are embedded molecular switches regulated by highly unstable U6atac snRNA

    PubMed Central

    Younis, Ihab; Dittmar, Kimberly; Wang, Wei; Foley, Shawn W; Berg, Michael G; Hu, Karen Y; Wei, Zhi; Wan, Lili; Dreyfuss, Gideon

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotes have two types of spliceosomes, comprised of either major (U1, U2, U4, U5, U6) or minor (U11, U12, U4atac, U6atac; <1%) snRNPs. The high conservation of minor introns, typically one amidst many major introns in several hundred genes, despite their poor splicing, has been a long-standing enigma. Here, we discovered that the low abundance minor spliceosome’s catalytic snRNP, U6atac, is strikingly unstable (t½<2 hr). We show that U6atac level depends on both RNA polymerases II and III and can be rapidly increased by cell stress-activated kinase p38MAPK, which stabilizes it, enhancing mRNA expression of hundreds of minor intron-containing genes that are otherwise suppressed by limiting U6atac. Furthermore, p38MAPK-dependent U6atac modulation can control minor intron-containing tumor suppressor PTEN expression and cytokine production. We propose that minor introns are embedded molecular switches regulated by U6atac abundance, providing a novel post-transcriptional gene expression mechanism and a rationale for the minor spliceosome’s evolutionary conservation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00780.001 PMID:23908766

  3. Emotion Regulation and Internalizing Symptoms in a Longitudinal Study of Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Background: Sexual minority adolescents appear to be at increased risk for internalizing disorders relative to their heterosexual peers, but there is a paucity of research explaining this elevated risk. Emotion regulation deficits are increasingly understood as important predictors of internalizing psychopathology among general samples of…

  4. Cigarette sales to minors via the internet: how the story has changed in the wake of federal regulation.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rebecca S; Derrick, Jason; Phillips, K Jean

    2017-07-01

    To assess how easily minors can purchase cigarettes online and online cigarette vendors' compliance with federal age/ID verification and shipping regulations, North Carolina's 2013 tobacco age verification law, and federal prohibitions on the sale of non-menthol flavoured cigarettes or those labelled or advertised as 'light'. In early 2014, 10 minors aged 14-17 attempted to purchase cigarettes by credit card and electronic check from 68 popular internet vendors. Minors received cigarettes from 32.4% of purchase attempts, all delivered by the US Postal Service (USPS) from overseas sellers. None failed due to age/ID verification. All failures were due to payment processing problems. USPS left 63.6% of delivered orders at the door with the remainder handed to minors with no age verification. 70.6% of vendors advertised light cigarettes and 60.3% flavoured, with 23.5% and 11.8%, respectively, delivered to the teens. Study credit cards were exposed to an estimated $7000 of fraudulent charges. Despite years of regulations restricting internet cigarette sales, poor vendor compliance and lack of shipper and federal enforcement leaves minors still able to obtain cigarettes (including 'light' and flavoured) online. The internet cigarette marketplace has shifted overseas, exposing buyers to widespread credit card fraud. Federal agencies should rigorously enforce existing internet cigarette sales laws to prevent illegal shipments from reaching US consumers, shut down non-compliant and fraudulent websites, and stop the theft and fraudulent use of credit card information provided online. Future studies should assess whether these agencies begin adequately enforcing the existing laws. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Abnormal glucose regulation increases stroke risk in minor ischemic stroke or TIA.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuesong; Jing, Jing; Li, Hao; Wang, Yongjun; Wang, Yilong; He, Yan

    2016-10-11

    To investigate whether abnormal glucose regulation contributes to a new stroke in patients with a minor ischemic stroke or TIA. We derived data from the Clopidogrel in High-risk patients with Acute Nondisabling Cerebrovascular Events trial. Patients with a minor stroke or TIA were categorized into 3 groups: patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), and normal fasting plasma glucose. The primary outcome was a new stroke (ischemic or hemorrhagic) at 90 days. We assessed the association between glucose regulation status and risk of stroke by multivariable Cox regression models adjusted for potential covariates. Among 5,135 included patients, 1,587 (30.9%), 409 (8.0%), and 3,139 (61.1%) patients were identified as DM, IFG, and normal glucose, respectively. Compared with normal glucose, IFG (11.0% vs 6.9%; adjusted hazard ratio [adj HR] 1.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-2.19) and DM (15.8% vs 6.9%; adj HR 2.38, 95% CI 1.97-2.88) were associated with increased risk of stroke at 3 months after a minor stroke or TIA after adjusted for potential covariates. We found a weak J-shaped association between fasting plasma glucose and risk of stroke with a nadir of 4.9 mmol/L. Both IFG and DM were associated with an increased risk of stroke in patients with a minor stroke or TIA. NCT00979589. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  6. Decree No. 2.405, Regulations for the Law on the Protection of Minors, 11 January 1984.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    In 1984, Venezuela issued regulations for the Law on the Protection of Minors which emphasize two major points: 1) the paternity of a minor may be recognized voluntarily or compulsorily and 2) public and private organizations are to prevent any abuse, exploitation, manipulation, or negligent care of a minor. With respect to the first point, either parent can initiate a recognition proceeding voluntarily and any interested person can initiate a compulsory recognition proceeding when the mother or father refuses to recognize the concerned minor. With respect to the second point, the Regulations define abuse, exploitation of a minor, manipulation of a minor, and negligent care. The Regulations also create a legal mechanism known as a support solvency document to ensure the fulfillment of support obligations toward minors. The document states whether a parent has paid support owed to a minor and must be presented when the parent wishes to make a property transaction, leave the country, or obtain social benefits from the State. The Regulations call for the National Institute of Minors to design and present to the Ministry of Youth general and specific objectives to contribute to the development of minors and the family and to form model rules for orienting national action. Priority is to be given to families with the least resources. The Regulations also create a Youth Assistance Service to monitor and protect minors who have been abandoned or are in danger (because they consume drugs, live or socialize with persons of dubious reputation, are employed in occupations not suitable to their moral or physical health, or are engaged in begging). To protect such minors, the Service is authorized to inspect places of entertainment and gambling; to examine any visual or printed material directed at minors; to support the Ministry of Labor in monitoring the working conditions of minors; to intervene to provide food and shelter for minors; to help locate missing minors; and to

  7. Unique Contributions of Fathering to Emerging Self Regulation in Low-Income Ethnic Minority Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Margaret Tresch; Caughy, Margaret O’Brien; Hurst, Jamie R.; Amos, Melissa; Hasanizadeh, Nazly; Mata-Otero, Ana-Maria

    2012-01-01

    Self regulation ability is an important component of school readiness and predictor of academic success, but few studies of self regulation examine contributions of fathering to the emergence of self regulation in low-income ethnic minority preschoolers. Associations were examined between parental child-oriented parenting support and preschoolers’ emerging self regulation abilities in 224 low-income African American (n=86) and Latino (n=138) children observed at age 30 months in father-child and mother-child interactions to determine unique predictions from fathering qualities. Child-oriented mothering but not fathering predicted greater simple response inhibition for both African American and Latino children. Fathering but not mothering quality uniquely predicted greater complex response inhibition, but only for the African American children. The culture-specific fathering effects could not be explained by differences in father involvement. PMID:23940412

  8. Synthetic Minor NSR Permit: Chipeta Processing, LLC - Chipeta Gas Plant Train IV Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains the response to public comments and the final synthetic minor NSR permit for the Chipeta Processing, LLC, Chipeta Gas Plant Train IV Project, located on the Uintah and Ouray Indian Reservation in Uintah County, UT.

  9. Rapid thermal processing of Czochralski silicon substrates: Defects, denuded zones, and minority carrier lifetime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozgonyi, G. S.; Yang, D. K.; Cao, Y. H.; Radzimski, Z.

    1986-01-01

    Rapid thermal processing (RTP) of Czochralski (Cz) silicon substrates is discussed with its attendant effects on defects, denuded zones, and minority carrier lifetime. Preferential chemical etching and X-ray topography was used to delineate defects which were subsequently correlated with minority carrier lifetime; determined by a pulse metallo-organic decompositon (MOD) test device. The X-ray delineation of grown-in defects was enhanced by a lithium decoration procedure. Results, thus far, show excellent correlation between process-induced defects.

  10. Learning from Sexual Minorities: Adolescents and the Coming out Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal, Anibal Torres; Coolhart, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    This article examines how a widespread homophobic ideology makes the coming out process for adolescents an event that is traumatic, potentially threatening the physical integrity of the coming out adolescent. It outlines the relational and individual processes specific to those youths who are able to successfully adapt and develop in the face of…

  11. Online Gambling Advertising Regulations in Spain. A Study on the Protection of Minors.

    PubMed

    Buil, Pilar; Solé Moratilla, Maria José; García Ruiz, Pablo

    2015-09-15

    This article examines the online gambling advertising regulations in Spain currently in effect to assess the actual protection of underage youth. In recent years, online gambling among youth has increased. Through advertising, online gambling companies incite and encourage an involvement that can be harmful for vulnerable audiences. Some studies have demonstrated that advertising influences youths' assessment of gambling by increasing its appeal. We demonstrate that the shortcomings of the legal framework in force results in effective vulnerability of minors. We claim that society should seek to implement a regulatory framework to protect children from the risk of developing an addiction.

  12. Estimating the transmission potential of supercritical processes based on the final size distribution of minor outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Nishiura, Hiroshi; Yan, Ping; Sleeman, Candace K; Mode, Charles J

    2012-02-07

    Use of the final size distribution of minor outbreaks for the estimation of the reproduction numbers of supercritical epidemic processes has yet to be considered. We used a branching process model to derive the final size distribution of minor outbreaks, assuming a reproduction number above unity, and applying the method to final size data for pneumonic plague. Pneumonic plague is a rare disease with only one documented major epidemic in a spatially limited setting. Because the final size distribution of a minor outbreak needs to be normalized by the probability of extinction, we assume that the dispersion parameter (k) of the negative-binomial offspring distribution is known, and examine the sensitivity of the reproduction number to variation in dispersion. Assuming a geometric offspring distribution with k=1, the reproduction number was estimated at 1.16 (95% confidence interval: 0.97-1.38). When less dispersed with k=2, the maximum likelihood estimate of the reproduction number was 1.14. These estimates agreed with those published from transmission network analysis, indicating that the human-to-human transmission potential of the pneumonic plague is not very high. Given only minor outbreaks, transmission potential is not sufficiently assessed by directly counting the number of offspring. Since the absence of a major epidemic does not guarantee a subcritical process, the proposed method allows us to conservatively regard epidemic data from minor outbreaks as supercritical, and yield estimates of threshold values above unity.

  13. Minority stress, psychological distress, and alcohol misuse among sexual minority young adults: A resiliency-based conditional process analysis.

    PubMed

    Livingston, Nicholas A; Christianson, Nathan; Cochran, Bryan N

    2016-12-01

    Sexual minority young adults experience elevated rates of distal stress (discrimination, victimization), and related psychological distress and alcohol misuse. However, few studies have examined the degree to which personality trait differences confer risk/resilience among sexual minority young adults. We hypothesized that psychological distress would mediate the relationship between distal stress and alcohol misuse, but that these relationships would be moderated by personality trait differences. Sexual minority young adults (N=412) were recruited nationally. Survey measures included demographic questions, minority stressors, Five Factor personality traits, and current psychological distress and alcohol misuse symptoms. We used a data-driven two-stage cluster analytic technique to empirically derive personality trait profiles, and conducted mediation and moderated mediation analyses using a regression-based approach. Our results supported a two-group personality profile solution. Relative to at-risk individuals, those classified as adaptive scored lower on neuroticism, and higher on agreeableness, extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness to experience. As predicted, psychological distress mediated the relationship between distal stress and alcohol misuse. However, personality moderated these relationships to the degree that they did not exist among individuals classified as adaptive. In the current study, we found that personality moderated the established relationships between distal stress, psychological distress, and alcohol misuse among sexual minority young adults. Future research is needed to further explicate these relationships, and in order to develop tailored interventions for sexual minority young adults at risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Regulation & Development of Membrane Transport Processes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-15

    conducted studies on the regulation of a variety of trans- port processes as a function of cell cycle, growth phase, malignant transfor- mation, hormone ...fertilization of ideas. The contributions dealt with regulatory processes evoked by two kinds of stim- uli: (1) external stimuli, such as hormones or...Mineralocorticoid Regulation of Sodium and Potassium Transport by the Cortical Collecting Duct 89 Bruce M. Koeppen and Gerhard H. Giebisch 6. Hormonal Regulation of

  15. Loving-kindness in the treatment of traumatized refugees and minority groups: a typology of mindfulness and the nodal network model of affect and affect regulation.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Devon E; Ojserkis, Rebecca A; Jalal, Baland; Peou, Sonith; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2013-08-01

    This article discusses how loving-kindness can be used to treat traumatized refugees and minority groups, focusing on examples from our treatment, culturally adapted cognitive-behavioral therapy (CA-CBT). To show how we integrate loving-kindness with other mindfulness interventions and why loving-kindness should be an effective therapeutic technique, we present a typology of mindfulness states and the Nodal Network Model (NNM) of Affect and Affect Regulation. We argue that mindfulness techniques such as loving-kindness are therapeutic for refugees and minority populations because of their potential for increasing emotional flexibility, decreasing rumination, serving as emotional regulation techniques, and forming part of a new adaptive processing mode centered on psychological flexibility. We present a case to illustrate the clinical use of loving-kindness within the context of CA-CBT.

  16. Self-Regulated Learning and Ethnic/Racial Variables: Predicting Minority First-Generation College Students' Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John S., III.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how self-regulated learning and ethnic/racial variables predict minority first-generation college student persistence and related constructs. Participants were drawn nationally from the U.S. Department of Education funded TRiO Student Support Services Programs. Additional participants from the Talent…

  17. Self-Regulated Learning and Ethnic/Racial Variables: Predicting Minority First-Generation College Students' Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John S., III.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how self-regulated learning and ethnic/racial variables predict minority first-generation college student persistence and related constructs. Participants were drawn nationally from the U.S. Department of Education funded TRiO Student Support Services Programs. Additional participants from the Talent…

  18. Young low-income ethnic minority children watch less television when their mothers regulate what they are viewing

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Darcy A.; Vandewater, Elizabeth A.; Matson, Pamela A.; Tschann, Jeanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Parenting practices can reduce how much television (TV) children watch. This study evaluated the longitudinal association between maternal regulation of TV content and the amount of TV watched by low-income ethnic minority children. Methods This was a secondary data analysis of the Welfare, Children & Families: A Three City Study. Data were used from ethnic minority mothers with a child from birth to four-years-old, collected over two waves approximately 16 months apart. The dependent variable was the amount of TV watched by the child (wave two). The main independent variable was the maternal regulation of TV content (wave one). Using multiple linear regression, we evaluated the relationship between maternal regulation of TV content and the amount of TV watched by the child, adjusting for covariates. Results Of the 835 mothers, 71% were high content regulators and 8% reported no content regulation. Children whose mothers reported no regulation watched more TV approximately 16 months later than those whose mothers reported high regulation of content (β =0.91, 95% CI: 0.09–1.73). Conclusion Our findings suggest that regulating content influences viewing amounts in young children approximately 16 months later. Interventions focused on heightening parental regulation of content may improve content and diminish viewing amounts. PMID:25424888

  19. Young low-income ethnic minority children watch less television when their mothers regulate what they are viewing.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Darcy A; Vandewater, Elizabeth A; Matson, Pamela A; Tschann, Jeanne M

    2015-03-01

    Parenting practices can reduce how much television (TV) children watch. This study evaluated the longitudinal association between maternal regulation of TV content and the amount of TV watched by low-income ethnic minority children. This was a secondary data analysis of the Welfare, Children & Families: A Three City Study. Data were used from ethnic minority mothers with a child from birth to 4 years old, collected over two waves approximately 16 months apart. The dependent variable was the amount of TV watched by the child (wave two). The main independent variable was the maternal regulation of TV content (wave one). Using multiple linear regression, we evaluated the relationship between maternal regulation of TV content and the amount of TV watched by the child, adjusting for covariates. Of the 835 mothers, 71% were high content regulators and 8% reported no content regulation. Children whose mothers reported no regulation watched more TV approximately 16 months later than those whose mothers reported high regulation of content (β = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.09-1.73). Our findings suggest that regulating content influences viewing amounts in young children approximately 16 months later. Interventions focused on heightening parental regulation of content may improve content and diminish viewing amounts. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Eliminating Health Disparities Among Minority Women: A Report on Conference Workshop Process and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kritek, Phyllis Beck; Hargraves, Martha; Cuellar, Ernestine H.; Dallo, Florence; Gauthier, Donna M.; Holland, Christi A.; Ilkiw, Connie; Swanson, Jane W.; Swanson, Reid

    2002-01-01

    A national conference convened in May 2001 explored health disparities among minority women. It included 5 one-hour workshops that randomly assigned each participant to 1 of 4 groups. Groups generated recommendations on conference topics and from these identified priority recommendations. Trained facilitators guided groups through brainstorming and weighted voting processes; individual recommendations were submitted in writing. Participants generated 598 recommendations, 71 of them voted as priorities; these were analyzed to capture participants' “messages.” Central themes focused on access issues and cultural incompetence as deterrents to the elimination of health disparities and on education, funding, and community-based, community-driven research as mechanisms for change. Strategies for change included reinventing or expanding the role of minority communities and changing health care itself and “how” it does its work. The essential element in all recommendations was community leadership and control. PMID:11919057

  1. Experimental Studies of the Distribution of Minor Constituents and Dynamic Processes in the Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Jindra

    1999-01-01

    Minor constituents play an important role in atmospheric chemistry and serve as tracers in transport and mixing studies in tropospheric-stratospheric exchange processes. Measurements of trace gases are essential to an understanding of the mechanisms by which minor constituents originating in the troposphere, both naturally occurring and anthropogenic, reach the stratosphere. Many of these gases are sources of species directly involved in the chemistry of ozone depletion in the stratosphere and ozone generation in the troposphere. Some contribute to the warming of the atmosphere. Data on tracer distributions are important in the development of models for predicting photochemical effects in the stratosphere and troposphere. Data on atmospheric dynamics are important for the development of models for predicting the transport of photochemical species and for characterizing the nature of stratospheric motions.

  2. Defective minor spliceosome mRNA processing results in isolated familial growth hormone deficiency.

    PubMed

    Argente, Jesús; Flores, Raquel; Gutiérrez-Arumí, Armand; Verma, Bhupendra; Martos-Moreno, Gabriel Á; Cuscó, Ivon; Oghabian, Ali; Chowen, Julie A; Frilander, Mikko J; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A

    2014-03-01

    The molecular basis of a significant number of cases of isolated growth hormone deficiency remains unknown. We describe three sisters affected with severe isolated growth hormone deficiency and pituitary hypoplasia caused by biallelic mutations in the RNPC3 gene, which codes for a minor spliceosome protein required for U11/U12 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) formation and splicing of U12-type introns. We found anomalies in U11/U12 di-snRNP formation and in splicing of multiple U12-type introns in patient cells. Defective transcripts include preprohormone convertases SPCS2 and SPCS3 and actin-related ARPC5L genes, which are candidates for the somatotroph-restricted dysfunction. The reported novel mechanism for familial growth hormone deficiency demonstrates that general mRNA processing defects of the minor spliceosome can lead to very narrow tissue-specific consequences.

  3. Defective minor spliceosome mRNA processing results in isolated familial growth hormone deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Argente, Jesús; Flores, Raquel; Gutiérrez-Arumí, Armand; Verma, Bhupendra; Martos-Moreno, Gabriel Á; Cuscó, Ivon; Oghabian, Ali; Chowen, Julie A; Frilander, Mikko J; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A

    2014-01-01

    The molecular basis of a significant number of cases of isolated growth hormone deficiency remains unknown. We describe three sisters affected with severe isolated growth hormone deficiency and pituitary hypoplasia caused by biallelic mutations in the RNPC3 gene, which codes for a minor spliceosome protein required for U11/U12 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) formation and splicing of U12-type introns. We found anomalies in U11/U12 di-snRNP formation and in splicing of multiple U12-type introns in patient cells. Defective transcripts include preprohormone convertases SPCS2 and SPCS3 and actin-related ARPC5L genes, which are candidates for the somatotroph-restricted dysfunction. The reported novel mechanism for familial growth hormone deficiency demonstrates that general mRNA processing defects of the minor spliceosome can lead to very narrow tissue-specific consequences. Subject Categories Genetics, Gene Therapy ' Genetic Disease; Metabolism PMID:24480542

  4. 77 FR 50454 - Department of the Treasury Acquisition Regulations; Contract Clause on Minority and Women...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... contractor make good faith efforts to include minorities and women in its workforce. This standard is derived..., against a contractor who fails to make good faith efforts to include minorities and women in its workforce. Treasury interprets ``good faith efforts'' to mean efforts consistent with the Equal Protection Clause of...

  5. Robust regulation of anaerobic digestion processes.

    PubMed

    Mailleret, L; Bernard, O; Steyer, J P

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of controlling anaerobic digestion processes. A two-step (i.e. acidogenesis-methanization) mass balance model is considered for a 1 m3 fixed bed digester treating industrial wine distillery wastewater. The control law aims at regulating the organic pollution level while avoiding washout of biomass. To this end, a simple output feedback controller is considered which regulates a variable strongly related to the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). Numerical simulations assuming noisy measurements first illustrate the robustness of this control procedure. Then, the regulating procedure is implemented on the considered anaerobic digestion process in order to validate and demonstrate its efficiency in real life experiments.

  6. General Self-Esteem of Adolescents from Ethnic Minorities in the Netherlands and the Reflected Appraisal Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verkuyten, Maykel

    1988-01-01

    Examined lack of differences in general self-esteem between adolescents of ethnic minorities and Dutch adolescents, focusing on reflected appraisal process. Found significant relationship between general self-esteem and perceived evaluation of family members (and no such relationship with nonfamily members) for ethnic minority adolescents;…

  7. Regulation of the xanthophyll cycle pool size in duckweed (Lemna minor) plants.

    PubMed

    García-Plazaola, José Ignacio; Hernández, Antonio; Artetxe, Unai; Becerril, José María

    2002-09-01

    Duckweed (Lemna minor L.) plants grown under high light are characterized, when compared to low light acclimated plants, by a higher xanthophyll cycle (VAZ) pool content, but also by a higher proportion of photoconvertible violaxanthin and a superior ability to synthesize VAZ pigments. When duckweed plants were transferred to a high light environment a general response was the quick adjustment of the carotenoid composition, mainly xanthophyll cycle pigments. These changes resulted from a balance between a process of continuous light-independent carotenoid degradation and a light-induced accumulation. The use of norflurazon, an inhibitor of carotenogenesis, allowed us to demonstrate that the observed light induced increase of the VAZ pool was mainly caused by de novo synthesis through carotenogenesis. The extent of light-induced carotenogenesis was proportional to the light treatment and also to the operation of the VAZ cycle since it was partly abolished by treatments leading to a low activity of the VAZ cycle, such as low light, DTT or DCMU. These results suggest that not only the light itself, but also a mechanism triggered by a factor associated with the de-epoxidation state of the VAZ cycle controls carotenogenesis at some point before phytoene formation in the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway.

  8. Feedback regulation of microscopes by image processing.

    PubMed

    Tsukada, Yuki; Hashimoto, Koichi

    2013-05-01

    Computational microscope systems are becoming a major part of imaging biological phenomena, and the development of such systems requires the design of automated regulation of microscopes. An important aspect of automated regulation is feedback regulation, which is the focus of this review. As modern microscope systems become more complex, often with many independent components that must work together, computer control is inevitable since the exact orchestration of parameters and timings for these multiple components is critical to acquire proper images. A number of techniques have been developed for biological imaging to accomplish this. Here, we summarize the basics of computational microscopy for the purpose of building automatically regulated microscopes focus on feedback regulation by image processing. These techniques allow high throughput data acquisition while monitoring both short- and long-term dynamic phenomena, which cannot be achieved without an automated system.

  9. Proteolytic Processing Regulates Placental Growth Factor Activities*

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Daniel C.; Willenborg, Sebastian; Koch, Manuel; Zwolanek, Daniela; Müller, Stefan; Becker, Ann-Kathrin A.; Metzger, Stephanie; Ehrbar, Martin; Kurschat, Peter; Hellmich, Martin; Hubbell, Jeffrey A.; Eming, Sabine A.

    2013-01-01

    Placental growth factor (PlGF) is a critical mediator of blood vessel formation, yet mechanisms of its action and regulation are incompletely understood. Here we demonstrate that proteolytic processing regulates the biological activity of PlGF. Specifically, we show that plasmin processing of PlGF-2 yields a protease-resistant core fragment comprising the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 binding site but lacking the carboxyl-terminal domain encoding the heparin-binding domain and an 8-amino acid peptide encoded by exon 7. We have identified plasmin cleavage sites, generated a truncated PlGF118 isoform mimicking plasmin-processed PlGF, and explored its biological function in comparison with that of PlGF-1 and -2. The angiogenic responses induced by the diverse PlGF forms were distinct. Whereas PlGF-2 increased endothelial cell chemotaxis, vascular sprouting, and granulation tissue formation upon skin injury, these activities were abrogated following plasmin digestion. Investigation of PlGF/Neuropilin-1 binding and function suggests a critical role for heparin-binding domain/Neuropilin-1 interaction and its regulation by plasmin processing. Collectively, here we provide new mechanistic insights into the regulation of PlGF-2/Neuropilin-1-mediated tissue vascularization and growth. PMID:23645683

  10. Partitioning of minor actinides from PUREX raffinate by the TODGA process

    SciTech Connect

    Magnusson, D.; Christiansen, B.; Glatz, J.P.; Malmbeck, R.; Serrano Purroy, D.; Modolo, G.; Sorel, C.

    2007-07-01

    A genuine High Active Raffinate (HAR) was produced from small scale PUREX reprocessing of a UO{sub 2} spent fuel solution as feed for a subsequent TODGA/TBP process. In this process, efficient recovery of the trivalent Minor Actinides (MA) actinides could be demonstrated using a hot cell set-up of 32 centrifugal contactor stages. The feed decontamination factors obtained for Am and Cm were in the range of 4 x 10{sup 4} which corresponds to a recovery of more than 99.99 % in the product fraction. Trivalent lanthanides and Y were co-extracted, otherwise only a small part of the Ru ended up in the product. The collected actinide/lanthanide fraction can be used as feed for a SANEX (separation actinides from lanthanides) with some modification of the acidity depending on the extracting molecule. (authors)

  11. Aging and Self-Regulated Language Processing

    PubMed Central

    Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A. L.; Soederberg Miller, Lisa M.; Hertzog, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces an adult developmental model of self-regulated language processing (SRLP), in which the allocation policy with which a reader engages text is driven by declines in processing capacity, growth in knowledge-based processes, and age-related shifts in reading goals. Evidence is presented to show that the individual reader’s allocation policy is consistent across time and across different types of text, can serve a compensatory function in relation to abilities, and is predictive of subsequent memory performance. As such, it is an important facet of language understanding and learning from text through the adult life span. PMID:16822168

  12. Structural and Dynamic Characterization of Polymerase κ’s Minor Groove Lesion Processing Reveals How Adduct Topology Impacts Fidelity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    DNA lesion bypass polymerases process different lesions with varying fidelities, but the structural, dynamic, and mechanistic origins of this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Human DNA polymerase κ (Polκ), a member of the Y family of lesion bypass polymerases, is specialized to bypass bulky DNA minor groove lesions in a predominantly error-free manner, by housing them in its unique gap. We have investigated the role of the unique Polκ gap and N-clasp structural features in the fidelity of minor groove lesion processing with extensive molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulations to pinpoint their functioning in lesion bypass. Here we consider the N2-dG covalent adduct derived from the carcinogenic aromatic amine, 2-acetylaminofluorene (dG-N2-AAF), that is produced via the combustion of kerosene and diesel fuel. Our simulations reveal how the spacious gap directionally accommodates the lesion aromatic ring system as it transits through the stages of incorporation of the predominant correct partner dCTP opposite the damaged guanine, with preservation of local active site organization for nucleotidyl transfer. Furthermore, flexibility in Polκ’s N-clasp facilitates the significant misincorporation of dTTP opposite dG-N2-AAF via wobble pairing. Notably, we show that N-clasp flexibility depends on lesion topology, being markedly reduced in the case of the benzo[a]pyrene-derived major adduct to N2-dG, whose bypass by Polκ is nearly error-free. Thus, our studies reveal how Polκ’s unique structural and dynamic properties can regulate its bypass fidelity of polycyclic aromatic lesions and how the fidelity is impacted by lesion structures. PMID:25148552

  13. Regulation of STAT signalling by proteolytic processing.

    PubMed

    Hendry, Lisa; John, Susan

    2004-12-01

    Interaction of cytokines with their cognate receptors leads to the activation of latent transcription factors, the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins. Numerous studies have identified the critical roles played by STAT proteins in regulating cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. Consequently, the activity of STAT proteins is negatively regulated by a variety of different mechanisms, which include alternative splicing, covalent modifications, protein-protein interactions with negative regulatory proteins and proteolytic processing by proteases. Cleavage of STAT proteins by proteases results in the generation of C-terminally truncated proteins, called STATgamma, which lack the transactivation domain and behave as functional dominant-negative proteins. Currently, STATgamma isoforms have been identified for Stat3, Stat5a, Stat5b and Stat6 in different cellular contexts and biological processes. Evidence is mounting for the role of as yet unidentified serine proteases in the proteolytic processing of STAT proteins, although at least one cysteine protease, calpain is also known to cleave these STATs in platelets and mast cells. Recently, studies of acute myeloid leukaemia and cutaneous T cell lymphoma patients have revealed important roles for the aberrant expression of Stat3gamma and Stat5gamma proteins in the pathology of these diseases. Together, these findings indicate that proteolytic processing is an important mechanism in the regulation of STAT protein biological activity and provides a fertile area for future studies.

  14. Traumatogenic Processes and Pathways to Mental Health Outcomes for Sexual Minorities Exposed to Bias Crime Information.

    PubMed

    Lannert, Brittany K

    2015-07-01

    Vicarious traumatization of nonvictim members of communities targeted by bias crimes has been suggested by previous qualitative studies and often dominates public discussion following bias events, but proximal and distal responses of community members have yet to be comprehensively modeled, and quantitative research on vicarious responses is scarce. This comprehensive review integrates theoretical and empirical literatures in social, clinical, and physiological psychology in the development of a model of affective, cognitive, and physiological responses of lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals upon exposure to information about bias crimes. Extant qualitative research in vicarious response to bias crimes is reviewed in light of theoretical implications and methodological limitations. Potential pathways to mental health outcomes are outlined, including accumulative effects of anticipatory defensive responding, multiplicative effects of minority stress, and putative traumatogenic physiological and cognitive processes of threat. Methodological considerations, future research directions, and clinical implications are also discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Affective Self-Regulation Trajectories During Secondary School Predict Substance Use Among Urban Minority Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Kenneth W.; Lowe, Sarah R.; Acevedo, Bianca P.; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between trajectories of affective self-regulation skills during secondary school and young adult substance use in a large multi-ethnic, urban sample (N = 995). During secondary school, participants completed a measure of cognitive and behavioral skills used to control negative, unpleasant emotions or perceived stress. As young adults, participants reported on the frequency and quantity of their alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use in a telephone interview. Controlling for demographic variables, self-regulation did not significantly change over adolescence, although there was significant variation in participants’ rates of growth and decline. Lower seventh grade self-regulation and less steep increases in self-regulation were predictive of higher young adult substance use. Male participants had significantly lower initial self-regulation and higher young adult substance use. The results suggest that interventions that build affective self-regulation skills in adolescence may decrease the risk of young adult substance use. PMID:26549966

  16. Emergent self regulation skills among very young ethnic minority children: A confirmatory factor model

    PubMed Central

    Caughy, Margaret O’Brien; Mills, Britain; Owen, Margaret Tresch; Hurst, Jamie R.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging self regulation skills were assessed in 407 low income, African American and Latino (primarily Mexican origin) preschoolers. A battery of self regulation tasks was administered when children were 2½ years old and again approximately one year later. Confirmatory factor analyses supported four components of self regulation: inhibitory control, complex response inhibition, set shifting and working memory. Complex response inhibition was too rare a skill in this sample to be detected reliably from measures collected at age 2½ but emerged from measures collected at age 3½. In addition, significant ethnic differences were found in that African American children scored better on measures of complex response inhibition and set shifting while Latino children scored better on measures of inhibitory control and working memory. Implications of study findings for measuring self regulation in low income, ethnic diverse populations of young children as well as for the development of interventions to enhance self regulation development are discussed. PMID:24076382

  17. Promoting Effective Literacy Learning in Minority Students by Connecting Teacher Workshops to the Comer Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanacore, Joseph

    This paper suggests some things caring educators can do to promote quality instruction that prevents, or at least lessens, the incidence of school failure in minority children. The paper first describes the James Comer School Development Program, which connects minority children to caring adults. The program focuses on community, parents, church,…

  18. Can the combination of localized "proliferative therapy" with "minor ozonated autohemotherapy" restore the natural healing process?

    PubMed

    Gracer, R I; Bocci, V

    2005-01-01

    Regenerative injection therapy (RIT), also known as proliferative therapy, has been used for over 30 years in the USA in patients with spinal and peripheral joint and ligamentous pathologies. It involves the injection of mildly irritating medications onto ligaments and tendons, most commonly at origins and insertions. These injections cause a mild inflammatory response which "turns on" the normal healing process and results in the regeneration of these structures. At the same time they strengthen and become less sensitive to pain through a combination of neurolysis of small nerve fibers (C-fibers) and increased stability of the underlying structures. Oxygen/ozone therapy is a well established complementary therapy practiced in many European countries. The ozone dissolves in body fluids and immediately reacts with biomolecules generating messengers responsible for biological and therapeutic activities. This results in an anti inflammatory response, which also results in a similar trophic reaction to that of RIT. It is logical to expect that combining these two modalities would result in enhanced healing and therefore improved clinical outcomes. Oxygen/ozone therapy, accomplished by autohemotherapy (AHT), is performed by either administering ozonated blood intravenously (Major AHT) or via intramuscular route (Minor AHT). These procedures result in stimulation of the immune and healing systems. Our concept is that the local injection of this activated blood injected directly to the ligamentous areas that are also being treated with RIT will act as a direct stimulation to the healing process. In addition, combining this with intravenous major AHT should stimulate the immune system to augment and support this process. RIT and oxygen/ozone therapy have been extensively studied separately. We propose a study of lumbosacral ligamentous pain to explore this therapeutic combination. We hope that this paper will stimulate general interest in this area of medicine and result

  19. Recursive processes in self-affirmation: intervening to close the minority achievement gap.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Geoffrey L; Garcia, Julio; Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie; Apfel, Nancy; Brzustoski, Patricia

    2009-04-17

    A 2-year follow-up of a randomized field experiment previously reported in Science is presented. A subtle intervention to lessen minority students' psychological threat related to being negatively stereotyped in school was tested in an experiment conducted three times with three independent cohorts (N = 133, 149, and 134). The intervention, a series of brief but structured writing assignments focusing students on a self-affirming value, reduced the racial achievement gap. Over 2 years, the grade point average (GPA) of African Americans was, on average, raised by 0.24 grade points. Low-achieving African Americans were particularly benefited. Their GPA improved, on average, 0.41 points, and their rate of remediation or grade repetition was less (5% versus 18%). Additionally, treated students' self-perceptions showed long-term benefits. Findings suggest that because initial psychological states and performance determine later outcomes by providing a baseline and initial trajectory for a recursive process, apparently small but early alterations in trajectory can have long-term effects. Implications for psychological theory and educational practice are discussed.

  20. Influence of Fabrication Processes and Annealing Treatment on the Minority Carrier Lifetime of Silicon Nanowire Films.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shinya; Yamazaki, Tatsuya; Kurokawa, Yasuyoshi; Miyajima, Shinsuke; Konagai, Makoto

    2017-12-01

    Surface passivation and bulk carrier lifetime of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are essential for their application in solar cell devices. The effective minority carrier lifetime of a semiconductor material is influenced by both its surface passivation and bulk carrier lifetime. We found that the effective carrier lifetime of SiNWs passivated with aluminum oxide (Al2O3) was significantly influenced by the fabrication process of SiNWs. We could not measure the effective lifetime of SiNWs fabricated by thermal annealing of amorphous silicon nanowires. Nevertheless, the SiNWs fabricated by metal-assisted chemical etching of polycrystalline silicon displayed an effective lifetime of 2.86 μs. Thermal annealing of SiNWs at 400 °C in a forming gas improved the effective carrier lifetime from 2.86 to 15.9 μs because of the improvement in surface passivation at the interface between the SiNWs and Al2O3 layers.

  1. Decision-making process for treatment of mandibular fractures among minority groups.

    PubMed

    Der-Martirosian, Claudia; Gironda, Melanie W; Black, Edward; Leathers, Richard; Atchison, Kathryn A

    2006-01-01

    While patients' preferences for medical care are widely studied, only a small number of studies have looked at the decision-making process for dental treatment of mandibular fracture. This study examines the decision-making process for treatment of mandibular fractures among minority groups. Study participants were asked to consider Maxillomandibular Fixation (MMF--a non-surgical approach of wiring the teeth for 4-8 weeks) or Rigid Internal Fixation (RIF--surgical placement of bone plate). A qualitative study of patients receiving care at an inner-city hospital for either 3rd molar extraction under general anesthesia or a mandibular fracture were recruited to participate in an hour-long focus group to discuss their preferences. The 3rd molar group was selected as a comparison group exemplifying experience with oral surgery and recovery from general anesthesia. Seven decision-making factors affecting choice of treatment were discussed by both jaw fracture and 3rd molar groups, including: side effects, effectiveness of each treatment, trusting doctor's recommendation, what to expect from each procedure, use of pictures from previous case studies, surgery location of scar/incision, and size of scar. Rigid Internal Fixation (RIF) participants discussed a different set of concerns compared to Maxillomandibular Fixation (MMF) participants. Regardless of gender, the treatment of choice for both 3rd molar and jaw fracture participants was the non-surgical method of wiring of the teeth for 4-8 weeks. The Phase II part of this study will systematically examine patient preferences among a larger sample of 3rd molar and jaw fracture patients by incorporating the patient-reported concerns about treatment of jaw fracture found in this inductive, phenomenological study.

  2. Affective Self-Regulation Trajectories during Secondary School Predict Substance Use among Urban Minority Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Kenneth W.; Lowe, Sarah R.; Acevedo, Bianca P.; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between trajectories of affective self-regulation skills during secondary school and young adult substance use in a large multiethnic, urban sample (N = 995). During secondary school, participants completed a measure of cognitive and behavioral skills used to control negative, unpleasant emotions or perceived…

  3. Affective Self-Regulation Trajectories during Secondary School Predict Substance Use among Urban Minority Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Kenneth W.; Lowe, Sarah R.; Acevedo, Bianca P.; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between trajectories of affective self-regulation skills during secondary school and young adult substance use in a large multiethnic, urban sample (N = 995). During secondary school, participants completed a measure of cognitive and behavioral skills used to control negative, unpleasant emotions or perceived…

  4. Operation Pathfinder: Oceanography, Coastal Processes for Elementary, Middle School Teachers--Program Reaches Minority Students, Puts 'AAAH' into Ocean Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Sharon H.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a 12-day teacher inservice course in oceanography and coastal processes that focuses on enhanced content knowledge, improved teaching strategies, role modeling, and leadership development. The primary objective is improving the teaching techniques of elementary and middle school teachers of predominantly minority students. Strategies…

  5. N-cadherin prodomain processing regulates synaptogenesis.

    PubMed

    Reinés, Analía; Bernier, Louis-Philippe; McAdam, Robyn; Belkaid, Wiam; Shan, Weisong; Koch, Alexander W; Séguéla, Philippe; Colman, David R; Dhaunchak, Ajit S

    2012-05-02

    Classical cadherins, which are adhesion molecules functioning at the CNS synapse, are synthesized as adhesively inactive precursor proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Signal sequence and prodomain cleavage in the ER and Golgi apparatus, respectively, activates their adhesive properties. Here, we provide the first evidence for sorting of nonadhesive precursor N-cadherin (ProN) to the neuronal surface, where it coexists with adhesively competent mature N-cadherin (N-cad), generating a spectrum of adhesive strengths. In cultured hippocampal neurons, a high ProN/N-cad ratio downregulates synapse formation. Neurons expressing genetically engineered uncleavable ProN make markedly fewer synapses. The synapse number can be rescued to normality by depleting surface ProN levels through prodomain cleavage by an exogenous protease. Finally, prodomain processing is developmentally regulated in the rat hippocampus. We conclude that it is the ProN/N-cad ratio and not mature N-cad alone that is critical for regulation of adhesion during synaptogenesis.

  6. Minor variant of rs 16827043 in the iron regulator hemojuvelin gene (HJV) contributes to hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Nikkari, Seppo T.; Visto, Anni-Laura; Määttä, Kirsi M.; Kunnas, Tarja A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract It is known that iron overload may lead to an increased risk for many diseases. According to GWAS studies, iron regulatory protein HFE gene variant H63D (rs1799945) was associated with hypertension, an observation which we were able to confirm also in our TAMRISK cohort. Thus, it is possible that abnormalities in iron homeostasis may predispose to hypertension. This prompted us to study whether there is an association between hypertension and another iron overload-associated gene, hemojuvelin (HJV), which has 2 common polymorphic sites (rs 16827043, rs7536827). The study included 336 hypertensive cases and 480 controls. All participants were 50- year-old Finnish men and women, and the data was collected from the Tampere adult population cardiovascular risk study (TAMRISK). Genotypes were determined using Competitive Allelic Specific PCR (KASP). We found that the minor variant of the HJV polymorphic site rs16827043 (G-allele) is a statistically significant factor associated with hypertension among 50 year-old individuals compared with the AA genotype carriers (OR = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.06 – 2.60, P = 0.03). The risk was even higher when overweight subjects (BMI>30) were excluded from the analyses. For the other polymorphic variant rs7536827, association with hypertension was found only among normal or slightly overweight A-allele carriers. In conclusion, HJV genetic variants were associated with essential hypertension in Finnish subjects from the TAMRISK cohort. Previous studies together with the present one indicate that individuals with possible dysregulation of iron metabolism may have higher risk for hypertension than those with normal iron homeostasis. PMID:28151915

  7. Retaining ethnic minority parents in a preventive intervention: the quality of group process.

    PubMed

    Coatsworth, J Douglas; Duncan, Larissa G; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, José

    2006-07-01

    This study examined relations between group process variables and retention of ethnic minority (African American and Hispanic) caregivers in a family-focused preventive intervention. Data from the Familias Unidas/SEPI project (Coatsworth, Pantin, & Szapocznik, 2002), a randomized, controlled intervention trial, were used to cluster participants according to their patterns of retention over 30 intervention sessions. These person-centered analyses identified three broad patterns: (a) dropouts; (b) variable-attenders; and (c) consistent-high-attenders. Two subgroups of the variable-attender group were also identified: (a) intermittent-attenders, and (b) continual-attenders. Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) with follow-up Analysis of Variance tested for differences among the three main retention groups on facilitator ratings of participants' general level of participation, leadership, positive alliance with the group, and negative alliance with the group during the first half of the intervention. Leadership and positive alliance significantly discriminated the broad retention patterns. Mean level of participation was not significantly different across retention groups. Results of DFA and ANOVA analyses using leadership, alliance, and participation variables from the first and second halves of the intervention indicated only leadership and positive alliance during the second half of the intervention discriminated continual-attenders from intermittent-attenders. EDITORS' STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS: The authors describe a promising approach to studying facilitators' assessments of client involvement in a family-focused preventive intervention. The quality of the participants' behavior during sessions, rather than their absolute levels of participation, predicted their pattern of retention in the program. Future comparisons of facilitator and parent views may prove helpful.

  8. Impact of major and minor mode on EEG frequency range activities of music processing as a function of expertise.

    PubMed

    Jenni, Raoul; Oechslin, Mathias S; James, Clara E

    2017-04-24

    Processing western tonal music may yield distinct brain responses depending on the mode of the musical compositions. Although subjective feelings in response to major and minor mode are well described, the underlying brain mechanisms and their development with increasing expertise have not been thoroughly examined. Using high-density electroencephalography, the present study investigated neuronal activities in the frequency domain in response to polyphone musical compositions in major and minor mode in non-musicians, amateurs and experts. During active listening decrease of theta- and gamma-frequency range activities occurred with increasing expertise in right posterior regions, possibly reflecting enhanced processing efficiency. Moreover, minor and major compositions distinctively modulated synchronization of neuronal activities in high frequency ranges (beta and gamma) in frontal regions, with increased activity in response to minor compositions in musicians and in experts in particular. These results suggest that high-frequency electroencephalographic (EEG) activities carry information about musical mode, showing gradual increase of processing efficiency and sensitivity with musical expertise.

  9. [Distinguishing normal identity formation process for sexual minorities from obsessive compulsive disorder with sexual orientation obsessions].

    PubMed

    Igartua, Karine J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In synthesizing a homosexual or bisexual identity, an individual may go through different stages before coming to a positive healthy identity. It is likely that there will be a period in which homosexual yearnings will be unwanted. Sometimes this distress leads the person to consult a health professional. Conversion therapy has been proven both ineffective and harmful and therefore has been ethically prohibited by all major psychiatric and psychological associations. The responsible clinician will attempt to assist the individual in his acceptance of his sexual minority. Occasionally individuals without homoeroticism consult because of distress related to sexual identity questioning which poses a different problem for clinicians especially if the situation goes unrecognized. The objective of this paper is to describe homosexual obsessive compulsive disorder (HOCD) and distinguish it clinically from the normal process of sexual minority identity formation in western culture.Methods A literature review yielded very few descriptions of homosexual OCD. A retrospective chart review of all patients seen in the last 3 years at the McGill University Sexual Identity Centre was conducted to identify all the cases of OCD. Six cases were found, 4 of which were of HOCD and are presented. Similarities between cases are highlighted.Results All cases were young men with relatively little relationship and sexual experience. Most were rather shy and had some other obsessional history in the past though often at a sub-clinical threshold. Obsessional doubt about their orientation was very distressing and did not abate over time as would normally occur with a homoerotic individual. The four patients who had an obsession of being gay despite little or no homoerotism are presented in detail. They all presented mental compulsions, avoidance and physiological monitoring. Continuous internal debate trying to prove or disprove sexual orientation was a ubiquitous mental

  10. Hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin processing and the regulation of energy balance

    PubMed Central

    Wardlaw, Sharon L.

    2011-01-01

    Hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons play a key role in regulating energy balance and neuroendocrine function. Much attention has been focused on regulation of POMC gene expression with less emphasis on regulated peptide processing. This is particularly important given the complexity of posttranslational POMC processing which is essential for the generation of biologically active MSH peptides. Mutations that impair POMC sorting and processing are associated with obesity in humans and in animals. Specifically, mutations in the POMC processing enzymes prohormone convertase 1/3 (PCI/3) and in carboxypeptidase E (CPE) and in the α-MSH degrading enzyme, PRCP, are associated with changes in energy balance. There is increasing evidence that POMC processing is regulated with respect to energy balance. Studies have implicated both the leptin and insulin signaling pathways in the regulation of POMC at various steps in the processing pathway. This article will review the role of hypothalamic POMC in regulating energy balance with a focus on POMC processing. PMID:21208604

  11. Population-regulating processes during the adult phase in flatfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijnsdorp, A. D.

    Flatfish support major fisheries and the study of regulatory processes are of paramount importance for evaluating the resilience of the resource to exploitation. This paper reviews the evidence for processes operating during the adult phase that may 1. generate interannual variability in recruitment; 2. contribute to population regulation through density-dependent growth, density-dependent ripening of adults and density-dependent egg production. With regard to (1), there is evidence that in the adult phase processes do occur that may generate recruitment variability through variation in size-specific fecundity, contraction of spawning season, reduction in egg quality, change in sex ratio and size composition of the adult population. However, time series of recruitment do not provide support for this hypothesis. With regard to (2), there is ample evidence that exploitation of flatfish coincides with an increase in growth, although the mechanisms involved are not always clear. The presence of density-dependent growth in the adult phase of unexploited populations appears to be the most likely explanation in some cases. From the early years of exploitation of flatfish stocks inhabiting cold waters, evidence exists that adult fish do not spawn each year. Fecundity schedules show annual variations, but the available information suggests that size-specific fecundity is stable over a broad range of population abundance and may only decrease at high population abundance. The analysis is complicated by the possibility of a trade-off between egg numbers and egg size. Nevertheless, a density-dependent decrease in growth will automatically result in a decrease in absolute fecundity because of the reduced body size. The potential contribution of these regulatory effects on population regulation is explored. Results indicate that density-dependent ripening and absolute fecundity, mediated through density-dependent growth, may control recruitment at high levels of population

  12. Assessing Self-Regulation in the Classroom: Validation of the BIS-11 and the BRIEF in Low-Income, Ethnic Minority School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles McCoy, Dana L.; Raver, C. Cybele; Lowenstein, Amy E.; Tirado-Strayer, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: At present, few resources are available to researchers, teachers, and practitioners who wish to quickly and reliably assess children's self-regulation within the classroom context, and particularly within settings serving low-income and ethnic minority children. This paper explores the psychometric properties of a teacher-report…

  13. Assessing Self-Regulation in the Classroom: Validation of the BIS-11 and the BRIEF in Low-Income, Ethnic Minority School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles McCoy, Dana L.; Raver, C. Cybele; Lowenstein, Amy E.; Tirado-Strayer, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: At present, few resources are available to researchers, teachers, and practitioners who wish to quickly and reliably assess children's self-regulation within the classroom context, and particularly within settings serving low-income and ethnic minority children. This paper explores the psychometric properties of a teacher-report…

  14. Fast head tilt has only a minor effect on quick compensatory reactions during the regulation of stance and gait.

    PubMed

    Dietz, V; Horstmann, G A; Berger, W

    1988-01-01

    Sudden tilts of the head to the front or rear were induced during stance, balancing, gait and during perturbations of gait. The most prominent response in the leg muscle electromyogram (e.m.g.) to head tilt occurred in the tibialis anterior muscle (latency about 55 ms) following a backward tilt induced during balancing. During stance and gait, the e.m.g. activity related to head tilt was only a minor component of the leg muscle activity normally occurring during gait. When the head tilt was induced shortly after a perturbation of gait (treadmill acceleration impulse), the compensatory reaction in the leg muscles did not significantly differ from that seen after the gait perturbation alone. In addition, the rate of acceleration of the head was tested against the compensatory e.m.g. responses: No correlation of influence could be discerned. The results indicate that sudden head tilts and the resulting head acceleration have little influence on the e.m.g. patterns that occur during gait and perturbations of gait. It is assumed that these patterns are regulated by central programs, and that the compensation for leg perturbation is achieved mainly by spinal reflex mechanisms. It is discussed whether the lack of head tilt responses is the result of an antagonistic vestibular-neck interaction, or whether it indicates a reduced effectiveness of vestibulo- and cervico-spinal reflexes during gait.

  15. Explicit and Implicit Emotion Regulation: A Dual-Process Framework

    PubMed Central

    Gyurak, Anett; Gross, James J.; Etkin, Amit

    2012-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that emotions can be regulated in an astonishing variety of ways. Most research to date has focused on explicit (effortful) forms of emotion regulation. However, there is growing research interest in implicit (automatic) forms of emotion regulation. To organize emerging findings, we present a dual-process framework that integrates explicit and implicit forms of emotion regulation, and argue that both forms of regulation are necessary for well-being. In the first section of this review, we provide a broad overview of the construct of emotion regulation, with an emphasis on explicit and implicit processes. In the second section, we focus on explicit emotion regulation, considering both neural mechanisms that are associated with these processes and their experiential and physiological consequences. In the third section, we turn to several forms of implicit emotion regulation, and integrate the burgeoning literature in this area. We conclude by outlining open questions and areas for future research. PMID:21432682

  16. Cultural influences on the process of conducting psychotherapy: personal reflections of an ethnic minority psychologist.

    PubMed

    Nezu, Arthur M

    2010-06-01

    I was asked to reflect how being a member of an ethnically diverse minority group, that is, Japanese American, may have influenced my clinical practice as a psychologist and psychotherapist. I first define the various facets of my "diversity status," followed by an offering of reflections on how being a member of this group impacted both myself as a therapist and my clients. I conclude with several general recommendations geared to enhance a positive therapeutic alliance and client outcome. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. 36 CFR 242.18 - Regulation adoption process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Regulation adoption process. 242.18 Section 242.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SUBSISTENCE MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS FOR PUBLIC LANDS IN ALASKA Program Structure § 242.18 Regulation adoption...

  18. 36 CFR 242.18 - Regulation adoption process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Regulation adoption process. 242.18 Section 242.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SUBSISTENCE MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS FOR PUBLIC LANDS IN ALASKA Program Structure § 242.18 Regulation adoption...

  19. 36 CFR 242.18 - Regulation adoption process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Regulation adoption process. 242.18 Section 242.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SUBSISTENCE MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS FOR PUBLIC LANDS IN ALASKA Program Structure § 242.18 Regulation adoption...

  20. 36 CFR 242.18 - Regulation adoption process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulation adoption process. 242.18 Section 242.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SUBSISTENCE MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS FOR PUBLIC LANDS IN ALASKA Program Structure § 242.18 Regulation adoption...

  1. 36 CFR 242.18 - Regulation adoption process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Regulation adoption process. 242.18 Section 242.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SUBSISTENCE MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS FOR PUBLIC LANDS IN ALASKA Program Structure § 242.18 Regulation adoption...

  2. The preattentive processing of major vs. minor chords in the human brain: An event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Virtala, Paula; Berg, Venla; Kivioja, Maari; Purhonen, Juha; Salmenkivi, Marko; Paavilainen, Petri; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2011-01-10

    Western music has two classifications that are highly familiar to all Western listeners: the dichotomy between the major and minor modalities and consonance vs. dissonance. We aimed at determining whether these classifications already take place at the level of the elicitation of the change-related mismatch negativity (MMN) component of the event-related potential (ERP). To this end, we constructed an oddball-paradigm with root minor, dissonant and inverted major chords in a context of root major chords. These stimuli were composed so that the standard and deviant chords did not include a physically deviant frequency which could cause the MMN. The standard chords were transposed into 12 different keys (=pitch levels) and delivered to the participants while they were watching a silent movie (ignore condition) or detecting softer target sounds (detection condition). In the ignore condition, the MMN was significant for all but inverted major chords. In the detection condition, the MMN was significant for dissonant chords and soft target chords. Our results indicate that the processes underlying MMN are able to make discriminations which are qualitative by nature. Whether the classifications between major and minor modalities and consonance vs. dissonance are innate or based on implicit learning remains a question for the future. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Regulation of ecosystem processes by arthropod communities

    SciTech Connect

    Seastedt, T.R.; Crossley, D.A. Jr.

    1983-09-01

    Arthropods or their activities regulate the amounts of forms of mass and nutrients in terrestrial ecosystems. Canopy arthropods have the largest impacts on mobile elements such as potassium, while soil detritivores control mineralization rates of less mobile elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus and calcium. Nominal (base-line) herbivory and detritivory combine to speed nutrient cycling and reduce standing crops of decaying plant materials. 42 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  4. 50 CFR 100.18 - Regulation adoption process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Regulation adoption process. 100.18 Section 100.18 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Structure § 100.18 Regulation adoption process. (a) Proposals for changes to the Federal subsistence...

  5. 50 CFR 100.18 - Regulation adoption process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Regulation adoption process. 100.18 Section 100.18 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Structure § 100.18 Regulation adoption process. (a) The Board will accept proposals for changes to the...

  6. Processes regulating nitric oxide emissions from soils.

    PubMed

    Pilegaard, Kim

    2013-07-05

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a reactive gas that plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry by influencing the production and destruction of ozone and thereby the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere. NO also contributes by its oxidation products to the formation of acid rain. The major sources of NO in the atmosphere are anthropogenic emissions (from combustion of fossil fuels) and biogenic emission from soils. NO is both produced and consumed in soils as a result of biotic and abiotic processes. The main processes involved are microbial nitrification and denitrification, and chemodenitrification. Thus, the net result is complex and dependent on several factors such as nitrogen availability, organic matter content, oxygen status, soil moisture, pH and temperature. This paper reviews recent knowledge on processes forming NO in soils and the factors controlling its emission to the atmosphere. Schemes for simulating these processes are described, and the results are discussed with the purpose of scaling up to global emission.

  7. Processes regulating nitric oxide emissions from soils

    PubMed Central

    Pilegaard, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a reactive gas that plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry by influencing the production and destruction of ozone and thereby the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere. NO also contributes by its oxidation products to the formation of acid rain. The major sources of NO in the atmosphere are anthropogenic emissions (from combustion of fossil fuels) and biogenic emission from soils. NO is both produced and consumed in soils as a result of biotic and abiotic processes. The main processes involved are microbial nitrification and denitrification, and chemodenitrification. Thus, the net result is complex and dependent on several factors such as nitrogen availability, organic matter content, oxygen status, soil moisture, pH and temperature. This paper reviews recent knowledge on processes forming NO in soils and the factors controlling its emission to the atmosphere. Schemes for simulating these processes are described, and the results are discussed with the purpose of scaling up to global emission. PMID:23713124

  8. The impact of the asylum process on mental health: a longitudinal study of unaccompanied refugee minors in Norway.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Marianne; Meyer DeMott, Melinda Ashley; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Heir, Trond

    2017-06-21

    To examine the mental health of unaccompanied refugee minors prospectively during the asylum-seeking process, with a focus on specific stages in the asylum process, such as age assessment, placement in a supportive or non-supportive facility and final decision on the asylum applications. This was a2½ year follow-up study of unaccompanied minors (UM) seeking asylum in Norway. Data were collected within three weeks (n=138) and at 4 months (n=101), 15 months (n=84) and 26 months (n=69) after arrival. Initially in an observation and orientation centre for unaccompanied asylum-seeking adolescents, and subsequently wherever the UM were located in other refugee facilities in Norway. Male UM from Afghanistan, Somalia, Algeria and Iran. Mental health symptoms assessed by Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 and Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. At the group level, the young asylum seekers reported high levels of psychological distress on arrival and symptom levels that stayed relatively unchanged over time. According to age-assessment procedures, 56% of the population were not recognised as minors. Subsequent placement in a low-support facility was associated with higher levels of psychological distress in the follow-up period. Those who were placed in a reception centre for adults had higher levels of psychological distress symptoms both after 15 months and 26 months compared with the remaining participants who were placed in reception centres for youth. Refusal of asylum was highly associated with higher levels of psychological distress. Mental health trajectory of young asylum seekers appears to be negatively affected by low support and refusal of asylum. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Minor actinide separation: simplification of the DIAMEX-SANEX strategy by means of novel SANEX processes

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, A.; Modolo, G.; Wilden, A.; Kaufholz, P.

    2013-07-01

    The separation of An(III) from PUREX raffinate has previously been demonstrated by applying a DIAMEX process (i.e., co-extraction of An(III) and Ln(III) from HAR) followed by a SANEX process (i.e., selective extraction of An(III) from the DIAMEX product containing An(III) + Ln(III)). In line with process intensification issues, more compact processes have been developed: Recently, a 1c-SANEX process test was successfully performed, directly extracting An(III) from PUREX HAR. More recently, a new i-SANEX process was successfully tested. This process is based on the co-extraction of An(III) + Ln(III) into a TODGA solvent, followed by a selective back-extraction of An(III) by a water soluble complexing agent, in this case SO{sub 3}-Ph-BTP. In both cases, good recoveries were achieved, and very pure product solutions were obtained. However, both 1c-SANEX and i-SANEX used non-CHON chemicals. Nevertheless, these processes are a simplification to the DIAMEX + SANEX process as only one solvent is used. Finally, the new i-SANEX process is the most compact process. (authors)

  10. Process for producing vegetative and tuber growth regulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutte, Gary W. (Inventor); Yorio, Neil C. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A process of making a vegetative and tuber growth regulator. The vegetative and tuber growth regulator is made by growing potato plants in a recirculating hydroponic system for a sufficient time to produce the growth regulator. Also, the use of the vegetative and growth regulator on solanaceous plants, tuber forming plants and ornamental seedlings by contacting the roots or shoots of the plant with a sufficient amount of the growth regulator to regulate the growth of the plant and one more of canopy size, plant height, stem length, internode number and presence of tubers in fresh mass. Finally, a method for regulating the growth of potato plants using a recirculating hydroponic system is described.

  11. Measuring Musical Self-Regulation: Linking Processes, Skills, and Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Laura; Williamon, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    This research explores self-regulated learning behaviors as used by 174 students in higher music education during learning and practice, with the aim of demonstrating the interaction between processes, skills, and beliefs. A three-factor structure was identified within a newly adapted, ten-item Musical Self-regulated Learning Questionnaire,…

  12. Hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin processing and the regulation of energy balance.

    PubMed

    Wardlaw, Sharon L

    2011-06-11

    Hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons play a key role in regulating energy balance and neuroendocrine function. Much attention has been focused on the regulation of POMC gene expression with less emphasis on regulated peptide processing. This is particularly important given the complexity of posttranslational POMC processing which is essential for the generation of biologically active MSH peptides. Mutations that impair POMC sorting and processing are associated with obesity in humans and in animals. Specifically, mutations in the POMC processing enzymes prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC1/3) and in carboxypeptidase E (CPE) and in the α-MSH degrading enzyme, PRCP, are associated with changes in energy balance. There is increasing evidence that POMC processing is regulated with respect to energy balance. Studies have implicated both the leptin and insulin signaling pathways in the regulation of POMC at various steps in the processing pathway. This article will review the role of hypothalamic POMC in regulating energy balance with a focus on POMC processing. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Biogeochemical Processes Regulating the Mobility of Uranium in Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Belli, Keaton M.; Taillefert, Martial

    2016-07-01

    This book chapters reviews the latest knowledge on the biogeochemical processes regulating the mobility of uranium in sediments. It contains both data from the literature and new data from the authors.

  14. Ethnic Minority Family Research in an Urban Setting: A Process of Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromwell, Ronald E.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    The stated purpose of this paper is to attempt to formulate the dynamics of research as a process of exchange by discussing the authors' experience in responding to community resistance to a study of Anglo, Black, and Mexican-American parents and their elementary school children in a multi-ethnic urban community. (Author/JM)

  15. Resilience as Regulation of Developmental and Family Processes

    PubMed Central

    MacPhee, David; Lunkenheimer, Erika; Riggs, Nathaniel

    2015-01-01

    Resilience can be defined as establishing equilibrium subsequent to disturbances to a system caused by significant adversity. When families experience adversity or transitions, multiple regulatory processes may be involved in establishing equilibrium, including adaptability, regulation of negative affect, and effective problem-solving skills. The authors’ resilience-as-regulation perspective integrates insights about the regulation of individual development with processes that regulate family systems. This middle-range theory of family resilience focuses on regulatory processes across levels that are involved in adaptation: whole-family systems such as routines and sense of coherence; coregulation of dyads involving emotion regulation, structuring, and reciprocal influences between social partners; and individual self-regulation. Insights about resilience-as-regulation are then applied to family-strengthening interventions that are designed to promote adaptation to adversity. Unresolved issues are discussed in relation to resilience-as-regulation in families, in particular how risk exposure is assessed, interrelations among family regulatory mechanisms, and how families scaffold the development of children’s resilience. PMID:26568647

  16. Granulation and infiltration processes for the fabrication of minor actinide fuels, targets and conditioning matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nästren, C.; Fernandez, A.; Haas, D.; Somers, J.; Walter, M.

    2007-05-01

    The impact of Pu and Am, two elements that potentially pose a long term hazard for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel, can be abated by their reintroduction into the fuel cycle for transmutation. Such transmutation targets can be fabricated by a sol gel method for the production of porous inactive beads, which are then infiltrated by Am solutions. Following calcination, compaction into pellets and sintering, the product is obtained. At its heart, the sol gel process relies on an ammonia precipitation, so that it is not universally applicable. Therefore, an alternative is sought not just to overcome this chemical limitation, but also to simplify the process and reduce waste streams. The new concept utilises powder metallurgy routes (compaction, crushing and sieving) to produce porous, almost, dust free granules, which are infiltrated with the actinide nitrate. The method has been developed using yttria stabilised zirconia and alumina, and has been demonstrated for the production of Al2O3-AmO2 targets for neutron capture investigations. The results are very promising and meet light water reactor fuel specifications. In addition, the process is ideally suited for the production of ceramic matrices for conditioning actinides for geological disposal.

  17. Proteolytic processing of myostatin is auto-regulated during myogenesis.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Craig; Langley, Brett; Thomas, Mark; Hennebry, Alex; Plummer, Erin; Nicholas, Gina; McMahon, Chris; Sharma, Mridula; Kambadur, Ravi

    2005-07-01

    Myostatin, a potent negative regulator of myogenesis, is proteolytically processed by furin proteases into active mature myostatin before secretion from myoblasts. Here, we show that mature myostatin auto-regulates its processing during myogenesis. In a cell culture model of myogenesis, Northern blot analysis revealed no appreciable change in myostatin mRNA levels between proliferating myoblasts and differentiated myotubes. However, Western blot analysis confirmed a relative reduction in myostatin processing and secretion by differentiated myotubes as compared to proliferating myoblasts. Furthermore, in vivo results demonstrate a lower level of myostatin processing during fetal muscle development when compared to postnatal adult muscle. Consequently, high levels of circulatory mature myostatin were detected in postnatal serum, while fetal circulatory myostatin levels were undetectable. Since Furin proteases are important for proteolytically processing members of the TGF-beta superfamily, we therefore investigated the ability of myostatin to control the transcription of furin and auto-regulate the extent of its processing. Transfection experiments indicate that mature myostatin indeed regulates furin protease promoter activity. Based on these results, we propose a mechanism whereby myostatin negatively regulates its proteolytic processing during fetal development, ultimately facilitating the differentiation of myoblasts by controlling both furin protease gene expression and subsequent active concentrations of mature myostatin peptide.

  18. 76 FR 44350 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Drawback Process Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... SECURITY U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION Agency Information Collection Activities: Drawback Process... techniques or other forms of information. Title: Drawback Process Regulations. OMB Number: 1651-0075. Form... and Request for Comments; Extension of an Existing Information Collection: 1651-0075. SUMMARY: U.S...

  19. Ethical issues in research involving minority populations: the process and outcomes of protocol review by the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recruiting minorities into research studies requires special attention, particularly when studies involve “extra-vulnerable” participants with multiple vulnerabilities, e.g., pregnant women, the fetuses/neonates of ethnic minorities, children in refugee camps, or cross-border migrants. This study retrospectively analyzed submissions to the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Tropical Medicine (FTM-EC) in Thailand. Issues related to the process and outcomes of proposal review, and the main issues for which clarification/revision were requested on studies, are discussed extensively. Methods The study data were extracted from proposals and amendments submitted to the FTM-EC during the period October 2009 – September 2012, and then analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. The main issues for clarification/revision were analyzed by thematic content analysis. Results 373 proposals were submitted; 44 studies involved minority groups with 21 extra-vulnerable minorities. All clinical and 2/3 of non-clinical studies submitted for initial review underwent full-board review. For combined clinical and non-clinical study submissions, 92.1% were referred back to the investigators and approved after clarification/revision, while 2.7% were deferred due to major/critical changes, and 2.1% not approved due to substantial violations of ethical principles. The main issues needing clarification/revision differed between all studies and those involving minorities: participant information sheet (62.2% vs. 86.4%), informed consent/assent form (51.2% vs. 86.4%), and research methodology (80.7% vs. 84.1%), respectively. The main ethical issues arising during the meetings, regarding studies involving minorities, included ensuring no exploitation, coercion, or pressure on the minority to participate; methodology not affecting their legal status; considering ethnicity and cultural structure; and providing appropriate compensation. Conclusion Delays in the approval or non

  20. Ethical issues in research involving minority populations: the process and outcomes of protocol review by the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Adams, Pornpimon; Wongwit, Waranya; Pengsaa, Krisana; Khusmith, Srisin; Fungladda, Wijitr; Chaiyaphan, Warissara; Limphattharacharoen, Chanthima; Prakobtham, Sukanya; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit

    2013-09-11

    Recruiting minorities into research studies requires special attention, particularly when studies involve "extra-vulnerable" participants with multiple vulnerabilities, e.g., pregnant women, the fetuses/neonates of ethnic minorities, children in refugee camps, or cross-border migrants. This study retrospectively analyzed submissions to the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Tropical Medicine (FTM-EC) in Thailand. Issues related to the process and outcomes of proposal review, and the main issues for which clarification/revision were requested on studies, are discussed extensively. The study data were extracted from proposals and amendments submitted to the FTM-EC during the period October 2009 - September 2012, and then analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. The main issues for clarification/revision were analyzed by thematic content analysis. 373 proposals were submitted; 44 studies involved minority groups with 21 extra-vulnerable minorities. All clinical and 2/3 of non-clinical studies submitted for initial review underwent full-board review. For combined clinical and non-clinical study submissions, 92.1% were referred back to the investigators and approved after clarification/revision, while 2.7% were deferred due to major/critical changes, and 2.1% not approved due to substantial violations of ethical principles. The main issues needing clarification/revision differed between all studies and those involving minorities: participant information sheet (62.2% vs. 86.4%), informed consent/assent form (51.2% vs. 86.4%), and research methodology (80.7% vs. 84.1%), respectively. The main ethical issues arising during the meetings, regarding studies involving minorities, included ensuring no exploitation, coercion, or pressure on the minority to participate; methodology not affecting their legal status; considering ethnicity and cultural structure; and providing appropriate compensation. Delays in the approval or non-approval of studies involving minorities were

  1. Early Literacy and Numeracy Skills in Bilingual Minority Children: Toward a Relative Independence of Linguistic and Numerical Processing.

    PubMed

    Bonifacci, Paola; Tobia, Valentina; Bernabini, Luca; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have suggested that the concept of "number" is relatively independent from linguistic skills, although an increasing number of studies suggest that language abilities may play a pivotal role in the development of arithmetic skills. The condition of bilingualism can offer a unique perspective into the role of linguistic competence in numerical development. The present study was aimed at evaluating the relationship between language skills and early numeracy through a multilevel investigation in monolingual and bilingual minority children attending preschool. The sample included 156 preschool children. Of these, 77 were bilingual minority children (mean age = 58.27 ± 5.90), and 79 were monolinguals (mean age = 58.45 ± 6.03). The study focused on three levels of analysis: group differences in language and number skills, concurrent linguistic predictors of early numeracy and, finally, profile analysis of linguistic skills in children with impaired vs. adequate numeracy skills. The results showed that, apart from the expected differences in linguistic measures, bilinguals differed from monolinguals in numerical skills with a verbal component, such as semantic knowledge of digits, but they did not differ in a pure non-verbal component such as quantity comparison. The multigroup structural equation model indicated that letter knowledge was a significant predictor of the verbal component of numeracy for both groups. Phonological awareness was a significant predictor of numeracy skills only in the monolingual group. Profile analysis showed that children with a selective weakness in the non-verbal component of numeracy had fully adequate verbal skills. Results from the present study suggest that only some specific components of language competence predict numerical processing, although linguistic proficiency may not be a prerequisite for developing adequate early numeracy skills.

  2. Early Literacy and Numeracy Skills in Bilingual Minority Children: Toward a Relative Independence of Linguistic and Numerical Processing

    PubMed Central

    Bonifacci, Paola; Tobia, Valentina; Bernabini, Luca; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have suggested that the concept of “number” is relatively independent from linguistic skills, although an increasing number of studies suggest that language abilities may play a pivotal role in the development of arithmetic skills. The condition of bilingualism can offer a unique perspective into the role of linguistic competence in numerical development. The present study was aimed at evaluating the relationship between language skills and early numeracy through a multilevel investigation in monolingual and bilingual minority children attending preschool. The sample included 156 preschool children. Of these, 77 were bilingual minority children (mean age = 58.27 ± 5.90), and 79 were monolinguals (mean age = 58.45 ± 6.03). The study focused on three levels of analysis: group differences in language and number skills, concurrent linguistic predictors of early numeracy and, finally, profile analysis of linguistic skills in children with impaired vs. adequate numeracy skills. The results showed that, apart from the expected differences in linguistic measures, bilinguals differed from monolinguals in numerical skills with a verbal component, such as semantic knowledge of digits, but they did not differ in a pure non-verbal component such as quantity comparison. The multigroup structural equation model indicated that letter knowledge was a significant predictor of the verbal component of numeracy for both groups. Phonological awareness was a significant predictor of numeracy skills only in the monolingual group. Profile analysis showed that children with a selective weakness in the non-verbal component of numeracy had fully adequate verbal skills. Results from the present study suggest that only some specific components of language competence predict numerical processing, although linguistic proficiency may not be a prerequisite for developing adequate early numeracy skills. PMID:27458413

  3. Dynamics of the two process model of human sleep regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenngott, Max; McKay, Cavendish

    2011-04-01

    We examine the dynamics of the two process model of human sleep regulation. In this model, sleep propensity is governed by the interaction between a periodic threshold (process C) and a saturating growth/decay (process S). We find that the parameter space of this model admits sleep cycles with a wide variety of characteristics, many of which are not observed in normal human sleepers. We also examine the effects of phase dependent feedback on this model.

  4. Minors' and Young Adults' Experiences of the Research Consent Process in a Phase II Safety Study of Pre-exposure Prophylaxis for HIV.

    PubMed

    Knopf, Amelia S; Ott, Mary A; Liu, Nancy; Kapogiannis, Bill G; Zimet, Gregory D; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Hosek, Sybil G

    2017-09-26

    There is a persistent HIV epidemic among sexual and gender minority adolescents in the U.S. Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an efficacious prevention strategy, but not yet approved for minors. Minors' access to biomedical HIV prevention technologies is impeded by the ethical and legal complexities of consent to research participation. We explore autonomous consent and study experiences among minor and adult participants in Project PrEPare, a Phase II safety study of PrEP for HIV prevention. Data for this mixed-methods descriptive study were collected via self-administered web-survey and in-depth telephone interviews in early 2016. Eligible participants were previously enrolled in Project PrEPare. We attempted to contact 191 participants; 74 were reached and expressed interest in participating and 58 enrolled. Participants nearly universally felt well informed, understood the study, and freely volunteered with the clear understanding they could withdraw any time. All felt supported by study staff, but a small minority wished for more support during enrollment. Minors were more likely than adults to indicate a wish for more support in decision-making, and adults expressed higher satisfaction with their decision compared to minors. There was no association between elements of consent and Project PrEPare study outcomes. Participants had an overwhelmingly positive experience in a Phase II safety study of PrEP for HIV prevention. Some minors wished for more support during the decision-making process, but none consulted their parents about the decision. Our results support the inclusion of decisional supports in consent processes for adolescents, while also protecting their privacy. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. MicroRNAs, macrocontrol: regulation of miRNA processing.

    PubMed

    Slezak-Prochazka, Izabella; Durmus, Selvi; Kroesen, Bart-Jan; van den Berg, Anke

    2010-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a set of small, non-protein-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Maturation of miRNAs comprises several regulated steps resulting in approximately 22-nucleotide single-stranded mature miRNAs. Regulation of miRNA expression can occur both at the transcriptional level and at the post-transcriptional level during miRNA processing. Recent studies have elucidated specific aspects of the well-regulated nature of miRNA processing involving various regulatory proteins, editing of miRNA transcripts, and cellular location. In addition, single nucleotide polymorphisms in miRNA genes can also affect the processing efficiency of primary miRNA transcripts. In this review we present an overview of the currently known regulatory pathways of miRNA processing and provide a basis to understand how aberrant miRNA processing may arise and may be involved in pathophysiological conditions such as cancer.

  6. Effects of Minority Stress Processes on the Mental Health of Latino Men Who Have Sex with Men and Women: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Holloway, Ian W.; Padilla, Mark B.; Willner, Lauren; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Emerging literature on minority stress among sexual minority populations has described the negative consequences that multiple minority statuses may exert on mental health and well-being. This literature has tended to focus on individuals whose self-identifications reflect sexual minority sexual categories, such as gay or bisexual, and has explored the intersection of these definitions with ethnic, racial, and class statuses. Few such studies have explored mental health among men who actively deny a sexual minority sexual identity label while engaging in same-sex sexual behaviors. The present study used ethnographic interview data from 20 non-gay-identified bisexually behaving Dominican and Puerto Rican men in New York City. Participants described discovery of same sex sexual behavior as a threat to their intimate relationships, community affiliation, and counter to expectations of Latino masculinity. Recounting a wide range of information management strategies used to avoid open disclosure about their sexual lives, participants experienced the potential consequences of disclosure as extreme and even life threatening. Men anticipated social isolation, depression, self-injury, and suicidality as possible outcomes from disclosing sexual behavior with other men to their female romantic partners. This analysis provides direction for future research on minority stress processes and mental health service delivery among Latino men who have sex with men and women. PMID:25367595

  7. Robust interval-based regulation for anaerobic digestion processes.

    PubMed

    Alcaraz-González, V; Harmand, J; Rapaport, A; Steyer, J P; González-Alvarez, V; Pelayo-Ortiz, C

    2005-01-01

    A robust regulation law is applied to the stabilization of a class of biochemical reactors exhibiting partially known highly nonlinear dynamic behavior. An uncertain environment with the presence of unknown inputs is considered. Based on some structural and operational conditions, this regulation law is shown to exponentially stabilize the aforementioned bioreactors around a desired set-point. This approach is experimentally applied and validated on a pilot-scale (1 m3) anaerobic digestion process for the treatment of raw industrial wine distillery wastewater where the objective is the regulation of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) by using the dilution rate as the manipulated variable. Despite large disturbances on the input COD and state and parametric uncertainties, this regulation law gave excellent performances leading the output COD towards its set-point and keeping it inside a pre-specified interval.

  8. Neurogenesis: Regulation by Alternative Splicing and Related Posttranscriptional Processes.

    PubMed

    Lara-Pezzi, Enrique; Desco, Manuel; Gatto, Alberto; Gómez-Gaviro, María Victoria

    2016-11-10

    The complexity of the mammalian brain requires highly specialized protein function and diversity. As neurons differentiate and the neuronal circuitry is established, several mRNAs undergo alternative splicing and other posttranscriptional changes that expand the variety of protein isoforms produced. Recent advances are beginning to shed light on the molecular mechanisms that regulate isoform switching during neurogenesis and the role played by specific RNA binding proteins in this process. Neurogenesis and neuronal wiring were recently shown to also be regulated by RNA degradation through nonsense-mediated decay. An additional layer of regulatory complexity in these biological processes is the interplay between alternative splicing and long noncoding RNAs. Dysregulation of posttranscriptional regulation results in defective neuronal differentiation and/or synaptic connections that lead to neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders.

  9. 50 CFR 100.18 - Regulation adoption process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... wildlife conservation, or would be detrimental to the satisfaction of subsistence needs. If a... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Regulation adoption process. 100.18 Section 100.18 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  10. 50 CFR 100.18 - Regulation adoption process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... wildlife conservation, or would be detrimental to the satisfaction of subsistence needs. If a... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Regulation adoption process. 100.18 Section 100.18 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  11. 50 CFR 100.18 - Regulation adoption process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... wildlife conservation, or would be detrimental to the satisfaction of subsistence needs. If a... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Regulation adoption process. 100.18 Section 100.18 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  12. 75 FR 62069 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Sudan Waiver Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation; Sudan Waiver Process AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DoD), General..., Prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in Sudan, to add specific... on awarding a contract to a contractor that conducts business in Sudan should be waived....

  13. 76 FR 68037 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Sudan Waiver Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... Regulation; Sudan Waiver Process AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services Administration (GSA... prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in Sudan. This rule adds... that conducts restricted business operations in Sudan. The rule also describes the consultation...

  14. Regulation of Sulfate Assimilation by Light and O-Acetyl-l-Serine in Lemna minor L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Neuenschwander, Urs; Suter, Marianne; Brunold, Christian

    1991-01-01

    The effect of 0.5 millimolar O-acetyl-l-serine added to the nutrient solution on sulfate assimilation of Lemna minor L., cultivated in the light or in the dark, or transferred from light to the dark, was examined. During 24 hours after transfer from light to the dark the extractable activity of adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate sulfotransferase, a key enzyme of sulfate assimilation, decreased to 10% of the light control. Nitrate reductase (EC 1.7.7.1.) activity, measured for comparison, decreased to 40%. Adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) sulfurylase (EC 2.7.7.4.) and O-acetyl-l-serine sulfhydrylase (EC 4.2.99.8.) activities were not affected by the transfer. When O-acetyl-l-serine was added to the nutrient solution at the time of transfer to the dark, adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate sulfotransferase activity was still at 50% of the light control after 24 hours, ATP sulfurylase and O-acetyl-l-serine sulfhydrylase activity were again not affected, and nitrate reductase activity decreased as before. Addition of O-acetyl-l-serine at the time of the transfer caused a 100% increase in acid-soluble SH compounds after 24 hours in the dark. In continuous light the corresponding increase was 200%. During 24 hours after transfer to the dark the assimilation of 35SO42− into organic compounds decreased by 80% without O-acetyl-l-serine but was comparable to light controls in its presence. The addition of O-acetyl-l-serine to Lemna minor precultivated in the dark for 24 hours induced an increase in adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate sulfotransferase activity so that a constant level of 50% of the light control was reached after an additional 9 hours. Cycloheximide as well as 6-methyl-purine inhibited this effect. In the same type of experiment O-acetyl-l-serine induced a 100-fold increase in the incorporation of label from 35SO42− into cysteine after additional 24 hours in the dark. Taken together, these results show that exogenous O-acetyl-l-serine has a regulatory effect on

  15. Regulation of the in vitro presentation of minor lymphocyte stimulating determinants by major histocompatibility complex-encoded immune response genes

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, J.J.; Miner, D.W.; Mond, J.J.; Finkelman, F.D.; Woody, J.N.

    1987-04-15

    Activation of murine B lymphocytes in a splenocyte stimulator population with affinity-purified goat anti-mouse IgD (G alpha M delta) antibody was previously shown by this laboratory to enhance the presentation of strongly stimulatory major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and minor lymphocyte-stimulating (Mlsa,d) determinants in a primary mixed lymphocyte reaction. In the present study, the G alpha M delta treatment of murine splenocytes was employed to enhance the detection of the weakly stimulatory non-MHC Mlsc determinant in order to study the role the MHC might play as a restricting element for the recognition of these minor antigens in a primary mixed lymphocyte reaction. Indeed, enhanced T cell proliferation to Mlsc determinants presented on G alpha M delta-treated splenocytes was observed when the responder and activated H-2-compatible stimulator cell shared certain MHC haplotypes. High responsiveness was associated with the H-2a,k,j,p haplotypes, intermediate responsiveness was associated with the H-2f,g haplotypes and low responsiveness was associated with the H-2b,s haplotypes. (Low X high responder)F1 T cells preferentially responded to the Mlsc determinants presented on G alpha M delta-treated stimulator cells of the F1 or parental high responder H-2 haplotype. When mitomycin C instead of irradiation was used to inactivate normal (non-IgD-treated) splenocytes, a similar preferential response of T cells to Mlsc determinants presented on stimulator cells of a high responder H-2 haplotype was also observed. The inability of G alpha M delta-treated splenocytes of the low responder haplotype to elicit substantial levels of T cell proliferation across an Mlsc difference could not be attributed to the failure of these stimulator cells to become activated by the anti-Ig antibody. (Abstract Truncated)

  16. An optimal velocity for online limb-target regulation processes?

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Luc; Crainic, Valentin A; de Grosbois, John; Bhattacharjee, Arindam; Kennedy, Andrew; Hansen, Steve; Welsh, Timothy N

    2017-01-01

    The utilization of visual information for the control of ongoing voluntary limb movements has been investigated for more than a century. Recently, online sensorimotor processes for the control of upper-limb reaches were hypothesized to include a distinct process related to the comparison of limb and target positions (i.e., limb-target regulation processes: Elliott et al. in Psychol Bull 136:1023-1044. doi: 10.1037/a0020958 , 2010). In the current study, this hypothesis was tested by presenting participants with brief windows of vision (20 ms) when the real-time velocity of the reaching limb rose above selected velocity criteria. One experiment tested the perceptual judgments of endpoint bias (i.e., under- vs. over-shoot), and another experiment tested the shifts in endpoint distributions following an imperceptible target jump. Both experiments revealed that limb-target regulation processes take place at an optimal velocity or "sweet spot" between movement onset and peak limb velocity (i.e., 1.0 m/s with the employed movement amplitude and duration). In contrast with pseudo-continuous models of online control (e.g., Elliott et al. in Hum Mov Sci 10:393-418. doi: 10.1016/0167-9457(91)90013-N , 1991), humans likely optimize online limb-target regulation processes by gathering visual information at a rather limited period of time, well in advance of peak limb velocity.

  17. Self-Regulation in ADHD: The Role of Error Processing

    PubMed Central

    Shiels, Keri; Hawk, Larry W.

    2010-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by persistent and impairing developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Such behavioral dysregulation may be a consequence of deficits in self-monitoring or adaptive control, both of which are required for adaptive behavior. Processing of contextual demands, ongoing monitoring of one’s behavior to evaluate whether it is appropriate for a particular situation, and adjusting behavior when it is suboptimal are components of self-regulation. This review examines and integrates the emerging literature on error-processing and adaptive control as components of self-regulation into the prominent etiological theories of ADHD. Available data on error-processing, as reflected in event-related potentials (ERN and Pe) and behavioral performance, suggest that both early error detection and later error-evaluation may be diminished in ADHD, thereby interfering with adaptive control processes. However, variability in results limit broad conclusions, particularly for early error detection. A range of methodological issues, including ERP parameters and sample and task characteristics, likely contribute to this variability, and recommendations for future work are presented. The emerging literature on error-processing and adaptive control informs etiological theories of ADHD in general and may provide a method for testing self-regulation models in particular. PMID:20659781

  18. Intrinsic and extrinsic negative regulators of nuclear protein transport processes

    PubMed Central

    Sekimoto, Toshihiro; Yoneda, Yoshihiro

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear–cytoplasmic protein transport is a critical process in cellular events. The identification of transport signals (nuclear localization signal and nuclear export signal) and their receptors has facilitated our understanding of this expanding field. Nuclear transport must be appropriately regulated to deliver proteins through the nuclear pore when their functions are required in the nucleus, and to export them into the cytoplasm when they are not needed in the nucleus. Altered nuclear transport processes have been observed in stressed cells, which would change gene expressions. Some viruses interfere with nuclear transport in host cells to evade immune defense. Moreover, certain transport factors negatively regulate nuclear protein transport in cells. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms of nuclear–cytoplasmic trafficking not only provides important information about cellular processes, but also is of use for developing specific inhibitors for transport pathways. PMID:22672474

  19. Piezo proteins: regulators of mechanosensation and other cellular processes.

    PubMed

    Bagriantsev, Sviatoslav N; Gracheva, Elena O; Gallagher, Patrick G

    2014-11-14

    Piezo proteins have recently been identified as ion channels mediating mechanosensory transduction in mammalian cells. Characterization of these channels has yielded important insights into mechanisms of somatosensation, as well as other mechano-associated biologic processes such as sensing of shear stress, particularly in the vasculature, and regulation of urine flow and bladder distention. Other roles for Piezo proteins have emerged, some unexpected, including participation in cellular development, volume regulation, cellular migration, proliferation, and elongation. Mutations in human Piezo proteins have been associated with a variety of disorders including hereditary xerocytosis and several syndromes with muscular contracture as a prominent feature. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Piezo Proteins: Regulators of Mechanosensation and Other Cellular Processes*

    PubMed Central

    Bagriantsev, Sviatoslav N.; Gracheva, Elena O.; Gallagher, Patrick G.

    2014-01-01

    Piezo proteins have recently been identified as ion channels mediating mechanosensory transduction in mammalian cells. Characterization of these channels has yielded important insights into mechanisms of somatosensation, as well as other mechano-associated biologic processes such as sensing of shear stress, particularly in the vasculature, and regulation of urine flow and bladder distention. Other roles for Piezo proteins have emerged, some unexpected, including participation in cellular development, volume regulation, cellular migration, proliferation, and elongation. Mutations in human Piezo proteins have been associated with a variety of disorders including hereditary xerocytosis and several syndromes with muscular contracture as a prominent feature. PMID:25305018

  1. Trophoblast expression of the minor histocompatibility antigen HA-1 is regulated by oxygen and is increased in placentas from preeclamptic women

    PubMed Central

    Linscheid, Caitlin; Heitmann, Erica; Singh, Paul; Wickstrom, Elizabeth; Qiu, Lei; Hodes, Herbert; Nauser, Traci; Petroff, Margaret G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Maternal T-cells reactive towards paternally inherited fetal minor histocompatibility antigens are expanded during pregnancy. Placental trophoblast cells express at least four fetal antigens, including human minor histocompatibility antigen 1 (HA-1). We investigated oxygen as a potential regulator of HA-1 and whether HA-1 expression is altered in preeclamptic placentas. Methods Expression and regulation of HA-1 mRNA and protein were examined by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, using first, second, and third trimester placentas, first trimester placental explant cultures, and term purified cytotrophoblast cells. Low oxygen conditions were achieved by varying ambient oxygen, and were mimicked using cobalt chloride. HA-1 mRNA and protein expression levels were evaluated in preeclamptic and control placentas. Results HA-1 protein expression was higher in the syncytiotrophoblast of first trimester as compared to second trimester and term placentas (P<0.01). HA-1 mRNA was increased in cobalt chloride-treated placental explants and purified cytotrophoblast cells (P=0.04 and P<0.01, respectively) and in purified cytotrophoblast cells cultured under 2% as compared to 8% and 21% oxygen (P<0.01). HA-1 mRNA expression in preeclamptic vs. control placentas was increased 3.3-fold (P=0.015). HA-1 protein expression was increased in syncytial nuclear aggregates and the syncytiotrophoblast of preeclamptic vs. control placentas (P= 0.02 and 0.03, respectively). Discussion Placenta HA-1 expression is regulated by oxygen and is increased in the syncytial nuclear aggregates and syncytiotrophoblast of preeclamptic as compared to control placentas. Increased HA-1 expression, combined with increased preeclamptic syncytiotrophoblast deportation, provides a novel potential mechanism for exposure of the maternal immune system to increased fetal antigenic load during preeclampsia. PMID:26095815

  2. Studying Children's Intrapersonal Emotion Regulation Strategies from the Process Model of Emotion Regulation.

    PubMed

    López-Pérez, Belén; Gummerum, Michaela; Wilson, Ellie; Dellaria, Giulia

    2017-01-01

    The authors relied on the Process Model of Emotion Regulation (PMER; J. J. Gross, 2007 ) to investigate children's abilities to regulate their emotions and to assess how distinct emotion regulation strategies are used by children of different ages. In Study 1, 180 parents of children aged between 3 and 8 years old reported about a situation in which their child had been able to change what she or he was feeling. In Study 2, 126 children 3-8 years old answered 2 questions about how they regulate their own emotions. Results from both studies showed age differences in children's reported emotion regulation abilities and the strategies they used. As expected, strategies such as situation selection, situation modification, and cognitive change were used more frequently by 5-6- and 7-8-year-olds, whereas attention deployment was mainly used by 3-4-year-olds. No age differences were found for response modulation. The present research contributes to the existing body of literature on emotion regulation by adding more information about the developmental patterns for each specific emotion regulation strategy.

  3. Implicit Processes, Self-Regulation, and Interventions for Behavior Change

    PubMed Central

    St Quinton, Tom; Brunton, Julie A.

    2017-01-01

    The ability to regulate and subsequently change behavior is influenced by both reflective and implicit processes. Traditional theories have focused on conscious processes by highlighting the beliefs and intentions that influence decision making. However, their success in changing behavior has been modest with a gap between intention and behavior apparent. Dual-process models have been recently applied to health psychology; with numerous models incorporating implicit processes that influence behavior as well as the more common conscious processes. Such implicit processes are theorized to govern behavior non-consciously. The article provides a commentary on motivational and volitional processes and how interventions have combined to attempt an increase in positive health behaviors. Following this, non-conscious processes are discussed in terms of their theoretical underpinning. The article will then highlight how these processes have been measured and will then discuss the different ways that the non-conscious and conscious may interact. The development of interventions manipulating both processes may well prove crucial in successfully altering behavior. PMID:28337164

  4. Childhood Trauma Exposure Disrupts the Automatic Regulation of Emotional Processing

    PubMed Central

    Marusak, Hilary A; Martin, Kayla R; Etkin, Amit; Thomason, Moriah E

    2015-01-01

    Early-life trauma is one of the strongest risk factors for later emotional psychopathology. Although research in adults highlights that childhood trauma predicts deficits in emotion regulation that persist decades later, it is unknown whether neural and behavioral changes that may precipitate illness are evident during formative, developmental years. This study examined whether automatic regulation of emotional conflict is perturbed in a high-risk urban sample of trauma-exposed children and adolescents. A total of 14 trauma-exposed and 16 age-, sex-, and IQ-matched comparison youth underwent functional MRI while performing an emotional conflict task that involved categorizing facial affect while ignoring an overlying emotion word. Engagement of the conflict regulation system was evaluated at neural and behavioral levels. Results showed that trauma-exposed youth failed to dampen dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity and engage amygdala–pregenual cingulate inhibitory circuitry during the regulation of emotional conflict, and were less able to regulate emotional conflict. In addition, trauma-exposed youth showed greater conflict-related amygdala reactivity that was associated with diminished levels of trait reward sensitivity. These data point to a trauma-related deficit in automatic regulation of emotional processing, and increase in sensitivity to emotional conflict in neural systems implicated in threat detection. Aberrant amygdala response to emotional conflict was related to diminished reward sensitivity that is emerging as a critical stress-susceptibility trait that may contribute to the emergence of mental illness during adolescence. These results suggest that deficits in conflict regulation for emotional material may underlie heightened risk for psychopathology in individuals that endure early-life trauma. PMID:25413183

  5. Childhood trauma exposure disrupts the automatic regulation of emotional processing.

    PubMed

    Marusak, Hilary A; Martin, Kayla R; Etkin, Amit; Thomason, Moriah E

    2015-03-13

    Early-life trauma is one of the strongest risk factors for later emotional psychopathology. Although research in adults highlights that childhood trauma predicts deficits in emotion regulation that persist decades later, it is unknown whether neural and behavioral changes that may precipitate illness are evident during formative, developmental years. This study examined whether automatic regulation of emotional conflict is perturbed in a high-risk urban sample of trauma-exposed children and adolescents. A total of 14 trauma-exposed and 16 age-, sex-, and IQ-matched comparison youth underwent functional MRI while performing an emotional conflict task that involved categorizing facial affect while ignoring an overlying emotion word. Engagement of the conflict regulation system was evaluated at neural and behavioral levels. Results showed that trauma-exposed youth failed to dampen dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity and engage amygdala-pregenual cingulate inhibitory circuitry during the regulation of emotional conflict, and were less able to regulate emotional conflict. In addition, trauma-exposed youth showed greater conflict-related amygdala reactivity that was associated with diminished levels of trait reward sensitivity. These data point to a trauma-related deficit in automatic regulation of emotional processing, and increase in sensitivity to emotional conflict in neural systems implicated in threat detection. Aberrant amygdala response to emotional conflict was related to diminished reward sensitivity that is emerging as a critical stress-susceptibility trait that may contribute to the emergence of mental illness during adolescence. These results suggest that deficits in conflict regulation for emotional material may underlie heightened risk for psychopathology in individuals that endure early-life trauma.

  6. Powder Flux Regulation in the Laser Material Deposition Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrizubieta, Jon Iñaki; Wegener, Maximiliam; Arntz, Kristian; Lamikiz, Aitzol; Ruiz, Jose Exequiel

    In the present research work a powder flux regulation system has been designed, developed and validated with the aim of improving the Laser Material Deposition (LMD) process. In this process, the amount of deposited material per substrate surface unit area depends on the real feed rate of the nozzle. Therefore, a regulation system based on a solenoid valve has been installed at the nozzle entrance in order to control the powder flux. The powder flux control has been performed based on the machine real feed rate, which is compared with the programmed feed rate. An instantaneous velocity error is calculated and the powder flow is controlled as a function of this variation using Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) signals. Thereby, in zones where the Laser Material Deposition machine reduces the feed rate due to a trajectory change, powder accumulation can be avoided and the generated clads would present a homogeneous shape.

  7. The two-process model of sleep regulation: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Borbély, Alexander A; Daan, Serge; Wirz-Justice, Anna; Deboer, Tom

    2016-04-01

    In the last three decades the two-process model of sleep regulation has served as a major conceptual framework in sleep research. It has been applied widely in studies on fatigue and performance and to dissect individual differences in sleep regulation. The model posits that a homeostatic process (Process S) interacts with a process controlled by the circadian pacemaker (Process C), with time-courses derived from physiological and behavioural variables. The model simulates successfully the timing and intensity of sleep in diverse experimental protocols. Electrophysiological recordings from the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) suggest that S and C interact continuously. Oscillators outside the SCN that are linked to energy metabolism are evident in SCN-lesioned arrhythmic animals subjected to restricted feeding or methamphetamine administration, as well as in human subjects during internal desynchronization. In intact animals these peripheral oscillators may dissociate from the central pacemaker rhythm. A sleep/fast and wake/feed phase segregate antagonistic anabolic and catabolic metabolic processes in peripheral tissues. A deficiency of Process S was proposed to account for both depressive sleep disturbances and the antidepressant effect of sleep deprivation. The model supported the development of novel non-pharmacological treatment paradigms in psychiatry, based on manipulating circadian phase, sleep and light exposure. In conclusion, the model remains conceptually useful for promoting the integration of sleep and circadian rhythm research. Sleep appears to have not only a short-term, use-dependent function; it also serves to enforce rest and fasting, thereby supporting the optimization of metabolic processes at the appropriate phase of the 24-h cycle.

  8. A minor role of WNK3 in regulating phosphorylation of renal NKCC2 and NCC co-transporters in vivo.

    PubMed

    Oi, Katsuyuki; Sohara, Eisei; Rai, Tatemitsu; Misawa, Moko; Chiga, Motoko; Alessi, Dario R; Sasaki, Sei; Uchida, Shinichi

    2012-02-15

    Mutations in WNK1 and WNK4 kinase genes have been shown to cause a human hereditary hypertensive disease, pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHAII). We previously discovered that WNK kinases phosphorylate and activate OSR1/SPAK kinases that regulate renal SLC12A family transporters such as NKCC2 and NCC, and clarified that the constitutive activation of this cascade causes PHAII. WNK3, another member of the WNK kinase family, was reported to be a strong activator of NCC/NKCC2 when assayed in Xenopus oocytes, suggesting that WNK3 also plays a major role in regulating blood pressure and sodium reabsorption in the kidney. However, it remains to be determined whether WNK3 is in fact involved in the regulation of these transporters in vivo. To clarify this issue, we generated and analyzed WNK3 knockout mice. Surprisingly, phosphorylation and expression of OSR1, SPAK, NKCC2 and NCC did not decrease in knockout mouse kidney under normal and low-salt diets. Similarly, expression of epithelial Na channel and Na/H exchanger 3 were not affected in knockout mice. Na(+) and K(+) excretion in urine in WNK3 knockout mice was not affected under different salt diets. Blood pressure in WNK3 knockout mice was not lower under normal diet. However, lower blood pressure was observed in WNK3 knockout mice fed low-salt diet. WNK4 and WNK1 expression was slightly elevated in the knockout mice under low-salt diet, suggesting compensation for WNK3 knockout by these WNKs. Thus, WNK3 may have some role in the WNK-OSR1/SPAK-NCC/NKCC2 signal cascade in the kidney, but its contribution to total WNK kinase activity may be minimal.

  9. [Minor head trauma - trivial matter or sirious diagnostic and therapeutic problem? The role of Infrascanner in the diagnostic process].

    PubMed

    Lewartowska-Nyga, Dorota; Skotnicka-Klonowicz, Grażyna

    2016-01-01

    Head injuries in children, especially minor head injuries, still constitute a important diagnostic and therapeutic problem. Despite progress in medical sciences, there is no definition of minor head injury or standards of the management of children with a minor head injury. In consequence, the diagnostic procedure in the child who does not show any signs of central nervous system damage as a result of head injury is individual and depends on the experience and knowledge of the aid provider and as well as procedures established in a given ward. Therefore, a problem which requires to be urgently solved is to determine the justification and indications for imaging investigations (justification for skull X-ray, performance indications for carrying out computed tomography of the head) as well as indications for inpatient observation in such cases. The study presents currently existing definitions and proposals for the management of children presenting with a minor head injury. On the basis of own investigation we would stress that there is an opportunity to use in the initial diagnostics of head injuries in children, a modern non-invasive method already available in Poland, utilising the near-infrared NIR technology in order to detect intracranial haemorrhages by means of the Infrascanner.

  10. Mammal population regulation, keystone processes and ecosystem dynamics.

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, A R E

    2003-01-01

    The theory of regulation in animal populations is fundamental to understanding the dynamics of populations, the causes of mortality and how natural selection shapes the life history of species. In mammals, the great range in body size allows us to see how allometric relationships affect the mode of regulation. Resource limitation is the fundamental cause of regulation. Top-down limitation through predators is determined by four factors: (i). body size; (ii). the diversity of predators and prey in the system; (iii). whether prey are resident or migratory; and (iv). the presence of alternative prey for predators. Body size in mammals has two important consequences. First, mammals, particularly large species, can act as keystones that determine the diversity of an ecosystem. I show how keystone processes can, in principle, be measured using the example of the wildebeest in the Serengeti ecosystem. Second, mammals act as ecological landscapers by altering vegetation succession. Mammals alter physical structure, ecological function and species diversity in most terrestrial biomes. In general, there is a close interaction between allometry, population regulation, life history and ecosystem dynamics. These relationships are relevant to applied aspects of conservation and pest management. PMID:14561329

  11. 12 CFR 217.21 - Minority interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minority interest. 217.21 Section 217.21 Banks... OF BOARD-REGULATED INSTITUTIONS Definition of Capital § 217.21 Minority interest. (a) Applicability. For purposes of § 217.20, a Board-regulated institution is subject to the minority...

  12. Support of the Collaborative Inquiry Learning Process: Influence of Support on Task and Team Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saab, Nadira; van Joolingen, Wouter; van Hout-Wolters, Bernadette

    2012-01-01

    Regulation of the learning process is an important condition for efficient and effective learning. In collaborative learning, students have to regulate their collaborative activities (team regulation) next to the regulation of their own learning process focused on the task at hand (task regulation). In this study, we investigate how support of…

  13. Silent Minority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Beth, Ed.

    Discussed in the booklet are approaches for citizens to use in helping the silent minority--mentally retarded (MR) children and adults--attain their rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. The MR person is described to be one of 6 million retarded Americans, to benefit from education although his ability to learn is limited, to have…

  14. Two independent switches regulate cytoplasmic dynein's processivity and directionality.

    PubMed

    Walter, Wilhelm J; Koonce, Michael P; Brenner, Bernhard; Steffen, Walter

    2012-04-03

    Cytoplasmic dynein is a microtubule-based molecular motor that participates in a multitude of cell activities, from cell division to organelle transport. Unlike kinesin and myosin, where different tasks are performed by highly specialized members of these superfamilies, a single form of the dynein heavy chain is utilized for different functions. This versatility demands an extensive regulation of motor function. Using an improved application of an optical trap, we were now able to demonstrate that cytoplasmic dynein can generate a discrete power stroke as well as a processive walk in either direction; i.e., towards the plus- or towards the minus-end of a microtubule. Thus, dynein's motor functions can be described by four basic modes of motion: processive and nonprocessive movement, and movement in the forward and reverse directions. Importantly, these four modes of movement can be controlled by two switches. One switch, based on phosphate, determines the directionality of movement. The second switch, depending on magnesium, converts cytoplasmic dynein from a nonprocessive to a processive motor. The two switches can be triggered separately or jointly by changing concentrations of phosphate and magnesium in the local environment. The control of four modes of movement by two switches has major implications for our understanding of the cellular functions and regulation of cytoplasmic dynein. Based on recent studies of dynein's structure we are able to draw new conclusions on cytoplasmic dynein's stepping mechanism.

  15. Key-genes regulating the liposecretion process of mature adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Maurizi, Giulia; Petäistö, Tiina; Maurizi, Angela; Guardia, Lucio Della

    2017-09-19

    White mature adipocytes (MAs) are plastic cells able to reversibly transdifferentiate toward fibroblast-like cells maintaining stem cell gene signatures. The main morphologic aspect of this transdifferentiation process, called liposecretion, is the secretion of large lipid droplets and the development of organelles necessary for exocrine secretion. There is a considerable interest in the adipocyte plastic properties involving liposecretion process, but the molecular details are incompletely explored. This review analyzes the gene expression of MAs isolated from human subcutaneous fat tissue with respect to bone marrow (BM)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) focusing on gene regulatory pathways involved into cellular morphology changes, cellular proliferation and transports of molecules through the membrane, suggesting potential ways to guide liposecretion. In particular, Wnt, MAPK/ERK and AKT pathways were accurately described, studying up- and down-stream molecules involved. Moreover, adipogenic extra- and intra-cellular interactions were analyzed studying the role of CDH2, CDH11, ITGA5, E-Syt1, PAI-1, IGF1 and INHBB genes. Additionally, PLIN1 and PLIN2 could be key-genes of liposecretion process regulating molecules transport through the membrane. All together data demonstrated that liposecretion is regulated through a complex molecular networks that are able to respond to microenvironment signals, cytokines and growth factors. Autocrine as well as external signaling molecules might activate liposecretion affecting adipocytes physiology. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Labor Policy, Minorities, and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln Inst. for Research and Education, Washington, DC.

    The central theme of the papers presented in this symposium is that the labor market for minorities and youth does not appear to function properly because of structural impediments (often caused by government regulations meant to help minorities) and that these impediments must be identified and effective remedies proposed. Following an…

  17. Labor Policy, Minorities, and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln Inst. for Research and Education, Washington, DC.

    The central theme of the papers presented in this symposium is that the labor market for minorities and youth does not appear to function properly because of structural impediments (often caused by government regulations meant to help minorities) and that these impediments must be identified and effective remedies proposed. Following an…

  18. Introducing touchscreens to black and ethnic minority groups--a report of processes and issues in the Three Cities project.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Margot; Peters, Jean

    2003-09-01

    There is a need for people to have access to health information but this may not be readily available for some black and ethnic minority groups living in England. This study aims to improve access to health information for ethnic minority groups by providing this in their own language, in an audio and visual format through a touchscreen computer. The study was led by health promotion and public health workers informed by advisory panels of representatives from local black and ethnic minority groups in the cities of Nottingham, Sheffield and Leicester. Discussion within the advisory panels and local epidemiological data helped to identify groups to be targeted and priority health issues to be addressed. Other issues covered during development included interface design, language translation and identification of accessible locations. A number of problems were addressed in establishing appropriate touchscreen facilities, mainly relating to producing information in an electronic format for multiple languages and populations not necessarily computer-literate. Three touchscreens, containing information on 10 health topics, translated into five languages are currently installed, one in each city. They are being rotated through a series of locations including a library, GP practice, and a temple. Their use, and satisfaction with use, is being evaluated over a 2-year period, by statistical analysis of computer logs and the collection of qualitative information by bi-lingual interviewers with users, over an 18-month period. Health information can be made available for ethnic minority groups even if they are unable to read their mother tongue. Touchscreens appear to be a suitable medium for achieving this.

  19. Moral panic, moral regulation, and the civilizing process.

    PubMed

    Hier, Sean

    2016-09-01

    This article compares two analytical frameworks ostensibly formulated to widen the focus of moral panic studies. The comparative analysis suggests that attempts to conceptualize moral panics in terms of decivilizing processes have neither substantively supplemented the explanatory gains made by conceptualizing moral panic as a form of moral regulation nor provided a viable alternative framework that better explains the dynamics of contemporary moral panics. The article concludes that Elias's meta-theory of the civilizing process potentially provides explanatory resources to investigate a possible historical-structural shift towards the so-called age of (a)moral panic; the analytical demands of such a project, however, require a sufficiently different line of inquiry than the one encouraged by both the regulatory and decivilizing perspectives on moral panic. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  20. Complement-mediated regulation of metabolism and basic cellular processes

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Christoph; Kemper, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Complement is well appreciated as critical arm of innate immunity. It is required for the removal of invading pathogens and functions by direct pathogen destruction and through the activation of innate and adaptive immune cells. However, complement activation and function is not confined to the extracellular space but also occurs within cells. Recent work indicates that complement activation regulates key metabolic pathways and thus can impact fundamental processes of the cell, such as survival, proliferation, and autophagy. Novel identified functions of complement include a key role in shaping metabolic reprogramming, which underlies T cell effector differentiation, and a role as a nexus for interactions with other effector systems, in particular the inflammasome and Notch transcription factor networks. This review focuses on the contributions of complement to basic processes of the cell, in particular the integration of complement with cellular metabolism, and the potential implications in infection and other disease settings. PMID:27533012

  1. Complement-Mediated Regulation of Metabolism and Basic Cellular Processes.

    PubMed

    Hess, Christoph; Kemper, Claudia

    2016-08-16

    Complement is well appreciated as a critical arm of innate immunity. It is required for the removal of invading pathogens and works by directly destroying them through the activation of innate and adaptive immune cells. However, complement activation and function is not confined to the extracellular space but also occurs within cells. Recent work indicates that complement activation regulates key metabolic pathways and thus can impact fundamental cellular processes, such as survival, proliferation, and autophagy. Newly identified functions of complement include a key role in shaping metabolic reprogramming, which underlies T cell effector differentiation, and a role as a nexus for interactions with other effector systems, in particular the inflammasome and Notch transcription-factor networks. This review focuses on the contributions of complement to basic processes of the cell, in particular the integration of complement with cellular metabolism and the potential implications in infection and other disease settings.

  2. Process Regulation in the Problem-Solving Processes of Fifth Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rott, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that the regulation of processes is an important factor in problem solving from Grade 7 to university level (cf. Mevarech & Kramarski, 1997; Schoenfeld, 1985). We do not, however, know much about the problem-solving competencies of younger children (cf. Heinze, 2007, p. 15). Do the results of studies also hold true for…

  3. IDA: a peptide ligand regulating cell separation processes in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Aalen, Reidunn B; Wildhagen, Mari; Stø, Ida M; Butenko, Melinka A

    2013-12-01

    In contrast to animals, plants continuously produce new organs, such as leaves, flowers, and lateral roots (LRs), and may shed organs that have served their purpose. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana the peptide INFLORESCENCE DEFICIENT IN ABSCISSION (IDA) signals through the leucine-rich repeat-receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs) HAESA (HAE), and HAESA-LIKE2 (HSL2) to control the abscission of floral organs after pollination. Recent work from other plant species indicates that this signalling system is conserved and could regulate leaf abscission in soybean and tomato. Abscission is a cell separation process involving the breakdown of cell walls between adjacent files of abscission zone (AZ) cells at the base of organs to be shed. The emergence of new lateral root primordia (LRP), initiated deep inside the root under the influence of the phytohormone auxin, is similarly dependent on cell wall dissolution to separate cells in the overlying tissues. It has been shown that this process also requires IDA, HAE, and HSL2. The receptors are redundant in function during floral organ abscission, but during lateral root emergence (LRE) they are differentially involved in regulating cell wall remodelling (CWR) genes. An overview is given here of the similarities and differences of IDA signalling during floral organ abscission and LRE.

  4. Antigen processing and immune regulation in the response to tumours.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Emma; James, Edward

    2017-01-01

    The MHC class I and II antigen processing and presentation pathways display peptides to circulating CD8(+) cytotoxic and CD4(+) helper T cells respectively to enable pathogens and transformed cells to be identified. Once detected, T cells become activated and either directly kill the infected / transformed cells (CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes) or orchestrate the activation of the adaptive immune response (CD4(+) T cells). The immune surveillance of transformed/tumour cells drives alteration of the antigen processing and presentation pathways to evade detection and hence the immune response. Evasion of the immune response is a significant event tumour development and considered one of the hallmarks of cancer. To avoid immune recognition, tumours employ a multitude of strategies with most resulting in a down-regulation of the MHC class I expression at the cell surface, significantly impairing the ability of CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes to recognize the tumour. Alteration of the expression of key players in antigen processing not only affects MHC class I expression but also significantly alters the repertoire of peptides being presented. These modified peptide repertoires may serve to further reduce the presentation of tumour-specific/associated antigenic epitopes to aid immune evasion and tumour progression. Here we review the modifications to the antigen processing and presentation pathway in tumours and how it affects the anti-tumour immune response, considering the role of tumour-infiltrating cell populations and highlighting possible future therapeutic targets.

  5. Gene regulation and noise reduction by coupling of stochastic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Alexandre F.; Hornos, José Eduardo M.; Reinitz, John

    2015-02-01

    Here we characterize the low-noise regime of a stochastic model for a negative self-regulating binary gene. The model has two stochastic variables, the protein number and the state of the gene. Each state of the gene behaves as a protein source governed by a Poisson process. The coupling between the two gene states depends on protein number. This fact has a very important implication: There exist protein production regimes characterized by sub-Poissonian noise because of negative covariance between the two stochastic variables of the model. Hence the protein numbers obey a probability distribution that has a peak that is sharper than those of the two coupled Poisson processes that are combined to produce it. Biochemically, the noise reduction in protein number occurs when the switching of the genetic state is more rapid than protein synthesis or degradation. We consider the chemical reaction rates necessary for Poisson and sub-Poisson processes in prokaryotes and eucaryotes. Our results suggest that the coupling of multiple stochastic processes in a negative covariance regime might be a widespread mechanism for noise reduction.

  6. Gene regulation and noise reduction by coupling of stochastic processes

    PubMed Central

    Hornos, José Eduardo M.; Reinitz, John

    2015-01-01

    Here we characterize the low noise regime of a stochastic model for a negative self-regulating binary gene. The model has two stochastic variables, the protein number and the state of the gene. Each state of the gene behaves as a protein source governed by a Poisson process. The coupling between the the two gene states depends on protein number. This fact has a very important implication: there exist protein production regimes characterized by sub-Poissonian noise because of negative covariance between the two stochastic variables of the model. Hence the protein numbers obey a probability distribution that has a peak that is sharper than those of the two coupled Poisson processes that are combined to produce it. Biochemically, the noise reduction in protein number occurs when the switching of genetic state is more rapid than protein synthesis or degradation. We consider the chemical reaction rates necessary for Poisson and sub-Poisson processes in prokaryotes and eucaryotes. Our results suggest that the coupling of multiple stochastic processes in a negative covariance regime might be a widespread mechanism for noise reduction. PMID:25768447

  7. Gene regulation and noise reduction by coupling of stochastic processes.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Alexandre F; Hornos, José Eduardo M; Reinitz, John

    2015-02-01

    Here we characterize the low-noise regime of a stochastic model for a negative self-regulating binary gene. The model has two stochastic variables, the protein number and the state of the gene. Each state of the gene behaves as a protein source governed by a Poisson process. The coupling between the two gene states depends on protein number. This fact has a very important implication: There exist protein production regimes characterized by sub-Poissonian noise because of negative covariance between the two stochastic variables of the model. Hence the protein numbers obey a probability distribution that has a peak that is sharper than those of the two coupled Poisson processes that are combined to produce it. Biochemically, the noise reduction in protein number occurs when the switching of the genetic state is more rapid than protein synthesis or degradation. We consider the chemical reaction rates necessary for Poisson and sub-Poisson processes in prokaryotes and eucaryotes. Our results suggest that the coupling of multiple stochastic processes in a negative covariance regime might be a widespread mechanism for noise reduction.

  8. Collecting duct principal cell transport processes and their regulation.

    PubMed

    Pearce, David; Soundararajan, Rama; Trimpert, Christiane; Kashlan, Ossama B; Deen, Peter M T; Kohan, Donald E

    2015-01-07

    The principal cell of the kidney collecting duct is one of the most highly regulated epithelial cell types in vertebrates. The effects of hormonal, autocrine, and paracrine factors to regulate principal cell transport processes are central to the maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance in the face of wide variations in food and water intake. In marked contrast with the epithelial cells lining the proximal tubule, the collecting duct is electrically tight, and ion and osmotic gradients can be very high. The central role of principal cells in salt and water transport is reflected by their defining transporters-the epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC), the renal outer medullary K(+) channel, and the aquaporin 2 (AQP2) water channel. The coordinated regulation of ENaC by aldosterone, and AQP2 by arginine vasopressin (AVP) in principal cells is essential for the control of plasma Na(+) and K(+) concentrations, extracellular fluid volume, and BP. In addition to these essential hormones, additional neuronal, physical, and chemical factors influence Na(+), K(+), and water homeostasis. Notably, a variety of secreted paracrine and autocrine agents such as bradykinin, ATP, endothelin, nitric oxide, and prostaglandin E2 counterbalance and limit the natriferic effects of aldosterone and the water-retaining effects of AVP. Considerable recent progress has improved our understanding of the transporters, receptors, second messengers, and signaling events that mediate principal cell responses to changing environments in health and disease. This review primarily addresses the structure and function of the key transporters and the complex interplay of regulatory factors that modulate principal cell ion and water transport. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  9. Collecting Duct Principal Cell Transport Processes and Their Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Soundararajan, Rama; Trimpert, Christiane; Kashlan, Ossama B.; Deen, Peter M.T.; Kohan, Donald E.

    2015-01-01

    The principal cell of the kidney collecting duct is one of the most highly regulated epithelial cell types in vertebrates. The effects of hormonal, autocrine, and paracrine factors to regulate principal cell transport processes are central to the maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance in the face of wide variations in food and water intake. In marked contrast with the epithelial cells lining the proximal tubule, the collecting duct is electrically tight, and ion and osmotic gradients can be very high. The central role of principal cells in salt and water transport is reflected by their defining transporters—the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC), the renal outer medullary K+ channel, and the aquaporin 2 (AQP2) water channel. The coordinated regulation of ENaC by aldosterone, and AQP2 by arginine vasopressin (AVP) in principal cells is essential for the control of plasma Na+ and K+ concentrations, extracellular fluid volume, and BP. In addition to these essential hormones, additional neuronal, physical, and chemical factors influence Na+, K+, and water homeostasis. Notably, a variety of secreted paracrine and autocrine agents such as bradykinin, ATP, endothelin, nitric oxide, and prostaglandin E2 counterbalance and limit the natriferic effects of aldosterone and the water-retaining effects of AVP. Considerable recent progress has improved our understanding of the transporters, receptors, second messengers, and signaling events that mediate principal cell responses to changing environments in health and disease. This review primarily addresses the structure and function of the key transporters and the complex interplay of regulatory factors that modulate principal cell ion and water transport. PMID:24875192

  10. Novel transcriptional regulation of VEGF in inflammatory processes.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaoren; Yang, Yu; Yuan, Huaiping; You, Jian; Burkatovskaya, Marina; Amar, Salomon

    2013-03-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a critical angiogenic factor affecting endothelial cells, inflammatory cells and neuronal cells. In addition to its well-defined positive role in wound healing, pathological roles for VEGF have been described in cancer and inflammatory diseases (i.e. atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease and osteoarthritis). Recently, we showed that transcription factors LITAF and STAT6B affected the inflammatory response. This study builds upon our previous results in testing the role of mouse LITAF and STAT6B in the regulation of VEGF-mediated processes. Cells cotransfected with a series of VEGF promoter deletions along with truncated forms of mLITAF and/or mSTAT6B identified a DNA binding site (between -338 and -305 upstream of the transcription site) important in LITAF and/or STAT6B-mediated transcriptional regulation of VEGF. LITAF and STAT6B corresponding protein sites were identified. In addition, siRNA-mediated knockdown of mLITAF and/or mSTAT6B leads to significant reduction in VEGF mRNA levels and inhibits LPS-induced VEGF secretion in mouse RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, VEGF treatment of mouse macrophage or endothelial cells induces LITAF/STAT6B nuclear translocation and cell migration. To translate these observations in vivo, VEGF164-soaked matrigel were implanted in whole-body LITAF-deficient animals (TamLITAF(-/-) ), wild-type mice silenced for STAT6B, and in respective control animals. Vessel formation was found significantly reduced in TamLITAF(-/-) as well as in STAT6B-silenced wild-type animals compared with control animals. The present data demonstrate that VEGF regulation by LITAF and/or STAT6B is important in angiogenesis signalling pathways and may be a useful target in the treatment of VEGF diseases. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Transcriptional regulation of the processes of human labour and delivery.

    PubMed

    Lappas, M; Rice, G E

    2009-03-01

    Preterm birth is the most important complication contributing to poor pregnancy and neonatal outcome. A critical issue that must be resolved is how spontaneous onset labour is initiated both at term and preterm. Over the past decade, we and others have provided evidence in support of the hypothesis that labour onset is regulated by specific nuclear regulatory factor (NR) pathways, involving an interplay between transcription factors (TFs) and nuclear hormone receptors, that control the expression of many of the effector pathways requisite for labour and delivery. There is now compelling evidence implicating NRs, including the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) family of nuclear TFs, the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs), and the steroid receptors for progesterone (PRA, PRB and PRC), as candidate upstream regulators of labour-associated processes. Based on these studies and recent data obtained in our laboratory, we provide a new model of how the multiple pathways involved in spontaneous onset labour and delivery are coordinated at a nuclear level. We propose that spontaneous onset labour and delivery are consequent upon withdrawal of the repressive effect of nuclear receptors (PPAR and PR) on pro-labour TF pathways (NF-kappaB). The withdrawal of NR-mediated repression is affected by competition between TFs and NRs for a limited pool of nuclear cofactors. We also propose that coordination of these different pathways is achieved by competition for common cofactors that control the activity of NRs in human gestational tissues.

  12. Occupational exposures to uranium: processes, hazards, and regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Stoetzel, G.A.; Fisher, D.R.; McCormack, W.D.; Hoenes, G.R.; Marks, S.; Moore, R.H.; Quilici, D.G.; Breitenstein, B.D.

    1981-04-01

    The United States Uranium Registry (USUR) was formed in 1978 to investigate potential hazards from occupational exposure to uranium and to assess the need for special health-related studies of uranium workers. This report provides a summary of Registry work done to date. The history of the uranium industry is outlined first, and the current commercial uranium industry (mining, milling, conversion, enrichment, and fuel fabrication) is described. This description includes information on basic processes and areas of greatest potential radiological exposure. In addition, inactive commercial facilities and other uranium operations are discussed. Regulation of the commercial production industry for uranium fuel is reported, including the historic development of regulations and the current regulatory agencies and procedures for each phase of the industry. A review of radiological health practices in the industry - facility monitoring, exposure control, exposure evaluation, and record-keeping - is presented. A discussion of the nonradiological hazards of the industry is provided, and the final section describes the tissue program developed as part of the Registry.

  13. Association between central auditory processing mechanism and cardiac autonomic regulation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to describe the association between central auditory processing mechanism and the cardiac autonomic regulation. Methods It was researched papers on the topic addressed in this study considering the following data bases: Medline, Pubmed, Lilacs, Scopus and Cochrane. The key words were: “auditory stimulation, heart rate, autonomic nervous system and P300”. Results The findings in the literature demonstrated that auditory stimulation influences the autonomic nervous system and has been used in conjunction with other methods. It is considered a promising step in the investigation of therapeutic procedures for rehabilitation and quality of life of several pathologies. Conclusion The association between auditory stimulation and the level of the cardiac autonomic nervous system has received significant contributions in relation to musical stimuli. PMID:24834128

  14. Photoperiod Regulates vgf-Derived Peptide Processing in Siberian Hamsters.

    PubMed

    Noli, Barbara; Brancia, Carla; Pilleri, Roberta; D'Amato, Filomena; Messana, Irene; Manconi, Barbara; Ebling, Francis J P; Ferri, Gian-Luca; Cocco, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    VGF mRNA is induced in specific hypothalamic areas of the Siberian hamster upon exposure to short photoperiods, which is associated with a seasonal decrease in appetite and weight loss. Processing of VGF generates multiple bioactive peptides, so the objective of this study was to determine the profile of the VGF-derived peptides in the brain, pituitary and plasma from Siberian hamsters, and to establish whether differential processing might occur in the short day lean state versus long day fat. Antisera against short sequences at the C- or N- termini of proVGF, as well as against NERP-1, TPGH and TLQP peptides, were used for analyses of tissues, and both immunohistochemistry and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) coupled with high-performance liquid (HPLC) or gel chromatography were carried out. VGF peptide immunoreactivity was found within cortex cholinergic perikarya, in multiple hypothalamic nuclei, including those containing vasopressin, and in pituitary gonadotrophs. ELISA revealed that exposure to short day photoperiod led to a down-regulation of VGF immunoreactivity in the cortex, and a less pronounced decrease in the hypothalamus and pituitary, while the plasma VGF levels were not affected by the photoperiod. HPLC and gel chromatography both confirmed the presence of multiple VGF-derived peptides in these tissues, while gel chromatography showed the presence of the VGF precursor in all tissues tested except for the cortex. These observations are consistent with the view that VGF-derived peptides have pleiotropic actions related to changing photoperiod, possibly by regulating cholinergic systems in the cortex, vasopressin hypothalamic pathways, and the reproductive axis.

  15. Photoperiod Regulates vgf-Derived Peptide Processing in Siberian Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Noli, Barbara; Brancia, Carla; Pilleri, Roberta; D’Amato, Filomena; Messana, Irene; Manconi, Barbara; Ebling, Francis J. P.; Ferri, Gian-Luca; Cocco, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    VGF mRNA is induced in specific hypothalamic areas of the Siberian hamster upon exposure to short photoperiods, which is associated with a seasonal decrease in appetite and weight loss. Processing of VGF generates multiple bioactive peptides, so the objective of this study was to determine the profile of the VGF-derived peptides in the brain, pituitary and plasma from Siberian hamsters, and to establish whether differential processing might occur in the short day lean state versus long day fat. Antisera against short sequences at the C- or N- termini of proVGF, as well as against NERP-1, TPGH and TLQP peptides, were used for analyses of tissues, and both immunohistochemistry and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) coupled with high-performance liquid (HPLC) or gel chromatography were carried out. VGF peptide immunoreactivity was found within cortex cholinergic perikarya, in multiple hypothalamic nuclei, including those containing vasopressin, and in pituitary gonadotrophs. ELISA revealed that exposure to short day photoperiod led to a down-regulation of VGF immunoreactivity in the cortex, and a less pronounced decrease in the hypothalamus and pituitary, while the plasma VGF levels were not affected by the photoperiod. HPLC and gel chromatography both confirmed the presence of multiple VGF-derived peptides in these tissues, while gel chromatography showed the presence of the VGF precursor in all tissues tested except for the cortex. These observations are consistent with the view that VGF-derived peptides have pleiotropic actions related to changing photoperiod, possibly by regulating cholinergic systems in the cortex, vasopressin hypothalamic pathways, and the reproductive axis. PMID:26555143

  16. 76 FR 11331 - New Animal Drugs for Minor Use and Minor Species; Confirmation of Effective Date

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 516 RIN 0910-AG58 New Animal Drugs for Minor Use... November 15, 2010 (75 FR 69586). The direct final rule amends the regulations regarding new animal drugs for minor use and minor species (MUMS) to update language and clarify the intent of the regulations...

  17. Specialized Pro-Resolving Mediators from Omega-3 Fatty Acids Improve Amyloid-β Phagocytosis and Regulate Inflammation in Patients with Minor Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Fiala, Milan; Terrando, Niccolo; Dalli, Jesmond

    2015-01-01

    In this review we discuss the immunopathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and recent advances in the prevention of minor cognitive impairment (MCI) by nutritional supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids. Defective phagocytosis of amyloid-β (Aβ) and abnormal inflammatory activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are the two key immune pathologies of MCI and AD patients. The phagocytosis of Aβ by PBMCs of MCI and AD patients is universally defective and the inflammatory gene transcription is heterogeneously deregulated in comparison to normal subjects. Recent studies have discovered a cornucopia of beneficial anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving effects of the specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs) resolvins, protectins, maresins, and their metabolic precursors. Resolvin D1 and other mediators switch macrophages from an inflammatory to a tissue protective/pro-resolving phenotype and increase phagocytosis of Aβ. In a recent study of AD and MCI patients, nutritional supplementation by omega-3 fatty acids individually increased resolvin D1, improved Aβ phagocytosis, and regulated inflammatory genes toward a physiological state, but only in MCI patients. Our studies are beginning to dissect positive factors (adherence to Mediterranean diet with omega-3 and exercise) and negative factors (high fat diet, infections, cancer, and surgeries) in each patient. The in vitro and in vivo effects of omega-3 fatty acids and SPMs suggest that defective phagocytosis and chronic inflammation are related to defective production and/or defective signaling by SPMs in immune cells.

  18. 14 CFR 152.419 - Minority business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minority business. 152.419 Section 152.419... AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Nondiscrimination in Airport Aid Program § 152.419 Minority business. Each person subject to this subpart is required to comply with the Minority Business Enterprise Regulations of the...

  19. 14 CFR 152.419 - Minority business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minority business. 152.419 Section 152.419... AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Nondiscrimination in Airport Aid Program § 152.419 Minority business. Each person subject to this subpart is required to comply with the Minority Business Enterprise Regulations of the...

  20. 14 CFR 152.419 - Minority business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minority business. 152.419 Section 152.419... AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Nondiscrimination in Airport Aid Program § 152.419 Minority business. Each person subject to this subpart is required to comply with the Minority Business Enterprise Regulations of the...

  1. 14 CFR 152.419 - Minority business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minority business. 152.419 Section 152.419... AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Nondiscrimination in Airport Aid Program § 152.419 Minority business. Each person subject to this subpart is required to comply with the Minority Business Enterprise Regulations of the...

  2. 14 CFR 152.419 - Minority business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minority business. 152.419 Section 152.419... AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Nondiscrimination in Airport Aid Program § 152.419 Minority business. Each person subject to this subpart is required to comply with the Minority Business Enterprise Regulations of the...

  3. A processed noncoding RNA regulates an altruistic bacterial antiviral system.

    PubMed

    Blower, Tim R; Pei, Xue Y; Short, Francesca L; Fineran, Peter C; Humphreys, David P; Luisi, Ben F; Salmond, George P C

    2011-02-01

    The ≥ 10³⁰ bacteriophages on Earth relentlessly drive adaptive coevolution, forcing the generation of protective mechanisms in their bacterial hosts. One such bacterial phage-resistance system, ToxIN, consists of a protein toxin (ToxN) that is inhibited in vivo by a specific RNA antitoxin (ToxI); however, the mechanisms for this toxicity and inhibition have not been defined. Here we present the crystal structure of the ToxN-ToxI complex from Pectobacterium atrosepticum, determined to 2.75-Å resolution. ToxI is a 36-nucleotide noncoding RNA pseudoknot, and three ToxI monomers bind to three ToxN monomers to generate a trimeric ToxN-ToxI complex. Assembly of this complex is mediated entirely through extensive RNA-protein interactions. Furthermore, a 2'-3' cyclic phosphate at the 3' end of ToxI, and catalytic residues, identify ToxN as an endoRNase that processes ToxI from a repetitive precursor but is regulated by its own catalytic product.

  4. High-gain nonlinear observer for simple genetic regulation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, L. A.; Ibarra-Junquera, V.; Escalante-Minakata, P.; Rosu, H. C.

    2007-07-01

    High-gain nonlinear observers occur in the nonlinear automatic control theory and are in standard usage in chemical engineering processes. We apply such a type of analysis in the context of a very simple one-gene regulation circuit. In general, an observer combines an analytical differential-equation-based model with partial measurement of the system in order to estimate the non-measured state variables. We use one of the simplest observers, that of Gauthier et al., which is a copy of the original system plus a correction term which is easy to calculate. For the illustration of this procedure, we employ a biological model, recently adapted from Goodwin's old book by De Jong, in which one plays with the dynamics of the concentrations of the messenger RNA coding for a given protein, the protein itself, and a single metabolite. Using the observer instead of the metabolite, it is possible to rebuild the non-measured concentrations of the mRNA and the protein.

  5. Alternative approaches to environmental regulation: Prescription, process, incentives and space

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, R.D.

    1997-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to perform a systematic, comparative analysis of several approaches to environmental regulation and planning. These include such approaches as prescription (Command-Control), process (EMS), incentives (Market Mechanisms), and space (New Urbanism). The wider analysis is timely given the attention that has been recently directed toward such new approaches as Environmental Management Systems (EMS) under ISO 14001. This paper will initially examine the aim, purpose, requirements, and outcomes of each of these alternative regimes. Doing this in terms of common considerations will facilitate a constructive analysis across all regimes. In turn, the advantages and disadvantages of each of these approaches will be analyzed. Relevant examples will be utilized to illustrate points. Rather than emphasizing the merits or demerits of one approach vs. another, it will be shown that a more constructive strategy would be to consider contextual factors when determining which regime or combination of regimes to apply. In this way, better guidance can be provided when considering possible regulatory alternatives thereby contributing to the more effective attainment of environmental planning goals.

  6. Ayahuasca and the process of regulation in Brazil and internationally: implications and challenges.

    PubMed

    Labate, Beatriz Caiuby; Feeney, Kevin

    2012-03-01

    This paper provides a summary and analysis of the regulation of ayahuasca in Brazil, from its prohibition in the mid-eighties to the recent adoption of CONAD's (Conselho Nacional de Políticas sobre Drogas) 2010 Resolution, which established a set of rules, norms and ethical principles to be applied to religious and ritual uses of ayahuasca. Brazil's regulatory process is used as a starting point to explore emerging international regulatory themes as various nations respond to the global expansion of the Santo Daime and UDV (União do Vegetal) ayahuasca religions. The text reviews the primary legislative and court documents, academic literature, as well as solicited expert opinions. Three prominent themes have emerged internationally. The first concerns the scope of international treaties regarding plant-based psychoactive substances, as well as the responsibilities of individual nations to adhere to said treaties. The second concerns the scope of religious liberty and how to determine religious legitimacy. The final theme addresses the potential dangers of ayahuasca to health and public safety. Over the past 20 years the Brazilian ayahuasca religions have established a global presence, with congregations in the USA, Canada, Japan, South Africa, Australia, and throughout Europe and Latin America. As a result, many nations are faced with the predicament of balancing the interests of these religious minorities with the international "war on drugs." The regulatory process applied in Brazil exemplifies a progressive approach, one which considered issues of anthropology and involved representatives of ayahuasca religions, and which provided a degree of deference to the principle of religious liberty. The Brazilian process has influenced judicial and administrative decisions internationally, and stands as a model worthy of further consideration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 77 FR 2682 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; DoD Voucher Processing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... Regulation Supplement; DoD Voucher Processing AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: DoD is proposing to amend the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to update DoD's voucher processing procedures and better accommodate the use...

  8. Individual Differences in Trajectories of Emotion Regulation Processes: The Effects of Maternal Depressive Symptomatology and Children's Physiological Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blandon, Alysia Y.; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.; O'Brien, Marion

    2008-01-01

    Trajectories of emotion regulation processes were examined in a community sample of 269 children across the ages of 4 to 7 using hierarchical linear modeling. Maternal depressive symptomatology (Symptom Checklist-90) and children's physiological reactivity (respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]) and vagal regulation ([delta]RSA) were explored as…

  9. Parental Regulation of Teenagers' Time: Processes and Meanings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarre, Sophie

    2010-01-01

    Parental regulation of teenagers' time is pervasive. Parents attempt to constrain, well into adolescence, what their children do with their time, when they do it and how long they do it for. This article draws on interviews with 14- to 16-year-olds in the UK to explore teenagers' experiences of parents' temporal regulation, and whether their…

  10. A Nucleus-Imaging Probe That Selectively Stabilizes a Minor Conformation of c-MYC G-quadruplex and Down-regulates c-MYC Transcription in Human Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Deepanjan; Debnath, Manish; Mandal, Samir; Bessi, Irene; Schwalbe, Harald; Dash, Jyotirmayee

    2015-01-01

    The c-MYC proto-oncogene is a regulator of fundamental cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and apoptosis. The development of novel c-MYC inhibitors that can act by targeting the c-MYC DNA G-quadruplex at the level of transcription would provide potential insight into structure-based design of small molecules and lead to a promising arena for cancer therapy. Herein we report our finding that two simple bis-triazolylcarbazole derivatives can inhibit c-MYC transcription, possibly by stabilizing the c-MYC G-quadruplex. These compounds are prepared using a facile and modular approach based on Cu(I) catalysed azide and alkyne cycloaddition. A carbazole ligand with carboxamide side chains is found to be microenvironment-sensitive and highly selective for “turn-on” detection of c-MYC quadruplex over duplex DNA. This fluorescent probe is applicable to visualize the cellular nucleus in living cells. Interestingly, the ligand binds to c-MYC in an asymmetric fashion and selects the minor-populated conformer via conformational selection. PMID:26286633

  11. Self-regulation and selective exposure: the impact of depleted self-regulation resources on confirmatory information processing.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Frey, Dieter

    2008-03-01

    In the present research, the authors investigated the impact of self-regulation resources on confirmatory information processing, that is, the tendency of individuals to systematically prefer standpoint-consistent information to standpoint-inconsistent information in information evaluation and search. In 4 studies with political and economic decision-making scenarios, it was consistently found that individuals with depleted self-regulation resources exhibited a stronger tendency for confirmatory information processing than did individuals with nondepleted self-regulation resources. Alternative explanations based on processes of ego threat, cognitive load, and mood were ruled out. Mediational analyses suggested that individuals with depleted self-regulation resources experienced increased levels of commitment to their own standpoint, which resulted in increased confirmatory information processing. In sum, the impact of ego depletion on confirmatory information search seems to be more motivational than cognitive in nature.

  12. Regulation of chronic inflammatory and immune processes by extracellular vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Dorronsoro, Akaitz; Booker, Cori N.

    2016-01-01

    Almost all cell types release extracellular vesicles (EVs), which are derived either from multivesicular bodies or from the plasma membrane. EVs contain a subset of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids from the cell from which they are derived. EV factors, particularly small RNAs such as miRNAs, likely play important roles in cell-to-cell communication both locally and systemically. Most of the functions associated with EVs are in the regulation of immune responses to pathogens and cancer, as well as in regulating autoimmunity. This Review will focus on the different modes of immune regulation, both direct and indirect, by EVs. The therapeutic utility of EVs for the regulation of immune responses will also be discussed. PMID:27035808

  13. Regulation of chronic inflammatory and immune processes by extracellular vesicles.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Paul D; Dorronsoro, Akaitz; Booker, Cori N

    2016-04-01

    Almost all cell types release extracellular vesicles (EVs), which are derived either from multivesicular bodies or from the plasma membrane. EVs contain a subset of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids from the cell from which they are derived. EV factors, particularly small RNAs such as miRNAs, likely play important roles in cell-to-cell communication both locally and systemically. Most of the functions associated with EVs are in the regulation of immune responses to pathogens and cancer, as well as in regulating autoimmunity. This Review will focus on the different modes of immune regulation, both direct and indirect, by EVs. The therapeutic utility of EVs for the regulation of immune responses will also be discussed.

  14. Minority-carrier lifetime enhancement in edge-defined film-fed grown Si through rapid thermal processing-assisted reduction of hydrogen-defect dissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayashiki, Kenta; Rohatgi, Ajeet; Ostapenko, Sergei; Tarasov, Igor

    2005-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that a very short, 1-s, simultaneous firing of screen-printed Al at the back and SiNx antireflection (AR) coating at the front can significantly enhance the minority-carrier lifetime in edge-defined film-fed grown (EFG) ribbon Si via SiNx-induced hydrogen passivation of defects. It was found that 1-s firing in a rapid thermal processing system at an optimum temperature improved the average minority-carrier lifetime from 3to>80μs, resulting in ˜16% efficient 4-cm2 screen-printed EFG Si cells. It is proposed that rapid thermal firing enhances the retention of hydrogen at defect sites by minimizing the hydrogen-defect dissociation. A combination of simulations and experiments reveals that the dissociation of hydrogen is extremely rapid at conventional firing temperatures of ˜700°C. An activation energy of 2.4-2.6eV was determined for the hydrogen-defect dissociation in EFG Si. This activation energy, in conjunction with the room-temperature photoluminescence data, suggests that the impurity-decorated dislocations are the dominant hydrogenation and dehydrogenation sites in the EFG Si. Based on the above understanding, a manufacturable process, involving rapid co-firing of SiNx AR coating, screen-printed Al-doped back surface field (Al-BSF), and screen-printed Ag front grid, was developed in a conventional belt furnace to minimize the degree of dehydrogenation while producing good Al-BSF and ohmic contacts. This process produced 4-cm2 screen-printed EFG Si cells with an efficiency of 15.9%.

  15. NAFTA Minor Use Joint Reviews

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA and Health Canada Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA) worked together to develop a registration process that will permit a regulatory decision of pesticide uses for the minor use grower communities in both countries simultaneously.

  16. EFFECT OF MINOR ADDITIONS OF HYDROGEN TO ARGON SHIELDING GAS WHEN WELDING AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL WITH THE GTAW PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    CANNELL, G.R.

    2004-12-15

    This paper provides the technical basis to conclude that the use of hydrogen containing shielding gases during welding of austenitic stainless steels will not lead to hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) of the weld or weld heat affected zone. Argon-hydrogen gas mixtures, with hydrogen additions up to 35% [1], have been successfully used as the shielding gas in gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) of austenitic stainless steels. The addition of hydrogen improves weld pool wettability, bead shape control, surface cleanliness and heat input. The GTAW process is used extensively for welding various grades of stainless steel and is preferred when a very high weld quality is desired, such as that required for closure welding of nuclear materials packages. The use of argon-hydrogen gas mixtures for high-quality welding is occasionally questioned, primarily because of concern over the potential for HIC. This paper was written specifically to provide a technical basis for using an argon-hydrogen shielding gas in conjunction with the development, at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), of an ''optimized'' closure welding process for the DOE standardized spent nuclear fuel canister [2]. However, the basis developed here can be applied to other applications in which the use of an argon-hydrogen shielding gas for GTAW welding of austenitic stainless steels is desired.

  17. 76 FR 19120 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Drawback Process Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Drawback Process... CBP is soliciting comments concerning the following information collection: Title: Drawback Process... information related to the drawback process are required to implement provisions of 19 CFR, Part 191, which...

  18. The electrolytical processes in dirty ices: implications for origin and chemistry of minor bodies and related objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drobyshevski, E. M.; Chesnakov, V. A.; Sinitsyn, V. V.

    Many moonlike bodies (M ~= 1 Moon) beyond the Martian orbit contain large amounts of dirty ice (~ 50%) forming thick mantle with the solid phase thermal convection. When a body moves through the inter- or nearplanetary magnetized plasma, electric current is generated in the body and its environment. The current passing through a dirty ice containing up to 10% of organic admixtures produces a lot of electrochemical effects which have a profound impact on its composition. At this stage one can hardly say something definite concerning changes experienced by organics. The changes must occur inevitably and can be of a rather unexpected and far-reaching nature, so deserving a close study. Another obvious effect is a volumetric electrolysis of ice containing alien inclusions. The electrolysis products accumulate in ice in the form of a solid solution which is capable of detonation at 15-20 wt.% of 2H_2 + O_2. If M >= 1 Moon (Galilean satellites, Titan), the body loses in explosion a part of its mass in the form of vapor and ice fragments (= short-period comet nuclei), whereas if M <= 0.2 Moon, the body breaks up totally (the Main Belt asteroids origin ~ 3.9 Byr ago). 2H_2 + O_2 containing cometary nuclei are capable of burning or suffer new explosions when receiving an additional energy. The combustion in the sublimation products containing also light organics and 2H_2 + O_2 explains unexpected energetics and nearnuclear chemistry of Comet P/Halley (e.g. great abundances of negative and positive ions, atomic carbon, CO over CO_2, origin of CHON particles etc) and its distant outbursts correlated, possibly, with the Solar activity. Thus the electrochemical processes in the dirty ice with organics, along with its subsequent thermal, radiative etc. processing, open up new potentials for explanation and prediction of quite unexpected discoveries.

  19. The electrolytical processes in dirty ices: implications for origin and chemistry of minor bodies and related objects.

    PubMed

    Drobyshevski, E M; Chesnakov, V A; Sinitsyn, V V

    1995-01-01

    Many moonlike bodies (M approximately or = 1 Moon) beyond the Martian orbit contain large amounts of dirty ice (approximately 50%) forming thick mantle with the solid phase thermal convection. When a body moves through the inter- or nearplanetary magnetized plasma, electric current is generated in the body and its environment. The current passing through a dirty ice containing up to 10% of organic admixtures produces a lot of electrochemical effects which have a profound impact on its composition. At this stage one can hardly say something definite concerning changes experienced by organics. The changes must occur inevitably and can be of a rather unexpected and far-reaching nature, so deserving a close study. Another obvious effect is a volumetric electrolysis of ice containing alien inclusions. The electrolysis products accumulate in ice in the form of a solid solution which is capable of detonation at 15-20 wt.% of 2H2 + O2. If M > or = 1 Moon (Galilean satellites, Titan), the body loses in explosion a part of its mass in the form of vapor and ice fragments (=short-period comet nuclei), whereas if M < or = 0.2 Moon, the body breaks up totally (the Main Belt asteroids origin approximately 3.9 Byr ago). 2H2 + O2 containing cometary nuclei are capable of burning or suffer new explosions when receiving an additional energy. The combustion in the sublimation products containing also light organics and 2H2 + O2 explains unexpected energetics and nearnuclear chemistry of Comet P/Halley (e.g. great abundances of negative and positive ions, atomic carbon, CO over CO2, origin of CHON particles etc) and its distant outbursts correlated, possibly, with the Solar activity. Thus the electrochemical processes in the dirty ice with organics, along with its subsequent thermal, radiative etc. processing, open up new potentials for explanation and prediction of quite unexpected discoveries.

  20. Self-Regulation Processes and Thriving in Childhood and Adolescence: A View of the Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Richard M.; Lerner, Jacqueline V.; Bowers, Edmond P.; Lewin-Bizan, Selva; Gestsdottir, Steinunn; Urban, Jennifer Brown

    2011-01-01

    Both organismic and intentional self-regulation processes must be integrated across childhood and adolescence for adaptive developmental regulations to exist and for the developing person to thrive, both during the first two decades of life and through the adult years. To date, such an integrated, life-span approach to self-regulation during…

  1. Effects of Self-Regulated Vocabulary Learning Process on Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizumoto, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    Researchers, especially in the field of educational psychology, have argued that self-efficacy plays an important role in self-regulated learning. As such, teaching of self-regulated learning often focuses on enhancing self-efficacy. However, few studies have examined how the process of self-regulated learning might lead to the enhancement of…

  2. Self-Regulation Processes and Thriving in Childhood and Adolescence: A View of the Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Richard M.; Lerner, Jacqueline V.; Bowers, Edmond P.; Lewin-Bizan, Selva; Gestsdottir, Steinunn; Urban, Jennifer Brown

    2011-01-01

    Both organismic and intentional self-regulation processes must be integrated across childhood and adolescence for adaptive developmental regulations to exist and for the developing person to thrive, both during the first two decades of life and through the adult years. To date, such an integrated, life-span approach to self-regulation during…

  3. The electrolytical processes in dirty ices: Implications for origin and chemistry of minor bodies and related objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drobyshevski, E. M.; Chesnakov, V. A.; Sinitsyn, V. V.

    1995-07-01

    Many moonlike bodies (M approximately equal to 1 Moon) beyond the Martian orbit contain large amounts of dirty ice (approximately 50%) forming a thick mantle with the solid phase thermal convection. When a body moves through the inter- or nearplanetray magnetized plasma, electric current is generated in the body and its environment. The current passing through a dirty ice containing up to 10% organic admixtures produces a lot of electrochemical effects which have a profound impact on its composition. At this stage one can hardly say something definite concerning changes experienced by organics. The changes must occur inevitably and can be of a rather unexpected and far-reaching nature, thus deserving close study. Another obvious effect is a volumetric electrolysis of ice containing alien inclusions. The electrolysis products accumulate in ice in the form of a solid solution which is capable of detonation at 15-20 wt.% of 2H2 + O2. If M is greater that or approximately equal to 1 Moon (Galilean satellites, Titan), the body loses in explosion a part of its mass in the form of vapor and ice fragments (i.e. short-period (SP) comet nuclei), whereas if M is less than or approximately equal to 0.2 Moon, the body breaks up totally (the Main Belt (MB) asteroids origin approximately 3.9 Byr ago). 2H2 + O2 containing cometary nuclei are capable of burning or suffering new explosions when receiving additional energy. The combustion in the sublimation products containing light organics and 2H2 + O2 explains unexpected energetics and near-nuclear chemistry of Comet P/Halley (e.g. great abundances of negative and positive ions, atomic carbon, Co over CO2, origin of CHON particles, etc) and its distant outbursts correlated, possibly with Solar activity. Thus the electrochemical processes in the dirty ice with organics, along with its subsequent thermal, radiative etc. processing, open up new potentials for explanation and prediction of quite unexpected discoveries.

  4. Fire and grazing regulate belowground processes in tallgrass prairie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Loretta C.; Matchett, John R.

    2001-01-01

    In tallgrass prairie, belowground processes are even more important than in forested systems because aboveground biomass and standing dead litter are periodically removed by frequent fires or grazers. Thus, studies that address factors regulating belowground processes are especially relevant for tallgrass prairie. We predicted that effects of grazing and burning differ belowground and that changes in root productivity caused by burning or grazing provide feedback that affects ecosystem fluxes of C and N. These differences in belowground response should be driven largely by changes in N dynamics and the degree to which burning and grazing affect the pathway and magnitude of N loss and the degree of N limitation in these systems. Fire, the major pathway of N loss in ungrazed tallgrass prairie, should result in reduced net N mineralization and N availability. We expected plants to compensate for increased N limitation by increasing their allocation to roots, as manifested in increased soil respiration and C cycling belowground. In contrast, grazing conserves N in the ecosystem by redistributing the N once contained in grass to labile forms in urine and dung. Thus, we predicted that grazing should increase N cycling rates and N availability to plants. Consequently, grazed plants should be less N limited and should allocate less C to roots and more to shoots. This, in turn, should decrease belowground C cycling, manifested as reduced soil CO2 flux.We explored the roles of grazing and burning on root growth in experimental watersheds at Konza Prairie, Kansas, USA. To assess effects of fire on root productivity, we installed root ingrowth cores in two watersheds without grazers that differ in fire frequency: annually vs. infrequently burned (four years since the last fire). To assess effects of grazing, we installed root ingrowth cores in an annually burned watershed grazed by bison and in fenced controls (exclosures). Within bison “grazing lawns,” root ingrowth cores

  5. Effects of Hydrazines upon Cyclic Nucleotide Regulated Neuronal Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-30

    of adenylate cyclase, however, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a slow, infec- in neuronal membranes this enzyme can be tious, progressive...61102F 2312 UPONI CYFCLIC NECLEOTIDE REGULATED NEURONAL RESP+SES 12. PORSONAIL AUTMORIS) Mark MI. Rasenick, Ph.D. 934L TYPE OF REPORT 131m. Time...CT TERMI AS Icon hN.. on powe"~ 4f mete~up *ad Idendfy by. Week mum Imr) "peLo GROUP sun. owr Neuronal Signal, Transduction, Cytoskeleton

  6. Local Restaurant Smoking Regulations and the Adolescent Smoking Initiation Process

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Michael; Albers, Alison B.; Cheng, Debbie M.; Hamilton, William L.; Biener, Lois

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess whether smoke-free restaurant laws influence the progression from (1) never smoking to early experimentation and (2) early experimentation to established smoking. Design A longitudinal, 4-year, 3-wave study of a representative sample of Massachusetts youth. Setting A total of 301 Massachusetts communities. Participants Study participants were 3834 Massachusetts youths aged 12 to 17 years at baseline, from January 2, 2001, to June 18, 2002, of whom 2791 (72.8%) were reinterviewed after 2 years (from January 30, 2003, to July 31, 2004) and 2217 (57.8%) were reinterviewed after 4 years (from February 16, 2005, to March 26, 2006). Wave 3 respondents were recruited from both those who responded at wave 2 and those who did not. Main Exposure The primary predictor of interest is the strength of the local restaurant smoking regulation in the respondents’ town of residence at the baseline of each transition period. Main Outcome Measures (1) Overall progression to established smoking (having smoked ≥100 cigarettes in one’s lifetime), (2) transition from nonsmoking (never having puffed a cigarette) to experimentation, and (3) transition from experimentation to established smoking. Results Youths living in towns with a strong restaurant smoking regulation at baseline had significantly lower odds of progressing to established smoking (odds ratio, 0.60; 95% confidence interval, 0.42–0.85) compared with those living in towns with weak regulations. The observed association between strong restaurant smoking regulations and impeded progression to established smoking was entirely due to an effect on the transition from experimentation to established smoking (odds ratio, 0.53; 95% confidence interval, 0.33–0.86). Conclusion Local smoke-free restaurant laws may significantly lower youth smoking initiation by impeding the progression from cigarette experimentation to established smoking. PMID:18458195

  7. Trace-Based Microanalytic Measurement of Self-Regulated Learning Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siadaty, Melody; Gaševic, Dragan; Hatala, Marek

    2016-01-01

    To keep pace with today's rapidly growing knowledge-driven society, productive self-regulation of one's learning processes are essential. We introduce and discuss a trace-based measurement protocol to measure the effects of scaffolding interventions on self-regulated learning (SRL) processes. It guides tracing of learners' actions in a learning…

  8. Sliding mode control: an approach to regulate nonlinear chemical processes

    PubMed

    Camacho; Smith

    2000-01-01

    A new approach for the design of sliding mode controllers based on a first-order-plus-deadtime model of the process, is developed. This approach results in a fixed structure controller with a set of tuning equations as a function of the characteristic parameters of the model. The controller performance is judged by simulations on two nonlinear chemical processes.

  9. Adolescents' conscious processes of developing regulation: learning to appraise challenges.

    PubMed

    Larson, Reed W

    2011-01-01

    To understand regulation and agency, it important to consider the nature of the regulatory challenges that adolescents must deal with. These include emotional, motivation, interpersonal, and other obstacles and problems. In this chapter, the author discusses the challenges reported by youth working on arts, technology, and social justice projects in organized programs and how they learn to address them. Adolescents' new higher-order cognitive capacities allow them to better understand the irregularities and complexity of real-world challenges. They also use these capacities to consciously develop skills to navigate these challenges. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  10. Sumoylation regulates EXO1 stability and processing of DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Bologna, Serena; Altmannova, Veronika; Valtorta, Emanuele; Koenig, Christiane; Liberali, Prisca; Gentili, Christian; Anrather, Dorothea; Ammerer, Gustav; Pelkmans, Lucas; Krejci, Lumir; Ferrari, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    DNA double-strand break repair by the error-free pathway of homologous recombination (HR) requires the concerted action of several factors. Among these, EXO1 and DNA2/BLM are responsible for the extensive resection of DNA ends to produce 3′-overhangs, which are essential intermediates for downstream steps of HR. Here we show that EXO1 is a SUMO target and that sumoylation affects EXO1 ubiquitylation and protein stability. We identify an UBC9-PIAS1/PIAS4-dependent mechanism controlling human EXO1 sumoylation in vivo and demonstrate conservation of this mechanism in yeast by the Ubc9-Siz1/Siz2 using an in vitro reconstituted system. Furthermore, we show physical interaction between EXO1 and the de-sumoylating enzyme SENP6 both in vitro and in vivo, promoting EXO1 stability. Finally, we identify the major sites of sumoylation in EXO1 and show that ectopic expression of a sumoylation-deficient form of EXO1 rescues the DNA damage-induced chromosomal aberrations observed upon wt-EXO1 expression. Thus, our study identifies a novel layer of regulation of EXO1, making the pathways that regulate its function an ideal target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26083678

  11. Gene regulation in the immediate-early response process.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Shahram; Drabløs, Finn

    2016-09-01

    Immediate-early genes (IEGs) can be activated and transcribed within minutes after stimulation, without the need for de novo protein synthesis, and they are stimulated in response to both cell-extrinsic and cell-intrinsic signals. Extracellular signals are transduced from the cell surface, through receptors activating a chain of proteins in the cell, in particular extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and members of the RhoA-actin pathway. These communicate through a signaling cascade by adding phosphate groups to neighboring proteins, and this will eventually activate and translocate TFs to the nucleus and thereby induce gene expression. The gene activation also involves proximal and distal enhancers that interact with promoters to simulate gene expression. The immediate-early genes have essential biological roles, in particular in stress response, like the immune system, and in differentiation. Therefore they also have important roles in various diseases, including cancer development. In this paper we summarize some recent advances on key aspects of the activation and regulation of immediate-early genes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Control modeling and regulation of plasma spraying process

    SciTech Connect

    Kankanala, S.V.; Kashani, R.

    1994-12-31

    Feedback control of plasma spraying will enhance the quality and consistency of coatings by increasing, as in any other process, the immunity of the process against uncertainties, such as parametric variations, and external disturbances. To synthesize any model-based controller for feedback control of the plasma spraying, the control model of the process is needed. In the first part of this study, the input/output data needed for system identification of the process, was generated using a one-dimensional model for the transient fluid flow and heat transfer in the plasma spraying process. In this paper, the data is generated from the solution of the thin-layer-Navier-Stokes (TLNS) equations. As before, the plasma velocity and temperature at the nozzle exit are randomly perturbed about their respective preset operating points. A multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) model is then developed to represent the relationship between the perturbed nozzle exit plasma velocity and temperature and the particle velocity and temperature before impact on the substrate.

  13. A self-regulating biomolecular comparator for processing oscillatory signals

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Deepak K.; Franco, Elisa; Schulman, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    While many cellular processes are driven by biomolecular oscillators, precise control of a downstream on/off process by a biochemical oscillator signal can be difficult: over an oscillator's period, its output signal varies continuously between its amplitude limits and spends a significant fraction of the time at intermediate values between these limits. Further, the oscillator's output is often noisy, with particularly large variations in the amplitude. In electronic systems, an oscillating signal is generally processed by a downstream device such as a comparator that converts a potentially noisy oscillatory input into a square wave output that is predominantly in one of two well-defined on and off states. The comparator's output then controls downstream processes. We describe a method for constructing a synthetic biochemical device that likewise produces a square-wave-type biomolecular output for a variety of oscillatory inputs. The method relies on a separation of time scales between the slow rate of production of an oscillatory signal molecule and the fast rates of intermolecular binding and conformational changes. We show how to control the characteristics of the output by varying the concentrations of the species and the reaction rates. We then use this control to show how our approach could be applied to process different in vitro and in vivo biomolecular oscillators, including the p53-Mdm2 transcriptional oscillator and two types of in vitro transcriptional oscillators. These results demonstrate how modular biomolecular circuits could, in principle, be combined to build complex dynamical systems. The simplicity of our approach also suggests that natural molecular circuits may process some biomolecular oscillator outputs before they are applied downstream. PMID:26378119

  14. Minor planets: the discovery of minor satellites.

    PubMed

    Binzel, R P; VAN Flandern, T C

    1979-03-02

    The recent confirmation of the discovery of a satellite of the minor planet 532 Herculina indicates that other similar anomalous sightings are probably also due to satellites, which must therefore be numerous and commonplace. There are now 23 candidate satellites for eight minor planets, and no one of these minor planets occulting a star has failed to show evidence of at least one secondary event. Such companions are gravitationally stable but apparently have rapid tidal evolution rates.

  15. N-Glycosylation Regulates ADAM8 Processing and Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Srimathi; Romagnoli, Mathilde; Bohm, Andrew; Sonenshein, Gail E.

    2014-01-01

    The transmembrane ADAM8 (A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase 8) protein is abundantly expressed in human breast tumors and derived metastases compared with normal breast tissue, and plays critical roles in aggressive Triple-Negative breast cancers (TNBCs). During ADAM8 maturation, the inactive proform dimerizes or multimerizes and autocatalytically removes the prodomain leading to the formation of the active, processed form. ADAM8 is a glycoprotein; however, little was known about the structure or functional role of these sugar moieties. Here, we report that in estrogen receptor (ER)α-negative, but not -positive, breast cancer cells ADAM8 contains N-glycosylation, which is required for its correct processing and activation. Consistently ADAM8 dimers were detected on the surface of ERα-negative breast cancer cells but not on ERα-positive ones. Site-directed mutagenesis confirmed four N-glycosylazhytion sites (Asn-67, Asn-91, Asn-436, and Asn-612) in human ADAM8. The Asn-67 and Asn-91 prodomain sites contained high mannose, whereas complex type N-glycosylation was observed on Asn-436 and Asn-612 in the active and remnant forms. The Asn-91 and Asn-612 sites were essential for its correct processing and cell surface localization, in particular its exit from the Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum, respectively. The N436Q mutation led to decreased ADAM8 stability due to enhanced lysosomal degradation. In contrast, mutation of the Asn-67 site had only modest effects on enzyme stability and processing. Thus, N-glycosylation is essential for processing, localization, stability, and activity of ADAM8. PMID:25336660

  16. Minor meteor shower activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rendtel, J.

    2016-01-01

    Video meteor observations provide us with data to analyze structures in minor meteor showers or weak features in flux profiles. Samples obtained independently by other techniques allow to calibrate the data sets and to improve the confidence of results as demonstrated with a few results. Both, the confirmation of events predicted by model calculation and the input of observational data to improve the modelling results may help to better understand meteoroid stream evolution processes. Furthermore, calibrated data series can be used for studies of the long-term evolution of meteor shower activity.

  17. [Participation of cholinergic mechanisms in the regulation of immunological processes].

    PubMed

    Gushchin, G V; Shkhinek, E K

    1979-01-01

    Chronic administration of cholinomimetic (arecolin, pilocarpin, nicotin) and cholinolytic (bezohexonium, pedifen) drugs produces changes of different directions in the number of rosette-forming cells in the spleen of CBA mice immunized with sheep red blood cells. The analysis performed does not allow the effect of the drugs on immunologic processes to be accounted for by an immediate action on lymphoid cells or by an action of the function of the pituitary-adrenal system.

  18. Granule Protein Processing and Regulated Secretion in Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Sheshachalam, Avinash; Srivastava, Nutan; Mitchell, Troy; Lacy, Paige; Eitzen, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophils are part of a family of granulocytes that, together with eosinophils and basophils, play an essential role in innate immunity. Neutrophils are the most abundant circulating leukocytes and are vital for rapid immune responses, being recruited to sites of injury or infection within minutes, where they can act as specialized phagocytic cells. However, another prominent function of neutrophils is the release of pro-inflammatory compounds, including cytokines, chemokines, and digestive enzymes, which are stored in intracellular compartments and released through regulated exocytosis. Hence, an important feature that contributes to rapid immune responses is capacity of neutrophils to synthesize and store pre-formed pro-inflammatory mediators in specialized intracellular vesicles and thus no new synthesis is required. This review will focus on advancement in three topics relevant to neutrophil secretion. First, we will examine what is known about basal level pro-inflammatory mediator synthesis, trafficking, and storage in secretory compartments. Second, we will review recent advancements in the mechanisms that control vesicle mobilization and the release of pre-formed mediators. Third, we will examine the upregulation and de novo synthesis of pro-inflammatory mediators by neutrophils engaged at sites of infection. PMID:25285096

  19. Lax regulation of oil vessels and processing facilities continues

    SciTech Connect

    Sankovitch, N.

    1993-12-31

    Four years after the grounding of the Exxon Valdez on Bligh Reef in 1989, oil spills continue to occur with alarming frequency: In 1992 the Shoko Maru spilled more than 96,000 gallons of crude oil into the Texas City Channel and a leak at an offshore well in Louisiana spilled at least 30,000 gallons; in 1991 alone, there were 677 spills in the Port of New Orleans, 398 spills in New York Harbor, 239 spills in Port of Hampton Roads, 235 spills in Port of Philadelphia, 130 spills in Seattle, and 116 spills in Boston Harbor. The amount of oil spilled in these ports alone in one year exceeded 300,000 gallons. The recent huge spills off foreign coasts-the Shetland Islands, the coasts of Spain and Indonesia-reinforce the importance of regulation. The Oil Pollution Act, passed in August 1992 mandates that all vessels traveling in US waters and all oil transfer and storage facilities take measurable and enforceable actions to reduce spills. However, major problems remain, both with the act and with enforcing it. This article discusses both the problems and the solutions to pollution control of oil spills.

  20. Latino sexual and gender identity minorities promoting sexual health within their social networks: Process evaluation findings from a lay health advisor intervention

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Christina J.; García, Manuel; Mann, Lilli; Alonzo, Jorge; Eng, Eugenia; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    The HOLA intervention was a lay health advisor intervention designed to reduce the disproportionate HIV burden borne by Latino sexual and gender identity minorities (gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men, and transgender persons) living in the United States. Process evaluation data were collected for over a year of intervention implementation from 11 trained Latino male and transgender lay health advisors (Navegantes) to document the activities each Navegante conducted to promote condom use and HIV testing among his or her 8 social network members enrolled in the study. Over 13 months, the Navegantes reported conducting 1,820 activities. The most common activity was condom distribution. Navegantes had extensive reach beyond their enrolled social network members, and they engaged in health promotion activities beyond social network members enrolled in the study. There were significant differences between the types of activities conducted by Navegantes depending on who was present. Results suggest that lay health advisor interventions reach large number of at-risk community members and may benefit populations disproportionately impacted by HIV. PMID:25416309

  1. Latino sexual and gender identity minorities promoting sexual health within their social networks: process evaluation findings from a lay health advisor intervention.

    PubMed

    Sun, Christina J; García, Manuel; Mann, Lilli; Alonzo, Jorge; Eng, Eugenia; Rhodes, Scott D

    2015-05-01

    The HOLA intervention was a lay health advisor intervention designed to reduce the disproportionate HIV burden borne by Latino sexual and gender identity minorities (gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men, and transgender persons) living in the United States. Process evaluation data were collected for over a year of intervention implementation from 11 trained Latino male and transgender lay health advisors (Navegantes) to document the activities each Navegante conducted to promote condom use and HIV testing among his or her eight social network members enrolled in the study. Over 13 months, the Navegantes reported conducting 1,820 activities. The most common activity was condom distribution. Navegantes had extensive reach beyond their enrolled social network members, and they engaged in health promotion activities beyond social network members enrolled in the study. There were significant differences between the types of activities conducted by Navegantes depending on who was present. Results suggest that lay health advisor interventions reach large number of at-risk community members and may benefit populations disproportionately affected by HIV. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  2. Miro1 Regulates Activity-Driven Positioning of Mitochondria within Astrocytic Processes Apposed to Synapses to Regulate Intracellular Calcium Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, Terri-Leigh; Higgs, Nathalie F.; Sheehan, David F.; Al Awabdh, Sana; López-Doménech, Guillermo; Arancibia-Carcamo, I. Lorena

    2015-01-01

    It is fast emerging that maintaining mitochondrial function is important for regulating astrocyte function, although the specific mechanisms that govern astrocyte mitochondrial trafficking and positioning remain poorly understood. The mitochondrial Rho-GTPase 1 protein (Miro1) regulates mitochondrial trafficking and detachment from the microtubule transport network to control activity-dependent mitochondrial positioning in neurons. However, whether Miro proteins are important for regulating signaling-dependent mitochondrial dynamics in astrocytic processes remains unclear. Using live-cell confocal microscopy of rat organotypic hippocampal slices, we find that enhancing neuronal activity induces transient mitochondrial remodeling in astrocytes, with a concomitant, transient reduction in mitochondrial trafficking, mediated by elevations in intracellular Ca2+. Stimulating neuronal activity also induced mitochondrial confinement within astrocytic processes in close proximity to synapses. Furthermore, we show that the Ca2+-sensing EF-hand domains of Miro1 are important for regulating mitochondrial trafficking in astrocytes and required for activity-driven mitochondrial confinement near synapses. Additionally, activity-dependent mitochondrial positioning by Miro1 reciprocally regulates the levels of intracellular Ca2+ in astrocytic processes. Thus, the regulation of intracellular Ca2+ signaling, dependent on Miro1-mediated mitochondrial positioning, could have important consequences for astrocyte Ca2+ wave propagation, gliotransmission, and ultimately neuronal function. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Mitochondria are key cellular organelles that play important roles in providing cellular energy and buffering intracellular calcium ions. The mechanisms that control mitochondrial distribution within the processes of glial cells called astrocytes and the impact this may have on calcium signaling remains unclear. We show that activation of glutamate receptors or increased neuronal

  3. Relationships between Students' Conceptions of Constructivist Learning and Their Regulation and Processing Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loyens, Sofie M. M.; Rikers, Remy M. J. P.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated relationships between students' conceptions of constructivist learning on the one hand, and their regulation and processing strategies on the other hand. Students in a constructivist, problem-based learning curriculum were questioned about their conceptions of knowledge construction and self-regulated learning, as…

  4. Emotion Regulation and Aggressive Behavior in Preschoolers: The Mediating Role of Social Information Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helmsen, Johanna; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether the relation between maladaptive emotion regulation and aggression was mediated by deviant social information processing (SIP). Participants were 193 preschool children. Emotion regulation and aggression were rated by teachers. Deviant SIP (i.e., attribution of hostile intent, aggressive response generation, aggressive…

  5. Emotion Regulation and Aggressive Behavior in Preschoolers: The Mediating Role of Social Information Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helmsen, Johanna; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether the relation between maladaptive emotion regulation and aggression was mediated by deviant social information processing (SIP). Participants were 193 preschool children. Emotion regulation and aggression were rated by teachers. Deviant SIP (i.e., attribution of hostile intent, aggressive response generation, aggressive…

  6. The Vesicle Protein SAM-4 Regulates the Processivity of Synaptic Vesicle Transport

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Qun; Ahlawat, Shikha; Schaefer, Anneliese; Mahoney, Tim; Koushika, Sandhya P.; Nonet, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Axonal transport of synaptic vesicles (SVs) is a KIF1A/UNC-104 mediated process critical for synapse development and maintenance yet little is known of how SV transport is regulated. Using C. elegans as an in vivo model, we identified SAM-4 as a novel conserved vesicular component regulating SV transport. Processivity, but not velocity, of SV transport was reduced in sam-4 mutants. sam-4 displayed strong genetic interactions with mutations in the cargo binding but not the motor domain of unc-104. Gain-of-function mutations in the unc-104 motor domain, identified in this study, suppress the sam-4 defects by increasing processivity of the SV transport. Genetic analyses suggest that SAM-4, SYD-2/liprin-α and the KIF1A/UNC-104 motor function in the same pathway to regulate SV transport. Our data support a model in which the SV protein SAM-4 regulates the processivity of SV transport. PMID:25329901

  7. The vesicle protein SAM-4 regulates the processivity of synaptic vesicle transport.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qun; Ahlawat, Shikha; Schaefer, Anneliese; Mahoney, Tim; Koushika, Sandhya P; Nonet, Michael L

    2014-10-01

    Axonal transport of synaptic vesicles (SVs) is a KIF1A/UNC-104 mediated process critical for synapse development and maintenance yet little is known of how SV transport is regulated. Using C. elegans as an in vivo model, we identified SAM-4 as a novel conserved vesicular component regulating SV transport. Processivity, but not velocity, of SV transport was reduced in sam-4 mutants. sam-4 displayed strong genetic interactions with mutations in the cargo binding but not the motor domain of unc-104. Gain-of-function mutations in the unc-104 motor domain, identified in this study, suppress the sam-4 defects by increasing processivity of the SV transport. Genetic analyses suggest that SAM-4, SYD-2/liprin-α and the KIF1A/UNC-104 motor function in the same pathway to regulate SV transport. Our data support a model in which the SV protein SAM-4 regulates the processivity of SV transport.

  8. Cellular defense processes regulated by pathogen-elicited receptor signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Rongcong; Goldsipe, Arthur; Schauer, David B.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    2011-06-01

    Vertebrates are constantly threatened by the invasion of microorganisms and have evolved systems of immunity to eliminate infectious pathogens in the body. Initial sensing of microbial agents is mediated by the recognition of pathogens by means of molecular structures expressed uniquely by microbes of a given type. So-called 'Toll-like receptors' are expressed on host epithelial barrier cells play an essential role in the host defense against microbial pathogens by inducing cell responses (e.g., proliferation, death, cytokine secretion) via activation of intracellular signaling networks. As these networks, comprising multiple interconnecting dynamic pathways, represent highly complex multi-variate "information processing" systems, the signaling activities particularly critical for governing the host cell responses are poorly understood and not easily ascertained by a priori theoretical notions. We have developed over the past half-decade a "data-driven" computational modeling approach, on a 'cue-signal-response' combined experiment/computation paradigm, to elucidate key multi-variate signaling relationships governing the cell responses. In an example presented here, we study how a canonical set of six kinase pathways combine to effect microbial agent-induced apoptotic death of a macrophage cell line. One modeling technique, partial least-squares regression, yielded the following key insights: {a} signal combinations most strongly correlated to apoptotic death are orthogonal to those most strongly correlated with release of inflammatory cytokines; {b} the ratio of two key pathway activities is the most powerful predictor of microbe-induced macrophage apoptotic death; {c} the most influential time-window of this signaling activity ratio is surprisingly fast: less than one hour after microbe stimulation.

  9. Envisaging the Regulation of Alkaloid Biosynthesis and Associated Growth Kinetics in Hairy Roots of Vinca minor Through the Function of Artificial Neural Network.

    PubMed

    Verma, Priyanka; Anjum, Shahin; Khan, Shamshad Ahmad; Roy, Sudeep; Odstrcilik, Jan; Mathur, Ajay Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Artificial neural network based modeling is a generic approach to understand and correlate different complex parameters of biological systems for improving the desired output. In addition, some new inferences can also be predicted in a shorter time with less cost and labor. As terpenoid indole alkaloid pathway in Vinca minor is very less investigated or elucidated, a strategy of elicitation with hydroxylase and acetyltransferase along with incorporation of various precursors from primary shikimate and secoiridoid pools via simultaneous employment of cyclooxygenase inhibitor was performed in the hairy roots of V. minor. This led to the increment in biomass accumulation, total alkaloid concentration, and vincamine production in selected treatments. The resultant experimental values were correlated with algorithm approaches of artificial neural network that assisted in finding the yield of vincamine, alkaloids, and growth kinetics using number of elicits. The inputs were the hydroxylase/acetyltransferase elicitors and cyclooxygenase inhibitor along with various precursors from shikimate and secoiridoid pools and the outputs were growth index (GI), alkaloids, and vincamine. The approach incorporates two MATLAB codes; GRNN and FFBPNN. Growth kinetic studies revealed that shikimate and tryptophan supplementation triggers biomass accumulation (GI = 440.2 to 540.5); while maximum alkaloid (3.7 % dry wt.) and vincamine production (0.017 ± 0.001 % dry wt.) was obtained on supplementation of secologanin along with tryptophan, naproxen, hydrogen peroxide, and acetic anhydride. The study shows that experimental and predicted values strongly correlate each other. The correlation coefficient for growth index (GI), alkaloids, and vincamine was found to be 0.9997, 0.9980, 0.9511 in GRNN and 0.9725, 0.9444, 0.9422 in FFBPNN, respectively. GRNN provided greater similarity between the target and predicted dataset in comparison to FFBPNN. The findings can provide future

  10. Minority Women's Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Minority Women's Health This section of womenshealth.gov takes a ... Health email updates. Enter email address Submit Minority Women's Health news Accessibility | Privacy policy | Disclaimers | FOIA | Link ...

  11. Incremental and Predictive Validity of the Antisocial Process Screening Device in a Community Sample of Male and Female Ethnic Minority and Caucasian Youth.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Catherine; Gatner, Dylan; Gray, Andrew L; Douglas, Kevin S; Viljoen, Jodi L; Tweed, Roger; Bhatt, Gira; Dooley, Stephen; Gagnon, Nathalie

    2016-11-01

    The Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) is a well-supported tool for assessing psychopathic features in youth. However, most research with the APSD has been derived from clinical and forensic samples comprised mainly of male Caucasian and African American adolescents. In this prospective study, the incremental and predictive validity of the self-report APSD for violent and non-violent offending was examined in an ethnically diverse community sample of male and female youth (N = 335) aged 12 to 14. High-school students from a moderate sized city in Western Canada completed the self-report APSD and then completed the Self-Report of Offending 6 months later. Receiver Operating Characteristics analysis indicated that APSD total and subscale scores were predictive of violent and non-violent offending at 6-month follow-up with moderate to large effect sizes. In addition, total scores on the APSD added incremental predictive utility above and beyond traditional criminogenic predictors of youth offending (i.e., prior offending, delinquent peer affiliation, poor school achievement, substance use, low parental monitoring). Although sex differences emerged in the predictive utility of the Impulsivity subscale of the APSD vis-à-vis violent offending, sex did not moderate the relationship between APSD total, Narcissism, or Callous/Unemotional scores and offending. In addition, the predictive utility of the APSD did not vary as a function of the youth's ethnic background. These findings suggest that: (1) the self-report APSD may have utility for risk or threat assessment with normative school populations, (2) APSD findings from higher risk samples generalize to a lower risk sample of high-school youth, and (3) predictive utility of APSD total scores do not differ across male and female Caucasian and ethnic minority youth.

  12. 77 FR 9617 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; DoD Voucher Processing (DFARS Case 2011-D054)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... Regulation Supplement; DoD Voucher Processing (DFARS Case 2011-D054) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations... Supplement (DFARS) to update DoD's voucher processing procedures and better accommodate the use of Wide Area...

  13. Office of Minority Health

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Office of Minority Health A A A En Español Newsroom Contact Us Search: About OMH What We Do Resource Center Policy and Data ... Funding and Programs History Leadership Regional Staff State Minority Health Contacts Offices of Minority Health at HHS ...

  14. Ethnic Minorities and Telecommunications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes-Hull, Marion

    Developments in communications technology should become a major concern of minorities (native Americans and Americans of African, Asian, and Hispanic racial or ethnic origin). Although minorities are disillusioned with broadcast television because television decision makers have not been sensitive to minority needs, they have shown interest…

  15. Minorities and Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Lawrence; Petty, Reginald

    This publication explores needed changes in the career preparation and education for minorities and examines the implications of career education emphases for minorities in the U.S. Contents include: (1) "An Overview of Minorities and Career Education" by L. Davenport and R. Petty, (2) "Public Schools, Public Policy, and Public Problems: Some…

  16. Minorities and Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Lawrence; Petty, Reginald

    This publication explores needed changes in the career preparation and education for minorities and examines the implications of career education emphases for minorities in the U.S. Contents include: (1) "An Overview of Minorities and Career Education" by L. Davenport and R. Petty, (2) "Public Schools, Public Policy, and Public Problems: Some…

  17. A process evaluation: Does recruitment for an exercise program through ethnically specific channels and key figures contribute to its reach and receptivity in ethnic minority mothers?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ethnic minority women from low-income countries who live in high-income countries are more physically inactive than ethnic majority women in those countries. At the same time, they can be harder to reach with health promotion programs. Targeting recruitment channels and execution to ethnic groups could increase reach and receptivity to program participation. We explored using ethnically specific channels and key figures to reach Ghanaian, Antillean, and Surinamese mothers with an invitation for an exercise program, and subsequently, to determine the mothers’ receptivity and participation. Methods We conducted a mixed methods process evaluation in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. To recruit mothers, we employed ethnically specific community organizations and ethnically matched key figures as recruiters over Dutch health educators. Reach and participation were measured using reply cards and the attendance records from the exercise programs. Observations were made of the recruitment process. We interviewed 14 key figures and 32 mothers to respond to the recruitment channel and recruiter used. Content analysis was used to analyze qualitative data. Results Recruitment through ethnically specific community channels was successful among Ghanaian mothers, but less so among Antillean and Surinamese mothers. The more close-knit an ethnic community was, retaining their own culture and having poorer comprehension of the Dutch language, the more likely we were to reach mothers through ethnically specific organizations. Furthermore, we found that using ethnically matched recruiters resulted in higher receptivity to the program and, among the Ghanaian mothers in particular, in greater participation. This was because the ethnically matched recruiter was a familiar, trusted person, a translator, and a motivator who was enthusiastic, encouraging, and able to adapt her message (targeting/tailoring). Using a health expert was preferred in order to increase the credibility and

  18. The Process Model of Group-Based Emotion: Integrating Intergroup Emotion and Emotion Regulation Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Amit; Halperin, Eran; van Zomeren, Martijn; Gross, James J

    2016-05-01

    Scholars interested in emotion regulation have documented the different goals and strategies individuals have for regulating their emotions. However, little attention has been paid to the regulation of group-based emotions, which are based on individuals' self-categorization as a group member and occur in response to situations perceived as relevant for that group. We propose a model for examining group-based emotion regulation that integrates intergroup emotions theory and the process model of emotion regulation. This synergy expands intergroup emotion theory by facilitating further investigation of different goals (i.e., hedonic or instrumental) and strategies (e.g., situation selection and modification strategies) used to regulate group-based emotions. It also expands emotion regulation research by emphasizing the role of self-categorization (e.g., as an individual or a group member) in the emotional process. Finally, we discuss the promise of this theoretical synergy and suggest several directions for future research on group-based emotion regulation. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  19. Personality and self-regulation: trait and information-processing perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hoyle, Rick H

    2006-12-01

    This article introduces the special issue of Journal of Personality on personality and self-regulation. The goal of the issue is to illustrate and inspire research that integrates personality and process-oriented accounts of self-regulation. The article begins by discussing the trait perspective on self-regulation--distinguishing between temperament and personality accounts--and the information-processing perspective. Three approaches to integrating these perspectives are then presented. These range from methodological approaches, in which constructs representing the two perspectives are examined in integrated statistical models, to conceptual approaches, in which the two perspectives are unified in a holistic theoretical model of self-regulation. The article concludes with an overview of the special issue contributions, which are organized in four sections: broad, integrative models of personality and self-regulation; models that examine the developmental origins of self-regulation and self-regulatory styles; focused programs of research that concern specific aspects or applications of self-regulation; and strategies for increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of self-regulation.

  20. Autoinducer AI-2 is involved in regulating a variety of cellular processes in Salmonella Typhimurium

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    LuxS/AI-2 mediated cell signaling is a known strategy that modulates a variety of bacterial processes in prokaryotes. Salmonella Typhimurium is known to possess LuxS/AI-2 mediated cell signaling. Until now, the Lsr- ABC transporter system (LuxS- regulated) is the only known process controlled by t...

  1. Analysis of Self-Regulated Learning Processing Using Statistical Models for Count Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jeffrey Alan; Costa, Lara-Jeane; Dellinger, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Researchers often use measures of the frequency of self-regulated learning (SRL; Zimmerman, "American Educational Research Journal," 45(1), 166-183, 2000) processing as a predictor of learning gains. These frequency data, which are really counts of SRL processing events, are often non-normally distributed, and the accurate analysis of these data…

  2. Analysis of Self-Regulated Learning Processing Using Statistical Models for Count Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jeffrey Alan; Costa, Lara-Jeane; Dellinger, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Researchers often use measures of the frequency of self-regulated learning (SRL; Zimmerman, "American Educational Research Journal," 45(1), 166-183, 2000) processing as a predictor of learning gains. These frequency data, which are really counts of SRL processing events, are often non-normally distributed, and the accurate analysis of these data…

  3. Dealing with feelings: characterization of trait alexithymia on emotion regulation strategies and cognitive-emotional processing.

    PubMed

    Swart, Marte; Kortekaas, Rudie; Aleman, André

    2009-06-03

    Alexithymia, or "no words for feelings", is a personality trait which is associated with difficulties in emotion recognition and regulation. It is unknown whether this deficit is due primarily to regulation, perception, or mentalizing of emotions. In order to shed light on the core deficit, we tested our subjects on a wide range of emotional tasks. We expected the high alexithymics to underperform on all tasks. Two groups of healthy individuals, high and low scoring on the cognitive component of the Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire, completed questionnaires of emotion regulation and performed several emotion processing tasks including a micro expression recognition task, recognition of emotional prosody and semantics in spoken sentences, an emotional and identity learning task and a conflicting beliefs and emotions task (emotional mentalizing). The two groups differed on the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire and Empathy Quotient. Specifically, the Emotion Regulation Quotient showed that alexithymic individuals used more suppressive and less reappraisal strategies. On the behavioral tasks, as expected, alexithymics performed worse on recognition of micro expressions and emotional mentalizing. Surprisingly, groups did not differ on tasks of emotional semantics and prosody and associative emotional-learning. Individuals scoring high on the cognitive component of alexithymia are more prone to suppressive emotion regulation strategies rather than reappraisal strategies. Regarding emotional information processing, alexithymia is associated with reduced performance on measures of early processing as well as higher order mentalizing. However, difficulties in the processing of emotional language were not a core deficit in our alexithymic group.

  4. Development of Morphological Awareness and Vocabulary Knowledge in Spanish-Speaking Language Minority Learners: A Parallel Process Latent Growth Curve Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieffer, Michael J.; Lesaux, Nonie K.

    2012-01-01

    Despite acknowledgement of the limited English vocabularies demonstrated by many language minority (LM) learners, few studies have identified skills that relate to variation in vocabulary growth in this population. This study investigated the concurrent development of morphological awareness (i.e., students' understanding of complex words as…

  5. Development of Morphological Awareness and Vocabulary Knowledge in Spanish-Speaking Language Minority Learners: A Parallel Process Latent Growth Curve Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieffer, Michael J.; Lesaux, Nonie K.

    2012-01-01

    Despite acknowledgement of the limited English vocabularies demonstrated by many language minority (LM) learners, few studies have identified skills that relate to variation in vocabulary growth in this population. This study investigated the concurrent development of morphological awareness (i.e., students' understanding of complex words as…

  6. 7 CFR 400.306 - Spouses and minor children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spouses and minor children. 400.306 Section 400.306... Regulations for the 1991 and Succeeding Crop Years § 400.306 Spouses and minor children. (a) The spouse and minor children of an individual are considered to be the same as the individual for purposes of...

  7. 7 CFR 400.306 - Spouses and minor children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Spouses and minor children. 400.306 Section 400.306... Regulations for the 1991 and Succeeding Crop Years § 400.306 Spouses and minor children. (a) The spouse and minor children of an individual are considered to be the same as the individual for purposes of...

  8. 7 CFR 400.306 - Spouses and minor children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Spouses and minor children. 400.306 Section 400.306... Regulations for the 1991 and Succeeding Crop Years § 400.306 Spouses and minor children. (a) The spouse and minor children of an individual are considered to be the same as the individual for purposes of...

  9. Supporting the self-regulatory resource: does conscious self-regulation incidentally prime nonconscious support processes?

    PubMed

    Dorris, Derek C

    2009-11-01

    Ego-depletion (depletion of self-regulatory strength) can impair conscious efforts at self-regulation. Research into nonconscious self-regulation has demonstrated that preconscious automaticity and implementation intentions can automatically carry out regulatory tasks during times of ego-depletion. However, preconscious automaticity can only emerge during well-practiced tasks while implementation intentions can only support tasks that have been explicitly planned. Thus, when it comes to supporting the conscious self-regulation of nonroutine and unplanned behaviour during times of ego-depletion these processes should be ineffective. However, it is argued here that because the conscious self-regulation of nonroutine and unplanned behaviour can incidentally prime the underlying mental representations those primed representations can be postconsciously re-activated to support that behaviour during times of ego-depletion. Postconscious self-regulation might, therefore, support a type of self-regulatory behaviour that has, thus far, not been associated with any form of support.

  10. Individual differences in cognitive control processes and their relationship to emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Michelle A; Buchanan, Tony W

    2016-08-01

    Cognitive control and emotional control share many similarities, but the specific relationship between these processes is not well understood. This study explored the relationship between three types of cognitive control (working memory updating, response inhibition and set-shifting) and two emotional regulation strategies (expressive suppression and cognitive reappraisal). Corrugator electromyography, behaviour and self-reports of affect were measured as indices of emotion regulation. Results indicate that working memory updating predicted negative affect reduction during reappraisal and during expressive suppression. This study specifically shows that the working memory component of cognitive control is associated with negative affect reduction. Response inhibition and set-shifting were not specifically related to negative affect reduction, but these variables did predict aspects of emotional behaviour and regulation. These results suggest a general role for cognitive control in some aspects of emotion regulation as well as a specific modulatory role for working memory updating in the regulation of negative affect.

  11. 77 FR 18685 - New Animal Drugs for Minor Use and Minor Species

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES DEPARTMENT Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 516 New Animal Drugs for Minor Use and Minor Species CFR Correction In Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 500 to 599, revised as of April 1, 2011, on...

  12. [Possible use of growth regulators for plant processes in selected grain pod-vegetables].

    PubMed

    Unger, J

    1976-01-01

    The cultivation of beans and peas as grain legumes in large-scale production requires plants with a high yield and suitable for machine harvesting. Growth regulators for plant processes can also be applied to achieve these properties. The effect on the yield by growth regulators, as demonstrated in pot and field trials, seems to enable their application in an established intensive cultivation of beans and peas. Prior to this, however, it has to be demonstrated that these positive effects of growth regulator application can reproduced economically in different locations and with different species.

  13. Emotion regulation and aggressive behavior in preschoolers: the mediating role of social information processing.

    PubMed

    Helmsen, Johanna; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

    2012-02-01

    This study examined whether the relation between maladaptive emotion regulation and aggression was mediated by deviant social information processing (SIP). Participants were 193 preschool children. Emotion regulation and aggression were rated by teachers. Deviant SIP (i.e., attribution of hostile intent, aggressive response generation, aggressive response evaluation and decision) was measured from children's responses to hypothetical social conflicts. Findings revealed that the relation between maladaptive emotion regulation and aggression was direct and not mediated by SIP biases (i.e., aggressive response generation, aggressive response evaluation and decision). Results are discussed from a theoretical and methodological perspective.

  14. Regulation of Emotions in Socially Challenging Learning Situations: An Instrument to Measure the Adaptive and Social Nature of the Regulation Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvenoja, Hanna; Volet, Simone; Jarvela, Sanna

    2013-01-01

    Self-regulated learning (SRL) research has conventionally relied on measures, which treat SRL as an aptitude. To study self-regulation and motivation in learning contexts as an ongoing adaptive process, situation-specific methods are needed in addition to static measures. This article presents an "Adaptive Instrument for Regulation of Emotions"…

  15. Temperature regulates deterministic processes and the succession of microbial interactions in anaerobic digestion process.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qiang; De Vrieze, Jo; Li, Chaonan; Li, Jiaying; Li, Jiabao; Yao, Minjie; Hedenec, Petr; Li, Huan; Li, Tongtong; Rui, Junpeng; Frouz, Jan; Li, Xiangzhen

    2017-10-15

    Temperature plays crucial roles in microbial interactions that affect the stability and performance of anaerobic digestion. In this study, the microbial interactions and their succession in the anaerobic digestion process were investigated at three levels, represented by (1) present and (2) active micro-organisms, and (3) gene expressions under a temperature gradient from 25 to 55 °C. Network topological features indicated a global variation in microbial interactions at different temperatures. The variations of microbial interactions in terms of network modularity and deterministic processes based on topological features, corresponded well with the variations of methane productions, but not with temperatures. A common successional pattern of microbial interactions was observed at different temperatures, which showed that both deterministic processes and network modularity increased over time during the digestion process. It was concluded that the increase in temperature-mediated network modularity and deterministic processes on shaping the microbial interactions improved the stability and efficiency of anaerobic digestion process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The process of self-regulation in adolescents: A narrative approach.

    PubMed

    Conover, Kelly; Daiute, Colette

    2017-06-01

    This qualitative study utilized a narrative approach to explore the process of self-regulation in adolescents and to examine the functions of various relational genres on psychological state and context expressions in this process. Nineteen participants, who live in high-risk settings were recruited from a youth development and life skills program located at an urban public high school in the United States. The goal of this project is to craft a process method for research and practice on adolescents' self-regulation while providing evidence for self-regulation being a complex process. This research uses an exploratory study design with a narrative approach, utilizing text message based activities in the method. Findings from the plot analysis suggest that for adolescents, the process of self-regulation begins as highly emotional and then becomes a more emotionally and cognitively balanced process. In addition, adolescents utilize different strategies to resolve conflict situations across different contexts and relational genres. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Emotion Regulation and Excess Weight: Impaired Affective Processing Characterized by Dysfunctional Insula Activation and Connectivity.

    PubMed

    Steward, Trevor; Picó-Pérez, Maria; Mata, Fernanda; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Cano, Marta; Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Yucel, Murat; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Emotion-regulation strategies are understood to influence food intake. This study examined the neurophysiological underpinnings of negative emotion processing and emotion regulation in individuals with excess weight compared to normal-weight controls. Fifteen participants with excess-weight (body mass index >25) and sixteen normal-weight controls (body mass index 18-25) performed an emotion-regulation task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants were exposed to 24 negative affective or neutral pictures that they were instructed to Observe (neutral pictures), Maintain (sustain the emotion elicited by negative pictures) or Regulate (down-regulate the emotion provoked by negative pictures through previously trained reappraisal techniques). When instructed to regulate negative emotions by means of cognitive reappraisal, participants with excess weight displayed persistently heightened activation in the right anterior insula. Decreased responsivity was also found in right anterior insula, the orbitofrontal cortex and cerebellum during negative emotion experience in participants with excess weight. Psycho-physiological interaction analyses showed that excess-weight participants had decreased negative functional coupling between the right anterior insula and the right dlPFC, and the bilateral dmPFC during cognitive reappraisal. Our findings support contentions that excess weight is linked to an abnormal pattern of neural activation and connectivity during the experience and regulation of negative emotions, with the insula playing a key role in these alterations. We posit that ineffective regulation of emotional states contributes to the acquisition and preservation of excess weight.

  18. Emotion Regulation and Excess Weight: Impaired Affective Processing Characterized by Dysfunctional Insula Activation and Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Fernanda; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Cano, Marta; Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Yucel, Murat; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Emotion-regulation strategies are understood to influence food intake. This study examined the neurophysiological underpinnings of negative emotion processing and emotion regulation in individuals with excess weight compared to normal-weight controls. Fifteen participants with excess-weight (body mass index >25) and sixteen normal-weight controls (body mass index 18–25) performed an emotion-regulation task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants were exposed to 24 negative affective or neutral pictures that they were instructed to Observe (neutral pictures), Maintain (sustain the emotion elicited by negative pictures) or Regulate (down-regulate the emotion provoked by negative pictures through previously trained reappraisal techniques). When instructed to regulate negative emotions by means of cognitive reappraisal, participants with excess weight displayed persistently heightened activation in the right anterior insula. Decreased responsivity was also found in right anterior insula, the orbitofrontal cortex and cerebellum during negative emotion experience in participants with excess weight. Psycho-physiological interaction analyses showed that excess-weight participants had decreased negative functional coupling between the right anterior insula and the right dlPFC, and the bilateral dmPFC during cognitive reappraisal. Our findings support contentions that excess weight is linked to an abnormal pattern of neural activation and connectivity during the experience and regulation of negative emotions, with the insula playing a key role in these alterations. We posit that ineffective regulation of emotional states contributes to the acquisition and preservation of excess weight. PMID:27003840

  19. Multiple choice minority game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, F. K.; Chau, H. F.

    2003-03-01

    Minority game is a model of heterogeneous players who think inductively. In this game, each player chooses one out of two alternatives every turn and those who end up in the minority side wins. It is instructive to extend the minority game by allowing players to choose one out of many alternatives. Nevertheless, such an extension is not straight-forward due to difficulties in finding a set of reasonable, unbiased and computationally feasible strategies. Here, we propose a variation of the minority game where every player has more than two options. Results of numerical simulations agree with the expectation that our multiple choices minority game exhibits similar behavior as the original two-choice minority game.

  20. 25 CFR 518.6 - What are the responsibilities of the Office of Self-Regulation in the certification process?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS SELF-REGULATION OF CLASS II GAMING § 518.6 What are the responsibilities of the Office of Self-Regulation in the certification process? The Office of Self-Regulation shall... report and recommendation to the Commission as to whether a certificate of self-regulation should...

  1. The Trojan minor planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spratt, Christopher E.

    1988-08-01

    There are (March, 1988) 3774 minor planets which have received a permanent number. Of these, there are some whose mean distance to the sun is very nearly equal to that of Jupiter, and whose heliocentric longitudes from that planet are about 60°, so that the three bodies concerned (sun, Jupiter, minor planet) make an approximate equilateral triangle. These minor planets, which occur in two distinct groups, one preceding Jupiter and one following, have received the names of the heroes of the Trojan war. This paper concerns the 49 numbered minor planets of this group.

  2. The cAMP effector EPAC activates Elk1 transcription factor in prostate smooth muscle, and is a minor regulator of α1-adrenergic contraction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prostate smooth muscle tone is regulated by α1-adrenoceptor-induced contraction and cAMP-mediated relaxation. EPAC is an effector of cAMP, being involved in smooth muscle relaxation and cell cycle control outside the lower urinary tract. Here, we investigated the expression and function of EPAC in human prostate tissues from patients undergoing radical prostatectomy. Results mRNA and protein expression of EPAC was detected in all prostate tissues by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Immunoreactivity was observed in stromal cells, and colocalized with immunofluorescence for α-smooth muscle actin and calponin. Under normal conditions, noradrenaline- or phenylephrine-induced contraction of prostate strips in the organ bath was not affected by the EPAC activator pCPT (SP-8-pCPT-2′-O-Me-cAMPS.NA) (30 μM). However, when the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (50 μM) was added, EPAC activators pCPT and OME (8-CPT-2′-O-Me-cAMP.Na) (30 μM) significantly reduced contractions by low concentrations of phenylephrine. These effects were not observed on noradrenaline-induced contraction. OME and pCPT caused phosphorylation of the transcription factor Elk1 in prostate tissues. Elk1 activation was confirmed by EMSA (electrophoretic mobility shift assay), where OME and pCPT incresed Elk1 binding to a specific DNA probe. Conclusions EPAC activation may reduce α1-adrenergic prostate contraction in the human prostate, although this effect is masked by cyclooxygenases and β-adrenoceptors. A main EPAC function in the human prostate may be the regulation of the transcription factor Elk1. PMID:23815815

  3. TCF7L2 is a master regulator of insulin production and processing.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuedan; Park, Soo-Young; Su, Jing; Bailey, Kathleen; Ottosson-Laakso, Emilia; Shcherbina, Liliya; Oskolkov, Nikolay; Zhang, Enming; Thevenin, Thomas; Fadista, João; Bennet, Hedvig; Vikman, Petter; Wierup, Nils; Fex, Malin; Rung, Johan; Wollheim, Claes; Nobrega, Marcelo; Renström, Erik; Groop, Leif; Hansson, Ola

    2014-12-15

    Genome-wide association studies have revealed >60 loci associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the underlying causal variants and functional mechanisms remain largely elusive. Although variants in TCF7L2 confer the strongest risk of T2D among common variants by presumed effects on islet function, the molecular mechanisms are not yet well understood. Using RNA-sequencing, we have identified a TCF7L2-regulated transcriptional network responsible for its effect on insulin secretion in rodent and human pancreatic islets. ISL1 is a primary target of TCF7L2 and regulates proinsulin production and processing via MAFA, PDX1, NKX6.1, PCSK1, PCSK2 and SLC30A8, thereby providing evidence for a coordinated regulation of insulin production and processing. The risk T-allele of rs7903146 was associated with increased TCF7L2 expression, and decreased insulin content and secretion. Using gene expression profiles of 66 human pancreatic islets donors', we also show that the identified TCF7L2-ISL1 transcriptional network is regulated in a genotype-dependent manner. Taken together, these results demonstrate that not only synthesis of proinsulin is regulated by TCF7L2 but also processing and possibly clearance of proinsulin and insulin. These multiple targets in key pathways may explain why TCF7L2 has emerged as the gene showing one of the strongest associations with T2D.

  4. Mechanisms of hormonal regulation of sertoli cell development and proliferation: a key process for spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Escott, Gustavo M; da Rosa, Luciana A; Loss, Eloisa da Silveira

    2014-01-01

    In adulthood, the main function of the testes is the production of male gametes. In this process, Sertoli cells are essential for sustained spermatogenesis, providing the developing germ cells with the physical and nutritional support required. The total number of Sertoli cells in adulthood determines the daily gamete production, since Sertoli cells can support only a limited number of developing germ cells. Considering that Sertoli cell proliferation only occurs during the immature period, proper development and proliferation of the Sertoli cells during the proliferative phase are crucial to male reproductive health in adulthood. The proliferation process of the Sertoli cells is finely regulated by an assortment of hormonal and paracrine/autocrine factors, which regulate the rate and extent of proliferation. In the present review, we discuss the most important hormonal and paracrine factors involved in the regulation of Sertoli cell proliferation, as well as the signaling mechanisms by which they exert their effects.

  5. Assessing the biomineralization processes in the shell microstructure of modern brachiopods: variations in the oxygen isotope composition and minor element ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner Garcia, Sara Ana; Rollion-Bard, Claire; Burckel, Pierre; Tomašových, Adam; Angiolini, Lucia; Henkel, Daniela

    2017-04-01

    Brachiopods have been extensively used to reconstruct physicochemical conditions of ancient oceans due to their extensive fossil record and shells made of stable low-Mg calcite. In this context, it is important to assess the impact of brachiopod shell biomineralization processes on geochemical proxies. Six modern species of brachiopod specimen representing the three low-Mg calcite orders (i.e. Terebratulida, Rhynchonellida and Thecideida) were selected, in order to identify the most reliable taxa and the best shell portions to use for measurements of proxies. Three main different shell structures were identified: (1) only primary layer, (2) primary and secondary fibrous layers and (3) same as (2) with also a tertiary columnar layer. Oxygen isotope composition was measured at the micrometre scale with high-resolution ion microprobe. Generally, O isotope values of shells composed of primary and secondary layers show a progression towards more positive values from the outer primary layer to the inner secondary layer. The columnar tertiary shell layer, when present, has the most positive isotopic O values, the closest to the isotopic equilibrium. Variations at the micrometre scale are higher than those measured by conventional bulk techniques, as already shown by Cusack et al. (2012). Trace elements ratios (Li/Ca, B/Ca, Na/Ca, Mg/Ca, and Sr/Ca) were determined by laser ablation coupled to an ICP-MS. The trace element points define profiles parallel to the O isotope ion probe spots. The elemental ratio profiles of species composed by primary and secondary shell layers (Terebratalia transversa, Magasella sanguinea and Magellania venosa) show different behaviours depending on the elements. Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca values are constant throughout all profiles, even Mg/Ca values are more variable. The values of both ratios are in good agreement with previous studies (Perez-Huerta et al., 2008; Butler et al., 2015). Li/Ca values are also constant among the different profiles. In

  6. The Role of Regulation and Processing Strategies in Understanding Science Text among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilppu, Henna; Mikkila-Erdmann, Mirjamaija; Ahopelto, Ilona

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the role of regulation and processing strategies in understanding science text. A total of 91 student teachers answered open-ended questions concerning photosynthesis before and after reading either a traditional or a refutational science text. After this, they also answered parts of the Inventory of…

  7. Children's Strategic Regulation, Metacognitive Monitoring, and Control Processes during Test Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Saskia S.; Roebers, Claudia M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: From the perspective of self-regulated learning, the interplay between learners' individual characteristics and the context of testing have been emphasized for assessing learning outcomes. Aims: The present study examined metacognitive processes in children's test-taking behaviour and explored their impacts on performance. Further, it…

  8. Cryptococcus neoformans Mediator Protein Ssn8 Negatively Regulates Diverse Physiological Processes and Is Required for Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin-Ing; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Liu, Kung-Hung; Jong, Ambrose Y.; Shen, Wei-Chiang

    2011-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a ubiquitously distributed human pathogen. It is also a model system for studying fungal virulence, physiology and differentiation. Light is known to inhibit sexual development via the evolutionarily conserved white collar proteins in C. neoformans. To dissect molecular mechanisms regulating this process, we have identified the SSN8 gene whose mutation suppresses the light-dependent CWC1 overexpression phenotype. Characterization of sex-related phenotypes revealed that Ssn8 functions as a negative regulator in both heterothallic a-α mating and same-sex mating processes. In addition, Ssn8 is involved in the suppression of other physiological processes including invasive growth, and production of capsule and melanin. Interestingly, Ssn8 is also required for the maintenance of cell wall integrity and virulence. Our gene expression studies confirmed that deletion of SSN8 results in de-repression of genes involved in sexual development and melanization. Epistatic and yeast two hybrid studies suggest that C. neoformans Ssn8 plays critical roles downstream of the Cpk1 MAPK cascade and Ste12 and possibly resides at one of the major branches downstream of the Cwc complex in the light-mediated sexual development pathway. Taken together, our studies demonstrate that the conserved Mediator protein Ssn8 functions as a global regulator which negatively regulates diverse physiological and developmental processes and is required for virulence in C. neoformans. PMID:21559476

  9. Understanding EFL Students' Development of Self-Regulated Learning in a Process-Oriented Writing Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Ricky

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a study which investigated how explicit strategy instruction may shape student use of metacognitive knowledge and in what ways this knowledge promotes self-regulation in the learning of writing. From a class of a 2-year associate degree programme in Hong Kong, which experienced a 15-week process-oriented writing course…

  10. Modulation of ROS levels in fibroblasts by altering mitochondria regulates the process of wound healing.

    PubMed

    Janda, Jaroslav; Nfonsam, Valentine; Calienes, Fernanda; Sligh, James E; Jandova, Jana

    2016-05-01

    Mitochondria are the major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in fibroblasts which are thought to be crucial regulators of wound healing with a potential to affect the expression of nuclear genes involved in this process. ROS generated by mitochondria are involved in all stages of tissue repair process but the regulation of ROS-generating system in fibroblasts still remains poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to better understand molecular mechanisms of how the regulation of ROS levels generated by mitochondria may influence the process of wound repair. Cybrid model system of mtDNA variations was used to study the functional consequences of altered ROS levels on wound healing responses in a uniform nuclear background of cultured ρ(0) fibroblasts. Mitochondrial ROS in cybrids were modulated by antioxidants that quench ROS to examine their ability to close the wound. Real-time PCR arrays were used to investigate whether ROS generated by specific mtDNA variants have the ability to alter expression of some key nuclear-encoded genes central to the wound healing response and oxidative stress. Our data suggest levels of mitochondrial ROS affect expression of some nuclear encoded genes central to wound healing response and oxidative stress and modulation of mitochondrial ROS by antioxidants positively affects in vitro process of wound closure. Thus, regulation of mitochondrial ROS-generating system in fibroblasts can be used as effective natural redox-based strategy to help treat non-healing wounds.

  11. Social Information Processing, Security of Attachment, and Emotion Regulation in Children with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauminger, Nirit; Kimhi-Kind, Ilanit

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of attachment security and emotion regulation (ER) to the explanation of social information processing (SIP) in middle childhood boys with learning disabilities (LD) and without LD matched on age and grade level. Children analyzed four social vignettes using Dodge's SIP model and completed the Kerns security…

  12. Physiological Self-Regulation and Information Processing in Infancy: Cardiac Vagal Tone and Habituation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Suess, Patricia E.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the role of physiological self-regulation (cardiac vagal tone) in information processing (habituation) in infants. Found that decreases in vagal tone consistently related to habituation efficiency at 2 and 5 months. Within- and between- age suppression of vagal tone predicted accumulated looking time (ALT), but ALT did not predict…

  13. Processes of Self-Regulated Learning in Music Theory in Elementary Music Schools in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritz, Barbara Smolej; Peklaj, Cirila

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study was determine how students regulate their learning in music theory (MT). The research is based on the socio-cognitive theory of learning. The aim of our study was twofold: first, to design the instruments for measuring (meta)cognitive and affective-motivational processes in learning MT, and, second, to examine the relationship…

  14. Preschool Classroom Processes as Predictors of Children's Cognitive Self-Regulation Skills Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhs, Mary Wagner; Farran, Dale C.; Nesbitt, Kimberly Turner

    2013-01-01

    This research focuses on the associations between interactive processes of early childhood classrooms and gains in children's cognitive self-regulation (CSR) across the preschool year. Data from 803 children (45.8% female; "M" = 54 months; 39.1% Caucasian, 26.3% African American, 24.6% Hispanic, 9.9% Other) were collected at fall and…

  15. Social Information Processing, Security of Attachment, and Emotion Regulation in Children with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauminger, Nirit; Kimhi-Kind, Ilanit

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of attachment security and emotion regulation (ER) to the explanation of social information processing (SIP) in middle childhood boys with learning disabilities (LD) and without LD matched on age and grade level. Children analyzed four social vignettes using Dodge's SIP model and completed the Kerns security…

  16. Preschool Classroom Processes as Predictors of Children's Cognitive Self-Regulation Skills Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhs, Mary Wagner; Farran, Dale C.; Nesbitt, Kimberly Turner

    2013-01-01

    This research focuses on the associations between interactive processes of early childhood classrooms and gains in children's cognitive self-regulation (CSR) across the preschool year. Data from 803 children (45.8% female; "M" = 54 months; 39.1% Caucasian, 26.3% African American, 24.6% Hispanic, 9.9% Other) were collected at fall and…

  17. Understanding EFL Students' Development of Self-Regulated Learning in a Process-Oriented Writing Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Ricky

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a study which investigated how explicit strategy instruction may shape student use of metacognitive knowledge and in what ways this knowledge promotes self-regulation in the learning of writing. From a class of a 2-year associate degree programme in Hong Kong, which experienced a 15-week process-oriented writing course…

  18. The Role of Regulation and Processing Strategies in Understanding Science Text among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilppu, Henna; Mikkila-Erdmann, Mirjamaija; Ahopelto, Ilona

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the role of regulation and processing strategies in understanding science text. A total of 91 student teachers answered open-ended questions concerning photosynthesis before and after reading either a traditional or a refutational science text. After this, they also answered parts of the Inventory of…

  19. 76 FR 12279 - Amendment to the Export Administration Regulations: Application Processing, Issuance, and Denial

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... Export Administration Regulations (EAR) by clarifying the Application Processing, Issuance, and Denial..., and Denial Part 750 of the EAR provides for the revision, suspension or revocation of licenses whenever it is known that the EAR have been violated or that a violation is about to occur. In this...

  20. Dealing with Feelings: Characterization of Trait Alexithymia on Emotion Regulation Strategies and Cognitive-Emotional Processing

    PubMed Central

    Swart, Marte; Kortekaas, Rudie; Aleman, André

    2009-01-01

    Background Alexithymia, or “no words for feelings”, is a personality trait which is associated with difficulties in emotion recognition and regulation. It is unknown whether this deficit is due primarily to regulation, perception, or mentalizing of emotions. In order to shed light on the core deficit, we tested our subjects on a wide range of emotional tasks. We expected the high alexithymics to underperform on all tasks. Method Two groups of healthy individuals, high and low scoring on the cognitive component of the Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire, completed questionnaires of emotion regulation and performed several emotion processing tasks including a micro expression recognition task, recognition of emotional prosody and semantics in spoken sentences, an emotional and identity learning task and a conflicting beliefs and emotions task (emotional mentalizing). Results The two groups differed on the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire and Empathy Quotient. Specifically, the Emotion Regulation Quotient showed that alexithymic individuals used more suppressive and less reappraisal strategies. On the behavioral tasks, as expected, alexithymics performed worse on recognition of micro expressions and emotional mentalizing. Surprisingly, groups did not differ on tasks of emotional semantics and prosody and associative emotional-learning. Conclusion Individuals scoring high on the cognitive component of alexithymia are more prone to suppressive emotion regulation strategies rather than reappraisal strategies. Regarding emotional information processing, alexithymia is associated with reduced performance on measures of early processing as well as higher order mentalizing. However, difficulties in the processing of emotional language were not a core deficit in our alexithymic group. PMID:19492045

  1. Gerontology Training for Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Pill Jay

    The Grambling State University Minority Management Internship in Aging program described in this report was designed to provide internships to social work students to aid the minority elderly. The status of the elderly in the United States and the personnel and agencies that assist them are discussed in the following chapters: (1)…

  2. Minority Leadership Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Harry, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Potential sources of resistance to minority managers include issues of perceived competence, leader-follower fit, and supervision of same-race subordinates. Awareness of these issues can guide the preprofessional preparation of minority managers and training and support once they enter the workplace. (SK)

  3. Minorities in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justiz, Manuel J., Ed.; And Others

    This book presents 19 papers on efforts to increase the participation of members of minority groups in higher education. The papers are: (1) "Demographic Trends and the Challenges to American Higher Education" (Manuel Justiz); (2) "Three Realities: Minority Life in the United States--The Struggle for Economic Equity (adapted by Don…

  4. Minorities in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justiz, Manuel J., Ed.; And Others

    This book presents 19 papers on efforts to increase the participation of members of minority groups in higher education. The papers are: (1) "Demographic Trends and the Challenges to American Higher Education" (Manuel Justiz); (2) "Three Realities: Minority Life in the United States--The Struggle for Economic Equity (adapted by Don…

  5. Testing Linguistic Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmedo, Esteban L.

    1981-01-01

    Suggests that psychological and educational testing of members of linguistic minority groups should take into account the diverse social, political, and economic realities moderated by educational opportunities, which in turn are closely linked to standardized testing. Discusses conceptual and operational issues in the area of minority group…

  6. FIESTA; Minority Television Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Wes; And Others

    The suggestions for planning, running, and evaluating minority television programing presented in this handbook are based on the experience and example of the FIESTA project (Tucson, Arizona). After initiating the reader into the topic of minority programing, the document disucsses the following topics: broadcast research, origins of the FIESTA…

  7. Minorities and Malnutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornegay, Francis A.

    Various aspects of the relationship between minorities and malnutrition are discussed in this brief paper. Malnutrition, one of the byproducts of low economic status, is creating a crisis-proportion health problem affecting minority citizens. Malnutrition seriously affects children, older people in poverty, and chronically unemployed or…

  8. FIESTA; Minority Television Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Wes; And Others

    The suggestions for planning, running, and evaluating minority television programing presented in this handbook are based on the experience and example of the FIESTA project (Tucson, Arizona). After initiating the reader into the topic of minority programing, the document disucsses the following topics: broadcast research, origins of the FIESTA…

  9. Recruiting Minority Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Bobette P.; Dandridge, William L.

    To help improve private schools' recruitment of minority students, this handbook discusses where and how to begin, recruitment strategies, applicant assessment, and the need for in-school support systems for minority students. The authors stress that each school should begin by analyzing its own objectives, attitudes, and admission program.…

  10. Women and Minority Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vetter, Betty M.

    1975-01-01

    Offers statistics on the numbers of women and members of minority groups in the sciences. Suggests if women and members of minority groups are to be encouraged to prepare for scientific careers, they must be given the same incentives as offered to men. (CP)

  11. The PacC transcription factor regulates secondary metabolite production and stress response, but has only minor effects on virulence in the insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhibing; Ren, Hui; Mousa, Jarrod J; Rangel, Drauzio E N; Zhang, Yongjun; Bruner, Steven D; Keyhani, Nemat O

    2017-02-01

    The PacC transcription factor is an important component of the fungal ambient pH-responsive regulatory system. Loss of pacC in the insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana resulted in an alkaline pH-dependent decrease in growth and pH-dependent increased susceptibility to osmotic (salt, sorbitol) stress and SDS. Extreme susceptibility to Congo Red was noted irrespective of pH, and ΔBbpacC conidia showed subtle increases in UV susceptibility. The ΔBbPacC mutant showed a reduced ability to acidify media during growth due to failure to produce oxalic acid. The ΔBbPacC mutant also did not produce the insecticidal compound dipicolinic acid, however, production of a yellow-colored compound was noted. The compound, named bassianolone B, was purified and its structure determined. Despite defects in growth, stress resistance, and oxalate/insecticidal compound production, only a small decrease in virulence was seen for the ΔBbpacC strain in topical insect bioassays using larvae from the greater waxmoth, Galleria mellonella or adults of the beetle, Tenebrio molitor. However, slightly more pronounced decreases were seen in virulence via intrahemcoel injection assays (G. mellonella) and in assays using T. molitor larvae. These data suggest important roles for BbpacC in mediating growth at alkaline pH, regulating secondary metabolite production, and in targeting specific insect stages.

  12. RNA-Processing Protein TDP-43 Regulates FOXO-Dependent Protein Quality Control in Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Baldie, Gerard; Periz, Goran; Wang, Jiou

    2014-01-01

    Protein homeostasis is critical for cell survival and functions during stress and is regulated at both RNA and protein levels. However, how the cell integrates RNA-processing programs with post-translational protein quality control systems is unknown. Transactive response DNA-binding protein (TARDBP/TDP-43) is an RNA-processing protein that is involved in the pathogenesis of major neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Here, we report a conserved role for TDP-43, from C. elegans to mammals, in the regulation of protein clearance via activation of FOXO transcription factors. In response to proteotoxic insults, TDP-43 redistributes from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, promoting nuclear translocation of FOXOs and relieving an inhibition of FOXO activity in the nucleus. The interaction between TDP-43 and the FOXO pathway in mammalian cells is mediated by their competitive binding to 14-3-3 proteins. Consistent with FOXO-dependent protein quality control, TDP-43 regulates the levels of misfolded proteins. Therefore, TDP-43 mediates stress responses and couples the regulation of RNA metabolism and protein quality control in a FOXO-dependent manner. The results suggest that compromising the function of TDP-43 in regulating protein homeostasis may contribute to the pathogenesis of related neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25329970

  13. RNA-processing protein TDP-43 regulates FOXO-dependent protein quality control in stress response.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Baldie, Gerard; Periz, Goran; Wang, Jiou

    2014-10-01

    Protein homeostasis is critical for cell survival and functions during stress and is regulated at both RNA and protein levels. However, how the cell integrates RNA-processing programs with post-translational protein quality control systems is unknown. Transactive response DNA-binding protein (TARDBP/TDP-43) is an RNA-processing protein that is involved in the pathogenesis of major neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Here, we report a conserved role for TDP-43, from C. elegans to mammals, in the regulation of protein clearance via activation of FOXO transcription factors. In response to proteotoxic insults, TDP-43 redistributes from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, promoting nuclear translocation of FOXOs and relieving an inhibition of FOXO activity in the nucleus. The interaction between TDP-43 and the FOXO pathway in mammalian cells is mediated by their competitive binding to 14-3-3 proteins. Consistent with FOXO-dependent protein quality control, TDP-43 regulates the levels of misfolded proteins. Therefore, TDP-43 mediates stress responses and couples the regulation of RNA metabolism and protein quality control in a FOXO-dependent manner. The results suggest that compromising the function of TDP-43 in regulating protein homeostasis may contribute to the pathogenesis of related neurodegenerative diseases.

  14. SDF1 Reduces Interneuron Leading Process Branching through Dual Regulation of Actin and Microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Lysko, Daniel E.; Putt, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Normal cerebral cortical function requires a highly ordered balance between projection neurons and interneurons. During development these two neuronal populations migrate from distinct progenitor zones to form the cerebral cortex, with interneurons originating in the more distant ganglionic eminences. Moreover, deficits in interneurons have been linked to a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders underscoring the importance of understanding interneuron development and function. We, and others, have identified SDF1 signaling as one important modulator of interneuron migration speed and leading process branching behavior in mice, although how SDF1 signaling impacts these behaviors remains unknown. We previously found SDF1 inhibited leading process branching while increasing the rate of migration. We have now mechanistically linked SDF1 modulation of leading process branching behavior to a dual regulation of both actin and microtubule organization. We find SDF1 consolidates actin at the leading process tip by de-repressing calpain protease and increasing proteolysis of branched-actin-supporting cortactin. Additionally, SDF1 stabilizes the microtubule array in the leading process through activation of the microtubule-associated protein doublecortin (DCX). DCX stabilizes the microtubule array by bundling microtubules within the leading process, reducing branching. These data provide mechanistic insight into the regulation of interneuron leading process dynamics during neuronal migration in mice and provides insight into how cortactin and DCX, a known human neuronal migration disorder gene, participate in this process. PMID:24695713

  15. SDF1 reduces interneuron leading process branching through dual regulation of actin and microtubules.

    PubMed

    Lysko, Daniel E; Putt, Mary; Golden, Jeffrey A

    2014-04-02

    Normal cerebral cortical function requires a highly ordered balance between projection neurons and interneurons. During development these two neuronal populations migrate from distinct progenitor zones to form the cerebral cortex, with interneurons originating in the more distant ganglionic eminences. Moreover, deficits in interneurons have been linked to a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders underscoring the importance of understanding interneuron development and function. We, and others, have identified SDF1 signaling as one important modulator of interneuron migration speed and leading process branching behavior in mice, although how SDF1 signaling impacts these behaviors remains unknown. We previously found SDF1 inhibited leading process branching while increasing the rate of migration. We have now mechanistically linked SDF1 modulation of leading process branching behavior to a dual regulation of both actin and microtubule organization. We find SDF1 consolidates actin at the leading process tip by de-repressing calpain protease and increasing proteolysis of branched-actin-supporting cortactin. Additionally, SDF1 stabilizes the microtubule array in the leading process through activation of the microtubule-associated protein doublecortin (DCX). DCX stabilizes the microtubule array by bundling microtubules within the leading process, reducing branching. These data provide mechanistic insight into the regulation of interneuron leading process dynamics during neuronal migration in mice and provides insight into how cortactin and DCX, a known human neuronal migration disorder gene, participate in this process.

  16. Sedentary Behavior as a Daily Process Regulated by Habits and Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Conroy, David E.; Maher, Jaclyn P.; Elavsky, Steriani; Hyde, Amanda L.; Doerksen, Shawna E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sedentary behavior is a health risk but little is known about the motivational processes that regulate daily sedentary behavior. This study was designed to test a dual-process model of daily sedentary behavior, with an emphasis on the role of intentions and habits in regulating daily sedentary behavior. Methods College students (N = 128) self-reported on their habit strength for sitting and completed a 14-day ecological momentary assessment study that combined daily diaries for reporting motivation and behavior with ambulatory monitoring of sedentary behavior using accelerometers. Results Less than half of the variance in daily sedentary behavior was attributable to between-person differences. People with stronger sedentary habits reported more sedentary behavior on average. People whose intentions for limiting sedentary behavior were stronger, on average, exhibited less self-reported sedentary behavior (and marginally less monitored sedentary behavior). Daily deviations in those intentions were negatively associated with changes in daily sedentary behavior (i.e., stronger than usual intentions to limit sedentary behavior were associated with reduced sedentary behavior). Sedentary behavior also varied within-people as a function of concurrent physical activity, the day of week, and the day in the sequence of the monitoring period. Conclusions Sedentary behavior was regulated by both automatic and controlled motivational processes. Interventions should target both of these motivational processes to facilitate and maintain behavior change. Links between sedentary behavior and daily deviations in intentions also indicate the need for ongoing efforts to support controlled motivational processes on a daily basis. PMID:23477579

  17. Extension of IMC tuning correlations for non-self regulating (integrating) processes.

    PubMed

    Arbogast, Jeffrey E; Cooper, Douglas J

    2007-06-01

    The filter term of a PID with Filter controller reduces the impact of measurement noise on the derivative action of the controller. This impact is quantified by the controller output travel defined as the total movement of the controller output per unit time. Decreasing controller output travel is important to reduce wear in the final control element. Internal Model Control (IMC) tuning correlations are widely published for PI, PID, and PID with Filter controllers for self regulating processes. For non-self regulating (or integrating) processes, IMC tuning correlations are published for PI and PID controllers but not for PID with Filter controllers. The important contribution of this work is that it completes the set of IMC tuning correlations with an extension to the PID with Filter controller for non-self regulating processes. Other published correlations (not based upon the IMC framework) for PID with Filter controllers fix the filter time constant at one-tenth the derivative time regardless of the model of the process. In contrast, the novel IMC correlations presented in this paper calculate a filter time constant based upon the model of the process and the user's choice for the closed-loop time constant. The set point tracking and disturbance rejection performance of the proposed IMC tunings is demonstrated using simulation studies and a bench-scale experimental system. The proposed IMC tunings are shown to perform as well as various PID correlations (with and without a filter term) while requiring considerably less controller action.

  18. Understanding the Psychological Process of Avoidance-Based Self-Regulation on Facebook.

    PubMed

    Marder, Ben; Houghton, David; Joinson, Adam; Shankar, Avi; Bull, Eleanor

    2016-05-01

    In relation to social network sites, prior research has evidenced behaviors (e.g., censoring) enacted by individuals used to avoid projecting an undesired image to their online audiences. However, no work directly examines the psychological process underpinning such behavior. Drawing upon the theory of self-focused attention and related literature, a model is proposed to fill this research gap. Two studies examine the process whereby public self-awareness (stimulated by engaging with Facebook) leads to a self-comparison with audience expectations and, if discrepant, an increase in social anxiety, which results in the intention to perform avoidance-based self-regulation. By finding support for this process, this research contributes an extended understanding of the psychological factors leading to avoidance-based regulation when online selves are subject to surveillance.

  19. CLIC1 regulates dendritic cell antigen processing and presentation by modulating phagosome acidification and proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Salao, Kanin; Jiang, Lele; Li, Hui; Tsai, Vicky W.-W.; Husaini, Yasmin; Curmi, Paul M. G.; Brown, Louise J.; Brown, David A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Intracellular chloride channel protein 1 (CLIC1) participates in inflammatory processes by regulating macrophage phagosomal functions such as pH and proteolysis. Here, we sought to determine if CLIC1 can regulate adaptive immunity by actions on dendritic cells (DCs), the key professional antigen presenting cells. To do this, we first generated bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) from germline CLIC1 gene-deleted (CLIC1−/−) and wild-type (CLIC1+/+) mice, then studied them in vitro and in vivo. We found phagocytosis triggered cytoplasmic CLIC1 translocation to the phagosomal membrane where it regulated phagosomal pH and proteolysis. Phagosomes from CLIC1−/− BMDCs displayed impaired acidification and proteolysis, which could be reproduced if CLIC1+/+, but not CLIC1−/− cells, were treated with IAA94, a CLIC family ion channel blocker. CLIC1−/− BMDC displayed reduced in vitro antigen processing and presentation of full-length myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) and reduced MOG-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. These data suggest that CLIC1 regulates DC phagosomal pH to ensure optimal processing of antigen for presentation to antigen-specific T-cells. Further, they indicate that CLIC1 is a novel therapeutic target to help reduce the adaptive immune response in autoimmune diseases. PMID:27113959

  20. Development of neural mechanisms of conflict and error processing during childhood: implications for self-regulation

    PubMed Central

    Checa, Purificación; Castellanos, M. C.; Abundis-Gutiérrez, Alicia; Rosario Rueda, M.

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of thoughts and behavior requires attention, particularly when there is conflict between alternative responses or when errors are to be prevented or corrected. Conflict monitoring and error processing are functions of the executive attention network, a neurocognitive system that greatly matures during childhood. In this study, we examined the development of brain mechanisms underlying conflict and error processing with event-related potentials (ERPs), and explored the relationship between brain function and individual differences in the ability to self-regulate behavior. Three groups of children aged 4–6, 7–9, and 10–13 years, and a group of adults performed a child-friendly version of the flanker task while ERPs were registered. Marked developmental changes were observed in both conflict processing and brain reactions to errors. After controlling by age, higher self-regulation skills are associated with smaller amplitude of the conflict effect but greater amplitude of the error-related negativity. Additionally, we found that electrophysiological measures of conflict and error monitoring predict individual differences in impulsivity and the capacity to delay gratification. These findings inform of brain mechanisms underlying the development of cognitive control and self-regulation. PMID:24795676

  1. Meta-analysis reveals up-regulation of cholesterol processes in non-alcoholic and down-regulation in alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Wruck, Wasco; Adjaye, James

    2017-01-01

    AIM To compare transcriptomes of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alcoholic liver disease (ALD) in a meta-analysis of liver biopsies. METHODS Employing transcriptome data from patient liver biopsies retrieved from several public repositories we performed a meta-analysis comparing ALD and NAFLD. RESULTS We observed predominating commonalities at the transcriptome level between ALD and NAFLD, most prominently numerous down-regulated metabolic pathways and cytochrome-related pathways and a few up-regulated pathways which include ECM-receptor interaction, phagosome and lysosome. However some pathways were regulated in opposite directions in ALD and NAFLD, for example, glycolysis was down-regulated in ALD and up-regulated in NAFLD. Interestingly, we found rate-limiting genes such as HMGCR, SQLE and CYP7A1 which are associated with cholesterol processes adversely regulated between ALD (down-regulated) and NAFLD (up-regulated). We propose that similar phenotypes in both diseases may be due to a lower level of the enzyme CYP7A1 compared to the cholesterol synthesis enzymes HMGCR and SQLE. Additionally, we provide a compendium of comparative KEGG pathways regulation in ALD and NAFLD. CONCLUSION Our finding of adversely regulated cholesterol processes in ALD and NAFLD draws the focus to regulation of cholesterol secretion into bile. Thus, it will be interesting to further investigate CYP7A1-mediated cholesterol secretion into bile - also as possible drug targets. The list of potential novel biomarkers may assist differential diagnosis of ALD and NAFLD. PMID:28357032

  2. Unique expression, processing regulation, and regulatory network of peach (Prunus persica) miRNAs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently emerged as important gene regulators in plants. MiRNAs and their targets have been extensively studied in Arabidopsis and rice. However, relatively little is known about the characterization of miRNAs and their target genes in peach (Prunus persica), which is a complex crop with unique developmental programs. Results We performed small RNA deep sequencing and identified 47 peach-specific and 47 known miRNAs or families with distinct expression patterns. Together, the identified miRNAs targeted 80 genes, many of which have not been reported previously. Like the model plant systems, peach has two of the three conserved trans-acting siRNA biogenesis pathways with similar mechanistic features and target specificity. Unique to peach, three of the miRNAs collectively target 49 MYBs, 19 of which are known to regulate phenylpropanoid metabolism, a key pathway associated with stone hardening and fruit color development, highlighting a critical role of miRNAs in the regulation of peach fruit development and ripening. We also found that the majority of the miRNAs were differentially regulated in different tissues, in part due to differential processing of miRNA precursors. Up to 16% of the peach-specific miRNAs were differentially processed from their precursors in a tissue specific fashion, which has been rarely observed in plant cells. The miRNA precursor processing activity appeared not to be coupled with its transcriptional activity but rather acted independently in peach. Conclusions Collectively, the data characterizes the unique expression pattern and processing regulation of peach miRNAs and demonstrates the presence of a complex, multi-level miRNA regulatory network capable of targeting a wide variety of biological functions, including phenylpropanoid pathways which play a multifaceted spatial-temporal role in peach fruit development. PMID:22909020

  3. Unique expression, processing regulation, and regulatory network of peach (Prunus persica) miRNAs.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hong; Xia, Rui; Zhao, Bingyu; An, Yong-qiang; Dardick, Chris D; Callahan, Ann M; Liu, Zongrang

    2012-08-21

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently emerged as important gene regulators in plants. MiRNAs and their targets have been extensively studied in Arabidopsis and rice. However, relatively little is known about the characterization of miRNAs and their target genes in peach (Prunus persica), which is a complex crop with unique developmental programs. We performed small RNA deep sequencing and identified 47 peach-specific and 47 known miRNAs or families with distinct expression patterns. Together, the identified miRNAs targeted 80 genes, many of which have not been reported previously. Like the model plant systems, peach has two of the three conserved trans-acting siRNA biogenesis pathways with similar mechanistic features and target specificity. Unique to peach, three of the miRNAs collectively target 49 MYBs, 19 of which are known to regulate phenylpropanoid metabolism, a key pathway associated with stone hardening and fruit color development, highlighting a critical role of miRNAs in the regulation of peach fruit development and ripening. We also found that the majority of the miRNAs were differentially regulated in different tissues, in part due to differential processing of miRNA precursors. Up to 16% of the peach-specific miRNAs were differentially processed from their precursors in a tissue specific fashion, which has been rarely observed in plant cells. The miRNA precursor processing activity appeared not to be coupled with its transcriptional activity but rather acted independently in peach. Collectively, the data characterizes the unique expression pattern and processing regulation of peach miRNAs and demonstrates the presence of a complex, multi-level miRNA regulatory network capable of targeting a wide variety of biological functions, including phenylpropanoid pathways which play a multifaceted spatial-temporal role in peach fruit development.

  4. Drought and Recovery: Independently Regulated Processes Highlighting the Importance of Protein Turnover Dynamics and Translational Regulation in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Lyon, David; Castillejo, Maria Angeles; Mehmeti-Tershani, Vlora; Staudinger, Christiana; Kleemaier, Christoph; Wienkoop, Stefanie

    2016-06-01

    Climate change in conjunction with population growth necessitates a systems biology approach to characterize plant drought acclimation as well as a more thorough understanding of the molecular mechanisms of stress recovery. Plants are exposed to a continuously changing environment. Extremes such as several weeks of drought are followed by rain. This requires a molecular plasticity of the plant enabling drought acclimation and the necessity of deacclimation processes for recovery and continuous growth.During drought stress and subsequent recovery, the metabolome and proteome are regulated through a sequence of molecular processes including synthesis and degradation and molecular interaction networks are part of this regulatory process. In order to study this complex regulatory network, a comprehensive analysis is presented for the first time, investigating protein turnover and regulatory classes of proteins and metabolites during a stress recovery scenario in the model legume Medicago truncatula The data give novel insights into the molecular capacity and differential processes required for acclimation and deacclimation of severe drought stressed plants.Functional cluster and network analyses unraveled independent regulatory mechanisms for stress and recovery with different dynamic phases that during the course of recovery define the plants deacclimation from stress. The combination of relative abundance levels and turnover analysis revealed an early transition phase that seems key for recovery initiation through water resupply and is independent from renutrition. Thus, a first indication for a metabolite and protein-based load capacity was observed necessary for the recovery from drought, an important but thus far ignored possible feature toward tolerance. The data indicate that apart from the plants molecular stress response mechanisms, plasticity may be related to the nutritional status of the plant prior to stress initiation. A new perspective and possible new

  5. Drought and Recovery: Independently Regulated Processes Highlighting the Importance of Protein Turnover Dynamics and Translational Regulation in Medicago truncatula*

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, David; Castillejo, Maria Angeles; Mehmeti-Tershani, Vlora; Staudinger, Christiana; Kleemaier, Christoph; Wienkoop, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Climate change in conjunction with population growth necessitates a systems biology approach to characterize plant drought acclimation as well as a more thorough understanding of the molecular mechanisms of stress recovery. Plants are exposed to a continuously changing environment. Extremes such as several weeks of drought are followed by rain. This requires a molecular plasticity of the plant enabling drought acclimation and the necessity of deacclimation processes for recovery and continuous growth. During drought stress and subsequent recovery, the metabolome and proteome are regulated through a sequence of molecular processes including synthesis and degradation and molecular interaction networks are part of this regulatory process. In order to study this complex regulatory network, a comprehensive analysis is presented for the first time, investigating protein turnover and regulatory classes of proteins and metabolites during a stress recovery scenario in the model legume Medicago truncatula. The data give novel insights into the molecular capacity and differential processes required for acclimation and deacclimation of severe drought stressed plants. Functional cluster and network analyses unraveled independent regulatory mechanisms for stress and recovery with different dynamic phases that during the course of recovery define the plants deacclimation from stress. The combination of relative abundance levels and turnover analysis revealed an early transition phase that seems key for recovery initiation through water resupply and is independent from renutrition. Thus, a first indication for a metabolite and protein-based load capacity was observed necessary for the recovery from drought, an important but thus far ignored possible feature toward tolerance. The data indicate that apart from the plants molecular stress response mechanisms, plasticity may be related to the nutritional status of the plant prior to stress initiation. A new perspective and possible

  6. Linking children's neuropsychological processing of emotion with their knowledge of emotion expression regulation.

    PubMed

    Watling, Dawn; Bourne, Victoria J

    2007-09-01

    Understanding of emotions has been shown to develop between the ages of 4 and 10 years; however, individual differences exist in this development. While previous research has typically examined these differences in terms of developmental and/or social factors, little research has considered the possible impact of neuropsychological development on the behavioural understanding of emotions. Emotion processing tends to be lateralised to the right hemisphere of the brain in adults, yet this pattern is not as evident in children until around the age of 10 years. In this study 136 children between 5 and 10 years were given both behavioural and neuropsychological tests of emotion processing. The behavioural task examined expression regulation knowledge (ERK) for prosocial and self-presentational hypothetical interactions. The chimeric faces test was given as a measure of lateralisation for processing positive facial emotion. An interaction between age and lateralisation for emotion processing was predictive of children's ERK for only the self-presentational interactions. The relationships between children's ERK and lateralisation for emotion processing changes across the three age groups, emerging as a positive relationship in the 10-year-olds. The 10-years-olds who were more lateralised to the right hemisphere for emotion processing tended to show greater understanding of the need for regulating negative emotions during interactions that would have a self-presentational motivation. This finding suggests an association between the behavioural and neuropsychological development of emotion processing.

  7. Minor Planet Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsden, Brian G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports on the activities of the Minor Planet Center for the year of 1998. The main product of this center is the Minor Planet Circulars, augmented by the Minor Planet Circulars Supplement which is a new series introduced in 1997 to include the actual observations, which are now only summarized MPC. The introduction of the Daily Orbit Update (DOU) lists all the orbits computed and identification found since the previous issue. There has been a fivefold increase in the reported Near Earth Objects, which includes the addition of 55 potentially hazardous asteroids.

  8. Stroke in Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Trimble, Brian; Morgenstern, Lewis B.

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis Minorities in the United States have higher stroke risks, stroke occurrence at an earlier age, and for some groups, more severe strokes than non-Hispanic whites. Factors contributing to this disparity are explored. Characteristics of African American, Hispanic, and Native American stroke risk and incidence are reviewed. We mention recent interventions to raise the awareness of stroke risk factors and symptoms in minorities. The importance of the problem is discussed, and we suggest ways stroke in minorities may be reduced. PMID:19026907

  9. Emotion processing and regulation in women with morbid obesity who apply for bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Zijlstra, Hanna; van Middendorp, Henriët; Devaere, Lieselot; Larsen, Junilla K; van Ramshorst, Bert; Geenen, Rinie

    2012-01-01

    Emotional eating, the tendency to eat when experiencing negative affect, is prevalent in morbid obesity and may indicate that ways to deal with emotions are disturbed. Our aim was to compare emotion processing and regulation between 102 women with morbid obesity who apply for bariatric surgery and 102 women from the general population (control group) and to examine in the group with morbid obesity the association of emotion processing and regulation with emotional eating. The group with morbid obesity reported higher scores on difficulty identifying feelings (alexithymia, p = 0.002) and suppression of emotions (p = 0.003) than the control group. In the women with morbid obesity, more negative affect and a higher difficulty identifying feelings were correlated with more emotional eating (r = 0.36 and r = 0.35, p < 0.001). Our study suggests that negative emotions and unhealthy emotion processing may play a role in emotional eating, and it indicates the possible relevance of emotion processing and emotional regulation as initiating or perpetuating mechanisms in morbid obesity.

  10. Theorizing and researching levels of processing in self-regulated learning.

    PubMed

    Winne, Philip H

    2017-08-09

    Deep versus surface knowledge is widely discussed by educational practitioners. A corresponding construct, levels of processing, has received extensive theoretical and empirical attention in learning science and psychology. In both arenas, lower levels of information and shallower levels of processing are predicted and generally empirically demonstrated to limit knowledge learners gain, curtail what they can do with newly acquired knowledge, and shorten the life span of recently acquired knowledge. I recapitulate major accounts of levels or depth of information and information processing to set a stage for conceptualizing, first, self-regulated learning (SRL) from this perspective and, second, how a "levels-sensitive" approach might be implemented in research about SRL. I merge the levels construct into a model of SRL (Winne, 2011, Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance (pp. 15-32), New York: Routledge; Winne, 2017b, Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance (2(nd) ed.), New York: Routledge; Winne & Hadwin, 1998, Metacognition in educational theory and practice (pp. 277-304). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum) conceptually and with respect to operationally defining the levels construct in the context of SRL in relation to each of the model's four phases - surveying task conditions, setting goals and planning, engaging the task, and composing major adaptations for future tasks. Select illustrations are provided for each phase of SRL. Regarding phase 3, a software system called nStudy is introduced as state-of-the-art instrumentation for gathering fine-grained, time-stamped trace data about information learners select for processing and operations they use to process that information. Self-regulated learning can be viewed through a lens of the levels construct, and operational definitions can be designed to research SRL with respect to levels. While information can be organized arbitrarily deeply, the levels construct may not be

  11. A new window of opportunity to reject process-based biotechnology regulation

    PubMed Central

    Marchant, Gary E; Stevens, Yvonne A

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT. The question of whether biotechnology regulation should be based on the process or the product has long been debated, with different jurisdictions adopting different approaches. The European Union has adopted a process-based approach, Canada has adopted a product-based approach, and the United States has implemented a hybrid system. With the recent proliferation of new methods of genetic modification, such as gene editing, process-based regulatory systems, which are premised on a binary system of transgenic and conventional approaches, will become increasingly obsolete and unsustainable. To avoid unreasonable, unfair and arbitrary results, nations that have adopted process-based approaches will need to migrate to a product-based approach that considers the novelty and risks of the individual trait, rather than the process by which that trait was produced. This commentary suggests some approaches for the design of such a product-based approach. PMID:26930116

  12. A new window of opportunity to reject process-based biotechnology regulation.

    PubMed

    Marchant, Gary E; Stevens, Yvonne A

    2015-01-01

    The question of whether biotechnology regulation should be based on the process or the product has long been debated, with different jurisdictions adopting different approaches. The European Union has adopted a process-based approach, Canada has adopted a product-based approach, and the United States has implemented a hybrid system. With the recent proliferation of new methods of genetic modification, such as gene editing, process-based regulatory systems, which are premised on a binary system of transgenic and conventional approaches, will become increasingly obsolete and unsustainable. To avoid unreasonable, unfair and arbitrary results, nations that have adopted process-based approaches will need to migrate to a product-based approach that considers the novelty and risks of the individual trait, rather than the process by which that trait was produced. This commentary suggests some approaches for the design of such a product-based approach.

  13. Including hydrological self-regulating processes in peatland models: Effects on peatmoss drought projections.

    PubMed

    Nijp, Jelmer J; Metselaar, Klaas; Limpens, Juul; Teutschbein, Claudia; Peichl, Matthias; Nilsson, Mats B; Berendse, Frank; van der Zee, Sjoerd E A T M

    2017-02-15

    The water content of the topsoil is one of the key factors controlling biogeochemical processes, greenhouse gas emissions and biosphere - atmosphere interactions in many ecosystems, particularly in northern peatlands. In these wetland ecosystems, the water content of the photosynthetic active peatmoss layer is crucial for ecosystem functioning and carbon sequestration, and is sensitive to future shifts in rainfall and drought characteristics. Current peatland models differ in the degree in which hydrological feedbacks are included, but how this affects peatmoss drought projections is unknown. The aim of this paper was to systematically test whether the level of hydrological detail in models could bias projections of water content and drought stress for peatmoss in northern peatlands using downscaled projections for rainfall and potential evapotranspiration in the current (1991-2020) and future climate (2061-2090). We considered four model variants that either include or exclude moss (rain)water storage and peat volume change, as these are two central processes in the hydrological self-regulation of peatmoss carpets. Model performance was validated using field data of a peatland in northern Sweden. Including moss water storage as well as peat volume change resulted in a significant improvement of model performance, despite the extra parameters added. The best performance was achieved if both processes were included. Including moss water storage and peat volume change consistently reduced projected peatmoss drought frequency with >50%, relative to the model excluding both processes. Projected peatmoss drought frequency in the growing season was 17% smaller under future climate than current climate, but was unaffected by including the hydrological self-regulating processes. Our results suggest that ignoring these two fine-scale processes important in hydrological self-regulation of northern peatlands will have large consequences for projected climate change impact on

  14. Glycosylation is an Androgen-Regulated Process Essential for Prostate Cancer Cell Viability.

    PubMed

    Munkley, Jennifer; Vodak, Daniel; Livermore, Karen E; James, Katherine; Wilson, Brian T; Knight, Bridget; Mccullagh, Paul; Mcgrath, John; Crundwell, Malcolm; Harries, Lorna W; Leung, Hing Y; Robson, Craig N; Mills, Ian G; Rajan, Prabhakar; Elliott, David J

    2016-06-01

    Steroid androgen hormones play a key role in the progression and treatment of prostate cancer, with androgen deprivation therapy being the first-line treatment used to control cancer growth. Here we apply a novel search strategy to identify androgen-regulated cellular pathways that may be clinically important in prostate cancer. Using RNASeq data, we searched for genes that showed reciprocal changes in expression in response to acute androgen stimulation in culture, and androgen deprivation in patients with prostate cancer. Amongst 700 genes displaying reciprocal expression patterns we observed a significant enrichment in the cellular process glycosylation. Of 31 reciprocally-regulated glycosylation enzymes, a set of 8 (GALNT7, ST6GalNAc1, GCNT1, UAP1, PGM3, CSGALNACT1, ST6GAL1 and EDEM3) were significantly up-regulated in clinical prostate carcinoma. Androgen exposure stimulated synthesis of glycan structures downstream of this core set of regulated enzymes including sialyl-Tn (sTn), sialyl Lewis(X) (SLe(X)), O-GlcNAc and chondroitin sulphate, suggesting androgen regulation of the core set of enzymes controls key steps in glycan synthesis. Expression of each of these enzymes also contributed to prostate cancer cell viability. This study identifies glycosylation as a global target for androgen control, and suggests loss of specific glycosylation enzymes might contribute to tumour regression following androgen depletion therapy.

  15. Minority Innovation Challenges Institute

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Do you want to learn more about how to compete in NASA’s technical challenges for both prestige and significant cash prizes? NASA’s Minority Innovation Challenges Institute trains and mentors mino...

  16. NIH Minority Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD.

    This publication contains brief descriptions of National Institutes of Health programs for underrepresented minorities, including fellowships, programs for high school students, graduate research assistantships, postdoctoral training, and programs for college students. The publication provides a description of each program, eligibility…

  17. An Age-Related Mechanism of Emotion Regulation: Regulating Sadness Promotes Children's Learning by Broadening Information Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Elizabeth L.

    2016-01-01

    Emotion regulation predicts positive academic outcomes like learning, but little is known about "why". Effective emotion regulation likely promotes learning by broadening the scope of what may be attended to after an emotional event. One hundred twenty-six 6- to 13-year-olds' (54% boys) regulation of sadness was examined for changes in…

  18. An Age-Related Mechanism of Emotion Regulation: Regulating Sadness Promotes Children's Learning by Broadening Information Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Elizabeth L.

    2016-01-01

    Emotion regulation predicts positive academic outcomes like learning, but little is known about "why". Effective emotion regulation likely promotes learning by broadening the scope of what may be attended to after an emotional event. One hundred twenty-six 6- to 13-year-olds' (54% boys) regulation of sadness was examined for changes in…

  19. Constraints on the Regulatory Process: A Case Study of Regulation of Cable Television. Publication No. 75-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berner, Ricahrd Olin

    A case study approach is used to extensively examine the process by which the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has regulated cable television. A chronological accounting of cable regulation suggests the constraints under which regulation has taken place. An examination of extra-agency groups which constrain the commission's regulatory…

  20. Termination of the Activating NK Cell Immunological Synapse Is an Active and Regulated Process.

    PubMed

    Netter, Petra; Anft, Moritz; Watzl, Carsten

    2017-08-23

    Cellular cytotoxicity is essential for the elimination of virus-infected and cancerous cells by NK cells. It requires a direct cellular contact through the establishment of an immunological synapse (IS) between the NK cell and the target cell. In this article, we show that not only the establishment of the IS, but also its maintenance is a highly regulated process. Ongoing receptor-proximal signaling events from activating NK cell receptors and actin dynamics were necessary to maintain a stable contact in an energy-dependent fashion, even after the IS was formed successfully. More importantly, the initiation of a contact to a new susceptible target cell resulted in accelerated detachment from an old target cell. We propose that the maintenance of an existing IS is a dynamic and regulated process to allow for effective serial killing of NK cells. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  1. Episodic processes in emotional labor: perceptions of affective delivery and regulation strategies.

    PubMed

    Beal, Daniel J; Trougakos, John P; Weiss, Howard M; Green, Stephen G

    2006-09-01

    This study examined emotional labor processes from a within-person, episodic framework. The authors hypothesized that the influence of negative emotions on affective delivery would be lessened by regulation strategies for supervisor perceptions but not self-perceptions. In addition, difficulty maintaining display rules was hypothesized to mediate the relation between negative emotions and self-perceptions of affective delivery. Finally, the influence of surface acting strategies on these processes as well as correlations with individual differences was investigated. Hypotheses were tested using ecological momentary assessment of a sample of cheerleading instructors. Results suggest that surface actors can regulate emotions effectively on an episode-to-episode basis but find the episode more difficult. In addition, surface actors exhibit more general tendencies to devalue themselves and experience fewer positive emotions. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved

  2. O-GlcNAc processing enzymes: catalytic mechanisms, substrate specificity, and enzyme regulation.

    PubMed

    Vocadlo, David J

    2012-12-01

    The addition of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) O-linked to serine and threonine residues of proteins is known as O-GlcNAc. This post-translational modification is found within multicellular eukaryotes on hundreds of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) installs O-GlcNAc onto target proteins and O-GlcNAcase (OGA) removes O-GlcNAc. Their combined action makes O-GlcNAc reversible and serves to regulate cellular O-GlcNAc levels. Here I review select recent literature on the catalytic mechanism of these enzymes and studies on the molecular basis by which these enzymes identify and process their substrates. Molecular level understanding of how these enzymes work, and the basis for their specificity, should aid understanding how O-GlcNAc contributes to diverse cellular processes ranging from cellular signaling through to transcriptional regulation.

  3. The RB/E2F pathway and regulation of RNA processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlander, Joseph; Bosco, Giovanni

    2009-07-03

    The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (RB) is inactivated in a majority of cancers. RB restricts cell proliferation by inhibiting the E2F family of transcription factors. The current model for RB/E2F function describes its role in regulating transcription at gene promoters. Whether the RB or E2F proteins might play a role in gene expression beyond transcription initiation is not well known. This review describes evidence that points to a novel role for the RB/E2F network in the regulation of RNA processing, and we propose a model as a framework for future research. The elucidation of a novel role of RB in RNA processing will have a profound impact on our understanding of the role of this tumor suppressor family in cell and developmental biology.

  4. Neptune: Minor Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2003-04-01

    All but one of Neptune's minor satellites orbit within or just outside its ringsystem; the exception is the distant object Nereid. Some of them are betterdescribed as `mid-sized' rather than `minor', but are included under thisheading as little is known of them. The inner four, with approximatediameters, are Naiad (60 km), Thalassa (80 km), Despina (150 km) and Galatea(160 km). The first three lie...

  5. Macrophage infiltration regulates the adipose ECM reconstruction and the fibrosis process after fat grafting.

    PubMed

    Cai, Junrong; Li, Bin; Liu, Kaiyang; Li, Guanghui; Lu, Feng

    2017-08-19

    Fat grafting experiences a regeneration process from free lipoaspirate to intact adipose tissue. The adipose extracellular matrixes (ECM) provide the structure and biochemical support for surrounding cells; inflammatory cells, like macrophages, regulate the process. Our hypothesis states that transferred fat undergoes ECM remodeling after fat grafting and this process is regulated by macrophage infiltration. Lipoaspirate was injected subcutaneously into the back of nude mice. The micro-structure of the fat grafts was observed and evaluated using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and collagen I immunohistostaining. The gene transcription level of collagen proteins and the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were assessed by qRT-PCR. Local injection of clodronate-encapsulated liposome was used to evaluate the role of macrophages of fat grafts at different stages in ECM remodeling, depletion of macrophages, at different time points (Week 1 and Week 4). Results from the SEM analysis showed that liposuction caused severe damage to the ECM structure in freshly aspirated adipose tissue. On Day 1 post-transplantation, the surface of adipocytes was covered with platelets and this secreted fibrin network on the fat grafts. An integral adipose structure was already established with an intact ECM at the end of Week 1. The early depletion of macrophages remarkably hindered ECM reconstruction process by down-regulating the expression of collagen proteins and MMPs. Expression of Collagen I was significantly decreased after depletion of macrophages in both gene and protein levels. Results also showed that the depletion of macrophages at the later stage of fat grafting resulted in less fibrosis and capsule formation. Free fat aspirates undergo a prompt ECM reconstruction process and completed in the first week; this process can be initiated with platelets and mainly modulated by inflammatory cells such as macrophages. It was also observed that prolonged macrophage infiltration

  6. Effect of Food Regulation on the Spanish Food Processing Industry: A Dynamic Productivity Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kapelko, Magdalena; Oude Lansink, Alfons; Stefanou, Spiro E

    2015-01-01

    This article develops the decomposition of the dynamic Luenberger productivity growth indicator into dynamic technical change, dynamic technical inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change in the dynamic directional distance function context using Data Envelopment Analysis. These results are used to investigate for the Spanish food processing industry the extent to which dynamic productivity growth and its components are affected by the introduction of the General Food Law in 2002 (Regulation (EC) No 178/2002). The empirical application uses panel data of Spanish meat, dairy, and oils and fats industries over the period 1996-2011. The results suggest that in the oils and fats industry the impact of food regulation on dynamic productivity growth is negative initially and then positive over the long run. In contrast, the opposite pattern is observed for the meat and dairy processing industries. The results further imply that firms in the meat processing and oils and fats industries face similar impacts of food safety regulation on dynamic technical change, dynamic inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change.

  7. Krebs cycle intermediates regulate DNA and histone methylation: epigenetic impact on the aging process.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Antero; Kauppinen, Anu; Hiltunen, Mikko; Kaarniranta, Kai

    2014-07-01

    Many aging theories have proposed that mitochondria and energy metabolism have a major role in the aging process. There are recent studies indicating that Krebs cycle intermediates can shape the epigenetic landscape of chromatin by regulating DNA and histone methylation. A growing evidence indicates that epigenetics plays an important role in the regulation of healthspan but also is involved in the aging process. 2-Oxoglutarate (α-ketoglutarate) is a key metabolite in the Krebs cycle but it is also an obligatory substrate for 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases (2-OGDO). The 2-OGDO enzyme family includes the major enzymes of DNA and histone demethylation, i.e. Ten-Eleven Translocation (TETs) and Jumonji C domain containing (JmjC) demethylases. In addition, 2-OGDO members can regulate collagen synthesis and hypoxic responses in a non-epigenetical manner. Interestingly, succinate and fumarate, also Krebs cycle intermediates, are potent inhibitors of 2-OGDO enzymes, i.e. the balance of Krebs cycle reactions can affect the level of DNA and histone methylation and thus control gene expression. We will review the epigenetic mechanisms through which Krebs cycle intermediates control the DNA and histone methylation. We propose that age-related disturbances in the Krebs cycle function induce stochastic epigenetic changes in chromatin structures which in turn promote the aging process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Food Regulation on the Spanish Food Processing Industry: A Dynamic Productivity Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kapelko, Magdalena; Lansink, Alfons Oude; Stefanou, Spiro E.

    2015-01-01

    This article develops the decomposition of the dynamic Luenberger productivity growth indicator into dynamic technical change, dynamic technical inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change in the dynamic directional distance function context using Data Envelopment Analysis. These results are used to investigate for the Spanish food processing industry the extent to which dynamic productivity growth and its components are affected by the introduction of the General Food Law in 2002 (Regulation (EC) No 178/2002). The empirical application uses panel data of Spanish meat, dairy, and oils and fats industries over the period 1996-2011. The results suggest that in the oils and fats industry the impact of food regulation on dynamic productivity growth is negative initially and then positive over the long run. In contrast, the opposite pattern is observed for the meat and dairy processing industries. The results further imply that firms in the meat processing and oils and fats industries face similar impacts of food safety regulation on dynamic technical change, dynamic inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change. PMID:26057878

  9. Approaches to optimizing animal cell culture process: substrate metabolism regulation and protein expression improvement.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanxing

    2009-01-01

    Some high value proteins and vaccines for medical and veterinary applications by animal cell culture have an increasing market in China. In order to meet the demands of large-scale productions of proteins and vaccines, animal cell culture technology has been widely developed. In general, an animal cell culture process can be divided into two stages in a batch culture. In cell growth stage a high specific growth rate is expected to achieve a high cell density. In production stage a high specific production rate is stressed for the expression and secretion of qualified protein or replication of virus. It is always critical to maintain high cell viability in fed-batch and perfusion cultures. More concern has been focused on two points by the researchers in China. First, the cell metabolism of substrates is analyzed and the accumulation of toxic by-products is decreased through regulating cell metabolism in the culture process. Second, some important factors effecting protein expression are understood at the molecular level and the production ability of protein is improved. In pace with the rapid development of large-scale cell culture for the production of vaccines, antibodies and other recombinant proteins in China, the medium design and process optimization based on cell metabolism regulation and protein expression improvement will play an important role. The chapter outlines the main advances in metabolic regulation of cell and expression improvement of protein in animal cell culture in recent years.

  10. Approaches to Optimizing Animal Cell Culture Process: Substrate Metabolism Regulation and Protein Expression Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuanxing

    Some high value proteins and vaccines for medical and veterinary applications by animal cell culture have an increasing market in China. In order to meet the demands of large-scale productions of proteins and vaccines, animal cell culture technology has been widely developed. In general, an animal cell culture process can be divided into two stages in a batch culture. In cell growth stage a high specific growth rate is expected to achieve a high cell density. In production stage a high specific production rate is stressed for the expression and secretion of qualified protein or replication of virus. It is always critical to maintain high cell viability in fed-batch and perfusion cultures. More concern has been focused on two points by the researchers in China. First, the cell metabolism of substrates is analyzed and the accumulation of toxic by-products is decreased through regulating cell metabolism in the culture process. Second, some important factors effecting protein expression are understood at the molecular level and the production ability of protein is improved. In pace with the rapid development of large-scale cell culture for the production of vaccines, antibodies and other recombinant proteins in China, the medium design and process optimization based on cell metabolism regulation and protein expression improvement will play an important role. The chapter outlines the main advances in metabolic regulation of cell and expression improvement of protein in animal cell culture in recent years.

  11. Approaches to Optimizing Animal Cell Culture Process: Substrate Metabolism Regulation and Protein Expression Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuanxing

    Some high value proteins and vaccines for medical and veterinary applications by animal cell culture have an increasing market in China. In order to meet the demands of large-scale productions of proteins and vaccines, animal cell culture technology has been widely developed. In general, an animal cell culture process can be divided into two stages in a batch culture. In cell growth stage a high specific growth rate is expected to achieve a high cell density. In production stage a high specific production rate is stressed for the expression and secretion of qualified protein or replication of virus. It is always critical to maintain high cell viability in fed-batch and perfusion cultures. More concern has been focused on two points by the researchers in China. First, the cell metabolism of substrates is analyzed and the accumulation of toxic by-products is decreased through regulating cell metabolism in the culture process. Second, some important factors effecting protein expression are understood at the molecular level and the production ability of protein is improved. In pace with the rapid development of large-scale cell culture for the production of vaccines, antibodies and other recombinant proteins in China, the medium design and process optimization based on cell metabolism regulation and protein expression improvement will play an important role. The chapter outlines the main advances in metabolic regulation of cell and expression improvement of protein in animal cell culture in recent years.

  12. Breast Cancer Malignant Processes are Regulated by Pax-5 Through the Disruption of FAK Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Benzina, Sami; Harquail, Jason; Guerrette, Roxann; O'Brien, Pierre; Jean, Stéphanie; Crapoulet, Nicolas; Robichaud, Gilles A

    2016-01-01

    The study of genetic factors regulating breast cancer malignancy is a top priority to mitigate the morbidity and mortality associated with this disease. One of these factors, Pax-5, modulates cancer aggressiveness through the regulation of various components of the epithelial to mesenchymal transitioning (EMT) process. We have previously reported that Pax-5 expression profiles in cancer tissues inversely correlate with those of the Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK), a potent activator of breast cancer malignancy. In this study, we set out to elucidate the molecular and regulatory relationship between Pax-5 and FAK in breast cancer processes. Interestingly, we found that Pax-5 mediated suppression of breast cancer cell migration is dependent of FAK activity. Our mechanistic examination revealed that Pax-5 inhibits FAK expression and activation. We also demonstrate that Pax-5 is a potent modulator of FAK repressors (p53 and miR-135b) and activator (NFκB) which results in the overall suppression of FAK-mediated signaling cascades. Altogether, our findings bring more insight to the molecular triggers regulating phenotypic transitioning process and signaling cascades leading to breast cancer progression.

  13. Breast Cancer Malignant Processes are Regulated by Pax-5 Through the Disruption of FAK Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Benzina, Sami; Harquail, Jason; Guerrette, Roxann; O'Brien, Pierre; Jean, Stéphanie; Crapoulet, Nicolas; Robichaud, Gilles A.

    2016-01-01

    The study of genetic factors regulating breast cancer malignancy is a top priority to mitigate the morbidity and mortality associated with this disease. One of these factors, Pax-5, modulates cancer aggressiveness through the regulation of various components of the epithelial to mesenchymal transitioning (EMT) process. We have previously reported that Pax-5 expression profiles in cancer tissues inversely correlate with those of the Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK), a potent activator of breast cancer malignancy. In this study, we set out to elucidate the molecular and regulatory relationship between Pax-5 and FAK in breast cancer processes. Interestingly, we found that Pax-5 mediated suppression of breast cancer cell migration is dependent of FAK activity. Our mechanistic examination revealed that Pax-5 inhibits FAK expression and activation. We also demonstrate that Pax-5 is a potent modulator of FAK repressors (p53 and miR-135b) and activator (NFκB) which results in the overall suppression of FAK-mediated signaling cascades. Altogether, our findings bring more insight to the molecular triggers regulating phenotypic transitioning process and signaling cascades leading to breast cancer progression. PMID:28070224

  14. C6 Glioma-Secreted NGF and FGF2 Regulate Neuronal APP Processing Through Up-Regulation of ADAM10 and Down-Regulation of BACE1, Respectively.

    PubMed

    Xie, Huiping; Xiao, Zhimin; Huang, Jian

    2016-07-01

    Excessive accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) caused by cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) is thought to be the primary cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Two key enzymes ADAM10 and BACE1 are involved in the initial cleavage of APP, resulting in the onset of two pathways, the amyloidogenic pathway and the non-amyloidogenic pathway, respectively. Altering APP metabolism towards the non-amyloidogenic pathway is thought to reduce Aβ production. It has been reported that, in vivo, exogenous neurotrophic factors make APP apt to entering the non-amyloidogenic pathway. Since astrocytes secrete a battery of neurotrophic factors, we investigated the role of astrocyte-derived factors in the dynamics of Aβ generation in neural cells. Results show that C6 glioma cell-conditioned medium (GCM), obtained from cultured astrocyte-derived C6 glioma cells, inhibit Aβ1-42 production and shift APP processing towards the non-amyloidogenic pathway in APPswe-HEK293 cells. Such effect is attributed to two key APP cleavage enzymes, ADAM10 and BACE1. Two neurotrophic factors in the GCM, nerve growth factor and fibroblast growth factor 2, are responsible for the up-regulation of ADAM10 and down-regulation of BACE1, respectively. Our findings enhance our understanding of the relationship between astrocytes and Aβ generation, indicating that stimulation of astrocytic neurotrophic factors could slow AD progression.

  15. Characterization of the human liver vasopressin receptor. Profound differences between human and rat vasopressin-receptor-mediated responses suggest only a minor role for vasopressin in regulating human hepatic function.

    PubMed Central

    Howl, J; Ismail, T; Strain, A J; Kirk, C J; Anderson, D; Wheatley, M

    1991-01-01

    The [Arg8]vasopressin (AVP) receptor expressed by human hepatocytes was characterized, and compared with the rat hepatic V1a vasopressin receptor subtype. In addition to determining the pharmacological profile of the human receptor, the cellular responses to AVP were measured in human and rat hepatocytes by assaying glycogen phosphorylase alpha activity and DNA synthesis. Marked differences were observed between human and rat hepatocytes regarding vasopressin receptors and the intracellular consequences of stimulation by AVP. Data presented in this paper demonstrate the following, (i) Vasopressin V1a receptors are present in low abundance on human hepatocytes. (ii) Species differences exist between human and rat V1a receptors with respect to the affinity of some selective antagonists. (iii) AVP-stimulated glycogen phosphorylase a activation in human hepatocytes was approx. 5% of that observed in rat cells. (iv) In contrast with rat hepatocytes, DNA synthesis in human cells in culture was not stimulated by AVP. It is concluded that vasopressin plays only a minor role in the regulation of human hepatic function. Furthermore, conclusions drawn from observations made with AVP and its analogues on rat hepatic function cannot be directly extrapolated to the human situation. PMID:2039469

  16. The polarity protein Par3 regulates APP trafficking and processing through the endocytic adaptor protein Numb.

    PubMed

    Sun, Miao; Asghar, Suwaiba Z; Zhang, Huaye

    2016-09-01

    The processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) into β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) is a key step in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and trafficking dysregulations of APP and its secretases contribute significantly to altered APP processing. Here we show that the cell polarity protein Par3 plays an important role in APP processing and trafficking. We found that the expression of full length Par3 is significantly decreased in AD patients. Overexpression of Par3 promotes non-amyloidogenic APP processing, while depletion of Par3 induces intracellular accumulation of Aβ. We further show that Par3 functions by regulating APP trafficking. Loss of Par3 decreases surface expression of APP by targeting APP to the late endosome/lysosome pathway. Finally, we show that the effects of Par3 are mediated through the endocytic adaptor protein Numb, and Par3 functions by interfering with the interaction between Numb and APP. Together, our studies show a novel role for Par3 in regulating APP processing and trafficking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The polarity protein Par3 regulates APP trafficking and processing through the endocytic adaptor protein Numb

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Miao; Asghar, Suwaiba Z.; Zhang, Huaye

    2016-01-01

    The processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) into β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) is a key step in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and trafficking dysregulations of APP and its secretases contribute significantly to altered APP processing. Here we show that the cell polarity protein Par3 plays an important role in APP processing and trafficking. We found that the expression of full length Par3 is significantly decreased in AD patients. Overexpression of Par3 promotes non-amyloidogenic APP processing while depletion of Par3 induces intracellular accumulation of Aβ. We further show that Par3 functions by regulating APP trafficking. Loss of Par3 decreases surface expression of APP by targeting APP to the late endosome/lysosome pathway. Finally, we show that the effects of Par3 are mediated through the endocytic adaptor protein Numb, and Par3 functions by interfering with the interaction between Numb and APP. Together, our studies show a novel role for Par3 in regulating APP processing and trafficking. PMID:27072891

  18. Synchronization of Developmental Processes and Defense Signaling by Growth Regulating Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinyi; Rice, J. Hollis; Chen, Nana; Baum, Thomas J.; Hewezi, Tarek

    2014-01-01

    Growth regulating factors (GRFs) are a conserved class of transcription factor in seed plants. GRFs are involved in various aspects of tissue differentiation and organ development. The implication of GRFs in biotic stress response has also been recently reported, suggesting a role of these transcription factors in coordinating the interaction between developmental processes and defense dynamics. However, the molecular mechanisms by which GRFs mediate the overlaps between defense signaling and developmental pathways are elusive. Here, we report large scale identification of putative target candidates of Arabidopsis GRF1 and GRF3 by comparing mRNA profiles of the grf1/grf2/grf3 triple mutant and those of the transgenic plants overexpressing miR396-resistant version of GRF1 or GRF3. We identified 1,098 and 600 genes as putative targets of GRF1 and GRF3, respectively. Functional classification of the potential target candidates revealed that GRF1 and GRF3 contribute to the regulation of various biological processes associated with defense response and disease resistance. GRF1 and GRF3 participate specifically in the regulation of defense-related transcription factors, cell-wall modifications, cytokinin biosynthesis and signaling, and secondary metabolites accumulation. GRF1 and GRF3 seem to fine-tune the crosstalk between miRNA signaling networks by regulating the expression of several miRNA target genes. In addition, our data suggest that GRF1 and GRF3 may function as negative regulators of gene expression through their association with other transcription factors. Collectively, our data provide new insights into how GRF1 and GRF3 might coordinate the interactions between defense signaling and plant growth and developmental pathways. PMID:24875638

  19. Xylosyltransferase-I regulates glycosaminoglycan synthesis during the pathogenic process of human osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Narayanan; Barré, Lydia; Bourhim, Mustapha; Magdalou, Jacques; Mainard, Didier; Netter, Patrick; Fournel-Gigleux, Sylvie; Ouzzine, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Loss of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains of proteoglycans (PGs) is an early event of osteoarthritis (OA) resulting in cartilage degradation that has been previously demonstrated in both huma and experimental OA models. However, the mechanism of GAG loss and the role of xylosyltransferase-I (XT-I) that initiates GAG biosynthesis onto PG molecules in the pathogenic process of human OA are unknown. In this study, we have characterized XT-I expression and activity together with GAG synthesis in human OA cartilage obtained from different regions of the same joint, defined as "normal", "late-stage" or adjacent to "late-stage". The results showed that GAG synthesis and content increased in cartilage from areas flanking OA lesions compared to cartilage from macroscopically "normal" unaffected regions, while decreased in "late-stage" OA cartilage lesions. This increase in anabolic state was associated with a marked upregulation of XT-I expression and activity in cartilage "next to lesion" while a decrease in the "late-stage" OA cartilage. Importantly, XT-I inhibition by shRNA or forced-expression with a pCMV-XT-I construct correlated with the modulation of GAG anabolism in human cartilage explants. The observation that XT-I gene expression was down-regulated by IL-1β and up-regulated by TGF-β1 indicates that these cytokines may play a role in regulating GAG content in human OA. Noteworthy, expression of IL-1β receptor (IL-1R1) was down-regulated whereas that of TGF-β1 was up-regulated in early OA cartilage. Theses observations may account for upregulation of XT-I and sustained GAG synthesis prior to the development of cartilage lesions during the pathogenic process of OA.

  20. Xylosyltransferase-I Regulates Glycosaminoglycan Synthesis during the Pathogenic Process of Human Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, Narayanan; Barré, Lydia; Bourhim, Mustapha; Magdalou, Jacques; Mainard, Didier; Netter, Patrick; Fournel-Gigleux, Sylvie; Ouzzine, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Loss of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains of proteoglycans (PGs) is an early event of osteoarthritis (OA) resulting in cartilage degradation that has been previously demonstrated in both huma and experimental OA models. However, the mechanism of GAG loss and the role of xylosyltransferase-I (XT-I) that initiates GAG biosynthesis onto PG molecules in the pathogenic process of human OA are unknown. In this study, we have characterized XT-I expression and activity together with GAG synthesis in human OA cartilage obtained from different regions of the same joint, defined as “normal”, “late-stage” or adjacent to “late-stage”. The results showed that GAG synthesis and content increased in cartilage from areas flanking OA lesions compared to cartilage from macroscopically “normal” unaffected regions, while decreased in “late-stage” OA cartilage lesions. This increase in anabolic state was associated with a marked upregulation of XT-I expression and activity in cartilage “next to lesion” while a decrease in the “late-stage” OA cartilage. Importantly, XT-I inhibition by shRNA or forced-expression with a pCMV-XT-I construct correlated with the modulation of GAG anabolism in human cartilage explants. The observation that XT-I gene expression was down-regulated by IL-1β and up-regulated by TGF-β1 indicates that these cytokines may play a role in regulating GAG content in human OA. Noteworthy, expression of IL-1β receptor (IL-1R1) was down-regulated whereas that of TGF-β1 was up-regulated in early OA cartilage. Theses observations may account for upregulation of XT-I and sustained GAG synthesis prior to the development of cartilage lesions during the pathogenic process of OA. PMID:22479506

  1. Minority Capital Resource Handbook. A Guide to Raising Capital for Minority Entrepreneurs. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Samuel D., Jr.; Maloney, Clifton H. W.

    This minority capital resource handbook consists of a guide to raising capital for minority entrepreneurs and a listing of sources that provide such capital. The first section deals with the process of raising capital. The realities of raising capital, intermediaries and financial advisors, and assessing needs are outlined. Factors considered in…

  2. Minority Capital Resource Handbook. A Guide to Raising Capital for Minority Entrepreneurs. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Samuel D., Jr.; Maloney, Clifton H. W.

    This minority capital resource handbook consists of a guide to raising capital for minority entrepreneurs and a listing of sources that provide such capital. The first section deals with the process of raising capital. The realities of raising capital, intermediaries and financial advisors, and assessing needs are outlined. Factors considered in…

  3. FXR1P is a GSK3β substrate regulating mood and emotion processing

    PubMed Central

    Del’Guidice, Thomas; Latapy, Camille; Rampino, Antonio; Khlghatyan, Jivan; Lemasson, Morgane; Gelao, Barbara; Quarto, Tiziana; Rizzo, Giuseppe; Barbeau, Annie; Lamarre, Claude; Bertolino, Alessandro; Blasi, Giuseppe; Beaulieu, Jean-Martin

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) is a shared action believed to be involved in the regulation of behavior by psychoactive drugs such as antipsychotics and mood stabilizers. However, little is known about the identity of the substrates through which GSK3β affects behavior. We identified fragile X mental retardation-related protein 1 (FXR1P), a RNA binding protein associated to genetic risk for schizophrenia, as a substrate for GSK3β. Phosphorylation of FXR1P by GSK3β is facilitated by prior phosphorylation by ERK2 and leads to its down-regulation. In contrast, behaviorally effective chronic mood stabilizer treatments in mice inhibit GSK3β and increase FXR1P levels. In line with this, overexpression of FXR1P in the mouse prefrontal cortex also leads to comparable mood-related responses. Furthermore, functional genetic polymorphisms affecting either FXR1P or GSK3β gene expression interact to regulate emotional brain responsiveness and stability in humans. These observations uncovered a GSK3β/FXR1P signaling pathway that contributes to regulating mood and emotion processing. Regulation of FXR1P by GSK3β also provides a mechanistic framework that may explain how inhibition of GSK3β can contribute to the regulation of mood by psychoactive drugs in mental illnesses such as bipolar disorder. Moreover, this pathway could potentially be implicated in other biological functions, such as inflammation and cell proliferation, in which FXR1P and GSK3 are known to play a role. PMID:26240334

  4. Cognitive regulation of smoking behavior within a cigarette: Automatic and nonautomatic processes.

    PubMed

    Motschman, Courtney A; Tiffany, Stephen T

    2016-06-01

    There has been limited research on cognitive processes governing smoking behavior in individuals who are tobacco dependent. In a replication (Baxter & Hinson, 2001) and extension, this study examined the theory (Tiffany, 1990) that drug use may be controlled by automatic processes that develop over repeated use. Heavy and occasional cigarette smokers completed a button-press reaction time (RT) task while concurrently smoking a cigarette, pretending to smoke a lit cigarette, or not smoking. Slowed RT during the button-press task indexed the cognitive disruption associated with nonautomatic control of behavior. Occasional smokers' RTs were slowed when smoking or pretending to smoke compared with when not smoking. Heavy smokers' RTs were slowed when pretending to smoke versus not smoking; however, their RTs were similarly fast when smoking compared with not smoking. The results indicated that smoking behavior was more highly regulated by controlled, nonautomatic processes among occasional smokers and by automatic processes among heavy smokers. Patterns of RT across the interpuff interval indicated that occasional smokers were significantly slowed in anticipation of and immediately after puffing onset, whereas heavy smokers were only slowed significantly after puffing onset. These findings suggest that the entirety of the smoking sequence becomes automatized, with the behaviors leading up to puffing becoming more strongly regulated by automatic processes with experience. These results have relevance to theories on the cognitive regulation of cigarette smoking and support the importance of interventions that focus on routinized behaviors that individuals engage in during and leading up to drug use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. 77 FR 52258 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; DoD Voucher Processing (DFARS Case 2011-D054)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... Regulation Supplement; DoD Voucher Processing (DFARS Case 2011-D054) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations... process. Interim vouchers that are selected using sampling methodologies will be reviewed and approved by... that are selected using sampling methodologies will be reviewed and approved by the contract auditors...

  6. 2-Phenylethynesulfonamide (PES) uncovers a necrotic process regulated by oxidative stress and p53.

    PubMed

    Mattiolo, Paolo; Barbero-Farran, Ares; Yuste, Víctor J; Boix, Jacint; Ribas, Judit

    2014-10-01

    2-Phenylethynesulfonamide (PES) or pifithrin-μ is a promising anticancer agent with preferential toxicity for cancer cells. The type of cell death and the molecular cascades activated by this compound are controversial. Here, we demonstrate PES elicits a caspase- and BAX/BAK-independent non-necroptotic necrotic cell death, since it is not inhibited by necrostatin-1. This process is characterized by an early generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting in p53 up-regulation. Accordingly, thiolic antioxidants protect cells from PES-induced death. Furthermore, inhibiting the natural sources of glutathione with l-buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO) strongly cooperates with PES in triggering cytotoxicity. Genetically modified p53-null or p53 knocked-down cells show resistance to PES-driven necrosis. The predominant localization of p53 in chromatin-enriched fractions added to the up-regulation of the p53-responsive gene p21, strongly suggest the involvement of a transcription-dependent p53 program. On the other hand, we report an augmented production of ROS in p53-positive cells that, added to the increased p53 content in response to PES-elicited ROS, suggests that p53 and ROS are mutually regulated in response to PES. In sum, p53 up-regulation by ROS triggers a positive feedback loop responsible of further increasing ROS production and reinforcing PES-driven non-necroptotic necrosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. AKAP95 regulates splicing through scaffolding RNAs and RNA processing factors

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jing; Khodadadi-Jamayran, Alireza; Mao, Miaowei; Shah, Kushani; Yang, Zhenhua; Nasim, Md Talat; Wang, Zefeng; Jiang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs significantly contributes to the complexity of gene expression in higher organisms, but the regulation of the splice site selection remains incompletely understood. We have previously demonstrated that a chromatin-associated protein, AKAP95, has a remarkable activity in enhancing chromatin transcription. In this study, we show that AKAP95 interacts with many factors involved in transcription and RNA processing, including selective groups of hnRNP proteins, through its N-terminal region, and directly regulates pre-mRNA splicing. AKAP95 binds preferentially to proximal intronic regions on pre-mRNAs in human transcriptome, and this binding requires its zinc-finger domains. By selectively coordinating with hnRNP H/F and U proteins, AKAP95 appears to mainly promote the inclusion of many exons in the genome. AKAP95 also directly interacts with itself. Taken together, our results establish AKAP95 as a mostly positive regulator of pre-mRNA splicing and a possible integrator of transcription and splicing regulation. PMID:27824034

  8. The Conditional Process Model of Mindfulness and Emotion Regulation: An Empirical Test

    PubMed Central

    Curtiss, Joshua; Klemanski, David H.; Andrews, Leigh; Ito, Masaya; Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2017-01-01

    Background The conditional process model (CPM) of mindfulness and emotion regulation posits that specific mediators and moderators link these constructs to mental health outcomes. The current study empirically examined the central tenets of the CPM, which posit that nonreactivity moderates the indirect effect of observation on symptoms of emotional disorders through cognitive emotion regulation strategies. Methods A clinical sample (n=1667) of individuals from Japan completed a battery of self-report instruments. Several path analyses were conducted to determine whether cognitive emotion regulation strategies mediate the relationship between observation and symptoms of individual emotional disorders, and to determine whether nonreactivity moderated these indirect effects. Results Results provided support the CPM. Specifically, nonreactivity moderated the indirect effect of observation on symptoms through reappraisal, but it did not moderate the indirect effect of observation on symptoms through suppression. Limitations Causal interpretations are limited, and cultural considerations must be acknowledged given the Japanese sample Conclusions These results underscore the potential importance of nonreactivity and emotion regulation as targets for interventions. PMID:28157552

  9. Molecular mechanisms regulating formation, trafficking and processing of annular gap junctions.

    PubMed

    Falk, Matthias M; Bell, Cheryl L; Kells Andrews, Rachael M; Murray, Sandra A

    2016-05-24

    Internalization of gap junction plaques results in the formation of annular gap junction vesicles. The factors that regulate the coordinated internalization of the gap junction plaques to form annular gap junction vesicles, and the subsequent events involved in annular gap junction processing have only relatively recently been investigated in detail. However it is becoming clear that while annular gap junction vesicles have been demonstrated to be degraded by autophagosomal and endo-lysosomal pathways, they undergo a number of additional processing events. Here, we characterize the morphology of the annular gap junction vesicle and review the current knowledge of the processes involved in their formation, fission, fusion, and degradation. In addition, we address the possibility for connexin protein recycling back to the plasma membrane to contribute to gap junction formation and intercellular communication. Information on gap junction plaque removal from the plasma membrane and the subsequent processing of annular gap junction vesicles is critical to our understanding of cell-cell communication as it relates to events regulating development, cell homeostasis, unstable proliferation of cancer cells, wound healing, changes in the ischemic heart, and many other physiological and pathological cellular phenomena.

  10. CD40 regulates the processing of NF-κB2 p100 to p52

    PubMed Central

    Coope, H.J.; Atkinson, P.G.P.; Huhse, B.; Belich, M.; Janzen, J.; Holman, M.J.; Klaus, G.G.B.; Johnston, L.H.; Ley, S.C.

    2002-01-01

    The nf-kb2 gene encodes the cytoplasmic NF-κB inhibitory protein p100 from which the active p52 NF-κB subunit is derived by proteasome-mediated proteolysis. Ligands which stimulate p100 processing to p52 have not been defined. Here, ligation of CD40 on transfected 293 cells is shown to trigger p52 production by stimulating p100 ubiquitylation and subsequent proteasome-mediated proteolysis. CD40-mediated p52 accumulation is dependent on de novo protein synthesis and triggers p52 translocation into the nucleus to generate active NF-κB dimers. Endogenous CD40 ligation on primary murine splenic B cells also stimulates p100 processing, which results in the delayed nuclear translocation of p52–RelB dimers. In both 293 cells and primary splenic B cells, the ability of CD40 to trigger p100 processing requires functional NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK). In contrast, NIK activity is not required for CD40 to stimulate the degradation of IκBα in either cell type. The regulation of p100 processing by CD40 is likely to be important for the transcriptional regulation of CD40 target genes in adaptive immune responses. PMID:12374738

  11. Disproportionate Minority Contact.

    PubMed

    Fix, Rebecca L; Cyperski, Melissa A; Burkhart, Barry R

    2017-04-01

    The overrepresentation of racial/ethnic minorities within the criminal justice system relative to their population percentage, a phenomenon termed disproportionate minority contact, has been examined within general adult and adolescent offender populations; yet few studies have tested whether this phenomenon extends to juvenile sexual offenders (JSOs). In addition, few studies have examined whether offender race/ethnicity influences registration and notification requirements, which JSOs are subject to in some U.S. states. The present study assessed for disproportionate minority contact among general delinquent offenders and JSOs, meaning it aimed to test whether the criminal justice system treats those accused of sexual and non-sexual offenses differently by racial/ethnic group. Furthermore, racial/ethnic group differences in risk, legal classification, and sexual offending were examined for JSOs. Results indicated disproportionate minority contact was present among juveniles with non-sexual offenses and JSOs in Alabama. In addition, offense category and risk scores differed between African American and European American JSOs. Finally, registration classifications were predicted by offending characteristics, but not race/ethnicity. Implications and future directions regarding disproportionate minority contact among JSOs and social and legal policy affecting JSOs are discussed.

  12. Effects of anthropogenic water regulation and groundwater lateral flow on land processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yujin; Xie, Zhenghui; Yu, Yan; Liu, Shuang; Wang, Linying; Zou, Jing; Qin, Peihua; Jia, Binghao

    2016-09-01

    Both anthropogenic water regulation and groundwater lateral flow essentially affect groundwater table patterns. Their relationship is close because lateral flow recharges the groundwater depletion cone, which is induced by over-exploitation. In this study, schemes describing groundwater lateral flow and human water regulation were developed and incorporated into the Community Land Model 4.5. To investigate the effects of human water regulation and groundwater lateral flow on land processes as well as the relationship between the two processes, three simulations using the model were conducted for the years 2003-2013 over the Heihe River Basin in northwestern China. Simulations showed that groundwater lateral flow driven by changes in water heads can essentially change the groundwater table pattern with the deeper water table appearing in the hillslope regions and shallower water table appearing in valley bottom regions and plains. Over the last decade, anthropogenic groundwater exploitation deepened the water table by approximately 2 m in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin and rapidly reduced the terrestrial water storage, while irrigation increased soil moisture by approximately 0.1 m3 m-3. The water stored in the mainstream of the Heihe River was also reduced by human surface water withdrawal. The latent heat flux was increased by 30 W m-2 over the irrigated region, with an identical decrease in sensible heat flux. The simulated groundwater lateral flow was shown to effectively recharge the groundwater depletion cone caused by over-exploitation. The offset rate is higher in plains than mountainous regions.

  13. Nonlinear software sensor for monitoring genetic regulation processes with noise and modeling errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra-Junquera, V.; Torres, L. A.; Rosu, H. C.; Argüello, G.; Collado-Vides, J.

    2005-07-01

    Nonlinear control techniques by means of a software sensor that are commonly used in chemical engineering could be also applied to genetic regulation processes. We provide here a realistic formulation of this procedure by introducing an additive white Gaussian noise, which is usually found in experimental data. Besides, we include model errors, meaning that we assume we do not know the nonlinear regulation function of the process. In order to illustrate this procedure, we employ the Goodwin dynamics of the concentrations [B. C. Goodwin, Temporal Oscillations in Cells (Academic, New York, 1963)] in the simple form recently applied to single gene systems and some operon cases [H. De Jong, J. Comput. Biol. 9, 67 (2002)], which involves the dynamics of the mRNA, given protein and metabolite concentrations. Further, we present results for a three gene case in coregulated sets of transcription units as they occur in prokaryotes. However, instead of considering their full dynamics, we use only the data of the metabolites and a designed software sensor. We also show, more generally, that it is possible to rebuild the complete set of nonmeasured concentrations despite the uncertainties in the regulation function or, even more, in the case of not knowing the mRNA dynamics. In addition, the rebuilding of concentrations is not affected by the perturbation due to the additive white Gaussian noise and also we managed to filter the noisy output of the biological system.

  14. Down-regulation of negative emotional processing by transcranial direct current stimulation: effects of personality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Peña-Gómez, Cleofé; Vidal-Piñeiro, Dídac; Clemente, Immaculada C; Pascual-Leone, Álvaro; Bartrés-Faz, David

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies indicates that the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is a core region in emotional processing, particularly during down-regulation of negative emotional conditions. However, emotional regulation is a process subject to major inter-individual differences, some of which may be explained by personality traits. In the present study we used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the left DLPFC to investigate whether transiently increasing the activity of this region resulted in changes in the ratings of positive, neutral and negative emotional pictures. Results revealed that anodal, but not cathodal, tDCS reduced the perceived degree of emotional valence for negative stimuli, possibly due to an enhancement of cognitive control of emotional expression. We also aimed to determine whether personality traits (extraversion and neuroticism) might condition the impact of tDCS. We found that individuals with higher scores on the introversion personality dimension were more permeable than extraverts to the modulatory effects of the stimulation. The present study underlines the role of the left DLPFC in emotional regulation, and stresses the importance of considering individual personality characteristics as a relevant variable, although replication is needed given the limited sample size of our study.

  15. Down-Regulation of Negative Emotional Processing by Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Effects of Personality Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Peña-Gómez, Cleofé; Vidal-Piñeiro, Dídac; Clemente, Immaculada C.; Pascual-Leone, Álvaro; Bartrés-Faz, David

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies indicates that the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is a core region in emotional processing, particularly during down-regulation of negative emotional conditions. However, emotional regulation is a process subject to major inter-individual differences, some of which may be explained by personality traits. In the present study we used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the left DLPFC to investigate whether transiently increasing the activity of this region resulted in changes in the ratings of positive, neutral and negative emotional pictures. Results revealed that anodal, but not cathodal, tDCS reduced the perceived degree of emotional valence for negative stimuli, possibly due to an enhancement of cognitive control of emotional expression. We also aimed to determine whether personality traits (extraversion and neuroticism) might condition the impact of tDCS. We found that individuals with higher scores on the introversion personality dimension were more permeable than extraverts to the modulatory effects of the stimulation. The present study underlines the role of the left DLPFC in emotional regulation, and stresses the importance of considering individual personality characteristics as a relevant variable, although replication is needed given the limited sample size of our study. PMID:21829522

  16. Dual blockade of FAAH and MAGL identifies behavioral processes regulated by endocannabinoid crosstalk in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Long, Jonathan Z.; Nomura, Daniel K.; Vann, Robert E.; Walentiny, D. Matthew; Booker, Lamont; Jin, Xin; Burston, James J.; Sim-Selley, Laura J.; Lichtman, Aron H.; Wiley, Jenny L.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2009-01-01

    Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of marijuana, and other direct cannabinoid receptor (CB1) agonists produce a number of neurobehavioral effects in mammals that range from the beneficial (analgesia) to the untoward (abuse potential). Why, however, this full spectrum of activities is not observed upon pharmacological inhibition or genetic deletion of either fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) or monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), enzymes that regulate the two major endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), respectively, has remained unclear. Here, we describe a selective and efficacious dual FAAH/MAGL inhibitor, JZL195, and show that this agent exhibits broad activity in the tetrad test for CB1 agonism, causing analgesia, hypomotilty, and catalepsy. Comparison of JZL195 to specific FAAH and MAGL inhibitors identified behavioral processes that were regulated by a single endocannabinoid pathway (e.g., hypomotility by the 2-AG/MAGL pathway) and, interestingly, those where disruption of both FAAH and MAGL produced additive effects that were reversed by a CB1 antagonist. Falling into this latter category was drug discrimination behavior, where dual FAAH/MAGL blockade, but not disruption of either FAAH or MAGL alone, produced THC-like responses that were reversed by a CB1 antagonist. These data indicate that AEA and 2-AG signaling pathways interact to regulate specific behavioral processes in vivo, including those relevant to drug abuse, thus providing a potential mechanistic basis for the distinct pharmacological profiles of direct CB1 agonists and inhibitors of individual endocannabinoid degradative enzymes. PMID:19918051

  17. The match-mismatch model of emotion processing styles and emotion regulation strategies in fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Geenen, Rinie; van Ooijen-van der Linden, Linda; Lumley, Mark A; Bijlsma, Johannes W J; van Middendorp, Henriët

    2012-01-01

    Individuals differ in their style of processing emotions (e.g., experiencing affects intensely or being alexithymic) and their strategy of regulating emotions (e.g., expressing or reappraising). A match-mismatch model of emotion processing styles and emotion regulation strategies is proposed and tested. This model specifies that for people high on affect intensity, emotion expression is more adaptive than reappraisal, whereas for alexithymic people, reappraisal is more adaptive than expression. The present study tested this model in 403 women with fibromyalgia (mean age 46.5±12.3 years). In a cross-sectional design, we assessed affect intensity (Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire), alexithymia (Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20), cognitive reappraisal (Emotion Regulation Questionnaire), and emotion expression (Emotional Approach Coping Scales), as well as the impact of fibromyalgia (Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire). Multiple regression analyses with interaction terms indicated that among people high on affect intensity, emotion expression - but not cognitive reappraisal - was associated with less fibromyalgia impact. No support was found for the hypothesis that among alexithymic people, cognitive reappraisal would be more adaptive than emotion expression. Findings suggest that for women with fibromyalgia who experience their emotions intensely, an emotional disclosure or expression intervention may be beneficial. This hypothesis requires verification in experimental studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nonlinear software sensor for monitoring genetic regulation processes with noise and modeling errors.

    PubMed

    Ibarra-Junquera, V; Torres, L A; Rosu, H C; Argüello, G; Collado-Vides, J

    2005-07-01

    Nonlinear control techniques by means of a software sensor that are commonly used in chemical engineering could be also applied to genetic regulation processes. We provide here a realistic formulation of this procedure by introducing an additive white Gaussian noise, which is usually found in experimental data. Besides, we include model errors, meaning that we assume we do not know the nonlinear regulation function of the process. In order to illustrate this procedure, we employ the Goodwin dynamics of the concentrations [B. C. Goodwin, (Academic, New York, 1963)] in the simple form recently applied to single gene systems and some operon cases [H. De Jong, J. Comput. Biol. 9, 67 (2002)], which involves the dynamics of the mRNA, given protein and metabolite concentrations. Further, we present results for a three gene case in coregulated sets of transcription units as they occur in prokaryotes. However, instead of considering their full dynamics, we use only the data of the metabolites and a designed software sensor. We also show, more generally, that it is possible to rebuild the complete set of nonmeasured concentrations despite the uncertainties in the regulation function or, even more, in the case of not knowing the mRNA dynamics. In addition, the rebuilding of concentrations is not affected by the perturbation due to the additive white Gaussian noise and also we managed to filter the noisy output of the biological system.

  19. 29 CFR 780.320 - Nonlocal minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6) Statutory... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nonlocal minors. 780.320 Section 780.320 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR...

  20. 29 CFR 780.320 - Nonlocal minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6) Statutory... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nonlocal minors. 780.320 Section 780.320 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR...

  1. 29 CFR 780.320 - Nonlocal minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6) Statutory... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nonlocal minors. 780.320 Section 780.320 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR...

  2. 29 CFR 780.320 - Nonlocal minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6) Statutory... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nonlocal minors. 780.320 Section 780.320 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR...

  3. 29 CFR 780.320 - Nonlocal minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6) Statutory... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nonlocal minors. 780.320 Section 780.320 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR...

  4. MicroRNAs (MiRs) Precisely Regulate Immune System Development and Function in Immunosenescence Process.

    PubMed

    Aalaei-Andabili, Seyed Hossein; Rezaei, Nima

    2016-01-01

    Human aging is a complex process with pivotal changes in gene expression of biological pathways. Immune system dysfunction has been recognized as one of the most important abnormalities induced by senescent names immunosenescence. Emerging evidences suggest miR role in immunosenescence. We aimed to systemically review all relevant reports to clearly state miR effects on immunosenescence process. Sensitive electronic searches carried out. Quality assessment has been performed. Since majority of the included studies were laboratory works, and therefore heterogen, we discussed miR effects on immunological aging process nonstatically. Forty-six articles were found in the initial search. After exclusion of 34 articles, 12 studies enrolled to the final stage. We found that miRs have crucial roles in exact function of immune system. MiRs are involved in the regulation of the aging process in the immune system components and target certain genes, promoting or inhibiting immune system reaction to invasion. Also, miRs control life span of the immune system members by regulation of the genes involved in the apoptosis. Interestingly, we found that immunosenescence is controllable by proper manipulation of the various miRs expression. DNA methylation and histone acetylation have been discovered as novel strategies, altering NF-κB binding ability to the miR promoter sites. Effect of miRs on impairment of immune system function due to the aging is emerging. Although it has been accepted that miRs have determinant roles in the regulation of the immunosenescence; however, most of the reports are concluded from animal/laboratory works, suggesting the necessity of more investigations in human.

  5. Mindfulness Broadens Awareness and Builds Eudaimonic Meaning: A Process Model of Mindful Positive Emotion Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Eric L.; Farb, Norman A.; Goldin, Philippe; Fredrickson, Barbara L.

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary scholarship on mindfulness casts it as a form of purely non-evaluative engagement with experience. Yet, traditionally mindfulness was not intended to operate in a vacuum of dispassionate observation, but was seen as facilitative of eudaimonic mental states. In spite of this historical context, modern psychological research has neglected to ask the question of how the practice of mindfulness affects downstream emotion regulatory processes to impact the sense of meaning in life. To fill this lacuna, here we describe the Mindfulness-to-Meaning Theory, from which we derive a novel process model of mindful positive emotion regulation informed by affective science, in which mindfulness is proposed to introduce flexibility in the generation of cognitive appraisals by enhancing interoceptive attention, thereby expanding the scope of cognition to facilitate reappraisal of adversity and savoring of positive experience. This process is proposed to culminate in a deepened capacity for meaning-making and greater engagement with life. PMID:27087765

  6. Mindfulness Broadens Awareness and Builds Eudaimonic Meaning: A Process Model of Mindful Positive Emotion Regulation.

    PubMed

    Garland, Eric L; Farb, Norman A; Goldin, Philippe; Fredrickson, Barbara L

    2015-10-01

    Contemporary scholarship on mindfulness casts it as a form of purely non-evaluative engagement with experience. Yet, traditionally mindfulness was not intended to operate in a vacuum of dispassionate observation, but was seen as facilitative of eudaimonic mental states. In spite of this historical context, modern psychological research has neglected to ask the question of how the practice of mindfulness affects downstream emotion regulatory processes to impact the sense of meaning in life. To fill this lacuna, here we describe the Mindfulness-to-Meaning Theory, from which we derive a novel process model of mindful positive emotion regulation informed by affective science, in which mindfulness is proposed to introduce flexibility in the generation of cognitive appraisals by enhancing interoceptive attention, thereby expanding the scope of cognition to facilitate reappraisal of adversity and savoring of positive experience. This process is proposed to culminate in a deepened capacity for meaning-making and greater engagement with life.

  7. Dissolved oxygen regulation by logarithmic/antilogarithmic control to improve a wastewater treatment process.

    PubMed

    Flores, Victor R; Sanchez, Edgar N; Béteau, Jean-François; Hernandez, Salvador Carlos

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the automation of a real activated sludge wastewater treatment plant, which is located at San Antonio Ajijic in Jalisco, Mexico. The main objective is to create an on-line automatic supervision system, and to regulate the dissolved oxygen concentration in order to improve the performances of the process treating municipal wastewater. An approximate mathematical model is determined in order to evaluate via simulations different control strategies: proportional integral (PI), fuzzy PI and PI Logarithm/Antilogarithm (PI L/A). The controlled variable is dissolved oxygen and the control input is the injected oxygen. Based on this evaluation, the PI L/A controller is selected to be implemented in the real process. After that, the implementation, testing and fully operation of the plant automation are described. With this system, the considered wastewater treatment plant save energy and improves the effluent quality; also, the process monitoring is done online and it is easily operated by the plant users.

  8. The Regulation of Immunological Processes by Peripheral Neurons in Homeostasis and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ordovas-Montanes, Jose; Rakoff-Nahoum, Seth; Huang, Siyi; Riol-Blanco, Lorena; Barreiro, Olga; von Andrian, Ulrich H.

    2015-01-01

    The nervous system and the immune system are the principal sensory interfaces between the internal and external environment. They are responsible for recognizing, integrating, and responding to varied stimuli, and have the capacity to form memories of these encounters leading to learned or ‘adaptive’ future responses. Here, we review the current understanding of the cross-regulation between these systems. The autonomic and somatosensory nervous systems regulate both the development and deployment of immune cells, with broad functions that impact hematopoiesis as well as priming, migration and cytokine production. In turn, specific immune cell subsets contribute to homeostatic neural circuits such as those controlling metabolism, hypertension and the inflammatory reflex. We examine the contribution of the somatosensory system to autoimmune, autoinflammatory, allergic, and infectious processes in barrier tissues and in this context, discuss opportunities for therapeutic manipulation of neuro-immune interactions. PMID:26431937

  9. The role of nonautomatic processes in activity regulation: from Lipps to Galperin.

    PubMed

    Arievitch, Igor M; van der Veer, René

    2004-05-01

    The authors present the historical analysis of one of the central questions in psychology: how and why the nonautomatic, psychological level of regulation (in contrast to automatic physiological processes) emerges both in evolution and in everyday context of activity. They discuss several approaches (by Lipps, Groos, Stern, James, Dewey, Claparède, Pavlov, and Leontiev) that culminated in the system of ideas developed by Galperin, one of the key figures in the cultural -historical activity theory. The authors analyze the relation of Galperin's ideas to Vygotsky's theoretical framework and then focus on Galperin's account of the origin and functions of mental activity. Galperin's contribution is highly relevant for understanding the role of psychological regulation and for contemporary research on cognition, consciousness, and conscious awareness.

  10. The Regulation of Immunological Processes by Peripheral Neurons in Homeostasis and Disease.

    PubMed

    Ordovas-Montanes, Jose; Rakoff-Nahoum, Seth; Huang, Siyi; Riol-Blanco, Lorena; Barreiro, Olga; von Andrian, Ulrich H

    2015-10-01

    The nervous system and the immune system are the principal sensory interfaces between the internal and external environment. They are responsible for recognizing, integrating, and responding to varied stimuli, and have the capacity to form memories of these encounters leading to learned or 'adaptive' future responses. We review current understanding of the cross-regulation between these systems. The autonomic and somatosensory nervous systems regulate both the development and deployment of immune cells, with broad functions that impact on hematopoiesis as well as on priming, migration, and cytokine production. In turn, specific immune cell subsets contribute to homeostatic neural circuits such as those controlling metabolism, hypertension, and the inflammatory reflex. We examine the contribution of the somatosensory system to autoimmune, autoinflammatory, allergic, and infectious processes in barrier tissues and, in this context, discuss opportunities for therapeutic manipulation of neuro-immune interactions.

  11. Regulation of mammalian microRNA processing and function by cellular signaling and subcellular localization

    PubMed Central

    Smalheiser, Neil R.

    2008-01-01

    For many microRNAs, in many normal tissues and in cancer cells, the cellular levels of mature microRNAs are not simply determined by transcription of microRNA genes. This mini-review will discuss how microRNA biogenesis and function can be regulated by various nuclear and cytoplasmic processing events, including emerging evidence that microRNA pathway components can be selectively regulated by control of their subcellular localization and by modifications that occur during dynamic cellular signaling. Finally, I will briefly summarize studies of microRNAs in synaptic fractions of adult mouse forebrain, which may serve as a model for other cell types as well. PMID:18433727

  12. Processes linking cultural ingroup bonds and mental health: the roles of social connection and emotion regulation

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Nicole A.; Burleson, Mary H.

    2013-01-01

    Cultural and ethnic identities influence the relationships individuals seek out and how they feel and behave in these relationships, which can strongly affect mental and physical health through their impacts on emotions, physiology, and behavior. We proposed and tested a model in which ethnocultural identifications and ingroup affiliations were hypothesized explicitly to enhance social connectedness, which would in turn promote expectancy for effective regulation of negative emotions and reduce self-reported symptoms of depression and anxiety. Our sample comprised women aged 18–30 currently attending college in the Southwestern US, who self-identified as Hispanic of Mexican descent (MAs; n = 82) or as non-Hispanic White/European American (EAs; n = 234) and who completed an online survey. In the full sample and in each subgroup, stronger ethnocultural group identity and greater comfort with mainstream American culture were associated with higher social connectedness, which in turn was associated with expectancy for more effective regulation of negative emotions, fewer depressive symptoms, and less anxiety. Unexpectedly, preference for ingroup affiliation predicted lower social connectedness in both groups. In addition to indirect effects through social connection, direct paths from mainstream comfort and preference for ingroup affiliation to emotion regulation expectancy were found for EAs. Models of our data underscore that social connection is a central mechanism through which ethnocultural identities—including with one's own group and the mainstream cultural group—relate to mental health, and that emotion regulation may be a key aspect of this linkage. We use the term ethnocultural social connection to make explicit a process that, we believe, has been implied in the ethnic identity literature for many years, and that may have consequential implications for mental health and conceptualizations of processes underlying mental disorders. PMID:23450647

  13. Sex Trafficking of Minors.

    PubMed

    Moore, Jessica L; Kaplan, Dana M; Barron, Christine E

    2017-04-01

    Sex trafficking is an increasingly recognized global health crisis affecting every country and region in the world. Domestic minor sex trafficking is a subset of commercial sexual exploitation of children, defined as engagement of minors (<18 years of age) in sexual acts for items of value (eg, food, shelter, drugs, money) involving children victimized within US borders. These involved youth are at risk for serious immediate and long-term physical and mental health consequences. Continued efforts are needed to improve preventive efforts, identification, screening, appropriate interventions, and subsequent resource provision for victimized and high-risk youth.

  14. Processes regulating progressive nitrogen limitation under elevated carbon dioxide: a meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, J.; Qi, X.; Souza, L.; Luo, Y.

    2015-10-01

    Nitrogen (N) cycle has the potential to regulate climate change through its influence on carbon (C) sequestration. Although extensive researches have been done to explore whether or not progressive N limitation (PNL) occurs under CO2 enrichment, a comprehensive assessment of the processes that regulate PNL is still lacking. Here, we quantitatively synthesized the responses of all major processes and pools in terrestrial N cycle with meta-analysis of CO2 experimental data available in the literature. The results showed that CO2 enrichment significantly increased N sequestration in plant and litter pools but not in soil pool. Thus, the basis of PNL occurrence partially exists. However, CO2 enrichment also significantly increased the N influx via biological N fixation, but decreased the N efflux via leaching. In addition, no general diminished CO2 fertilization effect on plant growth over time was observed. Overall, our analyses suggest that the extra N supply by the increased biological N fixation and decreased leaching may potentially alleviate PNL under elevated CO2 conditions. Moreover, our synthesis showed that CO2 enrichment increased soil ammonium (NH4+) but decreased nitrate (NO3-). The different responses of NH4+ and NO3-, and the consequent biological processes, may result in changes in soil microenvironment, community structures and above-belowground interactions, which could potentially affect the terrestrial biogeochemical cycles and the feedback to climate change.

  15. The propeptide precursor proSAAS is involved in fetal neuropeptide processing and body weight regulation.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Daniel J; Wei, Suwen; Gomes, Ivone; Czyzyk, Traci; Mzhavia, Nino; Pan, Hui; Devi, Lakshmi A; Fricker, Lloyd D; Pintar, John E

    2010-06-01

    Mice with a targeted mutation in proSAAS have been generated to investigate whether peptides derived from this precursor could function as an inhibitor of prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC1/3) in vivo as well as to determine any alternate roles for proSAAS in nervous and endocrine tissues. Fetal mice lacking proSAAS exhibit complete, adult-like processing of prodynorphin in the prenatal brain instead of the incomplete processing seen in the brains of wild-type fetal mice where inhibitory proSAAS intermediates are transiently accumulated. This study provides evidence that proSAAS is directly involved in the prenatal regulation of neuropeptide processing in vivo. However, adult mice lacking proSAAS have normal levels of all peptides detected using a peptidomics approach, suggesting that PC1/3 activity is not affected by the absence of proSAAS in adult mice. ProSAAS knockout mice exhibit decreased locomotion and a male-specific 10-15% decrease in body weight, but maintain normal fasting blood glucose levels and are able to efficiently clear glucose from the blood in response to a glucose challenge. This work suggests that proSAAS-derived peptides can inhibit PC1/3 in embryonic brain, but in the adult brain proSAAS peptides may function as neuropeptides that regulate body weight and potentially other behaviors.

  16. DISC1 regulates trafficking and processing of APP and Aβ generation.

    PubMed

    Shahani, N; Seshadri, S; Jaaro-Peled, H; Ishizuka, K; Hirota-Tsuyada, Y; Wang, Q; Koga, M; Sedlak, T W; Korth, C; Brandon, N J; Kamiya, A; Subramaniam, S; Tomoda, T; Sawa, A

    2015-07-01

    We report the novel regulation of proteolytic processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by DISC1, a major risk factor for psychiatric illnesses, such as depression and schizophrenia. RNAi knockdown of DISC1 in mature primary cortical neurons led to a significant increase in the levels of intracellular α-C-terminal fragment of APP (APP-CTFα) and the corresponding N-terminal-secreted ectodomain product sAPPα. DISC1 knockdown also elicited a significant decrease in the levels of amyloid beta (Aβ)42 and Aβ40. These aberrant proteolytic events were successfully rescued by co-expression of wild-type DISC1, but not by mutant DISC1 lacking the amino acids required for the interaction with APP, suggesting that APP-DISC1 protein interactions are crucial for the regulation of the C-terminal proteolysis. In a genetically engineered model in which a major full-length DISC1 isoform is depleted, consistent changes in APP processing were seen: an increase in APP-CTFα and decrease in Aβ42 and Aβ40 levels. Finally, we found that knockdown of DISC1 increased the expression of APP at the cell surface and decreased its internalization. The presented DISC1 mechanism of APP proteolytic processing and Aβ peptide generation, which is central to Alzheimer's disease pathology, suggests a novel interface between neurological and psychiatric conditions.

  17. Sorting nexin 12 interacts with BACE1 and regulates BACE1-mediated APP processing.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yonghao; Wang, Yunshu; Yang, Jiaye; Wang, Xin; Zhao, Yingjun; Zhang, Xian; Zhang, Yun-wu

    2012-06-18

    β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) cleaves β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) to initiate the production of β-amyloid (Aβ), the prime culprit in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Dysregulation of the intracellular trafficking of BACE1 may affect Aβ generation, contributing to AD pathology. In this study, we investigated whether BACE1 trafficking and BACE1-mediated APP processing/Aβ generation are affected by sorting nexin 12 (SNX12), a member of the sorting nexin (SNX) family that is involved in protein trafficking regulation. Herein, we find that SNX12 is widely expressed in brain tissues and is mainly localized in the early endosomes. Overexpression of SNX12 does not affect the steady-state levels of APP, BACE1 or γ-secretase components, but dramatically reduces the levels of Aβ, soluble APPβ and APP β-carboxyl terminal fragments. Downregulation of SNX12 has the opposite effects. Modulation of SNX12 levels does not affect γ-secretase activity or in vitro β-secretase activity. Further studies reveal that SNX12 interacts with BACE1 and downregulation of SNX12 accelerates BACE1 endocytosis and decreases steady-state level of cell surface BACE1. Finally, we find that the SNX12 protein level is dramatically decreased in the brain of AD patients as compared to that of controls. This study demonstrates that SNX12 can regulate the endocytosis of BACE1 through their interaction, thereby affecting β-processing of APP for Aβ production. The reduced level of SNX12 in AD brains suggests that an alteration of SNX12 may contribute to AD pathology. Therefore, inhibition of BACE1-mediated β-processing of APP by regulating SNX12 might serve as an alternative strategy in developing an AD intervention.

  18. Emotion processing in Parkinson's disease: a three-level study on recognition, representation, and regulation.

    PubMed

    Enrici, Ivan; Adenzato, Mauro; Ardito, Rita B; Mitkova, Antonia; Cavallo, Marco; Zibetti, Maurizio; Lopiano, Leonardo; Castelli, Lorys

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterised by well-known motor symptoms, whereas the presence of cognitive non-motor symptoms, such as emotional disturbances, is still underestimated. One of the major problems in studying emotion deficits in PD is an atomising approach that does not take into account different levels of emotion elaboration. Our study addressed the question of whether people with PD exhibit difficulties in one or more specific dimensions of emotion processing, investigating three different levels of analyses, that is, recognition, representation, and regulation. Thirty-two consecutive medicated patients with PD and 25 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Participants performed a three-level analysis assessment of emotional processing using quantitative standardised emotional tasks: the Ekman 60-Faces for emotion recognition, the full 36-item version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes (RME) for emotion representation, and the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) for emotion regulation. Regarding emotion recognition, patients obtained significantly worse scores than controls in the total score of Ekman 60-Faces but not in any other basic emotions. For emotion representation, patients obtained significantly worse scores than controls in the RME experimental score but no in the RME gender control task. Finally, on emotion regulation, PD and controls did not perform differently at TAS-20 and no specific differences were found on TAS-20 subscales. The PD impairments on emotion recognition and representation do not correlate with dopamine therapy, disease severity, or with the duration of illness. These results are independent from other cognitive processes, such as global cognitive status and executive function, or from psychiatric status, such as depression, anxiety or apathy. These results may contribute to better understanding of the emotional problems that are often seen in patients with PD and the measures used to test these problems

  19. MINORITY STRESS, POSITIVE IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT, AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS: IMPLICATIONS FOR RESILIENCE AMONG SEXUAL MINORITY MALE YOUTH

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Douglas; Harper, Gary W.; Bauermeister, Jose A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Minority stress processes have been shown to have significant associations with negative mental health outcomes among sexual minority populations. Given that adversity may be experienced growing up as a sexual minority in heteronormative, if not heterosexist, environments, our research on resilience among sexual minority male youth proposes that positive identity development may buffer the effects of a range of minority stress processes. Methods An ethnically diverse sample of 200 sexual minority males ages 16–24 (mean age, 20.9 years) was recruited using mixed recruitment methods. We developed and tested two new measures: concealment stress during adolescence and sexual minority-related positive identity development. We then tested a path model that assessed the effects of minority stressors, positive identity development, and social support on major depressive symptoms. Results Experience of stigma was associated with internalized homophobia (β=.138, p<.05) and major depressive symptoms (β=1.076, OR=2.933, p<.001), and internalized homophobia partially mediated experience’s effects on major depression (β=.773, OR=2.167, p<.001). Concealment stress was associated with positive identity development (β=.155, p<.05) and internalized homophobia (β=.418, p<.001), and positive identity development partially mediated concealment stress’s effects on internalized homophobia (β=−.527, p<.001). Concealment stress demonstrated a direct effect on major depression (β=1.400, OR=4.056, p<.001), and indirect paths to social support through positive identity development. Conclusions With these results, we offer an exploratory model that empirically identifies significant paths among minority stress dimensions, positive identity development, and major depressive symptoms. This study helps further our understanding of minority stress, identity development, and resources of resilience among sexual minority male youth. PMID:26478901

  20. MINORITY STRESS, POSITIVE IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT, AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS: IMPLICATIONS FOR RESILIENCE AMONG SEXUAL MINORITY MALE YOUTH.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Douglas; Harper, Gary W; Bauermeister, Jose A

    2015-09-01

    Minority stress processes have been shown to have significant associations with negative mental health outcomes among sexual minority populations. Given that adversity may be experienced growing up as a sexual minority in heteronormative, if not heterosexist, environments, our research on resilience among sexual minority male youth proposes that positive identity development may buffer the effects of a range of minority stress processes. An ethnically diverse sample of 200 sexual minority males ages 16-24 (mean age, 20.9 years) was recruited using mixed recruitment methods. We developed and tested two new measures: concealment stress during adolescence and sexual minority-related positive identity development. We then tested a path model that assessed the effects of minority stressors, positive identity development, and social support on major depressive symptoms. Experience of stigma was associated with internalized homophobia (β=.138, p<.05) and major depressive symptoms (β=1.076, OR=2.933, p<.001), and internalized homophobia partially mediated experience's effects on major depression (β=.773, OR=2.167, p<.001). Concealment stress was associated with positive identity development (β=.155, p<.05) and internalized homophobia (β=.418, p<.001), and positive identity development partially mediated concealment stress's effects on internalized homophobia (β=-.527, p<.001). Concealment stress demonstrated a direct effect on major depression (β=1.400, OR=4.056, p<.001), and indirect paths to social support through positive identity development. With these results, we offer an exploratory model that empirically identifies significant paths among minority stress dimensions, positive identity development, and major depressive symptoms. This study helps further our understanding of minority stress, identity development, and resources of resilience among sexual minority male youth.

  1. Nurturing the Innovative Minority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, James J.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the innovative minority. Gifted students differ from the average students. There are those who argue that the differences are a matter merely of quantitative degree reference studies of IQ scores, or SAT scores, which are clearly quantitative scales, and point out that gifted students appear at the top level of these scales…

  2. Assessing Minority Group Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Beeman N., Ed.

    Contents of this book include the following collection of articles: "Assessing Minority Group Children: Challenges for School Psychologists," Thomas Oakland; "The NEA Testing Moratorium," Boyd Bosma; "Cultural Myopia: The Need for a Corrective Lens," Martin H. Gerry; "Assumptions Underlying Psychological Testing," T. Ernest Newland;…

  3. Minority Work Study Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East-West Gateway Coordinating Council, St. Louis, MO.

    This report covers a work-study program in the East-West Gateway area to provide employment and training for minority and economically disadvantaged graduate and upper-division undergraduate students enrolled in planning and related curricula. The program has aided students in continuing their education who might otherwise be financially unable to…

  4. Minority Work Study Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East-West Gateway Coordinating Council, St. Louis, MO.

    This report covers a work-study program in the East-West Gateway area to provide employment and training for minority and economically disadvantaged graduate and upper-division undergraduate students enrolled in planning and related curricula. The program has aided students in continuing their education who might otherwise be financially unable to…

  5. Assessing Minority Group Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Beeman N., Ed.

    Contents of this book include the following collection of articles: "Assessing Minority Group Children: Challenges for School Psychologists," Thomas Oakland; "The NEA Testing Moratorium," Boyd Bosma; "Cultural Myopia: The Need for a Corrective Lens," Martin H. Gerry; "Assumptions Underlying Psychological Testing," T. Ernest Newland;…

  6. Alcoholism and Minority Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Briefly discusses some aspects of the role of the state and the position of minorities in respect to alcoholism policies and services. Includes case study of a Black alcoholic. Refers readers to studies on Black alcoholism, Native American alcoholism, Hispanic alcoholism, and Asian-American alcoholism. (Author/NB)

  7. PATTERNS OF MINORITY RELATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DUSTER, TROY S.; MACK, RAYMOND W.

    ACCORDING TO SOCIAL SCIENTISTS AND BIOLOGISTS, ALL RACES ARE EQUAL IN ABILITY, NEVERTHELESS, RACIAL DISCRIMINATION EXISTS WHEN THE CULTURE OF A SOCIETY ALLOWS PEOPLE TO EXPRESS THEIR AGRESSIONS IN A SOCIALLY ACCEPTABLE WAY. ONE WAY TO DEFINE GROUP BOUNDARIES IS TO SINGLE OUT A CHARACTERISTIC OF A MINORITY GROUP AND TO INSTITUTIONALIZE THIS…

  8. PATTERNS OF MINORITY RELATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DUSTER, TROY S.; MACK, RAYMOND W.

    ACCORDING TO SOCIAL SCIENTISTS AND BIOLOGISTS, ALL RACES ARE EQUAL IN ABILITY, NEVERTHELESS, RACIAL DISCRIMINATION EXISTS WHEN THE CULTURE OF A SOCIETY ALLOWS PEOPLE TO EXPRESS THEIR AGRESSIONS IN A SOCIALLY ACCEPTABLE WAY. ONE WAY TO DEFINE GROUP BOUNDARIES IS TO SINGLE OUT A CHARACTERISTIC OF A MINORITY GROUP AND TO INSTITUTIONALIZE THIS…

  9. How Immigration Harms Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matloff, Norman

    1996-01-01

    The negative impacts of immigration are felt most strongly by nonwhite Americans. The significant problems with today's immigration policies can only be solved by reducing immigration levels, something many minority groups support. Immigration is not the root of social problems, but in its present form, it exacerbates them. (SLD)

  10. Minority Male Afterschool Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Herbert F., Jr.

    Through a program called the Minority Male Afterschool Program (MMAP), college students at Mississippi Valley State University in Itta Bena (Mississippi) are working one-on-one with high school students. The MMAP is an enrichment program that encourages at-risk African American students aged 12 to 19 to complete high school and pursue…

  11. The Mountaineer Minority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egerton, John; Gaillard, Frye

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the new Appalachian movement, based on the assumption that mountain people are a distinct and maligned cultural minority; the people of Appalachia, white, black and red, have begun to strike back against the dam-builders, strip-miners, and others they say are gouging out the region's mineral resources by the cheapest means possible no…

  12. Housing Problems of Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Robert

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, reviews the status of minority group housing and the effects of federal programs upon it, advocating an approach which recognizes the intrinsic locational and real estate value of many black ghettos. (Author/JM)

  13. The Mountaineer Minority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egerton, John; Gaillard, Frye

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the new Appalachian movement, based on the assumption that mountain people are a distinct and maligned cultural minority; the people of Appalachia, white, black and red, have begun to strike back against the dam-builders, strip-miners, and others they say are gouging out the region's mineral resources by the cheapest means possible no…

  14. Psychological Tests and Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Brenda Johnson; Isenstein, Vivian R.

    The problems with traditional testing, particularly as they relate to minorities, are discussed; and psychological tests designed specifically for Blacks are reviewed. Considered are general problems, problems with testing at the higher education level and for employment, and moral and legal implications of the testing controversy. The rationale…

  15. Nurturing the Innovative Minority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, James J.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the innovative minority. Gifted students differ from the average students. There are those who argue that the differences are a matter merely of quantitative degree reference studies of IQ scores, or SAT scores, which are clearly quantitative scales, and point out that gifted students appear at the top level of these scales…

  16. Alcoholism and Minority Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Briefly discusses some aspects of the role of the state and the position of minorities in respect to alcoholism policies and services. Includes case study of a Black alcoholic. Refers readers to studies on Black alcoholism, Native American alcoholism, Hispanic alcoholism, and Asian-American alcoholism. (Author/NB)

  17. Multilevel regulation and signalling processes associated with adaptation to terminal drought in wild emmer wheat.

    PubMed

    Krugman, Tamar; Chagué, Véronique; Peleg, Zvi; Balzergue, Sandrine; Just, Jérémy; Korol, Abraham B; Nevo, Eviatar; Saranga, Yehoshua; Chalhoub, Boulos; Fahima, Tzion

    2010-05-01

    Low water availability is the major environmental factor limiting crop productivity. Transcriptome analysis was used to study terminal drought response in wild emmer wheat, Triticum dicoccoides, genotypes contrasting in their productivity and yield stability under drought stress. A total of 5,892 differentially regulated transcripts were identified between drought and well-watered control and/or between drought resistant (R) and drought susceptible (S) genotypes. Functional enrichment analyses revealed that multilevel regulatory and signalling processes were significantly enriched among the drought-induced transcripts, in particular in the R genotype. Therefore, further analyses were focused on selected 221 uniquely expressed or highly abundant transcripts in the R genotype, as potential candidates for drought resistance genes. Annotation of the 221 genes revealed that 26% of them are involved in multilevel regulation, including: transcriptional regulation, RNA binding, kinase activity and calcium and abscisic acid signalling implicated in stomatal closure. Differential expression patterns were also identified in genes known to be involved in drought adaptation pathways, such as: cell wall adjustment, cuticular wax deposition, lignification, osmoregulation, redox homeostasis, dehydration protection and drought-induced senescence. These results demonstrate the potential of wild emmer wheat as a source for candidate genes for improving drought resistance.

  18. Regulation of actin dynamics and protein trafficking during spermatogenesis – insights into a complex process*

    PubMed Central

    Su, Wenhui; Mruk, Dolores; Cheng, C Yan

    2013-01-01

    In the mammalian testis, extensive restructuring takes place across the seminiferous epithelium at the Sertoli-Sertoli and Sertoli-germ cell interface during the epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis, which is important to facilitate changes in the cell shape and morphology of developing germ cells. However, precise communications also take place at the cell junctions to coordinate the discrete events pertinent to spermatogenesis, namely spermatogonial renewal via mitosis, cell cycle progression and meiosis, spermiogenesis, and spermiation. It is obvious that these cellular events are intimately related to the underlying actin-based cytoskeleton which is being used by different cell junctions for their attachment. However, little is known on the biology and regulation of this cytoskeleton, in particular its possible involvement in endocytic vesicle-mediated trafficking during spermatogenesis, which in turn affects cell adhesive function and communication at the cell-cell interface. Studies in other epithelia in recent years have shed insightful information on the intimate involvement of actin dynamics and protein trafficking in regulating cell adhesion and communications. The goal of this critical review is to provide an updated assessment of the latest findings in the field on how these complex processes regulate spermatogenesis. We also provide a working model based on the latest findings in the field to provide our thoughts on an apparent complicated subject, which also serves as the framework for investigators in the field. It is obvious that this model will be rapidly updated when more data are available in future years. PMID:23339542

  19. Internal Cholinergic Regulation of Learning and Recall in a Model of Olfactory Processing

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Licurgo; Idiart, Marco; Dean, Owen; Devore, Sasha; Smith, David M.; Linster, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    In the olfactory system, cholinergic modulation has been associated with contrast modulation and changes in receptive fields in the olfactory bulb, as well the learning of odor associations in olfactory cortex. Computational modeling and behavioral studies suggest that cholinergic modulation could improve sensory processing and learning while preventing pro-active interference when task demands are high. However, how sensory inputs and/or learning regulate incoming modulation has not yet been elucidated. We here use a computational model of the olfactory bulb, piriform cortex (PC) and horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca (HDB) to explore how olfactory learning could regulate cholinergic inputs to the system in a closed feedback loop. In our model, the novelty of an odor is reflected in firing rates and sparseness of cortical neurons in response to that odor and these firing rates can directly regulate learning in the system by modifying cholinergic inputs to the system. In the model, cholinergic neurons reduce their firing in response to familiar odors—reducing plasticity in the PC, but increase their firing in response to novel odor—increasing PC plasticity. Recordings from HDB neurons in awake behaving rats reflect predictions from the model by showing that a subset of neurons decrease their firing as an odor becomes familiar. PMID:27877112

  20. Infant Responding to Joint Attention, Executive Processes, and Self-Regulation in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan; Mundy, Peter; Block, Jessica J.; Delgado, Christine E. F.; Parlade, Meaghan V.; Pomares, Yuly B.; Hobson, Jessica A.

    2011-01-01

    Infant joint attention is related to behavioral and social outcomes, as well as language in childhood. Recent research and theory suggests that the relations between joint attention and social-behavioral outcomes may reflect the role of executive self-regulatory processes in the development of joint attention. To test this hypothesis two- studies were conducted. The first, cross-sectional study examined the development of responding to joint attention skill (RJA) in terms of increasing executive efficiency of responding between 9 and 18 months of age. The results indicated that development of RJA was characterized by a decreased latency to shift attention in following another person’s gaze and head turn, as well as an increase in the proportion of correct RJA responses exhibited by older infants. The second study examined the longitudinal relations between 12-month measures of responding to joint attention (RJA) and 36-month attention regulation in a delay of gratification task. The results indicated that responding to joint attention at 12-months was significantly related to children’s use of three types of self-regulation behaviors while waiting for a snack reward at 36 months of age. These observations are discussed in light of a developmental theory of attention regulation and joint attention in infancy. PMID:22206892

  1. Amyloid precursor protein expression and processing are differentially regulated during cortical neuron differentiation.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Petra; Agholme, Lotta; Nazir, Faisal Hayat; Satir, Tugce Munise; Toombs, Jamie; Wellington, Henrietta; Strandberg, Joakim; Bontell, Thomas Olsson; Kvartsberg, Hlin; Holmström, Maria; Boreström, Cecilia; Simonsson, Stina; Kunath, Tilo; Lindahl, Anders; Blennow, Kaj; Hanse, Eric; Portelius, Erik; Wray, Selina; Zetterberg, Henrik

    2016-07-07

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its cleavage product amyloid β (Aβ) have been thoroughly studied in Alzheimer's disease. However, APP also appears to be important for neuronal development. Differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) towards cortical neurons enables in vitro mechanistic studies on human neuronal development. Here, we investigated expression and proteolytic processing of APP during differentiation of human iPSCs towards cortical neurons over a 100-day period. APP expression remained stable during neuronal differentiation, whereas APP processing changed. α-Cleaved soluble APP (sAPPα) was secreted early during differentiation, from neuronal progenitors, while β-cleaved soluble APP (sAPPβ) was first secreted after deep-layer neurons had formed. Short Aβ peptides, including Aβ1-15/16, peaked during the progenitor stage, while processing shifted towards longer peptides, such as Aβ1-40/42, when post-mitotic neurons appeared. This indicates that APP processing is regulated throughout differentiation of cortical neurons and that amyloidogenic APP processing, as reflected by Aβ1-40/42, is associated with mature neuronal phenotypes.

  2. Amyloid precursor protein expression and processing are differentially regulated during cortical neuron differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Bergström, Petra; Agholme, Lotta; Nazir, Faisal Hayat; Satir, Tugce Munise; Toombs, Jamie; Wellington, Henrietta; Strandberg, Joakim; Bontell, Thomas Olsson; Kvartsberg, Hlin; Holmström, Maria; Boreström, Cecilia; Simonsson, Stina; Kunath, Tilo; Lindahl, Anders; Blennow, Kaj; Hanse, Eric; Portelius, Erik; Wray, Selina; Zetterberg, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its cleavage product amyloid β (Aβ) have been thoroughly studied in Alzheimer’s disease. However, APP also appears to be important for neuronal development. Differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) towards cortical neurons enables in vitro mechanistic studies on human neuronal development. Here, we investigated expression and proteolytic processing of APP during differentiation of human iPSCs towards cortical neurons over a 100-day period. APP expression remained stable during neuronal differentiation, whereas APP processing changed. α-Cleaved soluble APP (sAPPα) was secreted early during differentiation, from neuronal progenitors, while β-cleaved soluble APP (sAPPβ) was first secreted after deep-layer neurons had formed. Short Aβ peptides, including Aβ1-15/16, peaked during the progenitor stage, while processing shifted towards longer peptides, such as Aβ1-40/42, when post-mitotic neurons appeared. This indicates that APP processing is regulated throughout differentiation of cortical neurons and that amyloidogenic APP processing, as reflected by Aβ1-40/42, is associated with mature neuronal phenotypes. PMID:27383650

  3. Environmental risk, social cognition, and drug use among young men who have sex with men: Longitudinal effects of minority status on health processes and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Traube, Dorian E.; Schrager, Sheree M.; Holloway, Ian W.; Weiss, George; Kipke, Michele D.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) continue to be at elevated risk for substance use; however, models explaining this phenomenon have often focused on a limited array of explanatory constructs. This study examined the longitudinal relationship of contextual risk factors, social cognitive processes, mental health, and health protective behavior to identify key mechanisms of illicit drug use of YMSM as they aged through emerging adulthood. METHODS Our sample included an ethnically diverse cohort of 487 YMSM recruited through venue based probability sampling in Los Angeles. We used latent growth curve modeling to understand relationships between environmental risk factors, changing individual and social process variables, health protective behavior, psychological distress, and illicit drug use outcomes among YMSM. RESULTS Age, ethnicity, violence and discrimination, depression, and previous histories of illicit drug use were key elements of risk for future illicit drug use among YMSM. During this theoretically distinct time period, health as a value, self-efficacy, and social support are vital social cognitive processes for promoting self-change among YMSM, and YMSM have independent growth within each process. Health as a value, self-efficacy, and social support were dynamic social cognitive processes, which served as key mechanisms by which risk factors were converted into health promotion strategies or psychological distress, and ultimately illicit drug use. CONCLUSIONS The efficacy of prevention interventions aimed at reducing illicit drug use among YMSM can be enhanced by addressing social cognitive processes for this underserved portion of the male population. PMID:22749680

  4. Human polyoma JC virus minor capsid proteins, VP2 and VP3, enhance large T antigen binding to the origin of viral DNA replication: evidence for their involvement in regulation of the viral DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Saribas, A Sami; Mun, Sarah; Johnson, Jaslyn; El-Hajmoussa, Mohammad; White, Martyn K; Safak, Mahmut

    2014-01-20

    JC virus (JCV) lytically infects the oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system in a subset of immunocompromized patients and causes the demyelinating disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. JCV replicates and assembles into infectious virions in the nucleus. However, understanding the molecular mechanisms of its virion biogenesis remains elusive. In this report, we have attempted to shed more light on this process by investigating molecular interactions between large T antigen (LT-Ag), Hsp70 and minor capsid proteins, VP2/VP3. We demonstrated that Hsp70 interacts with VP2/VP3 and LT-Ag; and accumulates heavily in the nucleus of the infected cells. We also showed that VP2/VP3 associates with LT-Ag through their DNA binding domains resulting in enhancement in LT-Ag DNA binding to Ori and induction in viral DNA replication. Altogether, our results suggest that VP2/VP3 and Hsp70 actively participate in JCV DNA replication and may play critical roles in coupling of viral DNA replication to virion encapsidation.

  5. 31 CFR 315.62 - Payment to minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING U.S. SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J, AND K, AND U.S. SAVINGS NOTES Minors, Incompetents, Aged Persons, Absentees, et al... not indicate that there is a representative of the minor's estate, payment will be made to the...

  6. Sexual minorities seeking services.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Tracey L; Emanuel, Kristen; Bradford, Judith

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY Understanding the mental health needs of lesbian and bisexual (sexual minority) women is an integral part of designing and providing appropriate mental health services and treatment for them. In an effort to understand the mental health needs of sexual minority women who seek community treatment, a chart review was conducted of the 223 lesbian and bisexual women who presented for services between July 1, 1997 and December 31, 2000 at Fenway Community Health in Boston, MA. Data are based on clients' self-reports and clinician assessments of clients' presenting problem, relevant developmental history, prior mental health and substance abuse treatment, current reports of emotional/psychological symptoms, and areas of impaired functioning. Although substance abuse and suicidal ideation were commonly reported problems, other concerns were more frequently reported. High percentages of lesbians and bisexual women reported relationship concerns and lack of adequate social networks; rates of depression and anxiety based on clinicians' assessments were also high. Overall, lesbians and bisexual women did not differ in the issues they brought to treatment or level or types of impairment. Compared with previous community survey samples, however, study participants appeared to be healthier than general, non-clinical samples of self-identified lesbians, possibly reflecting the special characteristics of sexual minority women who seek treatment in specialized community sites such as the Fenway. Although patients who come to these sites may not represent the more general population of sexual minority women, community health centers known to serve lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) individuals may be fruitful access points for studying the mental health status and treatment needs of sexual minority women.

  7. 75 FR 1289 - Minority and Women Inclusion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ...The Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA or agency) is issuing notice and opportunity for the public to comment on this proposed regulation on minority and women inclusion. Section 1116 of the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008 amended section 1319A of the Federal Housing Enterprises Financial Safety and Soundness Act of 1992, requiring FHFA, the Federal National Mortgage Association, the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation, and the Federal Home Loan Banks to promote diversity and the inclusion of women and minorities in all activities. The proposed rule will implement this provision.

  8. Effect of lanthanum ions (La3+) on ferritin-regulated antioxidant process under PEG stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lijing; Yang, Tongwen; Gao, Yongsheng; Liu, Yubing; Zhang, Tengguo; Xu, Shijian; Zeng, Fuli; An, Lizhe

    2006-11-01

    The physiological effects of lanthanum(III) ions on the ferritin-regulated antioxidant process were studied in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings under polyethylene glycol (PEG) stress. Treatment with 0.1 mM La3+ resulted in increased levels of chlorophyll, carotenoid, proline, ascorbate, and reduced glutathione. The activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, glutathione reductase, and peroxidase were also increased after La3+ treatment. Treatment with La3+ seems to enhance the capacity of the reactive oxygen species scavenging system, affect the Fe2+ and Fe3+ electron-transfer process in ferritin, and restrain the formation of hydroxyl radical (OH.), alleviating the oxidative damage induced by PEG stress.

  9. A dynamic intron retention program enriched in RNA processing genes regulates gene expression during terminal erythropoiesis

    DOE PAGES

    Pimentel, Harold; Parra, Marilyn; Gee, Sherry L.; ...

    2015-11-03

    Differentiating erythroblasts execute a dynamic alternative splicing program shown here to include extensive and diverse intron retention (IR) events. Cluster analysis revealed hundreds of developmentallydynamic introns that exhibit increased IR in mature erythroblasts, and are enriched in functions related to RNA processing such as SF3B1 spliceosomal factor. Distinct, developmentally-stable IR clusters are enriched in metal-ion binding functions and include mitoferrin genes SLC25A37 and SLC25A28 that are critical for iron homeostasis. Some IR transcripts are abundant, e.g. comprising ~50% of highly-expressed SLC25A37 and SF3B1 transcripts in late erythroblasts, and thereby limiting functional mRNA levels. IR transcripts tested were predominantly nuclearlocalized. Splicemore » site strength correlated with IR among stable but not dynamic intron clusters, indicating distinct regulation of dynamically-increased IR in late erythroblasts. Retained introns were preferentially associated with alternative exons with premature termination codons (PTCs). High IR was observed in disease-causing genes including SF3B1 and the RNA binding protein FUS. Comparative studies demonstrated that the intron retention program in erythroblasts shares features with other tissues but ultimately is unique to erythropoiesis. Finally, we conclude that IR is a multi-dimensional set of processes that post-transcriptionally regulate diverse gene groups during normal erythropoiesis, misregulation of which could be responsible for human disease.« less

  10. The PINK1-Parkin pathway is involved in the regulation of mitochondrial remodeling process

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jeehye; Lee, Gina; Chung, Jongkyeong

    2009-01-16

    The two Parkinson's disease (PD) genes, PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) and parkin, are linked in a common pathway which affects mitochondrial integrity and function. However, it is still not known what this pathway does in the mitochondria. Therefore, we investigated its physiological function in Drosophila. Because Drosophila PINK1 and parkin mutants show changes in mitochondrial morphology in both indirect flight muscles and dopaminergic neurons, we here investigated whether the PINK1-Parkin pathway genetically interacts with the regulators of mitochondrial fusion and fission such as Drp1, which promotes mitochondrial fission, and Opa1 or Marf, which induces mitochondrial fusion. Surprisingly, DrosophilaPINK1 and parkin mutant phenotypes were markedly suppressed by overexpression of Drp1 or downregulation of Opa1 or Marf, indicating that the PINK1-Parkin pathway regulates mitochondrial remodeling process in the direction of promoting mitochondrial fission. Therefore, we strongly suggest that mitochondrial fusion and fission process could be a prominent therapeutic target for the treatment of PD.

  11. A dynamic intron retention program enriched in RNA processing genes regulates gene expression during terminal erythropoiesis

    SciTech Connect

    Pimentel, Harold; Parra, Marilyn; Gee, Sherry L.; Mohandas, Narla; Pachter, Lior; Conboy, John G.

    2015-11-03

    Differentiating erythroblasts execute a dynamic alternative splicing program shown here to include extensive and diverse intron retention (IR) events. Cluster analysis revealed hundreds of developmentallydynamic introns that exhibit increased IR in mature erythroblasts, and are enriched in functions related to RNA processing such as SF3B1 spliceosomal factor. Distinct, developmentally-stable IR clusters are enriched in metal-ion binding functions and include mitoferrin genes SLC25A37 and SLC25A28 that are critical for iron homeostasis. Some IR transcripts are abundant, e.g. comprising ~50% of highly-expressed SLC25A37 and SF3B1 transcripts in late erythroblasts, and thereby limiting functional mRNA levels. IR transcripts tested were predominantly nuclearlocalized. Splice site strength correlated with IR among stable but not dynamic intron clusters, indicating distinct regulation of dynamically-increased IR in late erythroblasts. Retained introns were preferentially associated with alternative exons with premature termination codons (PTCs). High IR was observed in disease-causing genes including SF3B1 and the RNA binding protein FUS. Comparative studies demonstrated that the intron retention program in erythroblasts shares features with other tissues but ultimately is unique to erythropoiesis. Finally, we conclude that IR is a multi-dimensional set of processes that post-transcriptionally regulate diverse gene groups during normal erythropoiesis, misregulation of which could be responsible for human disease.

  12. Prion protein participates in the protection of mice from lipopolysaccharide infection by regulating the inflammatory process.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin; Zhao, Deming; Liu, Chunfa; Ding, Tianjian; Yang, Lifeng; Yin, Xiaomin; Zhou, Xiangmei

    2015-01-01

    Despite the overwhelming evidence of the involvement of prion protein (PrP) in prion disease pathogenesis, the normal functions of this cell surface glycoprotein remain unclear. Previously, we showed that PrP may have a dual regulatory role by regulating the opposite poles of pro-inflammation and anti-inflammation as well as tissue repair in activated microglia. In the present work, we compared the mRNA expression of inflammation-related cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, NOS2, and IL-10) and IL-4-related alternative activation markers (Arg1 and Mrc1) after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge in the brain and spleen and examined peripheral leukocyte recovery and LPS-induced mortality in PrP knockout mice (PrP(-/-)) and wild-type (WT) mice. During the acute phase, WT mice exhibited higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the brain and spleen than in PrP(-/-) mice, while PrP(-/-) mice sustained higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and lower levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines, Arg1, and Mrc1 during the later phase. PrP(-/-) mice also exhibited a slower peripheral leukocyte recovery process and higher mortality in response to LPS-induced septic shock. These results suggest that the PrP may participate in the protection of mice from LPS infection by regulating the process of inflammatory response.

  13. The importance of being supercoiled: how DNA mechanics regulate dynamic processes.

    PubMed

    Baranello, Laura; Levens, David; Gupta, Ashutosh; Kouzine, Fedor

    2012-07-01

    Through dynamic changes in structure resulting from DNA-protein interactions and constraints given by the structural features of the double helix, chromatin accommodates and regulates different DNA-dependent processes. All DNA transactions (such as transcription, DNA replication and chromosomal segregation) are necessarily linked to strong changes in the topological state of the double helix known as torsional stress or supercoiling. As virtually all DNA transactions are in turn affected by the torsional state of DNA, these changes have the potential to serve as regulatory signals detected by protein partners. This two-way relationship indicates that DNA dynamics may contribute to the regulation of many events occurring during cell life. In this review we will focus on the role of DNA supercoiling in the cellular processes, with particular emphasis on transcription. Besides giving an overview on the multiplicity of factors involved in the generation and dissipation of DNA torsional stress, we will discuss recent studies which give new insight into the way cells use DNA dynamics to perform functions otherwise not achievable. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Chromatin in time and space. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. The importance of being supercoiled: how DNA mechanics regulate dynamic processes

    PubMed Central

    Baranello, Laura; Levens, David; Gupta, Ashutosh; Kouzine, Fedor

    2012-01-01

    Through dynamic changes in structure resulting from DNA-protein interactions and constraints given by the structural features of the double helix, chromatin accommodates and regulates different DNA-dependent processes. All DNA transactions (such as transcription, DNA replication and chromosomal segregation) are necessarily linked to strong changes in the topological state of the double helix known as torsional stress or supercoiling. As virtually all DNA transactions are in turn affected by the torsional state of DNA, these changes have the potential to serve as regulatory signals detected by protein partners. This two-way relationship indicates that DNA dynamics may contribute to the regulation of many events occurring during cell life. In this review we will focus on the role of DNA supercoiling in the cellular processes, with particular emphasis on transcription. Besides giving an overview on the multiplicity of factors involved in the generation and dissipation of DNA torsional stress, we will discuss recent studies which give new insight into the way cells use DNA dynamics to perform functions otherwise not achievable. PMID:22233557

  15. Fibrogenesis in pancreatic cancer is a dynamic process regulated by macrophage-stellate cell interaction

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Chanjuan; Washington, M. Kay; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Drosos, Yiannis; Revetta, Frank L.; Weaver, Connie J.; Buzhardt, Emily; Yull, Fiona E.; Blackwell, Timothy S.; Sosa-Pineda, Beatriz; Whitehead, Robert H.; Beauchamp, R. Daniel; Wilson, Keith T.; Means, Anna L.

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer occurs in the setting of a profound fibrotic microenvironment that often dwarfs the actual tumor. While pancreatic fibrosis has been well-studied in chronic pancreatitis, its development in pancreatic cancer is much less well understood. This manuscript describes the dynamic remodeling that occurs from pancreatic precursors (PanINs) to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, highlighting similarities and differences between benign and malignant disease. While collagen matrix is a commonality throughout this process, early stage PanINs are virtually free of periostin while late stage PanIN and pancreatic cancer are surrounded by an increasing abundance of this extracellular matrix protein. Myofibroblasts also become increasingly abundant during progression from PanIN to cancer. From the earliest stages of fibrogenesis, macrophages are associated with this ongoing process. In vitro co-culture indicates there is cross-regulation between macrophages and pancreatic stellate cells, precursors to at least some of the fibrotic cell populations. When quiescent pancreatic stellate cells were co-cultured with macrophage cell lines, the stellate cells became activated and the macrophages increased cytokine production. In summary, fibrosis in pancreatic cancer involves a complex interplay of cells and matrices that regulate not only the tumor epithelium but the composition of the microenvironment itself. PMID:24535260

  16. Ethylene and the Regulation of Senescence Processes in Transgenic Nicotiana sylvestris Plants

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Thomas F.; Gonzalez-Carranza, Zinnia H.; Maunders, Martin J.; Roberts, Jeremy A.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Exposure of plants to ethylene can influence a spectrum of developmental processes including organ senescence and abscission. The aim of this study was to examine the role of the gaseous regulator in Nicotiana sylvestris plants exhibiting a silenced or constitutive ethylene response. Methods Transgenic N. sylvestris plants were generated that either ectopically expressed the Arabidopsis mutant ethylene receptor ETR1-1 or the tomato EIN3-like (LeEIL1) gene. Highly expressing homozygous lines were selected and the time-course of development, from germination to organ senescence, was studied. Key Results Fifty percent of the homozygous Pro35S:ETR1-1 lines examined showed a high susceptibility to collapse prior to flowering, with plant death occurring within a few days of leaf wilting. The time-course of leaf senescence in the remaining Pro35S:ETR1-1 lines was visibly arrested compared to wild type (negative segregant) plants and this observation was reaffirmed by chlorophyll and protein analysis. Petal necrosis was also delayed in Pro35S:ETR1-1 lines and corolla abscission did not take place. When senescence of Pro35S:ETR1-1 plants did take place this was accompanied by leaf bleaching, but tissues remained fully turgid and showed no signs of collapse. A single Pro35S:LeEIL1 line was found to exhibit consistently accelerated leaf and flower senescence and precocious flower bud shedding. Conclusions These observations support a role for ethylene in regulating a spectrum of developmental events associated with organ senescence and tissue necrosis. Furthermore, the transgenic lines generated during this study may provide a valuable resource for exploring how senescence processes are regulated in plants. PMID:17901061

  17. Cell cycle regulation and cytoskeletal remodelling are critical processes in the nutritional programming of embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Swali, Angelina; McMullen, Sarah; Hayes, Helen; Gambling, Lorraine; McArdle, Harry J; Langley-Evans, Simon C

    2011-01-01

    Many mechanisms purport to explain how nutritional signals during early development are manifested as disease in the adult offspring. While these describe processes leading from nutritional insult to development of the actual pathology, the initial underlying cause of the programming effect remains elusive. To establish the primary drivers of programming, this study aimed to capture embryonic gene and protein changes in the whole embryo at the time of nutritional insult rather than downstream phenotypic effects. By using a cross-over design of two well established models of maternal protein and iron restriction we aimed to identify putative common "gatekeepers" which may drive nutritional programming.Both protein and iron deficiency in utero reduced the nephron complement in adult male Wistar and Rowett Hooded Lister rats (P<0.05). This occurred in the absence of damage to the glomerular ultrastructure. Microarray, proteomic and pathway analyses identified diet-specific and strain-specific gatekeeper genes, proteins and processes which shared a common association with the regulation of the cell cycle, especially the G1/S and G2/M checkpoints, and cytoskeletal remodelling. A cell cycle-specific PCR array confirmed the down-regulation of cyclins with protein restriction and the up-regulation of apoptotic genes with iron deficiency.The timing and experimental design of this study have been carefully controlled to isolate the common molecular mechanisms which may initiate the sequelae of events involved in nutritional programming of embryonic development. We propose that despite differences in the individual genes and proteins affected in each strain and with each diet, the general response to nutrient deficiency in utero is perturbation of the cell cycle, at the level of interaction with the cytoskeleton and the mitotic checkpoints, thereby diminishing control over the integrity of DNA which is allowed to replicate. These findings offer novel insight into the primary

  18. Fatigability disrupts cognitive processes' regulation of inflammatory reactivity in old age.

    PubMed

    Lin, Feng; Roiland, Rachel; Polesskaya, Oksana; Chapman, Benjamin; Johnson, Melissa; Brasch, Judith; Chen, Ding-Geng; Mapstone, Mark

    2014-12-01

    High fatigability, a dysfunctional adaption to fatigue, may lead to difficulties performing otherwise regularly encountered cognitive activities and may be related to pro-inflammatory reactivity. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of fatigability on cognitive processes and inflammatory response after an acute cognitive stress task in older adults. In an observational stress reactivity study conducted in a light- and temperature-controlled laboratory, we measured IL-6, self-reported acute fatigue, and frontally oriented cognitive processes in 55 community-dwelling individuals aged 75 years or older as part of a demanding set of cognitive tasks intended to induce stress. Subjects were classified into groups of low and high fatigability based on cluster analysis of their self-report acute fatigue before and after the cognitive tasks. The two clusters were comparable on levels of baseline IL-6 and cognitive processes; however, the high fatigability cluster had significantly higher levels of IL-6 response than the low fatigability cluster. After controlling for multiple covariates, fatigability moderated the relationship between speed of processing and IL-6 reactivity. Further exploratory analyses indicated significant adverse associations between speed of processing and attention and IL-6 reactivity in the group with low but not high fatigability. Although observational, these data are consistent with the notion that pro-inflammatory states in older adults might be reduced by improvements in cognitive processes. Because fatigability was associated with increased acute inflammatory response and disrupted the normal stress regulation provided by the cognitive processes, future randomized studies might examine whether fatigability alleviation reduces IL-6. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. All rights reserved.

  19. Fatigability Disrupts Cognitive Processes' Regulation of Inflammatory Reactivity in Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Feng; Roiland, Rachel; Polesskaya, Oksana; Chapman, Benjamin; Johnson, Melissa; Brasch, Judith; Chen, Ding-Geng; Mapstone, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Objectives High fatigability, a dysfunctional adaption to fatigue, may lead to difficulties performing otherwise regularly encountered cognitive activities and may be related to pro-inflammatory reactivity. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of fatigability on cognitive processes and inflammatory response following an acute cognitive stress task in older adults. Design An observational laboratory stress reactivity study. Setting A light- and temperature-controlled laboratory. Participants Fifty-five community-dwelling individuals aged 75 years or older. Measurements We measured interleukin (IL)-6, self-reported acute fatigue, and frontally-oriented cognitive processes as part of a demanding set of cognitive tasks intended to induce stress. Results Subjects were classified into groups of low and high fatigability based on cluster analysis of their self-report acute fatigue before and after the cognitive tasks. The two clusters were comparable on levels of baseline IL-6 and cognitive processes; however, the high fatigability cluster had significantly higher levels of IL-6 response than the low fatigability cluster. After controlling for multiple covariates, fatigability moderated the relationship between speed of processing and IL-6 reactivity. Further exploratory analyses indicated significant adverse associations between speed of processing and attention and IL-6 reactivity in the group with low but not high fatigability. Conclusions While observational, these data are consistent with the notion that pro-inflammatory states in older adults might be reduced by improvements in cognitive processes. Since fatigability was associated with increased acute inflammatory response and disrupted the normal stress regulation provided by the cognitive processes, future randomized studies might examine whether fatigability alleviation reduces IL-6. PMID:24388221

  20. Dealing with Feeling: A Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of Strategies Derived from the Process Model of Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Thomas L.; Miles, Eleanor; Sheeran, Paschal

    2012-01-01

    The present meta-analysis investigated the effectiveness of strategies derived from the process model of emotion regulation in modifying emotional outcomes as indexed by experiential, behavioral, and physiological measures. A systematic search of the literature identified 306 experimental comparisons of different emotion regulation (ER)…

  1. 50 CFR 92.12 - Relationship to the process for developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. 92.12 Section 92.12 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED... MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA Program Structure § 92.12 Relationship to the process for developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. (a) Flyway councils. (1) Proposed annual...

  2. 50 CFR 92.12 - Relationship to the process for developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. 92.12 Section 92.12 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED... MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA Program Structure § 92.12 Relationship to the process for developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. (a) Flyway councils. (1) Proposed annual...

  3. 50 CFR 92.12 - Relationship to the process for developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. 92.12 Section 92.12 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED... MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA Program Structure § 92.12 Relationship to the process for developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. (a) Flyway councils. (1) Proposed annual...

  4. 50 CFR 92.12 - Relationship to the process for developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. 92.12 Section 92.12 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED... MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA Program Structure § 92.12 Relationship to the process for developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. (a) Flyway councils. (1) Proposed annual...

  5. The Role of Emotion Regulation in the Predictive Association between Social Information Processing and Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the moderating role of emotion regulation in the relationship between some components of social information processing (hostile interpretation and anger) and aggressive behavior. The secondary aim was to assess whether emotion regulation, hostile interpretation, and anger account for gender differences…

  6. Dealing with Feeling: A Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of Strategies Derived from the Process Model of Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Thomas L.; Miles, Eleanor; Sheeran, Paschal

    2012-01-01

    The present meta-analysis investigated the effectiveness of strategies derived from the process model of emotion regulation in modifying emotional outcomes as indexed by experiential, behavioral, and physiological measures. A systematic search of the literature identified 306 experimental comparisons of different emotion regulation (ER)…

  7. The Role of Emotion Regulation in the Predictive Association between Social Information Processing and Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the moderating role of emotion regulation in the relationship between some components of social information processing (hostile interpretation and anger) and aggressive behavior. The secondary aim was to assess whether emotion regulation, hostile interpretation, and anger account for gender differences…

  8. Individual Distinctive Features of Self-Regulation Processes Peculiar to Students of Different Profiles of Lateral Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korneeva, Svetlana A.; Zherebnenko, Oksana A.; Mukhamedzyanova, Flera G.; Moskalenko, Svetlana V.; Gorelikova, Olga N.

    2016-01-01

    The research paper presents an analysis of the interrelation between the lateral organisation profiles' indicators and self-regulation features. The existence of significant distinctions in the processes of self-regulation among respondents with different variants of lateral profiles of the interhemispheric asymmetry is proved, as well as the…

  9. Tyr(682) in the intracellular domain of APP regulates amyloidogenic APP processing in vivo.

    PubMed

    Barbagallo, Alessia P M; Weldon, Richard; Tamayev, Robert; Zhou, Dawang; Giliberto, Luca; Foreman, Oded; D'Adamio, Luciano

    2010-11-16

    The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease is attributed to misfolding of Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides. Aβ is generated during amyloidogenic processing of Aβ-precursor protein (APP). Another characteristic of the AD brain is increased phosphorylation of APP amino acid Tyr(682). Tyr(682) is part of the Y(682)ENPTY(687) motif, a docking site for interaction with cytosolic proteins that regulate APP metabolism and signaling. For example, normal Aβ generation and secretion are dependent upon Tyr(682) in vitro. However, physiological functions of Tyr(682) are unknown. To this end, we have generated an APP Y682G knock-in (KI) mouse to help dissect the role of APP Tyr(682) in vivo. We have analyzed proteolytic products from both the amyloidogenic and non-amyloidogenic processing of APP and measure a profound shift towards non-amyloidogenic processing in APP KI mice. In addition, we demonstrate the essential nature of amino acid Tyr(682) for the APP/Fe65 interaction in vivo. Together, these observations point to an essential role of APP intracellular domain for normal APP processing and function in vivo, and provide rationale for further studies into physiological functions associated with this important phosphorylation site.

  10. Regulation of the Neurodegenerative Process Associated to Parkinson's Disease by CD4+ T-cells.

    PubMed

    González, Hugo; Contreras, Francisco; Pacheco, Rodrigo

    2015-12-01

    Neuroinflammation constitutes a fundamental process involved in the physiopathology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Microglial cells play a central role in the outcome of neuroinflammation and consequent neurodegeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Current evidence indicates that CD4+ T-cells infiltrate the central nervous system (CNS) in PD, where they play a critical role determining the functional phenotype of microglia, thus regulating the progression of the neurodegenerative process. Here, we first analysed the pathogenic role of inflammatory phenotypes and the beneficial role of anti-inflammatory phenotypes of encephalitogenic CD4+ T-cells involved in the physiopathology of PD. Next, we discussed how alterations of neurotransmitter levels observed in the basal ganglia throughout the time course of PD progression could be strongly affecting the behaviour of encephalitogenic CD4+ T-cells and thereby the outcome of the neuroinflammatory process and the consequent neurodegeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Afterward, we integrated the evidence indicating the involvement of an antigen-specific immune response mediated by T-cells and B-cells against CNS-derived self-constituents in PD. Consistent with the involvement of a relevant autoimmune component in PD, we also reviewed the polymorphisms of both, class I and class II major histocompatibility complexes, associated to the risk of PD. Overall, this study gives an overview of how an autoimmune component involved in PD plays a fundamental role in the progression of the neurodegenerative process.

  11. Dynamic processes in regulation and some implications for biofeedback and biobehavioral interventions.

    PubMed

    Lehrer, Paul; Eddie, David

    2013-06-01

    Systems theory has long been used in psychology, biology, and sociology. This paper applies newer methods of control systems modeling for assessing system stability in health and disease. Control systems can be characterized as open or closed systems with feedback loops. Feedback produces oscillatory activity, and the complexity of naturally occurring oscillatory patterns reflects the multiplicity of feedback mechanisms, such that many mechanisms operate simultaneously to control the system. Unstable systems, often associated with poor health, are characterized by absence of oscillation, random noise, or a very simple pattern of oscillation. This modeling approach can be applied to a diverse range of phenomena, including cardiovascular and brain activity, mood and thermal regulation, and social system stability. External system stressors such as disease, psychological stress, injury, or interpersonal conflict may perturb a system, yet simultaneously stimulate oscillatory processes and exercise control mechanisms. Resonance can occur in systems with negative feedback loops, causing high-amplitude oscillations at a single frequency. Resonance effects can be used to strengthen modulatory oscillations, but may obscure other information and control mechanisms, and weaken system stability. Positive as well as negative feedback loops are important for system function and stability. Examples are presented of oscillatory processes in heart rate variability, and regulation of autonomic, thermal, pancreatic and central nervous system processes, as well as in social/organizational systems such as marriages and business organizations. Resonance in negative feedback loops can help stimulate oscillations and exercise control reflexes, but also can deprive the system of important information. Empirical hypotheses derived from this approach are presented, including that moderate stress may enhance health and functioning.

  12. Processes regulating progressive nitrogen limitation under elevated carbon dioxide: A meta-analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Liang, Junyi; Qi, Xuan; Souza, Lara; ...

    2016-05-10

    Here, the nitrogen (N) cycle has the potential to regulate climate change through its influence on carbon (C) sequestration. Although extensive research has explored whether or not progressive N limitation (PNL) occurs under CO2 enrichment, a comprehensive assessment of the processes that regulate PNL is still lacking. Here, we quantitatively synthesized the responses of all major processes and pools in the terrestrial N cycle with meta-analysis of CO2 experimental data available in the literature. The results showed that CO2 enrichment significantly increased N sequestration in the plant and litter pools but not in the soil pool, partially supporting one ofmore » the basic assumptions in the PNL hypothesis that elevated CO2 results in more N sequestered in organic pools. However, CO2 enrichment significantly increased the N influx via biological N fixation and the loss via N2O emission, but decreased the N efflux via leaching. In addition, no general diminished CO2 fertilization effect on plant growth was observed over time up to the longest experiment of 13 years. Overall, our analyses suggest that the extra N supply by the increased biological N fixation and decreased leaching may potentially alleviate PNL under elevated CO2 conditions in spite of the increases in plant N sequestration and N2O emission. Moreover, our syntheses indicate that CO2 enrichment increases soil ammonium (NH4+) to nitrate (NO3–) ratio. The changed NH4+/NO3– ratio and subsequent biological processes may result in changes in soil microenvironments, above-belowground community structures and associated interactions, which could potentially affect the terrestrial biogeochemical cycles. In addition, our data synthesis suggests that more long-term studies, especially in regions other than temperate ones, are needed for comprehensive assessments of the PNL hypothesis.« less

  13. Processes regulating progressive nitrogen limitation under elevated carbon dioxide: a meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Junyi; Qi, Xuan; Souza, Lara; Luo, Yiqi

    2016-05-01

    The nitrogen (N) cycle has the potential to regulate climate change through its influence on carbon (C) sequestration. Although extensive research has explored whether or not progressive N limitation (PNL) occurs under CO2 enrichment, a comprehensive assessment of the processes that regulate PNL is still lacking. Here, we quantitatively synthesized the responses of all major processes and pools in the terrestrial N cycle with meta-analysis of CO2 experimental data available in the literature. The results showed that CO2 enrichment significantly increased N sequestration in the plant and litter pools but not in the soil pool, partially supporting one of the basic assumptions in the PNL hypothesis that elevated CO2 results in more N sequestered in organic pools. However, CO2 enrichment significantly increased the N influx via biological N fixation and the loss via N2O emission, but decreased the N efflux via leaching. In addition, no general diminished CO2 fertilization effect on plant growth was observed over time up to the longest experiment of 13 years. Overall, our analyses suggest that the extra N supply by the increased biological N fixation and decreased leaching may potentially alleviate PNL under elevated CO2 conditions in spite of the increases in plant N sequestration and N2O emission. Moreover, our syntheses indicate that CO2 enrichment increases soil ammonium (NH4+) to nitrate (NO3-) ratio. The changed NH4+/NO3- ratio and subsequent biological processes may result in changes in soil microenvironments, above-belowground community structures and associated interactions, which could potentially affect the terrestrial biogeochemical cycles. In addition, our data synthesis suggests that more long-term studies, especially in regions other than temperate ones, are needed for comprehensive assessments of the PNL hypothesis.

  14. Dynamic Processes in Regulation and Some Implications for Biofeedback and Biobehavioral Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Lehrer, Paul; Eddie, David

    2013-01-01

    Systems theory has long been applied in psychology, biology, and sociology. This paper applies newer methods of control systems modeling to the assessment of system stability in health and disease. Control systems can be characterized as open or closed systems with feedback loops. Feedback produces oscillatory activity, and the complexity of naturally occurring oscillatory patterns reflects the multiplicity of feedback mechanisms, such that many mechanisms operate simultaneously to control the system. Unstable systems, often associated with poor health, are characterized by absence of oscillation, random noise, or a very simple pattern of oscillation. This modeling approach can be applied to a diverse range of phenomena, including cardiovascular and brain activity, mood and thermal regulation, and social system stability. External system stressors such as disease, psychological stress, injury, or interpersonal conflict may perturb a system, yet simultaneously stimulate oscillatory processes and exercise control mechanisms. Resonance can occur in systems with negative feedback loops, causing high-amplitude oscillations at a single frequency. Resonance effects can be used to strengthen modulatory oscillations, but may obscure other information and control mechanisms, and weaken system stability. Positive as well as negative feedback loops are important for system function and stability. Examples are presented of oscillatory processes in heart rate variability, and regulation of autonomic, thermal, pancreatic and central nervous system processes, as well as in social/organizational systems such as marriages and business organizations. Resonance in negative feedback loops can help stimulate oscillations and exercise control reflexes, but also can deprive the system of important information. Empirical hypotheses derived from this approach are presented, including that moderate stress may enhance health and functioning. PMID:23572244

  15. Minority attitudes toward contraception.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, J O

    1974-12-01

    The training division of the Los Angeles Regional Family Planning Council conducted a seminar for minority members to discover attitudes toward birth control. Indian-Americans, Mexican-Americans, Asian-Americans, and Black-Americans participated. Some fears and misunderstandings relative to birth control were voiced. The timidity of recent Chinese immigrants was mentioned. Male reluctance to use birth control out of a sense of machismo was mentioned in relation to Black- and Mexican-Americans. The conclusion was that, when birth control methods are adequately explained, women of all ethnic groups are willing to use them. To allay fears, suspicions, and concerns, family planning should be presented to minority communities as a health service and not a social service. Family planning clinics would be more accepted in these communities if they expanded their work into other health areas.

  16. Minority energy assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Teotia, A.P.S.; Poyer, D.A.; Lampley, L.; Anderson, J.L.

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of this research is to project household energy consumption, energy expenditure, and energy expenditure as share of income for five population groups from 1991 to 2009. The approach uses the Minority Energy Assessment Model (MEAM), developed by Argonne National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy's Office of Minority Economic Impact. The MEAM provides a framework that can be used to forecast regional energy consumption and energy expenditure for majority, black, Hispanic, poor, and nonpoor households. The forecasts of key macroeconomic and energy variables used as exogenous variables in the MEAM were obtained from the Data Resources, Inc., Macromodel and Energy Model. Generally, the projections of household energy consumption, expenditure, and energy expenditure as share of income vary across population groups and census regions.

  17. Minor planet databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rykhlova, L.; Bakanas, E.

    We cast a retrospective look at the mankind's acquaintance with minor bodies of the Solar System, at the explosive growth in their discoveries resulting from the technological progress, and at gradual understanding of the danger to our very existence that some of them might actually pose. Then, we review current effort, of the astronomical community in general and of its Russian part in particular, to integrate our rapidly expanding knowledge of the potential Earth impactors and to make it readily available online.

  18. Localization of the calcium-regulated citrate transport process in proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Hering-Smith, Kathleen S; Mao, Weibo; Schiro, Faith R; Coleman-Barnett, Joycelynn; Pajor, Ana M; Hamm, L Lee

    2014-06-01

    Urinary citrate is an important inhibitor of calcium-stone formation. Most of the citrate reabsorption in the proximal tubule is thought to occur via a dicarboxylate transporter NaDC1 located in the apical membrane. OK cells, an established opossum kidney proximal tubule cell line, transport citrate but the characteristics change with extracellular calcium such that low calcium solutions stimulate total citrate transport as well as increase the apparent affinity for transport. The present studies address several fundamental properties of this novel process: the polarity of the transport process, the location of the calcium-sensitivity and whether NaDC1 is present in OK cells. OK cells grown on permeable supports exhibited apical >basolateral citrate transport. Apical transport of both citrate and succinate was sensitive to extracellular calcium whereas basolateral transport was not. Apical calcium, rather than basolateral, was the predominant determinant of changes in transport. Also 2,3-dimethylsuccinate, previously identified as an inhibitor of basolateral dicarboxylate transport, inhibited apical citrate uptake. Although the calcium-sensitive transport process in OK cells is functionally not typical NaDC1, NaDC1 is present in OK cells by Western blot and PCR. By immunolocalization studies, NaDC1 was predominantly located in discrete apical membrane or subapical areas. However, by biotinylation, apical NaDC1 decreases in the apical membrane with lowering calcium. In sum, OK cells express a calcium-sensitive/regulated dicarboxylate process at the apical membrane which responds to variations in apical calcium. Despite the functional differences of this process compared to NaDC1, NaDC1 is present in these cells, but predominantly in subapical vesicles.

  19. Human cell growth regulator Ly-1 antibody reactive homologue accelerates processing of preribosomal RNA.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Naoki; Yoshikawa, Harunori; Magae, Satomi; Ishikawa, Hideaki; Izumikawa, Keiichi; Terukina, Goro; Suzuki, Ai; Nakamura-Fujiyama, Sally; Miura, Yutaka; Hayano, Toshiya; Komatsu, Wataru; Isobe, Toshiaki; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2014-04-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is an essential process for cell growth and proliferation and is enhanced in cancer and embryonic stem cells. Mouse Ly-1 antibody reactive clone product (Lyar) is expressed at very high levels in many tumor, leukemia or embryonic stem cells; is a novel nucleolar protein with zinc-finger DNA-binding motifs and is involved in cell growth regulation. However, cellular function of Lyar remains unexplored. Here, we show that human homologue of Lyar (LYAR) accelerates ribosome biogenesis at the level of processing of preribosomal RNA (pre-rRNA). We show that LYAR is excluded from the nucleolus after actinomycin D treatment and is present in preribosomal fraction of the nuclear extract as well as in the fractions with 40S, 60S and 90S sedimentation coefficients. LYAR is required for processing of 47S/45S, 32S, 30S and 21S pre-rRNAs. In addition, we show that over-expression of LYAR increases cell proliferation without affecting the expression of c-Myc or p53. Combined, these results suggest that some rapidly growing cells enhance ribosome biogenesis by increasing the expression of LYAR. © 2014 The Authors Genes to Cells © 2014 by the Molecular Biology Society of Japan and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Regulation of telomere metabolism by the RNA processing protein Xrn1

    PubMed Central

    Cesena, Daniele; Cassani, Corinne; Rizzo, Emanuela; Lisby, Michael; Bonetti, Diego

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Telomeric DNA consists of repetitive G-rich sequences that terminate with a 3΄-ended single stranded overhang (G-tail), which is important for telomere extension by telomerase. Several proteins, including the CST complex, are necessary to maintain telomere structure and length in both yeast and mammals. Emerging evidence indicates that RNA processing factors play critical, yet poorly understood, roles in telomere metabolism. Here, we show that the lack of the RNA processing proteins Xrn1 or Rrp6 partially bypasses the requirement for the CST component Cdc13 in telomere protection by attenuating the activation of the DNA damage checkpoint. Xrn1 is necessary for checkpoint activation upon telomere uncapping because it promotes the generation of single-stranded DNA. Moreover, Xrn1 maintains telomere length by promoting the association of Cdc13 to telomeres independently of ssDNA generation and exerts this function by downregulating the transcript encoding the telomerase inhibitor Rif1. These findings reveal novel roles for RNA processing proteins in the regulation of telomere metabolism with implications for genome stability in eukaryotes. PMID:28160602

  1. Regulation of telomere metabolism by the RNA processing protein Xrn1.

    PubMed

    Cesena, Daniele; Cassani, Corinne; Rizzo, Emanuela; Lisby, Michael; Bonetti, Diego; Longhese, Maria Pia

    2017-04-20

    Telomeric DNA consists of repetitive G-rich sequences that terminate with a 3΄-ended single stranded overhang (G-tail), which is important for telomere extension by telomerase. Several proteins, including the CST complex, are necessary to maintain telomere structure and length in both yeast and mammals. Emerging evidence indicates that RNA processing factors play critical, yet poorly understood, roles in telomere metabolism. Here, we show that the lack of the RNA processing proteins Xrn1 or Rrp6 partially bypasses the requirement for the CST component Cdc13 in telomere protection by attenuating the activation of the DNA damage checkpoint. Xrn1 is necessary for checkpoint activation upon telomere uncapping because it promotes the generation of single-stranded DNA. Moreover, Xrn1 maintains telomere length by promoting the association of Cdc13 to telomeres independently of ssDNA generation and exerts this function by downregulating the transcript encoding the telomerase inhibitor Rif1. These findings reveal novel roles for RNA processing proteins in the regulation of telomere metabolism with implications for genome stability in eukaryotes. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  2. Virtual welding equipment for simulation of GMAW processes with integration of power source regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisgen, Uwe; Schleser, Markus; Mokrov, Oleg; Zabirov, Alexander

    2011-06-01

    A two dimensional transient numerical analysis and computational module for simulation of electrical and thermal characteristics during electrode melting and metal transfer involved in Gas-Metal-Arc-Welding (GMAW) processes is presented. Solution of non-linear transient heat transfer equation is carried out using a control volume finite difference technique. The computational module also includes controlling and regulation algorithms of industrial welding power sources. The simulation results are the current and voltage waveforms, mean voltage drops at different parts of circuit, total electric power, cathode, anode and arc powers and arc length. We describe application of the model for normal process (constant voltage) and for pulsed processes with U/I and I/I-modulation modes. The comparisons with experimental waveforms of current and voltage show that the model predicts current, voltage and electric power with a high accuracy. The model is used in simulation package SimWeld for calculation of heat flux into the work-piece and the weld seam formation. From the calculated heat flux and weld pool sizes, an equivalent volumetric heat source according to Goldak model, can be generated. The method was implemented and investigated with the simulation software SimWeld developed by the ISF at RWTH Aachen University.

  3. Histone methyltransferase 1 regulates the encystation process in the parasite Giardia lamblia.

    PubMed

    Salusso, Agostina; Zlocowski, Natacha; Mayol, Gonzalo F; Zamponi, Nahuel; Rópolo, Andrea S

    2017-08-01

    In eukaryotes, histone lysine methylation is associated with either active or repressed chromatin states, depending on the status of methylation. Even when the amino-terminus of Giardia lamblia histones diverges from other organisms, these regions contain lysine residues that are potential targets for methylation. When we examined the role of the histone methyltransferase 1 (HMT1) in the regulation of the encystation process by giardial histone methyltransferase 1 (GlHMT1) overexpression or downregulation, we observed an increase or a decrease in cyst production, respectively, compared to wild-type trophozoites. A time-lapse analysis of encystation showed that overexpression of GlHMT1 induced an earlier and faster process than in wild-type cells together with an upregulation of mRNA expression of cyst wall proteins. Subcellular localization studies indicated that GlHMT1-hemaglutinin was mainly associated with the nuclear and perinuclear region in both growing and encysting parasites, in agreement with bioinformatics analyses showing that GlHMT-1 possesses nuclear localization signals in addition to the classical SU(var)3-9, Enhancer-of-Zeste, Trithorax (SET), and post-SET domains. Altogether, these findings suggest that the function of HMT1 is critical for the success and timing of the encystation process, and reinforce the idea that epigenetic marks are critical for cyst formation in G. lamblia. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  4. Training of Working Memory Impacts Neural Processing of Vocal Pitch Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weifeng; Guo, Zhiqiang; Jones, Jeffery A.; Huang, Xiyan; Chen, Xi; Liu, Peng; Chen, Shaozhen; Liu, Hanjun

    2015-01-01

    Working memory training can improve the performance of tasks that were not trained. Whether auditory-motor integration for voice control can benefit from working memory training, however, remains unclear. The present event-related potential (ERP) study examined the impact of working memory training on the auditory-motor processing of vocal pitch. Trained participants underwent adaptive working memory training using a digit span backwards paradigm, while control participants did not receive any training. Before and after training, both trained and control participants were exposed to frequency-altered auditory feedback while producing vocalizations. After training, trained participants exhibited significantly decreased N1 amplitudes and increased P2 amplitudes in response to pitch errors in voice auditory feedback. In addition, there was a significant positive correlation between the degree of improvement in working memory capacity and the post-pre difference in P2 amplitudes. Training-related changes in the vocal compensation, however, were not observed. There was no systematic change in either vocal or cortical responses for control participants. These findings provide evidence that working memory training impacts the cortical processing of feedback errors in vocal pitch regulation. This enhanced cortical processing may be the result of increased neural efficiency in the detection of pitch errors between the intended and actual feedback. PMID:26553373

  5. Identification of the core regulators of the HLA I-peptide binding process

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-Hang; Xing, Zhihao; Liu, Chenglin; Wang, ShaoPeng; Huang, Tao; Cai, Yu-Dong; Kong, Xiangyin

    2017-01-01

    During the display of peptide/human leukocyte antigen (HLA) -I complex for further immune recognition, the cleaved and transported antigenic peptides have to bind to HLA-I protein and the binding affinity between peptide epitopes and HLA proteins directly influences the immune recognition ability in human beings. Key factors affecting the binding affinity during the generation, selection and presentation processes of HLA-I complex have not yet been fully discovered. In this study, a new method describing the HLA class I-peptide interactions was proposed. Three hundred and forty features of HLA I proteins and peptide sequences were utilized for analysis by four candidate algorithms, screening the optimal classifier. Features derived from the optimal classifier were further selected and systematically analyzed, revealing the core regulators. The results validated the hypothesis that features of HLA I proteins and related peptides simultaneously affect the binding process, though with discrepant redundancy. Besides, the high relative ratio (16/20) of the amino acid composition features suggests the unique role of sequence signatures for the binding processes. Integrating biological, evolutionary and chemical features of both HLA I molecules and peptides, this study may provide a new perspective of the underlying mechanisms of HLA I-mediated immune reactions. PMID:28211542

  6. Sonic hedgehog processing and release are regulated by glypican heparan sulfate proteoglycans.

    PubMed

    Ortmann, Corinna; Pickhinke, Ute; Exner, Sebastian; Ohlig, Stefanie; Lawrence, Roger; Jboor, Hamodah; Dreier, Rita; Grobe, Kay

    2015-06-15

    All Hedgehog morphogens are released from producing cells, despite being synthesized as N- and C-terminally lipidated molecules, a modification that firmly tethers them to the cell membrane. We have previously shown that proteolytic removal of both lipidated peptides, called shedding, releases bioactive Sonic hedgehog (Shh) morphogens from the surface of transfected Bosc23 cells. Using in vivo knockdown together with in vitro cell culture studies, we now show that glypican heparan sulfate proteoglycans regulate this process, through their heparan sulfate chains, in a cell autonomous manner. Heparan sulfate specifically modifies Shh processing at the cell surface, and purified glycosaminoglycans enhance the proteolytic removal of N- and C-terminal Shh peptides under cell-free conditions. The most likely explanation for these observations is direct Shh processing in the extracellular compartment, suggesting that heparan sulfate acts as a scaffold or activator for Shh ligands and the factors required for their turnover. We also show that purified heparan sulfate isolated from specific cell types and tissues mediates the release of bioactive Shh from pancreatic cancer cells, revealing a previously unknown regulatory role for these versatile molecules in a pathological context.

  7. A midline switch of receptor processing regulates commissural axon guidance in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Nawabi, Homaira; Briançon-Marjollet, Anne; Clark, Christopher; Sanyas, Isabelle; Takamatsu, Hyota; Okuno, Tatsusada; Kumanogoh, Atsushi; Bozon, Muriel; Takeshima, Kaori; Yoshida, Yutaka; Moret, Frédéric; Abouzid, Karima; Castellani, Valérie

    2010-01-01

    Commissural axon guidance requires complex modulations of growth cone sensitivity to midline-derived cues, but underlying mechanisms in vertebrates remain largely unknown. By using combinations of ex vivo and in vivo approaches, we uncovered a molecular pathway controlling the gain of response to a midline repellent, Semaphorin3B (Sema3B). First, we provide evidence that Semaphorin3B/Plexin-A1 signaling participates in the guidance of commissural projections at the vertebrate ventral midline. Second, we show that, at the precrossing stage, commissural neurons synthesize the Neuropilin-2 and Plexin-A1 Semaphorin3B receptor subunits, but Plexin-A1 expression is prevented by a calpain1-mediated processing, resulting in silencing commissural responsiveness. Third, we report that, during floor plate (FP) in-growth, calpain1 activity is suppressed by local signals, allowing Plexin-A1 accumulation in the growth cone and sensitization to Sema3B. Finally, we show that the FP cue NrCAM mediates the switch of Plexin-A1 processing underlying growth cone sensitization to Sema3B. This reveals pathway-dependent modulation of guidance receptor processing as a novel mechanism for regulating guidance decisions at intermediate targets. PMID:20159958

  8. Training of Working Memory Impacts Neural Processing of Vocal Pitch Regulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Weifeng; Guo, Zhiqiang; Jones, Jeffery A; Huang, Xiyan; Chen, Xi; Liu, Peng; Chen, Shaozhen; Liu, Hanjun

    2015-11-10

    Working memory training can improve the performance of tasks that were not trained. Whether auditory-motor integration for voice control can benefit from working memory training, however, remains unclear. The present event-related potential (ERP) study examined the impact of working memory training on the auditory-motor processing of vocal pitch. Trained participants underwent adaptive working memory training using a digit span backwards paradigm, while control participants did not receive any training. Before and after training, both trained and control participants were exposed to frequency-altered auditory feedback while producing vocalizations. After training, trained participants exhibited significantly decreased N1 amplitudes and increased P2 amplitudes in response to pitch errors in voice auditory feedback. In addition, there was a significant positive correlation between the degree of improvement in working memory capacity and the post-pre difference in P2 amplitudes. Training-related changes in the vocal compensation, however, were not observed. There was no systematic change in either vocal or cortical responses for control participants. These findings provide evidence that working memory training impacts the cortical processing of feedback errors in vocal pitch regulation. This enhanced cortical processing may be the result of increased neural efficiency in the detection of pitch errors between the intended and actual feedback.

  9. Cognitive and Emotion Regulation Change Processes in Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Mia S; Mennin, Douglas S; Hougaard, Esben; Zachariae, Robert; Rosenberg, Nicole K

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate variables, derived from both cognitive and emotion regulation conceptualizations of social anxiety disorder (SAD), as possible change processes in cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for SAD. Several proposed change processes were investigated: estimated probability, estimated cost, safety behaviours, acceptance of emotions, cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression. Participants were 50 patients with SAD, receiving a standard manualized CBT program, conducted in groups or individually. All variables were measured pre-therapy, mid-therapy and post-therapy. Lower level mediation models revealed that while a change in most process measures significantly predicted clinical improvement, only changes in estimated probability and cost and acceptance of emotions showed significant indirect effects of CBT for SAD. The results are in accordance with previous studies supporting the mediating role of changes in cognitive distortions in CBT for SAD. In addition, acceptance of emotions may also be a critical component to clinical improvement in SAD during CBT, although more research is needed on which elements of acceptance are most helpful for individuals with SAD. The study's lack of a control condition limits any conclusion regarding the specificity of the findings to CBT. Change in estimated probability and cost, and acceptance of emotions showed an indirect effect of CBT for SAD. Cognitive distortions appear relevant to target with cognitive restructuring techniques. Finding acceptance to have an indirect effect could be interpreted as support for contemporary CBT approaches that include acceptance-based strategies. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Rapidity regulators in the semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering and Drell-Yan processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, Sean; Labun, Ou Z.

    2017-06-01

    We study the semi-inclusive limit of the deep inelastic scattering and Drell-Yan (DY) processes in soft collinear effective theory. In this regime so-called threshold logarithms must be resummed to render perturbation theory well behaved. Part of this resummation occurs via the Dokshitzer, Gribov, Lipatov, Altarelli, Parisi (DGLAP) equation, which at threshold contains a large logarithm that calls into question the convergence of the anomalous dimension. We demonstrate here that the problematic logarithm is related to rapidity divergences, and by introducing a rapidity regulator can be tamed. We show that resumming the rapidity logarithms allows us to reproduce the standard DGLAP running at threshold as long as a set of potentially large nonperturbative logarithms are absorbed into the definition of the parton distribution function (PDF). These terms could, in turn, explain the steep falloff of the PDF in the end point. We then go on to show that the resummation of rapidity divergences does not change the standard threshold resummation in DY, nor do our results depend on the rapidity regulator we choose to use.

  11. Hydrogen sulphide as a signalling molecule regulating physiopathological processes in gastrointestinal motility.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, M; Gil, V; Martinez-Cutillas, M; Mañé, N; Gallego, D

    2017-09-01

    The biology of H2 S is a still developing area of research and several biological functions have been recently attributed to this gaseous molecule in many physiological systems, including the cardiovascular, urogenital, respiratory, digestive and central nervous system (CNS). H2 S exerts anti-inflammatory effects and can be considered an endogenous mediator with potential effects on gastrointestinal motility. During the last few years, we have investigated the role of H2 S as a regulator of gastrointestinal motility using both animal and human tissues. The aim of the present work is to review published data regarding the potential role of H2 S as a signalling molecule regulating physiopathological processes in gastrointestinal motor function. H2 S is endogenously produced by defined enzymic pathways in different cell types of the intestinal wall including neurons and smooth muscle. Inhibition of H2 S biosynthesis increases motility and H2 S donors cause smooth muscle relaxation and inhibition of propulsive motor patterns. Impaired H2 S production has been described in animal models with gastrointestinal motor dysfunction. The mechanism(s) of action underlying these effects may include several ion channels, although no specific receptor has been identified. At this time, even though there is much experimental evidence for H2 S as a modulator of gastrointestinal motility, we still do not have conclusive experimental evidence to definitively propose H2 S as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the gastrointestinal tract, causing nerve-mediated relaxation. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  12. Regulation of miRNA Processing and miRNA Mediated Gene Repression in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bajan, Sarah; Hutvagner, Gyorgy

    2014-01-01

    The majority of human protein-coding genes are predicted to be targets of miRNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation. The widespread influence of miRNAs is illustrated by their essential roles in all biological processes. Regulated miRNA expression is essential for maintaining cellular differentiation; therefore alterations in miRNA expression patterns are associated with several diseases, including various cancers. High-throughput sequencing technologies revealed low level expressing miRNA isoforms, termed isomiRs. IsomiRs may differ in sequence, length, target preference and expression patterns from their parental miRNA and can arise from differences in miRNA biosynthesis, RNA editing, or SNPs inherent to the miRNA gene. The association between isomiR expression and disease progression is largely unknown. Misregulated miRNA expression is thought to contribute to the formation and/or progression of cancer. However, due to the diversity of targeted transcripts, miRNAs can function as both tumor-suppressor genes and oncogenes as defined by cellular context. Despite this, miRNA profiling studies concluded that the differential expression of particular miRNAs in diseased tissue could aid the diagnosis and treatment of some cancers. PMID:25069508

  13. The role of miRNAs in the regulation of inflammatory processes during hepatofibrogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Sanchari; Benz, Fabian; Luedde, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis represents the end stage of most chronic inflammatory liver diseases and is a major global health burden. Despite the enormous relevance of cirrhotic disease, pharmacological strategies for prevention or treatment of hepatic fibrosis are still limited, underlining the need to establish a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of hepatic cirrhosis. Recently, miRNAs have emerged as a new class of RNAs that do not withhold the information to encode for proteins but regulate whole gene expression networks during different physiological and pathological processes. Various authors demonstrated that miRNA species are functionally involved in the regulation of chronic liver damage and development of liver cirrhosis in inflamed livers. Moreover, circulating miRNA patterns were suggested to serve as blood-based biomarkers indicating liver injury and progression to hepatic cirrhosis and cancer. Here we summarize current findings on a potential role of miRNAs in the cascade leading from liver inflammation to liver fibrosis and finally hepatocellular carcinoma. We compare data from animal models with findings on miRNAs dysregulated in human patients and finally highlight a potential use of miRNAs as biomarkers for liver injury, fibrosis and cancer. PMID:25713802

  14. Ethical Concerns When Minors Act as Standardized Patients.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Erwin Jiayuan; Schremmer, Robert D; Diekema, Douglas S; Lantos, John D

    2017-03-01

    When minors are asked to assist medical educators by acting as standardized patients (SPs), there is a potential for the minors to be exploited. Minors deserve protection from exploitation. Such protection has been written into regulations governing medical research and into child labor laws. But there are no similar guidelines for minors' work in medical education. This article addresses the question of whether there should be rules. Should minors be required to give their informed consent or assent? Are there certain practices that could cause harm for the children who become SPs? We present a controversial case and ask a number of experts to consider the ethical issues that arise when minors are asked to act as SPs in medical education. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Self-regulated learning processes of medical students during an academic learning task.

    PubMed

    Gandomkar, Roghayeh; Mirzazadeh, Azim; Jalili, Mohammad; Yazdani, Kamran; Fata, Ladan; Sandars, John

    2016-10-01

    This study was designed to identify the self-regulated learning (SRL) processes of medical students during a biomedical science learning task and to examine the associations of the SRL processes with previous performance in biomedical science examinations and subsequent performance on a learning task. A sample of 76 Year 1 medical students were recruited based on their performance in biomedical science examinations and stratified into previous high and low performers. Participants were asked to complete a biomedical science learning task. Participants' SRL processes were assessed before (self-efficacy, goal setting and strategic planning), during (metacognitive monitoring) and after (causal attributions and adaptive inferences) their completion of the task using an SRL microanalytic interview. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the means and frequencies of SRL processes. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations of SRL processes with previous examination performance and the learning task performance. Most participants (from 88.2% to 43.4%) reported task-specific processes for SRL measures. Students who exhibited higher self-efficacy (odds ratio [OR] 1.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09-1.90) and reported task-specific processes for metacognitive monitoring (OR 6.61, 95% CI 1.68-25.93) and causal attributions (OR 6.75, 95% CI 2.05-22.25) measures were more likely to be high previous performers. Multiple analysis revealed that similar SRL measures were associated with previous performance. The use of task-specific processes for causal attributions (OR 23.00, 95% CI 4.57-115.76) and adaptive inferences (OR 27.00, 95% CI 3.39-214.95) measures were associated with being a high learning task performer. In multiple analysis, only the causal attributions measure was associated with high learning task performance. Self-efficacy, metacognitive monitoring and causal attributions measures were associated

  16. Nicotine and serotonin in immune regulation and inflammatory processes: a perspective.

    PubMed

    Cloëz-Tayarani, Isabelle; Changeux, Jean-Pierre

    2007-03-01

    Nicotine and serotonin modulate the innate and adaptive immune responses and the inflammatory states. Several nicotinic cholinergic and serotonergic receptor subtypes have been characterized in B and T lymphocytes, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. The use of knockout mice has allowed a better characterization of nicotinic receptors and their role in anti-inflammatory processes in these cells. Cytokines play a crucial role in controlling inflammatory reactions. Nicotine and serotonin have been reported to regulate cytokine release. Cholinergic mechanisms also play an important role in inflammation through endogenous acetylcholine. Nicotine mimics this effect by activating the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathways. New concepts of reciprocal interactions between nicotine and serotonin are emerging. The role of nicotine as an anti-inflammatory agent has been established, whereas that of serotonin remains more controversial.

  17. Neighborhood crime as a predictor of individual differences in emotional processing and regulation

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Dana Charles; Roy, Amanda L.; Raver, C. Cybele

    2016-01-01

    Emerging research suggests that early exposure to environmental adversity has important implications for the development of brain regions associated with emotion regulation, yet little is known about how such adversity translates into observable differences in children’s emotion-related behavior. The present study examines the relationship between geocoded neighborhood crime and urban pre-adolescents’ emotional attention, appraisal, and response. Results indicate that living in a high-crime neighborhood is associated with greater selective attention toward negatively valenced emotional stimuli on a dot probe task, less biased appraisal of fear on a facial identification task, and lower rates of teacher-reported internalizing behaviors in the classroom. These findings suggest that children facing particularly high levels of environmental threat may develop different regulatory processes (e.g. greater use of emotional suppression) than their peers from low-crime neighborhoods in order to manage the unique stressors and social demands of their communities. PMID:25702532

  18. Prenatal thalamic waves regulate cortical area size prior to sensory processing

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Juan, Verónica; Filipchuk, Anton; Antón-Bolaños, Noelia; Mezzera, Cecilia; Gezelius, Henrik; Andrés, Belen; Rodríguez-Malmierca, Luis; Susín, Rafael; Schaad, Olivier; Iwasato, Takuji; Schüle, Roland; Rutlin, Michael; Nelson, Sacha; Ducret, Sebastien; Valdeolmillos, Miguel; Rijli, Filippo M.; López-Bendito, Guillermina

    2017-01-01

    The cerebral cortex is organized into specialized sensory areas, whose initial territory is determined by intracortical molecular determinants. Yet, sensory cortical area size appears to be fine tuned during development to respond to functional adaptations. Here we demonstrate the existence of a prenatal sub-cortical mechanism that regulates the cortical areas size in mice. This mechanism is mediated by spontaneous thalamic calcium waves that propagate among sensory-modality thalamic nuclei up to the cortex and that provide a means of communication among sensory systems. Wave pattern alterations in one nucleus lead to changes in the pattern of the remaining ones, triggering changes in thalamic gene expression and cortical area size. Thus, silencing calcium waves in the auditory thalamus induces Rorβ upregulation in a neighbouring somatosensory nucleus preluding the enlargement of the barrel-field. These findings reveal that embryonic thalamic calcium waves coordinate cortical sensory area patterning and plasticity prior to sensory information processing. PMID:28155854

  19. Prenatal thalamic waves regulate cortical area size prior to sensory processing.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Juan, Verónica; Filipchuk, Anton; Antón-Bolaños, Noelia; Mezzera, Cecilia; Gezelius, Henrik; Andrés, Belen; Rodríguez-Malmierca, Luis; Susín, Rafael; Schaad, Olivier; Iwasato, Takuji; Schüle, Roland; Rutlin, Michael; Nelson, Sacha; Ducret, Sebastien; Valdeolmillos, Miguel; Rijli, Filippo M; López-Bendito, Guillermina

    2017-02-03

    The cerebral cortex is organized into specialized sensory areas, whose initial territory is determined by intracortical molecular determinants. Yet, sensory cortical area size appears to be fine tuned during development to respond to functional adaptations. Here we demonstrate the existence of a prenatal sub-cortical mechanism that regulates the cortical areas size in mice. This mechanism is mediated by spontaneous thalamic calcium waves that propagate among sensory-modality thalamic nuclei up to the cortex and that provide a means of communication among sensory systems. Wave pattern alterations in one nucleus lead to changes in the pattern of the remaining ones, triggering changes in thalamic gene expression and cortical area size. Thus, silencing calcium waves in the auditory thalamus induces Rorβ upregulation in a neighbouring somatosensory nucleus preluding the enlargement of the barrel-field. These findings reveal that embryonic thalamic calcium waves coordinate cortical sensory area patterning and plasticity prior to sensory information processing.

  20. Regulation of chain length in two diatoms as a growth-fragmentation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gherardi, Marco; Amato, Alberto; Bouly, Jean-Pierre; Cheminant, Soizic; Ferrante, Maria Immacolata; d'Alcalá, Maurizio Ribera; Iudicone, Daniele; Falciatore, Angela; Cosentino Lagomarsino, Marco

    2016-08-01

    Chain formation in diatoms is relevant because of several aspects of their adaptation to the ecosystem. However, the tools to quantify the regulation of their assemblage and infer specific mechanisms in a laboratory setting are scarce. To address this problem, we define an approach based on a statistical physics model of chain growth and separation in combination with experimental evaluation of chain-length distributions. Applying this combined analysis to data from Chaetoceros decipiens and Phaeodactylum tricornutum, we find that cells of the first species control chain separation, likely through a cell-to-cell communication process, while the second species only modulates the separation rate. These results promote quantitative methods for characterizing chain formation in several chain-forming species and in diatoms in particular.

  1. Self-regulation of solar coronal heating process via the collisionless reconnection condition.

    PubMed

    Uzdensky, Dmitri A

    2007-12-31

    I propose a new paradigm for solar coronal heating viewed as a self-regulating process keeping the plasma marginally collisionless. The mechanism is based on the coupling between two effects. First, coronal density controls the plasma collisionality and hence the transition between the slow collisional Sweet-Parker and the fast collisionless reconnection regimes. In turn, coronal energy release leads to chromospheric evaporation, increasing the density and thus inhibiting subsequent reconnection of the newly reconnected loops. As a result, statistically, the density fluctuates around some critical level, comparable to that observed in the corona. In the long run, coronal heating can be represented by repeating cycles of fast reconnection events (nanoflares), evaporation episodes, and long periods of slow magnetic stress buildup and radiative cooling of the coronal plasma.

  2. Neighborhood crime as a predictor of individual differences in emotional processing and regulation.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Dana Charles; Roy, Amanda L; Raver, C Cybele

    2016-01-01

    Emerging research suggests that early exposure to environmental adversity has important implications for the development of brain regions associated with emotion regulation, yet little is known about how such adversity translates into observable differences in children's emotion-related behavior. The present study examines the relationship between geocoded neighborhood crime and urban pre-adolescents' emotional attention, appraisal, and response. Results indicate that living in a high-crime neighborhood is associated with greater selective attention toward negatively valenced emotional stimuli on a dot probe task, less biased appraisal of fear on a facial identification task, and lower rates of teacher-reported internalizing behaviors in the classroom. These findings suggest that children facing particularly high levels of environmental threat may develop different regulatory processes (e.g. greater use of emotional suppression) than their peers from low-crime neighborhoods in order to manage the unique stressors and social demands of their communities.

  3. Minor Actinides Recycling in PWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Delpech, M.; Golfier, H.; Vasile, A.; Varaine, F.; Boucher, L.; Greneche, D.

    2006-07-01

    Recycling of minor actinides in current and near future PWR is considered as one of the options of the general waste management strategy. This paper presents the analysis of this option both from the core physics and fuel cycle point of view. A first indicator of the efficiency of different neutron spectra for transmutation purposes is the capture to fission cross sections ratio which is less favourable by a factor between 5 to 10 in PWRs compared to fast reactors. Another indicator presented is the production of high ranking isotopes like Curium, Berkelium or Californium in the thermal or epithermal spectrum conditions of PWR cores by successive neutron captures. The impact of the accumulation of this elements on the fabrication process of such PWR fuels strongly penalizes this option. The main constraint on minor actinides loadings in PWR (or fast reactors) fuels are related to their direct impact (or the impact of their transmutation products) on the reactivity coefficients, the reactivity control means and the core kinetics parameters. The main fuel cycle physical parameters like the neutron source, the alpha decay power, the gamma and neutrons dose rate and the criticality aspects are also affected. Recent neutronic calculations based on a reference core of the Evolutionary Pressurized Reactor (EPR), indicates typical maximum values of 1 % loadings. Different fuel design options for minor actinides transmutation purposes in PWRs are presented: UOX and MOX, homogeneous and heterogeneous assemblies. In this later case, Americium loading is concentrated in specific pins of a standard UOX assembly. Recycling of Neptunium in UOX and MOX fuels was also studied to improve the proliferation resistance of the fuel. The impact on the core physics and penalties on Uranium enrichment were underlined in this case. (authors)

  4. Carbonyl Stress in Aging Process: Role of Vitamins and Phytochemicals as Redox Regulators

    PubMed Central

    Ergin, Volkan; Hariry, Reza Ebrahimi; Karasu, Çimen

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing scientific agreement that the cellular redox regulators such as antioxidants, particularly the natural polyphenolic forms, may help lower the incidence of some pathologies, including metabolic diseases like diabetes and diabesity, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative abnormalities, and certain cancers or even have anti-aging properties. The recent researches indicate that the degree of metabolic modulation and adaptation response of cells to reductants as well as oxidants establish their survival and homeostasis, which is linked with very critical balance in imbalances in cellular redox capacity and signaling, and that might be an answer the questions why some antioxidants or phytochemicals potentially could do more harm than good, or why some proteins lose their function by increase interactions with glyco- and lipo-oxidation mediates in the cells (carbonyl stress). Nonetheless, pursue of healthy aging has led the use of antioxidants as a means to disrupt age-associated physiological dysfunctions, dysregulated metabolic processes or prevention of many age-related diseases. Although it is still early to define their exact clinical benefits for treating age-related disease, a diet rich in polyphenolic or other forms of antioxidants does seem to offer hope in delaying the onset of age-related disorders. It is now clear that any deficiency in antioxidant vitamins, inadequate enzymatic antioxidant defenses can distinctive for many age-related disease, and protein carbonylation can used as an indicator of oxidative stress associated diseases and aging status. This review examines antioxidant compounds and plant polyphenols as redox regulators in health, disease and aging processes with hope that a better understanding of the many mechanisms involved with these distinct compounds, which may lead to better health and novel treatment approaches for age-related diseases. PMID:24124633

  5. Molecular Mechanisms Mediating the Adaptive Regulation of Intestinal Riboflavin Uptake Process.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Veedamali S; Ghosal, Abhisek; Kapadia, Rubina; Nabokina, Svetlana M; Said, Hamid M

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal absorption process of vitamin B2 (riboflavin, RF) is carrier-mediated, and all three known human RF transporters, i.e., hRFVT-1, -2, and -3 (products of the SLC52A1, 2 & 3 genes, respectively) are expressed in the gut. We have previously shown that the intestinal RF uptake process is adaptively regulated by substrate level, but little is known about the molecular mechanism(s) involved. Using human intestinal epithelial NCM460 cells maintained under RF deficient and over-supplemented (OS) conditions, we now show that the induction in RF uptake in RF deficiency is associated with an increase in expression of the hRFVT-2 & -3 (but not hRFVT-1) at the protein and mRNA levels. Focusing on hRFVT-3, the predominant transporter in the intestine, we also observed an increase in the level of expression of its hnRNA and activity of its promoter in the RF deficiency state. An increase in the level of expression of the nuclear factor Sp1 (which is important for activity of the SLC52A3 promoter) was observed in RF deficiency, while mutating the Sp1/GC site in the SLC52A3 promoter drastically decreased the level of induction in SLC52A3 promoter activity in RF deficiency. We also observed specific epigenetic changes in the SLC52A3 promoter in RF deficiency. Finally, an increase in hRFVT-3 protein expression at the cell surface was observed in RF deficiency. Results of these investigations show, for the first time, that transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms are involved in the adaptive regulation of intestinal RF uptake by the prevailing substrate level.

  6. Influence of pH Regulation Mode in Glucose Fermentation on Product Selection and Process Stability.

    PubMed

    Mohd-Zaki, Zuhaida; Bastidas-Oyanedel, Juan R; Lu, Yang; Hoelzle, Robert; Pratt, Steven; Slater, Fran R; Batstone, Damien J

    2016-01-04

    Mixed culture anaerobic fermentation generates a wide range of products from simple sugars, and is potentially an effective process for producing renewable commodity chemicals. However it is difficult to predict product spectrum, and to control the process. One of the key control handles is pH, but the response is commonly dependent on culture history. In this work, we assess the impact of pH regulation mode on the product spectrum. Two regulation modes were applied: in the first, pH was adjusted from 4.5 to 8.5 in progressive steps of 0.5 and in the second, covered the same pH range, but the pH was reset to 5.5 before each change. Acetate, butyrate, and ethanol were produced throughout all pH ranges, but there was a shift from butyrate at pH < 6.5 to ethanol at pH > 6.5, as well as a strong and consistent shift from hydrogen to formate as pH increased. Microbial analysis indicated that progressive pH resulted in dominance by Klebsiella, while reset pH resulted in a bias towards Clostridium spp., particularly at low pH, with higher variance in community between different pH levels. Reset pH was more responsive to changes in pH, and analysis of Gibbs free energy indicated that the reset pH experiments operated closer to thermodynamic equilibrium, particularly with respect to the formate/hydrogen balance. This may indicate that periodically resetting pH conforms better to thermodynamic expectations.

  7. Regulation of Amyloid Precursor Protein Processing by the Beclin 1 Complex

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, Philipp A.; Pickford, Fiona; Sun, Chung-Huan; Lucin, Kurt M.; Masliah, Eliezer; Wyss-Coray, Tony

    2010-01-01

    Autophagy is an intracellular degradation pathway that functions in protein and organelle turnover in response to starvation and cellular stress. Autophagy is initiated by the formation of a complex containing Beclin 1 (BECN1) and its binding partner Phosphoinositide-3-kinase, class 3 (PIK3C3). Recently, BECN1 deficiency was shown to enhance the pathology of a mouse model of Alzheimer Disease (AD). However, the mechanism by which BECN1 or autophagy mediate these effects are unknown. Here, we report that the levels of Amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its metabolites can be reduced through autophagy activation, indicating that they are a substrate for autophagy. Furthermore, we find that knockdown of Becn1 in cell culture increases the levels of APP and its metabolites. Accumulation of APP and APP C-terminal fragments (APP-CTF) are accompanied by impaired autophagosomal clearance. Pharmacological inhibition of autophagosomal-lysosomal degradation causes a comparable accumulation of APP and APP-metabolites in autophagosomes. Becn1 reduction in cell culture leads to lower levels of its binding partner Pik3c3 and increased presence of Microtubule-associated protein 1, light chain 3 (LC3). Overexpression of Becn1, on the other hand, reduces cellular APP levels. In line with these observations, we detected less BECN1 and PIK3C3 but more LC3 protein in brains of AD patients. We conclude that BECN1 regulates APP processing and turnover. BECN1 is involved in autophagy initiation and autophagosome clearance. Accordingly, BECN1 deficiency disrupts cellular autophagy and autophagosomal-lysosomal degradation and alters APP metabolism. Together, our findings suggest that autophagy and the BECN1-PIK3C3 complex regulate APP processing and play an important role in AD pathology. PMID:20559548

  8. Regulation of amyloid precursor protein processing by the Beclin 1 complex.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Philipp A; Pickford, Fiona; Sun, Chung-Huan; Lucin, Kurt M; Masliah, Eliezer; Wyss-Coray, Tony

    2010-06-15

    Autophagy is an intracellular degradation pathway that functions in protein and organelle turnover in response to starvation and cellular stress. Autophagy is initiated by the formation of a complex containing Beclin 1 (BECN1) and its binding partner Phosphoinositide-3-kinase, class 3 (PIK3C3). Recently, BECN1 deficiency was shown to enhance the pathology of a mouse model of Alzheimer Disease (AD). However, the mechanism by which BECN1 or autophagy mediate these effects are unknown. Here, we report that the levels of Amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its metabolites can be reduced through autophagy activation, indicating that they are a substrate for autophagy. Furthermore, we find that knockdown of Becn1 in cell culture increases the levels of APP and its metabolites. Accumulation of APP and APP C-terminal fragments (APP-CTF) are accompanied by impaired autophagosomal clearance. Pharmacological inhibition of autophagosomal-lysosomal degradation causes a comparable accumulation of APP and APP-metabolites in autophagosomes. Becn1 reduction in cell culture leads to lower levels of its binding partner Pik3c3 and increased presence of Microtubule-associated protein 1, light chain 3 (LC3). Overexpression of Becn1, on the other hand, reduces cellular APP levels. In line with these observations, we detected less BECN1 and PIK3C3 but more LC3 protein in brains of AD patients. We conclude that BECN1 regulates APP processing and turnover. BECN1 is involved in autophagy initiation and autophagosome clearance. Accordingly, BECN1 deficiency disrupts cellular autophagy and autophagosomal-lysosomal degradation and alters APP metabolism. Together, our findings suggest that autophagy and the BECN1-PIK3C3 complex regulate APP processing and play an important role in AD pathology.

  9. Molecular Mechanisms Mediating the Adaptive Regulation of Intestinal Riboflavin Uptake Process

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Veedamali S.; Ghosal, Abhisek; Kapadia, Rubina; Nabokina, Svetlana M.; Said, Hamid M.

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal absorption process of vitamin B2 (riboflavin, RF) is carrier-mediated, and all three known human RF transporters, i.e., hRFVT-1, -2, and -3 (products of the SLC52A1, 2 & 3 genes, respectively) are expressed in the gut. We have previously shown that the intestinal RF uptake process is adaptively regulated by substrate level, but little is known about the molecular mechanism(s) involved. Using human intestinal epithelial NCM460 cells maintained under RF deficient and over-supplemented (OS) conditions, we now show that the induction in RF uptake in RF deficiency is associated with an increase in expression of the hRFVT-2 & -3 (but not hRFVT-1) at the protein and mRNA levels. Focusing on hRFVT-3, the predominant transporter in the intestine, we also observed an increase in the level of expression of its hnRNA and activity of its promoter in the RF deficiency state. An increase in the level of expression of the nuclear factor Sp1 (which is important for activity of the SLC52A3 promoter) was observed in RF deficiency, while mutating the Sp1/GC site in the SLC52A3 promoter drastically decreased the level of induction in SLC52A3 promoter activity in RF deficiency. We also observed specific epigenetic changes in the SLC52A3 promoter in RF deficiency. Finally, an increase in hRFVT-3 protein expression at the cell surface was observed in RF deficiency. Results of these investigations show, for the first time, that transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms are involved in the adaptive regulation of intestinal RF uptake by the prevailing substrate level. PMID:26121134

  10. Influence of pH Regulation Mode in Glucose Fermentation on Product Selection and Process Stability

    PubMed Central

    Mohd-Zaki, Zuhaida; Bastidas-Oyanedel, Juan R.; Lu, Yang; Hoelzle, Robert; Pratt, Steven; Slater, Fran R.; Batstone, Damien J.

    2016-01-01

    Mixed culture anaerobic fermentation generates a wide range of products from simple sugars, and is potentially an effective process for producing renewable commodity chemicals. However it is difficult to predict product spectrum, and to control the process. One of the key control handles is pH, but the response is commonly dependent on culture history. In this work, we assess the impact of pH regulation mode on the product spectrum. Two regulation modes were applied: in the first, pH was adjusted from 4.5 to 8.5 in progressive steps of 0.5 and in the second, covered the same pH range, but the pH was reset to 5.5 before each change. Acetate, butyrate, and ethanol were produced throughout all pH ranges, but there was a shift from butyrate at pH < 6.5 to ethanol at pH > 6.5, as well as a strong and consistent shift from hydrogen to formate as pH increased. Microbial analysis indicated that progressive pH resulted in dominance by Klebsiella, while reset pH resulted in a bias towards Clostridium spp., particularly at low pH, with higher variance in community between different pH levels. Reset pH was more responsive to changes in pH, and analysis of Gibbs free energy indicated that the reset pH experiments operated closer to thermodynamic equilibrium, particularly with respect to the formate/hydrogen balance. This may indicate that periodically resetting pH conforms better to thermodynamic expectations. PMID:27681895

  11. Self-regulated learning from illustrated text: Eye movement modelling to support use and regulation of cognitive processes during learning from multimedia.

    PubMed

    Scheiter, Katharina; Schubert, Carina; Schüler, Anne

    2017-08-07

    When learning with text and pictures, learners often fail to adequately process the materials, which can be explained as a failure to self-regulate one's learning by choosing adequate cognitive learning processes. Eye movement modelling examples (EMME) showing how to process multimedia instruction have improved elementary school children's learning from text and pictures in previous studies. We tested whether the positive effects of EMME for improving self-regulated multimedia learning extend to university students and teaching of more comprehensive processing strategies. Moreover, we investigated whether EMME's effectiveness depends upon a learner's cognitive prerequisites. Participants were 50 university students (38 female; M = 26.88 years) with different study majors. Different prior knowledge aspects were assessed as cognitive prerequisites. Before learning about mitosis from a multimedia instruction, students either received no intervention or saw EMME demonstrating various multimedia learning processes. Learning outcomes and eye movements served as dependent variables. Learners in the EMME group showed more intense processing of pictures and more frequent transitions between text and pictures. Weaker learners showed poorer recall performance after having studied EMME, whereas EMME had no effect on stronger students. In the forced-choice verification task, stronger students benefitted from EMME, whereas no effect occurred for weaker students. The picture-processing time was suited to explain the positive effects of EMME for stronger students. Our results indicate that EMME illustrating a comprehensive set of cognitive processes support multimedia learning for stronger university students. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  12. A Portrait of Older Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agee, Emily M.

    This booklet presents facts and statistics describing minority elderly persons in the United States. First general information is presented about minority elderly as a whole, noting that minority groups have increased risks of poor education, substandard housing, poverty, malnutrition, and generally poor health. Next, facts are presented about…

  13. Career Education: Implications for Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, N. Alan; Witherspoon, Everette L.

    In general, minorities, especially blacks, approach career education warily, fearing it might turn out to be a new name for an old game. Statistics indicate the minority dilemma; for example, unemployment among minorities 16 and older is nearly twice the white unemployment rate. A number of critical questions about career education as related to…

  14. A Portrait of Older Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agee, Emily M.

    This booklet presents facts and statistics describing minority elderly persons in the United States. First general information is presented about minority elderly as a whole, noting that minority groups have increased risks of poor education, substandard housing, poverty, malnutrition, and generally poor health. Next, facts are presented about…

  15. Institutional Climate and Minority Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Richard C.

    This paper discusses ways that institutions can change the higher education system and environment to accommodate more minority students. The first section, "Institutional Climate and Minority Achievement," presents an overview of the problems facing colleges and universities with respect to recruiting and retaining minority students. In the…

  16. Heparin sodium compliance to the new proposed USP monograph: elucidation of a minor structural modification responsible for a process dependent 2.10 ppm NMR signal.

    PubMed

    Mourier, Pierre A J; Guichard, Olivier Y; Herman, Fréderic; Viskov, Christian

    2011-01-25

    Heparin is a highly sulfated hetero polysaccharide mixture found and extracted from mammalian tissues. It has been widely used as an anticoagulant drug during the past decades. In the new proposed USP heparin monograph, the ¹H NMR acceptance criteria to prevent contamination by over sulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS), or other persulfated glycosaminoglycans, specifies that no unidentified signals greater than 4% of the mean of signal height of 1 and 2 should be present in the following ranges: 0.10-2.00, 2.10-3.20, and 5.70-8.00 ppm. However, those criteria do not take into account the impact of potential structural modifications generated by the heparin manufacturing processes. In fact, starting from pig mucosa, heparin purification involves oxidizing reagents such as sodium peroxide, potassium permanganate and peracetic acid. In the present work, we demonstrate that potassium permanganate treated heparins show a small but characteristic extra signal at 2.10 ppm. Controlled heparinase I depolymerisation is used to target and excise the oligosaccharide responsible for this extra signal from the polysaccharide backbone. By using orthogonal chromatographic techniques, the fingerprint oligosaccharide was isolated and its structure elucidated. Without the identification of this structural moiety, such purified heparins may have been considered as non-compliant drug substance and not suitable for pharmaceutical use. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Krebs cycle dysfunction shapes epigenetic landscape of chromatin: novel insights into mitochondrial regulation of aging process.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Antero; Kaarniranta, Kai; Hiltunen, Mikko; Kauppinen, Anu

    2014-07-01

    Although there is a substantial literature that mitochondria have a crucial role in the aging process, the mechanism has remained elusive. The role of reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial DNA injuries, and a decline in mitochondrial quality control has been proposed. Emerging studies have demonstrated that Krebs cycle intermediates, 2-oxoglutarate (also known as α-ketoglutarate), succinate and fumarate, can regulate the level of DNA and histone methylation. Moreover, citrate, also a Krebs cycle metabolite, can enhance histone acetylation. Genome-wide screening studies have revealed that the aging process is linked to significant epigenetic changes in the chromatin landscape, e.g. global demethylation of DNA and histones and increase in histone acetylation. Interestingly, recent studies have revealed that the demethylases of DNA (TET1-3) and histone lysines (KDM2-7) are members of 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases (2-OGDO). The 2-OGDO enzymes are activated by oxygen, iron and the major Krebs cycle intermediate, 2-oxoglutarate, whereas they are inhibited by succinate and fumarate. Considering the endosymbiont origin of mitochondria, it is not surprising that Krebs cycle metabolites can control the gene expression of host cell by modifying the epigenetic landscape of chromatin. It seems that age-related disturbances in mitochondrial metabolism can induce epigenetic reprogramming, which promotes the appearance of senescent phenotype and degenerative diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Preschool classroom processes as predictors of children's cognitive self-regulation skills development.

    PubMed

    Fuhs, Mary Wagner; Farran, Dale C; Nesbitt, Kimberly Turner

    2013-12-01

    This research focuses on the associations between interactive processes of early childhood classrooms and gains in children's cognitive self-regulation (CSR) across the preschool year. Data from 803 children (45.8% female; M = 54 months; 39.1% Caucasian, 26.3% African American, 24.6% Hispanic, 9.9% Other) were collected at fall and spring of the preschool year, and classroom observations were conducted three times throughout the year. Multilevel models tested associations between classroom behaviors of teachers and students using the Classroom Observation in Preschool and the Teacher Observation in Preschool and gains children made in a CSR composite score (Dimensional Change Card Sort, Peg Tapping, Head Toes Knees Shoulders, Copy Design, and Corsi Blocks) across the preschool year. After controlling for demographic covariates and children's pretest scores, both affective and cognitive classroom processes were associated with gains. More teacher behavior approving, less disapproving, and more positive emotional tone were associated with gains. The proportion of observed time teachers spent delivering instruction as well as the proportion of time children were involved with mathematics and literacy were also related to CSR gains, as was the quality of teacher instruction. Although exploratory, these results highlight the potential for modifications in classroom practices to aid in children's CSR development.

  19. Pax-5 is a potent regulator of E-cadherin and breast cancer malignant processes.

    PubMed

    Benzina, Sami; Beauregard, Annie-Pier; Guerrette, Roxann; Jean, Stéphanie; Faye, Mame Daro; Laflamme, Mark; Maïcas, Emmanuel; Crapoulet, Nicolas; Ouellette, Rodney J; Robichaud, Gilles A

    2017-02-14

    Pax-5, an essential transcription factor for B lymphocyte development, has been linked with the development and progression of lymphoid cancers and carcinoma. In contrast to B-cell cancer lesions, the specific expression signatures and roles of Pax-5 in breast cancer progression are relatively unknown. In the present study, we set out to profile Pax-5 expression in mammary tissues and elucidate the cellular and molecular roles of Pax-5 in breast cancer processes. Using immunohistology on mammary tissue arrays, Pax-5 was detected in a total of 298/306 (97.6%) samples tested. Interestingly, our studies reveal that Pax-5 inhibits aggressive features and confers anti-proliferative effects in breast carcinoma cells in contrast to its oncogenic properties in B cell cancers. More precisely, Pax-5 suppressed breast cancer cell migration, invasion and tumor spheroid formation while concomitantly promoting cell adhesion properties. We also observed that Pax-5 inhibited and reversed breast cancer epithelial to mesenchymal phenotypic transitioning. Mechanistically, we found that the Pax-5 transcription factor binds and induces gene expression of E-cadherin, a pivotal regulator of epithelialisation. Globally, we demonstrate that Pax-5 is predominant expressed factor in mammary epithelial cells. We also present an important role for Pax-5 in the phenotypic transitioning processes and aggressive features associated with breast cancer malignancy and disease progression.

  20. Pax-5 is a potent regulator of E-cadherin and breast cancer malignant processes

    PubMed Central

    Benzina, Sami; Beauregard, Annie-Pier; Guerrette, Roxann; Jean, Stéphanie; Faye, Mame Daro; Laflamme, Mark; Maïcas, Emmanuel; Crapoulet, Nicolas; Ouellette, Rodney J.; Robichaud, Gilles A.

    2017-01-01

    Pax-5, an essential transcription factor for B lymphocyte development, has been linked with the development and progression of lymphoid cancers and carcinoma. In contrast to B-cell cancer lesions, the specific expression signatures and roles of Pax-5 in breast cancer progression are relatively unknown. In the present study, we set out to profile Pax-5 expression in mammary tissues and elucidate the cellular and molecular roles of Pax-5 in breast cancer processes. Using immunohistology on mammary tissue arrays, Pax-5 was detected in a total of 298/306 (97.6%) samples tested. Interestingly, our studies reveal that Pax-5 inhibits aggressive features and confers anti-proliferative effects in breast carcinoma cells in contrast to its oncogenic properties in B cell cancers. More precisely, Pax-5 suppressed breast cancer cell migration, invasion and tumor spheroid formation while concomitantly promoting cell adhesion properties. We also observed that Pax-5 inhibited and reversed breast cancer epithelial to mesenchymal phenotypic transitioning. Mechanistically, we found that the Pax-5 transcription factor binds and induces gene expression of E-cadherin, a pivotal regulator of epithelialisation. Globally, we demonstrate that Pax-5 is predominant expressed factor in mammary epithelial cells. We also present an important role for Pax-5 in the phenotypic transitioning processes and aggressive features associated with breast cancer malignancy and disease progression. PMID:28076843

  1. Socially Shared Metacognitive Regulation during Reciprocal Peer Tutoring: Identifying Its Relationship with Students' Content Processing and Transactive Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Backer, Liesje; Van Keer, Hilde; Valcke, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Although successful collaborative learning requires socially shared metacognitive regulation (SSMR) of the learning process among multiple students, empirical research on SSMR is limited. The present study contributes to the emerging research on SSMR by examining its correlation with both collaborative learners' content processing strategies and…

  2. Socially Shared Metacognitive Regulation during Reciprocal Peer Tutoring: Identifying Its Relationship with Students' Content Processing and Transactive Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Backer, Liesje; Van Keer, Hilde; Valcke, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Although successful collaborative learning requires socially shared metacognitive regulation (SSMR) of the learning process among multiple students, empirical research on SSMR is limited. The present study contributes to the emerging research on SSMR by examining its correlation with both collaborative learners' content processing strategies and…

  3. Co-regulation of redox processes in freshwater wetlands as a function of organic matter availability?

    PubMed

    Alewell, C; Paul, S; Lischeid, G; Storck, F R

    2008-10-15

    Wetlands have important filter functions in landscapes but are considered to be the biggest unknowns regarding their element dynamics under global climate change. Information on sink and source function of sulphur, nitrogen, organic matter and acidity in wetlands is crucial for freshwater regeneration. Recent results indicate that redox processes are not completely controlled by the sequential reduction chain (that is electron acceptor availability) but that electron donor availability may be an important regulator. Our hypothesis was that only sites which are limited in their electron donor availability (low concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC)) follow the concept of the sequential reduction chain. We compared the results of two freshwater wetland systems: 1) three forested fens within a boreal spruce catchment in a low mountain range in southern Germany (high DOC regime) and 2) three floodplain soils within a groundwater enrichment area in the Rhein valley in northwest Switzerland (low DOC regime). Micro scale investigations (a few cm(3)) with dialyse chambers as well as soil solution and groundwater concentrations at the forested fens (high DOC regime) indicated simultaneous consumption of nitrate and sulphate with release of iron, manganese and methane (CH(4)) as well as an enrichment in stable sulphur isotopes indicating a co-existence of processes attributed to different redox gradients. Soil and aquifer gas measurements down to 4.6 m at the groundwater enrichment site (low DOC regime and carbon limitation) showed extreme high rates of metabolism with carbon dioxide (CO(2))(,) dinitrous oxide (N(2)O) and CH(4) concentrations reaching fifty, thirty and three times atmospheric concentrations, respectively. Simultaneously, groundwater oxygen (O(2)) saturation was between 50 and 95%. We concluded that independent of DOC regime the sequential reduction chain was not a suitable concept in our systems. Instead of electron acceptor or donor availability

  4. Belowground processes regulate ecosystem nitrogen retention during a multi-year forest dieback event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nave, L. E.; Le Moine, J.; Gough, C. M.; Vogel, C.; Nadelhoffer, K. J.; Curtis, P.

    2013-12-01

    In the absence of disturbances, forests typically have strong retention capacity for nitrogen (N), which is internally recycled between soil, microbial and plant pools. However, disturbances that trigger senescence or mortality of forest vegetation may alter internal N cycling processes and lead to the loss of ecosystem N retention capacity. Here, we present an assessment of the role played by belowground processes in governing ecosystem N cycling and retention during an experimental disturbance that killed the dominant canopy taxa in a Great Lakes forest over a 4-year period. After applying stem girdling to hasten the age-related senescence of the dominant taxa (Populus and Betula spp.; ~35% of the basal area), we observed a 38% decrease in stand-level allocation of nonstructural carbohydrates to fine roots, which triggered a tenfold increase in the rate of fine root turnover and increased soil NH4+ and NO3- availability. Elevated soil N availability decreased mycorrhizal hyphal foraging and N uptake, effectively down-regulating the role of symbiotic fungi in the N nutrition of the residual (longer-lived) tree taxa. However, even as residual trees took up less N from mycorrhizal sources, their overall N uptake increased and served to offset the loss of the dominant taxa. The net result of this offset was that canopy N stocks remained constant through the disturbance period and there was no appreciable loss of ecosystem N stocks due to leaching or gaseous export. In sum, the cascade of changes in root, microbial, and soil processes during this experiment indicates that these interdependent components of the belowground system comprised a mechanism responsible for retention and redistribution of ecosystem N stocks during the disturbance period.

  5. Conformational transition of response regulator RR468 in a two-component system signal transduction process.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Rahul; Yan, Honggao; Cukier, Robert I

    2014-05-08

    Signal transduction can be accomplished via a two-component system (TCS) consisting of a histidine kinase (HK) and a response regulator (RR). In this work, we simulate the response regulator RR468 from Thermotoga maritima, in which phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of a conserved aspartate residue acts as a switch via a large conformational change concentrated in three proximal loops. A detailed view of the conformational transition is obscured by the lack of stability of the intermediate states, which are difficult to detect using common structural biology techniques. Molecular dynamics (MD) trajectories of the inactive and active conformations were run, and show that the inactive (or active) trajectories do not exhibit sampling of the active (or inactive) conformations on this time scale. Targeted MD (TMD) was used to generate trajectories that span the inactive and active conformations and provide a view of how a localized event like phosphorylation can lead to conformational changes elsewhere in the protein, especially in the three proximal loops. The TMD trajectories are clustered to identify stages along the transition path. Residue interaction networks are identified that point to key residues having to rearrange in the process of transition. These are identified using both hydrogen bond analysis and residue interaction strength measurements. Potentials of mean force are generated for key residue rearrangements to ascertain their free energy barriers. We introduce methods that attempt to extrapolate from one conformation to the other and find that the most fluctuating proximal loop can transit part way from one to the other, suggesting that this conformational information is embedded in the sequence.

  6. BOOK REVIEW: Minority Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzler, R.

    2005-02-01

    New branches of scientific disciplines often have a few paradigmatic models that serve as a testing ground for theories and a starting point for new inquiries. In the late 1990s, one of these models found fertile ground in the growing field of econophysics: the Minority Game (MG), a model for speculative markets that combined conceptual simplicity with interesting emergent behaviour and challenging mathematics. The two basic ingredients were the minority mechanism (a large number of players have to choose one of two alternatives in each round, and the minority wins) and limited rationality (each player has a small set of decision rules, and chooses the more successful ones). Combining these, one observes a phase transition between a crowded and an inefficient market phase, fat-tailed price distributions at the transition, and many other nontrivial effects. Now, seven years after the first paper, three of the key players—Damien Challet, Matteo Marsili and Yi-Cheng Zhang—have published a monograph that summarizes the current state of the science. The book consists of two parts: a 100-page overview of the various aspects of the MG, and reprints of many essential papers. The first chapters of Part I give a well-written description of the motivation and the history behind the MG, and then go into the phenomenology and the mathematical treatment of the model. The authors emphasize the `physics' underlying the behaviour and give coherent, intuitive explanations that are difficult to extract from the original papers. The mathematics is outlined, but calculations are not carried out in great detail (maybe they could have been included in an appendix). Chapter 4 then discusses how and why the MG is a model for speculative markets, how it can be modified to give a closer fit to observed market statistics (in particular, reproducing the `stylized facts' of fat-tailed distributions and volatility clustering), and what conclusions one can draw from the behaviour of the MG

  7. Getting Ahead in Oregon: Expanding Higher Education Opportunities for Minorities and Nontraditional Students. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Regulation, Business Opportunities, and Energy of the Committee on Small Business. House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session (Portland, OR).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Small Business.

    As part of a series of field hearings examining the issue of education reform and the preparedness of the work force, testimony was heard on the need to expand higher education opportunities for minorities and nontraditional college students. Oregon, in particular, faces these questions because the state's economy is expected to change from…

  8. Treatment outcomes of sialendoscopy for submandibular gland sialolithiasis: The minor axis of the sialolith is a regulative factor for the removal of sialoliths in the hilum of the submandibular gland using sialendoscopy alone.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Norio; Yoshihara, Toshio; Yamamura, Yukie; Kusama, Kaoru; Sakitani, Eri; Seo, Yukako; Tachikawa, Mayako; Kujirai, Keiko; Ono, Erika; Maeda, Yasuyo; Nojima, Tomohito; Tamiya, Akiko; Sato, Emiri; Nonaka, Manabu

    2017-09-18

    To assess the general guidelines for the removal of sialoliths for submandibular gland sialolithiasis using sialendoscopy alone. We analyzed 61 sialoliths treated using sialendoscopy in 42 patients with submandibular gland sialolithiasis. We evaluated the submandibular gland sialoliths and divided each case based upon the location: the Wharton's duct or the hilum. We measured the major and minor axes of the sialoliths using a soft tissue computed-tomography (CT) scan and evaluated the removal rate of the sialoliths using sialendoscopy alone. The removal rate of the sialoliths in the Wharton's duct (52.6%) was significantly higher than that in the hilum of the submandibular gland (26.1%) (P=0.042). The minor axis was significantly correlated to the treatment outcome of sialendoscopy alone for all cases (P=0.030). A significant correlation was observed for cases involving the hilum of the submandibular gland and the measurement of the minor axes of the sialoliths for the treatment outcome of sialendoscopy alone (P=0.009). The major axis showed no correlation with the treatment outcomes of sialendoscopy alone. The measurement of the minor axes of the sialoliths with a soft tissue CT scan was correlated with treatment outcome of sialendoscopy alone for all cases, particularly sialoliths in the hilum. The easurement of the major axis showed no correlation with outcomes of sialendoscopy alone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Browns in Anger: The Overlooked Minority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lara-Braud, Jorge

    This speech advocates that Mexican-Americans must undergo a process of radicalization to attempt to transfer anger from deeds to words. This minority is losing faith in speech as a means of redress, but corrective measures should come through dialogue and not collision. Few Mixican Americans designated themselves "browns" a year ago--but it is now…

  10. Thinking about Law School: A Minority Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law School Admissions Council, Newtown, PA.

    This is a guide for minority group members who are considering entering law school and offers suggestions for success in the application process, in law school itself, and in choosing a career path. The first chapters guide the reader in self-assessment. Chapter 1 poses challenging questions about reasons for considering law school and chances for…

  11. Failure of anterior cingulate activation and connectivity with the amygdala during implicit regulation of emotional processing in generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Etkin, Amit; Prater, Katherine E; Hoeft, Fumiko; Menon, Vinod; Schatzberg, Alan F

    2010-05-01

    Clinical data suggest that abnormalities in the regulation of emotional processing contribute to the pathophysiology of generalized anxiety disorder, yet these abnormalities remain poorly understood at the neurobiological level. The authors recently reported that in healthy volunteers the pregenual anterior cingulate regulates emotional conflict on a trial-by-trial basis by dampening activity in the amygdala. The authors also showed that this process is specific to the regulation of emotional, compared to nonemotional, conflict. Here the authors examined whether this form of noninstructed emotion regulation is perturbed in generalized anxiety disorder. Seventeen patients with generalized anxiety disorder and 24 healthy comparison subjects underwent functional MRI while performing an emotional conflict task that involved categorizing facial affect while ignoring overlaid affect label words. Behavioral and neural measures were used to compare trial-by-trial changes in conflict regulation. Comparison subjects effectively regulated emotional conflict from trial to trial, even though they were unaware of having done so. By contrast, patients with generalized anxiety disorder were completely unable to regulate emotional conflict and failed to engage the pregenual anterior cingulate in ways that would dampen amygdalar activity. Moreover, performance and brain activation were correlated with symptoms and could be used to accurately classify the two groups. These data demonstrate that patients with generalized anxiety disorder show significant deficits in the noninstructed and spontaneous regulation of emotional processing. Conceptualization of anxiety as importantly involving abnormalities in emotion regulation, particularly a type occurring outside of awareness, may open up avenues for novel treatments, such as by targeting the medial prefrontal cortex.

  12. 48 CFR 1426.7102 - Minority Business Development Agency (MBDA-91) Plan and Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minority Business... System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS OTHER SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS Minority Business Reports 1426.7102 Minority Business Development Agency (MBDA-91) Plan and Reports....

  13. 48 CFR 1426.7102 - Minority Business Development Agency (MBDA-91) Plan and Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Minority Business... System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS OTHER SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS Minority Business Reports 1426.7102 Minority Business Development Agency (MBDA-91) Plan and Reports....

  14. 48 CFR 1426.7102 - Minority Business Development Agency (MBDA-91) Plan and Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minority Business... System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS OTHER SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS Minority Business Reports 1426.7102 Minority Business Development Agency (MBDA-91) Plan and Reports....

  15. 48 CFR 1426.7102 - Minority Business Development Agency (MBDA-91) Plan and Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Minority Business... System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS OTHER SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS Minority Business Reports 1426.7102 Minority Business Development Agency (MBDA-91) Plan and Reports....

  16. 48 CFR 1426.7102 - Minority Business Development Agency (MBDA-91) Plan and Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Minority Business... System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS OTHER SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS Minority Business Reports 1426.7102 Minority Business Development Agency (MBDA-91) Plan and Reports....

  17. 45 CFR 233.107 - Restriction in payment to households headed by a minor parent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... minor parent. 233.107 Section 233.107 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF... Restriction in payment to households headed by a minor parent. (a) State plan requirements. A State in its title IV-A State plan may provide that a minor parent and the dependent child in his or her care...

  18. 45 CFR 233.107 - Restriction in payment to households headed by a minor parent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... minor parent. 233.107 Section 233.107 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF... Restriction in payment to households headed by a minor parent. (a) State plan requirements. A State in its title IV-A State plan may provide that a minor parent and the dependent child in his or her care...

  19. 12 CFR 1207.20 - Office of Minority and Women Inclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Office of Minority and Women Inclusion. 1207.20 Section 1207.20 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS MINORITY AND WOMEN INCLUSION Minority and Women Inclusion and Diversity at Regulated Entities and...

  20. 12 CFR 1207.20 - Office of Minority and Women Inclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Office of Minority and Women Inclusion. 1207.20 Section 1207.20 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS MINORITY AND WOMEN INCLUSION Minority and Women Inclusion and Diversity at Regulated Entities and the Office...

  1. 12 CFR 1207.20 - Office of Minority and Women Inclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Office of Minority and Women Inclusion. 1207.20 Section 1207.20 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS MINORITY AND WOMEN INCLUSION (Eff. Jan. 27, 2011) Minority and Women Inclusion and Diversity at Regulated...

  2. 12 CFR 1207.20 - Office of Minority and Women Inclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Office of Minority and Women Inclusion. 1207.20 Section 1207.20 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS MINORITY AND WOMEN INCLUSION Minority and Women Inclusion and Diversity at Regulated Entities and the Office...

  3. 41 CFR 50-201.104 - Protection against unintentional employment of underage minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... unintentional employment of underage minors. 50-201.104 Section 50-201.104 Public Contracts and Property... REGULATIONS § 50-201.104 Protection against unintentional employment of underage minors. An employer shall not be deemed to have knowingly employed an underage minor in the performance of contracts subject to the...

  4. 41 CFR 50-201.104 - Protection against unintentional employment of underage minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... unintentional employment of underage minors. 50-201.104 Section 50-201.104 Public Contracts and Property... REGULATIONS § 50-201.104 Protection against unintentional employment of underage minors. An employer shall not be deemed to have knowingly employed an underage minor in the performance of contracts subject to the...

  5. 41 CFR 50-201.104 - Protection against unintentional employment of underage minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... unintentional employment of underage minors. 50-201.104 Section 50-201.104 Public Contracts and Property... REGULATIONS § 50-201.104 Protection against unintentional employment of underage minors. An employer shall not be deemed to have knowingly employed an underage minor in the performance of contracts subject to the...

  6. 41 CFR 50-201.104 - Protection against unintentional employment of underage minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... unintentional employment of underage minors. 50-201.104 Section 50-201.104 Public Contracts and Property... REGULATIONS § 50-201.104 Protection against unintentional employment of underage minors. An employer shall not be deemed to have knowingly employed an underage minor in the performance of contracts subject to the...

  7. 41 CFR 50-201.104 - Protection against unintentional employment of underage minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... unintentional employment of underage minors. 50-201.104 Section 50-201.104 Public Contracts and Property... REGULATIONS § 50-201.104 Protection against unintentional employment of underage minors. An employer shall not be deemed to have knowingly employed an underage minor in the performance of contracts subject to the...

  8. Minor surgery in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billica, Roger; Krupa, Debra T.; Stonestreet, Robert; Kizzee, Victor D.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose is to investigate and demonstrate equipment and techniques proposed for minor surgery on Space Station Freedom (SSF). The objectives are: (1) to test and evaluate methods of surgical instrument packaging and deployment; (2) to test and evaluate methods of surgical site preparation and draping; (3) to evaluate techniques of sterile procedure and maintaining sterile field; (4) to evaluate methods of trash management during medical/surgical procedures; and (4) to gain experience in techniques for performing surgery in microgravity. A KC-135 parabolic flight test was performed on March 30, 1990 with the goal of investigating and demonstrating surgical equipment and techniques under consideration for use on SSF. The flight followed the standard 40 parabola profile with 20 to 25 seconds of near-zero gravity in each parabola.

  9. Binary Minor Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Derek C.; Walsh, Kevin J.

    2006-05-01

    A review of observations and theories regarding binary asteroids and binary trans-Neptunian objects [collectively, binary minor planets (BMPs)] is presented. To date, these objects have been discovered using a combination of direct imaging, lightcurve analysis, and radar. They are found throughout the Solar System, and present a challenge for theorists modeling their formation in the context of Solar System evolution. The most promising models invoke rotational disruption for the smallest, shortest-lived objects (the asteroids nearest to Earth), consistent with the observed fast rotation of these bodies; impacts for the larger, longer-lived asteroids in the main belt, consistent with the range of size ratios of their components and slower rotation rates; and mutual capture for the distant, icy, trans-Neptunian objects, consistent with their large component separations and near-equal sizes. Numerical simulations have successfully reproduced key features of the binaries in the first two categories; the third remains to be investigated in detail.

  10. Developmentally regulated expression and complex processing of barley pri-microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Kruszka, Katarzyna; Pacak, Andrzej; Swida-Barteczka, Aleksandra; Stefaniak, Agnieszka K; Kaja, Elzbieta; Sierocka, Izabela; Karlowski, Wojciech; Jarmolowski, Artur; Szweykowska-Kulinska, Zofia

    2013-01-16

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression via mRNA cleavage or translation inhibition. In spite of barley being a cereal of great economic importance, very little data is available concerning its miRNA biogenesis. There are 69 barley miRNA and 67 pre-miRNA sequences available in the miRBase (release 19). However, no barley pri-miRNA and MIR gene structures have been shown experimentally. In the present paper, we examine the biogenesis of selected barley miRNAs and the developmental regulation of their pri-miRNA processing to learn more about miRNA maturation in barely. To investigate the organization of barley microRNA genes, nine microRNAs - 156g, 159b, 166n, 168a-5p/168a-3p, 171e, 397b-3p, 1120, and 1126 - were selected. Two of the studied miRNAs originate from one MIR168a-5p/168a-3p gene. The presence of all miRNAs was confirmed using a Northern blot approach. The miRNAs are encoded by genes with diverse organizations, representing mostly independent transcription units with or without introns. The intron-containing miRNA transcripts undergo complex splicing events to generate various spliced isoforms. We identified miRNAs that were encoded within introns of the noncoding genes MIR156g and MIR1126. Interestingly, the intron that encodes miR156g is spliced less efficiently than the intron encoding miR1126 from their specific precursors. miR397b-3p was detected in barley as a most probable functional miRNA, in contrast to rice where it has been identified as a complementary partner miRNA*. In the case of miR168a-5p/168a-3p, we found the generation of stable, mature molecules from both pre-miRNA arms, confirming evolutionary conservation of the stability of both species, as shown in rice and maize. We suggest that miR1120, located within the 3' UTR of a protein-coding gene and described as a functional miRNA in wheat, may represent a siRNA generated from a mariner-like transposable element. Seven of the eight barley miRNA genes characterized in this study contain

  11. Developmentally regulated expression and complex processing of barley pri-microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression via mRNA cleavage or translation inhibition. In spite of barley being a cereal of great economic importance, very little data is available concerning its miRNA biogenesis. There are 69 barley miRNA and 67 pre-miRNA sequences available in the miRBase (release 19). However, no barley pri-miRNA and MIR gene structures have been shown experimentally. In the present paper, we examine the biogenesis of selected barley miRNAs and the developmental regulation of their pri-miRNA processing to learn more about miRNA maturation in barely. Results To investigate the organization of barley microRNA genes, nine microRNAs - 156g, 159b, 166n, 168a-5p/168a-3p, 171e, 397b-3p, 1120, and 1126 - were selected. Two of the studied miRNAs originate from one MIR168a-5p/168a-3p gene. The presence of all miRNAs was confirmed using a Northern blot approach. The miRNAs are encoded by genes with diverse organizations, representing mostly independent transcription units with or without introns. The intron-containing miRNA transcripts undergo complex splicing events to generate various spliced isoforms. We identified miRNAs that were encoded within introns of the noncoding genes MIR156g and MIR1126. Interestingly, the intron that encodes miR156g is spliced less efficiently than the intron encoding miR1126 from their specific precursors. miR397b-3p was detected in barley as a most probable functional miRNA, in contrast to rice where it has been identified as a complementary partner miRNA*. In the case of miR168a-5p/168a-3p, we found the generation of stable, mature molecules from both pre-miRNA arms, confirming evolutionary conservation of the stability of both species, as shown in rice and maize. We suggest that miR1120, located within the 3′ UTR of a protein-coding gene and described as a functional miRNA in wheat, may represent a siRNA generated from a mariner-like transposable element. Conclusions Seven of the eight barley miRNA genes

  12. Regulation of electron transfer processes affects phototrophic mat structure and activity

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Phuc T.; Renslow, Ryan S.; Atci, Erhan; Reardon, Patrick N.; Lindemann, Stephen R.; Fredrickson, James K.; Call, Douglas R.; Beyenal, Haluk

    2015-01-01

    Phototrophic microbial mats are among the most diverse ecosystems in nature. These systems undergo daily cycles in redox potential caused by variations in light energy input and metabolic interactions among the microbial species. In this work, solid electrodes with controlled potentials were placed under mats to study the electron transfer processes between the electrode and the microbial mat. The phototrophic microbial mat was harvested from Hot Lake, a hypersaline, epsomitic lake located near Oroville (Washington, USA). We operated two reactors: graphite electrodes were polarized at potentials of -700 mVAg/AgCl [cathodic (CAT) mat system] and +300 mVAg/AgCl [anodic (AN) mat system] and the electron transfer rates between the electrode and mat were monitored. We observed a diel cycle of electron transfer rates for both AN and CAT mat systems. Interestingly, the CAT mats generated the highest reducing current at the same time points that the AN mats showed the highest oxidizing current. To characterize the physicochemical factors influencing electron transfer processes, we measured depth profiles of dissolved oxygen (DO) and sulfide in the mats using microelectrodes. We further demonstrated that the mat-to-electrode and electrode-to-mat electron transfer rates were light- and temperature-dependent. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging, we determined that the electrode potential regulated the diffusivity and porosity of the microbial mats. Both porosity and diffusivity were higher in the CAT mats than in the AN mats. We also used NMR spectroscopy for high-resolution quantitative metabolite analysis and found that the CAT mats had significantly higher concentrations of osmoprotectants such as betaine and trehalose. Subsequently, we performed amplicon sequencing across the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene of incubated mats to understand the impact of electrode potential on microbial community structure. These data suggested that variation in the

  13. Mmp1 Processing of the PDF Neuropeptide Regulates Circadian Structural Plasticity of Pacemaker Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Depetris-Chauvin, Ana; Fernández-Gamba, Ágata; Gorostiza, E. Axel; Herrero, Anastasia; Castaño, Eduardo M.; Ceriani, M. Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    In the Drosophila brain, the neuropeptide PIGMENT DISPERSING FACTOR (PDF) is expressed in the small and large Lateral ventral neurons (LNvs) and regulates circadian locomotor behavior. Interestingly, PDF immunoreactivity at the dorsal terminals changes across the day as synaptic contacts do as a result of a remarkable remodeling of sLNv projections. Despite the relevance of this phenomenon to circuit plasticity and behavior, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this work we provide evidence that PDF along with matrix metalloproteinases (Mmp1 and 2) are key in the control of circadian structural remodeling. Adult-specific downregulation of PDF levels per se hampers circadian axonal remodeling, as it does altering Mmp1 or Mmp2 levels within PDF neurons post-developmentally. However, only Mmp1 affects PDF immunoreactivity at the dorsal terminals and exerts a clear effect on overt behavior. In vitro analysis demonstrated that PDF is hydrolyzed by Mmp1, thereby suggesting that Mmp1 could directly terminate its biological activity. These data demonstrate that Mmp1 modulates PDF processing, which leads to daily structural remodeling and circadian behavior. PMID:25356918

  14. Mmp1 processing of the PDF neuropeptide regulates circadian structural plasticity of pacemaker neurons.

    PubMed

    Depetris-Chauvin, Ana; Fernández-Gamba, Agata; Gorostiza, E Axel; Herrero, Anastasia; Castaño, Eduardo M; Ceriani, M Fernanda

    2014-10-01

    In the Drosophila brain, the neuropeptide PIGMENT DISPERSING FACTOR (PDF) is expressed in the small and large Lateral ventral neurons (LNvs) and regulates circadian locomotor behavior. Interestingly, PDF immunoreactivity at the dorsal terminals changes across the day as synaptic contacts do as a result of a remarkable remodeling of sLNv projections. Despite the relevance of this phenomenon to circuit plasticity and behavior, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this work we provide evidence that PDF along with matrix metalloproteinases (Mmp1 and 2) are key in the control of circadian structural remodeling. Adult-specific downregulation of PDF levels per se hampers circadian axonal remodeling, as it does altering Mmp1 or Mmp2 levels within PDF neurons post-developmentally. However, only Mmp1 affects PDF immunoreactivity at the dorsal terminals and exerts a clear effect on overt behavior. In vitro analysis demonstrated that PDF is hydrolyzed by Mmp1, thereby suggesting that Mmp1 could directly terminate its biological activity. These data demonstrate that Mmp1 modulates PDF processing, which leads to daily structural remodeling and circadian behavior.

  15. Mandibular arch muscle identity is regulated by a conserved molecular process during vertebrate development.

    PubMed

    Knight, Robert D; Mebus, Katharina; Roehl, Henry H

    2008-06-15

    Vertebrate head muscles exhibit a highly conserved pattern of innervation and skeletal connectivity and yet it is unclear whether the molecular basis of their development is likewise conserved. Using the highly conserved expression of Engrailed 2 (En2) as a marker of identity in the dorsal mandibular muscles of zebrafish, we have investigated the molecular signals and tissues required for patterning these muscles. We show that muscle En2 expression is not dependent on signals from the adjacent neural tube, pharyngeal endoderm or axial mesoderm and that early identity of head muscles does not require bone morphogenetic pathway, Notch or Hedgehog (Hh) signalling. However, constrictor dorsalis En2 expression is completely lost after a loss of fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) signalling and we show that is true throughout head muscle development. These results suggest that head muscle identity is dependent on Fgf signalling. Data from experiments performed in chick suggest a similar regulation of En2 genes by Fgf signalling revealing a conserved mechanism for specifying head muscle identity. We present evidence that another key gene important in the development of mouse head muscles, Tbx1, is also critical for specification of mandibular arch muscle identity and that this is independent of Fgf signalling. These data imply that dorsal mandibular arch muscle identity in fish, chick and mouse is specified by a highly conserved molecular process despite differing functions of these muscles in different lineages.

  16. Safety Sufficiency for NextGen: Assessment of Selected Existing Safety Methods, Tools, Processes, and Regulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Xidong; Ulrey, Mike L.; Brown, John A.; Mast, James; Lapis, Mary B.

    2013-01-01

    NextGen is a complex socio-technical system and, in many ways, it is expected to be more complex than the current system. It is vital to assess the safety impact of the NextGen elements (technologies, systems, and procedures) in a rigorous and systematic way and to ensure that they do not compromise safety. In this study, the NextGen elements in the form of Operational Improvements (OIs), Enablers, Research Activities, Development Activities, and Policy Issues were identified. The overall hazard situation in NextGen was outlined; a high-level hazard analysis was conducted with respect to multiple elements in a representative NextGen OI known as OI-0349 (Automation Support for Separation Management); and the hazards resulting from the highly dynamic complexity involved in an OI-0349 scenario were illustrated. A selected but representative set of the existing safety methods, tools, processes, and regulations was then reviewed and analyzed regarding whether they are sufficient to assess safety in the elements of that OI and ensure that safety will not be compromised and whether they might incur intolerably high costs.

  17. Deciphering the Complex Signaling Systems That Regulate Intestinal Epithelial Cell Death Processes and Shedding

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Angela M.; Watson, Alastair J. M.

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells play a fundamental role in maintaining homeostasis. Shedding of intestinal cells in a controlled manner is critical to maintenance of barrier function. Barrier function is maintained during this shedding process by a redistribution of tight junctional proteins to facilitate closure of the gap left by the shedding cell. However, despite the obvious importance of epithelial cell shedding to gut health, a central question is how the extrusion of epithelial cells is achieved, enabling barrier integrity to be maintained in the healthy gut and restored during inflammation remains largely unanswered. Recent studies have provided evidence that excessive epithelial cell shedding and loss of epithelial barrier integrity is triggered by exposure to lipopolysaccharide or tumor necrosis factor alpha. Subsequent studies have provided evidence of the involvement of specific cellular components and signaling mechanisms as well as the functionality of microbiota that can be either detrimental or beneficial for intestinal barrier integrity. This review will focus on the evidence and decipher how the signaling systems through which the mucosal immune system and microbiota can regulate epithelial cell shedding and how these mechanisms interact to preserve the viability of the epithelium. PMID:28769935

  18. An integrative affect regulation process model of internalized weight bias and intuitive eating in college women.

    PubMed

    Webb, Jennifer B; Hardin, Abigail S

    2016-07-01

    The present study extended the weight stigma and well-being process model (Tylka et al., 2014) by examining three affect regulation pathways that may help simultaneously explain the predicted inverse association between internalized weight bias and intuitive eating. A weight-diverse sample of 333 college women completed an online survey assessing internalized weight stigma, intuitive eating, body shame, body image flexibility, and self-compassion. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate body mass index (BMI). Non-parametric bootstrap resampling procedures were computed to ascertain the presence of the indirect effects of internalized weight bias on intuitive eating via the three hypothesized mediators controlling for BMI in a combined model. Results demonstrated that body image flexibility significantly and self-compassion marginally contributed unique variance in accounting for this relationship. Our preliminary cross-sectional findings contribute to a nascent body of scholarship seeking to provide a theoretically-driven understanding of how negative and positive forms of experiencing and relating to the body may co-occur within individuals. Results also point to potential target variables to consider incorporating in later-stage efforts to promote more adaptive ways of eating amidst internalized weight stigma.

  19. Regulation of oxidative stress-induced cytotoxic processes of citrinin in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Máté, Gábor; Gazdag, Zoltán; Mike, Nóra; Papp, Gábor; Pócsi, István; Pesti, Miklós

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the citrinin (CTN)-induced accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the regulation of the activities of antioxidant enzymes were investigated in acute toxicity tests in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. 30% of the CTN was accumulated by the cells in 1000 μM CTN solution. In comparison with the control, exposure of 10(7) cells ml(-1) to 1000 μM CTN for 60 min at pH = 4.5 induced significantly (p < 1%) elevated levels of peroxides and total ROS, but not of superoxide or hydroxyl radicals, while there was a 3-fold increase in the concentration of glutathione. ROS-induced adaptation processes at cell and molecular levels via activation of the redox-sensitive transcription factors Pap1 and (in part) Atf1 resulted in significantly increased specific activities of glutathione peroxidases, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione S-transferase and in decreased levels of catalase and glutathione reductase, but no changes were detected in the activities of superoxide dismutases. This treatment caused a G2/M cell cycle arrest and elevated the number of fragmented nuclei, which is one of the markers of apoptosis. Comparison of these results with those for the positive control, 200 μM H2O2, suggested that CTN induced a medium level of oxidative stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pyrococcus horikoshii TET2 Peptidase Assembling Process and Associated Functional Regulation*

    PubMed Central

    Appolaire, Alexandre; Rosenbaum, Eva; Durá, M. Asunción; Colombo, Matteo; Marty, Vincent; Savoye, Marjolaine Noirclerc; Godfroy, Anne; Schoehn, Guy; Girard, Eric; Gabel, Frank; Franzetti, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Tetrahedral (TET) aminopeptidases are large polypeptide destruction machines present in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Here, the rules governing their assembly into hollow 12-subunit tetrahedrons are addressed by using TET2 from Pyrococcus horikoshii (PhTET2) as a model. Point mutations allowed the capture of a stable, catalytically active precursor. Small angle x-ray scattering revealed that it is a dimer whose architecture in solution is identical to that determined by x-ray crystallography within the fully assembled TET particle. Small angle x-ray scattering also showed that the reconstituted PhTET2 dodecameric particle displayed the same quaternary structure and thermal stability as the wild-type complex. The PhTET2 assembly intermediates were characterized by analytical ultracentrifugation, native gel electrophoresis, and electron microscopy. They revealed that PhTET2 assembling is a highly ordered process in which hexamers represent the main intermediate. Peptide degradation assays demonstrated that oligomerization triggers the activity of the TET enzyme toward large polypeptidic substrates. Fractionation experiments in Pyrococcus and Halobacterium cells revealed that, in vivo, the dimeric precursor co-exists together with assembled TET complexes. Taken together, our observations explain the biological significance of TET oligomerization and suggest the existence of a functional regulation of the dimer-dodecamer equilibrium in vivo. PMID:23696647