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Sample records for regulates transport activity

  1. Regulators of Slc4 bicarbonate transporter activity

    PubMed Central

    Thornell, Ian M.; Bevensee, Mark O.

    2015-01-01

    The Slc4 family of transporters is comprised of anion exchangers (AE1-4), Na+-coupled bicarbonate transporters (NCBTs) including electrogenic Na/bicarbonate cotransporters (NBCe1 and NBCe2), electroneutral Na/bicarbonate cotransporters (NBCn1 and NBCn2), and the electroneutral Na-driven Cl-bicarbonate exchanger (NDCBE), as well as a borate transporter (BTR1). These transporters regulate intracellular pH (pHi) and contribute to steady-state pHi, but are also involved in other physiological processes including CO2 carriage by red blood cells and solute secretion/reabsorption across epithelia. Acid-base transporters function as either acid extruders or acid loaders, with the Slc4 proteins moving HCO−3 either into or out of cells. According to results from both molecular and functional studies, multiple Slc4 proteins and/or associated splice variants with similar expected effects on pHi are often found in the same tissue or cell. Such apparent redundancy is likely to be physiologically important. In addition to regulating pHi, a HCO−3 transporter contributes to a cell's ability to fine tune the intracellular regulation of the cotransported/exchanged ion(s) (e.g., Na+ or Cl−). In addition, functionally similar transporters or splice variants with different regulatory profiles will optimize pH physiology and solute transport under various conditions or within subcellular domains. Such optimization will depend on activated signaling pathways and transporter expression profiles. In this review, we will summarize and discuss both well-known and more recently identified regulators of the Slc4 proteins. Some of these regulators include traditional second messengers, lipids, binding proteins, autoregulatory domains, and less conventional regulators. The material presented will provide insight into the diversity and physiological significance of multiple members within the Slc4 gene family. PMID:26124722

  2. Activation of ion transport systems during cell volume regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Eveloff, J.L.; Warnock, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    This review discusses the activation of transport pathways during volume regulation, including their characteristics, the possible biochemical pathways that may mediate the activation of transport pathways, and the relations between volume regulation and transepithelial transport in renal cells. Many cells regulate their volume when exposed to an anisotonic medium. The changes in cell volume are caused by activation of ion transport pathways, plus the accompanying osmotically driven water movement such that cell volume returns toward normal levels. The swelling of hypertonically shrunken cells is termed regulatory volume increase (RVI) and involves an influx of NaCl into the cell via either activation of Na-Cl, Na-K-2Cl cotransport systems, or Na/sup +/-H/sup +/ and Cl/sup -/-HCO/sub 3//sup -/ exchangers. The reshrinking of hypotonically swollen cells is termed regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and involves an efflux of KCl and water from the cell by activation of either separate K/sup +/ and Cl/sup -/ conductances, a K-Cl cotransport system, or parallel K/sup +/-H/sup +/ and Cl/sup -/-HCO/sub 3//sup -/ exchangers. The biochemical mechanisms involved in the activation of transport systems are largely unknown, however, the phosphoinositide pathway may be implicated in RVI; phorbol esters, cGMP, and Ca/sup 2 +/ affect the process of volume regulation. Renal tubular cells, as well as the blood cells that transverse the medulla, are subjected to increasing osmotic gradients from the corticomedullary junction to the papillary tip, as well as changing interstitial and tubule fluid osmolarity, depending on the diuretic state of the animal. Medullary cells from the loop of Henle and the papilla can volume regulate by activating Na-K-2Cl cotransport or Na/sup +/-H/sup +/ and Cl/sup -/-HCO/sub 3//sup -/ exchange systems.

  3. Substrate regulation of ascorbate transport activity in astrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.X.; Jaworski, E.M.; Kulaga, A.; Dixon, S.J. )

    1990-10-01

    Astrocytes possess a concentrative L-ascorbate (vitamin C) uptake mechanism involving a Na(+)-dependent L-ascorbate transporter located in the plasma membrane. The present experiments examined the effects of deprivation and supplementation of extracellular L-ascorbate on the activity of this transport system. Initial rates of L-ascorbate uptake were measured by incubating primary cultures of rat astrocytes with L-(14C)ascorbate for 1 min at 37 degrees C. We observed that the apparent maximal rate of uptake (Vmax) increased rapidly (less than 1 h) when cultured cells were deprived of L-ascorbate. In contrast, there was no change in the apparent affinity of the transport system for L-(14C)ascorbate. The increase in Vmax was reversed by addition of L-ascorbate, but not D-isoascorbate, to the medium. The effects of external ascorbate on ascorbate transport activity were specific in that preincubation of cultures with L-ascorbate did not affect uptake of 2-deoxy-D-(3H(G))glucose. We conclude that the astroglial ascorbate transport system is modulated by changes in substrate availability. Regulation of transport activity may play a role in intracellular ascorbate homeostasis by compensating for regional differences and temporal fluctuations in external ascorbate levels.

  4. Regulation of sugar transporter activity for antibacterial defense in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Kohji; Saijo, Yusuke; Nakagami, Hirofumi; Takano, Yoshitaka

    2016-12-16

    Microbial pathogens strategically acquire metabolites from their hosts during infection. Here we show that the host can intervene to prevent such metabolite loss to pathogens. Phosphorylation-dependent regulation of sugar transport protein 13 (STP13) is required for antibacterial defense in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana STP13 physically associates with the flagellin receptor flagellin-sensitive 2 (FLS2) and its co-receptor BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1-associated receptor kinase 1 (BAK1). BAK1 phosphorylates STP13 at threonine 485, which enhances its monosaccharide uptake activity to compete with bacteria for extracellular sugars. Limiting the availability of extracellular sugar deprives bacteria of an energy source and restricts virulence factor delivery. Our results reveal that control of sugar uptake, managed by regulation of a host sugar transporter, is a defense strategy deployed against microbial infection. Competition for sugar thus shapes host-pathogen interactions. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. Serotonin transporter genotype modulates amygdala activity during mood regulation

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Hengyi; Wang, Jiongjiong; Detre, John A.; Breland, Jessica; Sankoorikal, Geena Mary V.; Brodkin, Edward S.; Farah, Martha J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have implicated the short allele of the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) in depression vulnerability, particularly in the context of stress. Several neuroimaging studies have shown that 5-HTTLPR genotype predicts amygdala reactivity to negatively valenced stimuli, suggesting a mechanism whereby the short allele confers depression risk. The current study investigated whether 5-HTTLPR genotype similarly affects neural activity during an induced sad mood and during recovery from sad mood. Participants were 15 homozygous short (S) and 15 homozygous long (L) individuals. Regional cerebral blood flow was measured with perfusion functional magnetic resonance imaging during four scanning blocks: baseline, sad mood, mood recovery and following return to baseline. Comparing mood recovery to baseline, both whole brain analyses and template-based region-of-interest analyses revealed greater amygdala activity for the S vs the L-group. There were no significant amygdala differences found during the induced sad mood. These results demonstrate the effect of the S allele on amygdala activity during intentional mood regulation and suggest that amygdala hyperactivity during recovery from a sad mood may be one mechanism by which the S allele confers depression risk. PMID:19858108

  6. The SPX domain of the yeast low-affinity phosphate transporter Pho90 regulates transport activity

    PubMed Central

    Hürlimann, Hans Caspar; Pinson, Benoît; Stadler-Waibel, Martha; Zeeman, Samuel C; Freimoser, Florian M

    2009-01-01

    Yeast has two phosphate-uptake systems that complement each other: the high-affinity transporters (Pho84 and Pho89) are active under phosphate starvation, whereas Pho87 and Pho90 are low-affinity transporters that function when phosphate is abundant. Here, we report new regulatory functions of the amino-terminal SPX domain of Pho87 and Pho90. By studying truncated versions of Pho87 and Pho90, we show that the SPX domain limits the phosphate-uptake velocity, suppresses phosphate efflux and affects the regulation of the phosphate signal transduction pathway. Furthermore, split-ubiquitin assays and co-immunoprecipitation suggest that the SPX domain of both Pho90 and Pho87 interacts physically with the regulatory protein Spl2. This work suggests that the SPX domain inhibits low-affinity phosphate transport through a physical interaction with Spl2. PMID:19590579

  7. Phosphorylation Regulates NCC Stability and Transporter Activity In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sung-Sen; Fang, Yu-Wei; Tseng, Min-Hua; Chu, Pei-Yi; Yu, I-Shing; Wu, Han-Chung; Lin, Shu-Wha; Chau, Tom; Uchida, Shinichi; Sasaki, Sei; Lin, Yuh-Feng; Sytwu, Huey-Kang

    2013-01-01

    A T60M mutation in the thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) is common in patients with Gitelman’s syndrome (GS). This mutation prevents Ste20-related proline and alanine-rich kinase (SPAK)/oxidative stress responsive kinase-1 (OSR1)–mediated phosphorylation of NCC and alters NCC transporter activity in vitro. Here, we examined the physiologic effects of NCC phosphorylation in vivo using a novel Ncc T58M (human T60M) knock-in mouse model. NccT58M/T58M mice exhibited typical features of GS with a blunted response to thiazide diuretics. Despite expressing normal levels of Ncc mRNA, these mice had lower levels of total Ncc and p-Ncc protein that did not change with a low-salt diet that increased p-Spak. In contrast to wild-type Ncc, which localized to the apical membrane of distal convoluted tubule cells, T58M Ncc localized primarily to the cytosolic region and caused an increase in late distal convoluted tubule volume. In MDCK cells, exogenous expression of phosphorylation-defective NCC mutants reduced total protein expression levels and membrane stability. Furthermore, our analysis found diminished total urine NCC excretion in a cohort of GS patients with homozygous NCC T60M mutations. When Wnk4D561A/+ mice, a model of pseudohypoaldosteronism type II expressing an activated Spak/Osr1-Ncc, were crossed with NccT58M/T58M mice, total Ncc and p-Ncc protein levels decreased and the GS phenotype persisted over the hypertensive phenotype. Overall, these data suggest that SPAK-mediated phosphorylation of NCC at T60 regulates NCC stability and function, and defective phosphorylation at this residue corrects the phenotype of pseudohypoaldosteronism type II. PMID:23833262

  8. Phosphorylation regulates NCC stability and transporter activity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sung-Sen; Fang, Yu-Wei; Tseng, Min-Hua; Chu, Pei-Yi; Yu, I-Shing; Wu, Han-Chung; Lin, Shu-Wha; Chau, Tom; Uchida, Shinichi; Sasaki, Sei; Lin, Yuh-Feng; Sytwu, Huey-Kang; Lin, Shih-Hua

    2013-10-01

    A T60M mutation in the thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) is common in patients with Gitelman's syndrome (GS). This mutation prevents Ste20-related proline and alanine-rich kinase (SPAK)/oxidative stress responsive kinase-1 (OSR1)-mediated phosphorylation of NCC and alters NCC transporter activity in vitro. Here, we examined the physiologic effects of NCC phosphorylation in vivo using a novel Ncc T58M (human T60M) knock-in mouse model. Ncc(T58M/T58M) mice exhibited typical features of GS with a blunted response to thiazide diuretics. Despite expressing normal levels of Ncc mRNA, these mice had lower levels of total Ncc and p-Ncc protein that did not change with a low-salt diet that increased p-Spak. In contrast to wild-type Ncc, which localized to the apical membrane of distal convoluted tubule cells, T58M Ncc localized primarily to the cytosolic region and caused an increase in late distal convoluted tubule volume. In MDCK cells, exogenous expression of phosphorylation-defective NCC mutants reduced total protein expression levels and membrane stability. Furthermore, our analysis found diminished total urine NCC excretion in a cohort of GS patients with homozygous NCC T60M mutations. When Wnk4(D561A/+) mice, a model of pseudohypoaldosteronism type II expressing an activated Spak/Osr1-Ncc, were crossed with Ncc(T58M/T58M) mice, total Ncc and p-Ncc protein levels decreased and the GS phenotype persisted over the hypertensive phenotype. Overall, these data suggest that SPAK-mediated phosphorylation of NCC at T60 regulates NCC stability and function, and defective phosphorylation at this residue corrects the phenotype of pseudohypoaldosteronism type II.

  9. BicaudalD actively regulates microtubule motor activity in lipid droplet transport.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Kristoffer S; Xu, Jing; Cermelli, Silvia; Shu, Zhanyong; Gross, Steven P

    2008-01-01

    A great deal of sub-cellular organelle positioning, and essentially all minus-ended organelle transport, depends on cytoplasmic dynein, but how dynein's function is regulated is not well understood. BicD is established to play a critical role in mediating dynein function-loss of BicD results in improperly localized nuclei, mRNA particles, and a dispersed Golgi apparatus-however exactly what BicD's role is remains unknown. Nonetheless, it is widely believed that BicD may act to tether dynein to cargos. Here we use a combination of biophysical and biochemical studies to investigate BicD's role in lipid droplet transport during Drosophila embryogenesis. Functional loss of BicD impairs the embryo's ability to control the net direction of droplet transport; the developmentally controlled reversal in transport is eliminated. We find that minimal BicD expression (near-BicD(null)) decreases the average run length of both plus and minus end directed microtubule (MT) based transport. A point mutation affecting the BicD N-terminus has very similar effects on transport during cellularization (phase II), but in phase III (gastrulation) motion actually appears better than in the wild-type. In contrast to a simple static tethering model of BicD function, or a role only in initial dynein recruitment to the cargo, our data uncovers a new dynamic role for BicD in actively regulating transport. Lipid droplets move bi-directionally, and our investigations demonstrate that BicD plays a critical-and temporally changing-role in balancing the relative contributions of plus-end and minus-end motors to control the net direction of transport. Our results suggest that while BicD might contribute to recruitment of dynein to the cargo it is not absolutely required for such dynein localization, and it clearly contributes to regulation, helping activation/inactivation of the motors.

  10. Regulation of airway surface liquid volume and mucus transport by active ion transport.

    PubMed

    Tarran, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Mucus clearance is an important component of the lung's innate defense against disease, and the ability of the airways to clear mucus is strongly dependent on the volume of liquid on airway surfaces. Whether airway surface liquid (ASL) volume is maintained by passive surface forces or by active ion transport is controversial yet crucial to the understanding of how this system operates in both health and disease. In support of active ion transport being the major determinant of ASL volume, we have demonstrated that normal airway epithelia sense and autoregulate ASL height (volume) by adjusting the rates of Na+ absorption and Cl- secretion to maintain mucus transport.

  11. Active zone proteins are transported via distinct mechanisms regulated by Par-1 kinase

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Kara R.; Sherman, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Disruption of synapses underlies a plethora of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disease. Presynaptic specialization called the active zone plays a critical role in the communication with postsynaptic neuron. While the role of many proteins at the active zones in synaptic communication is relatively well studied, very little is known about how these proteins are transported to the synapses. For example, are there distinct mechanisms for the transport of active zone components or are they all transported in the same transport vesicle? Is active zone protein transport regulated? In this report we show that overexpression of Par-1/MARK kinase, a protein whose misregulation has been implicated in Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and neurodegenerative disorders, lead to a specific block in the transport of an active zone protein component- Bruchpilot at Drosophila neuromuscular junctions. Consistent with a block in axonal transport, we find a decrease in number of active zones and reduced neurotransmission in flies overexpressing Par-1 kinase. Interestingly, we find that Par-1 acts independently of Tau-one of the most well studied substrates of Par-1, revealing a presynaptic function for Par-1 that is independent of Tau. Thus, our study strongly suggests that there are distinct mechanisms that transport components of active zones and that they are tightly regulated. PMID:28222093

  12. GABA signalling modulates plant growth by directly regulating the activity of plant-specific anion transporters.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Sunita A; Tyerman, Stephen D; Xu, Bo; Bose, Jayakumar; Kaur, Satwinder; Conn, Vanessa; Domingos, Patricia; Ullah, Sana; Wege, Stefanie; Shabala, Sergey; Feijó, José A; Ryan, Peter R; Gilliham, Matthew; Gillham, Matthew

    2015-07-29

    The non-protein amino acid, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) rapidly accumulates in plant tissues in response to biotic and abiotic stress, and regulates plant growth. Until now it was not known whether GABA exerts its effects in plants through the regulation of carbon metabolism or via an unidentified signalling pathway. Here, we demonstrate that anion flux through plant aluminium-activated malate transporter (ALMT) proteins is activated by anions and negatively regulated by GABA. Site-directed mutagenesis of selected amino acids within ALMT proteins abolishes GABA efficacy but does not alter other transport properties. GABA modulation of ALMT activity results in altered root growth and altered root tolerance to alkaline pH, acid pH and aluminium ions. We propose that GABA exerts its multiple physiological effects in plants via ALMT, including the regulation of pollen tube and root growth, and that GABA can finally be considered a legitimate signalling molecule in both the plant and animal kingdoms.

  13. Regulation of ion channels and transporters by AMP-activated kinase (AMPK)

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Florian; Föller, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The energy-sensing AMP-activated kinase AMPK ensures survival of energy-depleted cells by stimulating ATP production and limiting ATP utilization. Both energy production and energy consumption are profoundly influenced by transport processes across the cell membane including channels, carriers and pumps. Accordingly, AMPK is a powerful regulator of transport across the cell membrane. AMPK regulates diverse K+ channels, Na+ channels, Ca2+ release activated Ca2+ channels, Cl- channels, gap junctional channels, glucose carriers, Na+/H+-exchanger, monocarboxylate-, phosphate-, creatine-, amino acid-, peptide- and osmolyte-transporters, Na+/Ca2+-exchanger, H+-ATPase and Na+/K+-ATPase. AMPK activates ubiquitin ligase Nedd4–2, which labels several plasma membrane proteins for degradation. AMPK further regulates transport proteins by inhibition of Rab GTPase activating protein (GAP) TBC1D1. It stimulates phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate 5-kinase PIKfyve and inhibits phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) via glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β). Moreover, it stabilizes F-actin as well as downregulates transcription factor NF-κB. All those cellular effects serve to regulate transport proteins. PMID:24366036

  14. Regulation of hepatic drug transporter activity and expression by organochlorine pesticides.

    PubMed

    Bucher, Simon; Le Vee, Marc; Jouan, Elodie; Fardel, Olivier

    2014-03-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides constitute a major class of persistent and toxic organic pollutants, known to modulate drug-detoxifying enzymes. In the present study, OCs were demonstrated to also alter the activity and expression of human hepatic drug transporters. Activity of the sinusoidal influx transporter OCT1 (organic cation transporter 1) was thus inhibited by endosulfan, chlordane, heptachlor, lindane, and dieldrine, but not by dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane isomers, whereas those of the canalicular efflux pumps MRP2 (multidrug resistance-associated protein 2) and BCRP (breast cancer resistance protein) were blocked by endosulfan, chlordane, heptachlor, and chlordecone; this latter OC additionally inhibited the multidrug resistance gene 1 (MDR1)/P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity. OCs, except endosulfan, were next found to induce MDR1/P-gp and MRP2 mRNA expressions in hepatoma HepaRG cells; some of them also upregulated BCRP. By contrast, expression of sinusoidal transporters was not impaired (organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1 and OATP2B1) or was downregulated (sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP) and OCT1). Such regulations of drug transporter activity and expression, depending on the respective nature of OCs and transporters, may contribute to the toxicity of OC pesticides.

  15. Monovalent cations regulate expression and activity of the Hak1 potassium transporter in Debaryomyces hansenii.

    PubMed

    Martínez, José L; Sychrova, Hana; Ramos, José

    2011-02-01

    Debaryomyces hansenii was able to grow in a medium containing residual amounts of K(+), indicating the activity of high affinity K(+) transporters. Transcriptional regulation analysis of the genes encoding the two potassium uptake systems in D. hansenii revealed that while DhTRK1 is not regulated at transcriptional level, expression of DhHAK1 required starvation in the absence of K(+) and Na(+) and was not affected by changes in membrane potential. Rb(+) transport in cells expressing DhHAK1 was activated by external Na(+) or acidic pH and inhibited by high pH. We propose a K(+)-H(+) symporter that, under certain conditions may work as a K(+)-Na(+) transporter, as the mechanism driving K(+) influx mediated by DhHak1p. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. SYNTAXIN 1A REGULATES DOPAMINE TRANSPORTER ACTIVITY, PHOSPHORYLATION AND SURFACE EXPRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Cervinski, Mark A.; Foster, James D.; Vaughan, Roxanne A.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the functional relationship between the SNARE protein syntaxin 1A (syn 1A) and the dopamine transporter (DAT) by treating rat striatal tissue with Botulinum Neurotoxin C (BoNT/C) and co-transfecting syn 1A with DAT in non-neuronal cells, followed by analysis of DAT activity, phosphorylation, and regulation. Treatment of striatal slices with BoNT/C resulted in elevated dopamine (DA) transport Vmax and reduced DAT phosphorylation, while heterologous co-expression of syn 1A led to reduction in DAT surface expression and transport Vmax. Syn 1A was present in DAT immunoprecipitation complexes, supporting a direct or indirect interaction between the proteins. Phorbol ester regulation of DA transport activity was retained in BoNT/C-treated synaptosomes and syn 1A transfected cells, demonstrating that PKC and syn 1A effects occur through independent processes. These findings reveal a novel mechanism for regulation of DAT activity and phosphorylation, and suggest the potential for syn 1A to impact DA neurotransmission through effects on reuptake. PMID:20643191

  17. Novel fluorescence-based approaches for the study of biogenic amine transporter localization, activity, and regulation.

    PubMed

    Mason, J N; Farmer, H; Tomlinson, I D; Schwartz, J W; Savchenko, V; DeFelice, L J; Rosenthal, S J; Blakely, R D

    2005-04-15

    Pre-synaptic norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) transporters (NET and DAT) terminate catecholamine synaptic transmission through reuptake of released neurotransmitter. Recent studies reveal that NET and DAT are tightly regulated by receptor and second messenger-linked signaling pathways. Common approaches for studying these transporters involve use of radiolabeled substrates or antagonists, methods possessing limited spatial resolution and that bear limited opportunities for repeated monitoring of living preparations. To circumvent these issues, we have explored two novel assay platforms that permit temporally resolved quantitation of transport activity and transporter protein localization. To monitor the binding and transport function of NET and DAT in real-time, we have investigated the uptake of the fluorescent organic compound 4-(4-diethylaminostyryl)-N-methylpyridinium iodide (ASP+). We have extended our previous single cell level application of this substrate to monitor transport activity via high-throughput assay platforms. Compared to radiotracer uptake methods, acquisition of ASP+ fluorescence is non-isotopic and allows for continuous, repeated transport measurements on both transfected and native preparations. Secondly, we have extended our application of small-molecule-conjugated fluorescent CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals, or quantum dots (Qdots), to utilize antibody and peptide ligands that can identify surface expressed transporters, receptors and other membrane proteins in living cell systems. Unlike typical organic fluorophores, Qdots are highly resistant to bleaching and can be conjugated to multiple ligands. They can also be illuminated by conventional light sources, yet produce narrow, gaussian emission spectra compatible with multiple target visualization (multiplexing). Together, these approaches offer novel opportunities to investigate changes in transporter function and distribution in real-time with superior spatial and temporal resolution.

  18. GABA signalling modulates plant growth by directly regulating the activity of plant-specific anion transporters

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Sunita A.; Tyerman, Stephen D.; Xu, Bo; Bose, Jayakumar; Kaur, Satwinder; Conn, Vanessa; Domingos, Patricia; Ullah, Sana; Wege, Stefanie; Shabala, Sergey; Feijó, José A.; Ryan, Peter R.; Gillham, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The non-protein amino acid, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) rapidly accumulates in plant tissues in response to biotic and abiotic stress, and regulates plant growth. Until now it was not known whether GABA exerts its effects in plants through the regulation of carbon metabolism or via an unidentified signalling pathway. Here, we demonstrate that anion flux through plant aluminium-activated malate transporter (ALMT) proteins is activated by anions and negatively regulated by GABA. Site-directed mutagenesis of selected amino acids within ALMT proteins abolishes GABA efficacy but does not alter other transport properties. GABA modulation of ALMT activity results in altered root growth and altered root tolerance to alkaline pH, acid pH and aluminium ions. We propose that GABA exerts its multiple physiological effects in plants via ALMT, including the regulation of pollen tube and root growth, and that GABA can finally be considered a legitimate signalling molecule in both the plant and animal kingdoms. PMID:26219411

  19. Down-regulation of linear and activation of cyclic electron transport during drought.

    PubMed

    Golding, Alison J; Johnson, Giles N

    2003-11-01

    The effects of short-term drought on the regulation of electron transport through photosystems I and II (PSI and PSII) have been studied in Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Chariot. Fluorescence measurements demonstrated that electron flow through PSII decreased in response to both drought and CO2 limitation. This was due to regulation, as opposed to photoinhibition. We demonstrate that this regulation occurs between the two photosystems--in contrast to PSII, PSI became more oxidised and the rate constant for P700 re-reduction decreased under these conditions. Thus, when carbon fixation is inhibited, electron transport is down-regulated to match the reduced requirement for electrons and minimise reactive oxygen production. At the same time non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) increases, alleviating the excitation pressure placed on PSII. We observe an increase in the proportion of PSI centres that are 'active' (i.e. can be oxidised with a saturating flash and then rapidly re-reduced) under the conditions when NPQ is increased. We suggest that these additional centres are primarily involved in cyclic electron transport, which generates the DeltapH to support NPQ and protect PSII.

  20. Regulation of synaptic activity by snapin-mediated endolysosomal transport and sorting

    PubMed Central

    Di Giovanni, Jerome; Sheng, Zu-Hang

    2015-01-01

    Recycling synaptic vesicles (SVs) transit through early endosomal sorting stations, which raises a fundamental question: are SVs sorted toward endolysosomal pathways? Here, we used snapin mutants as tools to assess how endolysosomal sorting and trafficking impact presynaptic activity in wild-type and snapin−/− neurons. Snapin acts as a dynein adaptor that mediates the retrograde transport of late endosomes (LEs) and interacts with dysbindin, a subunit of the endosomal sorting complex BLOC-1. Expressing dynein-binding defective snapin mutants induced SV accumulation at presynaptic terminals, mimicking the snapin−/− phenotype. Conversely, over-expressing snapin reduced SV pool size by enhancing SV trafficking to the endolysosomal pathway. Using a SV-targeted Ca2+ sensor, we demonstrate that snapin–dysbindin interaction regulates SV positional priming through BLOC-1/AP-3-dependent sorting. Our study reveals a bipartite regulation of presynaptic activity by endolysosomal trafficking and sorting: LE transport regulates SV pool size, and BLOC-1/AP-3-dependent sorting fine-tunes the Ca2+ sensitivity of SV release. Therefore, our study provides new mechanistic insights into the maintenance and regulation of SV pool size and synchronized SV fusion through snapin-mediated LE trafficking and endosomal sorting. PMID:26108535

  1. Regulation of synaptic activity by snapin-mediated endolysosomal transport and sorting.

    PubMed

    Di Giovanni, Jerome; Sheng, Zu-Hang

    2015-08-04

    Recycling synaptic vesicles (SVs) transit through early endosomal sorting stations, which raises a fundamental question: are SVs sorted toward endolysosomal pathways? Here, we used snapin mutants as tools to assess how endolysosomal sorting and trafficking impact presynaptic activity in wild-type and snapin(-/-) neurons. Snapin acts as a dynein adaptor that mediates the retrograde transport of late endosomes (LEs) and interacts with dysbindin, a subunit of the endosomal sorting complex BLOC-1. Expressing dynein-binding defective snapin mutants induced SV accumulation at presynaptic terminals, mimicking the snapin(-/-) phenotype. Conversely, over-expressing snapin reduced SV pool size by enhancing SV trafficking to the endolysosomal pathway. Using a SV-targeted Ca(2+) sensor, we demonstrate that snapin-dysbindin interaction regulates SV positional priming through BLOC-1/AP-3-dependent sorting. Our study reveals a bipartite regulation of presynaptic activity by endolysosomal trafficking and sorting: LE transport regulates SV pool size, and BLOC-1/AP-3-dependent sorting fine-tunes the Ca(2+) sensitivity of SV release. Therefore, our study provides new mechanistic insights into the maintenance and regulation of SV pool size and synchronized SV fusion through snapin-mediated LE trafficking and endosomal sorting. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Regulation of the creatine transporter by AMP-activated protein kinase in kidney epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Thali, Ramon F.; Smolak, Christy; Gong, Fan; Alzamora, Rodrigo; Wallimann, Theo; Scholz, Roland; Pastor-Soler, Núria M.; Neumann, Dietbert

    2010-01-01

    The metabolic sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates several transport proteins, potentially coupling transport activity to cellular stress and energy levels. The creatine transporter (CRT; SLC6A8) mediates creatine uptake into several cell types, including kidney epithelial cells, where it has been proposed that CRT is important for reclamation of filtered creatine, a process critical for total body creatine homeostasis. Creatine and phosphocreatine provide an intracellular, high-energy phosphate-buffering system essential for maintaining ATP supply in tissues with high energy demands. To test our hypothesis that CRT is regulated by AMPK in the kidney, we examined CRT and AMPK distribution in the kidney and the regulation of CRT by AMPK in cells. By immunofluorescence staining, we detected CRT at the apical pole in a polarized mouse S3 proximal tubule cell line and in native rat kidney proximal tubules, a distribution overlapping with AMPK. Two-electrode voltage-clamp (TEV) measurements of Na+-dependent creatine uptake into CRT-expressing Xenopus laevis oocytes demonstrated that AMPK inhibited CRT via a reduction in its Michaelis-Menten Vmax parameter. [14C]creatine uptake and apical surface biotinylation measurements in polarized S3 cells demonstrated parallel reductions in creatine influx and CRT apical membrane expression after AMPK activation with the AMP-mimetic compound 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribofuranoside. In oocyte TEV experiments, rapamycin and the AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribofuranosyl 5′-monophosphate (ZMP) inhibited CRT currents, but there was no additive inhibition of CRT by ZMP, suggesting that AMPK may inhibit CRT indirectly via the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. We conclude that AMPK inhibits apical membrane CRT expression in kidney proximal tubule cells, which could be important in reducing cellular energy expenditure and unnecessary creatine reabsorption under conditions of local

  3. 5-HT1B autoreceptor regulation of serotonin transporter activity in synaptosomes

    PubMed Central

    Hagan, Catherine E.; McDevitt, Ross A.; Liu, Yusha; Furay, Amy R.; Neumaier, John F.

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin-1B (5-HT1B) autoreceptors are located in serotonin (5-HT) terminals along with serotonin transporters (SERT), and play a critical role in autoregulation of serotonergic neurotransmission, and are implicated in disorders of serotonergic function, particularly emotional regulation. SERT modulates serotonergic neurotransmission by high-affinity reuptake of 5-HT. Alterations in SERT activity are associated with increased risk for depression and anxiety. Several neurotransmitter receptors are known to regulate SERT Km and Vmax, and previous work suggests that 5-HT1B autoreceptors may regulate 5-HT reuptake, in addition to modulating 5-HT release and synthesis. We used rotating disk electrode voltammetry to investigate 5-HT1B autoreceptor regulation of SERT-mediated 5-HT uptake into synaptosomes. The selective 5-HT1B antagonist SB224289 decreased SERT activity in synaptosomes prepared from wild-type but not 5-HT1B knockout mice, whereas SERT uptake was enhanced after pre-treatment with the selective 5-HT1B agonist CP94253. Furthermore, SERT activity varies as a function of 5-HT1B receptor expression—specifically, genetic deletion of 5-HT1B decreased SERT function, while viral-mediated overexpression of 5-HT1B autoreceptors in rat raphe neurons increased SERT activity in rat hippocampal synaptosomes. Considered collectively, these results provide evidence that 5-HT1B autoreceptors regulate SERT activity. Since SERT clearance rate varies as a function of 5-HT1B autoreceptor expression levels and is modulated by both activation and inhibition of 5-HT1B autoreceptors, this dynamic interaction may be an important mechanism of serotonin autoregulation with therapeutic implications. PMID:22961814

  4. Kinesin-1–syntaphilin coupling mediates activity-dependent regulation of axonal mitochondrial transport

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yanmin

    2013-01-01

    Axonal mitochondria are recruited to synaptic terminals in response to neuronal activity, but the mechanisms underlying activity-dependent regulation of mitochondrial transport are largely unknown. In this paper, using genetic mouse model combined with live imaging, we demonstrate that syntaphilin (SNPH) mediates the activity-dependent immobilization of axonal mitochondria through binding to KIF5. In vitro analysis showed that the KIF5–SNPH coupling inhibited the motor adenosine triphosphatase. Neuronal activity further recruited SNPH to axonal mitochondria. This motor-docking interplay was induced by Ca2+ and synaptic activity and was necessary to establish an appropriate balance between motile and stationary axonal mitochondria. Deleting snph abolished the activity-dependent immobilization of axonal mitochondria. We propose an “Engine-Switch and Brake” model, in which SNPH acts both as an engine off switch by sensing mitochondrial Rho guanosine triphosphatase-Ca2+ and as a brake by anchoring mitochondria to the microtubule track. Altogether, our study provides new mechanistic insight into the molecular interplay between motor and docking proteins, which arrests axonal mitochondrial transport in response to changes in neuronal activity. PMID:23857772

  5. Elevation of cortical serotonin transporter activity upon peripheral immune challenge is regulated independently of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation and transporter phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Schwamborn, Robert; Brown, Eric; Haase, Jana

    2016-05-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) is responsible for high-affinity serotonin (5-HT) uptake from extracellular fluid and is a prominent pharmacological target in the treatment of depression. In recent years, depression has also been linked to immune system activation. Inflammatory conditions can cause sickness behaviour and depression-like symptoms in both animals and humans. Since SERT has been proposed as one of the molecular targets in inflammation-induced depression, we applied the widely used lipopolysaccharides (LPS) model to study the effects of peripheral inflammation on SERT activity in the brain. We show that 24 h after intraperitoneal LPS administration, SERT-mediated 5-HT uptake is significantly enhanced in the frontal cortex. Analysis of uptake kinetics revealed that the transport capacity (Vmax ) of cortical SERT was increased in LPS-injected animals, while the Km value remained unchanged. The increase in Vmax was neither due to increased SERT protein expression nor increased synaptic surface exposure. The suppression of SERT activity upon inhibition of p38 MAPK was not selective for LPS-induced enhancement of SERT function. In addition, SERT activity changes in LPS-treated rats are unaffected by nitric oxide synthase and protein kinase G inhibitors. Using the Phos-Tag method, we identified five SERT-specific protein bands representing distinct phosphorylation states of SERT. However, the enhancement of SERT activity in LPS-treated rats was not correlated with altered transporter phosphorylation. Together with previous studies by others, our results suggest that SERT is regulated by multiple mechanisms in response to peripheral immune system activation. Peripheral injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces characteristic sickness and depression-like behaviour in rats over a period of at least 24 h. We show here that the activity of the serotonin transporter (SERT), a prominent antidepressant target, is up-regulated 24 h following LPS

  6. Membrane-Associated Transporter Protein (MATP) Regulates Melanosomal pH and Influences Tyrosinase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bin, Bum-Ho; Bhin, Jinhyuk; Yang, Seung Ha; Shin, Misun; Nam, Yeon-Ju; Choi, Dong-Hwa; Shin, Dong Wook; Lee, Ai-Young; Hwang, Daehee; Cho, Eun-Gyung; Lee, Tae Ryong

    2015-01-01

    The SLC45A2 gene encodes a Membrane-Associated Transporter Protein (MATP). Mutations of this gene cause oculocutaneous albinism type 4 (OCA4). However, the molecular mechanism of its action in melanogenesis has not been elucidated. Here, we discuss the role of MATP in melanin production. The SLC45A2 gene is highly enriched in human melanocytes and melanoma cell lines, and its protein, MATP, is located in melanosomes. The knockdown of MATP using siRNAs reduced melanin content and tyrosinase activity without any morphological change in melanosomes or the expression of melanogenesis-related proteins. Interestingly, the knockdown of MATP significantly lowered the melanosomal pH, as verified through DAMP analysis, suggesting that MATP regulates melanosomal pH and therefore affects tyrosinase activity. Finally, we found that the reduction of tyrosinase activity associated with the knockdown of MATP was readily recovered by copper treatment in the in vitro L-DOPA oxidase activity assay of tyrosinase. Considering that copper is an important element for tyrosinase activity and that its binding to tyrosinase depends on melanosomal pH, MATP may play an important role in regulating tyrosinase activity via controlling melanosomal pH. PMID:26057890

  7. Coordinative modulation of human zinc transporter 2 gene expression through active and suppressive regulators.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yu-Ju; Liu, Ya-Chuan; Lin, Meng-Chieh; Chen, Yi-Ting; Lin, Lih-Yuan

    2015-04-01

    Zinc transporter 2 (ZnT2) is one of the cellular factors responsible for Zn homeostasis. Upon Zn overload, ZnT2 reduces cellular Zn by transporting it into excretory vesicles. We investigated the molecular mechanism that regulates human ZnT2 (hZnT2) gene expression. Zn induces hZnT2 expression in dose- and time-dependent manners. Overexpression of metal-responsive transcription factor 1 (MTF-1) increases hZnT2 transcription, whereas depletion of MTF-1 reduces hZnT2 expression. There are five putative metal response elements (MREs) within 1kb upstream of the hZnT2 gene. A serial deletion of the hZnT2 promoter region (from 5' to 3') shows that the two MREs proximal to the gene are essential for Zn-induced promoter activity. Further mutation analysis concludes that the penultimate MRE (MREb) supports the metal-induced promoter activity. The hZnT2 promoter has also a zinc finger E-box binding homeobox (ZEB) binding element. Mutation or deletion of this ZEB binding element elevates the basal and Zn-induced hZnT2 promoter activities. Knockdown of ZEB1 mRNA enhances the hZnT2 transcript level in HEK-293 cells. In MCF-7 (ZEB-deficient) cells, expression of ZEB proteins attenuates the Zn-induced hZnT2 expression. However, expressions of MTF-1 target genes such as human ZnT1 and metallothionein IIA were not affected. Our study shows the expression of the hZnT2 gene is coordinately regulated via active and suppressive modulators.

  8. Structural basis for the metal-selective activation of the manganese transport regulator of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Kliegman, Joseph I; Griner, Sarah L; Helmann, John D; Brennan, Richard G; Glasfeld, Arthur

    2006-03-21

    The manganese transport regulator (MntR) of Bacillus subtilis is activated by Mn(2+) to repress transcription of genes encoding transporters involved in the uptake of manganese. MntR is also strongly activated by cadmium, both in vivo and in vitro, but it is poorly activated by other metal cations, including calcium and zinc. The previously published MntR.Mn(2+) structure revealed a binuclear complex of manganese ions with a metal-metal separation of 3.3 A (herein designated the AB conformer). Analysis of four additional crystal forms of MntR.Mn(2+) reveals that the AB conformer is only observed in monoclinic crystals at 100 K, suggesting that this conformation may be stabilized by crystal packing forces. In contrast, monoclinic crystals analyzed at room temperature (at either pH 6.5 or pH 8.5), and a second hexagonal crystal form (analyzed at 100 K), all reveal the shift of one manganese ion by 2.5 A, thereby leading to a newly identified conformation (the AC conformer) with an internuclear distance of 4.4 A. Significantly, the cadmium and calcium complexes of MntR also contain binuclear complexes with a 4.4 A internuclear separation. In contrast, the zinc complex of MntR contains only one metal ion per subunit, in the A site. Isothermal titration calorimetry confirms the stoichiometry of Mn(2+), Cd(2+), and Zn(2+) binding to MntR. We propose that the specificity of MntR activation is tied to productive binding of metal ions at two sites; the A site appears to act as a selectivity filter, determining whether the B or C site will be occupied and thereby fully activate MntR.

  9. Extracellular microvesicles from astrocytes contain functional glutamate transporters: regulation by protein kinase C and cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Gosselin, Romain-Daniel; Meylan, Patrick; Decosterd, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Glutamate transport through astrocytic excitatory amino-acid transporters (EAAT)-1 and EAAT-2 is paramount for neural homeostasis. EAAT-1 has been reported in secreted extracellular microvesicles (eMV, such as exosomes) and because the protein kinase C (PKC) family controls the sub-cellular distribution of EAATs, we have explored whether PKCs drive EAATs into eMV. Using rat primary astrocytes, confocal immunofluorescence and ultracentrifugation on sucrose gradient we here report that PKC activation by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) reorganizes EAAT-1 distribution and reduces functional [3H]-aspartate reuptake. Western-blots show that EAAT-1 is present in eMV from astrocyte conditioned medium, together with NaK ATPase and glutamine synthetase all being further increased after PMA treatment. However, nanoparticle tracking analysis reveals that PKC activation did not change particle concentration. Functional analysis indicates that eMV have the capacity to reuptake [3H]-aspartate. In vivo, we demonstrate that spinal astrocytic reaction induced by peripheral nerve lesion (spared nerve injury, SNI) is associated with a phosphorylation of PKC δ together with a shift of EAAT distribution ipsilaterally. Ex vivo, spinal explants from SNI rats release eMV with an increased content of NaK ATPase, EAAT-1 and EAAT-2. These data indicate PKC and cell activation as important regulators of EAAT-1 incorporation in eMV, and raise the possibility that microvesicular EAAT-1 may exert extracellular functions. Beyond a putative role in neuropathic pain, this phenomenon may be important for understanding neural homeostasis and a wide range of neurological diseases associated with astrocytic reaction as well as non-neurological diseases linked to eMV release. PMID:24368897

  10. Active control transport design criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, B. M.; Harris, R. B.

    1976-01-01

    Vehicle design considerations for active control applications to subsonic transports are examined. Active control is defined along with those functions which are considered in the study of design criteria. The FAA regulations governing transport aircraft design are briefly discussed.

  11. Activation of Big Grain1 significantly improves grain size by regulating auxin transport in rice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Linchuan; Tong, Hongning; Xiao, Yunhua; Che, Ronghui; Xu, Fan; Hu, Bin; Liang, Chengzhen; Chu, Jinfang; Li, Jiayang; Chu, Chengcai

    2015-09-01

    Grain size is one of the key factors determining grain yield. However, it remains largely unknown how grain size is regulated by developmental signals. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a dominant mutant big grain1 (Bg1-D) that shows an extra-large grain phenotype from our rice T-DNA insertion population. Overexpression of BG1 leads to significantly increased grain size, and the severe lines exhibit obviously perturbed gravitropism. In addition, the mutant has increased sensitivities to both auxin and N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid, an auxin transport inhibitor, whereas knockdown of BG1 results in decreased sensitivities and smaller grains. Moreover, BG1 is specifically induced by auxin treatment, preferentially expresses in the vascular tissue of culms and young panicles, and encodes a novel membrane-localized protein, strongly suggesting its role in regulating auxin transport. Consistent with this finding, the mutant has increased auxin basipetal transport and altered auxin distribution, whereas the knockdown plants have decreased auxin transport. Manipulation of BG1 in both rice and Arabidopsis can enhance plant biomass, seed weight, and yield. Taking these data together, we identify a novel positive regulator of auxin response and transport in a crop plant and demonstrate its role in regulating grain size, thus illuminating a new strategy to improve plant productivity.

  12. Dietary P regulates phosphate transporter expression, phosphatase activity, and effluent P partitioning in trout culture.

    PubMed

    Coloso, R M; King, K; Fletcher, J W; Weis, P; Werner, A; Ferraris, R P

    2003-08-01

    Phosphate utilization by fish is an important issue because of its critical roles in fish growth and aquatic environmental pollution. High dietary phosphorus (P) levels typically decrease the efficiency of P utilization, thereby increasing the amount of P excreted as metabolic waste in effluents emanating from rainbow trout aquaculture. In mammals, vitamin D3 is a known regulator of P utilization but in fish, its regulatory role is unclear. Moreover, the effects of dietary P and vitamin D3 on expression of enzymatic and transport systems potentially involved in phosphate utilization are little known. We therefore monitored production of effluent P, levels of plasma vitamin D3 metabolites, as well as expression of phosphatases and the sodium phosphate cotransporter (NaPi2) in trout fed semipu diets that varied in dietary P and vitamin D3 levels. Mean soluble P concentrations varied markedly with dietary P but not with vitamin D3, and constituted 40-70% of total effluent P production by trout. Particulate P concentrations accounted for 25-50% of effluent P production, but did not vary with dietary P or vitamin D3. P in settleable wastes accounted for <10% of effluent P. The stronger effect of dietary P on effluent P levels is paralleled by its striking effects on phosphatases and NaPi2. The mRNA abundance of the intestinal and renal sodium phosphate transporters increased in fish fed low dietary P; vitamin D3 had no effect. Low-P diets reduced plasma phosphate concentrations. Intracellular phytase activity increased but brushborder alkaline phosphatase activity decreased in the intestine, pyloric caeca, and gills of trout fed diets containing low dietary P. Vitamin D3 had no effect on enzyme activities. Moreover, plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 were unaffected by dietary P and vitamin D3 levels. The major regulator of P metabolism, and ultimately of levels of P in the effluent from trout culture, is dietary P.

  13. Resveratrol Prevents Retinal Dysfunction by Regulating Glutamate Transporters, Glutamine Synthetase Expression and Activity in Diabetic Retina.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Kaihong; Yang, Na; Wang, Duozi; Li, Suping; Ming, Jian; Wang, Jing; Yu, Xuemei; Song, Yi; Zhou, Xue; Yang, Yongtao

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of resveratrol (RSV) on retinal functions, glutamate transporters (GLAST) and glutamine synthetase (GS) expression in diabetic rats retina, and on glutamate uptake, GS activity, GLAST and GS expression in high glucose-cultured Müller cells. The electroretinogram was used to evaluate retinal functions. Müller cells cultures were prepared from 5- to 7-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats. The expression of GLAST and GS was examined by qRT-PCR, ELISA and western-blotting. Glutamate uptake was measured as (3)H-glutamate contents of the lysates. GS activity was assessed by a spectrophotometric assay. 1- to 7-month RSV administrations (5 and 10 mg/kg/day) significantly alleviated hyperglycemia and weight loss in diabetic rats. RSV administrations also significantly attenuated diabetes-induced decreases in amplitude of a-wave in rod response, decreases in amplitude of a-, and b-wave in cone and rod response and decreases in amplitude of OP2 in oscillatory potentials. 1- to 7-month RSV treatments also significantly inhibited diabetes-induced delay in OP2 implicit times in scotopic 3.0 OPS test. The down-regulated mRNA and protein expression of GLAST and GS in diabetic rats retina was prevented by RSV administrations. In high glucose-treated cultures, Müller cells' glutamate uptake, GS activity, GLAST and GS expression were decreased significantly compared with normal control cultures. RSV (10, 20, and 30 mmol/l) significantly inhibited the HG-induced decreases in glutamate uptake, GS activity, GLAST and GS expression (at least P < 0.05). These beneficial results suggest that RSV may be considered as a therapeutic option to prevent from diabetic retinopathy.

  14. Regulation of Human Hepatic Drug Transporter Activity and Expression by Diesel Exhaust Particle Extract

    PubMed Central

    Le Vee, Marc; Jouan, Elodie; Stieger, Bruno; Lecureur, Valérie; Fardel, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) are common environmental air pollutants primarily affecting the lung. DEPs or chemicals adsorbed on DEPs also exert extra-pulmonary effects, including alteration of hepatic drug detoxifying enzyme expression. The present study was designed to determine whether organic DEP extract (DEPe) may target hepatic drug transporters that contribute in a major way to drug detoxification. Using primary human hepatocytes and transporter-overexpressing cells, DEPe was first shown to strongly inhibit activities of the sinusoidal solute carrier (SLC) uptake transporters organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATP) 1B1, 1B3 and 2B1 and of the canalicular ATP-binding cassette (ABC) efflux pump multidrug resistance-associated protein 2, with IC50 values ranging from approximately 1 to 20 μg/mL and relevant to environmental exposure situations. By contrast, 25 μg/mL DEPe failed to alter activities of the SLC transporter organic cation transporter (OCT) 1 and of the ABC efflux pumps P-glycoprotein and bile salt export pump (BSEP), whereas it only moderately inhibited those of sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide and of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). Treatment by 25 μg/mL DEPe was next demonstrated to induce expression of BCRP at both mRNA and protein level in cultured human hepatic cells, whereas it concomitantly repressed mRNA expression of various transporters, including OATP1B3, OATP2B1, OCT1 and BSEP. Such changes in transporter expression were found to be highly correlated to those caused by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a reference activator of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway. This suggests that DEPe, which is enriched in known ligands of AhR like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alters drug transporter expression via activation of the AhR cascade. Taken together, these data established human hepatic transporters as targets of organic chemicals containing in DEPs, which may contribute to their

  15. Functional identification of activity-regulated, high-affinity glutamine transport in hippocampal neurons inhibited by riluzole.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Jeffrey D

    2017-07-01

    Glutamine (Gln) is considered the preferred precursor for the neurotransmitter pool of glutamate (Glu), the major excitatory transmitter in the mammalian CNS. Here, an activity-regulated, high-affinity Gln transport system is described in developing and mature neuron-enriched hippocampal cultures that is potently inhibited by riluzole (IC50 1.3 ± 0.5 μM), an anti-glutamatergic drug, and is blocked by low concentrations of 2-(methylamino)isobutyrate (MeAIB), a system A transport inhibitor. K(+) -stimulated MeAIB transport displays an affinity (Km ) for MeAIB of 37 ± 1.2 μM, saturates at ~ 200 μM, is dependent on extracellular Ca(2+) , and is blocked by inhibition of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. Spontaneous MeAIB transport is also dependent on extracellullar Ca(2+) and voltage-gated calcium channels, but is also blocked by the Na(+) channel blocker tetrodotoxin, by Glu receptor antagonists, and by GABA indicating its dependence on intact neural circuits driven by endogenous glutamatergic activity. The transport of MeAIB itself does not rely on Ca(2+) , but on Na(+) ions, and is pH sensitive. Activity-regulated, riluzole-sensitive spontaneous and K(+) -stimulated transport is minimal at 7-8 days in vitro, coordinately induced during the next 2 weeks and is maximally expressed by days in vitro > 20; the known period for maturation of the Glu/Gln cycle and regulated pre-synaptic Glu release. Competition analyses with various amino acids indicate that Gln is the most likely physiological substrate. Activity-regulated Gln/MeAIB transport is not observed in astrocytes. The functional identification of activity-regulated, high-affinity, riluzole-sensitive Gln/MeAIB transport in hippocampal neurons may have important ramifications in the neurobiology of activity-stimulated pre-synaptic Glu release, the Glu/Gln cycle between astrocytes and neurons, and neuronal Glu-induced excitotoxicity. Cover Image for this issue: doi: 10.1111/jnc.13805. © 2017

  16. Fluorescent sensors for activity and regulation of the nitrate transceptor CHL1/NRT1.1 and oligopeptide transporters.

    PubMed

    Ho, Cheng-Hsun; Frommer, Wolf B

    2014-03-12

    To monitor nitrate and peptide transport activity in vivo, we converted the dual-affinity nitrate transceptor CHL1/NRT1.1/NPF6.3 and four related oligopeptide transporters PTR1, 2, 4, and 5 into fluorescence activity sensors (NiTrac1, PepTrac). Substrate addition to yeast expressing transporter fusions with yellow fluorescent protein and mCerulean triggered substrate-dependent donor quenching or resonance energy transfer. Fluorescence changes were nitrate/peptide-specific, respectively. Like CHL1, NiTrac1 had biphasic kinetics. Mutation of T101A eliminated high-affinity transport and blocked the fluorescence response to low nitrate. NiTrac was used for characterizing side chains considered important for substrate interaction, proton coupling, and regulation. We observed a striking correlation between transport activity and sensor output. Coexpression of NiTrac with known calcineurin-like proteins (CBL1, 9; CIPK23) and candidates identified in an interactome screen (CBL1, KT2, WNKinase 8) blocked NiTrac1 responses, demonstrating the suitability for in vivo analysis of activity and regulation. The new technology is applicable in plant and medical research. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01917.001.

  17. Fluorescent sensors for activity and regulation of the nitrate transceptor CHL1/NRT1.1 and oligopeptide transporters

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Cheng-Hsun; Frommer, Wolf B

    2014-01-01

    To monitor nitrate and peptide transport activity in vivo, we converted the dual-affinity nitrate transceptor CHL1/NRT1.1/NPF6.3 and four related oligopeptide transporters PTR1, 2, 4, and 5 into fluorescence activity sensors (NiTrac1, PepTrac). Substrate addition to yeast expressing transporter fusions with yellow fluorescent protein and mCerulean triggered substrate-dependent donor quenching or resonance energy transfer. Fluorescence changes were nitrate/peptide-specific, respectively. Like CHL1, NiTrac1 had biphasic kinetics. Mutation of T101A eliminated high-affinity transport and blocked the fluorescence response to low nitrate. NiTrac was used for characterizing side chains considered important for substrate interaction, proton coupling, and regulation. We observed a striking correlation between transport activity and sensor output. Coexpression of NiTrac with known calcineurin-like proteins (CBL1, 9; CIPK23) and candidates identified in an interactome screen (CBL1, KT2, WNKinase 8) blocked NiTrac1 responses, demonstrating the suitability for in vivo analysis of activity and regulation. The new technology is applicable in plant and medical research. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01917.001 PMID:24623305

  18. Regulation of taurine transport at the blood-placental barrier by calcium ion, PKC activator and oxidative stress conditions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In the present study, we investigated the changes of uptake and efflux transport of taurine under various stress conditions using rat conditionally immortalized syncytiotrophoblast cell line (TR-TBT cells), as in vitro blood-placental barrier (BPB) model. Methods The transport of taurine in TR-TBT cells were characterized by cellular uptake study using radiolabeled taurine. The efflux of taurine was measured from the amount of radiolabeled taurine remaining in the cells after the uptake of radiolabeled taurine for 60 min. Results Taurine uptake was significantly decreased by phosphorylation of protein kinase C (PKC) activator in TR-TBT cells. Also, calcium ion (Ca2+) was involved in taurine transport in TR-TBT cells. Taurine uptake was inhibited and efflux was enhanced under calcium free conditions in the cells. In addition, oxidative stress induced the change of taurine transport in TR-TBT cells, but the changes were different depending on the types of oxidative stress inducing agents. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and diethyl maleate (DEM) significantly increased taurine uptake, but H2O2 and nitric oxide (NO) donor decreased taurine uptake in the cells. Taurine efflux was down-regulated by TNF-α in TR-TBT cells. Conclusion Taurine transport in TR-TBT cells were regulated diversely at extracellular Ca2+ level, PKC activator and oxidative stress conditions. It suggested that variable stresses affected the taurine supplies from maternal blood to fetus and taurine level of fetus. PMID:20804613

  19. Regulation of vitamin C transport.

    PubMed

    Wilson, John X

    2005-01-01

    Ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA, oxidized vitamin C) are dietary sources of vitamin C in humans. Both nutrients are absorbed from the lumen of the intestine and renal tubules by, respectively, enterocytes and renal epithelial cells. Subsequently vitamin C circulates in the blood and enters all of the other cells of the body. Concerning flux across the plasma membrane, simple diffusion of ascorbic acid plays only a small or negligible role. More important are specific mechanisms of transport and metabolism that concentrate vitamin C intracellularly to enhance its function as an enzyme cofactor and antioxidant. The known transport mechanisms are facilitated diffusion of DHAA through glucose-sensitive and -insensitive transporters, facilitated diffusion of ascorbate through channels, exocytosis of ascorbate in secretory vesicles, and secondary active transport of ascorbate through the sodium-dependent vitamin C transporters SVCT1 and SVCT2 proteins that are encoded by the genes Slc23a1 and Slc23a2, respectively. Evidence is reviewed indicating that these transport pathways are regulated under physiological conditions and altered by aging and disease.

  20. Differential regulation of glucose transport activity in yeast by specific cAMP signatures.

    PubMed

    Bermejo, Clara; Haerizadeh, Farzad; Sadoine, Mayuri S C; Chermak, Diane; Frommer, Wolf B

    2013-06-15

    Successful colonization and survival in variable environments require a competitive advantage during the initial growth phase after experiencing nutrient changes. Starved yeast cells anticipate exposure to glucose by activating the Hxt5p (hexose transporter 5) glucose transporter, which provides an advantage during early phases after glucose resupply. cAMP and glucose FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer) sensors were used to identify three signalling pathways that co-operate in the anticipatory Hxt5p activity in glucose-starved cells: as expected the Snf1 (sucrose nonfermenting 1) AMP kinase pathway, but, surprisingly, the sugar-dependent G-protein-coupled Gpr1 (G-protein-coupled receptor 1)/cAMP/PKA (protein kinase A) pathway and the Pho85 (phosphate metabolism 85)/Plc (phospholipase C) 6/7 pathway. Gpr1/cAMP/PKA are key elements of a G-protein-coupled sugar response pathway that produces a transient cAMP peak to induce growth-related genes. A novel function of the Gpr1/cAMP/PKA pathway was identified in glucose-starved cells: during starvation the Gpr1/cAMP/PKA pathway is required to maintain Hxt5p activity in the absence of glucose-induced cAMP spiking. During starvation, cAMP levels remain low triggering expression of HXT5, whereas cAMP spiking leads to a shift to the high capacity Hxt isoforms.

  1. Neuronal activity mediated regulation of glutamate transporter GLT‐1 surface diffusion in rat astrocytes in dissociated and slice cultures

    PubMed Central

    Al Awabdh, Sana; Gupta‐Agarwal, Swati; Sheehan, David F.; Muir, James; Norkett, Rosalind; Twelvetrees, Alison E.; Griffin, Lewis D.

    2016-01-01

    The astrocytic GLT‐1 (or EAAT2) is the major glutamate transporter for clearing synaptic glutamate. While the diffusion dynamics of neurotransmitter receptors at the neuronal surface are well understood, far less is known regarding the surface trafficking of transporters in subcellular domains of the astrocyte membrane. Here, we have used live‐cell imaging to study the mechanisms regulating GLT‐1 surface diffusion in astrocytes in dissociated and brain slice cultures. Using GFP‐time lapse imaging, we show that GLT‐1 forms stable clusters that are dispersed rapidly and reversibly upon glutamate treatment in a transporter activity‐dependent manner. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and single particle tracking using quantum dots revealed that clustered GLT‐1 is more stable than diffuse GLT‐1 and that glutamate increases GLT‐1 surface diffusion in the astrocyte membrane. Interestingly, the two main GLT‐1 isoforms expressed in the brain, GLT‐1a and GLT‐1b, are both found to be stabilized opposed to synapses under basal conditions, with GLT‐1b more so. GLT‐1 surface mobility is increased in proximity to activated synapses and alterations of neuronal activity can bidirectionally modulate the dynamics of both GLT‐1 isoforms. Altogether, these data reveal that astrocytic GLT‐1 surface mobility, via its transport activity, is modulated during neuronal firing, which may be a key process for shaping glutamate clearance and glutamatergic synaptic transmission. GLIA 2016;64:1252–1264 PMID:27189737

  2. Achieving global perfect homeostasis through transporter regulation

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Nutrient homeostasis—the maintenance of relatively constant internal nutrient concentrations in fluctuating external environments—is essential to the survival of most organisms. Transcriptional regulation of plasma membrane transporters by internal nutrient concentrations is typically assumed to be the main mechanism by which homeostasis is achieved. While this mechanism is homeostatic we show that it does not achieve global perfect homeostasis—a condition where internal nutrient concentrations are completely independent of external nutrient concentrations for all external nutrient concentrations. We show that the criterion for global perfect homeostasis is that transporter levels must be inversely proportional to net nutrient flux into the cell and that downregulation of active transporters (activity-dependent regulation) is a simple and biologically plausible mechanism that meets this criterion. Activity-dependent transporter regulation creates a trade-off between robustness and efficiency, i.e., the system's ability to withstand perturbation in external nutrients and the transporter production rate needed to maintain homeostasis. Additionally, we show that a system that utilizes both activity-dependent transporter downregulation and regulation of transporter synthesis by internal nutrient levels can create a system that mitigates the shortcomings of each of the individual mechanisms. This analysis highlights the utility of activity-dependent regulation in achieving homeostasis and calls for a re-examination of the mechanisms of regulation of other homeostatic systems. PMID:28414718

  3. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator interacts with and regulates the activity of the HCO3- salvage transporter human Na+-HCO3- cotransport isoform 3.

    PubMed

    Park, Meeyoung; Ko, Shigeru B H; Choi, Joo Young; Muallem, Gaia; Thomas, Philip J; Pushkin, Alexander; Lee, Myeong-Sok; Kim, Joo Young; Lee, Min Goo; Muallem, Shmuel; Kurtz, Ira

    2002-12-27

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) regulates both HCO(3)(-) secretion and HCO(3)(-) salvage in secretory epithelia. At least two luminal transporters mediate HCO(3)(-) salvage, the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE3) and the Na(+)-HCO(3)(-) cotransport (NBC3). In a previous work, we show that CFTR interacts with NHE3 to regulate its activity (Ahn, W., Kim, K. W., Lee, J. A., Kim, J. Y., Choi, J. Y., Moe, O. M., Milgram, S. L., Muallem, S., and Lee, M. G. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 17236-17243). In this work, we report that transient or stable expression of human NBC3 (hNBC3) in HEK cells resulted in a Na(+)-dependent, DIDS (4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid)- and 5-ethylisopropylamiloride-insensitive HCO(3)(-) transport. Stimulation of CFTR with forskolin markedly inhibited NBC3 activity. This inhibition was prevented by the inhibition of protein kinase A. NBC3 and CFTR could be reciprocally coimmunoprecipitated from transfected HEK cells and from the native pancreas and submandibular and parotid glands. Precipitation of NBC3 or CFTR from transfected HEK293 cells and from the pancreas and submandibular gland also coimmunoprecipitated EBP50. Glutathione S-transferase-EBP50 pulled down CFTR and hNBC3 from cell lysates when expressed individually and as a complex when expressed together. Notably, the deletion of the C-terminal PDZ binding motifs of CFTR or hNBC3 prevented coimmunoprecipitation of the proteins and inhibition of hNBC3 activity by CFTR. We conclude that CFTR and NBC3 reside in the same HCO(3)(-)-transporting complex with the aid of PDZ domain-containing scaffolds, and this interaction is essential for regulation of NBC3 activity by CFTR. Furthermore, these findings add additional evidence for the suggestion that CFTR regulates the overall trans-cellular HCO(3)(-) transport by regulating the activity of all luminal HCO(3)(-) secretion and salvage mechanisms of secretory epithelial cells.

  4. Nicotine-induced activation of soluble adenylyl cyclase participates in ion transport regulation in mouse tracheal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Hollenhorst, Monika I; Lips, Katrin S; Kummer, Wolfgang; Fronius, Martin

    2012-11-27

    Functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) have been identified in airway epithelia and their location in the apical and basolateral membrane makes them targets for acetylcholine released from neuronal and non-neuronal sources. One function of nAChR in airway epithelia is their involvement in the regulation of transepithelial ion transport by activation of chloride and potassium channels. However, the mechanisms underlying this nicotine-induced activation of ion transport are not fully elucidated. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of adenylyl cyclases in the nicotine-induced ion current in mouse tracheal epithelium. To evaluate the nicotine-mediated changes of transepithelial ion transport processes electrophysiological Ussing chamber measurements were applied and nicotine-induced ion currents were recorded in the absence and presence of adenylyl cyclase inhibitors. The ion current changes induced by nicotine (100 μM, apical) were not altered in the presence of high doses of atropine (25 μM, apical and basolateral), underlining the involvement of nAChR. Experiments with the transmembrane adenylyl cyclase inhibitor 2'5'-dideoxyadenosine (50 μM, apical and basolateral) and the soluble adenylyl cyclase inhibitor KH7 (10 μM, apical and basolateral) both reduced the nicotine-mediated ion current to a similar extent. Yet, a statistically significant reduction was obtained only in the experiments with KH7. This study indicates that nicotine binding to nAChR in mouse tracheal epithelium activates transepithelial ion transport involving adenylyl cyclase activity. This might be important for novel therapeutic strategies targeting epithelial ion transport mediated by the non-neuronal cholinergic system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Strategies for optimization of mineral nutrient transport in plants: multilevel regulation of nutrient-dependent dynamics of root architecture and transporter activity.

    PubMed

    Aibara, Izumi; Miwa, Kyoko

    2014-12-01

    How do sessile plants cope with irregularities in soil nutrient availability? The uptake of essential minerals from the soil influences plant growth and development. However, most environments do not provide sufficient nutrients; rather nutrient distribution in the soil can be uneven and change temporally according to environmental factors. To maintain mineral nutrient homeostasis in their tissues, plants have evolved sophisticated systems for coping with spatial and temporal variability in soil nutrient concentrations. Among these are mechanisms for modulating root system architecture in response to nutrient availability. This review discusses recent advances in knowledge of the two important strategies for optimizing nutrient uptake and translocation in plants: root architecture modification and transporter expression control in response to nutrient availability. Recent studies have determined (i) nutrient-specific root patterns; (ii) their physiological consequences; and (iii) the molecular mechanisms underlying these modulation systems that operate to facilitate efficient nutrient acquisition. Another mechanism employed by plants in nutrient-heterogeneous soils involves modification of nutrient transport activities in a nutrient concentration-dependent manner. In recent years, considerable progress has been made in characterizing the diverse functions of transporters for specific nutrients; it is now clear that the expression and activities of nutrient transporters are finely regulated in multiple steps at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels for adaptation to a wide range of nutrient conditions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Cocaine Up-regulation of the Norepinephrine Transporter Requires Threonine 30 Phosphorylation by p38 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase*

    PubMed Central

    Mannangatti, Padmanabhan; Arapulisamy, Obulakshmi; Shippenberg, Toni S .; Ramamoorthy, Sammanda; Jayanthi, Lankupalle D.

    2011-01-01

    The norepinephrine (NE) transporter (NET) regulates NE signaling by rapidly clearing synaptic NE. Cocaine binds NET and modulates NE transport. These actions contribute to rewarding effects and abuse liability of cocaine. Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades is implicated in cocaine-induced neuroadaptations. However, the role of MAPK and the mechanisms involved in cocaine modulation of NET are not clear. Acute intra-peritoneal injections of cocaine (20 mg/kg body weight) to rats resulted in increased NE uptake by prefrontal cortex (PFC) synaptosomes with a parallel increase in the surface expression of endogenous NET. Cocaine also enhanced the immunoreactivity of phospho-p38 MAPK in the PFC synaptosomes without affecting the total p38 MAPK. In vitro cocaine (30–50 μm) treatment of rat PFC synaptosomes increased native NET function, surface expression, and phosphorylation in a manner sensitive to p38 MAPK inhibition by PD169316. We next examined cocaine-elicited effects on wild-type human NET (hNET) expressed heterologously in human placental trophoblast cells to gain more insights into the mechanisms involved. Cocaine treatment of hNET expressing human placental trophoblast cells up-regulated the function, surface expression, and phosphorylation of hNET in a PD169316-sensitive manner. In addition, cocaine inhibited constitutive endocytosis of hNET. Mutational analysis of serine and threonine residues revealed that substitution of threonine 30, located at the amino terminus of hNET with alanine (T30A-hNET), abolished cocaine-induced up-regulation of NET function, surface expression, and phosphorylation. Furthermore, cocaine did not alter T30A-hNET endocytosis. These studies identify a novel molecular mechanism that cocaine-activated p38 MAPK-mediated phosphorylation of NET-T30 dictates surface NET availability, and hence, NE transport. PMID:21498515

  7. Cocaine up-regulation of the norepinephrine transporter requires threonine 30 phosphorylation by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Mannangatti, Padmanabhan; Arapulisamy, Obulakshmi; Shippenberg, Toni S; Ramamoorthy, Sammanda; Jayanthi, Lankupalle D

    2011-06-10

    The norepinephrine (NE) transporter (NET) regulates NE signaling by rapidly clearing synaptic NE. Cocaine binds NET and modulates NE transport. These actions contribute to rewarding effects and abuse liability of cocaine. Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades is implicated in cocaine-induced neuroadaptations. However, the role of MAPK and the mechanisms involved in cocaine modulation of NET are not clear. Acute intra-peritoneal injections of cocaine (20 mg/kg body weight) to rats resulted in increased NE uptake by prefrontal cortex (PFC) synaptosomes with a parallel increase in the surface expression of endogenous NET. Cocaine also enhanced the immunoreactivity of phospho-p38 MAPK in the PFC synaptosomes without affecting the total p38 MAPK. In vitro cocaine (30-50 μM) treatment of rat PFC synaptosomes increased native NET function, surface expression, and phosphorylation in a manner sensitive to p38 MAPK inhibition by PD169316. We next examined cocaine-elicited effects on wild-type human NET (hNET) expressed heterologously in human placental trophoblast cells to gain more insights into the mechanisms involved. Cocaine treatment of hNET expressing human placental trophoblast cells up-regulated the function, surface expression, and phosphorylation of hNET in a PD169316-sensitive manner. In addition, cocaine inhibited constitutive endocytosis of hNET. Mutational analysis of serine and threonine residues revealed that substitution of threonine 30, located at the amino terminus of hNET with alanine (T30A-hNET), abolished cocaine-induced up-regulation of NET function, surface expression, and phosphorylation. Furthermore, cocaine did not alter T30A-hNET endocytosis. These studies identify a novel molecular mechanism that cocaine-activated p38 MAPK-mediated phosphorylation of NET-T30 dictates surface NET availability, and hence, NE transport.

  8. Insulin Regulates the Activity of the High-Affinity Choline Transporter CHT

    PubMed Central

    Fishwick, Katherine J.; Rylett, R. Jane

    2015-01-01

    Studies in humans and animal models show that neuronal insulin resistance increases the risk of developing Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), and that insulin treatment may promote memory function. Cholinergic neurons play a critical role in cognitive and attentional processing and their dysfunction early in AD pathology may promote the progression of AD pathology. Synthesis and release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) is closely linked to the activity of the high-affinity choline transporter protein (CHT), but the impact of insulin receptor signaling and neuronal insulin resistance on these aspects of cholinergic function are unknown. In this study, we used differentiated SH-SY5Y cells stably-expressing CHT proteins to study the effect of insulin signaling on CHT activity and function. We find that choline uptake activity measured after acute addition of 20 nM insulin is significantly lower in cells that were grown for 24 h in media containing insulin compared to cells grown in the absence of insulin. This coincides with loss of ability to increase phospho-Protein Kinase B (PKB)/Akt levels in response to acute insulin stimulation in the chronic insulin-treated cells. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) in cells significantly lowers phospho-PKB/Akt levels and decreases choline uptake activity. We show total internal reflection microscopy (TIRF) imaging of the dynamic movement of CHT proteins in live cells in response to depolarization and drug treatments. These data show that acute exposure of depolarized cells to insulin is coupled to transiently increased levels of CHT proteins at the cell surface, and that this is attenuated by chronic insulin exposure. Moreover, prolonged inhibition of PI3-kinase results in enhanced levels of CHT proteins at the cell surface by decreasing their rate of internalization. PMID:26161852

  9. Bundling dynamics regulates the active mechanics and transport in carbon nanotube networks and their nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahm, Myung Gwan; Wang, Hailong; Jung, Hyun Young; Hong, Sanghyun; Lee, Sung-Goo; Kim, Sung-Ryong; Upmanyu, Moneesh; Jung, Yung Joon

    2012-05-01

    High-density carbon nanotube networks (CNNs) continue to attract interest as active elements in nanoelectronic devices, nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) and multifunctional nanocomposites. The interplay between the network nanostructure and its properties is crucial, yet current understanding remains limited to the passive response. Here, we employ a novel superstructure consisting of millimeter-long vertically aligned single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) sandwiched between polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layers to quantify the effect of two classes of mechanical stimuli, film densification and stretching, on the electronic and thermal transport across the network. The network deforms easily with an increase in the electrical and thermal conductivities, suggestive of a floppy yet highly reconfigurable network. Insight from atomistically informed coarse-grained simulations uncover an interplay between the extent of lateral assembly of the bundles, modulated by surface zipping/unzipping, and the elastic energy associated with the bent conformations of the nanotubes/bundles. During densification, the network becomes highly interconnected yet we observe a modest increase in bundling primarily due to the reduced spacing between the SWCNTs. The stretching, on the other hand, is characterized by an initial debundling regime as the strain accommodation occurs via unzipping of the branched interconnects, followed by rapid rebundling as the strain transfers to the increasingly aligned bundles. In both cases, the increase in the electrical and thermal conductivity is primarily due to the increase in bundle size; the changes in network connectivity have a minor effect on the transport. Our results have broad implications for filamentous networks of inorganic nanoassemblies composed of interacting tubes, wires and ribbons/belts.High-density carbon nanotube networks (CNNs) continue to attract interest as active elements in nanoelectronic devices, nanoelectromechanical systems

  10. Ctr9, a Protein in the Transcription Complex Paf1, Regulates Dopamine Transporter Activity at the Plasma Membrane*

    PubMed Central

    De Gois, Stéphanie; Slama, Patrick; Pietrancosta, Nicolas; Erdozain, Amaia M.; Louis, Franck; Bouvrais-Veret, Caroline; Daviet, Laurent; Giros, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) is a major regulator of sensorimotor and cognitive functions. The DA transporter (DAT) is the key protein that regulates the spatial and temporal activity of DA release into the synaptic cleft via the rapid reuptake of DA into presynaptic termini. Several lines of evidence have suggested that transporter-interacting proteins may play a role in DAT function and regulation. Here, we identified the tetratricopeptide repeat domain-containing protein Ctr9 as a novel DAT binding partner using a yeast two-hybrid system. We showed that Ctr9 is expressed in dopaminergic neurons and forms a stable complex with DAT in vivo via GST pulldown and co-immunoprecipitation assays. In mammalian cells co-expressing both proteins, Ctr9 partially colocalizes with DAT at the plasma membrane. This interaction between DAT and Ctr9 results in a dramatic enhancement of DAT-mediated DA uptake due to an increased number of DAT transporters at the plasma membrane. We determined that the binding of Ctr9 to DAT requires residues YKF in the first half of the DAT C terminus. In addition, we characterized Ctr9, providing new insight into this protein. Using three-dimensional modeling, we identified three novel tetratricopeptide repeat domains in the Ctr9 sequence, and based on deletion mutation experiments, we demonstrated the role of the SH2 domain of Ctr9 in nuclear localization. Our results demonstrate that Ctr9 localization is not restricted to the nucleus, as previously described for the transcription complex Paf1. Taken together, our data provide evidence that Ctr9 modulates DAT function by regulating its trafficking. PMID:26048990

  11. Schisandra chinensis regulates drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters via activation of Nrf2-mediated signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    He, Jin-Lian; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Yin, Juan-Juan; He, Chang-Qiang; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Yu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) and drug transporters are regulated via epigenetic, transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and translational and posttranslational modifications. Phase I and II DMEs and drug transporters play an important role in the disposition and detoxification of a large number of endogenous and exogenous compounds. The nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) is a critical regulator of a variety of important cytoprotective genes that are involved in disposition and detoxification of xenobiotics. Schisandra chinensis (SC) is a commonly used traditional Chinese herbal medicine that has been primarily used to protect the liver because of its potent antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. SC can modulate some DMEs and drug transporters, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In this study, we aimed to explore the role of Nrf2 in the regulatory effect of SC extract (SCE) on selected DMEs and drug transporters in human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line (HepG2) cells. The results showed that SCE, schisandrin A, and schisandrin B significantly increased the expression of NAD(P)H: Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate-oxidase or:quinone oxidoreductase 1, heme oxygenase-1, glutamate–cysteine ligase, and glutathione S-transferase A4 at both transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Incubation of HepG2 cells with SCE resulted in a significant increase in the intracellular level of glutathione and total glutathione S-transferase content. SCE significantly elevated the messenger ribonucleic acid and protein levels of P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 and 4, whereas the expression of organic anion transporting peptide 1A2 and 1B1 was significantly downregulated by SCE. Knockdown of Nrf2 by small interfering ribonucleic acid attenuated the regulatory effect of SCE on these DMEs and drug transporters. SCE significantly upregulated Nrf2 and promoted the translocation of Nrf2 from cytoplasm to

  12. Cell volume regulation by trout erythrocytes: characteristics of the transport systems activated by hypotonic swelling.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Romeu, F; Cossins, A R; Motais, R

    1991-01-01

    1. An osmolality reduction of the suspending medium leads to osmotic swelling of trout erythrocytes, which is followed by a volume readjustment towards the original level. The regulatory volume decrease (RVD) was not complete after 1 h. 2. During RVD the cells lost K+ and Cl- but gained Na+. This entry of Na+, which is about half the K+ loss, explains the incomplete volume recovery (it was complete when Na+ was replaced by impermeant N-methyl-D-glucamine). The cells also lose large quantities of taurine, which accounts for about 53% of the volume recovery. In addition RVD is accompanied by the activation of a pathway allowing some large organic cations which are normally impermeant, such as choline or tetramethyl-ammonium, to rapidly penetrate the cells. 3. The swelling-activated K+ loss is not significantly affected by replacement of Cl- by NO3-, indicating that K+ moves through a Cl(-)-independent K+ pathway. Furosemide, DIDS (4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid) and niflumic acid inhibit the K+ loss. From experiments performed in high-K(+)-containing media, it appears that these compounds block the K+ flux, not by inhibiting Cl- movements but by interfering with the K+ pathway. 4. All the volume-activated pathways (K+, Na+, taurine, choline) are fully inhibited by furosemide and by inhibitors of the anion exchanger such as DIDS and niflumic acid. The concentration required for 50% inhibition (IC50) of both inorganic cations and taurine appears to be similar. It is proposed that DIDS interacts with a unique target which controls all the volume-sensitive transport systems.

  13. The KDEL receptor couples to Gαq/11 to activate Src kinases and regulate transport through the Golgi

    PubMed Central

    Giannotta, Monica; Ruggiero, Carmen; Grossi, Mauro; Cancino, Jorge; Capitani, Mirco; Pulvirenti, Teodoro; Consoli, Grazia Maria Letizia; Geraci, Corrada; Fanelli, Francesca; Luini, Alberto; Sallese, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Membrane trafficking involves large fluxes of cargo and membrane across separate compartments. These fluxes must be regulated by control systems to maintain homoeostasis. While control systems for other key functions such as protein folding or the cell cycle are well known, the mechanisms that control secretory transport are poorly understood. We have previously described a signalling circuit operating at the Golgi complex that regulates intra-Golgi trafficking and is initiated by the KDEL receptor (KDEL-R), a protein previously known to mediate protein recycling from the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here, we investigated the KDEL-R signalling mechanism. We show that the KDEL-R is predicted to fold like a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), and that it binds and activates the heterotrimeric signalling G-protein Gαq/11 which, in turn, regulates transport through the Golgi complex. These findings reveal an unexpected GPCR-like mode of action of the KDEL-R and shed light on a core molecular control mechanism of intra-Golgi traffic. PMID:22580821

  14. Down-regulation of Na+-coupled glutamate transporter EAAT3 and EAAT4 by AMP-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Sopjani, Mentor; Alesutan, Ioana; Dërmaku-Sopjani, Miribane; Fraser, Scott; Kemp, Bruce E; Föller, Michael; Lang, Florian

    2010-06-01

    The glutamate transporters EAAT3 and EAAT4 are expressed in neurons. They contribute to the cellular uptake of glutamate and aspartate and thus to the clearance of the excitatory transmitters from the extracellular space. During ischemia, extracellular accumulation of glutamate may trigger excitotoxicity. Energy depletion leads to activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a kinase enhancing energy production and limiting energy expenditure. The present study thus explored the possibility that AMPK regulates EAAT3 and/or EAAT4. To this end, EAAT3 or EAAT4 were expressed in Xenopus oocytes with or without AMPK and electrogenic glutamate transport determined by dual electrode voltage clamp. In EAAT3- and in EAAT4-expressing oocytes glutamate generated a current (I(g)), which was half maximal (K(M)) at 74 microM (EAAT3) or at 4 microM (EAAT4) glutamate. Co-expression of constitutively active (gammaR70Q)AMPK or of wild type AMPK did not affect K(M) but significantly decreased the maximal I(g) in both EAAT3- (by 34%) and EAAT4- (by 49%) expressing oocytes. Co-expression of the inactive mutant (alphaK45R)AMPK [alpha1(K45R)beta1gamma1] did not appreciably affect I(g). According to confocal microscopy and chemiluminescence co-expression of (gammaR70Q)AMPK or of wild type AMPK reduced the membrane abundance of EAAT3 and EAAT4. The observations show that AMPK down-regulates Na(+)-coupled glutamate transport.

  15. Real-time, Spatially Resolved Analysis of Serotonin Transporter Activity And Regulation Using the Fluorescent Substrate, ASP+

    PubMed Central

    Oz, M.; Libby, T.; Kivell, B.; Jaligam, V.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Shippenberg, T.S.

    2010-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) mediates clearance of serotonin from the synapse, thereby, regulating extracellular serotonin concentrations. Radioligand uptake techniques are typically used to assess SERT function in tissue and heterologous expression systems. The need for sufficient protein in samples, however, requires use of homogenate preparations, potentially masking effects limited to specific cell populations. 4-(4-(dimethylamino)-styryl)-N-methylpyridinium (ASP+) is a fluorescent monoamine transporter substrate that has been used for real-time monitoring of dopamine and norepinephrine transporter function in single cells. The present live cell imaging studies examine the utility of ASP+ for quantifying hSERT function in HEK-293 and neuroblastoma cells. We show rapid membrane binding and intracellular ASP+ accumulation in hSERT expressing cells. Accumulation is saturable; dependent on temperature and the presence of sodium and chloride in the media, and attenuated by serotonin. Acute or prolonged exposure of cells to serotonin re-uptake inhibitors produces a concentration-dependent decrease in accumulation. Similar effects are produced by PKC activation whereas p38MAPK activation increases ASP+ accumulation. These data demonstrate the validity of ASP+ as a probe for monitoring SERT function in living cells. Alterations in SERT binding and uptake can be quantified in the same cell and use of a within cell design permits analysis of time-related alterations in SERT function. PMID:20524964

  16. Adaptive regulation of intestinal nutrient transporters.

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, J M; Karasov, W H

    1987-01-01

    Because most eukaryotic somatic cells are bathed in a constant internal milieu, most of their proteins are constitutive, unlike the adaptive enzymes of bacteria. However, intestinal mucosal cells, like bacteria, face a varying milieu. Hence, we tested for adaptive regulation of intestinal nutrient transporters, sought its functional significance, and compared it with regulation of bacterial proteins. All 12 transporters studied proved to be regulated by dietary substrate levels. Regulation in the intestine is slower than in bacteria and shows lower peak-to-basal activity levels. Regulatory patterns vary greatly among transporters: two sugars and two nonessential amino acids monotonically up-regulate their transporters, two vitamins and three minerals monotonically down-regulate their transporters, and two transporters of essential amino acids respond nonmonotonically to levels of their substrates. These varied patterns arise from trade-offs among four factors: transporter costs, calories yielded by metabolizable substrates, fixed daily requirements of essential nutrients, and toxicity of certain nutrients in large amounts. Based on these trade-offs, we predict the form of regulatory pattern for intestinal transporters not yet studied. PMID:3470788

  17. Abundance of amino acid transporters involved in mTORC1 activation in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs is developmentally regulated

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previously we demonstrated that the insulinand amino acid-induced activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is developmentally regulated in neonatal pigs. Recent studies have indicated that members of the System A transporter (SNAT2), the System N transporter (SNAT3), the Sy...

  18. Regulation of the high-affinity choline transporter activity and trafficking by its association with cholesterol-rich lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    Cuddy, Leah K; Winick-Ng, Warren; Rylett, Rebecca Jane

    2014-03-01

    The sodium-coupled, hemicholinium-3-sensitive, high-affinity choline transporter (CHT) is responsible for transport of choline into cholinergic nerve terminals from the synaptic cleft following acetylcholine release and hydrolysis. In this study, we address regulation of CHT function by plasma membrane cholesterol. We show for the first time that CHT is concentrated in cholesterol-rich lipid rafts in both SH-SY5Y cells and nerve terminals from mouse forebrain. Treatment of SH-SY5Y cells expressing rat CHT with filipin, methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβC) or cholesterol oxidase significantly decreased choline uptake. In contrast, CHT activity was increased by addition of cholesterol to membranes using cholesterol-saturated MβC. Kinetic analysis of binding of [(3)H]hemicholinium-3 to CHT revealed that reducing membrane cholesterol with MβC decreased both the apparent binding affinity (KD) and maximum number of binding sites (Bmax ); this was confirmed by decreased plasma membrane CHT protein in lipid rafts in cell surface protein biotinylation assays. Finally, the loss of cell surface CHT associated with lipid raft disruption was not because of changes in CHT internalization. In summary, we provide evidence that CHT association with cholesterol-rich rafts is critical for transporter function and localization. Alterations in plasma membrane cholesterol cholinergic nerve terminals could diminish cholinergic transmission by reducing choline availability for acetylcholine synthesis. The sodium-coupled choline transporter CHT moves choline into cholinergic nerve terminals to serve as substrate for acetylcholine synthesis. We show for the first time that CHT is concentrated in cholesterol-rich lipid rafts, and decreasing membrane cholesterol significantly reduces both choline uptake activity and cell surface CHT protein levels. CHT association with cholesterol-rich rafts is critical for its function, and alterations in plasma membrane cholesterol could diminish cholinergic

  19. Interferon-gamma regulates nucleoside transport systems in macrophages through signal transduction and activator of transduction factor 1 (STAT1)-dependent and -independent signalling pathways.

    PubMed Central

    Soler, Concepció; Felipe, Antonio; García-Manteiga, José; Serra, Maria; Guillén-Gómez, Elena; Casado, F Javier; MacLeod, Carol; Modolell, Manuel; Pastor-Anglada, Marçal; Celada, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    The expressions of CNT and ENT (concentrative and equilibrative nucleoside transporters) in macrophages are differentially regulated by IFN-gamma (interferon-gamma). This cytokine controls gene expression through STAT1-dependent and/or -independent pathways (where STAT1 stands for signal transduction and activator of transcription 1). In the present study, the role of STAT1 in the response of nucleoside transporters to IFN-gamma was studied using macrophages from STAT1 knockout mice. IFN-gamma triggered an inhibition of ENT1-related nucleoside transport activity through STAT1-dependent mechanisms. Such inhibition of macrophage growth and ENT1 activity by IFN-gamma is required for DNA synthesis. Interestingly, IFN-gamma led to an induction of the CNT1- and CNT2-related nucleoside transport activities independent of STAT1, thus ensuring the supply of extracellular nucleosides for the STAT1-independent RNA synthesis. IFN-gamma up-regulated CNT2 mRNA and CNT1 protein levels and down-regulated ENT1 mRNA in both wild-type and STAT1 knockout macrophages. This is consistent with a STAT1-independent, long-term-mediated, probably transcription-dependent, regulation of nucleoside transporter genes. Moreover, STAT1-dependent post-transcriptional mechanisms are implicated in the regulation of ENT1 activity. Although nitric oxide is involved in the regulation of ENT1 activity in B-cells at a post-transcriptional level, our results show that STAT1-dependent induction of nitric oxide by IFN-gamma is not implicated in the regulation of ENT1 activity in macrophages. Our results indicate that both STAT1-dependent and -independent pathways are involved in the regulation of nucleoside transporters by IFN-gamma in macrophages. PMID:12868960

  20. Regulation of auxin transport during gravitropism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashotte, A.; Brady, S.; Kirpalani, N.; Buer, C.; Muday, G.

    Plants respond to changes in the gravity vector by differential growth across the gravity-stimulated organ. The plant hormone auxin, which is normally basipetally transported, changes in direction and auxin redistribution has been suggested to drive this differential growth or gravitropism. The mechanisms by which auxin transport directionality changes in response to a change in gravity vector are largely unknown. Using the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, we have been exploring several regulatory mechanisms that may control auxin transport. Mutations that alter protein phosphorylation suggest that auxin transport in arabidopsis roots may be controlled via phosphorylation and this signal may facilitate gravitropic bending. The protein kinase mutant pinoid (pid9) has reduced auxin transport; whereas the protein phosphatase mutant, rcn1, has elevated transport, suggesting reciprocal regulation of auxin transport by reversible protein phosphorylation. In both of these mutants, the auxin transport defects are accompanied by gravitropic defects, linking phosphorylation signaling to gravity-induced changes in auxin transport. Additionally, auxin transport may be regulated during gravity response by changes in an endogenous auxin efflux inhibitor. Flavonoids, such as quercetin and kaempferol, have been implicated in regulation of auxin transport in vivo and in vitro. Mutants that make no flavonoids have reduced root gravitropic bending. Furthermore, changes in auxin-induced gene expression and flavonoid accumulation patterns have been observed during gravity stimulation. Current studies are examining whether there are spatial and temporal changes in flavonoid accumulation that precede gravitropic bending and whether the absence of these changes are the cause of the altered gravity response in plants with mutations that block flavonoid synthesis. These results support the idea that auxin transport may be regulated during gravity response by several mechanisms including

  1. The Structural Basis for the Metal Selective Activation of the Manganese Transport Regulator of Bacillus subtilis†,§

    PubMed Central

    Kliegman, Joseph I.; Griner, Sarah L.; Helmann, John D.; Brennan, Richard G.; Glasfeld, Arthur

    2008-01-01

    The manganese transport regulator (MntR) of Bacillus subtilis is activated by Mn2+ to repress transcription of genes encoding transporters involved in the uptake of manganese. MntR is also strongly activated by cadmium, both in vivo and in vitro, but it is poorly activated by other metal cations, including calcium and zinc. The previously published MntR•Mn2+ structure revealed a binuclear complex of manganese ions with a metal-metal separation of 3.3 Å (herein designated the AB conformer). Analysis of four additional crystal forms of MntR•Mn2+ reveals that the AB conformer is only observed in monoclinic crystals at 100 K, suggesting that this conformation may be stabilized by crystal packing forces. In contrast, monoclinic crystals analyzed at room temperature (at either pH 6.5 or 8.5), and a second hexagonal crystal form (analyzed at 100 K), all reveal the shift of one manganese ion by 2.5 Å thereby leading to a newly identified conformation (the AC conformer) with an internuclear distance of 4.4 Å. Significantly, the cadmium and calcium complexes of MntR also contain binuclear complexes with a 4.4 Å internuclear separation. In contrast, the zinc complex of MntR contains only one metal ion per subunit, in the A site. Isothermal titration calorimetry confirms the stoichiometry of Mn2+, Cd2+ and Zn2+ binding to MntR. We propose that the specificity of MntR activation is tied to productive binding of metal ions at two sites; the A site appears to act as a selectivity filter, determining whether the B or C site will be occupied and thereby fully activate MntR. PMID:16533030

  2. Impacts of human activities on nutrient transport in the Yellow River: The role of the Water-Sediment Regulation Scheme.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinyu; Chen, Hontao; Jiang, Xueyan; Yu, Zhigang; Yao, Qingzhen

    2017-08-15

    Anthropogenic activities alter the natural states of large rivers and their surrounding environment. The Yellow River is a well-studied case of a large river with heavy human control. An artificial managed water and sediment release system, known as the Water-Sediment Regulation Scheme (WSRS), has been carried out annually in the Yellow River since 2002. Nutrient concentrations and composition display significant time and space variations during the WSRS period. To figure out the anthropogenic impact of nutrient changes and transport in the Yellow River, biogeochemical observations were carried out in both middle reaches and lower reaches of the Yellow River during 2014 WSRS period. WSRS has a direct impact on water oxidation-reduction environment in the middle reaches; concentrations of nitrite (NO2(-)) and ammonium (NH4(+)) increased, while nitrate (NO3(-)) concentration decreased by enhanced denitrification. WSRS changed transport of water and sediment; dissolved silicate (DSi) in the middle reaches was directly controlled by sediments release during the WSRS while in the lower reaches, DSi changed with both sediments and water released from middle reaches. During the WSRS, the differences of nutrient fluxes and concentrations between lower reaches and middle reaches were significant; dissolved inorganic phosphorous (DIP) and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) were higher in low reaches because of anthropogenic inputs. Human intervention, especially WSRS, can apparently change the natural states of both the mainstream and estuarine environments of the Yellow River within a short time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Transport to Rhebpress activity.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Amanda; Brandt, Marta; Djouder, Nabil

    2016-01-01

    The small GTPases from the rat sarcoma (Ras) superfamily are a heterogeneous group of proteins of about 21 kDa that act as molecular switches, modulating cell signaling pathways and controlling diverse cellular processes. They are active when bound to guanosine triphosphate (GTP) and inactive when bound to guanosine diphosphate (GDP). Ras homolog enriched in brain (Rheb) is a member of the Ras GTPase superfamily and a key activator of the mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). We recently determined that microspherule protein 1 (MCRS1) maintains Rheb at lysosomal surfaces in an amino acid-dependent manner. MCRS1 depletion promotes the formation of the GDP-bound form of Rheb, which is then delocalized from the lysosomal platform and transported to endocytic recycling vesicles, leading to mTORC1 inactivation. During this delocalization process, Rheb-GDP remains farnesylated and associated with cellular endomembranes. These findings provide new insights into the regulation of small GTPases, whose activity depends on both their GTP/GDP switch state and their capacity to move between different cellular membrane-bound compartments. Dynamic spatial transport between compartments makes it possible to alter the proximity of small GTPases to their activatory sites depending on the prevailing physiological and cellular conditions.

  4. Regulation of Nucleocytoplasmic Transport in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Monica N.; Corbett, Anita H.; Pavlath, Grace K.

    2015-01-01

    Proper skeletal muscle function is dependent on spatial and temporal control of gene expression in multinucleated myofibers. In addition, satellite cells, which are tissue-specific stem cells that contribute critically to repair and maintenance of skeletal muscle, are also required for normal muscle physiology. Gene expression in both myofibers and satellite cells is dependent upon nuclear proteins that require facilitated nuclear transport. A unique challenge for myofibers is controlling the transcriptional activity of hundreds of nuclei in a common cytoplasm yet achieving nuclear selectivity in transcription at specific locations such as neuromuscular synapses and myotendinous junctions. Nucleocytoplasmic transport of macromolecular cargoes is regulated by a complex interplay among various components of the nuclear transport machinery, namely nuclear pore complexes, nuclear envelope proteins, and various soluble transport receptors. The focus of this review is to highlight what is known about the nuclear transport machinery and its regulation in skeletal muscle and to consider the unique challenges that multinucleated muscle cells as well as satellite cells encounter in regulating nucleocytoplasmic transport during cell differentiation and tissue adaptation. Understanding how regulated nucleocytoplasmic transport controls gene expression in skeletal muscle may lead to further insights into the mechanisms contributing to muscle growth and maintenance throughout the lifespan of an individual. PMID:21621074

  5. Microtubule-dependent transport of vimentin filament precursors is regulated by actin and by the concerted action of Rho- and p21-activated kinases.

    PubMed

    Robert, Amélie; Herrmann, Harald; Davidson, Michael W; Gelfand, Vladimir I

    2014-07-01

    Intermediate filaments (IFs) form a dense and dynamic network that is functionally associated with microtubules and actin filaments. We used the GFP-tagged vimentin mutant Y117L to study vimentin-cytoskeletal interactions and transport of vimentin filament precursors. This mutant preserves vimentin interaction with other components of the cytoskeleton, but its assembly is blocked at the unit-length filament (ULF) stage. ULFs are easy to track, and they allow a reliable and quantifiable analysis of movement. Our results show that in cultured human vimentin-negative SW13 cells, 2% of vimentin-ULFs move along microtubules bidirectionally, while the majority are stationary and tightly associated with actin filaments. Rapid motor-dependent transport of ULFs along microtubules is enhanced ≥ 5-fold by depolymerization of actin cytoskeleton with latrunculin B. The microtubule-dependent transport of vimentin ULFs is further regulated by Rho-kinase (ROCK) and p21-activated kinase (PAK): ROCK inhibits ULF transport, while PAK stimulates it. Both kinases act on microtubule transport independently of their effects on actin cytoskeleton. Our study demonstrates the importance of the actin cytoskeleton to restrict IF transport and reveals a new role for PAK and ROCK in the regulation of IF precursor transport.-Robert, A., Herrmann, H., Davidson, M. W., and Gelfand, V. I. Microtubule-dependent transport of vimentin filament precursors is regulated by actin and by the concerted action of Rho- and p21-activated kinases.

  6. Cytoskeletal Network Morphology Regulates Intracellular Transport Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ando, David; Korabel, Nickolay; Huang, Kerwyn Casey; Gopinathan, Ajay

    2015-10-20

    Intracellular transport is essential for maintaining proper cellular function in most eukaryotic cells, with perturbations in active transport resulting in several types of disease. Efficient delivery of critical cargos to specific locations is accomplished through a combination of passive diffusion and active transport by molecular motors that ballistically move along a network of cytoskeletal filaments. Although motor-based transport is known to be necessary to overcome cytoplasmic crowding and the limited range of diffusion within reasonable timescales, the topological features of the cytoskeletal network that regulate transport efficiency and robustness have not been established. Using a continuum diffusion model, we observed that the time required for cellular transport was minimized when the network was localized near the nucleus. In simulations that explicitly incorporated network spatial architectures, total filament mass was the primary driver of network transit times. However, filament traps that redirect cargo back to the nucleus caused large variations in network transport. Filament polarity was more important than filament orientation in reducing average transit times, and transport properties were optimized in networks with intermediate motor on and off rates. Our results provide important insights into the functional constraints on intracellular transport under which cells have evolved cytoskeletal structures, and have potential applications for enhancing reactions in biomimetic systems through rational transport network design.

  7. Cytoskeletal Network Morphology Regulates Intracellular Transport Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Ando, David; Korabel, Nickolay; Huang, Kerwyn Casey; Gopinathan, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular transport is essential for maintaining proper cellular function in most eukaryotic cells, with perturbations in active transport resulting in several types of disease. Efficient delivery of critical cargos to specific locations is accomplished through a combination of passive diffusion and active transport by molecular motors that ballistically move along a network of cytoskeletal filaments. Although motor-based transport is known to be necessary to overcome cytoplasmic crowding and the limited range of diffusion within reasonable timescales, the topological features of the cytoskeletal network that regulate transport efficiency and robustness have not been established. Using a continuum diffusion model, we observed that the time required for cellular transport was minimized when the network was localized near the nucleus. In simulations that explicitly incorporated network spatial architectures, total filament mass was the primary driver of network transit times. However, filament traps that redirect cargo back to the nucleus caused large variations in network transport. Filament polarity was more important than filament orientation in reducing average transit times, and transport properties were optimized in networks with intermediate motor on and off rates. Our results provide important insights into the functional constraints on intracellular transport under which cells have evolved cytoskeletal structures, and have potential applications for enhancing reactions in biomimetic systems through rational transport network design. PMID:26488648

  8. The ALS disease protein TDP-43 is actively transported in motor neuron axons and regulates axon outgrowth.

    PubMed

    Fallini, Claudia; Bassell, Gary J; Rossoll, Wilfried

    2012-08-15

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease specifically affecting cortical and spinal motor neurons. Cytoplasmic inclusions containing hyperphosphorylated and ubiquitinated TDP-43 are a pathological hallmark of ALS, and mutations in the gene encoding TDP-43 have been directly linked to the development of the disease. TDP-43 is a ubiquitous DNA/RNA-binding protein with a nuclear role in pre-mRNA splicing. However, the selective vulnerability and axonal degeneration of motor neurons in ALS pose the question of whether TDP-43 may have an additional role in the regulation of the cytoplasmic and axonal fate of mRNAs, processes important for neuron function. To investigate this possibility, we have characterized TDP-43 localization and dynamics in primary cultured motor neurons. Using a combination of cell imaging and biochemical techniques, we demonstrate that TDP-43 is localized and actively transported in live motor neuron axons, and that it co-localizes with well-studied axonal mRNA-binding proteins. Expression of the TDP-43 C-terminal fragment led to the formation of hyperphosphorylated and ubiquitinated inclusions in motor neuron cell bodies and neurites, and these inclusions specifically sequestered the mRNA-binding protein HuD. Additionally, we showed that overexpression of full-length or mutant TDP-43 in motor neurons caused a severe impairment in axon outgrowth, which was dependent on the C-terminal protein-interacting domain of TDP-43. Taken together, our results suggest a role of TDP-43 in the regulation of axonal growth, and suggest that impairment in the post-transcriptional regulation of mRNAs in the cytoplasm of motor neurons may be a major factor in the development of ALS.

  9. Redox regulation of intercellular transport.

    PubMed

    Benitez-Alfonso, Yoselin; Jackson, David; Maule, Andy

    2011-01-01

    Plant cells communicate with each other via plasmodesmata (PDs) in order to orchestrate specific responses to environmental and developmental cues. At the same time, environmental signals regulate this communication by promoting changes in PD structure that modify symplastic permeability and, in extreme cases, isolate damaged cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are key messengers in plant responses to a range of biotic and abiotic stresses. They are also generated during normal metabolism, and mediate signaling pathways that modulate plant growth and developmental transitions. Recent research has suggested the participation of ROS in the regulation of PD transport. The study of several developmental and stress-induced processes revealed a co-regulation of ROS and callose (a cell wall polymer that regulates molecular flux through PDs). The identification of Arabidopsis mutants simultaneously affected in cell redox homeostasis and PD transport, and the histological detection of hydrogen peroxide and peroxidases in the PDs of the tomato vascular cambium provide new information in support of this novel regulatory mechanism. Here, we describe the evidence that supports a role for ROS in the regulation of callose deposition and/or in the formation of secondary PD, and discuss the potential importance of this mechanism during plant growth or defense against environmental stresses.

  10. Regulation of glucose transport in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Barnard, R J; Youngren, J F

    1992-11-01

    The entry of glucose into muscle cells is achieved primarily via a carrier-mediated system consisting of protein transport molecules. GLUT-1 transporter isoform is normally found in the sarcolemmal (SL) membrane and is thought to be involved in glucose transport under basal conditions. With insulin stimulation, glucose transport is accelerated by translocating GLUT-4 transporters from an intracellular pool out to the T-tubule and SL membranes. Activation of transporters to increase the turnover number may also be involved, but the evidence is far from conclusive. When insulin binds to its receptor, it autophosphorylates tyrosine and serine residues on the beta-subunit of the receptor. The tyrosine residues are thought to activate tyrosine kinases, which in turn phosphorylate/activate as yet unknown second messengers. Insulin receptor antibodies, however, have been reported to increase glucose transport without increasing kinase activity. Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle is a major characteristic of obesity and diabetes mellitus, especially NIDDM. A decrease in the number of insulin receptors and the ability of insulin to activate receptor tyrosine kinase has been documented in muscle from NIDDM patients. Most studies report no change in the intracellular pool of GLUT-4 transporters available for translocation to the SL. Both the quality and quantity of food consumed can regulate insulin sensitivity. A high-fat, refined sugar diet, similar to the typical U.S. diet, causes insulin resistance when compared with a low-fat, complex-carbohydrate diet. On the other hand, exercise increases insulin sensitivity. After an acute bout of exercise, glucose transport in muscle increases to the same level as with maximum insulin stimulation. Although the number of GLUT-4 transporters in the sarcolemma increases with exercise, neither insulin or its receptor is involved. After an initial acute phase, which may involve calcium as the activator, a secondary phase of increased

  11. Theaflavins, dimeric catechins, inhibit peptide transport across Caco-2 cell monolayers via down-regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase-mediated peptide transporter PEPT1.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Junko; Park, Ha-Young; Kunitake, Yuri; Yoshiura, Keiko; Matsui, Toshiro

    2013-06-15

    In the small intestine, peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1) plays a role in the transport of di- and tripeptides. In this study, we investigated whether theaflavins (TFs) affect the absorption of small peptides in human intestinal Caco-2 cells, since TFs do not penetrate through the cells and might be involved in intestinal transport systems. In transport experiments, the transport of glycyl-sarcosine (Gly-Sar, a model molecule for PEPT1 transport) and other dipeptides (Val-Tyr and Ile-Phe) were significantly reduced (P<0.05) in TFs-pretreated cells. In TF 3'-O-gallate-pretreated cells, Western blot analysis revealed attenuated expression of PEPT1 transporter and Gly-Sar transport was completely ameliorated by 10 μM Compound C, an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that TFs inhibit peptide transport across Caco-2 cell monolayers, probably through suppression of AMPK-mediated PEPT1 expression, which should be considered a new bioactivity of TFs in black tea. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Susceptibility of juvenile and adult blood–brain barrier to endothelin-1: regulation of P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein expression and transport activity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) play a critical role in keeping neurotoxic substances from entering the brain. We and others have previously reported an impact of inflammation on the regulation of adult blood–brain barrier (BBB) efflux transporters. However, studies in children have not been done. From the pediatric clinical perspective, it is important to understand how the central nervous system (CNS) and BBB drug efflux transporters differ in childhood from those of adults under normal and inflammatory conditions. Therefore, we examined and compared the regulation of P-gp and BCRP expression and transport activity in young and adult BBB and investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying inflammatory responses. Methods Rats at postnatal day (P) P21 and P84, corresponding to the juvenile and adult stages of human brain maturation, respectively, were treated with endothelin-1 (ET-1) given by the intracerebroventricular (icv) route. Twenty-four hours later, we measured P-gp and BCRP protein expression in isolated brain capillary by immunoblotting as well as by transport activity in vivo by measuring the unbound drug partitioning coefficient of the brain (Kp,uu,brain) of known efflux transporter substrates administered intravenously. Glial activation was measured by immunohistochemistry. The release of cytokines/chemokines (interleukins-1α, 1-β (IL-1β), -6 (IL-6), -10 (IL-10), monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1/CCL2), fractalkine and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1)) were simultaneously measured in brain and serum samples using the Agilent Technology cytokine microarray. Results We found that juvenile and adult BBBs exhibited similar P-gp and BCRP transport activities in the normal physiological conditions. However, long-term exposure of the juvenile brain to low-dose of ET-1 did not change BBB P-gp transport activity but tended to decrease BCRP transport activity in the juvenile brain, while a

  13. A phosphotyrosine switch regulates organic cation transporters.

    PubMed

    Sprowl, Jason A; Ong, Su Sien; Gibson, Alice A; Hu, Shuiying; Du, Guoqing; Lin, Wenwei; Li, Lie; Bharill, Shashank; Ness, Rachel A; Stecula, Adrian; Offer, Steven M; Diasio, Robert B; Nies, Anne T; Schwab, Matthias; Cavaletti, Guido; Schlatter, Eberhard; Ciarimboli, Giuliano; Schellens, Jan H M; Isacoff, Ehud Y; Sali, Andrej; Chen, Taosheng; Baker, Sharyn D; Sparreboom, Alex; Pabla, Navjotsingh

    2016-03-16

    Membrane transporters are key determinants of therapeutic outcomes. They regulate systemic and cellular drug levels influencing efficacy as well as toxicities. Here we report a unique phosphorylation-dependent interaction between drug transporters and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), which has uncovered widespread phosphotyrosine-mediated regulation of drug transporters. We initially found that organic cation transporters (OCTs), uptake carriers of metformin and oxaliplatin, were inhibited by several clinically used TKIs. Mechanistic studies showed that these TKIs inhibit the Src family kinase Yes1, which was found to be essential for OCT2 tyrosine phosphorylation and function. Yes1 inhibition in vivo diminished OCT2 activity, significantly mitigating oxaliplatin-induced acute sensory neuropathy. Along with OCT2, other SLC-family drug transporters are potentially part of an extensive 'transporter-phosphoproteome' with unique susceptibility to TKIs. On the basis of these findings we propose that TKIs, an important and rapidly expanding class of therapeutics, can functionally modulate pharmacologically important proteins by inhibiting protein kinases essential for their post-translational regulation.

  14. Phosphorylation mechanisms in dopamine transporter regulation.

    PubMed

    Foster, James D; Vaughan, Roxanne A

    2016-11-09

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) is a plasma membrane phosphoprotein that actively translocates extracellular dopamine (DA) into presynaptic neurons. The transporter is the primary mechanism for control of DA levels and subsequent neurotransmission, and is the target for abused and therapeutic drugs that exert their effects by suppressing reuptake. The transport capacity of DAT is acutely regulated by signaling systems and drug exposure, providing neurons the ability to fine-tune DA clearance in response to specific conditions. Kinase pathways play major roles in these mechanisms, and this review summarizes the current status of DAT phosphorylation characteristics and the evidence linking transporter phosphorylation to control of reuptake and other functions. Greater understanding of these processes may aid in elucidation of their possible contributions to DA disease states and suggest specific phosphorylation sites as targets for therapeutic manipulation of reuptake.

  15. Nucleoside transporter expression and activity is regulated during granulocytic differentiation of NB4 cells in response to all-trans-retinoic acid.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Sheryl A; Meckling, Kelly A

    2007-07-01

    NB4 cells express multiple nucleoside transporters (NTs), including: hENT1 (es), and hENT2 (ei), and the CNT subtype referred to as, csg; a concentrative sensitive guanosine specific transporter. csg activity is a distinguishing feature of the NB4 cell line and its presence suggests a particular requirement of these cells for guanosine salvage. Proliferation and differentiation pathways determine, in part, the number of NTs in cells and tissues. In this study, all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA)-induced granulocytic differentiation of NB4 cells resulted in biphasic changes in guanosine transport. Transient increases in csg and es activity, the result of an increase in V(max) (pmol/muls) of both transporter systems, served as early markers of differentiation while expression of a fully differentiated phenotype was accompanied by a selective loss of csg activity and the return of es activity to that of proliferating cells. Intracellular incorporation of [(3)H]-guanosine decreased as cells matured despite increased transport rates and suggested a reduced intracellular requirement of NB4-granulocytes compared to their proliferating counterparts. Whether a loss of csg activity could serve to assess clinical response to differentiation therapies is not known. Nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR) binding sites within nuclear membrane (NM) preparations, suggested the presence of functional intracellular NTs. An increase in plasma membrane (PM) associated transporters coincided with the early increase in guanosine transport and a decrease in NBMPR binding to NM fractions and suggests that intracellular NTs may serve as a reserve pool for translocation to the (PM) when additional transport capacity is required. The modulation of transporters during differentiation could potentially regulate drug bioavailability and cytotoxicity and should be evaluated prior to combining differentiating agents with traditional nucleoside analogs in the treatment of APL.

  16. Regulated Expression of Arabidopsis Phosphate Transporters1

    PubMed Central

    Karthikeyan, Athikkattuvalasu S.; Varadarajan, Deepa K.; Mukatira, Uthappa T.; D'Urzo, Matilde Paino; Damsz, Barbara; Raghothama, Kashchandra G.

    2002-01-01

    Phosphorus deficiency is one of the major abiotic stresses affecting plant growth. Plants respond to the persistent deficiency of phosphate (Pi) by coordinating the expression of genes involved in alleviation of the stress. The high-affinity Pi transporters are among the major molecular determinants that are activated during Pi stress. In this study, using three reporter genes (green fluorescent protein, luciferase, and β-glucuronidase) regulated by two Pi transporter promoters, we have carried out an extensive analysis of transcriptional and spatial regulation of gene expression. Activation of the genes was rapid, repressible, and specific in response to changes in Pi availability. The phytohormones auxin and cytokinin suppressed the expression of the reporter gene driven by the AtPT1 promoter, and that of the native gene, suggesting that hormones may be involved in regulation of some component(s) of Pi starvation response pathway. These studies also provide molecular evidence for a potential role of high-affinity Pi transporters in mobilizing Pi into reproductive organs. The results suggest that members of the Pi transporter family may have similar but nonredundant functions in plants. PMID:12226502

  17. Organic cation/carnitine transporter, OCTN2, transcriptional activity is regulated by osmotic stress in epididymal cells.

    PubMed

    Cotton, Leanne M; Rodriguez, Carmen M; Suzuki, Kichiya; Orgebin-Crist, Marie-Claire; Hinton, Barry T

    2010-02-01

    Protection of cells from osmotic stress is crucial for their survival. Exposure to high osmolarity promotes rapid diffusion of water across cell membranes, dramatically increasing cellular ionic strength, leading to disruption of key proteins/DNA resulting in cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. The luminal microenvironment of the epididymis is hypertonic; therefore, epididymal cells adapt to the higher osmolarity by accumulating organic osmolytes, such as L-carnitine. Osmolytes do not perturb cells when accumulated in high concentrations, nor do they affect key proteins or damage DNA. Therefore, osmolytes and their transporters are crucial for cell survival. Transporters that are responsible for the accumulation of organic osmolytes have been shown to be regulated at the transcriptional level by hypertonicity. The present study examines the gene expression of known osmoprotective/stress genes in epididymal cells exposed to changes in tonicity. We demonstrate that the osmoprotective/stress pathways present in other organs, such as the kidney, operate in the epididymis, potentially aiding in the protection of its luminal cells and spermatozoa. Further, it was also seen that OCTN2, a transporter that is thought to be responsible for the accumulation of L-carnitine in the epididymal lumen, is regulated in response to changes in tonicity. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Palmitoylation mechanisms in dopamine transporter regulation.

    PubMed

    Rastedt, Danielle E; Vaughan, Roxanne A; Foster, James D

    2017-10-01

    The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) plays a key role in several biological processes including reward, mood, motor activity and attention. Synaptic DA homeostasis is controlled by the dopamine transporter (DAT) which transports extracellular DA into the presynaptic neuron after release and regulates its availability to receptors. Many neurological disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Parkinson disease and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder are associated with imbalances in DA homeostasis that may be related to DAT dysfunction. DAT is also a target of psychostimulant and therapeutic drugs that inhibit DA reuptake and lead to elevated dopaminergic neurotransmission. We have recently demonstrated the acute and chronic modulation of DA reuptake activity and DAT stability through S-palmitoylation, the linkage of a 16-carbon palmitate group to cysteine via a thioester bond. This review summarizes the properties and regulation of DAT palmitoylation and describes how it serves to affect various transporter functions. Better understanding of the role of palmitoylation in regulation of DAT function may lead to identification of therapeutic targets for modulation of DA homeostasis in the treatment of dopaminergic disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. EPAct Transportation Regulatory Activities

    SciTech Connect

    2011-11-21

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Program manages several transportation regulatory activities established by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), as amended by the Energy Conservation Reauthorization Act of 1998, EPAct 2005, and the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA).

  20. The cardiac glycoside binding site on the Na,K-ATPase α2 isoform plays a role in the dynamic regulation of active transport in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Radzyukevich, T. L.; Lingrel, J. B; Heiny, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    The physiological significance of the cardiac glycoside-binding site on the Na,K-ATPase remains incompletely understood. This study used a gene-targeted mouse (α2R/R) which expresses a ouabain-insensitive α2 isoform of the Na,K-ATPase to investigate whether the cardiac glycoside-binding site plays any physiological role in active Na+/K+ transport in skeletal muscles or in exercise performance. Skeletal muscles express the Na,K-ATPase α2 isoform at high abundance and regulate its transport over a wide dynamic range under control of muscle activity. Na,K-ATPase active transport in the isolated extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle of α2R/R mice was lower at rest and significantly enhanced after muscle contraction, compared with WT. During the first 60 s after a 30-s contraction, the EDL of α2R/R mice transported 70.0 nmol/g·min more 86Rb than WT. Acute sequestration of endogenous ligand(s) in WT mice infused with Digibind to sequester endogenous cardiac glycoside(s) produced similar effects on both resting and contraction-induced 86Rb transport. Additionally, the α2R/R mice exhibit an enhanced ability to perform physical exercise, showing a 2.1- to 2.8-fold lower failure rate than WT within minutes of the onset of moderate-intensity treadmill running. Their enhanced exercise performance is consistent with their enhanced contraction-induced Na,K-ATPase transport in the skeletal muscles. These results demonstrate that the Na,K-ATPase α2 isozyme in skeletal muscle is regulated dynamically by a mechanism that utilizes the cardiac glycoside-binding site and an endogenous ligand(s) and that its cardiac glycoside-binding site can play a physiological role in the dynamic adaptations to exercise. PMID:19196986

  1. Molecular mechanisms and regulation of iron transport.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jayong; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2003-04-01

    Iron homeostasis is primarily maintained through regulation of its transport. This review summarizes recent discoveries in the field of iron transport that have shed light on the molecular mechanisms of dietary iron uptake, pathways for iron efflux to and between peripheral tissues, proteins implicated in organellar transport of iron (particularly the mitochondrion), and novel regulators that have been proposed to control iron assimilation. The transport of both transferrin-bound and nontransferrin-bound iron to peripheral tissues is discussed. Finally, the regulation of iron transport is also considered at the molecular level, with posttranscriptional, transcriptional, and posttranslational control mechanisms being reviewed.

  2. Phosphorylation of Cytochrome c Threonine 28 Regulates Electron Transport Chain Activity in Kidney: IMPLICATIONS FOR AMP KINASE

    SciTech Connect

    Mahapatra, Gargi; Varughese, Ashwathy; Ji, Qinqin; Lee, Icksoo; Liu, Jenney; Vaishnav, Asmita; Sinkler, Christopher; Kapralov, Alexandr A.; Moraes, Carlos T.; Sanderson, Thomas H.; Stemmler, Timothy L.; Grossman, Lawrence I.; Kagan, Valerian E.; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Salomon, Arthur R.; Edwards, Brian F. P.; Hüttemann, Maik

    2016-10-07

    Mammalian cytochrome c (Cytc) plays a key role in cellular life and death decisions, functioning as an electron carrier in the electron transport chain and as a trigger of apoptosis when released from the mitochondria. However, its regulation is not well understood. We show that the major fraction of Cytc isolated from kidneys is phosphorylated on Thr28, leading to a partial inhibition of respiration in the reaction with cytochrome c oxidase. To further study the effect of Cytc phosphorylation in vitro, we generated T28E phosphomimetic Cytc, revealing superior behavior regarding protein stability and its ability to degrade reactive oxygen species compared with wild-type unphosphorylated Cytc. Introduction of T28E phosphomimetic Cytc into Cytc knock-out cells shows that intact cell respiration, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), and ROS levels are reduced compared with wild type. As we show by high resolution crystallography of wild-type and T28E Cytc in combination with molecular dynamics simulations, Thr28 is located at a central position near the heme crevice, the most flexible epitope of the protein apart from the N and C termini. Finally, in silico prediction and our experimental data suggest that AMP kinase, which phosphorylates Cytc on Thr28 in vitro and colocalizes with Cytc to the mitochondrial intermembrane space in the kidney, is the most likely candidate to phosphorylate Thr28 in vivo. We conclude that Cytc phosphorylation is mediated in a tissue-specific manner and leads to regulation of electron transport chain flux via “controlled respiration,” preventing ΔΨm hyperpolarization, a known cause of ROS and trigger of apoptosis.

  3. Phosphorylation of Cytochrome c Threonine 28 Regulates Electron Transport Chain Activity in Kidney: IMPLICATIONS FOR AMP KINASE.

    PubMed

    Mahapatra, Gargi; Varughese, Ashwathy; Ji, Qinqin; Lee, Icksoo; Liu, Jenney; Vaishnav, Asmita; Sinkler, Christopher; Kapralov, Alexandr A; Moraes, Carlos T; Sanderson, Thomas H; Stemmler, Timothy L; Grossman, Lawrence I; Kagan, Valerian E; Brunzelle, Joseph S; Salomon, Arthur R; Edwards, Brian F P; Hüttemann, Maik

    2017-01-06

    Mammalian cytochrome c (Cytc) plays a key role in cellular life and death decisions, functioning as an electron carrier in the electron transport chain and as a trigger of apoptosis when released from the mitochondria. However, its regulation is not well understood. We show that the major fraction of Cytc isolated from kidneys is phosphorylated on Thr(28), leading to a partial inhibition of respiration in the reaction with cytochrome c oxidase. To further study the effect of Cytc phosphorylation in vitro, we generated T28E phosphomimetic Cytc, revealing superior behavior regarding protein stability and its ability to degrade reactive oxygen species compared with wild-type unphosphorylated Cytc Introduction of T28E phosphomimetic Cytc into Cytc knock-out cells shows that intact cell respiration, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), and ROS levels are reduced compared with wild type. As we show by high resolution crystallography of wild-type and T28E Cytc in combination with molecular dynamics simulations, Thr(28) is located at a central position near the heme crevice, the most flexible epitope of the protein apart from the N and C termini. Finally, in silico prediction and our experimental data suggest that AMP kinase, which phosphorylates Cytc on Thr(28) in vitro and colocalizes with Cytc to the mitochondrial intermembrane space in the kidney, is the most likely candidate to phosphorylate Thr(28) in vivo We conclude that Cytc phosphorylation is mediated in a tissue-specific manner and leads to regulation of electron transport chain flux via "controlled respiration," preventing ΔΨm hyperpolarization, a known cause of ROS and trigger of apoptosis.

  4. BDNF regulates spontaneous correlated activity at early developmental stages by increasing synaptogenesis and expression of the K+/Cl- co-transporter KCC2.

    PubMed

    Aguado, Fernando; Carmona, Maria A; Pozas, Esther; Aguiló, Agustín; Martínez-Guijarro, Francisco J; Alcantara, Soledad; Borrell, Victor; Yuste, Rafael; Ibañez, Carlos F; Soriano, Eduardo

    2003-04-01

    Spontaneous neural activity is a basic property of the developing brain, which regulates key developmental processes, including migration, neural differentiation and formation and refinement of connections. The mechanisms regulating spontaneous activity are not known. By using transgenic embryos that overexpress BDNF under the control of the nestin promoter, we show here that BDNF controls the emergence and robustness of spontaneous activity in embryonic hippocampal slices. Further, BDNF dramatically increases spontaneous co-active network activity, which is believed to synchronize gene expression and synaptogenesis in vast numbers of neurons. In fact, BDNF raises the spontaneous activity of E18 hippocampal neurons to levels that are typical of postnatal slices. We also show that BDNF overexpression increases the number of synapses at much earlier stages (E18) than those reported previously. Most of these synapses were GABAergic, and GABAergic interneurons showed hypertrophy and a 3-fold increase in GAD expression. Interestingly, whereas BDNF does not alter the expression of GABA and glutamate ionotropic receptors, it does raise the expression of the recently cloned K(+)/Cl(-) KCC2 co-transporter, which is responsible for the conversion of GABA responses from depolarizing to inhibitory, through the control of the Cl(-) potential. Together, results indicate that both the presynaptic and postsynaptic machineries of GABAergic circuits may be essential targets of BDNF actions to control spontaneous activity. The data indicate that BDNF is a potent regulator of spontaneous activity and co-active networks, which is a new level of regulation of neurotrophins. Given that BDNF itself is regulated by neuronal activity, we suggest that BDNF acts as a homeostatic factor controlling the emergence, complexity and networking properties of spontaneous networks.

  5. Quorum sensing and the LysR-type transcriptional activator ToxR regulate toxoflavin biosynthesis and transport in Burkholderia glumae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinwoo; Kim, Jung-Gun; Kang, Yongsung; Jang, Ji Youn; Jog, Geetanjali J; Lim, Jae Yun; Kim, Suhyun; Suga, Hiroaki; Nagamatsu, Tomohisa; Hwang, Ingyu

    2004-11-01

    Burkholderia glumae BGR1 produces a broad-host range phytotoxin, called toxoflavin, which is a key pathogenicity factor in rice grain rot and wilt in many field crops. Our molecular and genetic analyses of toxoflavin-deficient mutants demonstrated that gene clusters for toxoflavin production consist of four transcriptional units. The toxoflavin biosynthesis genes were composed of five genes, toxA to toxE, as Suzuki et al. (2004) reported previously. Genes toxF to toxI, which are responsible for toxoflavin transport, were polycistronic and similar to the genes for resistance-nodulation-division (RND) efflux systems. Using Tn3-gusA reporter fusions, we found that ToxR, a LysR-type regulator, regulates both the toxABCDE and toxFGHI operons in the presence of toxoflavin as a coinducer. In addition, the expression of both operons required a transcriptional activator, ToxJ, whose expression is regulated by quorum sensing. TofI, a LuxI homologue, was responsible for the biosynthesis of both N-hexanoyl homoserine lactone and N-octanoyl homoserine lactone (C8-HSL). C8-HSL and its cognate receptor TofR, a LuxR homologue, activated toxJ expression. This is the first report that quorum sensing is involved in pathogenicity by the regulation of phytotoxin biosynthesis and its transport in plant pathogenic bacteria.

  6. Nuclear Transport Factors: Global Regulation of Mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Douglass J.; Travesa, Anna; Nord, Matthew; Bernis, Cyril

    2015-01-01

    The unexpected repurposing of nuclear transport proteins from their function in interphase to an equally vital and very different set of functions in mitosis was very surprising. The multi-talented cast when first revealed included the import receptors, importin alpha and beta, the small regulatory GTPase RanGTP, and a subset of nuclear pore proteins. In this review, we report that recent years have revealed new discoveries in each area of this expanding story in vertebrates: (a) The cast of nuclear transport receptors playing a role in mitotic spindle regulation has expanded: both transportin, a nuclear import receptor, and Crm1/Xpo1, an export receptor, are involved in different aspects of spindle assembly. Importin beta and transportin also regulate nuclear envelope and pore assembly. (b) The role of nucleoporins has grown to include recruiting the key microtubule nucleator the γ-TuRC complex and the exportin Crm1 to the mitotic kinetochores of humans. Together they nucleate microtubule formation from the kinetochores towards the centrosomes. (c) New research finds that the original importin beta/RanGTP team have been further co-opted by evolution to help regulate other cellular and organismal activities, ranging from the actual positioning of the spindle within the cell perimeter, to regulation of a newly discovered spindle microtubule branching activity, to regulation of the interaction of microtubule structures with specific actin structures. (d) Lastly, because of the multitudinous roles of karyopherins throughout the cell cycle, a recent large push toward testing their potential as chemotherapeutic targets has begun to yield burgeoning progress in the clinic. PMID:25982429

  7. Regulation of basal promoter activity of the human thiamine pyrophosphate transporter SLC44A4 in human intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nabokina, Svetlana M; Ramos, Mel Brendan; Valle, Judith E; Said, Hamid M

    2015-05-01

    Microbiota of the large intestine synthesize considerable amount of vitamin B1 in the form of thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP). There is a specific high-affinity regulated carrier-mediated uptake system for TPP in human colonocytes (product of the SLC44A4 gene). The mechanisms of regulation of SLC44A4 gene expression are currently unknown. In this study, we characterized the SLC44A4 minimal promoter region and identified transcription factors important for basal promoter activity in colonic epithelial cells. The 5'-regulatory region of the SLC44A4 gene (1,022 bp) was cloned and showed promoter activity upon transient transfection into human colonic epithelial NCM460 cells. With the use of a series of 5'- and 3'-deletion luciferase reporter constructs, the minimal genomic region that required basal transcription of the SLC44A4 gene expression was mapped between nucleotides -178 and +88 (using the distal transcriptional start site as +1). Mutational analysis performed on putative cis-regulatory elements established the involvement of ETS/ELF3 [E26 transformation-specific sequence (ETS) proteins], cAMP-responsive element (CRE), and SP1/GC-box sequence motifs in basal SLC44A4 promoter activity. By means of EMSA, binding of ELF3 and CRE-binding protein-1 (CREB-1) transcription factors to the SLC44A4 minimal promoter was shown. Contribution of CREB into SLC44A4 promoter activity was confirmed using NCM460 cells overexpressing CREB. We also found high expression of ELF3 and CREB-1 in colonic (NCM460) compared with noncolonic (ARPE19) cells, suggesting their possible contribution to colon-specific pattern of SLC44A4 expression. This study represents the first characterization of the SLC44A4 promoter and reports the importance of both ELF3 and CREB-1 transcription factors in the maintenance of basal promoter activity in colonic epithelial cells.

  8. Demonstration of phosphoryl group transfer indicates that the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) exhibits adenylate kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Randak, Christoph O; Ver Heul, Amanda R; Welsh, Michael J

    2012-10-19

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a membrane-spanning adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporter. ABC transporters and other nuclear and cytoplasmic ABC proteins have ATPase activity that is coupled to their biological function. Recent studies with CFTR and two nonmembrane-bound ABC proteins, the DNA repair enzyme Rad50 and a structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) protein, challenge the model that the function of all ABC proteins depends solely on their associated ATPase activity. Patch clamp studies indicated that in the presence of physiologically relevant concentrations of adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP), CFTR Cl(-) channel function is coupled to adenylate kinase activity (ATP+AMP <==> 2 ADP). Work with Rad50 and SMC showed that these enzymes catalyze both ATPase and adenylate kinase reactions. However, despite the supportive electrophysiological results with CFTR, there are no biochemical data demonstrating intrinsic adenylate kinase activity of a membrane-bound ABC transporter. We developed a biochemical assay for adenylate kinase activity, in which the radioactive γ-phosphate of a nucleotide triphosphate could transfer to a photoactivatable AMP analog. UV irradiation could then trap the (32)P on the adenylate kinase. With this assay, we discovered phosphoryl group transfer that labeled CFTR, thereby demonstrating its adenylate kinase activity. Our results also suggested that the interaction of nucleotide triphosphate with CFTR at ATP-binding site 2 is required for adenylate kinase activity. These biochemical data complement earlier biophysical studies of CFTR and indicate that the ABC transporter CFTR can function as an adenylate kinase.

  9. Regulation of tonic GABA inhibitory function, presympathetic neuronal activity and sympathetic outflow from the paraventricular nucleus by astroglial GABA transporters

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin Bong; Jo, Ji Yoon; Zheng, Hong; Patel, Kaushik P; Stern, Javier E

    2009-01-01

    Neuronal activity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), as well as sympathetic outflow from the PVN, is basally restrained by a GABAergic inhibitory tone. We recently showed that two complementary GABAA receptor-mediated modalities underlie inhibition of PVN neuronal activity: a synaptic, quantal inhibitory modality (IPSCs, Iphasic) and a sustained, non-inactivating modality (Itonic). Here, we investigated the role of neuronal and/or glial GABA transporters (GATs) in modulating these inhibitory modalities, and assessed their impact on the activity of RVLM-projecting PVN neurons (PVN-RVLM neurons), and on PVN influence of renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). Patch-clamp recordings were obtained from retrogradely labelled PVN-RVLM neurons in a slice preparation. The non-selective GAT blocker nipecotic acid (100–300 μm) caused a large increase in GABAAItonic, and reduced IPSC frequency. These effects were replicated by β-alanine (100 μm), but not by SKF 89976A (30 μm), relatively selective blockers of GAT3 and GAT1 isoforms, respectively. Similar effects were evoked by the gliotoxin l-α-aminodipic acid (2 mm). GAT blockade attenuated the firing activity of PVN-RVLM neurons. Moreover, PVN microinjections of nipecotic acid in the whole animal diminished ongoing RSNA. A robust GAT3 immunoreactivity was observed in the PVN, which partially colocalized with the glial marker GFAP. Altogether, our results indicate that by modulating ambient GABA levels and the efficacy of GABAAItonic, PVN GATs, of a likely glial location, contribute to setting a basal tone of PVN-RVLM firing activity, and PVN-driven RSNA. PMID:19703969

  10. Ions channels/transporters and chloroplast regulation.

    PubMed

    Finazzi, Giovanni; Petroutsos, Dimitris; Tomizioli, Martino; Flori, Serena; Sautron, Emeline; Villanova, Valeria; Rolland, Norbert; Seigneurin-Berny, Daphné

    2015-07-01

    Ions play fundamental roles in all living cells and their gradients are often essential to fuel transports, to regulate enzyme activities and to transduce energy within and between cells. Their homeostasis is therefore an essential component of the cell metabolism. Ions must be imported from the extracellular matrix to their final subcellular compartments. Among them, the chloroplast is a particularly interesting example because there, ions not only modulate enzyme activities, but also mediate ATP synthesis and actively participate in the building of the photosynthetic structures by promoting membrane-membrane interaction. In this review, we first provide a comprehensive view of the different machineries involved in ion trafficking and homeostasis in the chloroplast, and then discuss peculiar functions exerted by ions in the frame of photochemical conversion of absorbed light energy.

  11. Adrenergic regulation of ion transport across adult alveolar epithelial cells: effects on Cl- channel activation and transport function in cultures with an apical air interface.

    PubMed

    Jiang, X; Ingbar, D H; O'Grady, S M

    2001-06-01

    The effect of beta-adrenergic receptor stimulation on Cl- channel activation was investigated in alveolar epithelial cells grown in monolayer culture and in freshly isolated cells. Monolayers cultured under apical air interface conditions exhibited enhanced amiloride-sensitive Na+ transport compared to apical liquid interface monolayers. Amiloride or benzamil inhibited most (66%) of the basal short circuit current (Isc) with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 0.62 microm and 0.09 microm respectively. Basolateral addition of terbutaline (2 microm) produced a rapid decrease in Isc followed by a slow recovery that exceeded the basal Isc. When Cl- was replaced with methanesulfonate in either intact monolayers or basolateral membrane permeabilized monolayers, the response to terbutaline (2 microm) was completely inhibited. No effect of terbutaline on amiloride-sensitive Na+ current was detected. beta-Adrenergic agonists and 8-chlorothiophenyl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (8-ctp cAMP) directly stimulated a Cl- channel in freshly isolated alveolar epithelial cells. The current was blocked by glibenclamide (100 microm) and had a reversal potential of -22 mV. No increase in amiloride-sensitve current was detected in response to terbutaline or 8-cpt cAMP stimulation. These data support the conclusion that beta-adrenergic agonists produce acute activation of apical Cl- channels and that monolayers maintained under apical air interface conditions exhibit increased Na+ absorption.

  12. Single Molecule Analysis of Serotonin Transporter Regulation Using Antagonist-Conjugated Quantum Dots Reveals Restricted, p38 MAPK-Dependent Mobilization Underlying Uptake Activation

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jerry C.; Tomlinson, Ian D.; Warnement, Michael R.; Ustione, Alessandro; Carneiro, Ana M. D.; Piston, David W.; Blakely, Randy D.; Rosenthal, Sandra J.

    2012-01-01

    The presynaptic serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) is targeted by widely prescribed antidepressant medications. Altered SERT expression or regulation has been implicated in multiple neuropsychiatric disorders, including anxiety, depression and autism. Here, we implement a generalizable strategy that exploits antagonist-conjugated quantum dots (Qdots) to monitor, for the first time, single SERT proteins on the surface of serotonergic cells. We document two pools of SERT proteins defined by lateral mobility, one that exhibits relatively free diffusion, and a second, localized to cholesterol and GM1 ganglioside-enriched microdomains, that displays restricted mobility. Receptor-linked signalling pathways that enhance SERT activity mobilize transporters that, nonetheless, remain confined to membrane microdomains. Mobilization of transporters arise from a p38 MAPK-dependent untethering of the SERT C-terminus from the juxtamembrane actin cytoskeleton. Our studies establish the utility of ligand-conjugated Qdots for analysis of the behaviour of single membrane proteins and reveal a physical basis for signaling-mediated SERT regulation. PMID:22745492

  13. Single molecule analysis of serotonin transporter regulation using antagonist-conjugated quantum dots reveals restricted, p38 MAPK-dependent mobilization underlying uptake activation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jerry C; Tomlinson, Ian D; Warnement, Michael R; Ustione, Alessandro; Carneiro, Ana M D; Piston, David W; Blakely, Randy D; Rosenthal, Sandra J

    2012-06-27

    The presynaptic serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) is targeted by widely prescribed antidepressant medications. Altered SERT expression or regulation has been implicated in multiple neuropsychiatric disorders, including anxiety, depression and autism. Here, we implement a generalizable strategy that exploits antagonist-conjugated quantum dots (Qdots) to monitor, for the first time, single SERT proteins on the surface of serotonergic cells. We document two pools of SERT proteins defined by lateral mobility, one that exhibits relatively free diffusion, and a second, localized to cholesterol and GM1 ganglioside-enriched microdomains, that displays restricted mobility. Receptor-linked signaling pathways that enhance SERT activity mobilize transporters that, nonetheless, remain confined to membrane microdomains. Mobilization of transporters arises from a p38 MAPK-dependent untethering of the SERT C terminus from the juxtamembrane actin cytoskeleton. Our studies establish the utility of ligand-conjugated Qdots for analysis of the behavior of single membrane proteins and reveal a physical basis for signaling-mediated SERT regulation.

  14. Ciliary transport regulates PDGF-AA/αα signaling via elevated mammalian target of rapamycin signaling and diminished PP2A activity.

    PubMed

    Umberger, Nicole L; Caspary, Tamara

    2015-01-15

    Primary cilia are built and maintained by intraflagellar transport (IFT), whereby the two IFT complexes, IFTA and IFTB, carry cargo via kinesin and dynein motors for anterograde and retrograde transport, respectively. Many signaling pathways, including platelet- derived growth factor (PDGF)-AA/αα, are linked to primary cilia. Active PDGF-AA/αα signaling results in phosphorylation of Akt at two residues: P-Akt(T308) and P-Akt(S473), and previous work showed decreased P-Akt(S473) in response to PDGF-AA upon anterograde transport disruption. In this study, we investigated PDGF-AA/αα signaling via P-Akt(T308) and P-Akt(S473) in distinct ciliary transport mutants. We found increased Akt phosphorylation in the absence of PDGF-AA stimulation, which we show is due to impaired dephosphorylation resulting from diminished PP2A activity toward P-Akt(T308). Anterograde transport mutants display low platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)α levels, whereas retrograde mutants exhibit normal PDGFRα levels. Despite this, neither shows an increase in P-Akt(S473) or P-Akt(T308) upon PDGF-AA stimulation. Because mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling is increased in ciliary transport mutant cells and mTOR signaling inhibits PDGFRα levels, we demonstrate that inhibition of mTORC1 rescues PDGFRα levels as well as PDGF-AA-dependent phosphorylation of Akt(S473) and Akt(T308) in ciliary transport mutant MEFs. Taken together, our data indicate that the regulation of mTORC1 signaling and PP2A activity by ciliary transport plays key roles in PDGF-AA/αα signaling. © 2015 Umberger and Caspary. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  15. Cholesterol-lowering activity of sesamin is associated with down-regulation on genes of sterol transporters involved in cholesterol absorption.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yin Tong; Chen, Jingnan; Jiao, Rui; Peng, Cheng; Zuo, Yuanyuan; Lei, Lin; Liu, Yuwei; Wang, Xiaobo; Ma, Ka Ying; Huang, Yu; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2015-03-25

    Sesame seed is rich in sesamin. The present study was to (i) investigate the plasma cholesterol-lowering activity of dietary sesamin and (ii) examine the interaction of dietary sesamin with the gene expression of sterol transporters, enzymes, receptors, and proteins involved in cholesterol metabolism. Thirty hamsters were divided into three groups fed the control diet (CON) or one of two experimental diets containing 0.2% (SL) and 0.5% (SH) sesamin, respectively, for 6 weeks. Plasma total cholesterol (TC) levels in hamsters given the CON, SL, and SH diets were 6.62 ± 0.40, 5.32 ± 0.40, and 5.00 ± 0.44 mmol/L, respectively, indicating dietary sesamin could reduce plasma TC in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, the excretion of total fecal neutral sterols was dose-dependently increased with the amounts of sesamin in diets (CON, 2.65 ± 0.57; SL, 4.30 ± 0.65; and SH, 5.84 ± 1.27 μmol/day). Addition of sesamin into diets was associated with down-regulation of mRNA of intestinal Niemann-Pick C1 like 1 protein (NPC1L1), acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 2 (ACAT2), microsomal triacylglycerol transport protein (MTP), and ATP-binding cassette transporters subfamily G members 5 and 8 (ABCG5 and ABCG8). Results also showed that dietary sesamin could up-regulate hepatic cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), whereas it down-regulated hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase and liver X receptor alpha (LXRα). It was concluded that the cholesterol-lowering activity of sesamin was mediated by promoting the fecal excretion of sterols and modulating the genes involved in cholesterol absorption and metabolism.

  16. Nucleotide-binding domains of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, an ABC transporter, catalyze adenylate kinase activity but not ATP hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Gross, Christian H; Abdul-Manan, Norzehan; Fulghum, John; Lippke, Judith; Liu, Xun; Prabhakar, Prakash; Brennan, Debra; Willis, Melissa Swope; Faerman, Carlos; Connelly, Patrick; Raybuck, Scott; Moore, Jonathan

    2006-02-17

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an anion channel in the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family. CFTR consists of two transmembrane domains, two nucleotide-binding domains (NBD1 and NBD2), and a regulatory domain. Previous biochemical reports suggest NBD1 is a site of stable nucleotide interaction with low ATPase activity, whereas NBD2 is the site of active ATP hydrolysis. It has also been reported that NBD2 additionally possessed adenylate kinase (AK) activity. Knowledge about the intrinsic biochemical activities of the NBDs is essential to understanding the Cl(-) ion gating mechanism. We find that purified mouse NBD1, human NBD1, and human NBD2 function as adenylate kinases but not as ATPases. AK activity is strictly dependent on the addition of the adenosine monophosphate (AMP) substrate. No liberation of [(33)P]phosphate is observed from the gamma-(33)P-labeled ATP substrate in the presence or absence of AMP. AK activity is intrinsic to both human NBDs, as the Walker A box lysine mutations abolish this activity. At low protein concentration, the NBDs display an initial slower nonlinear phase in AK activity, suggesting that the activity results from homodimerization. Interestingly, the G551D gating mutation has an exaggerated nonlinear phase compared with the wild type and may indicate this mutation affects the ability of NBD1 to dimerize. hNBD1 and hNBD2 mixing experiments resulted in an 8-57-fold synergistic enhancement in AK activity suggesting heterodimer formation, which supports a common theme in ABC transporter models. A CFTR gating mechanism model based on adenylate kinase activity is proposed.

  17. Nuclear transport factors: global regulation of mitosis.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Douglass J; Travesa, Anna; Nord, Matthew S; Bernis, Cyril

    2015-08-01

    The unexpected repurposing of nuclear transport proteins from their function in interphase to an equally vital and very different set of functions in mitosis was very surprising. The multi-talented cast when first revealed included the import receptors, importin alpha and beta, the small regulatory GTPase RanGTP, and a subset of nuclear pore proteins. In this review, we report that recent years have revealed new discoveries in each area of this expanding story in vertebrates: (a) The cast of nuclear import receptors playing a role in mitotic spindle regulation has expanded: both transportin, a nuclear import receptor, and Crm1/Xpo1, an export receptor, are involved in different aspects of spindle assembly. Importin beta and transportin also regulate nuclear envelope and pore assembly. (b) The role of nucleoporins has grown to include recruiting the key microtubule nucleator - the γ-TuRC complex - and the exportin Crm1 to the mitotic kinetochores of humans. Together they nucleate microtubule formation from the kinetochores toward the centrosomes. (c) New research finds that the original importin beta/RanGTP team have been further co-opted by evolution to help regulate other cellular and organismal activities, ranging from the actual positioning of the spindle within the cell perimeter, to regulation of a newly discovered spindle microtubule branching activity, to regulation of the interaction of microtubule structures with specific actin structures. (d) Lastly, because of the multitudinous roles of karyopherins throughout the cell cycle, a recent large push toward testing their potential as chemotherapeutic targets has begun to yield burgeoning progress in the clinic.

  18. A Drosophila ABC Transporter Regulates Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Huang, He; Lu-Bo, Ying; Haddad, Gabriel G.

    2014-01-01

    MRP4 (multidrug resistance-associated protein 4) is a member of the MRP/ABCC subfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters that are essential for many cellular processes requiring the transport of substrates across cell membranes. Although MRP4 has been implicated as a detoxification protein by transport of structurally diverse endogenous and xenobiotic compounds, including antivirus and anticancer drugs, that usually induce oxidative stress in cells, its in vivo biological function remains unknown. In this study, we investigate the biological functions of a Drosophila homolog of human MRP4, dMRP4. We show that dMRP4 expression is elevated in response to oxidative stress (paraquat, hydrogen peroxide and hyperoxia) in Drosophila. Flies lacking dMRP4 have a shortened lifespan under both oxidative and normal conditions. Overexpression of dMRP4, on the other hand, is sufficient to increase oxidative stress resistance and extend lifespan. By genetic manipulations, we demonstrate that dMRP4 is required for JNK (c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase) activation during paraquat challenge and for basal transcription of some JNK target genes under normal condition. We show that impaired JNK signaling is an important cause for major defects associated with dMRP4 mutations, suggesting that dMRP4 regulates lifespan by modulating the expression of a set of genes related to both oxidative resistance and aging, at least in part, through JNK signaling. PMID:25474322

  19. MicroRNA-144 regulates hepatic ATP binding cassette transporter A1 and plasma high-density lipoprotein after activation of the nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor.

    PubMed

    de Aguiar Vallim, Thomas Q; Tarling, Elizabeth J; Kim, Tammy; Civelek, Mete; Baldán, Ángel; Esau, Christine; Edwards, Peter A

    2013-06-07

    The bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) regulates many aspects of lipid metabolism by variouscomplex and incompletely understood molecular mechanisms. We set out to investigate the molecular mechanisms for FXR-dependent regulation of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. To identify FXR-regulated microRNAs that were subsequently involved in regulating lipid metabolism. ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) is a major determinant of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. Here, we show that activation of the nuclear receptor FXR in vivo increases hepatic levels of miR-144, which in turn lowers hepatic ABCA1 and plasma HDL levels. We identified 2 complementary sequences to miR-144 in the 3' untranslated region of ABCA1 mRNA that are necessary for miR-144-dependent regulation. Overexpression of miR-144 in vitro decreased both cellular ABCA1 protein and cholesterol efflux to lipid-poor apolipoprotein A-I protein, whereas overexpression in vivo reduced hepatic ABCA1 protein and plasma HDL-cholesterol. Conversely, silencing miR-144 in mice increased hepatic ABCA1 protein and HDL-cholesterol. In addition, we used tissue-specific FXR-deficient mice to show that induction of miR-144 and FXR-dependent hypolipidemia requires hepatic, but not intestinal, FXR. Finally, we identified functional FXR response elements upstream of the miR-144 locus, consistent with direct FXR regulation. We have identified a novel pathway involving FXR, miR-144, and ABCA1 that together regulate plasma HDL-cholesterol.

  20. Regulation of ABC Transporters at the Blood-Brain Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Miller, David S.

    2015-01-01

    ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) transporters at the blood-brain barrier function as ATP-driven xenobiotic efflux pumps and limit delivery of small molecule drugs to the brain. Here I review recent progress in understanding the regulation of the expression and transport activity of these transporters and comment on how this new information might aid in improving drug delivery to the brain. PMID:25670036

  1. Lipopolysaccharide-induced serotonin transporter up-regulation involves PKG-I and p38MAPK activation partially through A3 adenosine receptor.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Rui; Wang, Shoubao; Huang, Zhonglin; Zhang, Li; Yang, Xiuying; Bai, Xiaoyu; Zhou, Dan; Qin, Zhizhen; Du, Guanhua

    2015-12-01

    Serotonin transporter (SERT) is a critical determinant of synaptic serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) inactivation which plays a critical role in the pathology of depression and other mood disorders. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a potent activator of the inflammatory system, has been reported to cause depression symptoms by the modulation of SERT in vivo and in vitro. This study is aimed to investigate the underlying mechanism of LPS-induced SERT modulation. The 4-(4-(dimethylamino) styryl)-N-methylpyridinium iodide (ASP) assay was used to detect dynamic 5-HT uptake as read out of SERT activities in RBL-2H3 cells, and cytosol Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)]i) and nitric oxide (NO) were examined. Using specific cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase type I (PKG-I), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38MAPK) and A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR) inhibitors, SERT expression was evaluated by western blot and immunofluorescence analysis. Results showed that 24 h treatment with LPS stimulated 5-HT transport and up-regulate plasma membrane distribution of SERT in RBL-2H3 cells. LPS treatment increased NO and [Ca(2+)]i, and led to significant increases in levels of phosphorylated calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II (CaMK-II), inducible NOS (iNOS) and PKG-I as well as active p38 MAPK. Moreover, PKG-I inhibitor KT5823 or p38MAPK inhibitor SB203580 respectively impaired SERT activation and transposition to plasma membrane by LPS. Notably, A3 adenosine receptor inhibitor MRS1191 also hindered SERT stimulation by LPS. In conclusion, LPS-induced 5-HT uptake and transposition to plasma membrane of SERT in RBL-2H3 cells involves CaMK-II/iNOS/PKG-I and p38 MAPK activation, which may be partially mediated by A3 adenosine receptor activation. This finding provides a novel insight into the interrelationship between LPS and depression.

  2. Regulation & Development of Membrane Transport Processes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-15

    conducted studies on the regulation of a variety of trans- port processes as a function of cell cycle, growth phase, malignant transfor- mation, hormone ...fertilization of ideas. The contributions dealt with regulatory processes evoked by two kinds of stim- uli: (1) external stimuli, such as hormones or...Mineralocorticoid Regulation of Sodium and Potassium Transport by the Cortical Collecting Duct 89 Bruce M. Koeppen and Gerhard H. Giebisch 6. Hormonal Regulation of

  3. A Role for p38 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase-mediated Threonine 30-dependent Norepinephrine Transporter Regulation in Cocaine Sensitization and Conditioned Place Preference*

    PubMed Central

    Mannangatti, Padmanabhan; NarasimhaNaidu, Kamalakkannan; Damaj, Mohamad Imad; Ramamoorthy, Sammanda; Jayanthi, Lankupalle Damodara

    2015-01-01

    The noradrenergic and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) systems are implicated in cocaine-elicited behaviors. Previously, we demonstrated a role for p38 MAPK-mediated norepinephrine transporter (NET) Thr30 phosphorylation in cocaine-induced NET up-regulation (Mannangatti, P., Arapulisamy, O., Shippenberg, T. S., Ramamoorthy, S., and Jayanthi, L. D. (2011) J. Biol. Chem. 286, 20239–20250). The present study explored the functional interaction between p38 MAPK-mediated NET regulation and cocaine-induced behaviors. In vitro cocaine treatment of mouse prefrontal cortex synaptosomes resulted in enhanced NET function, surface expression, and phosphorylation. Pretreatment with PD169316, a p38 MAPK inhibitor, completely blocked cocaine-mediated NET up-regulation and phosphorylation. In mice, in vivo administration of p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 completely blocked cocaine-induced NET up-regulation and p38 MAPK activation in the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. When tested for cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization and conditioned place preference (CPP), mice receiving SB203580 on cocaine challenge day or on postconditioning test day exhibited significantly reduced cocaine sensitization and CPP. A transactivator of transcription (TAT) peptide strategy was utilized to test the involvement of the NET-Thr30 motif. In vitro treatment of synaptosomes with TAT-NET-Thr30 (wild-type peptide) completely blocked cocaine-mediated NET up-regulation and phosphorylation. In vivo administration of TAT-NET-Thr30 peptide but not TAT-NET-T30A (mutant peptide) completely blocked cocaine-mediated NET up-regulation and phosphorylation. In the cocaine CPP paradigm, mice receiving TAT-NET-Thr30 but not TAT-NET-T30A on postconditioning test day exhibited significantly reduced cocaine CPP. Following extinction, TAT-NET-Thr30 when given prior to cocaine challenge significantly reduced reinstatement of cocaine CPP. These results demonstrate that the direct inhibition of p38

  4. Regulation of Intestinal Glucose Absorption by Ion Channels and Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lihong; Tuo, Biguang; Dong, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The absorption of glucose is electrogenic in the small intestinal epithelium. The major route for the transport of dietary glucose from intestinal lumen into enterocytes is the Na+/glucose cotransporter (SGLT1), although glucose transporter type 2 (GLUT2) may also play a role. The membrane potential of small intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) is important to regulate the activity of SGLT1. The maintenance of membrane potential mainly depends on the activities of cation channels and transporters. While the importance of SGLT1 in glucose absorption has been systemically studied in detail, little is currently known about the regulation of SGLT1 activity by cation channels and transporters. A growing line of evidence suggests that cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]cyt) can regulate the absorption of glucose by adjusting GLUT2 and SGLT1. Moreover, the absorption of glucose and homeostasis of Ca2+ in IEC are regulated by cation channels and transporters, such as Ca2+ channels, K+ channels, Na+/Ca2+ exchangers, and Na+/H+ exchangers. In this review, we consider the involvement of these cation channels and transporters in the regulation of glucose uptake in the small intestine. Modulation of them may be a potential strategy for the management of obesity and diabetes. PMID:26784222

  5. MacB ABC transporter is a dimer whose ATPase activity and macrolide-binding capacity are regulated by the membrane fusion protein MacA.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hong Ting; Bavro, Vassiliy N; Barrera, Nelson P; Frankish, Helen M; Velamakanni, Saroj; van Veen, Hendrik W; Robinson, Carol V; Borges-Walmsley, M Inês; Walmsley, Adrian R

    2009-01-09

    Gram-negative bacteria utilize specialized machinery to translocate drugs and protein toxins across the inner and outer membranes, consisting of a tripartite complex composed of an inner membrane secondary or primary active transporter (IMP), a periplasmic membrane fusion protein, and an outer membrane channel. We have investigated the assembly and function of the MacAB/TolC system that confers resistance to macrolides in Escherichia coli. The membrane fusion protein MacA not only stabilizes the tripartite assembly by interacting with both the inner membrane protein MacB and the outer membrane protein TolC, but also has a role in regulating the function of MacB, apparently increasing its affinity for both erythromycin and ATP. Analysis of the kinetic behavior of ATP hydrolysis indicated that MacA promotes and stabilizes the ATP-binding form of the MacB transporter. For the first time, we have established unambiguously the dimeric nature of a noncanonic ABC transporter, MacB that has an N-terminal nucleotide binding domain, by means of nondissociating mass spectrometry, analytical ultracentrifugation, and atomic force microscopy. Structural studies of ABC transporters indicate that ATP is bound between a pair of nucleotide binding domains to stabilize a conformation in which the substrate-binding site is outward-facing. Consequently, our data suggest that in the presence of ATP the same conformation of MacB is promoted and stabilized by MacA. Thus, MacA would facilitate the delivery of drugs by MacB to TolC by enhancing the binding of drugs to it and inducing a conformation of MacB that is primed and competent for binding TolC. Our structural studies are an important first step in understanding how the tripartite complex is assembled.

  6. Dietary and developmental regulation of intestinal sugar transport.

    PubMed Central

    Ferraris, R P

    2001-01-01

    The Na(+)-dependent glucose transporter SGLT1 and the facilitated fructose transporter GLUT5 absorb sugars from the intestinal lumen across the brush-border membrane into the cells. The activity of these transport systems is known to be regulated primarily by diet and development. The cloning of these transporters has led to a surge of studies on cellular mechanisms regulating intestinal sugar transport. However, the small intestine can be a difficult organ to study, because its cells are continuously differentiating along the villus, and because the function of absorptive cells depends on both their state of maturity and their location along the villus axis. In this review, I describe the typical patterns of regulation of transport activity by dietary carbohydrate, Na(+) and fibre, how these patterns are influenced by circadian rhythms, and how they vary in different species and during development. I then describe the molecular mechanisms underlying these regulatory patterns. The expression of these transporters is tightly linked to the villus architecture; hence, I also review the regulatory processes occurring along the crypt-villus axis. Regulation of glucose transport by diet may involve increased transcription of SGLT1 mainly in crypt cells. As cells migrate to the villus, the mRNA is degraded, and transporter proteins are then inserted into the membrane, leading to increases in glucose transport about a day after an increase in carbohydrate levels. In the SGLT1 model, transport activity in villus cells cannot be modulated by diet. In contrast, GLUT5 regulation by the diet seems to involve de novo synthesis of GLUT5 mRNA synthesis and protein in cells lining the villus, leading to increases in fructose transport a few hours after consumption of diets containing fructose. In the GLUT5 model, transport activity can be reprogrammed in mature enterocytes lining the villus column. Innovative experimental approaches are needed to increase our understanding of sugar

  7. Regulation of cilium length and intraflagellar transport.

    PubMed

    Broekhuis, Joost R; Leong, Weng Y; Jansen, Gert

    2013-01-01

    Primary cilia are highly conserved sensory organelles that extend from the surface of almost all vertebrate cells. The importance of cilia is evident from their involvement in many diseases, called ciliopathies. Primary cilia contain a microtubular axoneme that is used as a railway for transport of both structural components and signaling proteins. This transport machinery is called intraflagellar transport (IFT). Cilia are dynamic organelles whose presence on the cell surface, morphology, length and function are highly regulated. It is clear that the IFT machinery plays an important role in this regulation. However, it is not clear how, for example environmental cues or cell fate decisions are relayed to modulate IFT and cilium morphology or function. This chapter presents an overview of molecules that have been shown to regulate cilium length and IFT. Several examples where signaling modulates IFT and cilium function are used to discuss the importance of these systems for the cell and for understanding of the etiology of ciliopathies.

  8. AMPK and substrate availability regulate creatine transport in cultured cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Darrabie, Marcus D; Arciniegas, Antonio Jose Luis; Mishra, Rajashree; Bowles, Dawn E; Jacobs, Danny O; Santacruz, Lucia

    2011-05-01

    Profound alterations in myocellular creatine and phosphocreatine levels are observed during human heart failure. To maintain its intracellular creatine stores, cardiomyocytes depend upon a cell membrane creatine transporter whose regulation is not clearly understood. Creatine transport capacity in the intact heart is modulated by substrate availability, and it is reduced in the failing myocardium, likely adding to the energy imbalance that characterizes heart failure. AMPK, a key regulator of cellular energy homeostasis, acts by switching off energy-consuming pathways in favor of processes that generate energy. Our objective was to determine the effects of substrate availability and AMPK activation on creatine transport in cardiomyocytes. We studied creatine transport in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes and HL-1 cardiac cells expressing the human creatine transporter cultured in the presence of varying creatine concentrations and the AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribonucleoside (AICAR). Transport was enhanced in cardiomyocytes following incubation in creatine-depleted medium or AICAR. The changes in transport were due to alterations in V(max) that correlated with changes in total and cell surface creatine transporter protein content. Our results suggest a positive role for AMPK in creatine transport modulation for cardiomyocytes in culture.

  9. Pathways of glucose regulation of monosaccharide transport in grape cells.

    PubMed

    Conde, Carlos; Agasse, Alice; Glissant, David; Tavares, Rui; Gerós, Hernâni; Delrot, Serge

    2006-08-01

    Grape (Vitis vinifera) heterotrophic suspension-cultured cells were used as a model system to study glucose (Glc) transport and its regulation. Cells transported D-[14C]Glc according to simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics superimposed on first-order kinetics. The saturating component is a high-affinity, broad-specificity H+ -dependent transport system (Km = 0.05 mm). Glc concentration in the medium tightly regulated the transcription of VvHT1 (Vitis vinifera hexose transporter 1), a monosaccharide transporter previously characterized in grape berry, as well as VvHT1 protein amount and monosaccharide transport activity. All the remaining putative monosaccharide transporters identified so far in grape were poorly expressed and responded weakly to Glc. VvHT1 transcription was strongly repressed by Glc and 2-deoxy-D-Glc, but not by 3-O-methyl-D-Glc or Glc plus mannoheptulose, indicating the involvement of a hexokinase-dependent repression. 3-O-Methyl-D-Glc, which cannot be phosphorylated, and Glc plus mannoheptulose induced a decrease of transport activity caused by the reduction of VvHT1 protein in the plasma membrane without affecting VvHT1 transcript levels. This demonstrates hexokinase-independent posttranscriptional regulation. High Glc down-regulated VvHT1 transcription and Glc uptake, whereas low Glc increased those parameters. Present data provide an example showing control of plant sugar transporters by their own substrate both at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. VvHT1 protein has an important role in the massive import of monosaccharides into mesocarp cells of young grape berries because it was localized in plasma membranes of the early developing fruit. Protein amount decreased abruptly throughout fruit development as sugar content increases, consistent with the regulating role of Glc on VvHT1 expression found in suspension-cultured cells.

  10. 76 FR 70220 - New Jersey Regulations on Transportation of Regulated Medical Waste

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration New Jersey Regulations on Transportation of... Federal hazardous material transportation law preempts regulations of the New Jersey Department of...'' requirements in the Federal hazardous material transportation law or the Hazardous Materials Regulations...

  11. A novel MDCKII in vitro model for assessing ABCG2-drug interactions and regulation of ABCG2 transport activity in the caprine mammary gland by environmental pollutants and pesticides.

    PubMed

    Halwachs, Sandra; Wassermann, Louise; Honscha, Walther

    2014-04-01

    The ABC efflux transporter ABCG2 represents the main route for active secretion of xenobiotics into milk. Thus, ABCG2 regulation by aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands including ubiquitously environmental pollutants is of great toxicological relevance. However, no adequate in vitro model is as yet available to study AhR-dependent ABCG2 regulation in dairy animals. In this study, we therefore systematically investigated the effect of various environmental contaminants and pesticides on ABCG2 efflux activity in MDCKII cells stably expressing mammary ABCG2 from dairy goats. The AhR-agonists TCDD, Aroclor 1254, prochloraz, and iprodione caused a dose- and time-dependent increase in EROD activity. Moreover, TCDD and prochloraz significantly stimulated ABCG2 transport activity through a dose- and time-dependent induction of transporter gene expression. AhR inhibitors like CH223191 significantly reversed TCDD- and prochloraz-induced stimulation of ABCG2 efflux activity. In contrast, non-AhR activators such as PCB 101 had no significant effect on EROD activity, ABCG2 gene expression or transporter activity. As we identified various anthelmintics including monepantel as potential ABCG2 substrates this regulatory mechanism may result in increased milk residues of potentially harmful xenobiotics. Thus, MDCKII-cABCG2 cells may represent a suitable in vitro model to study mammary ABCG2 secretory activity and its potential regulation by AhR-activating contaminants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Laboratory Exercise on Active Transport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalheim-Smith, Ann; Fitch, Greg K.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a laboratory exercise which demonstrates qualitatively the specificity of the transport mechanism, including a consideration of the competitive inhibition, and the role of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in active transport. The exercise, which can be completed in two to three hours by groups of four students, consistently produces reliable…

  13. Laboratory Exercise on Active Transport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalheim-Smith, Ann; Fitch, Greg K.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a laboratory exercise which demonstrates qualitatively the specificity of the transport mechanism, including a consideration of the competitive inhibition, and the role of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in active transport. The exercise, which can be completed in two to three hours by groups of four students, consistently produces reliable…

  14. Regulation of lysine transport by feedback inhibition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, C E; Lichstein, H C

    1976-01-01

    A steady-state level of about 240 nmol/mg (dry wt) occurs during lysine transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. No subsequent efflux of the accumulated amino acid was detected. Two transport systems mediate lysine transport, a high-affinity, lysine-specific system and an arginine-lysine system for which lysine exhibits a lower affinity. Preloading with lysine, arginine, glutamic acid, or aspartic acid inhibited lysine transport activity; preloading with glutamine, glycine, methionine, phenylalanine, or valine had little effect; however, preloading with histidine stimulated lysine transport activity. These preloading effects correlated with fluctuations in the intracellular lysine and/or arginine pool: lysine transport activity was inhibited when increases in the lysine and/or arginine pool occurred and was stimulated when decreases in the lysine and/or arginine pool occurred. After addition of lysine to a growing culture, lysine transport activity was inhibited more than threefold in one-third of the doubling time of the culture. These results indicate that the lysine-specific and arginine-lysine transport systems are regulated by feedback inhibition that may be mediated by intracellular lysine and arginine. PMID:767329

  15. Activated transport in AMTEC electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Ryan, M. A.; Underwood, M. L.; O'Connor, D.; Kikkert, S.

    1992-01-01

    Transport of alkali, metal atoms through porous cathodes of alkali metal thermal-to-electric converter (AMTEC) cells is responsible for significant reducible losses in the electrical performance of these cells. Experimental evidence for activated transport of metal atoms at grain surfaces and boundaries within some AMTEC electrodes has been derived from temperature dependent studies as well as from analysis of the detailed frequency dependence of ac impedance results for other electrodes, including thin, mature molybdenum electrodes which exhibit transport dominated by free molecular flow of sodium gas at low frequencies or dc conditions. Activated surface transport will almost always exist in parallel with free molecular flow transport, and the process of alkali atom adsorption/desorption from the electrode surface will invariably be part of the transport process, and possibly a dominant part in some cases. The temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficient of the alkali metal through the electrode in several cases provides an activation energy and preexponential, but at least two activated processes may be operative, and the activation parameters should be expected to depend on the alkali metal activity gradient that the electrode experiences. In the case of Pt/W/Mn electrodes operated for 2500 hours, limiting currents varied with electrode thickness, and the activation parameters could be assigned primarily to the surface/grain boundary diffusion process.

  16. Xenobiotic, Bile Acid, and Cholesterol Transporters: Function and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Aleksunes, Lauren M.

    2010-01-01

    factors that influence transporter expression and function, including transcriptional activation and post-translational modifications as well as subcellular trafficking. Sex differences, ontogeny, and pharmacological and toxicological regulation of transporters are also addressed. Transporters are important transmembrane proteins that mediate the cellular entry and exit of a wide range of substrates throughout the body and thereby play important roles in human physiology, pharmacology, pathology, and toxicology. PMID:20103563

  17. 78 FR 18325 - Defense Transportation Regulation, Part IV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... of the Secretary Defense Transportation Regulation, Part IV AGENCY: United States Transportation... Department of Defense published a notice titled Defense Transportation Regulation, Part IV. DoD has completed... Transportation Regulation, Part IV Web site at http://www.transcom.mil/dtr/part-iv/phaseiii.cfm (DPM SECTION...

  18. Astrocytic GABA transporter activity modulates excitatory neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Boddum, Kim; Jensen, Thomas P.; Magloire, Vincent; Kristiansen, Uffe; Rusakov, Dmitri A.; Pavlov, Ivan; Walker, Matthew C.

    2016-01-01

    Astrocytes are ideally placed to detect and respond to network activity. They express ionotropic and metabotropic receptors, and can release gliotransmitters. Astrocytes also express transporters that regulate the extracellular concentration of neurotransmitters. Here we report a previously unrecognized role for the astrocytic GABA transporter, GAT-3. GAT-3 activity results in a rise in astrocytic Na+ concentrations and a consequent increase in astrocytic Ca2+ through Na+/Ca2+ exchange. This leads to the release of ATP/adenosine by astrocytes, which then diffusely inhibits neuronal glutamate release via activation of presynaptic adenosine receptors. Through this mechanism, increases in astrocytic GAT-3 activity due to GABA released from interneurons contribute to 'diffuse' heterosynaptic depression. This provides a mechanism for homeostatic regulation of excitatory transmission in the hippocampus. PMID:27886179

  19. Bile acid-regulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) activity underlies circadian expression of intestinal peptide absorption transporter PepT1/Slc15a1.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Ayako; Koyanagi, Satoru; Dilxiat, Adila; Kusunose, Naoki; Chen, Jia Jun; Matsunaga, Naoya; Shibata, Shigenobu; Ohdo, Shigehiro

    2014-09-05

    Digested proteins are mainly absorbed as small peptides composed of two or three amino acids. The intestinal absorption of small peptides is mediated via only one transport system: the proton-coupled peptide transporter-1 (PepT1) encoded from the soluble carrier protein Slc15a1. In mammals, intestinal expression of PepT1/Slc15a1 oscillates during the daily feeding cycle. Although the oscillation in the intestinal expression of PepT1/Slc15a1 is suggested to be controlled by molecular components of circadian clock, we demonstrated here that bile acids regulated the oscillation of PepT1/Slc15a1 expression through modulating the activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα). Nocturnally active mice mainly consumed their food during the dark phase. PPARα activated the intestinal expression of Slc15a1 mRNA during the light period, and protein levels of PepT1 peaked before the start of the dark phase. After food intake, bile acids accumulated in intestinal epithelial cells. Intestinal accumulated bile acids interfered with recruitment of co-transcriptional activator CREB-binding protein/p300 on the promoter region of Slc15a1 gene, thereby suppressing PPARα-mediated transactivation of Slc15a1. The time-dependent suppression of PPARα-mediated transactivation by bile acids caused an oscillation in the intestinal expression of PepT1/Slc15a1 during the daily feeding cycle that led to circadian changes in the intestinal absorption of small peptides. These findings suggest a molecular clock-independent mechanism by which bile acid-regulated PPARα activity governs the circadian expression of intestinal peptide transporter.

  20. Transcriptional regulation of plant phosphate transporters

    PubMed Central

    Muchhal, Umesh S.; Raghothama, K. G.

    1999-01-01

    Phosphorus is acquired by plant roots primarily via the high-affinity inorganic phosphate (Pi) transporters. The transcripts for Pi transporters are highly inducible upon Pi starvation, which also results in enhanced Pi uptake when Pi is resupplied. Using antibodies specific to one of the tomato Pi transporters (encoded by LePT1), we show that an increase in the LePT1 transcript under Pi starvation leads to a concurrent increase in the transporter protein, suggesting a transcriptional regulation for Pi acquisition. LePT1 protein accumulates rapidly in tomato roots in response to Pi starvation. The level of transporter protein accumulation depends on the Pi concentration in the medium, and it is reversible upon resupply of Pi. LePT1 protein accumulates all along the roots under Pi starvation and is localized primarily in the plasma membranes. These results clearly demonstrate that plants increase their capacity for Pi uptake during Pi starvation by synthesis of additional transporter molecules. PMID:10318976

  1. Activated transport in AMTEC electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Ryan, M.A.; Underwood, M.L.; O`Connor, D.; Kikkert, S.

    1992-07-01

    Transport of alkali metal atoms through porous cathodes of alkali metal thermal-to-electric converter (AMTEC) cells is responsible for significant, reducible losses in the electrical performance of these cells. Experimental evidence for activated transport of metal atoms at grain surfaces and boundaries within some AMTEC electrodes has been derived from temperature dependent studies as well as from analysis of the detailed frequency dependence of ac impedance results for other electrodes, including thin, mature molybdenum electrodes which exhibit transport dominated by free molecular flow of sodium gas at low frequencies or dc conditions. Activated surface transport will almost always exist in parallel with free molecular flow transport, and the process of alkali atom adsorption/desorption from the electrode surface will invariably be part of the transport process, and possibly a dominant part in some cases. Little can be learned about the detailed mass transport process from the ac impedance or current voltage curves of an electrode at one set of operating parameters, because the transport process includes a number of important physical parameters that are not all uniquely determined by one experiment. The temperature dependence of diffusion coefficient of the alkali metal through the electrode in several cases provides an activation energy and pre-exponential, but at least two activated processes may be operative, and the activation parameters should be expected to depend on the alkali metal activity gradient that the electrode experiences. In the case of Pt/W/Mn electrodes operated for 2500 hours, limiting currents varied with electrode thickness, and the activation parameters could be assigned primarily to the surface/grain boundary diffusion process. 17 refs.

  2. Activated transport in AMTEC electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Ryan, M.A.; Underwood, M.L.; O'Connor, D.; Kikkert, S.

    1992-01-01

    Transport of alkali metal atoms through porous cathodes of alkali metal thermal-to-electric converter (AMTEC) cells is responsible for significant, reducible losses in the electrical performance of these cells. Experimental evidence for activated transport of metal atoms at grain surfaces and boundaries within some AMTEC electrodes has been derived from temperature dependent studies as well as from analysis of the detailed frequency dependence of ac impedance results for other electrodes, including thin, mature molybdenum electrodes which exhibit transport dominated by free molecular flow of sodium gas at low frequencies or dc conditions. Activated surface transport will almost always exist in parallel with free molecular flow transport, and the process of alkali atom adsorption/desorption from the electrode surface will invariably be part of the transport process, and possibly a dominant part in some cases. Little can be learned about the detailed mass transport process from the ac impedance or current voltage curves of an electrode at one set of operating parameters, because the transport process includes a number of important physical parameters that are not all uniquely determined by one experiment. The temperature dependence of diffusion coefficient of the alkali metal through the electrode in several cases provides an activation energy and pre-exponential, but at least two activated processes may be operative, and the activation parameters should be expected to depend on the alkali metal activity gradient that the electrode experiences. In the case of Pt/W/Mn electrodes operated for 2500 hours, limiting currents varied with electrode thickness, and the activation parameters could be assigned primarily to the surface/grain boundary diffusion process. 17 refs.

  3. [Sugar transport, metabolism, accumulation and their regulation in fruits].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun-Wei; Zhang, Shang-Long; Zhang, Liang-Cheng

    2004-02-01

    Photosynthates transported into fruits are mainly in the form of sucrose in most fruit tree species; but sorbitol takes the place of sucrose in woody Rosaceae plants. The transport of sugars across the plasma membrane from apoplastic space into cells is mediated by sugar transporters. The fact that gene expression of sugar transporters is upregulated just before and during sugar accumulation suggests the participation of sugar transporters in sugar accumulation of fruit. The sucrose-metabolizing enzymes participate in four futile cycles that involve sugar transport between cytosol, vacuole, amyloplast and apoplast. The increase in SS (sucrose synthase) and SPS (sucrose phosphate synthase) activities and mRNA levels during maturation parallels the increase in sugar accumulation indicates that the sucrose-metabolizing enzymes have important roles on sugar accumulation in fruits. The prerequisite for rapid accumulation of sugar in fruit is restriction of hexose catabolism and promotion of its synthesis. In woody Rosaceae plants, the fact that sucrose metabolism is also quite active in fruit suggests that sorbitol and sucrose probably play similar roles in fruit development. Sugars as signal molecules regulate the expression of genes involved in sugar transport and metabolism. Sugar transport, metabolism and accumulation are also regulated by natural environmental factors and cultural practices. The increase in sugar content of tomato fruit in acid invertase gene antisense-inhibited plants provides promising prospect of genetic engineering as a potential effective technique in regulation of sugar accumulation in fruits. Thus, the sugar content of fruit is determined by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The future research works will be focused on elucidating the mechanism of sugar signal and other intrinsic signals as well as extrinsic signals including nutrients, plant hormones and physical factors on sugar transport, metabolism and accumulation and the

  4. Energetics of active transport processes.

    PubMed

    Essig, A; Caplan, S R

    1968-12-01

    Discussions of active transport usually assume stoichiometry between the rate of transport J(+) and the metabolic rate J(r). However, the observation of a linear relationship between J(+) and J(r) does not imply a stoichiometric relationship, i.e., complete coupling. Since coupling may possibly be incomplete, we examine systems of an arbitrary degree of coupling q, regarding stoichiometry as a limiting case. We consider a sodium pump, with J(+) and J(r) linear functions of the electrochemical potential difference, -X(+), and the chemical affinity of the metabolic driving reaction, A. The affinity is well defined even for various complex reaction pathways. Incorporation of a series barrier and a parallel leak does not affect the linearity of the composite observable system. The affinity of some region of the metabolic chain may be maintained constant, either by large pools of reactants or by regulation. If so, this affinity can be evaluated by two independent methods. Sodium transport is conveniently characterized by the open-circuit potential (Deltapsi)(I=0) and the natural limits, level flow (J(+))(X+=0), and static head X(0) (+) = (X(+))(J+=0). With high degrees of coupling -X(0) (+)/F approaches the electromotive force E(Na) (Ussing); -X(0) (+)/F cannot be identified with ((RT/F) ln f)(X+=0), where f is the flux ratio. The efficiency eta = -J(+)X(+)/J(r)A is of significance only when appreciable energy is being converted from one form to another. When either J(+) or -X(+) is small eta is low; the significant parameters are then the efficacies epsilon(J+) = J(+)/J(r)A and epsilon(X+) = -X(+)/J(r)A, respectively maximal at level flow and static head. Leak increases both J(+) and epsilon(J+) for isotonic saline reabsorption, but diminishes -X(0) (+) and epsilon(Xfemale symbol). Electrical resistance reflects both passive parameters and metabolism. Various fundamental relations are preserved despite coupling of passive ion and water flows.

  5. Increased Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain Activity at Complex I Is Regulated by N-Acetylcysteine in Lymphocytes of Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Edward; Oaks, Zachary

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients' peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) show mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. To determine the electrochemical bases of mitochondrial dysfunction, we measured electron transport chain (ETC) activity and its regulation by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) that reversed glutathione depletion and improved disease activity in SLE. ETC activity was assessed in PBL of 69 SLE patients and 37 healthy donors. Negatively isolated T cells were examined in 7 SLE patients, 11 healthy donors, and 10 nonlupus inflammatory arthritis (IA) donors. Results: O2 consumption (in nmol/ml/min) by lupus PBL was increased at baseline (SLE: 2.492±0.196, control: 2.137±0.153; p=0.027) and with complex IV substrates (SLE: 7.722±0.419, control: 7.006±0.505; p=0.028). SLE PBL consumed more O2 upon in-chamber T-cell activation (p=0.012). After overnight T-cell stimulation, ETC activity of SLE PBL was 2.27-fold increased through complex I (SLE: 1.606±0.273, control: 0.709±0.169; p=0.001) and, to a lesser extent, through complex IV. Likewise, complex I activity was elevated in negatively isolated “untouched” T cells of SLE patients (1.816±0.180) relative to healthy controls (0.917±0.094; p=0.0003) and IA disease controls studied in parallel (1.057±0.199; p=0.0308). NAC diminished O2 consumption through complex I and H2O2 levels both in SLE and in control PBL. Innovation: O2 consumption was found to be increased in SLE patients' PBL relative to control subjects evaluated in parallel. ETC complex I is identified as the main source of oxidative stress in SLE. Conclusions: Lupus PBL exhibit increased O2 consumption through mitochondrial ETC complex I that is inhibited by NAC, which may have therapeutic efficacy through reducing oxidative stress in SLE. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 56–65. PMID:24673154

  6. Sediment transport in two mediterranean regulated rivers.

    PubMed

    Lobera, G; Batalla, R J; Vericat, D; López-Tarazón, J A; Tena, A

    2016-01-01

    Mediterranean climate is characterized by highly irregular rainfall patterns with marked differences between wet and dry seasons which lead to highly variable hydrological fluvial regimes. As a result, and in order to ensure water availability and reduce its temporal variability, a high number of large dams were built during the 20th century (more than 3500 located in Mediterranean rivers). Dams modify the flow regime but also interrupt the continuity of sediment transfer along the river network, thereby changing its functioning as an ecosystem. Within this context, the present paper aims to assess the suspended sediment loads and dynamics of two climatically contrasting Mediterranean regulated rivers (i.e. the Ésera and Siurana) during a 2-yr period. Key findings indicate that floods were responsible for 92% of the total suspended sediment load in the River Siurana, while this percentage falls to 70% for the Ésera, indicating the importance of baseflows on sediment transport in this river. This fact is related to the high sediment availability, with the Ésera acting as a non-supply-limited catchment due to the high productivity of the sources (i.e. badlands). In contrast, the Siurana can be considered a supply-limited system due to its low geomorphic activity and reduced sediment availability, with suspended sediment concentration remaining low even for high magnitude flood events. Reservoirs in both rivers reduce sediment load up to 90%, although total runoff is only reduced in the case of the River Ésera. A remarkable fact is the change of the hydrological character of the River Ésera downstream for the dam, shifting from a humid mountainous river regime to a quasi-invariable pattern, whereas the Siurana experiences the opposite effect, changing from a flashy Mediterranean river to a more constant flow regime below the dam.

  7. Regulation of amino acid metabolic enzymes and transporters in plants.

    PubMed

    Pratelli, Réjane; Pilot, Guillaume

    2014-10-01

    Amino acids play several critical roles in plants, from providing the building blocks of proteins to being essential metabolites interacting with many branches of metabolism. They are also important molecules that shuttle organic nitrogen through the plant. Because of this central role in nitrogen metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis, degradation, and transport are tightly regulated to meet demand in response to nitrogen and carbon availability. While much is known about the feedback regulation of the branched biosynthesis pathways by the amino acids themselves, the regulation mechanisms at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and protein levels remain to be identified. This review focuses mainly on the current state of our understanding of the regulation of the enzymes and transporters at the transcript level. Current results describing the effect of transcription factors and protein modifications lead to a fragmental picture that hints at multiple, complex levels of regulation that control and coordinate transport and enzyme activities. It also appears that amino acid metabolism, amino acid transport, and stress signal integration can influence each other in a so-far unpredictable fashion.

  8. Copper transport and regulation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    PubMed Central

    Beaudoin, Jude; Ekici, Seda; Daldal, Fevzi; Ait-Mohand, Samia; Guérin, Brigitte; Labbé, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe has been successfully used as a model to gain fundamental knowledge in understanding how eukaryotic cells acquire copper during vegetative growth. These studies have revealed the existence of a heteromeric Ctr4–Ctr5 plasma membrane complex that mediates uptake of copper within the cells. Furthermore, additional studies have led to the identification of one of the first vacuolar copper transporters, Ctr6, as well as the copper-responsive Cuf1 transcription factor. Recent investigations have extended the use of S. pombe to elucidate new roles for copper metabolism in meiotic differentiation. For example, these studies have led to the discovery of Mfc1, which turned out to be the first example of a meiosis-specific copper transporter. Whereas copper-dependent transcriptional regulation of the Ctr family members is under the control of Cuf1 during mitosis or meiosis, meiosis-specific copper transporter Mfc1 is regulated by the recently discovered transactivator Mca1. It is foreseeable that identification of novel meiotic copper-related proteins will serve as stepping stones to unravel fundamental aspects of copper homoeostasis. PMID:24256274

  9. Rab proteins: The key regulators of intracellular vesicle transport

    SciTech Connect

    Bhuin, Tanmay; Roy, Jagat Kumar

    2014-10-15

    Vesicular/membrane trafficking essentially regulates the compartmentalization and abundance of proteins within the cells and contributes in many signalling pathways. This membrane transport in eukaryotic cells is a complex process regulated by a large and diverse array of proteins. A large group of monomeric small GTPases; the Rabs are essential components of this membrane trafficking route. Most of the Rabs are ubiquitously expressed proteins and have been implicated in vesicle formation, vesicle motility/delivery along cytoskeleton elements and docking/fusion at target membranes through the recruitment of effectors. Functional impairments of Rabs affecting transport pathways manifest different diseases. Rab functions are accompanied by cyclical activation and inactivation of GTP-bound and GDP-bound forms between the cytosol and membranes which is regulated by upstream regulators. Rab proteins are characterized by their distinct sub-cellular localization and regulate a wide variety of endocytic, transcytic and exocytic transport pathways. Mutations of Rabs affect cell growth, motility and other biological processes. - Highlights: • Rab proteins regulate different signalling pathways. • Deregulation of Rabs is the fundamental causes of a variety of human diseases. • This paper gives potential directions in developing therapeutic targets. • This paper also gives ample directions for modulating pathways central to normal physiology. • These are the huge challenges for drug discovery and delivery in near future.

  10. Kinase-dependent Regulation of Monoamine Neurotransmitter Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Bermingham, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    Modulation of neurotransmission by the monoamines dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), and serotonin (5-HT) is critical for normal nervous system function. Precise temporal and spatial control of this signaling in mediated in large part by the actions of monoamine transporters (DAT, NET, and SERT, respectively). These transporters act to recapture their respective neurotransmitters after release, and disruption of clearance and reuptake has significant effects on physiology and behavior and has been linked to a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. To ensure adequate and dynamic control of these transporters, multiple modes of control have evolved to regulate their activity and trafficking. Central to many of these modes of control are the actions of protein kinases, whose actions can be direct or indirectly mediated by kinase-modulated protein interactions. Here, we summarize the current state of our understanding of how protein kinases regulate monoamine transporters through changes in activity, trafficking, phosphorylation state, and interacting partners. We highlight genetic, biochemical, and pharmacological evidence for kinase-linked control of DAT, NET, and SERT and, where applicable, provide evidence for endogenous activators of these pathways. We hope our discussion can lead to a more nuanced and integrated understanding of how neurotransmitter transporters are controlled and may contribute to disorders that feature perturbed monoamine signaling, with an ultimate goal of developing better therapeutic strategies. PMID:27591044

  11. Yes-associated protein 1 and transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif activate the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 pathway by regulating amino acid transporters in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Park, Yun-Yong; Sohn, Bo Hwa; Johnson, Randy L; Kang, Myoung-Hee; Kim, Sang Bae; Shim, Jae-Jun; Mangala, Lingegowda S; Kim, Ji Hoon; Yoo, Jeong Eun; Rodriguez-Aguayo, Cristian; Pradeep, Sunila; Hwang, Jun Eul; Jang, Hee-Jin; Lee, Hyun-Sung; Rupaimoole, Rajesha; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Jeong, Woojin; Park, Inn Sun; Park, Young Nyun; Sood, Anil K; Mills, Gordon B; Lee, Ju-Seog

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic activation is a common feature of many cancer cells and is frequently associated with the clinical outcomes of various cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma. Thus, aberrantly activated metabolic pathways in cancer cells are attractive targets for cancer therapy. Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) and transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) are oncogenic downstream effectors of the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway, which is frequently inactivated in many cancers. Our study revealed that YAP1/TAZ regulates amino acid metabolism by up-regulating expression of the amino acid transporters solute carrier family 38 member 1 (SLC38A1) and solute carrier family 7 member 5 (SLC7A5). Subsequently, increased uptake of amino acids by the transporters (SLC38A1 and SLC7A5) activates mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), a master regulator of cell growth, and stimulates cell proliferation. We also show that high expression of SLC38A1 and SLC7A5 is significantly associated with shorter survival in hepatocellular carcinoma patients. Furthermore, inhibition of the transporters and mTORC1 significantly blocks YAP1/TAZ-mediated tumorigenesis in the liver. These findings elucidate regulatory networks connecting the Hippo pathway to mTORC1 through amino acid metabolism and the mechanism's potential clinical implications for treating hepatocellular carcinoma. YAP1 and TAZ regulate cancer metabolism and mTORC1 through regulation of amino acid transportation, and two amino acid transporters, SLC38A1 and SLC7A5, might be important therapeutic targets. © 2015 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  12. Factors regulating microglia activation

    PubMed Central

    Kierdorf, Katrin; Prinz, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Microglia are resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS) that display high functional similarities to other tissue macrophages. However, it is especially important to create and maintain an intact tissue homeostasis to support the neuronal cells, which are very sensitive even to minor changes in their environment. The transition from the “resting” but surveying microglial phenotype to an activated stage is tightly regulated by several intrinsic (e.g., Runx-1, Irf8, and Pu.1) and extrinsic factors (e.g., CD200, CX3CR1, and TREM2). Under physiological conditions, minor changes of those factors are sufficient to cause fatal dysregulation of microglial cell homeostasis and result in severe CNS pathologies. In this review, we discuss recent achievements that gave new insights into mechanisms that ensure microglia quiescence. PMID:23630462

  13. Regulation of polar auxin transport by protein and lipid kinases

    PubMed Central

    Jaillais, Yvon

    2016-01-01

    The directional transport of auxin, known as polar auxin transport, allows asymmetric distribution of this hormone in different cells and tissues. This system creates local auxin maxima, minima and gradients that are instrumental in both organ initiation and shape determination. As such, polar auxin transport is crucial for all aspects of plant development but also for environmental interaction, notably in shaping plant architecture to its environment. Cell-to-cell auxin transport is mediated by a network of auxin carriers that are regulated at the transcriptional and post-translational levels. Here we review our current knowledge on some aspects of the ‘non-genomic’ regulation of auxin transport, putting an emphasis on how phosphorylation by protein and lipid kinases controls the polarity, intracellular trafficking, stability and activity of auxin carriers. We describe the role of several AGC kinases, including PINOID, D6PK and the blue light photoreceptor phot1, in phosphorylating auxin carriers from the PIN and ABCB families. We also highlight the function of some Receptor-Like Kinases (RLK) and two-component histidine kinase receptors in polar auxin transport, noticing that there are likely RLKs involved in coordinating auxin distribution yet to be discovered. In addition, we describe the emerging role of phospholipid phosphorylation in polarity establishment and intracellular trafficking of PIN proteins. We outline these various phosphorylation mechanisms in the context of primary and lateral root development, leaf cell shape acquisition as well as root gravitropism and shoot phototropism. PMID:27242371

  14. Rab proteins: the key regulators of intracellular vesicle transport.

    PubMed

    Bhuin, Tanmay; Roy, Jagat Kumar

    2014-10-15

    Vesicular/membrane trafficking essentially regulates the compartmentalization and abundance of proteins within the cells and contributes in many signalling pathways. This membrane transport in eukaryotic cells is a complex process regulated by a large and diverse array of proteins. A large group of monomeric small GTPases; the Rabs are essential components of this membrane trafficking route. Most of the Rabs are ubiquitously expressed proteins and have been implicated in vesicle formation, vesicle motility/delivery along cytoskeleton elements and docking/fusion at target membranes through the recruitment of effectors. Functional impairments of Rabs affecting transport pathways manifest different diseases. Rab functions are accompanied by cyclical activation and inactivation of GTP-bound and GDP-bound forms between the cytosol and membranes which is regulated by upstream regulators. Rab proteins are characterized by their distinct sub-cellular localization and regulate a wide variety of endocytic, transcytic and exocytic transport pathways. Mutations of Rabs affect cell growth, motility and other biological processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Induction of TRPV5 expression by small activating RNA targeting gene promoter as a novel approach to regulate cellular calcium transportation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bicheng; Duan, Xiaolu; Wu, Wenzheng; Ji, Weidong; Wu, Wenqi; Zhong, Wen; Zhao, Zhijian; Li, Shujue; Liu, Yang; Zeng, Guohua

    2014-10-02

    Promoter-targeted small activating RNAs (saRNAs) have been shown to be able to induce target gene expression, a mechanism known as RNA activation (RNAa). The present study tested whether saRNA can induce the overexpression of TRPV5 in human cells derived from the kidney and subsequently manipulate cell calcium uptake. Three saRNAs complementary to the TRPV5 promoter were synthesized and transfected into cells. TRPV5 expression at the RNA and protein levels was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting respectively. For functional study, transcellular Ca(2+) transportation was tested by fura-2 analysis. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a suppressor of cellular calcium transportation, was administered to challenge the activating effect of selected saRNA. One of these synthesized saRNAs, ds-2939, significantly induced the expression of TRPV5 at both mRNA and protein levels. Fura-2 analysis revealed that the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration was elevated by ds-2939. DHT treatment reduced transmembrane Ca(2+) transport, which was partially antagonized by ds-2939. Our results suggest that a saRNA targeting TRPV5 promoter can be utilized to manipulate the transmembrane Ca(2+) transport by upregulating the expression of TRPV5 and may serve as an alternative for the treatment of Ca(2+) balance-related diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Regulation of Photosynthetic Electron Transport and Photoinhibition

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Thomas; Krieger-Liszkay, Anja Krieger

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthetic organisms and isolated photosystems are of interest for technical applications. In nature, photosynthetic electron transport has to work efficiently in contrasting environments such as shade and full sunlight at noon. Photosynthetic electron transport is regulated on many levels, starting with the energy transfer processes in antenna and ending with how reducing power is ultimately partitioned. This review starts by explaining how light energy can be dissipated or distributed by the various mechanisms of non-photochemical quenching, including thermal dissipation and state transitions, and how these processes influence photoinhibition of photosystem II (PSII). Furthermore, we will highlight the importance of the various alternative electron transport pathways, including the use of oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor and cyclic flow around photosystem I (PSI), the latter which seem particularly relevant to preventing photoinhibition of photosystem I. The control of excitation pressure in combination with the partitioning of reducing power influences the light-dependent formation of reactive oxygen species in PSII and in PSI, which may be a very important consideration to any artificial photosynthetic system or technical device using photosynthetic organisms. PMID:24678670

  17. 75 FR 16445 - Defense Transportation Regulation, Part IV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Defense Transportation Regulation, Part IV AGENCY: United States Transportation... for the Defense Personal Property Program (DP3) in the Defense Transportation Regulation (DTR) Part IV...

  18. Regulation and roles of bicarbonate transporters in cancer.

    PubMed

    Gorbatenko, Andrej; Olesen, Christina W; Boedtkjer, Ebbe; Pedersen, Stine F

    2014-01-01

    A unifying feature of solid tumors is a markedly altered pH profile compared to normal tissues. This reflects that solid tumors, despite completely different origins, often share several phenotypic properties with implications for intra- and extracellular pH. These include: a metabolic shift in most cancer cells toward more acid-producing pathways, reflecting both oncogenic signaling and the development of hypoxia in poorly perfused regions of the tumors; the poorly perfused and often highly dense tumor microenvironment, reducing the diffusive flux of acid equivalents compared to that in normal tissues; and the markedly altered regulation of the expression and activity of pH-regulatory transport proteins in cancer cells. While some of these properties of tumors have been well described in recent years, the great majority of the research in this clinically important area has focused on proton transport, in particular via the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1 (SLC9A1, NHE1) and various H(+) ATPases. We have, however, recently demonstrated that at least under some conditions, including in vitro models of HER2 positive breast cancer, and measurements obtained directly in freshly dissected human mammary carcinomas, bicarbonate transporters such as the electroneutral Na(+), HCO(-) 3 cotransporter (SLC4A7, NBCn1), are upregulated and play central roles in pH regulation. In this review, we summarize and discuss the current knowledge regarding the regulation and roles of bicarbonate transporters in cancer. Furthermore, we present new analyses of publicly available expression data demonstrating widely altered expression levels of SLC4- and SLC26 family transporters in breast-, lung-, and colon cancer patients, and we hypothesize that bicarbonate transporter dysregulation may have both diagnostic and therapeutic potential in cancer treatment.

  19. Regulation and roles of bicarbonate transporters in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gorbatenko, Andrej; Olesen, Christina W.; Boedtkjer, Ebbe; Pedersen, Stine F.

    2014-01-01

    A unifying feature of solid tumors is a markedly altered pH profile compared to normal tissues. This reflects that solid tumors, despite completely different origins, often share several phenotypic properties with implications for intra- and extracellular pH. These include: a metabolic shift in most cancer cells toward more acid-producing pathways, reflecting both oncogenic signaling and the development of hypoxia in poorly perfused regions of the tumors; the poorly perfused and often highly dense tumor microenvironment, reducing the diffusive flux of acid equivalents compared to that in normal tissues; and the markedly altered regulation of the expression and activity of pH-regulatory transport proteins in cancer cells. While some of these properties of tumors have been well described in recent years, the great majority of the research in this clinically important area has focused on proton transport, in particular via the Na+/H+ exchanger 1 (SLC9A1, NHE1) and various H+ ATPases. We have, however, recently demonstrated that at least under some conditions, including in vitro models of HER2 positive breast cancer, and measurements obtained directly in freshly dissected human mammary carcinomas, bicarbonate transporters such as the electroneutral Na+, HCO−3 cotransporter (SLC4A7, NBCn1), are upregulated and play central roles in pH regulation. In this review, we summarize and discuss the current knowledge regarding the regulation and roles of bicarbonate transporters in cancer. Furthermore, we present new analyses of publicly available expression data demonstrating widely altered expression levels of SLC4- and SLC26 family transporters in breast-, lung-, and colon cancer patients, and we hypothesize that bicarbonate transporter dysregulation may have both diagnostic and therapeutic potential in cancer treatment. PMID:24795638

  20. Leptin regulates glutamate and glucose transporters in hypothalamic astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Fuente-Martín, Esther; García-Cáceres, Cristina; Granado, Miriam; de Ceballos, María L.; Sánchez-Garrido, Miguel Ángel; Sarman, Beatrix; Liu, Zhong-Wu; Dietrich, Marcelo O.; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Argente-Arizón, Pilar; Díaz, Francisca; Argente, Jesús; Horvath, Tamas L.; Chowen, Julie A.

    2012-01-01

    Glial cells perform critical functions that alter the metabolism and activity of neurons, and there is increasing interest in their role in appetite and energy balance. Leptin, a key regulator of appetite and metabolism, has previously been reported to influence glial structural proteins and morphology. Here, we demonstrate that metabolic status and leptin also modify astrocyte-specific glutamate and glucose transporters, indicating that metabolic signals influence synaptic efficacy and glucose uptake and, ultimately, neuronal function. We found that basal and glucose-stimulated electrical activity of hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in mice were altered in the offspring of mothers fed a high-fat diet. In adulthood, increased body weight and fasting also altered the expression of glucose and glutamate transporters. These results demonstrate that whole-organism metabolism alters hypothalamic glial cell activity and suggest that these cells play an important role in the pathology of obesity. PMID:23064363

  1. Bursts of Active Transport in Living Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bo; Kuo, James; Granick, Steve

    2013-11-01

    We show, using a large new data set, that the temporally resolved speed of active cargo transport in living cells follows a scaling law over several decades of time and length. The statistical regularities display a time-averaged shape that we interpret to reflect stress buildup, followed by rapid release. The scaling power law agrees quantitatively with those reported in inanimate systems (jammed colloids and granular media, and magnetic Barkhausen noise), suggesting a common origin in pushing through a crowded environment in a weak force regime. The implied regulation of the speed of active cellular transport due to environmental obstruction results in bursts of speed and acceleration. These findings extend the classical notion of molecular crowding.

  2. Bursts of active transport in living cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Kuo, James; Granick, Steve

    2013-11-15

    We show, using a large new data set, that the temporally resolved speed of active cargo transport in living cells follows a scaling law over several decades of time and length. The statistical regularities display a time-averaged shape that we interpret to reflect stress buildup, followed by rapid release. The scaling power law agrees quantitatively with those reported in inanimate systems (jammed colloids and granular media, and magnetic Barkhausen noise), suggesting a common origin in pushing through a crowded environment in a weak force regime. The implied regulation of the speed of active cellular transport due to environmental obstruction results in bursts of speed and acceleration. These findings extend the classical notion of molecular crowding.

  3. Commercial space transportation regulation and its effects on space safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowles, Norman C.; Lang, Derek E.

    1993-09-01

    Safety in space will become an increasingly important issue as the number of foreign space programs grow, and as the U.S. private sector increases its space activities. The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) is the federal agency responsible, under the Commercial Space launch Act of 1984, with regulation of the U.S. commercial space transportation industry in order to protect public health and safety, and safety of property. This paper discusses how the regulatory and licensing responsibilities of the Office of Commercial Space Transportation influence the safety of private sector launch operations in space. Of particular interest are impacts and benefits for commercial space services providers resulting from the government's safety research and technical safety evaluations.

  4. Harmonization - Two Years' of Transportation Regulation Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Colborn, K.

    2007-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportation issued modifications to the Hazardous Materials Regulations in October, 2004 as part of an ongoing effort to 'harmonize' U.S. regulations with those of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The harmonization effort had several predictable effects on low level radioactive materials shipment that were anticipated even prior to their implementation. However, after two years' experience with the new regulations, transporters have identified several effects on transportation which were not entirely apparent when the regulations were first implemented. This paper presents several case studies in the transportation of low level radioactive materials since the harmonization rules took effect. In each case, an analysis of the challenge posed by the regulatory revision is provided. In some cases, more than one strategy for compliance was considered, and the advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed. In several cases, regulatory interpretations were sought and obtained, and these are presented to clarify the legitimacy of the compliance approach. The presentation of interpretations will be accompanied by reports of clarifying discussions with the U.S. DOT about the interpretation and scope of the regulatory change. Specific transportation issues raised by the revised hazardous materials regulations are reviewed, including: The new definition of radioactive material in accordance with isotope-specific concentration and total activity limits. The new hazardous materials regulations (HMR) created a new definition for radioactive material. A case study is presented for soils contaminated with low levels of Th-230. These soils had been being shipped for years as exempt material under the old 2,000 pCi/g concentration limit. Under the new HMR, these same soils were radioactive material. Further, in rail-car quantities their activity exceeded an A2 value, so shipment of the material in gondolas appeared to require an IP-2 package

  5. Substrate-dependent regulation of ascorbate transport in astrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.X.; Jaworski, E.M.; Kulaga, A.; Dixon, S.J. )

    1990-02-26

    Astrocytes possess a concentrative L-ascorbate (vitamin C) uptake mechanism involving a Na{sup +}-dependent L-ascorbate transporter in the plasma membrane. The present study examined the effects of ascorbate deprivation and supplementation on the activity of the transport system. Initial rates of L-ascorbate uptake were measured by incubating primary cultures of rat astrocytes with L-({sup 14}C)ascorbate for 1 minute at 37C. They observed that the maximal uptake rate, V{sub max}, rapidly (<3 hours) increased when cultured cells were deprived of L-ascorbate. There was no change in the apparent affinity (K{sub m}) of the transport system for ascorbate. V{sub max} returned to normal following addition of L-ascorbate, but not D-isoascorbate, to the medium. The authors conclude that astrocytes adapt ascorbate transport rates to changes in substrate availability. Furthermore, the data suggest that the transport system located in the astroglial plasma membrane regulates intracellular ascorbate concentration, because changes in transport rate may compensate for regional differences and temporal fluctuations in extracellular ascorbate levels.

  6. Involvement of sialic acid in the regulation of γ--aminobutyric acid uptake activity of γ-aminobutyric acid transporter 1.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jing; Fei, Jian; Reutter, Werner; Fan, Hua

    2011-03-01

    The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporters (GATs) have long been recognized for their key role in the uptake of neurotransmitters. The GAT1 belongs to the family of Na(+)- and Cl(-)-coupled transport proteins, which possess 12 putative transmembrane (TM) domains and three N-glycosylation sites on the extracellular loop between TM domains 3 and 4. Previously, we demonstrated that terminal trimming of N-glycans is important for the GABA uptake activity of GAT1. In this work, we examined the effect of deficiency, removal or oxidation of surface sialic acid residues on GABA uptake activity to investigate their role in the GABA uptake of GAT1. We found that the reduced concentration of sialic acid on N-glycans was paralleled by a decreased GABA uptake activity of GAT1 in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) Lec3 cells (mutant defective in sialic acid biosynthesis) in comparison to CHO cells. Likewise, either enzymatic removal or chemical oxidation of terminal sialic acids using sialidase or sodium periodate, respectively, resulted in a strong reduction in GAT1 activity. Kinetic analysis revealed that deficiency, removal or oxidation of terminal sialic acids did not affect the K(m) GABA values. However, deficiency and removal of terminal sialic acids of GAT1 reduced the V(max) GABA values with a reduced apparent affinity for extracellular Na(+). Oxidation of cell surface sialic acids also strongly reduced V(max) without affecting both affinities of GAT1 for GABA and Na(+), respectively. These results demonstrated for the first time that the terminal sialic acid of N-linked oligosaccharides of GAT1 plays a crucial role in the GABA transport process.

  7. Signal focusing through active transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godec, Aljaž; Metzler, Ralf

    2015-07-01

    The accuracy of molecular signaling in biological cells and novel diagnostic devices is ultimately limited by the counting noise floor imposed by the thermal diffusion. Motivated by the fact that messenger RNA and vesicle-engulfed signaling molecules transiently bind to molecular motors and are actively transported in biological cells, we show here that the random active delivery of signaling particles to within a typical diffusion distance to the receptor generically reduces the correlation time of the counting noise. Considering a variety of signaling particle sizes from mRNA to vesicles and cell sizes from prokaryotic to eukaryotic cells, we show that the conditions for active focusing—faster and more precise signaling—are indeed compatible with observations in living cells. Our results improve the understanding of molecular cellular signaling and novel diagnostic devices.

  8. Cholesterol transport and regulation in the mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Ontsouka, Edgar C; Albrecht, Christiane

    2014-03-01

    The milk-producing alveolar epithelial cells secrete milk that remains after birth the principal source of nutrients for neonates. Milk secretion and composition are highly regulated processes via integrated actions of hormones and local factors which involve specific receptors and downstream signal transduction pathways. Overall milk composition is similar among mammalian species, although the content of individual constituents such as lipids may significantly differ from one species to another. The milk lipid fraction is essentially composed of triglycerides, which represent more than 95 % of the total lipids in human and commercialized bovine milk. Though sterols, including cholesterol, which is the major milk sterol, represent less than 0.5 % of the total milk lipid fraction, they are of key importance for several biological processes. Cholesterol is required for the formation of biological membranes especially in rapidly growing organisms, and for the synthesis of sterol-based compounds. Cholesterol found in milk originates predominantly from blood uptake and, to a certain extent, from local synthesis in the mammary tissue. The present review summarizes current knowledge on cellular mechanisms and regulatory processes determining intra- and transcellular cholesterol transport in the mammary gland. Cholesterol exchanges between the blood, the mammary alveolar cells and the milk, and the likely role of active cholesterol transporters in these processes are discussed. In this context, the hormonal regulation and signal transduction pathways promoting active cholesterol transport as well as potential regulatory crosstalks are highlighted.

  9. Common folds and transport mechanisms of secondary active transporters.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yigong

    2013-01-01

    Secondary active transporters exploit the electrochemical potential of solutes to shuttle specific substrate molecules across biological membranes, usually against their concentration gradient. Transporters of different functional families with little sequence similarity have repeatedly been found to exhibit similar folds, exemplified by the MFS, LeuT, and NhaA folds. Observations of multiple conformational states of the same transporter, represented by the LeuT superfamily members Mhp1, AdiC, vSGLT, and LeuT, led to proposals that structural changes are associated with substrate binding and transport. Despite recent biochemical and structural advances, our understanding of substrate recognition and energy coupling is rather preliminary. This review focuses on the common folds and shared transport mechanisms of secondary active transporters. Available structural information generally supports the alternating access model for substrate transport, with variations and extensions made by emerging structural, biochemical, and computational evidence.

  10. Single Molecule Analysis of Serotonin Transporter Regulation Using Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jerry; Tomlinson, Ian; Warnement, Michael; Ustione, Alessandro; Carneiro, Ana; Piston, David; Blakely, Randy; Rosenthal, Sandra

    2011-03-01

    For the first time, we implement a novel, single molecule approach to define the localization and mobility of the brain's major target of widely prescribed antidepressant medications, the serotonin transporter (SERT). SERT labeled with single quantum dot (Qdot) revealed unsuspected features of transporter mobility with cholesterol-enriched membrane microdomains (often referred to as ``lipid rafts'') and cytoskeleton network linked to transporter activation. We document two pools of surface SERT proteins defined by their lateral mobility, one that exhibits relatively free diffusion in the plasma membrane and a second that displays significantly restricted mobility and localizes to cholesterol-enriched microdomains. Diffusion model prediction and instantaneous velocity analysis indicated that stimuli that act through p38 MAPK-dependent signaling pathways to activate SERT trigger rapid SERT movements within membrane microdomains. Cytoskeleton disruption showed that SERT lateral mobility behaves a membrane raft-constrained, cytoskeleton-associated manner. Our results identify an unsuspected aspect of neurotransmitter transporter regulation that we propose reflects the dissociation of inhibitory, SERT-associated cytoskeletal anchors.

  11. A Histidine Cluster in the Cytoplasmic Domain of the Na-H Exchanger NHE1 Confers pH-sensitive Phospholipid Binding and Regulates Transporter Activity.

    PubMed

    Webb, Bradley A; White, Katharine A; Grillo-Hill, Bree K; Schönichen, André; Choi, Changhoon; Barber, Diane L

    2016-11-11

    The Na-H exchanger NHE1 contributes to intracellular pH (pHi) homeostasis in normal cells and the constitutively increased pHi in cancer. NHE1 activity is allosterically regulated by intracellular protons, with greater activity at lower pHi However, the molecular mechanism for pH-dependent NHE1 activity remains incompletely resolved. We report that an evolutionarily conserved cluster of histidine residues located in the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain between two phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate binding sites (PI(4,5)P2) of NHE1 confers pH-dependent PI(4,5)P2 binding and regulates NHE1 activity. A GST fusion of the wild type C-terminal cytoplasmic domain of NHE1 showed increased maximum PI(4,5)P2 binding at pH 7.0 compared with pH 7.5. However, pH-sensitive binding is abolished by substitutions of the His-rich cluster to arginine (RXXR3) or alanine (AXXA3), mimicking protonated and neutral histidine residues, respectively, and the RXXR3 mutant had significantly greater PI(4,5)P2 binding than AXXA3. When expressed in cells, NHE1 activity and pHi were significantly increased with NHE1-RXXR3 and decreased with NHE1-AXXA3 compared with wild type NHE1. Additionally, fibroblasts expressing NHE1-RXXR3 had significantly more contractile actin filaments and focal adhesions compared with fibroblasts expressing wild type NHE1, consistent with increased pHi enabling cytoskeletal remodeling. These data identify a molecular mechanism for pH-sensitive PI(4,5)P2 binding regulating NHE1 activity and suggest that the evolutionarily conserved cluster of four histidines in the proximal cytoplasmic domain of NHE1 may constitute a proton modifier site. Moreover, a constitutively activated NHE1-RXXR3 mutant is a new tool that will be useful for studying how increased pHi contributes to cell behaviors, most notably the biology of cancer cells.

  12. Oregon Pupil Transportation Manual. Revised Regulations and Responsibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    Designed for use by Oregon school bus drivers and administrators, this manual answers common questions about school bus transportation in Oregon, including those about the laws governing pupil transportation, the regulations governing pupil transportation administration, and the laws on school bus operation. A chapter of advisory materials covers…

  13. 76 FR 66281 - Defense Transportation Regulation, Part IV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Defense Transportation Regulation, Part IV AGENCY: United States Transportation...). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Jim Teague, United States Transportation Command, TCJ5/4-PI, 508...

  14. 78 FR 75672 - New Jersey Regulations on Transportation of Regulated Medical Waste

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration New Jersey Regulations on Transportation of... material transportation law, 49 U.S.C. 5101 et seq., and the Hazardous Materials Regulations (HMR), 49 CFR parts 171-180. Modes Affected: All transportation modes SUMMARY: Federal hazardous...

  15. Intrinsic and extrinsic negative regulators of nuclear protein transport processes

    PubMed Central

    Sekimoto, Toshihiro; Yoneda, Yoshihiro

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear–cytoplasmic protein transport is a critical process in cellular events. The identification of transport signals (nuclear localization signal and nuclear export signal) and their receptors has facilitated our understanding of this expanding field. Nuclear transport must be appropriately regulated to deliver proteins through the nuclear pore when their functions are required in the nucleus, and to export them into the cytoplasm when they are not needed in the nucleus. Altered nuclear transport processes have been observed in stressed cells, which would change gene expressions. Some viruses interfere with nuclear transport in host cells to evade immune defense. Moreover, certain transport factors negatively regulate nuclear protein transport in cells. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms of nuclear–cytoplasmic trafficking not only provides important information about cellular processes, but also is of use for developing specific inhibitors for transport pathways. PMID:22672474

  16. Political activity for physical activity: health advocacy for active transport

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Effective health advocacy is a priority for efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Local councils are an important audience for this advocacy. The aim of the current study was to describe features of advocacy for active transport via submissions to city council annual plans in New Zealand, and the impact of an information sheet to encourage the health sector to be involved in this process. Written submissions to city council's annual consultation process were requested for 16 city councils over the period of three years (2007/08, 2008/09, and 2009/10). Submissions were reviewed and categories of responses were created. An advocacy information sheet encouraging health sector participation and summarising some of the evidence-base related to physical activity, active transport and health was released just prior to the 2009/10 submission time. Over the period of the study, city councils received 47,392 submissions, 17% of which were related to active transport. Most submissions came from city residents, with a small proportion (2%) from the health sector. The largest category of submissions was in support of pedestrian and cycling infrastructure, design and maintenance of facilities and additional features to support use of these transport modes. Health arguments featured prominently in justifications for active transport initiatives, including concerns about injury risk, obesity, physical inactivity, personal safety and facilities for people with disabilities. There was evidence that the information sheet was utilised by some health sector submitters (12.5%), providing tentative support for initiatives of this nature. In conclusion, the study provides novel information about the current nature of health advocacy for active transport and informs future advocacy efforts about areas for emphasis, such as health benefits of active transport, and potential alliances with other sectors such as environmental sustainability, transport and urban

  17. Ghrelin Regulates Glucose and Glutamate Transporters in Hypothalamic Astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Fuente-Martín, Esther; García-Cáceres, Cristina; Argente-Arizón, Pilar; Díaz, Francisca; Granado, Miriam; Freire-Regatillo, Alejandra; Castro-González, David; Ceballos, María L; Frago, Laura M; Dickson, Suzanne L; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A

    2016-03-30

    Hypothalamic astrocytes can respond to metabolic signals, such as leptin and insulin, to modulate adjacent neuronal circuits and systemic metabolism. Ghrelin regulates appetite, adiposity and glucose metabolism, but little is known regarding the response of astrocytes to this orexigenic hormone. We have used both in vivo and in vitro approaches to demonstrate that acylated ghrelin (acyl-ghrelin) rapidly stimulates glutamate transporter expression and glutamate uptake by astrocytes. Moreover, acyl-ghrelin rapidly reduces glucose transporter (GLUT) 2 levels and glucose uptake by these glial cells. Glutamine synthetase and lactate dehydrogenase decrease, while glycogen phosphorylase and lactate transporters increase in response to acyl-ghrelin, suggesting a change in glutamate and glucose metabolism, as well as glycogen storage by astrocytes. These effects are partially mediated through ghrelin receptor 1A (GHSR-1A) as astrocytes do not respond equally to desacyl-ghrelin, an isoform that does not activate GHSR-1A. Moreover, primary astrocyte cultures from GHSR-1A knock-out mice do not change glutamate transporter or GLUT2 levels in response to acyl-ghrelin. Our results indicate that acyl-ghrelin may mediate part of its metabolic actions through modulation of hypothalamic astrocytes and that this effect could involve astrocyte mediated changes in local glucose and glutamate metabolism that alter the signals/nutrients reaching neighboring neurons.

  18. Ghrelin Regulates Glucose and Glutamate Transporters in Hypothalamic Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Fuente-Martín, Esther; García-Cáceres, Cristina; Argente-Arizón, Pilar; Díaz, Francisca; Granado, Miriam; Freire-Regatillo, Alejandra; Castro-González, David; Ceballos, María L.; Frago, Laura M.; Dickson, Suzanne L.; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Hypothalamic astrocytes can respond to metabolic signals, such as leptin and insulin, to modulate adjacent neuronal circuits and systemic metabolism. Ghrelin regulates appetite, adiposity and glucose metabolism, but little is known regarding the response of astrocytes to this orexigenic hormone. We have used both in vivo and in vitro approaches to demonstrate that acylated ghrelin (acyl-ghrelin) rapidly stimulates glutamate transporter expression and glutamate uptake by astrocytes. Moreover, acyl-ghrelin rapidly reduces glucose transporter (GLUT) 2 levels and glucose uptake by these glial cells. Glutamine synthetase and lactate dehydrogenase decrease, while glycogen phosphorylase and lactate transporters increase in response to acyl-ghrelin, suggesting a change in glutamate and glucose metabolism, as well as glycogen storage by astrocytes. These effects are partially mediated through ghrelin receptor 1A (GHSR-1A) as astrocytes do not respond equally to desacyl-ghrelin, an isoform that does not activate GHSR-1A. Moreover, primary astrocyte cultures from GHSR-1A knock-out mice do not change glutamate transporter or GLUT2 levels in response to acyl-ghrelin. Our results indicate that acyl-ghrelin may mediate part of its metabolic actions through modulation of hypothalamic astrocytes and that this effect could involve astrocyte mediated changes in local glucose and glutamate metabolism that alter the signals/nutrients reaching neighboring neurons. PMID:27026049

  19. Regulation of inflammasome activation.

    PubMed

    Man, Si Ming; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi

    2015-05-01

    Inflammasome biology is one of the most exciting and rapidly growing areas in immunology. Over the past 10 years, inflammasomes have been recognized for their roles in the host defense against invading pathogens and in the development of cancer, auto-inflammatory, metabolic, and neurodegenerative diseases. Assembly of an inflammasome complex requires cytosolic sensing of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or danger-associated molecular patterns by a nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat receptor (NLR) or absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2)-like receptors (ALR). NLRs and ALRs engage caspase-1, in most cases requiring the adapter protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC), to catalyze proteolytic cleavage of pro-interleukin-1β (pro-IL-1β) and pro-IL-18 and drive pyroptosis. Recent studies indicate that caspase-8, caspase-11, IL-1R-associated kinases (IRAK), and receptor-interacting protein (RIP) kinases contribute to inflammasome functions. In addition, post-translational modifications, including ubiquitination, deubiquitination, phosphorylation, and degradation control almost every aspect of inflammasome activities. Genetic studies indicate that mutations in NLRP1, NLRP3, NLRC4, and AIM2 are linked with the development of auto-inflammatory diseases, enterocolitis, and cancer. Overall, these findings transform our understanding of the basic biology and clinical relevance of inflammasomes. In this review, we provide an overview of the latest development of inflammasome research and discuss how inflammasome activities govern health and disease.

  20. The ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 regulates phosphoantigen release and Vγ9Vδ2 T cell activation by dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Castella, Barbara; Kopecka, Joanna; Sciancalepore, Patrizia; Mandili, Giorgia; Foglietta, Myriam; Mitro, Nico; Caruso, Donatella; Novelli, Francesco; Riganti, Chiara; Massaia, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Vγ9Vδ2 T cells are activated by phosphoantigens, such as isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP), which is generated in the mevalonate pathway of antigen-presenting cells. IPP is released in the extracellular microenvironment via unknown mechanisms. Here we show that the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) mediates extracellular IPP release from dendritic cells (DC) in cooperation with apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and butyrophilin-3A1. IPP concentrations in the supernatants are sufficient to induce Vγ9Vδ2 T cell proliferation after DC mevalonate pathway inhibition with zoledronic acid (ZA). ZA treatment increases ABCA1 and apoA-I expression via IPP-dependent LXRα nuclear translocation and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway inhibition. These results close the mechanistic gap in our understanding of extracellular IPP release from DC and provide a framework to fine-tune Vγ9Vδ2 T cell activation via mevalonate and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway modulation. PMID:28580927

  1. Regulation of divalent metal transporter-1 by serine phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Young Ah; Kumara, Ruvin; Wetli, Herbert; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) mediates dietary iron uptake across the intestinal mucosa and facilitates peripheral delivery of iron released by transferrin in the endosome. Here, we report that classical cannabinoids (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, Δ9-THC), nonclassical cannabinoids (CP 55,940), aminoalkylindoles (WIN 55,212-2) and endocannabinoids (anandamide) reduce 55Fe and 54Mn uptake by HEK293T(DMT1) cells stably expressing the transporter. siRNA knockdown of cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) abrogated inhibition. CB2 is a G-protein (GTP-binding protein)-coupled receptor that negatively regulates signal transduction cascades involving serine/threonine kinases. Immunoprecipitation experiments showed that DMT1 is serine-phosphorylated under basal conditions, but that treatment with Δ9-THC reduced phosphorylation. Site-directed mutation of predicted DMT1 phosphosites further showed that substitution of serine with alanine at N-terminal position 43 (S43A) abolished basal phosphorylation. Concordantly, both the rate and extent of 55Fe uptake in cells expressing DMT1(S43A) was reduced compared with those expressing wild-type DMT1. Among kinase inhibitors that affected DMT1-mediated iron uptake, staurosporine also reduced DMT1 phosphorylation confirming a role for serine phosphorylation in iron transport regulation. These combined data indicate that phosphorylation at serine 43 of DMT1 promotes transport activity, whereas dephosphorylation is associated with loss of iron uptake. Since anti-inflammatory actions mediated through CB2 would be associated with reduced DMT1 phosphorylation, we postulate that this pathway provides a means to reduce oxidative stress by limiting iron uptake. PMID:27681840

  2. Calcium transport in strongly calcifying laying birds: mechanisms and regulation.

    PubMed

    Bar, Arie

    2009-04-01

    Birds that lay long clutches (series of eggs laid sequentially before a "pause day"), among them the high-producing, strongly-calcifying Gallus gallus domesticus (domestic hen) and Coturnix coturnix japonica (Japanese quail), transfer about 10% of their total body calcium daily. They appear, therefore, to be the most efficient calcium-transporters among vertebrates. Such intensive transport imposes severe demands on ionic calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis, and activates at least two extremely effective mechanisms for Ca2+ transfer from food and bone to the eggshell. This review focuses on the development, action and regulation of the mechanisms associated with paracellular and transcellular Ca2+ transport in the intestine and the eggshell gland (ESG); it also considers some of the proteins (calbindin, Ca2+ATPase, Na+/Ca2+ exchange, epithelial calcium channels (TRPVs), osteopontin and carbonic anhydrase (CA) associated with this phenomenon. Calbindins are discussed in some detail, as they appear to be a major component of the transcellular transport system, and as only they have been studied extensively in birds. The review aims to gather old and new knowledge, which could form a conceptual basis, albeit not a completely accepted one, for our understanding of the mechanisms associated with this phenomenon. In the intestine, the transcellular pathway appears to compensate for low Ca2+ intake, but in birds fed adequate calcium the major drive for calcium absorption remains the electrochemical potential difference (ECPD) that facilitates paracellular transport. However, the mechanisms involved in Ca2+ transport into the ESG lumen are not yet established. In the ESG, the presence of Ca2+-ATPase and calbindin--two components of the transcellular transport pathway--and the apparently uphill transport of Ca2+ support the idea that Ca2+ is transported via the transcellular pathway. However, the positive (plasma with respect to mucosa) electrical potential difference (EPD) in the

  3. Multiple-motor based transport and its regulation by Tau

    PubMed Central

    Vershinin, Michael; Carter, Brian C.; Razafsky, David S.; King, Stephen J.; Gross, Steven P.

    2007-01-01

    Motor-based intracellular transport and its regulation are crucial to the functioning of a cell. Disruption of transport is linked to Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases. However, many fundamental aspects of transport are poorly understood. An important issue is how cells achieve and regulate efficient long-distance transport. Mounting evidence suggests that many in vivo cargoes are transported along microtubules by more than one motor, but we do not know how multiple motors work together or can be regulated. Here we first show that multiple kinesin motors, working in conjunction, can achieve very long distance transport and apply significantly larger forces without the need of additional factors. We then demonstrate in vitro that the important microtubule-associated protein, tau, regulates the number of engaged kinesin motors per cargo via its local concentration on microtubules. This function of tau provides a previously unappreciated mechanism to regulate transport. By reducing motor reattachment rates, tau affects cargo travel distance, motive force, and cargo dispersal. We also show that different isoforms of tau, at concentrations similar to those in cells, have dramatically different potency. These results provide a well defined mechanism for how altered tau isoform levels could impair transport and thereby lead to neurodegeneration without the need of any other pathway. PMID:17190808

  4. SNAT2 and LAT1 transporter abundance is developmentally regulated in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previously, we demonstrated that the insulin and amino acid–induced activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), is developmentally regulated in neonatal pigs. Recent studies have indicated an important role of the System A transporters (SNAT2 and SLC1A5) and the L transporter...

  5. Phosphorylation at S384 regulates the activity of the TaALMT1 malate transporter that underlies aluminum resistance in wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this study we examined the role of protein phosphorylation & dephosphorylation in the transport properties of the wheat root malate efflux transporter underlying Al resistance, TaALMT1. Preincubation of Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing TaALMT1 with protein kinase inhibitors (K252a and staurospo...

  6. Regulation of Glutamine Transport in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Willis, R C; Iwata, K K; Furlong, C E

    1975-01-01

    The formation of the high-affinity (Km equal to 0.2 muM) L-glutamine transport system of Escherichia coli strain 7 (Lin) appears to be subject to the same major control as the glutamine synthetase (EC 6.3.1.2) of this gram-negative organism. Culture of cells under nitrogen-limited conditions provides maximum derepression of both the glutamine synthetase and the glutamine transport system. Nutritional conditions providing a rich supply of ammonium salts or available sources of nitrogen, i.e., conditions which repress the formation of glutamine synthetase, provide three- and 20-fold repression, respectively, of the glutamine transport system. Culture of cells with glutamine supplements of 2 mM does not increase the repression of high-affinity glutamine transport system beyond the level observed in the absence of glutamine. A second kinetically distinct low-affinity component of glutamine. A second kinetically distinct low-affinity component of glutamine uptake is observed in cells cultured with a glutamine-depleted nutrient broth. This second component is associated with the appearance of glutaminase A (EC 3.5.1.2) and asparaginase I (EC 3.5.1.1), a periplasmic enzyme. Parallel changes were observed in the levels of the high-affinity glutamine transport system and the glutamine synthetase when cells were cultured with the carbon sources: glucose, glycerol, or succinate. PMID:238938

  7. P2Y Purinergic Regulation of the Glycine Neurotransmitter Transporters*

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Esperanza; Zafra, Francisco; Pérez-Sen, Raquel; Delicado, Esmerilda G.; Miras-Portugal, Maria Teresa; Aragón, Carmen; López-Corcuera, Beatriz

    2011-01-01

    The sodium- and chloride-coupled glycine neurotransmitter transporters (GLYTs) control the availability of glycine at glycine-mediated synapses. The mainly glial GLYT1 is the key regulator of the glycine levels in glycinergic and glutamatergic pathways, whereas the neuronal GLYT2 is involved in the recycling of synaptic glycine from the inhibitory synaptic cleft. In this study, we report that stimulation of P2Y purinergic receptors with 2-methylthioadenosine 5′-diphosphate in rat brainstem/spinal cord primary neuronal cultures and adult rat synaptosomes leads to the inhibition of GLYT2 and the stimulation of GLYT1 by a paracrine regulation. These effects are mainly mediated by the ADP-preferring subtypes P2Y1 and P2Y13 because the effects are partially reversed by the specific antagonists N6-methyl-2′-deoxyadenosine-3′,5′-bisphosphate and pyridoxal-5′-phosphate-6-azo(2-chloro-5-nitrophenyl)-2,4-disulfonate and are totally blocked by suramin. P2Y12 receptor is additionally involved in GLYT1 stimulation. Using pharmacological approaches and siRNA-mediated protein knockdown methodology, we elucidate the molecular mechanisms of GLYT regulation. Modulation takes place through a signaling cascade involving phospholipase C activation, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production, intracellular Ca2+ mobilization, protein kinase C stimulation, nitric oxide formation, cyclic guanosine monophosphate production, and protein kinase G-I (PKG-I) activation. GLYT1 and GLYT2 are differentially sensitive to NO/cGMP/PKG-I both in brain-derived preparations and in heterologous systems expressing the recombinant transporters and P2Y1 receptor. Sensitivity to 2-methylthioadenosine 5′-diphosphate by GLYT1 and GLYT2 was abolished by small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of nitric-oxide synthase. Our data may help define the role of GLYTs in nociception and pain sensitization. PMID:21245148

  8. Reprint of "Nuclear transport factors: global regulation of mitosis".

    PubMed

    Forbes, Douglass J; Travesa, Anna; Nord, Matthew S; Bernis, Cyril

    2015-06-01

    The unexpected repurposing of nuclear transport proteins from their function in interphase to an equally vital and very different set of functions in mitosis was very surprising. The multi-talented cast when first revealed included the import receptors, importin alpha and beta, the small regulatory GTPase RanGTP, and a subset of nuclear pore proteins. In this review, we report that recent years have revealed new discoveries in each area of this expanding story in vertebrates: (a) The cast of nuclear import receptors playing a role in mitotic spindle regulation has expanded: both transportin, a nuclear import receptor, and Crm1/Xpo1, an export receptor, are involved in different aspects of spindle assembly. Importin beta and transportin also regulate nuclear envelope and pore assembly. (b) The role of nucleoporins has grown to include recruiting the key microtubule nucleator – the γ-TuRC complex – and the exportin Crm1 to the mitotic kinetochores of humans. Together they nucleate microtubule formation from the kinetochores toward the centrosomes. (c) New research finds that the original importin beta/RanGTP team have been further co-opted by evolution to help regulate other cellular and organismal activities, ranging from the actual positioning of the spindle within the cell perimeter, to regulation of a newly discovered spindle microtubule branching activity, to regulation of the interaction of microtubule structures with specific actin structures. (d) Lastly, because of the multitudinous roles of karyopherins throughout the cell cycle, a recent large push toward testing their potential as chemotherapeutic targets has begun to yield burgeoning progress in the clinic.

  9. Prostaglandin signaling regulates ciliogenesis by modulating intraflagellar transport

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Daqing; Ni, Terri T.; Sun, Jianjian; Wan, Haiyan; Amack, Jeffrey D.; Yu, Guangju; Fleming, Jonathan; Chiang, Chin; Li, Wenyan; Papierniak, Anna; Cheepala, Satish; Conseil, Gwenaëlle; Cole, Susan P.C.; Zhou, Bin; Drummond, Iain A.; Schuetz, John D.; Malicki, Jarema; Zhong, Tao P.

    2014-01-01

    Cilia are microtubule-based organelles that mediate signal transduction in a variety of tissues. Despite their importance, the signaling cascades that regulate cilia formation remain incompletely understood. Here we report that prostaglandin signaling affects ciliogenesis by regulating anterograde intraflagellar transport (IFT). Zebrafish leakytail (lkt) mutants display ciliogenesis defects, and lkt locus encodes an ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABCC4). We show that Lkt/ABCC4 localizes to the cell membrane and exports prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a function that is abrogated by the Lkt/ABCC4T804M mutant. PGE2 synthesis enzyme Cyclooxygenase-1 and its receptor, EP4, which localizes to the cilium and activates cAMP-mediated signaling cascade, are required for cilia formation and elongation. Importantly, PGE2 signaling increases anterograde but not retrograde velocity of IFT and promotes ciliogenesis in mammalian cells. These findings lead us to propose that Lkt/ABCC4-mediated PGE2 signaling acts through a ciliary G-protein-coupled receptor, EP4, to upregulate cAMP synthesis and increase anterograde IFT, thereby promoting ciliogenesis. PMID:25173977

  10. Prostaglandin signalling regulates ciliogenesis by modulating intraflagellar transport.

    PubMed

    Jin, Daqing; Ni, Terri T; Sun, Jianjian; Wan, Haiyan; Amack, Jeffrey D; Yu, Guangju; Fleming, Jonathan; Chiang, Chin; Li, Wenyan; Papierniak, Anna; Cheepala, Satish; Conseil, Gwenaëlle; Cole, Susan P C; Zhou, Bin; Drummond, Iain A; Schuetz, John D; Malicki, Jarema; Zhong, Tao P

    2014-09-01

    Cilia are microtubule-based organelles that mediate signal transduction in a variety of tissues. Despite their importance, the signalling cascades that regulate cilium formation remain incompletely understood. Here we report that prostaglandin signalling affects ciliogenesis by regulating anterograde intraflagellar transport (IFT). Zebrafish leakytail (lkt) mutants show ciliogenesis defects, and the lkt locus encodes an ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABCC4). We show that Lkt/ABCC4 localizes to the cell membrane and exports prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a function that is abrogated by the Lkt/ABCC4(T804M) mutant. PGE2 synthesis enzyme cyclooxygenase-1 and its receptor, EP4, which localizes to the cilium and activates the cyclic-AMP-mediated signalling cascade, are required for cilium formation and elongation. Importantly, PGE2 signalling increases anterograde but not retrograde velocity of IFT and promotes ciliogenesis in mammalian cells. These findings lead us to propose that Lkt/ABCC4-mediated PGE2 signalling acts through a ciliary G-protein-coupled receptor, EP4, to upregulate cAMP synthesis and increase anterograde IFT, thereby promoting ciliogenesis.

  11. Regulation of Selenium Metabolism and Transport.

    PubMed

    Burk, Raymond F; Hill, Kristina E

    2015-01-01

    Selenium is regulated in the body to maintain vital selenoproteins and to avoid toxicity. When selenium is limiting, cells utilize it to synthesize the selenoproteins most important to them, creating a selenoprotein hierarchy in the cell. The liver is the central organ for selenium regulation and produces excretory selenium forms to regulate whole-body selenium. It responds to selenium deficiency by curtailing excretion and secreting selenoprotein P (Sepp1) into the plasma at the expense of its intracellular selenoproteins. Plasma Sepp1 is distributed to tissues in relation to their expression of the Sepp1 receptor apolipoprotein E receptor-2, creating a tissue selenium hierarchy. N-terminal Sepp1 forms are taken up in the renal proximal tubule by another receptor, megalin. Thus, the regulated whole-body pool of selenium is shifted to needy cells and then to vital selenoproteins in them to supply selenium where it is needed, creating a whole-body selenoprotein hierarchy.

  12. Regulation of ion transport by microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Elvira-Matelot, Emilie; Jeunemaitre, Xavier; Hadchouel, Juliette

    2011-09-01

    This review aims to describe the recent findings obtained on the regulation of ion transport by microRNAs in physiological and pathological situations in different organs and organisms. The number of ion channels or transporters can be regulated by increasing or decreasing the transcription and/or translation of the corresponding genes. In this context, a new class of regulators of gene expression has emerged as an important modulator of ion transport. microRNAs are short noncoding RNAs which inhibit gene expression by enhancing the degradation or inhibiting the translation of their targets. Most of the studies published so far describe their roles during embryonic development and tumorigenesis. However, recent studies have started to unravel how microRNA-mediated modulation of ion transport could contribute not only to the development of pathological states, such as heart disease, but also to the osmotic regulation of various organisms. The contribution of microRNAs to the regulation of ion transport has only begun to be unraveled, mostly in cardiomyocytes. Only a few studies have focused on the kidney but they strongly suggest that microRNAs could play an important role in the regulation of renal ion transport in response to variation in daily food intake.

  13. Morphine Induces Ubiquitin-Proteasome Activity and Glutamate Transporter Degradation*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liling; Wang, Shuxing; Sung, Backil; Lim, Grewo; Mao, Jianren

    2008-01-01

    Glutamate transporters play a crucial role in physiological glutamate homeostasis, neurotoxicity, and glutamatergic regulation of opioid tolerance. However, how the glutamate transporter turnover is regulated remains poorly understood. Here we show that chronic morphine exposure induced posttranscriptional down-regulation of the glutamate transporter EAAC1 in C6 glioma cells with a concurrent decrease in glutamate uptake and increase in proteasome activity, which were blocked by the selective proteasome inhibitor MG-132 or lactacystin but not the lysosomal inhibitor chloroquin. At the cellular level, chronic morphine induced the PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome Ten)-mediated up-regulation of the ubiquitin E3 ligase Nedd4 via cAMP/protein kinase A signaling, leading to EAAC1 ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Either Nedd4 or PTEN knockdown with small interfering RNA prevented the morphine-induced EAAC1 degradation and decreased glutamate uptake. These data indicate that cAMP/protein kinase A signaling serves as an intracellular regulator upstream to the activation of the PTEN/Nedd4-mediated ubiquitin-proteasome system activity that is critical for glutamate transporter turnover. Under an in vivo condition, chronic morphine exposure also induced posttranscriptional down-regulation of the glutamate transporter EAAC1, which was prevented by MG-132, and transcriptional up-regulation of PTEN and Nedd4 within the spinal cord dorsal horn. Thus, inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated glutamate transporter degradation may be an important mechanism for preventing glutamate overexcitation and may offer a new strategy for treating certain neurological disorders and improving opioid therapy in chronic pain management. PMID:18539596

  14. Adrenocortical Activity and Emotion Regulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansbury, Kathy; Gunnar, Megan R.

    1994-01-01

    This essay argues that the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system does not appear to be related to emotion regulation processes in children, although individual differences in emotion processes related to negative emotion temperaments appear to be associated with individual differences in HPA reactivity among normally…

  15. Species differences in regulation of renal proximal tubule transport by certain molecules

    PubMed Central

    Seki, George; Nakamura, Motonobu; Suzuki, Masashi; Satoh, Nobuhiko; Horita, Shoko

    2015-01-01

    Renal proximal tubules (PTs) play important roles in the regulation of acid/base, plasma volume and blood pressure. Recent studies suggest that there are substantial species differences in the regulation of PT transport. For example, thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are widely used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, but the use of TZDs is associated with fluid overload. In addition to the transcriptional enhancement of sodium transport in distal nephrons, TZDs rapidly stimulate PT sodium transport via a non-genomic mechanism depending on peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ/Src/epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/MEK/ERK. In mouse PTs, however, TZDs fail to stimulate PT transport probably due to constitutive activation of Src/EGFR/ERK pathway. This unique activation of Src/ERK may also affect the effect of high concentrations of insulin on mouse PT transport. On the other hand, the effect of angiotensin II (Ang II) on PT transport is known to be biphasic in rabbits, rats, and mice. However, Ang II induces a concentration-dependent, monophasic transport stimulation in human PTs. The contrasting responses to nitric oxide/guanosine 3’,5’-cyclic monophosphate pathway may largely explain these different effects of Ang II on PT transport. In this review, we focus on the recent findings on the species differences in the regulation of PT transport, which may help understand the species-specific mechanisms underlying edema formation and/or hypertension occurrence. PMID:25949945

  16. AXONAL TRANSPORT: CARGO-SPECIFIC MECHANISMS OF MOTILITY AND REGULATION

    PubMed Central

    Maday, Sandra; Twelvetrees, Alison E.; Moughamian, Armen J.; Holzbaur, Erika L. F.

    2014-01-01

    Axonal transport is essential for neuronal function, and many neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases result from mutations in the axonal transport machinery. Anterograde transport supplies distal axons with newly synthesized proteins and lipids, including synaptic components required to maintain presynaptic activity. Retrograde transport is required to maintain homeostasis by removing aging proteins and organelles from the distal axon for degradation and recycling of components. Retrograde axonal transport also plays a major role in neurotrophic and injury response signaling. This review provides an overview of the axonal transport pathway and discusses its role in neuronal function. PMID:25374356

  17. Defense Transportation Regulation, Part III: Mobility.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-04-11

    cargo, passenger and personal property transportation services (including rail, highway, air, sea, pipeline, inland waterway, coastal, intercostal ...vehicle. Center of Balance Formula W1 -- Front axle weight. W2 -- Rear axle weight. D1 -- Distance from RDL to front axle or center of articulated ...tandem axle D2 -- Distance from RDL to rear axle or center of articulated tandem axle. (Wl X D1) + (W2 X D2) Gross Weight = CB b. The vehicle CB is

  18. Regulation of auxin transport by aminopeptidases and endogenous flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Murphy, A; Peer, W A; Taiz, L

    2000-08-01

    The 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA)-binding protein is a putative negative regulator of polar auxin transport that has been shown to block auxin efflux from both whole plant tissues and microsomal membrane vesicles. We previously showed that NPA is hydrolyzed by plasma-membrane amidohydrolases that co-localize with tyrosine, proline, and tryptophan-specific aminopeptidases (APs) in the cotyledonary node, hypocotyl-root transition zone and root distal elongation zone of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. seedlings. Moreover, amino acyl-beta-naphthylamide (aa-NA) conjugates resembling NPA in structure have NPA-like inhibitory activity on growth, suggesting a possible role of APs in NPA action. Here we report that the same aa-NA conjugates and the AP inhibitor bestatin also block auxin efflux from seedling tissue. Bestatin and, to a lesser extent, some aa-NA conjugates were more effective inhibitors of low-affinity specific [3H]NPA-binding than were the flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol but had no effect on high-affinity binding. Since the APs are inhibited by flavonoids, we compared the localization of endogenous flavonoids and APs in seedling tissue. A correlation between AP and flavonoid localization was found in 5- to 6-d-old seedlings. Evidence that these flavonoids regulate auxin accumulation in vivo was obtained using the flavonoid-deficient mutant, tt4. In whole-seedling [14C]indole-3-acetic acid transport studies, the pattern of auxin distribution in the tt4 mutant was shown to be altered. The defect appeared to be in auxin accumulation, as a considerable amount of auxin escaped from the roots. Treatment of the tt4 mutant with the missing intermediate naringenin restored normal auxin distribution and accumulation by the root. These results implicate APs and endogenous flavonoids in the regulation of auxin efflux.

  19. Ankyrin-based Cellular Pathways for Cardiac Ion Channel and Transporter Targeting and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Shane R.; Mohler, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    The coordinate activities of ion channels and transporters regulate myocyte membrane excitability and normal cardiac function. Dysfunction in cardiac ion channel and transporter function may result in cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. While the past fifteen years have linked defects in ion channel biophysical properties with human disease, more recent findings illustrate that ion channel and transporter localization within cardiomyocytes is equally critical for normal membrane excitability and tissue function. Ankyrins are a family of multifunctional adapter proteins required for the expression, membrane localization, and regulation of select cardiac ion channels and transporters. Notably, loss of ankyrin expression in mice, and ankyrin loss-of-function in humans is now associated with defects in myocyte excitability and cardiac physiology. Here, we provide an overview of the roles of ankyrin polypeptides in cardiac physiology, as well as review other recently identified pathways required for the membrane expression and regulation of key cardiac ion channels and transporters. PMID:20934528

  20. Flavonoids act as negative regulators of auxin transport in vivo in arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, D. E.; Rashotte, A. M.; Murphy, A. S.; Normanly, J.; Tague, B. W.; Peer, W. A.; Taiz, L.; Muday, G. K.

    2001-01-01

    Polar transport of the plant hormone auxin controls many aspects of plant growth and development. A number of synthetic compounds have been shown to block the process of auxin transport by inhibition of the auxin efflux carrier complex. These synthetic auxin transport inhibitors may act by mimicking endogenous molecules. Flavonoids, a class of secondary plant metabolic compounds, have been suggested to be auxin transport inhibitors based on their in vitro activity. The hypothesis that flavonoids regulate auxin transport in vivo was tested in Arabidopsis by comparing wild-type (WT) and transparent testa (tt4) plants with a mutation in the gene encoding the first enzyme in flavonoid biosynthesis, chalcone synthase. In a comparison between tt4 and WT plants, phenotypic differences were observed, including three times as many secondary inflorescence stems, reduced plant height, decreased stem diameter, and increased secondary root development. Growth of WT Arabidopsis plants on naringenin, a biosynthetic precursor to those flavonoids with auxin transport inhibitor activity in vitro, leads to a reduction in root growth and gravitropism, similar to the effects of synthetic auxin transport inhibitors. Analyses of auxin transport in the inflorescence and hypocotyl of independent tt4 alleles indicate that auxin transport is elevated in plants with a tt4 mutation. In hypocotyls of tt4, this elevated transport is reversed when flavonoids are synthesized by growth of plants on the flavonoid precursor, naringenin. These results are consistent with a role for flavonoids as endogenous regulators of auxin transport.

  1. Flavonoids act as negative regulators of auxin transport in vivo in arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, D. E.; Rashotte, A. M.; Murphy, A. S.; Normanly, J.; Tague, B. W.; Peer, W. A.; Taiz, L.; Muday, G. K.

    2001-01-01

    Polar transport of the plant hormone auxin controls many aspects of plant growth and development. A number of synthetic compounds have been shown to block the process of auxin transport by inhibition of the auxin efflux carrier complex. These synthetic auxin transport inhibitors may act by mimicking endogenous molecules. Flavonoids, a class of secondary plant metabolic compounds, have been suggested to be auxin transport inhibitors based on their in vitro activity. The hypothesis that flavonoids regulate auxin transport in vivo was tested in Arabidopsis by comparing wild-type (WT) and transparent testa (tt4) plants with a mutation in the gene encoding the first enzyme in flavonoid biosynthesis, chalcone synthase. In a comparison between tt4 and WT plants, phenotypic differences were observed, including three times as many secondary inflorescence stems, reduced plant height, decreased stem diameter, and increased secondary root development. Growth of WT Arabidopsis plants on naringenin, a biosynthetic precursor to those flavonoids with auxin transport inhibitor activity in vitro, leads to a reduction in root growth and gravitropism, similar to the effects of synthetic auxin transport inhibitors. Analyses of auxin transport in the inflorescence and hypocotyl of independent tt4 alleles indicate that auxin transport is elevated in plants with a tt4 mutation. In hypocotyls of tt4, this elevated transport is reversed when flavonoids are synthesized by growth of plants on the flavonoid precursor, naringenin. These results are consistent with a role for flavonoids as endogenous regulators of auxin transport.

  2. Caulis Sinomenii extracts activate DA/NE transporter and inhibit 5HT transporter.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gang; Bi, Cheng; Qin, Guo-Wei; Guo, Li-He

    2009-08-01

    Caulis Sinomenii (QFT) has analgesic, sedative, and anxiolytic-like actions, and is proven effective for improving drug dependence that is known to be associated with abnormal monoaminergic transmission. We assessed whether QFT would be biologically active in functionally regulating monoamine transporters using CHO cells expressing dopamine transporter (DAT), norepinephrine transporter (NET), or serotonin transporter (SERT) (i.e. D8, N1, or S6 cells, respectively). Here, we showed that its primary extracts, such as QA, QC, QE, QD, and QB (QFT ethanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate, alkaloid-free chloroform, and alkaloid-containing chloroform extract, respectively), and secondary extracts, such as QE-2, - 3, - 5, - 7, QD-1, - 2, - 3, - 4, - 5, and QB-1, - 2, - 3, - 4, - 5 (fractioned from QE, QD, and QB, respectively), in differing degrees, either increased DA/ NE uptake by corresponding D8/N1 cells or decreased 5HT uptake by S6 cells; wherein, QE-2, QD-3, and QE-7 were potent DA/NE uptake activators while both QE-7 and QB-5 were potent 5HT uptake inhibitors. Furthermore, the enhancement of DA/NE uptake was dependent of DAT/NET activity, and the inhibition of 5HT uptake was typical of competition. Thus, QFT extracts, especially QE-2 and QE-7 (both with stronger potencies), are novel monoamine transporter modulators functioning as DAT/ NET activators and/or SERT inhibitors, and would likely improve neuropsychological disorders through regulating monoamine transporters.

  3. Turgor regulation of sucrose transport in sugar beet taproot tissue.

    PubMed

    Wyse, R E; Zamski, E; Tomos, A D

    1986-06-01

    Sink tissues that store osmotically active compounds must osmoregulate to prevent excessively high turgor. The ability to regulate turgor may be related to membrane transport of solutes and thus sink strength. To study this possibility, the kinetics of sugar uptake were determined in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) taproot tissue discs over a range of cell turgors. Sucrose uptake followed biphasic kinetics with a high affinity saturating component below 20 millimolar and a low affinity linear component at higher concentrations. Glucose uptake exhibited only simple saturation type kinetics. The high affinity saturating component of sucrose and glucose uptake was inhibited by increasing cell turgor (decreasing external mannitol concentrations). The inhibition was evident as a decrease in V(max) but no effect on K(m). Sucrose uptake by tissue equilibrated in dilute buffer exhibited no saturating component. Ethylene glycol, a permeant osmoticum, had no effect on uptake kinetics, suggesting that the effect was due to changes in cell turgor and not due to decreased water potential per se. p-(Chloromercuri)benzene sulfonic acid (PCMBS) inhibited sucrose uptake at low but not high cell turgor. High cell turgor caused the tissue to become generally leaky to potassium, sucrose, amino acids, and reducing sugars. PCMBS had no effect on sucrose leakage, an indication that the turgor-induced leakage of sucrose was not via back flow through the carrier. The ability of the tissue to acidify the external media was turgor dependent with an optimum at 300 kilopascals. Acidification was sharply reduced at cell turgors above or below the optimum. The results suggest that the secondary transport of sucrose is reduced at high turgor as a result of inhibition of the plasma membrane ATPase. This inhibition of ATPase activity would explain the reduced V(max) and leakiness to low molecular weight solutes. Cell turgor is an important regulator of sucrose uptake in this tissue and thus may be an

  4. The Transport Properties of Activated Carbon Fibers

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    di Vittorio, S. L.; Dresselhaus, M. S.; Endo, M.; Issi, J-P.; Piraux, L.

    1990-07-01

    The transport properties of activated isotropic pitch-based carbon fibers with surface area 1000 m{sup 2}/g have been investigated. We report preliminary results on the electrical conductivity, the magnetoresistance, the thermal conductivity and the thermopower of these fibers as a function of temperature. Comparisons are made to transport properties of other disordered carbons.

  5. The transport properties of activated carbon fibers

    SciTech Connect

    di Vittorio, S.L. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Dresselhaus, M.S. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA . Dept. of Physics); Endo, M. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Issi, J-P.; Piraux, L.

    1990-07-01

    The transport properties of activated isotropic pitch-based carbon fibers with surface area 1000 m{sup 2}/g have been investigated. We report preliminary results on the electrical conductivity, the magnetoresistance, the thermal conductivity and the thermopower of these fibers as a function of temperature. Comparisons are made to transport properties of other disordered carbons. 19 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Active and passive calcium transport systems in plant cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sze, H.

    1990-01-01

    The ability to change cytoplasmic Ca{sup 2+} levels ((Ca{sup 2+})) by cells has made this cation a key regulator of many biological processes. Cytoplasmic (Ca{sup 2+}) is determined by the coordination of passive Ca{sup 2+} fluxes which increase cytosolic (Ca{sup 2+}) and active Ca{sup 2+} transport systems that lower cytosolic (Ca{sup 2+}). The mechanisms by which plant cells achieve this is poorly understood. We have initially used isolated vesicles from the plasma membrane or organellar membranes to study Ca{sup 2+} transport systems in oat roots (a monocot) and carrot suspension cells (a dicot). The objectives of the proposal were to identify and characterize active (energy-dependent) and passive calcium transport systems that work together to regulate calcium levels in the cytoplasm of plant cells. 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Active and passive calcium transport systems in plant cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sze, H.

    1991-01-01

    The ability to change cytoplasmic Ca{sup 2+} levels ((Ca{sup 2+})) by cells has made this cation a key regulator of many biological processes. Cytoplasmic (Ca{sup 2+}) is determined by the coordination of passive Ca{sup 2+} fluxes which increase cytosolic (Ca{sup 2+}) and active Ca{sup 2+} transport systems that lower cytosolic (Ca{sup 2+}). The mechanisms by which plant cells achieve this is poorly understood. We have initially used isolated vesicles from the plasma membrane or organellar membranes to study Ca{sup 2+} transport systems in oat roots (a monocot) and carrot suspension cells (a dicot). The objectives of the proposal were to identify and characterize active (energy-dependent) and passive calcium transport systems that work together to regulate calcium levels in the cytoplasm of plant cells.

  8. Novel aspects of cholinergic regulation of colonic ion transport

    PubMed Central

    Bader, Sandra; Diener, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Nicotinic receptors are not only expressed by excitable tissues, but have been identified in various epithelia. One aim of this study was to investigate the expression of nicotinic receptors and their involvement in the regulation of ion transport across colonic epithelium. Ussing chamber experiments with putative nicotinic agonists and antagonists were performed at rat colon combined with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detection of nicotinic receptor subunits within the epithelium. Dimethylphenylpiperazinium (DMPP) and nicotine induced a tetrodotoxin-resistant anion secretion leading to an increase in short-circuit current (Isc) across colonic mucosa. The response was suppressed by the nicotinic receptor antagonist hexamethonium. RT-PCR experiments revealed the expression of α2, α4, α5, α6, α7, α10, and β4 nicotinic receptor subunits in colonic epithelium. Choline, the product of acetylcholine hydrolysis, is known for its affinity to several nicotinic receptor subtypes. As a strong acetylcholinesterase activity was found in colonic epithelium, the effect of choline on Isc was examined. Choline induced a concentration-dependent, tetrodotoxin-resistant chloride secretion which was, however, resistant against hexamethonium, but was inhibited by atropine. Experiments with inhibitors of muscarinic M1 and M3 receptors revealed that choline-evoked secretion was mainly due to a stimulation of epithelial M3 receptors. Although choline proved to be only a partial agonist, it concentration-dependently desensitized the response to acetylcholine, suggesting that it might act as a modulator of cholinergically induced anion secretion. Thus the cholinergic regulation of colonic ion transport – up to now solely explained by cholinergic submucosal neurons stimulating epithelial muscarinic receptors – is more complex than previously assumed. PMID:26236483

  9. Prediction of cis-regulatory elements for drug-activated transcription factors in the regulation of drug-metabolising enzymes and drug transporters.

    PubMed

    Podvinec, Michael; Meyer, Urs A

    2006-06-01

    The expression of drug-metabolising enzymes is affected by many endogenous and exogenous factors, including sex, age, diet and exposure to xenobiotics and drugs. To understand fully how the organism metabolises a drug, these alterations in gene expression must be taken into account. The central process, the definition of likely regulatory elements in the genes coding for enzymes and transporters involved in drug disposition, can be vastly accelerated using existing and emerging bioinformatics methods to unravel the regulatory networks causing drug-mediated induction of genes. Here, various approaches to predict transcription factor interactions with regulatory DNA elements are reviewed.

  10. Bradykinin regulates human colonic ion transport in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Baird, A W; Skelly, M M; O'Donoghue, D P; Barrett, K E; Keely, S J

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: Kinins are acknowledged as important regulators of intestinal function during inflammation; however, their effects on human intestinal ion transport have not been reported. Here, we used muscle-stripped human colonic tissue and cultured T84-cell monolayers to study bradykinin (BK) actions on human intestinal ion transport. Experimental approach: Ion transport was measured as changes in short-circuit current (Isc) across colonic epithelia mounted in Ussing chambers. Key results: In intact tissue, there was a distinct polarity to BK-elicited Isc responses. Whereas basolateral BK stimulated sustained responses (EC50=0.5±0.1 μM), those to apical BK were more rapid and transient (EC50=4.1±1.2 nM). In T84 cells, responses to both apical and basolateral BK were similar to those seen upon apical addition to intact tissues. Cross-desensitization between apical and basolateral domains was not observed. BK-induced responses were largely due to Cl− secretion as shown by their sensitivity to bumetanide and removal of Cl− from the bathing solution. Studies using selective agonists and antagonists indicate responses to BK are mediated by B2 receptors. Finally, responses to basolateral BK in intact tissues were inhibited by tetrodotoxin (1 μM), atropine (1 μM), capsaicin (100 μM) and piroxicam (10 μM). BK-stimulated prostaglandin (PG)E2 release from colonic tissue. Conclusions: BK stimulates human colonic Cl− secretion by activation of apical and basolateral B2 receptors. Responses to apical BK reflect a direct action on epithelial cells, whereas those to basolateral BK are amplified by stimulation of enteric nerves and PG synthesis. PMID:18604228

  11. Ion transport in a pH-regulated nanopore.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Li-Hsien; Zhang, Mingkan; Qian, Shizhi

    2013-08-06

    Fundamental understanding of ion transport phenomena in nanopores is crucial for designing the next-generation nanofluidic devices. Due to surface reactions of dissociable functional groups on the nanopore wall, the surface charge density highly depends upon the proton concentration on the nanopore wall, which in turn affects the electrokinetic transport of ions, fluid, and particles within the nanopore. Electrokinetic ion transport in a pH-regulated nanopore, taking into account both multiple ionic species and charge regulation on the nanopore wall, is theoretically investigated for the first time. The model is verified by the experimental data of nanopore conductance available in the literature. The results demonstrate that the spatial distribution of the surface charge density at the nanopore wall and the resulting ion transport phenomena, such as ion concentration polarization (ICP), ion selectivity, and conductance, are significantly affected by the background solution properties, such as the pH and salt concentration.

  12. Role of the transporter regulator protein (RS1) in the modulation of concentrative nucleoside transporters (CNTs) in epithelia.

    PubMed

    Errasti-Murugarren, Ekaitz; Fernández-Calotti, Paula; Veyhl-Wichmann, Mayke; Diepold, Maximilian; Pinilla-Macua, Itziar; Pérez-Torras, Sandra; Kipp, Helmut; Koepsell, Hermann; Pastor-Anglada, Marçal

    2012-07-01

    SLC28 genes encode three plasma membrane transporter proteins, human concentrative nucleoside transporter (CNT)1, CNT2, and CNT3, all of which are implicated in the uptake of natural nucleosides and a variety of nucleoside analogs used in the chemotherapy of cancer and viral and inflammatory diseases. Mechanisms determining their trafficking toward the plasma membrane are not well known, although this might eventually become a target for therapeutic intervention. The transporter regulator RS1, which was initially identified as a short-term, post-transcriptional regulator of the high-affinity, Na(+)-coupled, glucose transporter sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 1, was evaluated in this study as a candidate for coordinate regulation of membrane insertion of human CNT-type proteins. With a combination of studies with mammalian cells, Xenopus laevis oocytes, and RS1-null mice, evidence that RS1 down-regulates the localization and activity at the plasma membrane of the three members of this protein family (CNT1, CNT2, and CNT3) is provided, which indicates the biochemical basis for coordinate regulation of nucleoside uptake ability in epithelia and probably in other RS1-expressing cell types.

  13. Quercetin up-regulates expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, liver X receptor α, and ATP binding cassette transporter A1 genes and increases cholesterol efflux in human macrophage cell line.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Min; Moon, Jiyoung; Cho, Yoonsu; Chung, Ji Hyung; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2013-02-01

    Cholesterol-laden macrophages trigger accumulation of foam cells and increase the risk of developing atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that quercetin could lower the content of cholesterol in macrophages by regulating the expression of the ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) gene in differentiated human acute monocyte leukemia cell line (THP-1) cells and thereby reducing the chance of forming foam cells. Quercetin, in concentrations up to 30 μM, was not cytotoxic to differentiated THP-1 cells. Quercetin up-regulated both ABCA1 messenger RNA and protein expression in differentiated THP-1 cells, and its maximum effects were demonstrated at 0.3 μM for 4 to 8 hours in incubation. In addition, quercetin increased protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and liver X receptor α (LXRα) within 2 hours of treatment. Because PPARγ and LXRα are important transcriptional factors for ABCA1, quercetin-induced up-regulation of ABCA1 may be mediated by increased expression levels of the PPARγ and LXRα genes. Furthermore, quercetin-enhanced cholesterol efflux from differentiated THP-1 cells to both high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and apolipoprotein A1. Quercetin at the dose of 0.15 μM elevated the cholesterol efflux only for HDL. At the dose of 0.3 μM, quercetin demonstrated effects both on HDL and apolipoprotein A1. Our data demonstrated that quercetin increased the expressions of PPARγ, LXRα, and ABCA1 genes and cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages. Quercetin-induced expression of PPARγ and LXRα might subsequently affect up-regulation of their target gene ABCA1. Taken together, ingestion of quercetin or quercetin-rich foods could be an effective way to improve cholesterol efflux from macrophages, which would contribute to lowering the risk of atherosclerosis.

  14. Defense Transportation Regulation Part 2, Cargo Movement.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-08-01

    regarding any aspect of CPP should be forwarded to the attention of the appropriate area command or HQ MTMC. Addresses and phone numbers are as...A pop-up menu displays. (1) Type the interface name, i.e., MTMC-TFG, and press [ENTER]. (2) Type the phone number that was assigned to you with your...who will be responsible for maintaining the activity TFG record. (3) Phone . Enter DSN or commercial telephone number of the POC indicated above. (4

  15. Role of nuclear receptors in the regulation of drug transporters in the brain.

    PubMed

    Chan, Gary N Y; Hoque, Md Tozammel; Bendayan, Reina

    2013-07-01

    ATP-binding cassette membrane-associated drug efflux transporters and solute carrier influx transporters, expressed at the blood-brain barrier, blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier, and in brain parenchyma, are important determinants of drug disposition in the central nervous system. Targeting the regulatory pathways that govern the expression of these transporters could provide novel approaches to selectively alter drug permeability into the brain. Nuclear receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors which regulate the gene expression of several metabolic enzymes and drug efflux/influx transporters. Although efforts have primarily been focused on investigating these regulatory pathways in peripheral organs (i.e., liver and intestine), recent findings demonstrate their significance in the brain. This review addresses the role of nuclear receptors in the regulation of drug transporter functional expression in the brain. An in-depth understanding of these pathways could guide the development of novel pharmacotherapy with either enhanced efficacy in the central nervous system or minimal associated neurotoxicity.

  16. ATM and GLUT1-S490 Phosphorylation Regulate GLUT1 Mediated Transport in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Andrisse, Stanley; Patel, Gaytri D.; Chen, Joseph E.; Webber, Andrea M.; Spears, Larry D.; Koehler, Rikki M.; Robinson-Hill, Rona M.; Ching, James K.; Jeong, Imju; Fisher, Jonathan S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The glucose and dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) transporter GLUT1 contains a phosphorylation site, S490, for ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM). The objective of this study was to determine whether ATM and GLUT1-S490 regulate GLUT1. Research Design and Methods L6 myoblasts and mouse skeletal muscles were used to study the effects of ATM inhibition, ATM activation, and S490 mutation on GLUT1 localization, trafficking, and transport activity. Results In myoblasts, inhibition of ATM significantly diminished cell surface GLUT1, glucose and DHA transport, GLUT1 externalization, and association of GLUT1 with Gα-interacting protein-interacting protein, C-terminus (GIPC1), which has been implicated in recycling of endosomal proteins. In contrast, ATM activation by doxorubicin (DXR) increased DHA transport, cell surface GLUT1, and the GLUT1/GIPC1 association. S490A mutation decreased glucose and DHA transport, cell surface GLUT1, and interaction of GLUT1 with GIPC1, while S490D mutation increased transport, cell surface GLUT1, and the GLUT1/GIPC1 interaction. ATM dysfunction or ATM inhibition reduced DHA transport in extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles and decreased glucose transport in EDL and soleus. In contrast, DXR increased DHA transport in EDL. Conclusions These results provide evidence that ATM and GLUT1-S490 promote cell surface GLUT1 and GLUT1-mediated transport in skeletal muscle associated with upregulation of the GLUT1/GIPC1 interaction. PMID:23776597

  17. pH-Regulated Nonelectrogenic Anion Transport by Phenylthiosemicarbazones.

    PubMed

    Howe, Ethan N W; Busschaert, Nathalie; Wu, Xin; Berry, Stuart N; Ho, Junming; Light, Mark E; Czech, Dawid D; Klein, Harry A; Kitchen, Jonathan A; Gale, Philip A

    2016-07-06

    Gated ion transport across biological membranes is an intrinsic process regulated by protein channels. Synthetic anion carriers (anionophores) have potential applications in biological research; however, previously reported examples are mostly nonspecific, capable of mediating both electrogenic and electroneutral (nonelectrogenic) transport processes. Here we show the transmembrane Cl(-) transport studies of synthetic phenylthiosemicarbazones mimicking the function of acid-sensing (proton-gated) ion channels. These anionophores have remarkable pH-switchable transport properties with up to 640-fold increase in transport efficacy on going from pH 7.2 to 4.0. This "gated" process is triggered by protonation of the imino nitrogen and concomitant conformational change of the anion-binding thiourea moiety from anti to syn. By using a combination of two cationophore-coupled transport assays, with either monensin or valinomycin, we have elucidated the fundamental transport mechanism of phenylthiosemicarbazones which is shown to be nonelectrogenic, inseparable H(+)/Cl(-) cotransport. This study demonstrates the first examples of pH-switchable nonelectrogenic anion transporters.

  18. Regulation of ABC Efflux Transporters at Blood-Brain Barrier in Health and Neurological Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Qosa, Hisham; Miller, David S.; Pasinelli, Piera; Trotti, Davide

    2015-01-01

    The strength of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in providing protection to the central nervous system from exposure to circulating chemicals is maintained by tight junctions between endothelial cells and by a broad range of transporter proteins that regulate exchange between CNS and blood. The most important transporters that restrict the permeability of large number of toxins as well as therapeutic agents are the ABC transporters. Among them, P-gp, BCRP, MRP1 and MRP2 are the utmost studied. These efflux transporters are neuroprotective, limiting the brain entry of neurotoxins; however, they could also restrict the entry of many therapeutics and contribute to CNS pharmacoresistance. Characterization of several regulatory pathways that govern expression and activity of ABC efflux transporters in the endothelium of brain capillaries have led to an emerging consensus that these processes are complex and contain several cellular and molecular elements. Alterations in ABC efflux transporters expression and/or activity occur in several neurological diseases. Here, we review the signaling pathways that regulate expression and transport activity of P-gp, BCRP, MRP1 and MRP2 as well as how their expression/activity changes in neurological diseases. PMID:26187753

  19. Active Transport of Alcohol in Corynebacterium acetophilum

    PubMed Central

    Murooka, Yoshikatsu; Harada, Tokuya

    1974-01-01

    The transport of alcohols was studied in Corynebacterium acetophilum, which was isolated as a strain growing well on acetate and ethanol. The transport of ethanol was found to be inducible by ethanol, n-propanol, n-butanol, and acetate, whereas transport of methanol occurred by noninducible passive diffusion. The entry of ethanol into the cells occurred against a concentration gradient and showed saturation kinetics with two Km values of 2.4 × 10−5 M and 6.0 × 10−5 M. Uptake of ethanol was inhibited by sodium azide, sodium cyanide, 2,4-dinitrophenol, and p-chloromercuribenzoate. The transport of ethanol was competitively inhibited by normal alcohols, but not by iso- or tert-alcohols. From these studies, we concluded that an inducible active alcohol transport system mediates the entry of ethanol, n-propanol, or n-butanol into the cells of C. acetophilum. Images PMID:4821092

  20. Ratchet transport powered by chiral active particles

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Bao-quan

    2016-01-01

    We numerically investigate the ratchet transport of mixtures of active and passive particles in a transversal asymmetric channel. A big passive particle is immersed in a ‘sea’ of active particles. Due to the chirality of active particles, the longitudinal directed transport is induced by the transversal asymmetry. For the active particles, the chirality completely determines the direction of the ratchet transport, the counterclockwise and clockwise particles move to the opposite directions and can be separated. However, for the passive particle, the transport behavior becomes complicated, the direction is determined by competitions among the chirality, the self-propulsion speed, and the packing fraction. Interestingly, within certain parameters, the passive particle moves to the left, while active particles move to the right. In addition, there exist optimal parameters (the chirality, the height of the barrier, the self-propulsion speed and the packing fraction) at which the rectified efficiency takes its maximal value. Our findings could be used for the experimental pursuit of the ratchet transport powered by chiral active particles. PMID:26795952

  1. The connexion between active cation transport and metabolism in erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Whittam, R.; Ager, Margaret E.

    1965-01-01

    1. A study has been made of the dependence on the concentrations of internal Na+ and external K+ of lactate and phosphate production in human erythrocytes. 2. Lactate production was stimulated by Na+ and K+ but only when they were internal and external respectively. The stimulation was counteracted by ouabain. The production of phosphate was affected in the same way. 3. There is a quantitative correlation between these effects and those previously found for cation movements and the membrane adenosine triphosphatase. 4. It is concluded that the rate of energy production in glycolysis is partly controlled by the magnitude of active transport; the extent of this regulation is shown to vary from 25 to 75% of a basal rate that is independent of active transport. 5. The activity of the membrane adenosine triphosphatase was also compared with rates of Na+ and K+ transport. The latter were varied by altering the concentrations of internal Na+ and external K+, and by inhibiting with ouabain. 6. A threefold variation of active transport rate was accompanied by a parallel change in the membrane adenosine-triphosphatase activity. The results show a constant stoicheiometry for the number of ions moved/mol. of ATP hydrolysed, independent of the electrochemical gradient against which the ions were moved. 7. Calculations show that the amount of ATP hydrolysed would provide enough energy for the osmotic work. The results are discussed in relation to possible mechanisms for active transport. PMID:16749106

  2. Protons Regulate Vesicular Glutamate Transporters through an Allosteric Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Jacob; Chang, Roger; McGregor, Matt; Silm, Katlin; Suzuki, Toshiharu; Edwards, Robert H

    2016-05-18

    The quantal nature of synaptic transmission requires a mechanism to transport neurotransmitter into synaptic vesicles without promoting non-vesicular efflux across the plasma membrane. Indeed, the vesicular transport of most classical transmitters involves a mechanism of H(+) exchange, which restricts flux to acidic membranes such as synaptic vesicles. However, vesicular transport of the principal excitatory transmitter glutamate depends primarily on membrane potential, which would drive non-vesicular efflux, and the role of protons is unclear. Adapting electrophysiology to record currents associated with the vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs), we characterize a chloride conductance that is gated by lumenal protons and chloride and supports glutamate uptake. Rather than coupling stoichiometrically to glutamate flux, lumenal protons and chloride allosterically activate vesicular glutamate transport. Gating by protons serves to inhibit what would otherwise be substantial non-vesicular glutamate efflux at the plasma membrane, thereby restricting VGLUT activity to synaptic vesicles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Immune regulation of human colonic electrolyte transport in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Stack, W A; Keely, S J; O'Donoghue, D P; Baird, A W

    1995-01-01

    The role of lamina propria cells in regulating human colonic ion transport was investigated in vitro. Normal human colonic mucosae were mounted in Ussing chambers, and short circuit current changes (delta SCC) were monitored in response to immune cell activation. Anti-human immunoglobulin E (anti-IgE) and formyl-Methionyl-Leucyl-Phenylalanine (fMLP) were used to stimulate mast cells and phagocytes respectively. Anti-IgE (100 micrograms/ml) and fMLP (100 microM) evoked rapid onset, inward delta SCC (mean (SEM) max delta SCC 19.3 (2.8) and 29.4 (4.7) microA/0.63 cm2 respectively). A pharmacological approach was used to identify the charge carrying ion species and to characterise mediators involved in the SCC response. Responses to each secretagogue were significantly attenuated by bumetanide, indicating that the delta SCC was at least partly due to electrogenic chloride secretion. Piroxicam reduced the delta SCC to mast cell and phagocyte activation by 91.1 (3.4)% and 48.2 (25.2)% respectively, implicating eicosanoids as mediators of the responses. Mepyramine (100 microM) reduced the SCC responses to anti-IgE by 79.6 (12.0)% but did not significantly alter delta SCC responses to fMLP. Desensitisation to repeated anti-IgE or fMLP stimulation, and cross desensitisation between each of the stimuli, were features of immune cell activation. In summary, we have shown that activation of immune cells can stimulate electrogenic chloride secretion. Such events in vivo will result in gradient driven secretory diarrhoea, which may occur as a protective response to enteric-dwelling parasites, or as a feature of local bowel inflammation. PMID:7698700

  4. Hormone- and light-regulated nucleocytoplasmic transport in plants: current status.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yew; Lee, Hak-Soo; Lee, June-Seung; Kim, Seong-Ki; Kim, Soo-Hwan

    2008-01-01

    The gene regulation mechanisms underlying hormone- and light-induced signal transduction in plants rely not only on post-translational modification and protein degradation, but also on selective inclusion and exclusion of proteins from the nucleus. For example, plant cells treated with light or hormones actively transport many signalling regulatory proteins, transcription factors, and even photoreceptors and hormone receptors into the nucleus, while actively excluding other proteins. The nuclear envelope (NE) is the physical and functional barrier that mediates this selective partitioning, and nuclear transport regulators transduce hormone- or light-initiated signalling pathways across the membrane to mediate nuclear activities. Recent reports revealed that mutating the proteins regulating nuclear transport through the pores, such as nucleoporins, alters the plant's response to a stimulus. In this review, recent works are introduced that have revealed the importance of regulated nucleocytoplasmic partitioning. These important findings deepen our understanding about how co-ordinated plant hormone and light signal transduction pathways facilitate communication between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. The roles of nucleoporin components within the nuclear pore complex (NPC) are also emphasized, as well as nuclear transport cargo, such as Ran/TC4 and its binding proteins (RanBPs), in this process. Recent findings concerning these proteins may provide a possible direction by which to characterize the regulatory potential of hormone- or light-triggered nuclear transport.

  5. Stochastic steps in secondary active sugar transport.

    PubMed

    Adelman, Joshua L; Ghezzi, Chiara; Bisignano, Paola; Loo, Donald D F; Choe, Seungho; Abramson, Jeff; Rosenberg, John M; Wright, Ernest M; Grabe, Michael

    2016-07-05

    Secondary active transporters, such as those that adopt the leucine-transporter fold, are found in all domains of life, and they have the unique capability of harnessing the energy stored in ion gradients to accumulate small molecules essential for life as well as expel toxic and harmful compounds. How these proteins couple ion binding and transport to the concomitant flow of substrates is a fundamental structural and biophysical question that is beginning to be answered at the atomistic level with the advent of high-resolution structures of transporters in different structural states. Nonetheless, the dynamic character of the transporters, such as ion/substrate binding order and how binding triggers conformational change, is not revealed from static structures, yet it is critical to understanding their function. Here, we report a series of molecular simulations carried out on the sugar transporter vSGLT that lend insight into how substrate and ions are released from the inward-facing state of the transporter. Our simulations reveal that the order of release is stochastic. Functional experiments were designed to test this prediction on the human homolog, hSGLT1, and we also found that cytoplasmic release is not ordered, but we confirmed that substrate and ion binding from the extracellular space is ordered. Our findings unify conflicting published results concerning cytoplasmic release of ions and substrate and hint at the possibility that other transporters in the superfamily may lack coordination between ions and substrate in the inward-facing state.

  6. Stochastic steps in secondary active sugar transport

    PubMed Central

    Adelman, Joshua L.; Ghezzi, Chiara; Bisignano, Paola; Loo, Donald D. F.; Choe, Seungho; Abramson, Jeff; Rosenberg, John M.; Wright, Ernest M.; Grabe, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Secondary active transporters, such as those that adopt the leucine-transporter fold, are found in all domains of life, and they have the unique capability of harnessing the energy stored in ion gradients to accumulate small molecules essential for life as well as expel toxic and harmful compounds. How these proteins couple ion binding and transport to the concomitant flow of substrates is a fundamental structural and biophysical question that is beginning to be answered at the atomistic level with the advent of high-resolution structures of transporters in different structural states. Nonetheless, the dynamic character of the transporters, such as ion/substrate binding order and how binding triggers conformational change, is not revealed from static structures, yet it is critical to understanding their function. Here, we report a series of molecular simulations carried out on the sugar transporter vSGLT that lend insight into how substrate and ions are released from the inward-facing state of the transporter. Our simulations reveal that the order of release is stochastic. Functional experiments were designed to test this prediction on the human homolog, hSGLT1, and we also found that cytoplasmic release is not ordered, but we confirmed that substrate and ion binding from the extracellular space is ordered. Our findings unify conflicting published results concerning cytoplasmic release of ions and substrate and hint at the possibility that other transporters in the superfamily may lack coordination between ions and substrate in the inward-facing state. PMID:27325773

  7. Mechanisms of dopamine transporter regulation in normal and disease states.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Roxanne A; Foster, James D

    2013-09-01

    The dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) controls the spatial and temporal dynamics of DA neurotransmission by driving reuptake of extracellular transmitter into presynaptic neurons. Many diseases such as depression, bipolar disorder, Parkinson's disease (PD), and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are associated with abnormal DA levels, implicating DAT as a factor in their etiology. Medications used to treat these disorders and many addictive drugs target DAT and enhance dopaminergic signaling by suppressing transmitter reuptake. We now understand that the transport and binding properties of DAT are regulated by complex and overlapping mechanisms that provide neurons with the ability to modulate DA clearance in response to physiological demands. These processes are controlled by endogenous signaling pathways and affected by exogenous transporter ligands, demonstrating their importance for normal neurotransmission, drug abuse, and disease treatments. Increasing evidence supports the disruption of these mechanisms in DA disorders, implicating dysregulation of transport in disease etiologies and suggesting these processes as potential points for therapeutic manipulation of DA availability.

  8. Compendium of federal and state radioactive materials transportation laws and regulations: Transportation Legislative Database (TLDB)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    The Transportation Legislative Database (TLDB) is an on-line information service containing detailed information on legislation and regulations regarding the transportation of radioactive materials in the United States. The system is dedicated to serving the legislative and regulatory information needs of the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies; state, tribal, and local governments; the hazardous materials transportation industry; and interested members of the general public. In addition to the on-line information service, quarterly and annual Legal Developments Reports are produced using information from the TLDB. These reports summarize important changes in federal and state legislation, regulations, administrative agency rulings, and judicial decisions over the reporting period. Information on significant legal developments at the tribal and local levels is also included on an as-available basis. Battelle's Office of Transportation Systems and Planning (OTSP) will also perform customized searches of the TLDB and produce formatted printouts in response to specific information requests.

  9. Regulation of amniotic fluid volume: mathematical model based on intramembranous transport mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Brace, Robert A; Anderson, Debra F; Cheung, Cecilia Y

    2014-11-15

    Experimentation in late-gestation fetal sheep has suggested that regulation of amniotic fluid (AF) volume occurs primarily by modulating the rate of intramembranous transport of water and solutes across the amnion into underlying fetal blood vessels. In order to gain insight into intramembranous transport mechanisms, we developed a computer model that allows simulation of experimentally measured changes in AF volume and composition over time. The model included fetal urine excretion and lung liquid secretion as inflows into the amniotic compartment plus fetal swallowing and intramembranous absorption as outflows. By using experimental flows and solute concentrations for urine, lung liquid, and swallowed fluid in combination with the passive and active transport mechanisms of the intramembranous pathway, we simulated AF responses to basal conditions, intra-amniotic fluid infusions, fetal intravascular infusions, urine replacement, and tracheoesophageal occlusion. The experimental data are consistent with four intramembranous transport mechanisms acting in concert: 1) an active unidirectional bulk transport of AF with all dissolved solutes out of AF into fetal blood presumably by vesicles; 2) passive bidirectional diffusion of solutes, such as sodium and chloride, between fetal blood and AF; 3) passive bidirectional water movement between AF and fetal blood; and 4) unidirectional transport of lactate into the AF. Further, only unidirectional bulk transport is dynamically regulated. The simulations also identified areas for future study: 1) identifying intramembranous stimulators and inhibitors, 2) determining the semipermeability characteristics of the intramembranous pathway, and 3) characterizing the vesicles that are the primary mediators of intramembranous transport. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Transport, metabolism, and endosomal trafficking-dependent regulation of intestinal fructose absorption

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Chirag; Douard, Veronique; Yu, Shiyan; Gao, Nan; Ferraris, Ronaldo P.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fructose that is linked to metabolic abnormalities can up-regulate its own absorption, but the underlying regulatory mechanisms are not known. We hypothesized that glucose transporter (GLUT) protein, member 5 (GLUT5) is the primary fructose transporter and that fructose absorption via GLUT5, metabolism via ketohexokinase (KHK), as well as GLUT5 trafficking to the apical membrane via the Ras-related protein-in-brain 11 (Rab11)a-dependent endosomes are each required for regulation. Introducing fructose but not lysine and glucose solutions into the lumen increased by 2- to 10-fold the heterogeneous nuclear RNA, mRNA, protein, and activity levels of GLUT5 in adult wild-type mice consuming chow. Levels of GLUT5 were >100-fold that of candidate apical fructose transporters GLUTs 7, 8, and 12 whose expression, and that of GLUT 2 and the sodium-dependent glucose transporter protein 1 (SGLT1), was not regulated by luminal fructose. GLUT5-knockout (KO) mice exhibited no facilitative fructose transport and no compensatory increases in activity and expression of SGLT1 and other GLUTs. Fructose could not up-regulate GLUT5 in GLUT5-KO, KHK-KO, and intestinal epithelial cell-specific Rab11a-KO mice. The fructose-specific metabolite glyceraldehyde did not increase GLUT5 expression. GLUT5 is the primary transporter responsible for facilitative absorption of fructose, and its regulation specifically requires fructose uptake and metabolism and normal GLUT5 trafficking to the apical membrane.—Patel, C., Douard, V., Yu, S., Gao, N., Ferraris, R. P. Transport, metabolism, and endosomal trafficking-dependent regulation of intestinal fructose absorption. PMID:26071406

  11. Palmitate-induced interleukin 6 production is mediated by protein kinase C and nuclear-factor kappaB activation and leads to glucose transporter 4 down-regulation in skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Jové, Mireia; Planavila, Anna; Laguna, Juan Carlos; Vázquez-Carrera, Manuel

    2005-07-01

    The mechanisms by which elevated levels of free fatty acids cause insulin resistance are not well understood. In addition, accumulating evidence suggests a link between inflammation and type 2 diabetes. Here, we report that exposure of C2C12 skeletal muscle cells to 0.5 mm palmitate results in increased mRNA levels (3.5-fold induction; P < 0.05) and secretion (control 375 +/- 57 vs. palmitate 1129 +/- 177 pg/ml; P < 0.001) of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6. Palmitate increased nuclear factor-kappaB activation and coincubation of the cells with palmitate and the nuclear factor-kappaB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate prevented both IL-6 expression and secretion. Furthermore, incubation of palmitate-treated cells with calphostin C, a strong and specific inhibitor of protein kinase C, and phorbol myristate acetate, that down-regulates protein kinase C in long-term incubations, abolished induction of IL-6 production. Finally, exposure of skeletal muscle cells to palmitate caused a fall in the mRNA levels of glucose transporter 4 and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, whereas in the presence of anti-IL-6 antibody, which neutralizes the biological activity of mouse IL-6 in cell culture, these reductions were prevented. These findings suggest that IL-6 may mediate several of the prodiabetic effects of palmitate.

  12. Down-regulation of the rat serotonin transporter upon exposure to a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Horschitz, S; Hummerich, R; Schloss, P

    2001-07-20

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) terminates serotonergic neurotransmission by rapid reuptake of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) into the nerve terminal or axonal varicosities. SERT represents the target of various antidepressants which inhibit 5-HT transport and are widely used for the pharmacotherapy of depression. Here, we have analyzed the function of SERT stably expressed in HEK 293 cells upon exposure to citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), with respect to 5-HT transport activity and protein expression as estimated by ligand binding experiments. Our results show that long-term exposure to an SSRI causes a down-regulation of transport activity as revealed by a reduction of the maximal transport rate, without affecting substrate affinity, accompanied by a decrease in ligand binding sites.

  13. Regulation of Sodium Transport in the Inner Ear

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Huhn; Marcus, Daniel C.

    2011-01-01

    Na+ concentrations in endolymph must be controlled to maintain hair cell function since the transduction channels of hair cells are cation-permeable, but not K+-selective. Flooding or fluctuations of the hair cell cytosol with Na+ would be expected to lead to cellular dysfunction, hearing loss and vertigo. This review briefly describes cellular mechanisms known to be responsible for Na+homeostasis in each compartment of the inner ear, including the cochlea, saccule, semicircular canals and endolymphatic sac. The influx of Na+into endolymph of each of the organs is likely via passive diffusion, but these pathways have not yet been identified or characterized. Na+ absorption is controlled by gate -keeper channels in the apical (endolymphatic) membrane of the transporting cells. Highly Na+-selective epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) control absorption by Reissner’s membrane, saccular extramacular epithelium, semicircular canal duct epithelium and endolymphatic sac. ENaC activity is controlled by a number of signal pathways, but most notably by genomic regulation of channel numbers in the membrane via glucocorticoid signaling. Nonselective cation channels in the apical membrane of outer sulcus epithelial cells and vestibular transitional cells mediate Na+ and parasensory K+ absorption. The K+-mediated transduction current in hair cells is also accompanied by a Na+ flux since the transduction channels are nonselective cation channels. Cation absorption by all of these cells is regulated by extracellular ATP via apical nonselective cation channels (P2X receptors). The heterogeneous population of epithelial cells in the endolymphatic sac is thought to have multiple absorptive pathways for Na+ with regulatory pathways that include glucocorticoids and purinergic agonists. PMID:21620939

  14. Regulation of sodium transport in the inner ear.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Huhn; Marcus, Daniel C

    2011-10-01

    Na(+) concentrations in endolymph must be controlled to maintain hair cell function since the transduction channels of hair cells are cation-permeable, but not K(+)-selective. Flooding or fluctuations of the hair cell cytosol with Na(+) would be expected to lead to cellular dysfunction, hearing loss and vertigo. This review briefly describes cellular mechanisms known to be responsible for Na(+) homeostasis in each compartment of the inner ear, including the cochlea, saccule, semicircular canals and endolymphatic sac. The influx of Na(+) into endolymph of each of the organs is likely via passive diffusion, but these pathways have not yet been identified or characterized. Na(+) absorption is controlled by gate-keeper channels in the apical (endolymphatic) membrane of the transporting cells. Highly Na(+)-selective epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs) control absorption by Reissner's membrane, saccular extramacular epithelium, semicircular canal duct epithelium and endolymphatic sac. ENaC activity is controlled by a number of signal pathways, but most notably by genomic regulation of channel numbers in the membrane via glucocorticoid signaling. Non-selective cation channels in the apical membrane of outer sulcus epithelial cells and vestibular transitional cells mediate Na(+) and parasensory K(+) absorption. The K(+)-mediated transduction current in hair cells is also accompanied by a Na(+) flux since the transduction channels are non-selective cation channels. Cation absorption by all of these cells is regulated by extracellular ATP via apical non-selective cation channels (P2X receptors). The heterogeneous population of epithelial cells in the endolymphatic sac is thought to have multiple absorptive pathways for Na(+) with regulatory pathways that include glucocorticoids and purinergic agonists. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. TonB-dependent transporters: regulation, structure, and function

    PubMed Central

    Noinaj, Nicholas; Guillier, Maude; Barnard, Travis J.; Buchanan, Susan K.

    2011-01-01

    TonB-dependent transporters (TBDTs) are bacterial outer membrane proteins that bind and transport ferric chelates called siderophores, as well as vitamin B12, nickel complexes, and carbohydrates. The transport process requires energy in the form of protonmotive force and a complex of three inner membrane proteins, TonB-ExbB-ExbD, to transduce this energy to the outer membrane. The siderophore substrates range in complexity from simple small molecules such as citrate to large proteins like serum transferrin and haemoglobin. Because iron uptake is vital for almost all bacteria, expression of TBDTs is regulated in a number of ways that include metal-dependent regulators, σ/anti-σ factor systems, small RNAs, and even a riboswitch. In recent years many new structures of TBDTs have been solved in various states, resulting in a more complete picture of siderophore selectivity and binding, signal transduction across the outer membrane, and interaction with TonB-ExbB-ExbD. However, the transport mechanism is still unclear. In this review, we summarize recent progress in understanding regulation, structure and function in TBDTs and questions remaining to be answered. PMID:20420522

  16. TonB-dependent transporters: regulation, structure, and function.

    PubMed

    Noinaj, Nicholas; Guillier, Maude; Barnard, Travis J; Buchanan, Susan K

    2010-01-01

    TonB-dependent transporters (TBDTs) are bacterial outer membrane proteins that bind and transport ferric chelates, called siderophores, as well as vitamin B(12), nickel complexes, and carbohydrates. The transport process requires energy in the form of proton motive force and a complex of three inner membrane proteins, TonB-ExbB-ExbD, to transduce this energy to the outer membrane. The siderophore substrates range in complexity from simple small molecules such as citrate to large proteins such as serum transferrin and hemoglobin. Because iron uptake is vital for almost all bacteria, expression of TBDTs is regulated in a number of ways that include metal-dependent regulators, σ/anti-σ factor systems, small RNAs, and even a riboswitch. In recent years, many new structures of TBDTs have been solved in various states, resulting in a more complete understanding of siderophore selectivity and binding, signal transduction across the outer membrane, and interaction with the TonB-ExbB-ExbD complex. However, the transport mechanism is still unclear. In this review, we summarize recent progress in understanding regulation, structure, and function in TBDTs and questions remaining to be answered.

  17. Transport and transcriptional regulation of oil production in plants.

    PubMed

    Manan, Sehrish; Chen, Beibei; She, Guangbiao; Wan, Xiaochun; Zhao, Jian

    2016-08-23

    Triacylglycerol (TAG) serves as an energy reservoir and phospholipids as build blocks of biomembrane to support plant life. They also provide human with foods and nutrients. Multi-compartmentalized biosynthesis, trafficking or cross-membrane transport of lipid intermediates or precursors and their regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. Recent progress has aided our understanding of how fatty acids (FAs) and phospholipids are transported between the chloroplast, the cytoplasm, and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and how the ins and outs of lipids take place in the peroxisome and other organelles for lipid metabolism and function. In addition, information regarding the transcriptional regulation network associated with FA and TAG biosynthesis has been further enriched. Recent breakthroughs made in lipid transport and transcriptional regulation has provided significant insights into our comprehensive understanding of plant lipid biology. This review attempts to highlight the recent progress made on lipid synthesis, transport, degradation, and their regulatory mechanisms. Metabolic engineering, based on these knowledge-powered technologies for production of edible oils or biofuels, is reviewed. The biotechnological application of metabolic enzymes, transcription factors and transporters, for oil production and composition improvement, are discussed in a broad context in order to provide a fresh scenario for researchers and to guide future research and applications.

  18. L-leucine availability regulates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, p70 S6 kinase and glycogen synthase kinase-3 activity in L6 muscle cells: evidence for the involvement of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in the L-leucine-induced up-regulation of system A amino acid transport.

    PubMed Central

    Peyrollier, K; Hajduch, E; Blair, A S; Hyde, R; Hundal, H S

    2000-01-01

    Amino acid availability is known to regulate diverse cell processes including the activation of p70 S6 kinase, initiation factors involved in mRNA translation, gene expression and cellular amino acid uptake. Essential amino acids, in particular the branched-chain amino acids (e.g. leucine), have been shown to be the dominant players in mediating these effects, although the precise nature by which they regulate these processes remain poorly understood. In this study we have investigated the mechanisms involved in the leucine-induced modulation of p70 S6 kinase and addressed whether this kinase participates in the up-regulation of the System A amino acid transporter in L6 muscle cells. Incubation of muscle cells that had been amino acid-deprived for 1 h with L-leucine (2 mM) led to a rapid (>2-fold) activation of p70 S6 kinase, which was suppressed by both wortmannin and rapamycin. Consistent with this finding, addition of leucine caused a rapid ( approximately 5-fold) but transient stimulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). PI3K activation was inhibited by wortmannin and was not dependent upon insulin receptor substrate-1 activation. Unlike stimulation by insulin, activation of neither protein kinase B nor p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase accompanied the leucine-induced stimulation of PI3K. However, the leucine-induced activation of PI3K and p70 S6 kinase did result in the concomitant inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3). Leucine enhanced System A transport by approximately 50%. We have shown previously that this stimulation is protein-synthesis-dependent and in the current study we show that it was blocked by both wortmannin and rapamycin. Our findings indicate that PI3K and the mammalian target of rapamycin are components of a nutrient signalling pathway that regulates the activation of p70 S6 kinase and induction of System A in L6 cells. The activation of this pathway by leucine is also responsible for the inactivation of GSK-3

  19. Collecting duct principal cell transport processes and their regulation.

    PubMed

    Pearce, David; Soundararajan, Rama; Trimpert, Christiane; Kashlan, Ossama B; Deen, Peter M T; Kohan, Donald E

    2015-01-07

    The principal cell of the kidney collecting duct is one of the most highly regulated epithelial cell types in vertebrates. The effects of hormonal, autocrine, and paracrine factors to regulate principal cell transport processes are central to the maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance in the face of wide variations in food and water intake. In marked contrast with the epithelial cells lining the proximal tubule, the collecting duct is electrically tight, and ion and osmotic gradients can be very high. The central role of principal cells in salt and water transport is reflected by their defining transporters-the epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC), the renal outer medullary K(+) channel, and the aquaporin 2 (AQP2) water channel. The coordinated regulation of ENaC by aldosterone, and AQP2 by arginine vasopressin (AVP) in principal cells is essential for the control of plasma Na(+) and K(+) concentrations, extracellular fluid volume, and BP. In addition to these essential hormones, additional neuronal, physical, and chemical factors influence Na(+), K(+), and water homeostasis. Notably, a variety of secreted paracrine and autocrine agents such as bradykinin, ATP, endothelin, nitric oxide, and prostaglandin E2 counterbalance and limit the natriferic effects of aldosterone and the water-retaining effects of AVP. Considerable recent progress has improved our understanding of the transporters, receptors, second messengers, and signaling events that mediate principal cell responses to changing environments in health and disease. This review primarily addresses the structure and function of the key transporters and the complex interplay of regulatory factors that modulate principal cell ion and water transport. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  20. Development of novel active transport membrande devices

    SciTech Connect

    Laciak, D.V.

    1994-11-01

    Air Products has undertaken a research program to fabricate and evaluate gas separation membranes based upon promising ``active-transport`` (AT) materials recently developed in our laboratories. Active Transport materials are ionic polymers and molten salts which undergo reversible interaction or reaction with ammonia and carbon dioxide. The materials are useful for separating these gases from mixtures with hydrogen. Moreover, AT membranes have the unique property of possessing high permeability towards ammnonia and carbon dioxide but low permeability towards hydrogen and can thus be used to permeate these components from a gas stream while retaining hydrogen at high pressure.

  1. Health Impacts of Active Transportation in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-Rueda, David; de Nazelle, Audrey; Andersen, Zorana J.; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; Bruha, Jan; Bruhova-Foltynova, Hana; Desqueyroux, Hélène; Praznoczy, Corinne; Ragettli, Martina S.; Tainio, Marko; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Policies that stimulate active transportation (walking and bicycling) have been related to heath benefits. This study aims to assess the potential health risks and benefits of promoting active transportation for commuting populations (age groups 16–64) in six European cities. We conducted a health impact assessment using two scenarios: increased cycling and increased walking. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality related to changes in physical activity level, exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution with a diameter <2.5 μm, as well as traffic fatalities in the cities of Barcelona, Basel, Copenhagen, Paris, Prague, and Warsaw. All scenarios produced health benefits in the six cities. An increase in bicycle trips to 35% of all trips (as in Copenhagen) produced the highest benefits among the different scenarios analysed in Warsaw 113 (76–163) annual deaths avoided, Prague 61 (29–104), Barcelona 37 (24–56), Paris 37 (18–64) and Basel 5 (3–9). An increase in walking trips to 50% of all trips (as in Paris) resulted in 19 (3–42) deaths avoided annually in Warsaw, 11(3–21) in Prague, 6 (4–9) in Basel, 3 (2–6) in Copenhagen and 3 (2–4) in Barcelona. The scenarios would also reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the six cities by 1,139 to 26,423 (metric tonnes per year). Policies to promote active transportation may produce health benefits, but these depend of the existing characteristics of the cities. Increased collaboration between health practitioners, transport specialists and urban planners will help to introduce the health perspective in transport policies and promote active transportation. PMID:26930213

  2. Characteristics and regulation of proline transport in cultured glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Zafra, F; Aragón, C; Giménez, C

    1994-01-01

    L-Proline transport in C6 glioblastoma cells takes place mainly via a saturable Na(+)-dependent mechanism. The uptake process can be discriminated into two components, system A and system ASC. A minor proportion of L-proline transport is carried out by the ASC system, which appears to be constitutively expressed by the cell, but most is by system A which shows adaptive responses to amino acid deprivation and sensitivity to N-methyl-alpha-aminoisobutyric acid. The transport system is inhibited by proline derivatives, such as methyl and benzyl esters, and also hydroxyproline, and is stereospecific. Incubation of glioblastoma cells with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate led to concentration- and time-dependent decreases in L-proline transport. This effect could be mimicked by exogenous phospholipase C. Proline transport is significantly stimulated in the presence of Ca(2+)-mobilization agents and strongly inhibited in the absence of Ca2+. The present data suggest a complex regulation of L-proline transport by different kinases in glioblastoma cells. PMID:7945191

  3. Transcriptional Regulation and Transport of Terpenoid Indole Alkaloid in Catharanthus roseus: Exploration of New Research Directions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiaqi; Cai, Junjun; Wang, Rui; Yang, Shihai

    2016-01-01

    As one of the model medicinal plants for exploration of biochemical pathways and molecular biological questions on complex metabolic pathways, Catharanthus roseus synthesizes more than 100 terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs) used for clinical treatment of various diseases and for new drug discovery. Given that extensive studies have revealed the major metabolic pathways and the spatial-temporal biosynthesis of TIA in C. roseus plant, little is known about subcellular and inter-cellular trafficking or long-distance transport of TIA end products or intermediates, as well as their regulation. While these transport processes are indispensable for multi-organelle, -tissue and -cell biosynthesis, storage and their functions, great efforts have been made to explore these dynamic cellular processes. Progress has been made in past decades on transcriptional regulation of TIA biosynthesis by transcription factors as either activators or repressors; recent studies also revealed several transporters involved in subcellular and inter-cellular TIA trafficking. However, many details and the regulatory network for controlling the tissue-or cell-specific biosynthesis, transport and storage of serpentine and ajmalicine in root, catharanthine in leaf and root, vindoline specifically in leaf and vinblastine and vincristine only in green leaf and their biosynthetic intermediates remain to be determined. This review is to summarize the progress made in biosynthesis, transcriptional regulation and transport of TIAs. Based on analysis of organelle, tissue and cell-type specific biosynthesis and progresses in transport and trafficking of similar natural products, the transporters that might be involved in transport of TIAs and their synthetic intermediates are discussed; according to transcriptome analysis and bioinformatic approaches, the transcription factors that might be involved in TIA biosynthesis are analyzed. Further discussion is made on a broad context of transcriptional and

  4. Regulation of transport across cell membranes by the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase SGK1.

    PubMed

    Lang, Florian; Stournaras, Christos; Alesutan, Ioana

    2014-02-01

    The serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1) is genomically upregulated by cell stress including energy depletion and hyperosmotic shock as well as a variety of hormones including glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids and TGFβ. SGK1 is activated by insulin, growth factors and oxidative stress via phosphatidylinositide-3-kinase, 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase PDK1 and mTOR. SGK1 is a powerful stimulator of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, carriers (e.g., NCC, NKCC, NHE1, NHE3, SGLT1, several amino acid transporters) and ion channels (e.g., ENaC, SCN5A, TRPV4-6, ORAI1/STIM1, ROMK, KCNE1/KCNQ1, GluR6, CFTR). Mechanisms employed by SGK1 in transport regulation include direct phosphorylation of target transport proteins, phosphorylation and thus activation of other transport regulating kinases, stabilization of membrane proteins by phosphorylation and thus inactivation of the ubiquitin ligase NEDD4-2, as well as stimulation of transport protein expression by upregulation transcription factors (e.g., nuclear factor kappa-B [NFκB]) and by fostering of protein translation. SGK1 sensitivity of pump, carrier and channel activities participate in the regulation of epithelial transport, cardiac and neuronal excitability, degranulation, platelet function, migration, cell proliferation and apoptosis. SGK1-sensitive functions do not require the presence of SGK1 but are markedly upregulated by SGK1. Accordingly, the phenotype of SGK1 knockout mice is mild. The mice are, however, less sensitive to excessive activation of transport by glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, insulin and inflammation. Moreover, excessive SGK1 activity contributes to the pathophysiology of hypertension, obesity, diabetes, thrombosis, stroke, inflammation, autoimmune disease, fibrosis and tumor growth.

  5. Increased synthesis of folate transporters regulates folate transport in conditions of ethanol exposure and folate deficiency.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Shilpa; More, Deepti; Rahat, Beenish; Khanduja, Krishan Lal; Kaur, Jyotdeep

    2016-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption and dietary folate inadequacy are the main contributors leading to folate deficiency (FD). The present study was planned to study regulation of folate transport in conditions of FD and ethanol exposure in human embryonic kidney cell line. Also, the reversible nature of effects mediated by ethanol exposure and FD was determined by folate repletion and ethanol removal. For ethanol treatment, HEK293 cells were grown in medium containing 100 mM ethanol, and after treatment, one group of cells was shifted on medium that was free from ethanol. For FD treatment, cells were grown in folate-deficient medium followed by shifting of one group of cells on folate containing medium. FD as well as ethanol exposure resulted in an increase in folate uptake which was due to an increase in expression of folate transporters, i.e., reduced folate carrier, proton-coupled folate transporter, and folate receptor, both at the mRNA and protein level. The effects mediated by ethanol exposure and FD were reversible on removal of treatment. Promoter region methylation of folate transporters remained unaffected after FD and ethanol exposure. As far as transcription rate of folate transporters is concerned, an increase in rate of synthesis was observed in both ethanol exposure and FD conditions. Additionally, mRNA life of folate transporters was observed to be reduced by FD. An increased expression of folate transporters under ethanol exposure and FD conditions can be attributed to enhanced rate of synthesis of folate transporters.

  6. Collecting Duct Principal Cell Transport Processes and Their Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Soundararajan, Rama; Trimpert, Christiane; Kashlan, Ossama B.; Deen, Peter M.T.; Kohan, Donald E.

    2015-01-01

    The principal cell of the kidney collecting duct is one of the most highly regulated epithelial cell types in vertebrates. The effects of hormonal, autocrine, and paracrine factors to regulate principal cell transport processes are central to the maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance in the face of wide variations in food and water intake. In marked contrast with the epithelial cells lining the proximal tubule, the collecting duct is electrically tight, and ion and osmotic gradients can be very high. The central role of principal cells in salt and water transport is reflected by their defining transporters—the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC), the renal outer medullary K+ channel, and the aquaporin 2 (AQP2) water channel. The coordinated regulation of ENaC by aldosterone, and AQP2 by arginine vasopressin (AVP) in principal cells is essential for the control of plasma Na+ and K+ concentrations, extracellular fluid volume, and BP. In addition to these essential hormones, additional neuronal, physical, and chemical factors influence Na+, K+, and water homeostasis. Notably, a variety of secreted paracrine and autocrine agents such as bradykinin, ATP, endothelin, nitric oxide, and prostaglandin E2 counterbalance and limit the natriferic effects of aldosterone and the water-retaining effects of AVP. Considerable recent progress has improved our understanding of the transporters, receptors, second messengers, and signaling events that mediate principal cell responses to changing environments in health and disease. This review primarily addresses the structure and function of the key transporters and the complex interplay of regulatory factors that modulate principal cell ion and water transport. PMID:24875192

  7. Regulation of renal amino acid transporters during metabolic acidosis.

    PubMed

    Moret, Caroline; Dave, Mital H; Schulz, Nicole; Jiang, Jean X; Verrey, Francois; Wagner, Carsten A

    2007-02-01

    The kidney plays a major role in acid-base homeostasis by adapting the excretion of acid equivalents to dietary intake and metabolism. Urinary acid excretion is mediated by the secretion of protons and titratable acids, particularly ammonia. NH(3) is synthesized in proximal tubule cells from glutamine taken up via specific amino acid transporters. We tested whether kidney amino acid transporters are regulated in mice in which metabolic acidosis was induced with NH(4)Cl. Blood gas and urine analysis confirmed metabolic acidosis. Real-time RT-PCR was performed to quantify the mRNAs of 16 amino acid transporters. The mRNA of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) was quantified as positive control for the regulation and that of GAPDH, as internal standard. In acidosis, the mRNA of kidney system N amino acid transporter SNAT3 (SLC38A3/SN1) showed a strong induction similar to that of PEPCK, whereas all other tested mRNAs encoding glutamine or glutamate transporters were unchanged or reduced in abundance. At the protein level, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry demonstrated an increased abundance of SNAT3 and reduced expression of the basolateral cationic amino acid/neutral amino acid exchanger subunit y(+)-LAT1 (SLC7A7). SNAT3 was localized to the basolateral membrane of the late proximal tubule S3 segment in control animals, whereas its expression was extended to the earlier S2 segment of the proximal tubule during acidosis. Our results suggest that the selective regulation of SNAT3 and y(+)LAT1 expression may serve a major role in the renal adaptation to acid secretion and thus for systemic acid-base balance.

  8. Cholinergic regulation of epithelial ion transport in the mammalian intestine

    PubMed Central

    Hirota, C L; McKay, D M

    2006-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is critical in controlling epithelial ion transport and hence water movements for gut hydration. Here we review the mechanism of cholinergic control of epithelial ion transport across the mammalian intestine. The cholinergic nervous system affects basal ion flux and can evoke increased active ion transport events. Most studies rely on measuring increases in short-circuit current (ISC = active ion transport) evoked by adding ACh or cholinomimetics to intestinal tissue mounted in Ussing chambers. Despite subtle species and gut regional differences, most data indicate that, under normal circumstances, the effect of ACh on intestinal ion transport is mainly an increase in Cl- secretion due to interaction with epithelial M3 muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs) and, to a lesser extent, neuronal M1 mAChRs; however, AChR pharmacology has been plagued by a lack of good receptor subtype-selective compounds. Mice lacking M3 mAChRs display intact cholinergically-mediated intestinal ion transport, suggesting a possible compensatory mechanism. Inflamed tissues often display perturbations in the enteric cholinergic system and reduced intestinal ion transport responses to cholinomimetics. The mechanism(s) underlying this hyporesponsiveness are not fully defined. Inflammation-evoked loss of mAChR-mediated control of epithelial ion transport in the mouse reveals a role for neuronal nicotinic AChRs, representing a hitherto unappreciated braking system to limit ACh-evoked Cl- secretion. We suggest that: i) pharmacological analyses should be supported by the use of more selective compounds and supplemented with molecular biology techniques targeting specific ACh receptors and signalling molecules, and ii) assessment of ion transport in normal tissue must be complemented with investigations of tissues from patients or animals with intestinal disease to reveal control mechanisms that may go undetected by focusing on healthy tissue only. PMID:16981004

  9. Fluid transport by active elastic membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Arthur A.; Lauga, Eric

    2011-09-01

    A flexible membrane deforming its shape in time can self-propel in a viscous fluid. Alternatively, if the membrane is anchored, its deformation will lead to fluid transport. Past work in this area focused on situations where the deformation kinematics of the membrane were prescribed. Here we consider models where the deformation of the membrane is not prescribed, but instead the membrane is internally forced. Both the time-varying membrane shape and the resulting fluid motion result then from a balance between prescribed internal active stresses, internal passive resistance, and external viscous stresses. We introduce two specific models for such active internal forcing: one where a distribution of active bending moments is prescribed, and one where active inclusions exert normal stresses on the membrane by pumping fluid through it. In each case, we asymptotically calculate the membrane shape and the fluid transport velocities for small forcing amplitudes, and recover our results using scaling analysis.

  10. A new look at water transport regulation in plants.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Poyatos, Rafael; Aguadé, David; Retana, Javier; Mencuccini, Maurizio

    2014-10-01

    Plant function requires effective mechanisms to regulate water transport at a variety of scales. Here, we develop a new theoretical framework describing plant responses to drying soil, based on the relationship between midday and predawn leaf water potentials. The intercept of the relationship (Λ) characterizes the maximum transpiration rate per unit of hydraulic transport capacity, whereas the slope (σ) measures the relative sensitivity of the transpiration rate and plant hydraulic conductance to declining water availability. This framework was applied to a newly compiled global database of leaf water potentials to estimate the values of Λ and σ for 102 plant species. Our results show that our characterization of drought responses is largely consistent within species, and that the parameters Λ and σ show meaningful associations with climate across species. Parameter σ was ≤1 in most species, indicating a tight coordination between the gas and liquid phases of water transport, in which canopy transpiration tended to decline faster than hydraulic conductance during drought, thus reducing the pressure drop through the plant. The quantitative framework presented here offers a new way of characterizing water transport regulation in plants that can be used to assess their vulnerability to drought under current and future climatic conditions. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Down-regulation of a manganese transporter in the face of metal toxicity.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Laran T; Carroll, Mark C; Hall, Matthew D; Harvey, Christopher J; Beese, Sara E; Culotta, Valeria C

    2009-06-01

    The yeast Smf1p Nramp manganese transporter is posttranslationally regulated by environmental manganese. Smf1p is stabilized at the cell surface with manganese starvation, but is largely degraded in the vacuole with physiological manganese through a mechanism involving the Rsp5p adaptor complex Bsd2p/Tre1p/Tre2p. We now describe an additional level of Smf1p regulation that occurs with toxicity from manganese, but not other essential metals. This regulation is largely Smf1p-specific. As with physiological manganese, toxic manganese triggers vacuolar degradation of Smf1p by trafficking through the multivesicular body. However, regulation by toxic manganese does not involve Bsd2p/Tre1p/Tre2p. Toxic manganese triggers both endocytosis of cell surface Smf1p and vacuolar targeting of intracellular Smf1p through the exocytic pathway. Notably, the kinetics of vacuolar targeting for Smf1p are relatively slow with toxic manganese and require prolonged exposures to the metal. Down-regulation of Smf1p by toxic manganese does not require transport activity of Smf1p, whereas such transport activity is needed for Smf1p regulation by manganese starvation. Furthermore, the responses to manganese starvation and manganese toxicity involve separate cellular compartments. We provide evidence that manganese starvation is sensed within the lumen of the secretory pathway, whereas manganese toxicity is sensed within an extra-Golgi/cytosolic compartment of the cell.

  12. Neuroinflammation activates efflux transport by NFκB

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chuanhui; Argyropoulos, George; Zhang, Yan; Kastin, Abba J.; Hsuchou, Hung; Pan, Weihong

    2009-01-01

    Background/aims Although it is known that drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) may be hampered by efflux transport activity of the multidrug resistance (mdr) gene product P-glycoprotein, it is not clear how inflammation regulates efflux transporters. In rat brain endothelial (RBE4) cells of BBB origin, the proinflammatory cytokine TNF mainly induces transcriptional upregulation of mdr1b, and to a lesser extent mdr1a, resulting in greater efflux of the substrates (Yu C et al., Cell Physiol Biochem, 2007). This study further determined the mechanisms by which TNF activates mdr1b promoter activity. Methods/Results Luciferase reporter assays and DNA binding studies show that (a) maximal basal promoter activity was conferred by a 476 bp sequence upstream to the mdr1b transcriptional initiation site; (2) TNF induced upregulation of promoter activity by NFkB nuclear translocation; and (3) the NFκB binding site of the mdr1b promoter was solely responsible for basal and TNF-activated gene transcription, whereas the p53 binding site was not involved. Binding of the p65 subunit of NFκB to nuclear DNA from RBE4 cells was shown by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Conclusion Thus, NFκB mediated TNF-induced upregulation of mdr1b promoter activity, illustrating how inflammation activates BBB efflux transport. PMID:19088456

  13. Transport and biological activities of bile acids.

    PubMed

    Zwicker, Brittnee L; Agellon, Luis B

    2013-07-01

    Bile acids have emerged as important biological molecules that support the solubilization of various lipids and lipid-soluble compounds in the gut, and the regulation of gene expression and cellular function. Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and eventually released into the small intestine. The majority of bile acids are recovered in the distal end of the small intestine and then returned to the liver for reuse. The components of the mechanism responsible for the recycling of bile acids within the enterohepatic circulation have been identified whereas the mechanism for intracellular transport is less understood. Recently, the ileal lipid binding protein (ILBP; human gene symbol FABP6) was shown to be needed for the efficient transport of bile acids from the apical side to the basolateral side of enterocytes in the distal intestine. This review presents an overview of the transport of bile acids between the liver and the gut as well as within hepatocytes and enterocytes. A variety of pathologies is associated with the malfunction of the bile acid transport system.

  14. Integrated regulation of motor-driven organelle transport by scaffolding proteins.

    PubMed

    Fu, Meng-meng; Holzbaur, Erika L F

    2014-10-01

    Intracellular trafficking pathways, including endocytosis, autophagy, and secretion, rely on directed organelle transport driven by the opposing microtubule motor proteins kinesin and dynein. Precise spatial and temporal targeting of vesicles and organelles requires the integrated regulation of these opposing motors, which are often bound simultaneously to the same cargo. Recent progress demonstrates that organelle-associated scaffolding proteins, including Milton/TRAKs (trafficking kinesin-binding protein), JIP1, JIP3 (JNK-interacting proteins), huntingtin, and Hook1, interact with molecular motors to coordinate activity and sustain unidirectional transport. Scaffolding proteins also bind to upstream regulatory proteins, including kinases and GTPases, to modulate transport in the cell. This integration of regulatory control with motor activity allows for cargo-specific changes in the transport or targeting of organelles in response to cues from the complex cellular environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Modeling regulation of zinc uptake via ZIP transporters in yeast and plant roots.

    PubMed

    Claus, Juliane; Chavarría-Krauser, Andrés

    2012-01-01

    In yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and plant roots (Arabidopsis thaliana) zinc enters the cells via influx transporters of the ZIP family. Since zinc is both essential for cell function and toxic at high concentrations, tight regulation is essential for cell viability. We provide new insight into the underlying mechanisms, starting from a general model based on ordinary differential equations and adapting it to the specific cases of yeast and plant root cells. In yeast, zinc is transported by the transporters ZRT1 and ZRT2, which are both regulated by the zinc-responsive transcription factor ZAP1. Using biological data, parameters were estimated and analyzed, confirming the different affinities of ZRT1 and ZRT2 reported in the literature. Furthermore, our model suggests that the positive feedback in ZAP1 production has a stabilizing function at high influx rates. In plant roots, various ZIP transporters play a role in zinc uptake. Their regulation is largely unknown, but bZIP transcription factors are thought to be involved. We set up three putative models based on: an activator only, an activator with dimerization and an activator-inhibitor pair. These were fitted to measurements and analyzed. Simulations show that the activator-inhibitor model outperforms the other two in providing robust and stable homeostasis at reasonable parameter ranges.

  16. Modeling Regulation of Zinc Uptake via ZIP Transporters in Yeast and Plant Roots

    PubMed Central

    Claus, Juliane; Chavarría-Krauser, Andrés

    2012-01-01

    In yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and plant roots (Arabidopsis thaliana) zinc enters the cells via influx transporters of the ZIP family. Since zinc is both essential for cell function and toxic at high concentrations, tight regulation is essential for cell viability. We provide new insight into the underlying mechanisms, starting from a general model based on ordinary differential equations and adapting it to the specific cases of yeast and plant root cells. In yeast, zinc is transported by the transporters ZRT1 and ZRT2, which are both regulated by the zinc-responsive transcription factor ZAP1. Using biological data, parameters were estimated and analyzed, confirming the different affinities of ZRT1 and ZRT2 reported in the literature. Furthermore, our model suggests that the positive feedback in ZAP1 production has a stabilizing function at high influx rates. In plant roots, various ZIP transporters play a role in zinc uptake. Their regulation is largely unknown, but bZIP transcription factors are thought to be involved. We set up three putative models based on: an activator only, an activator with dimerization and an activator-inhibitor pair. These were fitted to measurements and analyzed. Simulations show that the activator-inhibitor model outperforms the other two in providing robust and stable homeostasis at reasonable parameter ranges. PMID:22715365

  17. Regulation of Urea Transporters by Tonicity-responsive Enhancer Binding Protein.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ju-Young; Kwon, H Moo; Kim, Jim

    2007-06-01

    Urea accumulation in the renal inner medulla plays a key role in the maintenance of maximal urinary concentrating ability. Urea transport in the kidney is mediated by transporter proteins that include renal urea transporter (UT-A) and erythrocyte urea transporter (UT-B). UT-A1 and UT-A2 are produced from the same gene. There is an active tonicity-responsive enhancer (TonE) in the promoter of UT-A1, and the UT-A1 promoter is stimulated by hypertonicity via tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP). The downregulation of UT-A2 raises the possibility that TonEBP also regulates its promoter. There is some evidence that TonEBP regulates expression of UT-A in vivo; (1) during the renal development of the urinary concentrating ability, expression of TonEBP precedes that of UT-A1; (2) in transgenic mice expressing a dominant negative form of TonEBP, expression of UT-A1 and UT-A2 is severely impaired; (3) in treatment with cyclosporine A, TonEBP was significantly downregulated after 28 days. This downregulation involves mRNA levels of UT-A2; (4) in hypokalemic animals, downregulation of TonEBP contributed to the down regulation of UT-A in the inner medulla. These data support that TonEBP directly contributes to the urinary concentration and renal urea recycling by the regulation of urea transporters.

  18. Regulation of Urea Transporters by Tonicity-responsive Enhancer Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, H. Moo; Kim, Jim

    2007-01-01

    Urea accumulation in the renal inner medulla plays a key role in the maintenance of maximal urinary concentrating ability. Urea transport in the kidney is mediated by transporter proteins that include renal urea transporter (UT-A) and erythrocyte urea transporter (UT-B). UT-A1 and UT-A2 are produced from the same gene. There is an active tonicity-responsive enhancer (TonE) in the promoter of UT-A1, and the UT-A1 promoter is stimulated by hypertonicity via tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP). The downregulation of UT-A2 raises the possibility that TonEBP also regulates its promoter. There is some evidence that TonEBP regulates expression of UT-A in vivo; (1) during the renal development of the urinary concentrating ability, expression of TonEBP precedes that of UT-A1; (2) in transgenic mice expressing a dominant negative form of TonEBP, expression of UT-A1 and UT-A2 is severely impaired; (3) in treatment with cyclosporine A, TonEBP was significantly downregulated after 28 days. This downregulation involves mRNA levels of UT-A2; (4) in hypokalemic animals, downregulation of TonEBP contributed to the down regulation of UT-A in the inner medulla. These data support that TonEBP directly contributes to the urinary concentration and renal urea recycling by the regulation of urea transporters. PMID:24459497

  19. Glucocorticoid regulation of amino acid transport in anucleate rat hepatoma (HTC) cells

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    The transport of alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) by rat hepatoma tissue culture (HTC) cells is rapidly and reversibly inhibited by dexamethasone and other glucocorticoids. To investigate the role of the nucleus in the regulation of transport and to determine whether steroid hormones or steroid-receptor complexes may have direct effects on cytoplasmic or membrane functions, we have examined the regulation of transport by dexamethasone in anucleate HTC cells. Cytoplasts prepared from suspension cultures of HTC cells fully retain active transport of AIB with the same kinetic properties as intact cells. However, the uptake of AIB is not inhibited by dexamethasone or other corticosteroids. Neither is the inhibited rate of transport, manifested by cytoplasts prepared from dexamethasone-treated cells, restored to normal upon removal of the hormone. Anucleate cells exhibit specific, saturable binding of [3H]dexamethasone; however, the binding is reduced compared with that of intact cells. The nucleus is thus required for the glucocorticoid regulation of amino acid transport in HTC cells. PMID:7217203

  20. Is contraction-stimulated glucose transport feedforward regulated by Ca2+?

    PubMed

    Jensen, Thomas E; Angin, Yeliz; Sylow, Lykke; Richter, Erik A

    2014-12-01

    In many cell types, Ca(2+) signals to increase the movement and surface membrane insertion of vesicles. In skeletal muscle, Ca(2+) is predominantly released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) to initiate contraction. Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release is widely believed to be a direct feedforward regulator of the translocation of glucose transporter 4 to the cell surface to facilitate transmembrane glucose transport. This review summarizes the evidence supporting the Ca(2+) feedforward model and its proposed signalling links to regulation of glucose transport in skeletal muscle and other cell types. The literature is contrasted against our recent findings suggesting that SR Ca(2+) release is neither essential nor adequate to stimulate glucose transport in muscle. Instead, feedback signals through AMPK and mechanical stress are likely to account for most of contraction-stimulated glucose transport. A revised working model is proposed, in which muscle glucose transport during contraction is not directly regulated by SR Ca(2+) release but rather responds exclusively to feedback signals activated secondary to cross-bridge cycling and tension development. © 2014 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  1. Apple Sucrose Transporter SUT1 and Sorbitol Transporter SOT6 Interact with Cytochrome b5 to Regulate Their Affinity for Substrate Sugars1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Ren-Chun; Peng, Chang-Cao; Xu, Yan-Hong; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Li, Yan; Shang, Yi; Du, Shu-Yuan; Zhao, Rui; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Ling-Yun; Zhang, Da-Peng

    2009-01-01

    Sugar transporters are central machineries to mediate cross-membrane transport of sugars into the cells, and sugar availability may serve as a signal to regulate the sugar transporters. However, the mechanisms of sugar transport regulation by signal sugar availability remain unclear in plant and animal cells. Here, we report that a sucrose transporter, MdSUT1, and a sorbitol transporter, MdSOT6, both localized to plasma membrane, were identified from apple (Malus domestica) fruit. Using a combination of the split-ubiquitin yeast two-hybrid, immunocoprecipitation, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays, the two distinct sugar transporters were shown to interact physically with an apple endoplasmic reticulum-anchored cytochrome b5 MdCYB5 in vitro and in vivo. In the yeast systems, the two different interaction complexes function to up-regulate the affinity of the sugar transporters, allowing cells to adapt to sugar starvation. An Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) homolog of MdCYB5, AtCYB5-A, also interacts with the two sugar transporters and functions similarly. The point mutations leucine-73 → proline in MdSUT1 and leucine-117 → proline in MdSOT6, disrupting the bimolecular interactions but without significantly affecting the transporter activities, abolish the stimulating effects of the sugar transporter-cytochrome b5 complex on the affinity of the sugar transporters. However, the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cytochrome b5 ScCYB5, an additional interacting partner of the two plant sugar transporters, has no function in the regulation of the sugar transporters, indicating that the observed biological functions in the yeast systems are specific to plant cytochrome b5s. These findings suggest a novel mechanism by which the plant cells tailor sugar uptake to the surrounding sugar availability. PMID:19502355

  2. Mechanisms of proximal tubule sodium transport regulation that link extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    One-hundred years ago, Starling articulated the interdependence of renal control of circulating blood volume and effective cardiac performance. During the past 25 years, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the interdependence of blood pressure (BP), extracellular fluid volume (ECFV), the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) have begun to be revealed. These variables all converge on regulation of renal proximal tubule (PT) sodium transport. The PT reabsorbs two-thirds of the filtered Na+ and volume at baseline. This fraction is decreased when BP or perfusion pressure is increased, during a high-salt diet (elevated ECFV), and during inhibition of the production of ANG II; conversely, this fraction is increased by ANG II, SNS activation, and a low-salt diet. These variables all regulate the distribution of the Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) and the Na+-phosphate cotransporter (NaPi2), along the apical microvilli of the PT. Natriuretic stimuli provoke the dynamic redistribution of these transporters along with associated regulators, molecular motors, and cytoskeleton-associated proteins to the base of the microvilli. The lipid raft-associated NHE3 remains at the base, and the nonraft-associated NaPi2 is endocytosed, culminating in decreased Na+ transport and increased PT flow rate. Antinatriuretic stimuli return the same transporters and regulators to the body of the microvilli associated with an increase in transport activity and decrease in PT flow rate. In summary, ECFV and BP homeostasis are, at least in part, maintained by continuous and acute redistribution of transporter complexes up and down the PT microvilli, which affect regulation of PT sodium reabsorption in response to fluctuations in ECFV, BP, SNS, and RAS. PMID:20106993

  3. Transport, metabolism, and endosomal trafficking-dependent regulation of intestinal fructose absorption.

    PubMed

    Patel, Chirag; Douard, Veronique; Yu, Shiyan; Gao, Nan; Ferraris, Ronaldo P

    2015-09-01

    Dietary fructose that is linked to metabolic abnormalities can up-regulate its own absorption, but the underlying regulatory mechanisms are not known. We hypothesized that glucose transporter (GLUT) protein, member 5 (GLUT5) is the primary fructose transporter and that fructose absorption via GLUT5, metabolism via ketohexokinase (KHK), as well as GLUT5 trafficking to the apical membrane via the Ras-related protein-in-brain 11 (Rab11)a-dependent endosomes are each required for regulation. Introducing fructose but not lysine and glucose solutions into the lumen increased by 2- to 10-fold the heterogeneous nuclear RNA, mRNA, protein, and activity levels of GLUT5 in adult wild-type mice consuming chow. Levels of GLUT5 were >100-fold that of candidate apical fructose transporters GLUTs 7, 8, and 12 whose expression, and that of GLUT 2 and the sodium-dependent glucose transporter protein 1 (SGLT1), was not regulated by luminal fructose. GLUT5-knockout (KO) mice exhibited no facilitative fructose transport and no compensatory increases in activity and expression of SGLT1 and other GLUTs. Fructose could not up-regulate GLUT5 in GLUT5-KO, KHK-KO, and intestinal epithelial cell-specific Rab11a-KO mice. The fructose-specific metabolite glyceraldehyde did not increase GLUT5 expression. GLUT5 is the primary transporter responsible for facilitative absorption of fructose, and its regulation specifically requires fructose uptake and metabolism and normal GLUT5 trafficking to the apical membrane. © FASEB.

  4. Regulation of Cisplatin cytotoxicity by cu influx transporters.

    PubMed

    Abada, Paolo; Howell, Stephen B

    2010-01-01

    Platinum drugs are an important class of cancer chemotherapeutics. However, the use of these drugs is limited by the development of resistance during treatment with decreased accumulation being a common mechanism. Both Cu transporters CTR1 and CTR2 influence the uptake and cytotoxicity of cisplatin. Although it is structurally similar to CTR1, CTR2 functions in a manner opposite to that of CTR1 with respect to Pt drug uptake. Whereas knockout of CTR1 reduces Pt drug uptake, knockdown of CTR2 enhances cisplatin uptake and cytotoxicity. CTR2 is subject to transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation by both Cu and cisplatin; this regulation is partly dependent on the Cu chaperone ATOX1. Insight into the mechanisms by which CTR1 and CTR2 regulate sensitivity to the Pt-containing drugs has served as the basis for novel pharmacologic strategies for improving their efficacy.

  5. Regulation of Cisplatin Cytotoxicity by Cu Influx Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Abada, Paolo; Howell, Stephen B.

    2010-01-01

    Platinum drugs are an important class of cancer chemotherapeutics. However, the use of these drugs is limited by the development of resistance during treatment with decreased accumulation being a common mechanism. Both Cu transporters CTR1 and CTR2 influence the uptake and cytotoxicity of cisplatin. Although it is structurally similar to CTR1, CTR2 functions in a manner opposite to that of CTR1 with respect to Pt drug uptake. Whereas knockout of CTR1 reduces Pt drug uptake, knockdown of CTR2 enhances cisplatin uptake and cytotoxicity. CTR2 is subject to transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation by both Cu and cisplatin; this regulation is partly dependent on the Cu chaperone ATOX1. Insight into the mechanisms by which CTR1 and CTR2 regulate sensitivity to the Pt-containing drugs has served as the basis for novel pharmacologic strategies for improving their efficacy. PMID:21274436

  6. Serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 in the regulation of renal and extrarenal potassium transport.

    PubMed

    Lang, Florian; Vallon, Volker

    2012-02-01

    Serum- and glucocorticoid inducible-kinase 1 (SGK1) is an early gene transcriptionally upregulated by cell stress such as cell shrinkage and hypoxia and several hormones including gluco- and mineralocorticoids. It is activated by insulin and growth factors. SGK1 is a powerful regulator of a wide variety of channels and transporters. The present review describes the role of SGK1 in the regulation of potassium (K(+)) channels, K(+) transporters and K(+) homeostasis. SGK1-regulated K(+) channels include renal outer medullary K+ channel, Kv1.3, Kv1.5, KCNE1/KCNQ1, KCNQ4 and, via regulation of calcium (Ca(2+)) entry, Ca(2+)-sensitive K(+) channels. SGK1-sensitive transporters include sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter 2 and sodium/potassium-adenosine triphosphatase. SGK1-dependent regulation of K(+) channels and K(+) transport contributes to the stimulation of renal K(+) excretion following high K(+) intake, to insulin-induced cellular K(+) uptake and hypokalemia, to inhibition of insulin release by glucocorticoids, to stimulation of mast cell degranulation and gastric acid secretion, and to cardiac repolarization. Thus, SGK1 has a profound effect on K(+) homeostasis and on a multitude of K(+)-sensitive cellular functions.

  7. Ion transport its regulation in the endolymphatic sac: suggestions for clinical aspects of Meniere's disease.

    PubMed

    Mori, Nozomu; Miyashita, Takenori; Inamoto, Ryuhei; Matsubara, Ai; Mori, Terushige; Akiyama, Kosuke; Hoshikawa, Hiroshi

    2017-04-01

    Ion transport and its regulation in the endolymphatic sac (ES) are reviewed on the basis of recent lines of evidence. The morphological and physiological findings demonstrate that epithelial cells in the intermediate portion of the ES are more functional in ion transport than those in the other portions. Several ion channels, ion transporters, ion exchangers, and so on have been reported to be present in epithelial cells of ES intermediate portion. An imaging study has shown that mitochondria-rich cells in the ES intermediate portion have a higher activity of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and a higher Na(+) permeability than other type of cells, implying that molecules related to Na(+) transport, such as epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter 2 (NKCC2) and thiazide-sensitive Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC), may be present in mitochondria-rich cells. Accumulated lines of evidence suggests that Na(+) transport is most important in the ES, and that mitochondria-rich cells play crucial roles in Na(+) transport in the ES. Several lines of evidence support the hypothesis that aldosterone may regulate Na(+) transport in ES, resulting in endolymph volume regulation. The presence of molecules related to acid/base transport, such as H(+)-ATPase, Na(+)-H(+) exchanger (NHE), pendrin (SLC26A4), Cl(-)-HCO3(-) exchanger (SLC4A2), and carbonic anhydrase in ES epithelial cells, suggests that acid/base transport is another important one in the ES. Recent basic and clinical studies suggest that aldosterone may be involved in the effect of salt-reduced diet treatment in Meniere's disease.

  8. Ergostatrien-3β-ol from Antrodia camphorata inhibits diabetes and hyperlipidemia in high-fat-diet treated mice via regulation of hepatic related genes, glucose transporter 4, and AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Lin, Cheng-Hsiu; Shih, Chun-Ching

    2015-03-11

    This study was designed to explore the effects and mechanism of ergostatrien-3β-ol (EK100) from the submerged whole broth of Antrodia camphorata on diabetes and dyslipidemia in high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice for 12 weeks. The C57BL/6J mouse fed with a high fat diet (HFD) could induce insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia. After 8 week of induction, mice were receiving EK100 (at three dosages) or fenofibrate (Feno) or rosiglitazone (Rosi) or vehicle by oral gavage 4 weeks afterward. HFD-fed mice display increased blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), insulin, and leptin levels. These blood markers were significantly lower in EK100-treated mice, and finally ameliorated insulin resistance. EK100 treatment exhibited reduced hepatic ballooning degeneration and size of visceral adipocytes. Glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) proteins and phosphorylation of Akt in skeletal muscle were significantly increased in EK100- and Rosi-treated mice. EK100, Feno, and Rosi treatment led to significant increases in phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (phospho-AMPK) protein in both skeletal muscle and liver. Moreover, EK100 caused a decrease in hepatic expressions of phosphenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6 Pase), and decreased glucose production. EK100 lowered blood TG level by inhibition of hepatic fatty acid synthesis by dampening sterol response element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) but increasing expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα). Moreover, EK100-treated mice reduced blood TC levels by decreased hepatic expressions of SREBP2, which plays a major role in the regulation of cholesterol synthesis. EK100 increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations by increasing expressions of apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) in liver tissue. Our findings manifest that EK100 may have therapeutic potential in treating type 2 diabetes associated with hyperlipidemia

  9. Rate and Regulation of Copper Transport by Human Copper Transporter 1 (hCTR1)*

    PubMed Central

    Maryon, Edward B.; Molloy, Shannon A.; Ivy, Kristin; Yu, Huijun; Kaplan, Jack H.

    2013-01-01

    Human copper transporter 1 (hCTR1) is a homotrimer of a 190-amino acid monomer having three transmembrane domains believed to form a pore for copper permeation through the plasma membrane. The hCTR1-mediated copper transport mechanism is not well understood, nor has any measurement been made of the rate at which copper ions are transported by hCTR1. In this study, we estimated the rate of copper transport by the hCTR1 trimer in cultured cells using 64Cu uptake assays and quantification of plasma membrane hCTR1. For endogenous hCTR1, we estimated a turnover number of about 10 ions/trimer/s. When overexpressed in HEK293 cells, a second transmembrane domain mutant of hCTR1 (H139R) had a 3-fold higher Km value and a 4-fold higher turnover number than WT. Truncations of the intracellular C-terminal tail and an AAA substitution of the putative metal-binding HCH C-terminal tripeptide (thought to be required for transport) also exhibited elevated transport rates and Km values when compared with WT hCTR1. Unlike WT hCTR1, H139R and the C-terminal mutants did not undergo regulatory endocytosis in elevated copper. hCTR1 mutants combining methionine substitutions that block transport (M150L,M154L) on the extracellular side of the pore and the high transport H139R or AAA intracellular side mutations exhibited the blocked transport of M150L,M154L, confirming that Cu+ first interacts with the methionines during permeation. Our results show that hCTR1 elements on the intracellular side of the hCTR1 pore, including the carboxyl tail, are not essential for permeation, but serve to regulate the rate of copper entry. PMID:23658018

  10. Molecular mechanism: the human dopamine transporter histidine 547 regulates basal and HIV-1 Tat protein-inhibited dopamine transport

    PubMed Central

    Quizon, Pamela M.; Sun, Wei-Lun; Yuan, Yaxia; Midde, Narasimha M.; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Zhu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal dopaminergic transmission has been implicated as a risk determinant of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders. HIV-1 Tat protein increases synaptic dopamine (DA) levels by directly inhibiting DA transporter (DAT) activity, ultimately leading to dopaminergic neuron damage. Through integrated computational modeling prediction and experimental validation, we identified that histidine547 on human DAT (hDAT) is critical for regulation of basal DA uptake and Tat-induced inhibition of DA transport. Compared to wild type hDAT (WT hDAT), mutation of histidine547 (H547A) displayed a 196% increase in DA uptake. Other substitutions of histidine547 showed that DA uptake was not altered in H547R but decreased by 99% in H547P and 60% in H547D, respectively. These mutants did not alter DAT surface expression or surface DAT binding sites. H547 mutants attenuated Tat-induced inhibition of DA transport observed in WT hDAT. H547A displays a differential sensitivity to PMA- or BIM-induced activation or inhibition of DAT function relative to WT hDAT, indicating a change in basal PKC activity in H547A. These findings demonstrate that histidine547 on hDAT plays a crucial role in stabilizing basal DA transport and Tat-DAT interaction. This study provides mechanistic insights into identifying targets on DAT for Tat binding and improving DAT-mediated dysfunction of DA transmission. PMID:27966610

  11. Molecular mechanism: the human dopamine transporter histidine 547 regulates basal and HIV-1 Tat protein-inhibited dopamine transport.

    PubMed

    Quizon, Pamela M; Sun, Wei-Lun; Yuan, Yaxia; Midde, Narasimha M; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Zhu, Jun

    2016-12-14

    Abnormal dopaminergic transmission has been implicated as a risk determinant of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders. HIV-1 Tat protein increases synaptic dopamine (DA) levels by directly inhibiting DA transporter (DAT) activity, ultimately leading to dopaminergic neuron damage. Through integrated computational modeling prediction and experimental validation, we identified that histidine547 on human DAT (hDAT) is critical for regulation of basal DA uptake and Tat-induced inhibition of DA transport. Compared to wild type hDAT (WT hDAT), mutation of histidine547 (H547A) displayed a 196% increase in DA uptake. Other substitutions of histidine547 showed that DA uptake was not altered in H547R but decreased by 99% in H547P and 60% in H547D, respectively. These mutants did not alter DAT surface expression or surface DAT binding sites. H547 mutants attenuated Tat-induced inhibition of DA transport observed in WT hDAT. H547A displays a differential sensitivity to PMA- or BIM-induced activation or inhibition of DAT function relative to WT hDAT, indicating a change in basal PKC activity in H547A. These findings demonstrate that histidine547 on hDAT plays a crucial role in stabilizing basal DA transport and Tat-DAT interaction. This study provides mechanistic insights into identifying targets on DAT for Tat binding and improving DAT-mediated dysfunction of DA transmission.

  12. Synaptic activation modifies microtubules underlying transport of postsynaptic cargo.

    PubMed

    Maas, Christoph; Belgardt, Dorthe; Lee, Han Kyu; Heisler, Frank F; Lappe-Siefke, Corinna; Magiera, Maria M; van Dijk, Juliette; Hausrat, Torben J; Janke, Carsten; Kneussel, Matthias

    2009-05-26

    Synaptic plasticity, the ability of synapses to change in strength, requires alterations in synaptic molecule compositions over time, and synapses undergo selective modifications on stimulation. Molecular motors operate in sorting/transport of neuronal proteins; however, the targeting mechanisms that guide and direct cargo delivery remain elusive. We addressed the impact of synaptic transmission on the regulation of intracellular microtubule (MT)-based transport. We show that increased neuronal activity, as induced through GlyR activity blockade, facilitates tubulin polyglutamylation, a posttranslational modification thought to represent a molecular traffic sign for transport. Also, GlyR activity blockade alters the binding of the MT-associated protein MAP2 to MTs. By using the kinesin (KIF5) and the postsynaptic protein gephyrin as models, we show that such changes of MT tracks are accompanied by reduced motor protein mobility and cargo delivery into neurites. Notably, the observed neurite targeting deficits are prevented on functional depletion or gene expression knockdown of neuronal polyglutamylase. Our data suggest a previously undescribed concept of synaptic transmission regulating MT-dependent cargo delivery.

  13. A novel iron-regulated metal transporter from plants identified by functional expression in yeast.

    PubMed

    Eide, D; Broderius, M; Fett, J; Guerinot, M L

    1996-05-28

    Iron is an essential nutrient for virtually all organisms. The IRT1 (iron-regulated transporter) gene of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, encoding a probable Fe(II) transporter, was cloned by functional expression in a yeast strain defective for iron uptake. Yeast expressing IRT1 possess a novel Fe(II) uptake activity that is strongly inhibited by Cd. IRT1 is predicted to be an integral membrane protein with a metal-binding domain. Data base comparisons and Southern blot analysis indicated that IRT1 is a member of a gene family in Arabidopsis. Related sequences were also found in the genomes of rice, yeast, nematodes, and humans. In Arabidopsis, IRT1 is expressed in roots, is induced by iron deficiency, and has altered regulation in plant lines bearing mutations that affect the iron uptake system. These results provide the first molecular insight into iron transport by plants.

  14. Glucose Transporter 8 (GLUT8) Regulates Enterocyte Fructose Transport and Global Mammalian Fructose Utilization

    PubMed Central

    DeBosch, Brian J.; Chi, Maggie

    2012-01-01

    Enterocyte fructose absorption is a tightly regulated process that precedes the deleterious effects of excess dietary fructose in mammals. Glucose transporter (GLUT)8 is a glucose/fructose transporter previously shown to be expressed in murine intestine. The in vivo function of GLUT8, however, remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate enhanced fructose-induced fructose transport in both in vitro and in vivo models of enterocyte GLUT8 deficiency. Fructose exposure stimulated [14C]-fructose uptake and decreased GLUT8 protein abundance in Caco2 colonocytes, whereas direct short hairpin RNA-mediated GLUT8 knockdown also stimulated fructose uptake. To assess GLUT8 function in vivo, we generated GLUT8-deficient (GLUT8KO) mice. GLUT8KO mice exhibited significantly greater jejunal fructose uptake at baseline and after high-fructose diet (HFrD) feeding vs. wild-type mice. Strikingly, long-term HFrD feeding in GLUT8KO mice exacerbated fructose-induced increases in blood pressure, serum insulin, low-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol vs. wild-type controls. Enhanced fructose uptake paralleled with increased abundance of the fructose and glucose transporter, GLUT12, in HFrD-fed GLUT8KO mouse enterocytes and in Caco2 cultures exposed to high-fructose medium. We conclude that GLUT8 regulates enterocyte fructose transport by regulating GLUT12, and that disrupted GLUT8 function has deleterious long-term metabolic sequelae. GLUT8 may thus represent a modifiable target in the prevention and treatment of malnutrition or the metabolic syndrome. PMID:22822162

  15. Glucose transporter 8 (GLUT8) regulates enterocyte fructose transport and global mammalian fructose utilization.

    PubMed

    DeBosch, Brian J; Chi, Maggie; Moley, Kelle H

    2012-09-01

    Enterocyte fructose absorption is a tightly regulated process that precedes the deleterious effects of excess dietary fructose in mammals. Glucose transporter (GLUT)8 is a glucose/fructose transporter previously shown to be expressed in murine intestine. The in vivo function of GLUT8, however, remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate enhanced fructose-induced fructose transport in both in vitro and in vivo models of enterocyte GLUT8 deficiency. Fructose exposure stimulated [(14)C]-fructose uptake and decreased GLUT8 protein abundance in Caco2 colonocytes, whereas direct short hairpin RNA-mediated GLUT8 knockdown also stimulated fructose uptake. To assess GLUT8 function in vivo, we generated GLUT8-deficient (GLUT8KO) mice. GLUT8KO mice exhibited significantly greater jejunal fructose uptake at baseline and after high-fructose diet (HFrD) feeding vs. wild-type mice. Strikingly, long-term HFrD feeding in GLUT8KO mice exacerbated fructose-induced increases in blood pressure, serum insulin, low-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol vs. wild-type controls. Enhanced fructose uptake paralleled with increased abundance of the fructose and glucose transporter, GLUT12, in HFrD-fed GLUT8KO mouse enterocytes and in Caco2 cultures exposed to high-fructose medium. We conclude that GLUT8 regulates enterocyte fructose transport by regulating GLUT12, and that disrupted GLUT8 function has deleterious long-term metabolic sequelae. GLUT8 may thus represent a modifiable target in the prevention and treatment of malnutrition or the metabolic syndrome.

  16. The sentrin-conjugating enzyme mUbc9 interacts with GLUT4 and GLUT1 glucose transporters and regulates transporter levels in skeletal muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Giorgino, Francesco; de Robertis, Ottilia; Laviola, Luigi; Montrone, Carmela; Perrini, Sebastio; McCowen, Karen C.; Smith, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    Glucose transport in insulin-regulated tissues is mediated by the GLUT4 and GLUT1 transporters. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we have cloned the sentrin-conjugating enzyme mUbc9 as a protein that interacts with the GLUT4 COOH-terminal intracellular domain. The mUbc9 enzyme was found to bind directly to GLUT4 and GLUT1 through an 11-aa sequence common to the two transporters and to modify both transporters covalently by conjugation with the mUbc9 substrate, sentrin. Overexpression of mUbc9 in L6 skeletal muscle cells decreased GLUT1 transporter abundance 65%, resulting in decreased basal glucose transport. By contrast, mUbc9 overexpression increased GLUT4 abundance 8-fold, leading to enhanced transport stimulation by insulin. A dominant-negative mUbc9 mutant lacking catalytic activity had effects opposite to those of wild-type mUbc9. The regulation of GLUT4 and GLUT1 was specific, as evidenced by an absence of mUbc9 interaction with or regulation of the GLUT3 transporter isoform in L6 skeletal muscle cells. The mUbc9 sentrin-conjugating enzyme represents a novel regulator of GLUT1 and GLUT4 protein levels with potential importance as a determinant of basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in normal and pathophysiological states. PMID:10655495

  17. SLC6 transporters: structure, function, regulation, disease association and therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Pramod, Akula Bala; Foster, James; Carvelli, Lucia; Henry, L Keith

    2013-01-01

    The SLC6 family of secondary active transporters are integral membrane solute carrier proteins characterized by the Na(+)-dependent translocation of small amino acid or amino acid-like substrates. SLC6 transporters, which include the serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, GABA, taurine, creatine, as well as amino acid transporters, are associated with a number of human diseases and disorders making this family a critical target for therapeutic development. In addition, several members of this family are directly involved in the action of drugs of abuse such as cocaine, amphetamines, and ecstasy. Recent advances providing structural insight into this family have vastly accelerated our ability to study these proteins and their involvement in complex biological processes.

  18. SLC6 Transporters: Structure, Function, Regulation, Disease Association and Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Bala, Pramod Akula; Foster, James; Carvelli, Lucia; Henry, L. Keith

    2012-01-01

    The SLC6 family of secondary active transporters are integral membrane solute carrier proteins characterized by the Na+-dependent translocation of small amino acid or amino acid-like substrates. SLC6 transporters, which include the serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, GABA, taurine, creatine, as well as amino acid transporters, are associated with a number of human diseases and disorders making this family a critical target for therapeutic development. In addition, several members of this family are directly involved in the action of drugs of abuse such as cocaine, amphetamines, and ecstasy. Recent advances providing structural insight into this family have vastly accelerated our ability to study these proteins and their involvement in complex biological processes. PMID:23506866

  19. PINOID kinase regulates root gravitropism through modulation of PIN2-dependent basipetal auxin transport in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sukumar, Poornima; Edwards, Karin S; Rahman, Abidur; Delong, Alison; Muday, Gloria K

    2009-06-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation is a key regulatory mechanism governing polar auxin transport. We characterized the auxin transport and gravitropic phenotypes of the pinoid-9 (pid-9) mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and tested the hypothesis that phosphorylation mediated by PID kinase and dephosphorylation regulated by the ROOTS CURL IN NAPHTHYLPHTHALAMIC ACID1 (RCN1) protein might antagonistically regulate root auxin transport and gravity response. Basipetal indole-3-acetic acid transport and gravitropism are reduced in pid-9 seedlings, while acropetal transport and lateral root development are unchanged. Treatment of wild-type seedlings with the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine phenocopies the reduced auxin transport and gravity response of pid-9, while pid-9 is resistant to inhibition by staurosporine. Staurosporine and the phosphatase inhibitor, cantharidin, delay the asymmetric expression of DR5revGFP (green fluorescent protein) at the root tip after gravistimulation. Gravity response defects of rcn1 and pid-9 are partially rescued by treatment with staurosporine and cantharidin, respectively. The pid-9 rcn1 double mutant has a more rapid gravitropic response than rcn1. These data are consistent with a reciprocal regulation of gravitropism by RCN1 and PID. Furthermore, the effect of staurosporine is lost in pinformed2 (pin2). Our data suggest that reduced PID kinase function inhibits gravitropism and basipetal indole-3-acetic acid transport. However, in contrast to PID overexpression studies, we observed wild-type asymmetric membrane distribution of the PIN2 protein in both pid-9 and wild-type root tips, although PIN2 accumulates in endomembrane structures in pid-9 roots. Similarly, staurosporine-treated plants expressing a PIN2GFP fusion exhibit endomembrane accumulation of PIN2GFP, but no changes in membrane asymmetries were detected. Our data suggest that PID plays a limited role in root development; loss of PID activity alters auxin

  20. Regulation of Nitrate Transport in Citrus Rootstocks Depending on Nitrogen Availability

    PubMed Central

    Cerezo, Miguel; Camañes, Gemma; Flors, Víctor; Primo-Millo, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    Previously, we reported that in Citrus plants, nitrate influx through the plasmalemma of roots cells follows a biphasic pattern, suggesting the existence of at least two different uptake systems, a high and low affinity transport system (HATS and LATS, respectively). Here, we describe a novel inducible high affinity transport system (iHATS). This new nitrate transport system has a high capacity to uptake nitrate in two different Citrus rootstocks (Cleopatra mandarin and Troyer citrange). The iHATS was saturable, showing higher affinity than constitutive high affinity transport system (cHATS) to the substrate NO3−. The Vmax for this saturable component iHATS was higher than cHATS, reaching similar values in both rootstocks. Additionally, we studied the regulation of root NO3− uptake mediated by both HATS (iHATS and cHATS) and LATS. In both rootstocks, cHATS is constitutive and independent of N-status. Concerning the regulation of iHATS, this system is upregulated by NO3− and down-regulated by the N status and by NO3− itself when plants are exposed to it for a longer period of time. LATS in Cleopatra mandarin and Troyer citrange rootstocks is repressed by the N-status. The use of various metabolic uncouplers or inhibitors indicated that NO3− net uptake mediated by iHATS and LATS was an active transport system in both rootstocks. PMID:19516998

  1. Regulation of nitrate transport in citrus rootstocks depending on nitrogen availability.

    PubMed

    Cerezo, Miguel; Camañes, Gemma; Flors, Víctor; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; García-Agustín, Pilar

    2007-09-01

    Previously, we reported that in Citrus plants, nitrate influx through the plasmalemma of roots cells follows a biphasic pattern, suggesting the existence of at least two different uptake systems, a high and low affinity transport system (HATS and LATS, respectively). Here, we describe a novel inducible high affinity transport system (iHATS). This new nitrate transport system has a high capacity to uptake nitrate in two different Citrus rootstocks (Cleopatra mandarin and Troyer citrange). The iHATS was saturable, showing higher affinity than constitutive high affinity transport system (cHATS) to the substrate NO(3) (-). The V(max) for this saturable component iHATS was higher than cHATS, reaching similar values in both rootstocks.Additionally, we studied the regulation of root NO(3) (-) uptake mediated by both HATS (iHATS and cHATS) and LATS. In both rootstocks, cHATS is constitutive and independent of N-status. Concerning the regulation of iHATS, this system is upregulated by NO(3) (-) and down-regulated by the N status and by NO(3) (-) itself when plants are exposed to it for a longer period of time. LATS in Cleopatra mandarin and Troyer citrange rootstocks is repressed by the N-status.The use of various metabolic uncouplers or inhibitors indicated that NO(3) (-) net uptake mediated by iHATS and LATS was an active transport system in both rootstocks.

  2. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate regulation of ion transport in porcine vocal fold mucosae.

    PubMed

    Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi; Nofziger, Charity; Blazer-Yost, Bonnie

    2008-08-01

    Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is an important biological molecule that regulates ion transport and inflammatory responses in epithelial tissue. The present study examined whether the adenylyl cyclase activator, forskolin, would increase cAMP concentration in porcine vocal fold mucosa and whether the effects of increased cAMP would be manifested as a functional increase in transepithelial ion transport. Additionally, changes in cAMP concentrations following exposure to an inflammatory mediator, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) were investigated. In vitro experimental design with matched treatment and control groups. Porcine vocal fold mucosae (N = 30) and tracheal mucosae (N = 20) were exposed to forskolin, TNFalpha, or vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide) treatment. cAMP concentrations were determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Ion transport was measured using electrophysiological techniques. Thirty minute exposure to forskolin significantly increased cAMP concentration and ion transport in porcine vocal fold and tracheal mucosae. However, 30-minute and 2-hour exposure to TNFalpha did not significantly alter cAMP concentration. We demonstrate that forskolin-sensitive adenylyl cyclase is present in vocal fold mucosa, and further, that the product, cAMP increases vocal fold ion transport. The results presented here contribute to our understanding of the intracellular mechanisms underlying vocal fold ion transport. As ion transport is important for maintaining superficial vocal fold hydration, data demonstrating forskolin-stimulated ion transport in vocal fold mucosa suggest opportunities for developing pharmacological treatments that increase surface hydration.

  3. Regional differences in rat conjunctival ion transport activities

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Dongfang; Thelin, William R.; Rogers, Troy D.; Stutts, M. Jackson; Randell, Scott H.; Grubb, Barbara R.

    2012-01-01

    Active ion transport and coupled osmotic water flow are essential to maintain ocular surface health. We investigated regional differences in the ion transport activities of the rat conjunctivas and compared these activities with those of cornea and lacrimal gland. The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 (Slc5a1), transmembrane protein 16 (Tmem16a, b, f, and g), cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (Cftr), and mucin (Muc4, 5ac, and 5b) mRNA expression was characterized by RT-PCR. ENaC proteins were measured by Western blot. Prespecified regions (palpebral, fornical, and bulbar) of freshly isolated conjunctival tissues and cell cultures were studied electrophysiologically with Ussing chambers. The transepithelial electrical potential difference (PD) of the ocular surface was also measured in vivo. The effect of amiloride and UTP on the tear volume was evaluated in lacrimal gland excised rats. All selected genes were detected but with different expression patterns. We detected αENaC protein in all tissues, βENaC in palpebral and fornical conjunctiva, and γENaC in all tissues except lacrimal glands. Electrophysiological studies of conjunctival tissues and cell cultures identified functional ENaC, SLC5A1, CFTR, and TMEM16. Fornical conjunctiva exhibited the most active ion transport under basal conditions amongst conjunctival regions. PD measurements confirmed functional ENaC-mediated Na+ transport on the ocular surface. Amiloride and UTP increased tear volume in lacrimal gland excised rats. This study demonstrated that the different regions of the conjunctiva exhibited a spectrum of ion transport activities. Understanding the specific functions of distinct regions of the conjunctiva may foster a better understanding of the physiology maintaining hydration of the ocular surface. PMID:22814399

  4. Regional differences in rat conjunctival ion transport activities.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dongfang; Thelin, William R; Rogers, Troy D; Stutts, M Jackson; Randell, Scott H; Grubb, Barbara R; Boucher, Richard C

    2012-10-01

    Active ion transport and coupled osmotic water flow are essential to maintain ocular surface health. We investigated regional differences in the ion transport activities of the rat conjunctivas and compared these activities with those of cornea and lacrimal gland. The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 (Slc5a1), transmembrane protein 16 (Tmem16a, b, f, and g), cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (Cftr), and mucin (Muc4, 5ac, and 5b) mRNA expression was characterized by RT-PCR. ENaC proteins were measured by Western blot. Prespecified regions (palpebral, fornical, and bulbar) of freshly isolated conjunctival tissues and cell cultures were studied electrophysiologically with Ussing chambers. The transepithelial electrical potential difference (PD) of the ocular surface was also measured in vivo. The effect of amiloride and UTP on the tear volume was evaluated in lacrimal gland excised rats. All selected genes were detected but with different expression patterns. We detected αENaC protein in all tissues, βENaC in palpebral and fornical conjunctiva, and γENaC in all tissues except lacrimal glands. Electrophysiological studies of conjunctival tissues and cell cultures identified functional ENaC, SLC5A1, CFTR, and TMEM16. Fornical conjunctiva exhibited the most active ion transport under basal conditions amongst conjunctival regions. PD measurements confirmed functional ENaC-mediated Na(+) transport on the ocular surface. Amiloride and UTP increased tear volume in lacrimal gland excised rats. This study demonstrated that the different regions of the conjunctiva exhibited a spectrum of ion transport activities. Understanding the specific functions of distinct regions of the conjunctiva may foster a better understanding of the physiology maintaining hydration of the ocular surface.

  5. GSK-3 regulates transport of kinesin-1 driven cargos in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leidel, Christina; Weaver, Carole; Szpankowski, Lukasz; Goldstein, Lawrence S. B.; Shubeita, George T.; CenterNonlinear Dynamics, Department of Physics, University of Texas At Austin Collaboration; Hhmi, Department of Cellular; Molecular Medicine, Univ. Of California Collaboration

    2011-03-01

    The Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 (GSK-3) has been linked to many aspects of the development of Alzheimer's disease and was proposed to play a role in the transport of the Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) by kinesin-1 motors. Using Drosophila embryos and larvae with altered GSK-3 expression, we characterize motor transport of cargos including APP and lipid droplets using DIC microscopy, high-resolution video tracking, fluorescence, and in vivo stall force measurements with optical tweezers. By comparing cargo velocities and run lengths we find that GSK-3 is a required negative regulator of in vivo transport. Stall force measurements on lipid droplets reveal that enhanced transport under conditions of reduced GSK-3 is a result of a larger number of active motors hauling the cargo. Our findings have implications on the use of GSK-3 inhibitors in treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  6. Iodide transport and its regulation in the thyroid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Price, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the autoregulatory mechanism of iodide induced suppression of subsequently determined iodide transport activity in the thyroid gland. Two model systems were developed to identify the putative, transport-related, iodine-containing, inhibitory factor responsible for autoregulation. The first system was a maternal and fetal rabbit thyroid tissue slice preparation in which iodide pretreatment inhibited the maternal /sup 125/I-T/M ratio by 30% and had no significant effect on fetal iodide transport. In the second system, the role of protein synthesis in the autoregulatory phenomenon was studied. Cat thyroid slices pretreated with0.1 mM cycloheximide for 60 min prior to preexposure to excess iodide demonstrated a significant reduction in the degree of iodide included autoregulation. In both of these systems iodide induced suppression of cAMP accumulation remained intact. These findings suggest (1) fetal rabbit thyroid lacks the autoregulatory mechanism of iodide transport and (2) protein synthesis is involved in the mechanism of thyroid autoregulation of iodide transport.

  7. Monocarboxylate transporters: new players in body weight regulation.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, L; Pellerin, L

    2015-02-01

    Over the last two decades, several genes have been identified that appear to play a role in the regulation of energy homeostasis and body weight. For a small subset of them, a reduction or an absence of expression confers a resistance to the development of obesity. Recently, a knockin mouse for a member of the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) family, MCT1, was demonstrated to exhibit a typical phenotype of resistance to diet-induced obesity and a protection from its associated metabolic perturbations. Such findings point out at MCTs as putatively new therapeutic targets in the context of obesity. Here, we will review what is known about MCTs and their possible metabolic roles in different organs and tissues. Based on the description of the phenotype of the MCT1 knockin mouse, we will also provide some insights about their putative roles in weight gain regulation.

  8. Non-Equilibrium Hyperbolic Transport in Transcriptional Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Lemus, Enrique; Correa-Rodríguez, María D.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we studied memory and irreversible transport phenomena in a non-equilibrium thermodynamical model for genomic transcriptional regulation. Transcriptional regulation possess an extremely complex phenomenology, and it is, of course, of foremost importance in organismal cell development and in the pathogenesis of complex diseases. A better understanding of the way in which these processes occur is mandatory to optimize the construction of gene regulatory networks, but also to connect these networks with multi-scale phenomena (e.g. metabolism, signalling pathways, etc.) under an integrative Systems Biology-like vision. In this paper we analyzed three simple mechanisms of genetic stimulation: an instant pulse, a periodic biochemical signal and a saturation process with sigmoidal kinetics and from these we derived the system's thermodynamical response, in the form of, for example, anomalous transcriptional bursts. PMID:21754990

  9. Serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase sgk2 stimulates the transport activity of human organic anion transporters 1 by enhancing the stability of the transporter

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Da; Huang, Haozhe; Toh, May Fern; You, Guofeng

    2016-01-01

    Human organic anion transporter 1 (hOAT1) belongs to a family of organic anion transporters that play critical roles in the body disposition of clinically important drugs, including anti-viral therapeutics, anti-cancer drugs, antibiotics, antihypertensives, and anti-inflammatories. hOAT1 is abundantly expressed in the kidney and brain. In the current study, we examined the regulation of hOAT1 by serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 2 (sgk2) in the kidney COS-7 cells. We showed that sgk2 stimulated hOAT1 transport activity. Such stimulation mainly resulted from an increased cell surface expression of the transporter, kinetically revealed as an increased maximal transport velocity V max without significant change in substrate-binding affinity K m. We further showed that stimulation of hOAT1 activity by sgk2 was achieved by preventing hOAT1 degradation. Our co-immunoprecipitation experiment revealed that the effect of sgk2 on hOAT1 was through a direct interaction between these two proteins. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that sgk2 stimulates hOAT1 transport activity by enhancing the stability of the transporter. This study provides the insights into sgk2 regulation of hOAT1-mediated transport in normal physiology and disease. PMID:27335683

  10. Master and servant: Regulation of auxin transporters by FKBPs and cyclophilins.

    PubMed

    Geisler, Markus; Bailly, Aurélien; Ivanchenko, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Plant development and architecture are greatly influenced by the polar distribution of the essential hormone auxin. The directional influx and efflux of auxin from plant cells depends primarily on AUX1/LAX, PIN, and ABCB/PGP/MDR families of auxin transport proteins. The functional analysis of these proteins has progressed rapidly within the last decade thanks to the establishment of heterologous auxin transport systems. Heterologous co-expression allowed also for the testing of protein-protein interactions involved in the regulation of transporters and identified relationships with members of the FK506-Binding Protein (FKBP) and cyclophilin protein families, which are best known in non-plant systems as cellular receptors for the immunosuppressant drugs, FK506 and cyclosporin A, respectively. Current evidence that such interactions affect membrane trafficking, and potentially the activity of auxin transporters is reviewed. We also propose that FKBPs andcyclophilins might integrate the action of auxin transport inhibitors, such as NPA, on members of the ABCB and PIN family, respectively. Finally, we outline open questions that might be useful for further elucidation of the role of immunophilins as regulators (servants) of auxin transporters (masters).

  11. Platelets actively sequester angiogenesis regulators

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Tai-Tung; Cassiola, Flavia; Kikuchi, Lena; Cervi, David; Podust, Vladimir; Italiano, Joseph E.; Wheatley, Erin; Abou-Slaybi, Abdo; Bender, Elise; Almog, Nava; Kieran, Mark W.; Folkman, Judah

    2009-01-01

    Clinical trials with antiangiogenic agents have not been able to validate plasma or serum levels of angiogenesis regulators as reliable markers of cancer presence or therapeutic response. We recently reported that platelets contain numerous proteins that regulate angiogenesis. We now show that accumulation of angiogenesis regulators in platelets of animals bearing malignant tumors exceeds significantly their concentration in plasma or serum, as well as their levels in platelets from non–tumor-bearing animals. This process is selective, as platelets do not take up a proportional amount of other plasma proteins (eg, albumin), even though these may be present at higher concentrations. We also find that VEGF-enriched Matrigel pellets implanted subcutaneously into mice or the minute quantities of VEGF secreted by microscopic subcutaneous tumors (0.5-1 mm3) result in an elevation of VEGF levels in platelets, without any changes in its plasma levels. The profile of other angiogenesis regulatory proteins (eg, platelet-derived growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor) sequestered by platelets also reflects the presence of tumors in vivo before they can be macroscopically evident. The ability of platelets to selectively take up angiogenesis regulators in cancer-bearing hosts may have implications for the diagnosis and management of many angiogenesis-related diseases and provide a guide for antiangiogenic therapies. PMID:19036702

  12. Human dopamine transporter gene: differential regulation of 18-kb haplotypes

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ying; Xiong, Nian; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Yanhong; Li, Nuomin; Qing, Hong; Lin, Zhicheng

    2013-01-01

    Aim Since previous functional studies of short haplotypes and polymorphic sites of SLC6A3 have shown variant-dependent and drug-sensitive promoter activity, this study aimed to understand whether a large SLC6A3 regulatory region, containing these small haplotypes and polymorphic sites, can display haplotype-dependent promoter activity in a drug-sensitive and pathway-related manner. Materials & methods By creating and using a single copy number luciferase-reporter vector, we examined regulation of two different SLC6A3 haplotypes (A and B) of the 5′ 18-kb promoter and two known downstream regulatory variable number tandem repeats by 17 drugs in four different cellular models. Results The two regulatory haplotypes displayed up to 3.2-fold difference in promoter activity. The regulations were drug selective (37.5% of the drugs showed effects), and both haplotype and cell type dependent. Pathway analysis revealed at least 13 main signaling hubs targeting SLC6A3, including histone deacetylation, AKT, PKC and CK2 α-chains. Conclusion SLC6A3 may be regulated via either its promoter or the variable number tandem repeats independently by specific signaling pathways and in a haplotype-dependent manner. Furthermore, we have developed the first pathway map for SLC6A3 regulation. These findings provide a framework for understanding complex and variant-dependent regulations of SLC6A3. PMID:24024899

  13. Cell cycle regulation of dynein association with membranes modulates microtubule-based organelle transport.

    PubMed

    Niclas, J; Allan, V J; Vale, R D

    1996-05-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein is a minus end-directed microtubule motor that performs distinct functions in interphase and mitosis. In interphase, dynein transports organelles along microtubules, whereas in metaphase this motor has been implicated in mitotic spindle formation and orientation as well as chromosome segregation. The manner in which dynein activity is regulated during the cell cycle, however, has not been resolved. In this study, we have examined the mechanism by which organelle transport is controlled by the cell cycle in extracts of Xenopus laevis eggs. Here, we show that photocleavage of the dynein heavy chain dramatically inhibits minus end-directed organelle transport and that purified dynein restores this motility, indicating that dynein is the predominant minus end-directed membrane motor in Xenopus egg extracts. By measuring the amount of dynein associated with isolated membranes, we find that cytoplasmic dynein and its activator dynactin detach from the membrane surface in metaphase extracts. The sevenfold decrease in membrane-associated dynein correlated well with the eightfold reduction in minus end-directed membrane transport observed in metaphase versus interphase extracts. Although dynein heavy or intermediate chain phosphorylation did not change in a cell cycle-dependent manner, the dynein light intermediate chain incorporated approximately 12-fold more radiolabeled phosphate in metaphase than in interphase extracts. These studies suggest that cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation of cytoplasmic dynein may regulate organelle transport by modulating the association of this motor with membranes.

  14. Glucose Transporters at the Blood-Brain Barrier: Function, Regulation and Gateways for Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Patching, Simon G

    2017-03-01

    Glucose transporters (GLUTs) at the blood-brain barrier maintain the continuous high glucose and energy demands of the brain. They also act as therapeutic targets and provide routes of entry for drug delivery to the brain and central nervous system for treatment of neurological and neurovascular conditions and brain tumours. This article first describes the distribution, function and regulation of glucose transporters at the blood-brain barrier, the major ones being the sodium-independent facilitative transporters GLUT1 and GLUT3. Other GLUTs and sodium-dependent transporters (SGLTs) have also been identified at lower levels and under various physiological conditions. It then considers the effects on glucose transporter expression and distribution of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia associated with diabetes and oxygen/glucose deprivation associated with cerebral ischemia. A reduction in glucose transporters at the blood-brain barrier that occurs before the onset of the main pathophysiological changes and symptoms of Alzheimer's disease is a potential causative effect in the vascular hypothesis of the disease. Mutations in glucose transporters, notably those identified in GLUT1 deficiency syndrome, and some recreational drug compounds also alter the expression and/or activity of glucose transporters at the blood-brain barrier. Approaches for drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier include the pro-drug strategy whereby drug molecules are conjugated to glucose transporter substrates or encapsulated in nano-enabled delivery systems (e.g. liposomes, micelles, nanoparticles) that are functionalised to target glucose transporters. Finally, the continuous development of blood-brain barrier in vitro models is important for studying glucose transporter function, effects of disease conditions and interactions with drugs and xenobiotics.

  15. OXYGEN TRANSPORT IN THE MICROCIRCULATION AND ITS REGULATION

    PubMed Central

    Pittman, Roland N.

    2012-01-01

    Cells require energy to carry out their functions and they typically use oxidative phosphorylation to generate the needed ATP. Thus, cells have a continuous need for oxygen which they receive by diffusion from the blood through the interstitial fluid. The circulatory system pumps oxygen-rich blood through a network of increasingly minute vessels, the microcirculation. The structure of the microcirculation is such that all cells have at least one nearby capillary for diffusive exchange of oxygen and red blood cells release the oxygen bound to hemoglobin as they traverse capillaries. This review focuses first on the historical development of techniques to measure oxygen at various sites in the microcirculation, including the blood, interstitium and cells. Next, approaches are described as to how these techniques have been employed to make discoveries about different aspects of oxygen transport. Finally, ways in which oxygen might participate in the regulation of blood flow toward matching oxygen supply to oxygen demand is discussed. Overall, the transport of oxygen to the cells of the body is one of the most critical functions of the cardiovascular system and it is in the microcirculation where the final local determinants of oxygen supply, oxygen demand and their regulation are decided. PMID:23025284

  16. Active learning in transportation engineering education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weir, Jennifer Anne

    The objectives of this research were (1) to develop experimental active-based-learning curricula for undergraduate courses in transportation engineering and (2) to assess the effectiveness of an active-learning-based traffic engineering curriculum through an educational experiment. The researcher developed a new highway design course as a pilot study to test selected active-learning techniques before employing them in the traffic engineering curriculum. Active-learning techniques, including multiple-choice questions, short problems completed by individual students or small groups, and group discussions, were used as active interludes within lectures. The researcher also collected and analyzed student performance and attitude data from control and experimental classes to evaluate the relative effectiveness of the traditional lecture (control) approach and the active-learning (experimental) approach. The results indicate that the active-learning approach adopted for the experimental class did have a positive impact on student performance as measured by exam scores. The students in the experimental class also indicated slightly more positive attitudes at the end of the course than the control class, although the difference was not significant. The author recommends that active interludes similar to those in the experimental curricula be used in other courses in civil engineering.

  17. Transportation in the Interstitial Space of the Brain Can Be Regulated by Neuronal Excitation

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Chunyan; Lei, Yiming; Han, Hongbin; Zuo, Long; Yan, Junhao; He, Qingyuan; Yuan, Lan; Liu, Huipo; Xu, Ge; Xu, Weiguo

    2015-01-01

    The transportation of substances in the interstitial space (ISS) is crucial for the maintenance of brain homeostasis, however its link to neuronal activity remains unclear. Here, we report a marked reduction in substance transportation in the ISS after neuronal excitation. Using a tracer-based method, water molecules in the interstitial fluid (ISF) could be specifically visualized in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. We first observed the flow of ISF in the thalamus and caudate nucleus of a rat. The ISF flow was then modulated using a painful stimulation model. We demonstrated that the flow of ISF slowed significantly following neuronal activity in the thalamus. This reduction in ISF flow continued for hours and was not accompanied by slow diffusion into the ISS. This observation suggests that the transportation of substances into the ISS can be regulated with a selective external stimulation. PMID:26631412

  18. Transportation in the Interstitial Space of the Brain Can Be Regulated by Neuronal Excitation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chunyan; Lei, Yiming; Han, Hongbin; Zuo, Long; Yan, Junhao; He, Qingyuan; Yuan, Lan; Liu, Huipo; Xu, Ge; Xu, Weiguo

    2015-12-03

    The transportation of substances in the interstitial space (ISS) is crucial for the maintenance of brain homeostasis, however its link to neuronal activity remains unclear. Here, we report a marked reduction in substance transportation in the ISS after neuronal excitation. Using a tracer-based method, water molecules in the interstitial fluid (ISF) could be specifically visualized in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. We first observed the flow of ISF in the thalamus and caudate nucleus of a rat. The ISF flow was then modulated using a painful stimulation model. We demonstrated that the flow of ISF slowed significantly following neuronal activity in the thalamus. This reduction in ISF flow continued for hours and was not accompanied by slow diffusion into the ISS. This observation suggests that the transportation of substances into the ISS can be regulated with a selective external stimulation.

  19. Transportation in the Interstitial Space of the Brain Can Be Regulated by Neuronal Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chunyan; Lei, Yiming; Han, Hongbin; Zuo, Long; Yan, Junhao; He, Qingyuan; Yuan, Lan; Liu, Huipo; Xu, Ge; Xu, Weiguo

    2015-12-01

    The transportation of substances in the interstitial space (ISS) is crucial for the maintenance of brain homeostasis, however its link to neuronal activity remains unclear. Here, we report a marked reduction in substance transportation in the ISS after neuronal excitation. Using a tracer-based method, water molecules in the interstitial fluid (ISF) could be specifically visualized in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. We first observed the flow of ISF in the thalamus and caudate nucleus of a rat. The ISF flow was then modulated using a painful stimulation model. We demonstrated that the flow of ISF slowed significantly following neuronal activity in the thalamus. This reduction in ISF flow continued for hours and was not accompanied by slow diffusion into the ISS. This observation suggests that the transportation of substances into the ISS can be regulated with a selective external stimulation.

  20. Active Transportation Surveillance - United States, 1999-2012.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Geoffrey P; Paul, Prabasaj; Wendel, Arthur M

    2015-08-28

    Physical activity is a health-enhancing behavior, and most U.S. adults do not meet the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Active transportation, such as by walking or bicycling, is one way that persons can be physically active. No comprehensive, multiyear assessments of active transportation surveillance in the United States have been conducted. 1999-2012. Five surveillance systems assess one or more components of active transportation. The American Community Survey and the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) both assess the mode of transportation to work in the past week. From these systems, the proportion of respondents who reported walking or bicycling to work can be calculated. NHTS and the American Time Use Survey include 1-day assessments of trips or activities. With that information, the proportion of respondents who report any walking or bicycling for transportation can be calculated. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the National Health Interview Survey both assess recent (i.e., in the past week or past month) habitual physical activity behaviors, including those performed during active travel. From these systems, the proportion of respondents who report any recent habitual active transportation can be calculated. The prevalence of active transportation as the primary commute mode to work in the past week ranged from 2.6% to 3.4%. The 1-day assessment indicated that the prevalence of any active transportation ranged from 10.5% to 18.5%. The prevalence of any habitual active transportation ranged from 23.9% to 31.4%. No consistent trends in active transportation across time periods and surveillance systems were identified. Among systems, active transportation was usually more common among men, younger respondents, and minority racial/ethnic groups. Among education groups, the highest prevalence of active transportation was usually among the least or most educated groups, and active transportation tended to be more

  1. Regulation of lysosomal ion homeostasis by channels and transporters.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jian; Zhu, Michael X

    2016-08-01

    Lysosomes are the major organelles that carry out degradation functions. They integrate and digest materials compartmentalized by endocytosis, phagocytosis or autophagy. In addition to more than 60 hydrolases residing in the lysosomes, there are also ion channels and transporters that mediate the flux or transport of H(+), Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-) across the lysosomal membranes. Defects in ionic exchange can lead to abnormal lysosome morphology, defective vesicle trafficking, impaired autophagy, and diseases such as neurodegeneration and lysosomal storage disorders. The latter are characterized by incomplete lysosomal digestion and accumulation of toxic materials inside enlarged intracellular vacuoles. In addition to degradation, recent studies have revealed the roles of lysosomes in metabolic pathways through kinases such as mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and transcriptional regulation through calcium signaling molecules such as transcription factor EB (TFEB) and calcineurin. Owing to the development of new approaches including genetically encoded fluorescence probes and whole endolysosomal patch clamp recording techniques, studies on lysosomal ion channels have made remarkable progress in recent years. In this review, we will focus on the current knowledge of lysosome-resident ion channels and transporters, discuss their roles in maintaining lysosomal function, and evaluate how their dysfunction can result in disease.

  2. Regulation of renal peripheral benzodiazepine receptors by anion transport inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Basile, A.S.; Lueddens, W.M.; Skolnick, P.

    1988-01-01

    The in vitro and in vivo regulation of (/sup 3/H)Ro 5-4864 binding to peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBR) by ion transport/exchange inhibitors was studied in the kidney. The potencies of 9-anthroic acid, furosemide, bumetanide, hydrochlorothiazide and SITS as inhibitors of (/sup 3/H)Ro 5-4864 binding to renal membranes were consistent with their actions as anion transport inhibitors (Ki approx. = 30 - 130 ..mu..M). In contrast, spironolactone, amiloride, acetazolamide, and ouabain were less potent (Ki=100-1000 ..mu..M). Administration of furosemide to rats for five days resulted in a profound diuresis accompanied by a significant increase in PBR density (43%) that was apparent by the fifth day of treatment. Administration of hydrochlorothiazide or Ro 5-4864 for five days also caused diuresis and increased renal PBR density. Both the diuresis and increased density of PBR produced by Ro 5-4864 were blocked by coadministration of PK 11195, which alone had no effect on either PBR density or urine volume. The equilibrium binding constants of (/sup 3/H)Ro 5-4864 to cardiac membranes were unaffected by administration of any of these drugs. These findings suggest that renal PBR may be selectively modulated in vivo and in vitro by administration of ion transport/exchange inhibitors. 36 references, 4 tables.

  3. Osmoregulation in zebrafish: ion transport mechanisms and functional regulation

    PubMed Central

    Guh, Ying-Jey; Lin, Chia-Hao; Hwang, Pung-Pung

    2015-01-01

    Fish, like mammals, have to maintain their body fluid ionic and osmotic homeostasis through sophisticated iono-/osmoregulation mechanisms, which are conducted mainly by ionocytes of the gill (the skin in embryonic stages), instead of the renal tubular cells in mammals. Given the advantages in terms of genetic database availability and manipulation, zebrafish is an emerging model for research into regulatory and integrative physiology. At least five types of ionocytes, HR, NaR, NCC, SLC26, and KS cells, have been identified to carry out Na+ uptake/H+ secretion/NH4+ excretion, Ca2+ uptake, Na+/Cl- uptake, K+ secretion, and Cl- uptake/HCO3- secretion, respectively, through distinct sets of transporters. Several hormones, namely isotocin, prolactin, cortisol, stanniocalcin-1, calcitonin, endothelin-1, vitamin D, parathyorid hormone 1, catecholamines, and the renin-angiotensin-system, have been demonstrated to positively or negatively regulate ion transport through specific receptors at different ionocytes stages, at either the transcriptional/translational or posttranslational level. The knowledge obtained using zebrafish answered many long-term contentious or unknown issues in the field of fish iono-/osmoregulation. The homology of ion transport pathways and hormone systems also means that the zebrafish model informs studies on mammals or other animal species, thereby providing insights into related fields. PMID:26600749

  4. Regulation of lysosomal ion homeostasis by channels and transporters

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Jian; Zhu, Michael X.

    2016-01-01

    Lysosomes are the major organelles that carry out degradation functions. They integrate and digest materials compartmentalized by endocytosis, phagocytosis or autophagy. In addition to more than 60 hydrolases residing in the lysosomes, there are also ion channels and transporters that mediate the flux or transport of H+, Ca2+, Na+, K+, and Cl− across the lysosomal membranes. Defects in ionic exchange can lead to abnormal lysosome morphology, defective vesicle trafficking, impaired autophagy, and diseases such as neurodegeneration and lysosomal storage disorders. The latter are characterized by incomplete lysosomal digestion and accumulation of toxic materials inside enlarged intracellular vacuoles. In addition to degradation, recent studies have revealed the roles of lysosomes in metabolic pathways through kinases such as mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and transcriptional regulation through calcium signaling molecules such as transcription factor EB (TFEB) and calcineurin. Owing to the development of new approaches including genetically encoded fluorescence probes and whole endolysosomal patch clamp recording techniques, studies on lysosomal ion channels have made remarkable progress in recent years. In this review, we will focus on the current knowledge of lysosome-resident ion channels and transporters, discuss their roles in maintaining lysosomal function, and evaluate how their dysfunction can result in disease. PMID:27430889

  5. Engineering intracellular active transport systems as in vivo biomolecular tools.

    SciTech Connect

    Bachand, George David; Carroll-Portillo, Amanda

    2006-11-01

    Active transport systems provide essential functions in terms of cell physiology and metastasis. These systems, however, are also co-opted by invading viruses, enabling directed transport of the virus to and from the cell's nucleus (i.e., the site of virus replication). Based on this concept, fundamentally new approaches for interrogating and manipulating the inner workings of living cells may be achievable by co-opting Nature's active transport systems as an in vivo biomolecular tool. The overall goal of this project was to investigate the ability to engineer kinesin-based transport systems for in vivo applications, specifically the collection of effector proteins (e.g., transcriptional regulators) within single cells. In the first part of this project, a chimeric fusion protein consisting of kinesin and a single chain variable fragment (scFv) of an antibody was successfully produced through a recombinant expression system. The kinesin-scFv retained both catalytic and antigenic functionality, enabling selective capture and transport of target antigens. The incorporation of a rabbit IgG-specific scFv into the kinesin established a generalized system for functionalizing kinesin with a wide range of target-selective antibodies raised in rabbits. The second objective was to develop methods of isolating the intact microtubule network from live cells as a platform for evaluating kinesin-based transport within the cytoskeletal architecture of a cell. Successful isolation of intact microtubule networks from two distinct cell types was demonstrated using glutaraldehyde and methanol fixation methods. This work provides a platform for inferring the ability of kinesin-scFv to function in vivo, and may also serve as a three-dimensional scaffold for evaluating and exploiting kinesin-based transport for nanotechnological applications. Overall, the technology developed in this project represents a first-step in engineering active transport system for in vivo applications. Further

  6. Cholinergic synaptic vesicle heterogeneity: evidence for regulation of acetylcholine transport

    SciTech Connect

    Gracz, L.M.; Wang, W.; Parsons, S.M.

    1988-07-12

    Crude cholinergic synaptic vesicles from a homogenate of the electric organ of Torpedo californica were centrifuged to equilibrium in an isosmotic sucrose density gradient. The classical VP/sub 1/ synaptic vesicles banding at 1.055 g/mL actively transported (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine (AcCh). An organelle banding at about 1.071 g/mL transported even more (/sup 3/H)AcCh. Transport by both organelles was inhibited by the known AcCh storage blockers trans-2-(4-phenylpiperidino)cyclohexanol (vesamicol, formerly AH5183) and nigericin. Relative to VP/sub 1/ vesicles the denser organelle was slightly smaller as shown by size-exclusion chromatography. It is concluded that the denser organelle corresponds to the recycling VP/sub 2/ synaptic vesicle originally described in intact Torpedo marmorata electric organ. The properties of the receptor for vesamicol were studied by measuring binding of (/sup 3/H)vesamicol, and the amount of SV2 antigen characteristic of secretory vesicles was assayed with a monoclonal antibody directed against it. Relative to VP/sub 1/ vesicles the VP/sub 2/ vesicles had a ratio of (/sup 3/H)AcCh transport activity to vesamicol receptor concentration that typically was 4-7-fold higher, whereas the ratio of SV2 antigen concentration to vesamicol receptor concentration was about 2-fold higher. The Hill coefficients ..cap alpha../sub H/ and equilibrium dissociation constants K for vesamicol binding to VP/sub 1/ and VP/sub 2/ vesicles were essentially the same. The positive Hill coefficient suggests that the vesamicol receptor exists as a homotropic oligomeric complex. The results demonstrate that VP/sub 1/ and VP/sub 2/ synaptic vesicles exhibit functional differences in the AcCh transport system, presumably as a result of regulatory phenomena.

  7. Dopamine transporters participate in the physiological regulation of prolactin.

    PubMed

    Demaria, J E; Nagy, G M; Lerant, A A; Fekete, M I; Levenson, C W; Freeman, M E

    2000-01-01

    Three populations of hypothalamic neuroendocrine dopaminergic (NEDA) neurons, arising from the arcuate and periventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus release dopamine (DA) that acts at the pituitary gland to regulate the secretion of PRL. It is generally accepted that NEDA neurons lack functional DA transporters (DATs), which are responsible for uptake of DA from the synaptic cleft into the presynaptic axon terminal. This study localized DATs to the hypothalamo-pituitary axis and evaluated the effect of DAT blockade on the hypothalamo-pituitary regulation of PRL. After 7 days of treatment with cocaine (a nonspecific amine transporter blocker) or mazindol (a specific DAT blocker), the relative abundance of PRL messenger RNA (mRNA) in the anterior lobe (AL) of OVX rats was significantly decreased, whereas the relative abundance of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA in the hypothalamus was significantly increased. The effect of cocaine or mazindol administration on DA turnover and serum PRL concentration was examined in estradiol (E2)-treated OVX rats. E2 administration (i.v.) resulted in a significant increase in serum PRL within 4 h; however, cocaine or mazindol administration abolished the E2-induced increase of PRL. Cocaine or mazindol significantly increased the concentration of DA at the site of the axon terminals within the median eminence (ME), intermediate lobe (IL) and neural lobe (NL), indicating blockade of uptake. Because formation of DOPAC requires uptake of DA, concentrations of DOPAC in the ME, IL and NL decreased following treatment with either cocaine or mazindol. These data, together with the presence of immunopositive DAT in the ME, pituitary stalk, IL, and NL, suggest that a functional DAT system is present within all three populations of NEDA neurons. Moreover, similarity between the effects of cocaine and mazindol treatment indicate that blockade of the DAT, but not other amine transporters, is responsible for suppression of PRL gene expression and

  8. Conditionally Active Min-Max Limit Regulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay (Inventor); May, Ryan D. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A conditionally active limit regulator may be used to regulate the performance of engines or other limit regulated systems. A computing system may determine whether a variable to be limited is within a predetermined range of a limit value as a first condition. The computing system may also determine whether a current rate of increase or decrease of the variable to be limited is great enough that the variable will reach the limit within a predetermined period of time with no other changes as a second condition. When both conditions are true, the computing system may activate a simulated or physical limit regulator.

  9. In silico analysis of the regulation of the photosynthetic electron transport chain in C3 plants.

    PubMed

    Morales, Alejandro; Yin, Xinyou; Harbinson, Jeremy; Driever, Steven Michiel; Molenaar, Jaap; Kramer, David M; Struik, Paul

    2017-09-18

    We present a new simulation model of the reactions in the photosynthetic electron transport chain of C3 species. We show that including recent insights about the regulation of the thylakoid proton motive force, ATP/NADPH balancing mechanisms (cyclic and non-cyclic alternative electron transport), and regulation of Rubisco activity, leads to emergent behaviors that may affect the operation and regulation of photosynthesis under different dynamic environmental conditions. The model was parameterized with experimental results in the literature, with a focus on Arabidopsis thaliana. A dataset was constructed from multiple sources, including measurements of steady-state and dynamic gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and absorbance spectroscopy under different light intensities and CO2. This dataset was used to test predictions of the model under different experimental conditions. Simulations suggested that there are strong interactions between cyclic and non-cyclic alternative electron transport and that an excess capacity for alternative electron transport is required to ensure adequate redox state and lumen pH. Furthermore, the model predicted that, under specific conditions, reduction of ferredoxin by plastoquinol was possible, especially after a rapid increase in light intensity. Further analysis also revealed that the relationship between ATP synthesis and proton motive force was highly regulated by the concentrations of ATP and ADP, and this facilitated an increase in non-photochemical quenching under conditions where metabolism was limiting, such as low CO2 or high light intensity. The model may be used as an in silico platform for future research on the regulation of photosynthetic electron transport. {copyright, serif} 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  10. Role of Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase in Regulation of Raffinose Transport in Streptococcus pneumoniae▿§

    PubMed Central

    Tyx, Robert E.; Roche-Hakansson, Hazeline; Hakansson, Anders P.

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae strains lacking the enzyme dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLDH) show markedly reduced ability to grow on raffinose and stachyose as sole carbon sources. Import of these sugars occurs through the previously characterized raffinose ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transport system, encoded by the raf operon, that lacks the necessary ATP-binding protein. In this study, we identified the raffinose ATP-binding protein RafK and showed that it was directly involved in raffinose and stachyose import. RafK carries a C-terminal regulatory domain present in a subset of ATP-binding proteins that has been involved in both direct regulation of transporter activity (inducer exclusion) and transcription of transporter genes. Pneumococci lacking RafK showed a 50- to 80-fold reduction in expression of the raf operon genes aga (alpha-galactosidase) and rafEFG (raffinose substrate binding and permease genes), and both glucose and sucrose inhibited raffinose uptake through inducer exclusion. Like RafK, the presence of DLDH also activated the expression of raf operon genes, as DLDH-negative pneumococci showed a significantly decreased expression of aga and rafEFG, but DLDH did not regulate rafK or the putative regulatory genes rafR and rafS. DLDH also bound directly to RafK both in vitro and in vivo, indicating the possibility that DLDH regulates raffinose transport by a direct interaction with the regulatory domain of the transporter. Finally, although not as attenuated as DLDH-negative bacteria, pneumococci lacking RafK were significantly outcompeted by wild-type bacteria in colonization experiments of murine lung and nasopharynx, indicating a role for raffinose and stachyose transport in vivo. PMID:21602335

  11. Transport systems of Ventricaria ventricosa: asymmetry of the hyper- and hypotonic regulation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Bisson, M A; Beilby, M J

    2008-01-01

    Hyper- and hypotonic stresses elicit apparently symmetrical responses in the alga Ventricaria. With hypertonic stress, membrane potential difference (PD) between the vacuole and the external medium becomes more positive, conductance at positive PDs (Gmpos) increases and KCl is actively taken up to increase turgor. With hypotonic stress, the membrane PD becomes more negative, conductance at negative PDs (Gmneg) increases and KCl is lost to decrease turgor. We used inhibitors that affect active transport to determine whether agents that inhibit the K(+) pump and hypertonic regulation also inhibit hypotonic regulatory responses. Cells whose turgor pressure was held low by the pressure probe (turgor-clamped) exhibited the same response as cells challenged by hyperosmotic medium, although the response was maintained longer than in osmotically challenged cells, which regulate turgor. The role of active K(+) transport was confirmed by the effects of decreased light, dichlorophenyldimethyl urea and diethylstilbestrol, which induced a uniformly low conductance (quiet state). Cells clamped to high turgor exhibited the same response as cells challenged by hypo-osmotic medium, but the response was similarly transient, making effects of inhibitors hard to determine. Unlike clamped cells, cells challenged by hypo-osmotic medium responded to inhibitors with rapid, transient, negative-going PDs, with decreased Gmneg and increased Gmpos (linearized I-V), achieving the quiet state as PD recovered. These changes are different from those exerted on the pump state, indicating that different transport systems are responsible for turgor regulation in the two cases.

  12. Copper transporter 2 regulates intracellular copper and sensitivity to cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Huang, Carlos P; Fofana, Mariama; Chan, Jefferson; Chang, Christopher J; Howell, Stephen B

    2014-03-01

    Mammalian cells express two copper (Cu) influx transporters, CTR1 and CTR2. CTR1 serves as an influx transporter for both Cu and cisplatin (cDDP). In mouse embryo fibroblasts, reduction of CTR1 expression renders cells resistant to cDDP whereas reduction of CTR2 makes them hypersensitive both in vitro and in vivo. To investigate the role of CTR2 on intracellular Cu and cDDP sensitivity its expression was molecularly altered in the human epithelial 2008 cancer cell model. Intracellular exchangeable Cu(+) was measured with the fluorescent probe Coppersensor-3 (CS3). The ability of CS3 to report on changes in intracellular Cu(+) was validated by showing that Cu chelators reduced its signal, and that changes in signal accompanied alterations in expression of the major Cu influx transporter CTR1 and the two Cu efflux transporters, ATP7A and ATP7B. Constitutive knock down of CTR2 mRNA by ∼50% reduced steady-state exchangeable Cu by 22-23% and increased the sensitivity of 2008 cells by a factor of 2.6-2.9 in two separate clones. Over-expression of CTR2 increased exchangeable Cu(+) by 150% and rendered the 2008 cells 2.5-fold resistant to cDDP. The results provide evidence that CS3 can quantitatively assess changes in exchangeable Cu(+), and that CTR2 regulates both the level of exchangeable Cu(+) and sensitivity to cDDP in a model of human epithelial cancer. This study introduces CS3 and related sensors as novel tools for probing and assaying Cu-dependent sensitivity to anticancer therapeutics.

  13. Single-molecule detection with active transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, David Allan

    A glass capillary is used near the focal region of a custom-built confocal microscope to investigate the use of active transport for single-molecule detection in solution, with both one and two-photon laser excitation. The capillary tip has a diameter of several microns and is carefully aligned nearby to the sub-micron laser beam waist, collinear to the optical axis, so that a negative pressure-difference causes molecules to be drawn into the capillary, along the laser beam axis. The flow of solution, which is characterized by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), can increase the single-molecule detection rate for slowly diffusing proteins by over a factor of 100, while the mean rate of photons during each burst is similar to that for random diffusional transport. Also, the flow is along the longest axis of the ellipsoidally-shaped confocal volume, which results in more collected photons per molecule than that for transverse flow at the same speed. When transport is dominated by flow, FCS can no longer distinguish molecules with differing translational diffusion, and hence a fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy method based on differences in fluorescence brightness is investigated as a means for assaying different solution components, for applications in pharmaceutical drug discovery. Multi-channel fluctuation spectroscopy techniques can also be used for assays with the flow system and hence this dissertation also reports the characterization of a prototype 4-channel single-photon detector with a two-wavelength polarization-resolved optical set-up.

  14. Melanocortin 1 Receptor Signaling Regulates Cholesterol Transport in Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Rinne, Petteri; Rami, Martina; Nuutinen, Salla; Santovito, Donato; van der Vorst, Emiel P C; Guillamat-Prats, Raquel; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Raitoharju, Emma; Oksala, Niku; Ring, Larisa; Cai, Minying; Hruby, Victor J; Lehtimäki, Terho; Weber, Christian; Steffens, Sabine

    2017-07-04

    The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1-R) is expressed by monocytes and macrophages, where it exerts anti-inflammatory actions on stimulation with its natural ligand α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone. The present study was designed to investigate the specific role of MC1-R in the context of atherosclerosis and possible regulatory pathways of MC1-R beyond anti-inflammation. Human and mouse atherosclerotic samples and primary mouse macrophages were used to study the regulatory functions of MC1-R. The impact of pharmacological MC1-R activation on atherosclerosis was assessed in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Characterization of human and mouse atherosclerotic plaques revealed that MC1-R expression localizes in lesional macrophages and is significantly associated with the ATP-binding cassette transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1, which are responsible for initiating reverse cholesterol transport. Using bone marrow-derived macrophages, we observed that α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and selective MC1-R agonists similarly promoted cholesterol efflux, which is a counterregulatory mechanism against foam cell formation. Mechanistically, MC1-R activation upregulated the levels of ABCA1 and ABCG1. These effects were accompanied by a reduction in cell surface CD36 expression and in cholesterol uptake, further protecting macrophages from excessive lipid accumulation. Conversely, macrophages deficient in functional MC1-R displayed a phenotype with impaired efflux and enhanced uptake of cholesterol. Pharmacological targeting of MC1-R in atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice reduced plasma cholesterol levels and aortic CD36 expression and increased plaque ABCG1 expression and signs of plaque stability. Our findings identify a novel role for MC1-R in macrophage cholesterol transport. Activation of MC1-R confers protection against macrophage foam cell formation through a dual mechanism: It prevents cholesterol uptake while concomitantly promoting ABCA1- and ABCG1-mediated reverse

  15. The plasminogen activator system: biology and regulation.

    PubMed

    Irigoyen, J P; Muñoz-Cánoves, P; Montero, L; Koziczak, M; Nagamine, Y

    1999-10-01

    The regulation of plasminogen activation involves genes for two plasminogen activators (tissue type and urokinase type), two specific inhibitors (type 1 and type 2), and a membrane-anchored urokinase-type plasminogen-activator-specific receptor. This system plays an important role in various biological processes involving extracellular proteolysis. Recent studies have revealed that the system, through interplay with integrins and the extracellular matrix protein vitronectin, is also involved in the regulation of cell migration and proliferation in a manner independent of proteolytic activity. The genes are expressed in many different cell types and their expression is under the control of diverse extracellular signals. Gene expression reflects the levels of the corresponding mRNA, which should be the net result of synthesis and degradation. Thus, modulation of mRNA stability is an important factor in overall regulation. This review summarizes current understanding of the biology and regulation of genes involved in plasminogen activation at different levels.

  16. Regulation of the divalent metal ion transporter via membrane budding

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, KimberlyD; Foot, Natalie J; Anand, Sushma; Dalton, Hazel E; Chaudhary, Natasha; Collins, Brett M; Mathivanan, Suresh; Kumar, Sharad

    2016-01-01

    The release of extracellular vesicles (EVs) is important for both normal physiology and disease. However, a basic understanding of the targeting of EV cargoes, composition and mechanism of release is lacking. Here we present evidence that the divalent metal ion transporter (DMT1) is unexpectedly regulated through release in EVs. This process involves the Nedd4-2 ubiquitin ligase, and the adaptor proteins Arrdc1 and Arrdc4 via different budding mechanisms. We show that mouse gut explants release endogenous DMT1 in EVs. Although we observed no change in the relative amount of DMT1 released in EVs from gut explants in Arrdc1 or Arrdc4 deficient mice, the extent of EVs released was significantly reduced indicating an adaptor role in biogenesis. Furthermore, using Arrdc1 or Arrdc4 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts, we show that both Arrdc1 and Arrdc4 are non-redundant positive regulators of EV release. Our results suggest that DMT1 release from the plasma membrane into EVs may represent a novel mechanism for the maintenance of iron homeostasis, which may also be important for the regulation of other membrane proteins. PMID:27462458

  17. Dopamine Transporter Activity Is Modulated by α-Synuclein.

    PubMed

    Butler, Brittany; Saha, Kaustuv; Rana, Tanu; Becker, Jonas P; Sambo, Danielle; Davari, Paran; Goodwin, J Shawn; Khoshbouei, Habibeh

    2015-12-04

    The duration and strength of the dopaminergic signal are regulated by the dopamine transporter (DAT). Drug addiction and neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases have all been associated with altered DAT activity. The membrane localization and the activity of DAT are regulated by a number of intracellular proteins. α-Synuclein, a protein partner of DAT, is implicated in neurodegenerative disease and drug addiction. Little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of the interaction between DAT and α-synuclein, the cellular location of this interaction, and the functional consequences of this interaction on the basal, amphetamine-induced DAT-mediated dopamine efflux, and membrane microdomain distribution of the transporter. Here, we found that the majority of DAT·α-synuclein protein complexes are found at the plasma membrane of dopaminergic neurons or mammalian cells and that the amphetamine-mediated increase in DAT activity enhances the association of these proteins at the plasma membrane. Further examination of the interaction of DAT and α-synuclein revealed a transient interaction between these two proteins at the plasma membrane. Additionally, we found DAT-induced membrane depolarization enhances plasma membrane localization of α-synuclein, which in turn increases dopamine efflux and enhances DAT localization in cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains.

  18. Dopamine Transporter Activity Is Modulated by α-Synuclein*

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Brittany; Saha, Kaustuv; Rana, Tanu; Becker, Jonas P.; Sambo, Danielle; Davari, Paran; Goodwin, J. Shawn; Khoshbouei, Habibeh

    2015-01-01

    The duration and strength of the dopaminergic signal are regulated by the dopamine transporter (DAT). Drug addiction and neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases have all been associated with altered DAT activity. The membrane localization and the activity of DAT are regulated by a number of intracellular proteins. α-Synuclein, a protein partner of DAT, is implicated in neurodegenerative disease and drug addiction. Little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of the interaction between DAT and α-synuclein, the cellular location of this interaction, and the functional consequences of this interaction on the basal, amphetamine-induced DAT-mediated dopamine efflux, and membrane microdomain distribution of the transporter. Here, we found that the majority of DAT·α-synuclein protein complexes are found at the plasma membrane of dopaminergic neurons or mammalian cells and that the amphetamine-mediated increase in DAT activity enhances the association of these proteins at the plasma membrane. Further examination of the interaction of DAT and α-synuclein revealed a transient interaction between these two proteins at the plasma membrane. Additionally, we found DAT-induced membrane depolarization enhances plasma membrane localization of α-synuclein, which in turn increases dopamine efflux and enhances DAT localization in cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains. PMID:26442590

  19. Serotonin transporter activity in platelets and canine aggression.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Belén; García-Belenguer, Sylvia; Palacio, Jorge; Chacón, Gema; Villegas, Ainara; Alcalde, Ana I

    2010-10-01

    Several studies have suggested an inhibitory action of the serotonergic system in the regulation of canine aggression, but the role of the serotonin (5-HT) transporter (5-HTT) has not been investigated. Platelet 5-HT uptake has been proposed as a peripheral marker of brain 5-HTT. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between platelet 5-HTT activity and canine aggression by measuring the rate of 5-HT uptake mediated by 5-HTT in platelets and serum concentrations of 5-HT in both aggressive (n=14) and non-aggressive dogs (n=17). Aggressive dogs showed significantly higher 5-HT uptake by 5-HTT in platelets and lower serum concentrations of 5-HT, compared with the control group. These results suggested an association between an alteration in the serotonergic system and canine aggression, possibly mediated by an increased 5-HT transport.

  20. Fingolimod effects in neuroinflammation: Regulation of astroglial glutamate transporters?

    PubMed

    Lee, De-Hyung; Seubert, Silvia; Huhn, Konstantin; Brecht, Lukas; Rötger, Caroline; Waschbisch, Anne; Schlachetzki, Johannes; Klausmeyer, Alice; Melms, Arthur; Wiese, Stefan; Winkler, Jürgen; Linker, Ralf A

    2017-01-01

    Fingolimod is an oral sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor modulator which reduces the recirculation of immune cells and may also directly target glial cells. Here we investigate effects of fingolimod on expression of astroglial glutamate transporters under pro-inflammatory conditions. In astrocyte cell culture, the addition of pro-inflammatory cytokines led to a significant downregulation of glutamate transporters glutamate transporter-1 (slc1a2/SLC1A2) and glutamate aspartate transporter (slc1a3/SLC1A3) expression on the mRNA or protein level. In this setting, the direct application of fingolimod-1 phosphate (F1P) on astrocytes did not change expression levels of slc1a2 and slc1a3 mRNA. The analysis of both transporters on the protein level by Western Blot and immunocytochemistry did also not reveal any effect of F1P. On a functional level, the addition of conditioned supernatants from F1P treated astrocytes to neuronal cell culture did not result in increased neurite growth. In experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis as a model of multiple sclerosis, fingolimod treatment reduced T cell and macrophages/microglia mediated inflammation and also diminished astrocyte activation. At the same time, fingolimod restored the reduced expression of slc1a2 and slc1a3 in the inflamed spinal cord on the mRNA level and of SLC1A2 and SLC1A3 on the protein level, presumably via indirect, anti-inflammatory mechanisms. These findings provide further evidence for a predominantly peripheral effect of the compound in neuroinflammation.

  1. Fingolimod effects in neuroinflammation: Regulation of astroglial glutamate transporters?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, De-Hyung; Seubert, Silvia; Huhn, Konstantin; Brecht, Lukas; Rötger, Caroline; Waschbisch, Anne; Schlachetzki, Johannes; Klausmeyer, Alice; Melms, Arthur; Wiese, Stefan; Winkler, Jürgen; Linker, Ralf A.

    2017-01-01

    Fingolimod is an oral sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor modulator which reduces the recirculation of immune cells and may also directly target glial cells. Here we investigate effects of fingolimod on expression of astroglial glutamate transporters under pro-inflammatory conditions. In astrocyte cell culture, the addition of pro-inflammatory cytokines led to a significant downregulation of glutamate transporters glutamate transporter-1 (slc1a2/SLC1A2) and glutamate aspartate transporter (slc1a3/SLC1A3) expression on the mRNA or protein level. In this setting, the direct application of fingolimod-1 phosphate (F1P) on astrocytes did not change expression levels of slc1a2 and slc1a3 mRNA. The analysis of both transporters on the protein level by Western Blot and immunocytochemistry did also not reveal any effect of F1P. On a functional level, the addition of conditioned supernatants from F1P treated astrocytes to neuronal cell culture did not result in increased neurite growth. In experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis as a model of multiple sclerosis, fingolimod treatment reduced T cell and macrophages/microglia mediated inflammation and also diminished astrocyte activation. At the same time, fingolimod restored the reduced expression of slc1a2 and slc1a3 in the inflamed spinal cord on the mRNA level and of SLC1A2 and SLC1A3 on the protein level, presumably via indirect, anti-inflammatory mechanisms. These findings provide further evidence for a predominantly peripheral effect of the compound in neuroinflammation. PMID:28273090

  2. Regulation of Glutamate Transport in Developing Rat Oligodendrocytes

    PubMed Central

    DeSilva, Tara M.; Kabakov, Anatoli Y.; Goldhoff, Patricia E.; Volpe, Joseph J.; Rosenberg, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Glutamate released from synaptic vesicles mediates excitatory neurotransmission by stimulating glutamate receptors. Glutamate transporters maintain low synaptic glutamate levels critical for this process, a role primarily attributed to astrocytes. Recently, vesicular release of glutamate from unmyelinated axons in the rat corpus callosum has been shown to elicit AMPA receptor-mediated currents in glial progenitor cells. Glutamate transporters are the only mechanism of glutamate clearance, yet very little is known about the role of glutamate transporters in normal development of oligodendrocytes (OLs) or in excitotoxic injury to OLs. We found that OLs in culture are capable of sodium-dependent glutamate uptake with a Km of 10 ± 2 μm and a Vmax of 2.6, 5.0, and 3.8 nmol · min−1 · mg−1 for preoligodendrocytes, immature, and mature OLs, respectively. Surprisingly, EAAC1, thought to be exclusively a neuronal transporter, contributes more to [3H]l-glutamate uptake in OLs than GLT1 or GLAST. These data suggest that glutamate transporters on oligodendrocytes may serve a critical role in maintaining glutamate homeostasis at a time when unmyelinated callosal axons are engaging in glutamatergic signaling with glial progenitors. Furthermore, GLT1 was significantly increased in cultured mature OLs contrary to in vivo data in which we have shown that, although GLT1 is present on developing OLs when unmyelinated axons are prevalent in the developing rat corpus callosum, after myelination, GLT1 is not expressed on mature OLs. The absence of GLT1 in mature OLs in the rat corpus callosum and its presence in mature rat cultured OLs may indicate that a signaling process in vivo is not activated in vitro. PMID:19535601

  3. Drug Transporter Expression and Activity in Human Hepatoma HuH-7 Cells.

    PubMed

    Jouan, Elodie; Le Vée, Marc; Denizot, Claire; Parmentier, Yannick; Fardel, Olivier

    2016-12-28

    Human hepatoma cells may represent a valuable alternative to the use of human hepatocytes for studying hepatic drug transporters, which is now a regulatory issue during drug development. In the present work, we have characterized hepatic drug transporter expression, activity and regulation in human hepatoma HuH-7 cells, in order to determine the potential relevance of these cells for drug transport assays. HuH-7 cells displayed notable multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) activity, presumed to reflect expression of various hepatic MRPs, including MRP2. By contrast, they failed to display functional activities of the uptake transporters sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP), organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs) and organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1), and of the canalicular transporters P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). Concomitantly, mRNA expressions of various sinusoidal and canalicular hepatic drug transporters were not detected (NTCP, OATP1B1, organic anion transporter 2 (OAT2), OCT1 and bile salt export pump) or were found to be lower (OATP1B3, OATP2B1, multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1, BCRP and MRP3) in hepatoma HuH-7 cells than those found in human hepatocytes, whereas other transporters such as OAT7, MRP4 and MRP5 were up-regulated. HuH-7 cells additionally exhibited farnesoid X receptor (FXR)- and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-related up-regulation of some transporters. Such data indicate that HuH-7 cells, although expressing rather poorly some main hepatic drug transporters, may be useful for investigating interactions of drugs with MRPs, notably MRP2, and for studying FXR- or Nrf2-mediated gene regulation.

  4. Drug Transporter Expression and Activity in Human Hepatoma HuH-7 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jouan, Elodie; Le Vée, Marc; Denizot, Claire; Parmentier, Yannick; Fardel, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Human hepatoma cells may represent a valuable alternative to the use of human hepatocytes for studying hepatic drug transporters, which is now a regulatory issue during drug development. In the present work, we have characterized hepatic drug transporter expression, activity and regulation in human hepatoma HuH-7 cells, in order to determine the potential relevance of these cells for drug transport assays. HuH-7 cells displayed notable multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) activity, presumed to reflect expression of various hepatic MRPs, including MRP2. By contrast, they failed to display functional activities of the uptake transporters sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP), organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs) and organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1), and of the canalicular transporters P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). Concomitantly, mRNA expressions of various sinusoidal and canalicular hepatic drug transporters were not detected (NTCP, OATP1B1, organic anion transporter 2 (OAT2), OCT1 and bile salt export pump) or were found to be lower (OATP1B3, OATP2B1, multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1, BCRP and MRP3) in hepatoma HuH-7 cells than those found in human hepatocytes, whereas other transporters such as OAT7, MRP4 and MRP5 were up-regulated. HuH-7 cells additionally exhibited farnesoid X receptor (FXR)- and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-related up-regulation of some transporters. Such data indicate that HuH-7 cells, although expressing rather poorly some main hepatic drug transporters, may be useful for investigating interactions of drugs with MRPs, notably MRP2, and for studying FXR- or Nrf2-mediated gene regulation. PMID:28036031

  5. Regulation of Auxin Transport by Phosphorylation and Flavonoids during Gravitropism in Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muday, Gloria K.

    2005-01-01

    The focus of this research includes: 1) Regulation of Axin transport by flavonoids during gravitropism; 2) Phosphorylation control of auxin transport during gravity response; 3) Ethylene regulation of gravitropic curvature; 4) IBA transport and gravitropic response; and 5) Other collaborative projects.

  6. Regulation of Auxin Transport by Phosphorylation and Flavonoids during Gravitropism in Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muday, Gloria K.

    2005-01-01

    The focus of this research includes: 1) Regulation of Axin transport by flavonoids during gravitropism; 2) Phosphorylation control of auxin transport during gravity response; 3) Ethylene regulation of gravitropic curvature; 4) IBA transport and gravitropic response; and 5) Other collaborative projects.

  7. The riboswitch regulates a thiamine pyrophosphate ABC transporter of the oral spirochete Treponema denticola.

    PubMed

    Bian, Jiang; Shen, Hongwu; Tu, Youbin; Yu, Aiming; Li, Chunhao

    2011-08-01

    Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), a biologically active form of thiamine (vitamin B₁), is an essential cofactor in all living systems. Microorganisms either synthesize TPP via de novo biosynthesis pathways or uptake exogenous thiamine from the environment via specific transporters. The oral spirochete Treponema denticola is an important pathogen that is associated with human periodontal diseases. It lacks a de novo TPP biosynthesis pathway and needs exogenous TPP for growth, suggesting that it may obtain exogenous TPP via a thiamine transporter. In this study, we identified a gene cluster that encodes a TPP ABC transporter which consists of a TPP-binding protein (TDE0143), a transmembrane permease (TDE0144), and a cytosolic ATPase (TDE0145). Transcriptional and translational analyses showed that the genes encoding these three proteins are cotranscribed and form an operon (tbpABC(Td)) that is initiated by a σ⁷⁰-like promoter. The expression level of this operon is negatively regulated by exogenous TPP and is mediated by a TPP-sensing riboswitch (Td(thi-)(box)). Genetic and biochemical studies revealed that the TDE0143 deletion mutant (T. denticola ΔtbpA) had a decreased ability to transport exogenous TPP, and the mutant failed to grow when exogenous TPP was insufficient. These results taken together indicate that the tbpABC(Td) operon encodes an ABC transporter that is required for the uptake of exogenous TPP and that the expression of this operon is regulated by a TPP-binding riboswitch via a feedback inhibition mechanism.

  8. Glycosylation regulates prestin cellular activity.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, Lavanya; Organ-Darling, Louise E; Liu, Haiying; Davidson, Amy L; Raphael, Robert M; Brownell, William E; Pereira, Fred A

    2010-03-01

    Glycosylation is a common post-translational modification of proteins and is implicated in a variety of cellular functions including protein folding, degradation, sorting and trafficking, and membrane protein recycling. The membrane protein prestin is an essential component of the membrane-based motor driving electromotility changes (electromotility) in the outer hair cell (OHC), a central process in auditory transduction. Prestin was earlier identified to possess two N-glycosylation sites (N163, N166) that, when mutated, marginally affect prestin nonlinear capacitance (NLC) function in cultured cells. Here, we show that the double mutant prestin(NN163/166AA) is not glycosylated and shows the expected NLC properties in the untreated and cholesterol-depleted HEK 293 cell model. In addition, unlike WT prestin that readily forms oligomers, prestin(NN163/166AA) is enriched as monomers and more mobile in the plasma membrane, suggesting that oligomerization of prestin is dependent on glycosylation but is not essential for the generation of NLC in HEK 293 cells. However, in the presence of increased membrane cholesterol, unlike the hyperpolarizing shift in NLC seen with WT prestin, cells expressing prestin(NN163/166AA) exhibit a linear capacitance function. In an attempt to explain this finding, we discovered that both WT prestin and prestin(NN163/166AA) participate in cholesterol-dependent cellular trafficking. In contrast to WT prestin, prestin(NN163/166AA) shows a significant cholesterol-dependent decrease in cell-surface expression, which may explain the loss of NLC function. Based on our observations, we conclude that glycosylation regulates self-association and cellular trafficking of prestin(NN163/166AA). These observations are the first to implicate a regulatory role for cellular trafficking and sorting in prestin function. We speculate that the cholesterol regulation of prestin occurs through localization to and internalization from membrane microdomains by

  9. Regulation of membrane transport and metabolism in the HT29 human colonic adenocarcinoma cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin, C.C.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of insulin on glucose transport and metabolism were examined in cultured HT29 human colonic adenocarcinoma cells. The presence of glucose transporters was verified by D-glucose displaceable ({sup 3}H) cytochalasin B binding. Moreover, two classes of insulin binding sites were detected in radioligand binding experiments. Despite the presence of both glucose transporters and insulin receptors, insulin failed to stimulate glucose transport. However, insulin was found to activate glycolysis. These findings suggest that insulin directly influences substrate utilization through the glycolytic pathway in HT29 cells without activating the glucose transport pathway. A Na{sup +}/K{sup +}/Cl{sup {minus}} cotransport pathway was also detected in HT29 cells using {sup 86}Rb{sup +} as a K{sup +} congener. The identity of this pathway as a Na{sup +}/K{sup +}/Cl{sup {minus}} cotransporter has been deduced from the following findings: (1) {sup 86}Rb{sup +} influx was inhibited by loop diuretics, (2) {sup 86}Rb{sup +} influx ceased in the absence of any one of the transported ions, and (3) cotransport exhibited a stoichiometry approaching 1Na{sup +}:1K{sup +}:2Cl{sup {minus}}. Na{sup +}/K{sup +}/Cl{sup {minus}} cotransport was found to be exquisitely sensitive to cellular ATP and cyclic AMP levels. These results suggest that HT29 cells contain a Na{sup +}/K{sup +}/Cl{sup {minus}} cotransport pathway that can be regulated by the second messenger cyclic AMP and is highly sensitive to the metabolic state of the cell. The involvement of protein kinase C in the regulation of Na{sup +}/K{sup +}/Cl{sup {minus}} cotransport was also investigated. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), which stimulated protein kinase C activity, produced a transient increase in cotransport followed by a near abolition of cotransport by 2 h.

  10. Regulation of Sodium Channel Activity by Capping of Actin Filaments

    PubMed Central

    Shumilina, Ekaterina V.; Negulyaev, Yuri A.; Morachevskaya, Elena A.; Hinssen, Horst; Khaitlina, Sofia Yu

    2003-01-01

    Ion transport in various tissues can be regulated by the cortical actin cytoskeleton. Specifically, involvement of actin dynamics in the regulation of nonvoltage-gated sodium channels has been shown. Herein, inside-out patch clamp experiments were performed to study the effect of the heterodimeric actin capping protein CapZ on sodium channel regulation in leukemia K562 cells. The channels were activated by cytochalasin-induced disruption of actin filaments and inactivated by G-actin under ionic conditions promoting rapid actin polymerization. CapZ had no direct effect on channel activity. However, being added together with G-actin, CapZ prevented actin-induced channel inactivation, and this effect occurred at CapZ/actin molar ratios from 1:5 to 1:100. When actin was allowed to polymerize at the plasma membrane to induce partial channel inactivation, subsequent addition of CapZ restored the channel activity. These results can be explained by CapZ-induced inhibition of further assembly of actin filaments at the plasma membrane due to the modification of actin dynamics by CapZ. No effect on the channel activity was observed in response to F-actin, confirming that the mechanism of channel inactivation does not involve interaction of the channel with preformed filaments. Our data show that actin-capping protein can participate in the cytoskeleton-associated regulation of sodium transport in nonexcitable cells. PMID:12686620

  11. Posttranslational Regulation of Organic Anion Transporters by Ubiquitination: Known and Novel.

    PubMed

    Xu, Da; Wang, Haoxun; You, Guofeng

    2016-09-01

    Organic anion transporters (OATs) encoded by solute carrier 22 family are localized in the epithelia of multiple organs, where they mediate the absorption, distribution, and excretion of a diverse array of negatively charged environmental toxins and clinically important drugs. Alterations in the expression and function of OATs play important roles in intra- and interindividual variability of the therapeutic efficacy and the toxicity of many drugs. As a result, the activity of OATs must be under tight regulation so as to carry out their normal functions. The regulation of OAT transport activity in response to various stimuli can occur at several levels such as transcription, translation, and posttranslational modification. Posttranslational regulation is of particular interest, because it usually happens within a very short period of time (minutes to hours) when the body has to deal with rapidly changing amounts of substances as a consequence of variable intake of drugs, fluids, or meals as well as metabolic activity. This review article highlights the recent advances from our laboratory in uncovering several posttranslational mechanisms underlying OAT regulation. These advances offer the promise of identifying targets for novel strategies that will maximize therapeutic efficacy in drug development.

  12. Post-translational Regulation of Organic Anion Transporters by Ubiquitination: Known and Novel

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Da; Wang, Haoxun; You, Guofeng

    2016-01-01

    Synopsis Organic anion transporters (OATs) encoded by solute carrier 22 (SLC22) family are localized in the epithelia of multiple organs, where they mediate the absorption, distribution, and excretion of a diverse array of negatively charged environmental toxins and clinically important drugs. Alterations in the expression and function of OATs play important roles in intra- and inter-individual variability of the therapeutic efficacy and the toxicity of many drugs. As a result, the activity of OATs must be under tight regulation so as to carry out their normal functions. The regulation of OAT transport activity in response to various stimuli can occur at several levels such as transcription, translation, and posttranslational modification. Posttranslational regulation is of particular interest, because it usually happens within a very short period of time (minutes to hours) when the body has to deal with rapidly changing amounts of substances as a consequence of variable intake of drugs, fluids, or meals as well as metabolic activity. This review article highlights the recent advances from our laboratory in uncovering several posttranslational mechanisms underlying OAT regulation. These advances offer the promise of identifying targets for novel strategies that will maximize therapeutic efficacy in drug development. PMID:27291023

  13. Astrocyte Ca2+ Influx Negatively Regulates Neuronal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ormerod, Kiel G.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Maintenance of neural circuit activity requires appropriate regulation of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission. Recently, glia have emerged as key partners in the modulation of neuronal excitability; however, the mechanisms by which glia regulate neuronal signaling are still being elucidated. Here, we describe an analysis of how Ca2+ signals within Drosophila astrocyte-like glia regulate excitability in the nervous system. We find that Drosophila astrocytes exhibit robust Ca2+ oscillatory activity manifested by fast, recurrent microdomain Ca2+ fluctuations within processes that infiltrate the synaptic neuropil. Unlike the enhanced neuronal activity and behavioral seizures that were previously observed during manipulations that trigger Ca2+ influx into Drosophila cortex glia, we find that acute induction of astrocyte Ca2+ influx leads to a rapid onset of behavioral paralysis and a suppression of neuronal activity. We observe that Ca2+ influx triggers rapid endocytosis of the GABA transporter (GAT) from astrocyte plasma membranes, suggesting that increased synaptic GABA levels contribute to the neuronal silencing and paralysis. We identify Rab11 as a novel regulator of GAT trafficking that is required for this form of activity regulation. Suppression of Rab11 function strongly offsets the reduction of neuronal activity caused by acute astrocyte Ca2+ influx, likely by inhibiting GAT endocytosis. Our data provide new insights into astrocyte Ca2+ signaling and indicate that distinct glial subtypes in the Drosophila brain can mediate opposing effects on neuronal excitability. PMID:28303263

  14. Transport in active systems crowded by obstacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Mu-Jie; Schofield, Jeremy; Kapral, Raymond

    2017-02-01

    The reactive and diffusive dynamics of a single chemically powered Janus motor in a crowded medium of moving but passive obstacles is investigated using molecular simulation. It is found that the reaction rate of the catalytic motor reaction decreases in a crowded medium as the volume fraction of obstacles increases as a result of a reduction in the Smoluchowski diffusion-controlled reaction rate coefficient that contributes to the overall reaction rate. A continuum model is constructed and analyzed to interpret the dependence of the steady-state reaction rate observed in simulations on the volume fraction of obstacles in the system. The steady-state concentration fields of reactant and product are shown to be sensitive to the local structure of obstacles around the Janus motor. It is demonstrated that the active motor exhibits enhanced diffusive motion at long times with a diffusion constant that decreases as the volume fraction of crowding species increases. In addition, the dynamical properties of a passive tracer particle in a system containing many active Janus motors is studied to investigate how an active environment influences the transport of non-active species. The diffusivity of a passive tracer particle in an active medium is found to be enhanced in systems with forward-moving Janus motors due to the cooperative dynamics of these motors.

  15. Alternative electron transport pathways in photosynthesis: a confluence of regulation.

    PubMed

    Alric, Jean; Johnson, Xenie

    2017-06-01

    Photosynthetic reactions proceed along a linear electron transfer chain linking water oxidation at photosystem II (PSII) to CO2 reduction in the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle. Alternative pathways poise the electron carriers along the chain in response to changing light, temperature and CO2 inputs, under prolonged hydration stress and during development. We describe recent literature that reports the physiological functions of new molecular players. Such highlights include the flavodiiron proteins and their important role in the green lineage. The parsing of the proton-motive force between ΔpH and Δψ, regulated in many different ways (cyclic electron flow, ATPsynthase conductivity, ion/H(+) transporters), is comprehensively reported. This review focuses on an integrated description of alternative electron transfer pathways and how they contribute to photosynthetic productivity in the context of plant fitness to the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Regulation of hepatic bile acid transporters Ntcp and Bsep expression

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xingguo; Buckley, David; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2009-01-01

    Sodium-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp) and bile salt export pump (Bsep) are two key transporters for hepatic bile acid uptake and excretion. Alterations in Ntcp and Bsep expression have been reported in pathophysiological conditions. In the present study, the effects of age, gender, and various chemicals on the regulation of these two transporters were characterized in mice. Ntcp and Bsep mRNA levels in mouse liver were low in the fetus, but increased to its highest expression at parturition. After birth, mouse Ntcp and Bsep mRNA decreased by more than 50%, and then gradually increased to adult levels by day 30. Expression of mouse Ntcp mRNA and protein exhibit higher levels in female than male livers, which is consistent with the trend of human NTCP mRNA expression between men and women. No gender difference exists in BSEP/Bsep expression in human and mouse livers. Hormone replacements conducted in gonadectomized, hypophysectomized, and lit/lit mice indicate that female-predominant Ntcp expression in mouse liver is due to the inhibitory effect of male-pattern GH secretion, but not sex hormones. Ntcp and Bsep expression are in general resistant to induction by a large battery of microsomal enzyme inducers. Administration of cholestyramine increased Ntcp, whereas chenodeoxycholic acid increased Bsep mRNA expression. In silico analysis indicates that female-predominant mouse and human Ntcp/NTCP expression may be due to GH. In conclusion, mouse Ntcp and Bsep are regulated by age, gender, cholestyramine, and bile acid, but resistant to induction by most microsomal enzyme inducers. PMID:17897632

  17. New mechanisms that regulate Saccharomyces cerevisiae short peptide transporter achieve balanced intracellular amino acid concentrations.

    PubMed

    Melnykov, Artem V

    2016-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to take up large quantities of amino acids in the form of di- and tripeptides via a short peptide transporter, Ptr2p. It is known that PTR2 can be induced by certain peptides and amino acids, and the mechanisms governing this upregulation are understood at the molecular level. We describe two new opposing mechanisms of regulation that emphasize potential toxicity of amino acids: the first is upregulation of PTR2 in a population of cells, caused by amino acid secretion that accompanies peptide uptake; the second is loss of Ptr2p activity, due to transporter internalization following peptide uptake. Our findings emphasize the importance of proper amino acid balance in the cell and extend understanding of peptide import regulation in yeast.

  18. Karyopherins regulate nuclear pore complex barrier and transport function.

    PubMed

    Kapinos, Larisa E; Huang, Binlu; Rencurel, Chantal; Lim, Roderick Y H

    2017-09-01

    Nucleocytoplasmic transport is sustained by karyopherins (Kaps) and a Ran guanosine triphosphate (RanGTP) gradient that imports nuclear localization signal (NLS)-specific cargoes (NLS-cargoes) into the nucleus. However, how nuclear pore complex (NPC) barrier selectivity, Kap traffic, and NLS-cargo release are systematically linked and simultaneously regulated remains incoherent. In this study, we show that Kapα facilitates Kapβ1 turnover and occupancy at the NPC in a RanGTP-dependent manner that is directly coupled to NLS-cargo release and NPC barrier function. This is underpinned by the binding affinity of Kapβ1 to phenylalanine-glycine nucleoporins (FG Nups), which is comparable with RanGTP·Kapβ1, but stronger for Kapα·Kapβ1. On this basis, RanGTP is ineffective at releasing standalone Kapβ1 from NPCs. Depleting Kapα·Kapβ1 by RanGTP further abrogates NPC barrier function, whereas adding back Kapβ1 rescues it while Kapβ1 turnover softens it. Therefore, the FG Nups are necessary but insufficient for NPC barrier function. We conclude that Kaps constitute integral constituents of the NPC whose barrier, transport, and cargo release functionalities establish a continuum under a mechanism of Kap-centric control. © 2017 Kapinos et al.

  19. p53 regulates thymic Notch1 activation.

    PubMed

    Laws, Amy M; Osborne, Barbara A

    2004-03-01

    Notch is crucial for multiple stages of T cell development, including the CD4+CD8+ double positive (DP)/CD8+ single positive (SP) transition, but regulation of Notchactivation is not well understood. p53 regulates Presenilin1 (PS1) expression, and PS1 cleaves Notch, releasing its intracellular domain (NIC), leading to the expression of downstream targets, e.g. the HES1 gene. We hypothesize that p53 regulates Notch activity during T cell development. We found that Notch1 expression and activation were negatively regulated by p53in several thymoma lines. Additionally, NIC was elevated in Trp53(-/-) thymocytes as compared to Trp53(+/+) thymocytes. To determine if elevated Notch1 activation in Trp53(-/-) thymocytes had an effect on T cell development, CD4 and CD8 expression were analyzed. The CD4+ SP/CD8+ SP T cell ratio was decreased in Trp53(-/-) splenocytes and thymocytes. This alteration in T cell development correlated with the increased Notch1 activation observed in the absence of p53. These data indicate that p53 negatively regulates Notch1 activation during T cell development. Skewing of T cell development toward CD8+SP T cells in Trp53(-/-) mice is reminiscent of the phenotype of NIC-overexpressing mice. Thus, we suggest that p53 plays a role in T cell development, in part by regulating Notch1 activation.

  20. Methamphetamine Regulation of Firing Activity of Dopamine Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Min; Sambo, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a substrate for the dopamine transporter that increases extracellular dopamine levels by competing with dopamine uptake and increasing reverse transport of dopamine via the transporter. METH has also been shown to alter the excitability of dopamine neurons. The mechanism of METH regulation of the intrinsic firing behaviors of dopamine neurons is less understood. Here we identified an unexpected and unique property of METH on the regulation of firing activity of mouse dopamine neurons. METH produced a transient augmentation of spontaneous spike activity of midbrain dopamine neurons that was followed by a progressive reduction of spontaneous spike activity. Inspection of action potential morphology revealed that METH increased the half-width and produced larger coefficients of variation of the interspike interval, suggesting that METH exposure affected the activity of voltage-dependent potassium channels in these neurons. Since METH has been shown to affect Ca2+ homeostasis, the unexpected findings that METH broadened the action potential and decreased the amplitude of afterhyperpolarization led us to ask whether METH alters the activity of Ca2+-activated potassium (BK) channels. First, we identified BK channels in dopamine neurons by their voltage dependence and their response to a BK channel blocker or opener. While METH suppressed the amplitude of BK channel-mediated unitary currents, the BK channel opener NS1619 attenuated the effects of METH on action potential broadening, afterhyperpolarization repression, and spontaneous spike activity reduction. Live-cell total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, electrophysiology, and biochemical analysis suggest METH exposure decreased the activity of BK channels by decreasing BK-α subunit levels at the plasma membrane. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Methamphetamine (METH) competes with dopamine uptake, increases dopamine efflux via the dopamine transporter, and affects the excitability of

  1. Impact of river regulation on potential sediment mobilization and transport in an Alpine catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Anna; Molnar, Peter; Lane, Stuart N.; Bakker, Maarten

    2015-04-01

    The upper Rhône basin (upstream of Lake Geneva) has been heavily affected by human activities during the last century. The most evident impacts are related to river regulation, specifically flow impoundement, flow abstraction and channelization. In the last century and mainly since 1960, several large dams have been built along the main tributaries of the Rhône River, resulting in the water storage of a volume equal to 20% of the total annual river flow. The dams are part of hydropower systems which abstract water from streams and transfer it through complex networks (intakes, tunnels and pumping stations) to the reservoirs. Hydropower production leads to regulated flow in the Rhône: mostly an increase of winter flows, a reduction of summer flows, and a decrease of flood peaks. The sediment supply into Lake Geneva has decreased following dam construction (Loizeau & Dominik, 2000) due to the storage of sediment in upstream reservoirs, in rivers with reduced sediment transport capacity due to flow abstraction, and due to the development of sediment mining. Our hypothesis is that streamflow regulation itself has dramatically impacted the sediment transport dynamics of the system. We investigate the impacts of flow regulation on the sediment transport regime, by analysing the effects on potential sediment transport capacity (bedload). By the use of different bedload transport formulae (Meyer-Peter Müller, Wilcock and Crowe), the potential sediment transport capacity is computed at different cross sections within the basin. Potential sediment mobility occurs when the applied bed shear stress exceeds a critical value, τ>τc. The applied bed shear stress is computed as τ=ρghS, with water depth (h) measured from rating curves. We obtain an estimate of the energy slope (S) from the analysis of the river cross section, assuming uniform flow. The critical value of bed shear stress τc is computed using empirical formulae as a function of the grain diameter (ds). To

  2. Regulation of TRPM8 channel activity

    PubMed Central

    Yudin, Yevgen; Rohacs, Tibor

    2011-01-01

    Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8) is a Ca2+ permeable non-selective cation channel directly activated by cold temperatures and chemical agonists such as menthol. It is a well established sensor of environmental cold temperatures, found in peripheral sensory neurons, where its activation evokes depolarization and action potentials. The activity of TRPM8 is regulated by a number of cellular signaling pathways, most notably by phosphoinositides and the activation of phospholipase C. This review will summarize current knowledge on the physiological and pathophysiological roles of TRPM8 and its regulation by various intracellular messenger molecules and signaling pathways. PMID:22061619

  3. Calcium-Mediated Regulation of Proton-Coupled Sodium Transport - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Schumaker, Karen S

    2013-10-24

    The long-term goal of our experiments was to understand mechanisms that regulate energy coupling by ion currents in plants. Activities of living organisms require chemical, mechanical, osmotic or electrical work, the energy for which is supplied by metabolism. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) has long been recognized as the universal energy currency, with metabolism supporting the synthesis of ATP and the hydrolysis of ATP being used for the subsequent work. However, ATP is not the only energy currency in living organisms. A second and very different energy currency links metabolism to work by the movement of ions passing from one side of a membrane to the other. These ion currents play a major role in energy capture and they support a range of physiological processes from the active transport of nutrients to the spatial control of growth and development. In Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis), the activity of a plasma membrane Na+/H+ exchanger, SALT OVERLY SENSITIVE1 (SOS1), is essential for regulation of sodium ion homeostasis during plant growth in saline conditions. Mutations in SOS1 result in severely reduced seedling growth in the presence of salt compared to the growth of wild type. SOS1 is a secondary active transporter coupling movement of sodium ions out of the cell using energy stored in the transplasma membrane proton gradient, thereby preventing the build-up of toxic levels of sodium in the cytosol. SOS1 is regulated by complexes containing the SOS2 and CALCINEURIN B-LIKE10 (CBL10) or SOS3 proteins. CBL10 and SOS3 (also identified as CBL4) encode EF-hand calcium sensors that interact physically with and activate SOS2, a serine/threonine protein kinase. The CBL10/SOS2 or SOS3/SOS2 complexes then activate SOS1 Na+/H+ exchange activity. We completed our studies to understand how SOS1 activity is regulated. Specifically, we asked: (1) how does CBL10 regulate SOS1 activity? (2) What role do two putative CBL10-interacting proteins play in SOS1 regulation? (3) Are

  4. Iron-induced turnover of the Arabidopsis IRON-REGULATED TRANSPORTER1 metal transporter requires lysine residues.

    PubMed

    Kerkeb, Loubna; Mukherjee, Indrani; Chatterjee, Iera; Lahner, Brett; Salt, David E; Connolly, Erin L

    2008-04-01

    Iron is an essential micronutrient but is toxic if accumulated at high levels. Thus, iron uptake and distribution in plants are controlled by precise regulatory mechanisms. IRON-REGULATED TRANSPORTER1 (IRT1) is the major high affinity iron transporter responsible for iron uptake from the soil in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Previously, we showed that IRT1 is subject to posttranscriptional regulation; when expressed from the constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, IRT1 protein accumulates only in iron-deficient roots. IRT1 contains an intracellular loop that may be critical for posttranslational regulation by metals. Of particular interest are a histidine (His) motif (HGHGHGH) that might bind metals and two lysine residues that could serve as attachment sites for ubiquitin. We constructed a set of mutant IRT1 alleles: IRT1H154Q, IRT1H156Q, IRT1H158Q, IRT1H160Q, IRT14HQ (quadruple His mutant), IRT1K146R, IRT1K171R, and a double mutant (IRT1K146R,K171R). Mutation of the His or lysine residues did not eliminate the ability of IRT1 to transport iron or zinc. Expression of each of the IRT1 variants and an IRT1intact construct in plants from the 35S promoter revealed that either K146 or K171 is required for iron-induced protein turnover, and 35S-IRT1K146R,K171R plants contain higher levels of iron as compared to 35S-IRT1 and wild type. Furthermore, accumulation of metals in 35S-IRT1K146R,K171R plants was not associated with an increase in ferric chelate reductase activity; this result indicates that, at least under conditions when iron is abundant, reduction of ferric iron may not be the rate-limiting step in iron uptake by strategy I plants such as Arabidopsis.

  5. Regulation of human organic anion transporter 4 by parathyroid hormone-related protein and protein kinase A

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Peng; Li, Shanshan; You, Guofeng

    2012-01-01

    Human organic anion transporter 4 (hOAT4) belongs to a family of organic anion transporters that play critical roles in the body disposition of clinically important drugs, including anti-human immunodeficiency virus therapeutics, anti-tumor drugs, antibiotics, antihypertensives, and anti-inflammatories. hOAT4 is abundantly expressed in the kidney and placenta. In the current study, we examined the regulation of hOAT4 by parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and protein kinase A (PKA) in kidney COS-7 cells. PTHrP induced a time- and concentration-dependent stimulation of hOAT4 transport activity. The stimulation of hOAT4 activity by PTHrP mainly resulted from an increased cell surface expression without a change in total cell expression of the transporter. Activation of PKA by Bt2-cAMP also resulted in a stimulation of hOAT4 activity through an increased cell surface expression of the transporter. However, PTHrP-induced stimulation of hOAT4 activity could not be prevented by treating hOAT4-expressing cells with the PKA inhibitor H89. We concluded that both PTHrP and activation of PKA stimulate hOAT4 activity through redistribution of the transporter from intracellular compartments to the cell surface. However, PTHrP regulates hOAT4 activity by mechanisms independent of PKA pathway. PMID:23097748

  6. Interleukin-17A Regulates Renal Sodium Transporters and Renal Injury in Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Norlander, Allison E; Saleh, Mohamed A; Kamat, Nikhil V; Ko, Benjamin; Gnecco, Juan; Zhu, Linjue; Dale, Bethany L; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Hoover, Robert S; McDonough, Alicia A; Madhur, Meena S

    2016-07-01

    Angiotensin II-induced hypertension is associated with an increase in T-cell production of interleukin-17A (IL-17A). Recently, we reported that IL-17A(-/-) mice exhibit blunted hypertension, preserved natriuresis in response to a saline challenge, and decreased renal sodium hydrogen exchanger 3 expression after 2 weeks of angiotensin II infusion compared with wild-type mice. In the current study, we performed renal transporter profiling in mice deficient in IL-17A or the related isoform, IL-17F, after 4 weeks of Ang II infusion, the time when the blood pressure reduction in IL-17A(-/-) mice is most prominent. Deficiency of IL-17A abolished the activation of distal tubule transporters, specifically the sodium-chloride cotransporter and the epithelial sodium channel and protected mice from glomerular and tubular injury. In human proximal tubule (HK-2) cells, IL-17A increased sodium hydrogen exchanger 3 expression through a serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1-dependent pathway. In mouse distal convoluted tubule cells, IL-17A increased sodium-chloride cotransporter activity in a serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1/Nedd4-2-dependent pathway. In both cell types, acute treatment with IL-17A induced phosphorylation of serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 at serine 78, and treatment with a serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 inhibitor blocked the effects of IL-17A on sodium hydrogen exchanger 3 and sodium-chloride cotransporter. Interestingly, both HK-2 and mouse distal convoluted tubule 15 cells produce endogenous IL-17A. IL17F had little or no effect on blood pressure or renal sodium transporter abundance. These studies provide a mechanistic link by which IL-17A modulates renal sodium transport and suggest that IL-17A inhibition may improve renal function in hypertension and other autoimmune disorders. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Regulation of sarcolemmal glucose and fatty acid transporters in cardiac disease.

    PubMed

    Schwenk, Robert W; Luiken, Joost J F P; Bonen, Arend; Glatz, Jan F C

    2008-07-15

    Circulating long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) and glucose are the main sources for energy production in the heart. In the healthy heart the ratio of glucose and LCFA oxidation is sensitively balanced and chronic alterations in this substrate mix are closely associated with cardiac dysfunction. While it has been accepted for several years that cardiac glucose uptake is mediated by facilitated transport, i.e. by means of the glucose transport proteins GLUT1 and GLUT4, only in the last few years it has become clear that proteins with high-affinity binding sites to LCFA, referred to as LCFA transporters, are responsible for bulk LCFA uptake. Similar to the GLUTs, the LCFA transporters CD36 and FABP(pm) can be recruited from an intracellular storage compartment to the sarcolemma to increase the rate of substrate uptake. Permanent relocation of LCFA transporters, mainly CD36, from intracellular stores to the sarcolemma is accompanied by accumulation of lipids and lipid metabolites in the heart. As a consequence, insulin signalling and glucose utilization are impaired, leading to decreased contractile activity of the heart. These observations underline the particular role and interplay of substrate carriers for glucose and LCFA in modulating cardiac metabolism, and the development of heart failure. The signalling and trafficking pathways and subcellular machinery regulating translocation of glucose and LCFA transporters are beginning to be unravelled. More knowledge on substrate transporter recycling, especially the similarities and differences between glucose and LCFA transporters, is expected to enable novel therapies aimed at changing the subcellular distribution of glucose and LCFA transporters, thereby manipulating the substrate preference of the diseased heart to help restore cardiac function.

  8. ABC Transporters B1, C1 and G2 Differentially Regulate Neuroregeneration in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Toni; Krohn, Markus; Hofrichter, Jacqueline; Lange, Cathleen; Stenzel, Jan; Steffen, Johannes; Dunkelmann, Tina; Paarmann, Kristin; Fröhlich, Christina; Uecker, Annekathrin; Plath, Anne-Sophie; Sommer, Alexandra; Brüning, Thomas; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Pahnke, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Background ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are essential regulators of organismic homeostasis, and are particularly important in protecting the body from potentially harmful exogenous substances. Recently, an increasing number of in vitro observations have indicated a functional role of ABC transporters in the differentiation and maintenance of stem cells. Therefore, we sought to determine brain-related phenotypic changes in animals lacking the expression of distinct ABC transporters (ABCB1, ABCG2 or ABCC1). Methodology and Principal Findings Analyzing adult neurogenesis in ABC transporter-deficient animals in vivo and neuronal stem/progenitor cells in vitro resulted in complex findings. In vivo, the differentiation of neuronal progenitors was hindered in ABC transporter-deficient mice (ABCB10/0) as evidenced by lowered numbers of doublecortin+ (−36%) and calretinin+ (−37%) cells. In vitro, we confirmed that this finding is not connected to the functional loss of single neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs). Furthermore, assessment of activity, exploratory behavior, and anxiety levels revealed behavioral alterations in ABCB10/0 and ABCC10/0 mice, whereas ABCG20/0 mice were mostly unaffected. Conclusion and Significance Our data show that single ABC transporter-deficiency does not necessarily impair neuronal progenitor homeostasis on the single NSPC level, as suggested by previous studies. However, loss of distinct ABC transporters impacts global brain homeostasis with far ranging consequences, leading to impaired neurogenic functions in vivo and even to distinct behavioral phenotypes. In addition to the known role of ABC transporters in proteopathies such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, our data highlight the importance of understanding the general function of ABC transporters for the brain's homeostasis and the regeneration potential. PMID:22545122

  9. Differential regulation of placental amino acid transport by saturated and unsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Lager, Susanne; Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L

    2014-10-15

    Fatty acids are critical for normal fetal development but may also influence placental function. We have previously reported that oleic acid (OA) stimulates amino acid transport in primary human trophoblasts (PHTs). In other tissues, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids have distinct effects on cellular signaling, for instance, palmitic acid (PA) but not OA reduces IκBα expression. We hypothesized that saturated and unsaturated fatty acids differentially affect trophoblast amino acid transport and cellular signaling. To test this hypothesis, PHTs were cultured in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 50 μM), OA (100 μM), or PA (100 μM). DHA and OA were also combined to test whether DHA could counteract the OA stimulatory effect on amino acid transport. The effects of fatty acids were compared against a vehicle control. Amino acid transport was measured by isotope-labeled tracers. Activation of inflammatory-related signaling pathways and the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway were determined by Western blot analysis. Exposure of PHTs to DHA for 24 h reduced amino acid transport and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, STAT3, mTOR, eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1, and ribosomal protein (rp)S6. In contrast, OA increased amino acid transport and phosphorylation of ERK, mTOR, S6 kinase 1, and rpS6. The combination of DHA with OA increased amino acid transport and rpS6 phosphorylation. PA did not affect amino acid transport but reduced IκBα expression. In conclusion, these fatty acids differentially regulated placental amino acid transport and cellular signaling. Taken together, these findings suggest that dietary fatty acids could alter the intrauterine environment by modifying placental function, thereby having long-lasting effects on the developing fetus.

  10. Multiple GTP-binding proteins regulate vesicular transport from the ER to Golgi membranes

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Using indirect immunofluorescence we have examined the effects of reagents which inhibit the function of ras-related rab small GTP- binding proteins and heterotrimeric G alpha beta gamma proteins in ER to Golgi transport. Export from the ER was inhibited by an antibody towards rab1B and an NH2-terminal peptide which inhibits ARF function (Balch, W. E., R. A. Kahn, and R. Schwaninger. 1992. J. Biol. Chem. 267:13053-13061), suggesting that both of these small GTP-binding proteins are essential for the transport vesicle formation. Export from the ER was also potently inhibited by mastoparan, a peptide which mimics G protein binding regions of seven transmembrane spanning receptors activating and uncoupling heterotrimeric G proteins from their cognate receptors. Consistent with this result, purified beta gamma subunits inhibited the export of VSV-G from the ER suggesting an initial event in transport vesicle assembly was regulated by a heterotrimeric G protein. In contrast, incubation in the presence of GTP gamma S or AIF(3-5) resulted in the accumulation of transported protein in different populations of punctate pre-Golgi intermediates distributed throughout the cytoplasm of the cell. Finally, a peptide which is believed to antagonize the interaction of rab proteins with putative downstream effector molecules inhibited transport at a later step preceding delivery to the cis Golgi compartment, similar to the site of accumulation of transported protein in the absence of NSF or calcium (Plutner, H., H. W. Davidson, J. Saraste, and W. E. Balch. 1992. J. Cell Biol. 119:1097-1116). These results are consistent with the hypothesis that multiple GTP-binding proteins including a heterotrimeric G protein(s), ARF and rab1 differentially regulate steps in the transport of protein between early compartments of the secretory pathway. The concept that G protein-coupled receptors gate the export of protein from the ER is discussed. PMID:1447289

  11. 77 FR 51706 - Transportation of Household Goods in Interstate Commerce; Consumer Protection Regulations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 375 RIN 2126-AB41 Transportation of Household Goods in Interstate Commerce; Consumer Protection Regulations: Household Goods Motor Carrier...

  12. A general method for determining secondary active transporter substrate stoichiometry.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Gabriel A; Mulligan, Christopher; Mindell, Joseph A

    2017-01-25

    The number of ions required to drive substrate transport through a secondary active transporter determines the protein's ability to create a substrate gradient, a feature essential to its physiological function, and places fundamental constraints on the transporter's mechanism. Stoichiometry is known for a wide array of mammalian transporters, but, due to a lack of readily available tools, not for most of the prokaryotic transporters for which high-resolution structures are available. Here, we describe a general method for using radiolabeled substrate flux assays to determine coupling stoichiometries of electrogenic secondary active transporters reconstituted in proteoliposomes by measuring transporter equilibrium potentials. We demonstrate the utility of this method by determining the coupling stoichiometry of VcINDY, a bacterial Na(+)-coupled succinate transporter, and further validate it by confirming the coupling stoichiometry of vSGLT, a bacterial sugar transporter. This robust thermodynamic method should be especially useful in probing the mechanisms of transporters with available structures.

  13. Hypoinsulinemia Regulates Amphetamine-Induced Reverse Transport of Dopamine

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jason M; Owens, W. Anthony; Turner, Gregory H; Saunders, Christine; Dipace, Concetta; Blakely, Randy D; France, Charles P; Gore, John C; Daws, Lynette C; Avison, Malcolm J; Galli, Aurelio

    2007-01-01

    The behavioral effects of psychomotor stimulants such as amphetamine (AMPH) arise from their ability to elicit increases in extracellular dopamine (DA). These AMPH-induced increases are achieved by DA transporter (DAT)-mediated transmitter efflux. Recently, we have shown that AMPH self-administration is reduced in rats that have been depleted of insulin with the diabetogenic agent streptozotocin (STZ). In vitro studies suggest that hypoinsulinemia may regulate the actions of AMPH by inhibiting the insulin downstream effectors phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (PKB, or Akt), which we have previously shown are able to fine-tune DAT cell-surface expression. Here, we demonstrate that striatal Akt function, as well as DAT cell-surface expression, are significantly reduced by STZ. In addition, our data show that the release of DA, determined by high-speed chronoamperometry (HSCA) in the striatum, in response to AMPH, is severely impaired in these insulin-deficient rats. Importantly, selective inhibition of PI3K with LY294002 within the striatum results in a profound reduction in the subsequent potential for AMPH to evoke DA efflux. Consistent with our biochemical and in vivo electrochemical data, findings from functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments reveal that the ability of AMPH to elicit positive blood oxygen level–dependent signal changes in the striatum is significantly blunted in STZ-treated rats. Finally, local infusion of insulin into the striatum of STZ-treated animals significantly recovers the ability of AMPH to stimulate DA release as measured by high-speed chronoamperometry. The present studies establish that PI3K signaling regulates the neurochemical actions of AMPH-like psychomotor stimulants. These data suggest that insulin signaling pathways may represent a novel mechanism for regulating DA transmission, one which may be targeted for the treatment of AMPH abuse and potentially other dopaminergic disorders. PMID

  14. Regulation of epithelial calcium transport by prolactin: from fish to mammals.

    PubMed

    Wongdee, Kannikar; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol

    2013-01-15

    Among the reported ∼300 biological actions, the established role of prolactin (PRL) is to act as a vertebrate hypercalcemic hormone that regulates epithelial calcium transport in several organs, such as the gills, intestine, and kidney. In fish, PRL stimulates the branchial calcium transport by increasing the activity of Ca(2+)-ATPase. Although this calciotropic hormone also induces hypercalcemia in amphibians, reptiles and birds, little has been known regarding the underlying mechanism. In contrast, the effects of PRL on the epithelial calcium transport in mammals are well documented. In rodents, PRL has been shown to stimulate the renal tubular calcium reabsorption and intestinal calcium absorption, the latter of which is mediated by the PRL-induced upregulation of calcium transporter gene expression and activities. Recently, we demonstrated that the duodenal calcium absorption in lactating rats was markedly enhanced by the suckling-induced PRL surge, presumably to provide calcium for milk production. The cellular and molecular mechanisms of the PRL-stimulated calcium transport in mammals have been elaborated in this review. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Regulation of dopamine transporter function by protein-protein interactions: new discoveries and methodological challenges.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Jacob; Jørgensen, Trine Nygaard; Gether, Ulrik

    2010-04-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) plays a key role in regulating dopaminergic signalling in the brain by mediating rapid clearance of dopamine from the synaptic clefts. The psychostimulatory actions of cocaine and amphetamine are primarily the result of a direct interaction of these compounds with DAT leading to attenuated dopamine clearance and for amphetamine even increased dopamine release. In the last decade, intensive efforts have been directed towards understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms governing the activity and availability of DAT in the plasma membrane of the pre-synaptic neurons. This has led to the identification of a plethora of different kinases, receptors and scaffolding proteins that interact with DAT and hereby either modulate the catalytic activity of the transporter or regulate its trafficking and degradation. Several new tools for studying DAT regulation in live cells have also recently become available such as fluorescently tagged cocaine analogues and fluorescent substrates. Here we review the current knowledge about the role of protein-protein interactions in DAT regulation as well as we describe the most recent methodological developments that have been established to overcome the challenges associated with the study of DAT in endogenous systems.

  16. Identification of glucose-6-phosphate transporter as a key regulator functioning at the autophagy initiation step.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hye-Hyun; Oh, Yumin; Lee, Huikyong; Lee, WonJae; Chang, Jae-Woong; Pyo, Ha-Kyung; Nah, Do hyung; Jung, Yong-Keun

    2015-07-22

    Autophagy is a catabolic process involving autophagosome formation via lysosome. However, the initiation step of autophagy is largely unknown. We found an interaction between ULK1 and ATG9 in mammalian cells and utilized the interaction to identify novel regulators of autophagy upstream of ULK1. We established a cell-based screening assay employing bimolecular fluorescence complementation. By performing gain-of-function screening, we identified G6PT as an autophagy activator. G6PT enhanced the interaction between N-terminal Venus-tagged ULK1 and C-terminal Venus-tagged ATG9, and increased autophagic flux independent of its transport activity. G6PT negatively regulated mTORC1 activity, demonstrating that G6PT functions upstream of mTORC1 in stimulating autophagy.

  17. Characterization of factors affecting the activity of photosystem I cyclic electron transport in chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Okegawa, Yuki; Kagawa, Yugo; Kobayashi, Yoshichika; Shikanai, Toshiharu

    2008-05-01

    PSI cyclic electron transport is essential for photosynthesis and photoprotection. In higher plants, the antimycin A-sensitive pathway is the main route of electrons in PSI cyclic electron transport. Although a small thylakoid protein, PGR5 (PROTON GRADIENT REGULATION 5), is essential for this pathway, its function is still unclear, and there are numerous debates on the rate of electron transport in vivo and its regulation. To assess how PGR5-dependent PSI cyclic electron transport is regulated in vivo, we characterized its activity in ruptured chloroplasts isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana. The activity of ferredoxin (Fd)-dependent plastoquinone (PQ) reduction in the dark is impaired in the pgr5 mutant. Alkalinization of the reaction medium enhanced the activity of Fd-dependent PQ reduction in the wild type. Even weak actinic light (AL) illumination also markedly activated PGR5-dependent PSI cyclic electron transport in ruptured chloroplasts. Even in the presence of linear electron transport [11 mumol O2 (mg Chl)(-1) h(-1)], PGR5-dependent PSI electron transport was detected as a difference in Chl fluorescence levels in ruptured chloroplasts. In the wild type, PGR5-dependent PSI cyclic electron transport competed with NADP+ photoreduction. These results suggest that the rate of PGR5-dependent PSI cyclic electron transport is high enough to balance the production ratio of ATP and NADPH during steady-state photosynthesis, consistently with the pgr5 mutant phenotype. Our results also suggest that the activity of PGR5-dependent PSI cyclic electron transport is regulated by the redox state of the NADPH pool.

  18. Platelet Serotonin Transporter Function Predicts Default-Mode Network Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kasess, Christian H.; Meyer, Bernhard M.; Hofmaier, Tina; Diers, Kersten; Bartova, Lucie; Pail, Gerald; Huf, Wolfgang; Uzelac, Zeljko; Hartinger, Beate; Kalcher, Klaudius; Perkmann, Thomas; Haslacher, Helmuth; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Kasper, Siegfried; Freissmuth, Michael; Windischberger, Christian; Willeit, Matthäus; Lanzenberger, Rupert; Esterbauer, Harald; Brocke, Burkhard; Moser, Ewald; Sitte, Harald H.; Pezawas, Lukas

    2014-01-01

    Background The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) is abundantly expressed in humans by the serotonin transporter gene SLC6A4 and removes serotonin (5-HT) from extracellular space. A blood-brain relationship between platelet and synaptosomal 5-HT reuptake has been suggested, but it is unknown today, if platelet 5-HT uptake can predict neural activation of human brain networks that are known to be under serotonergic influence. Methods A functional magnetic resonance study was performed in 48 healthy subjects and maximal 5-HT uptake velocity (Vmax) was assessed in blood platelets. We used a mixed-effects multilevel analysis technique (MEMA) to test for linear relationships between whole-brain, blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) activity and platelet Vmax. Results The present study demonstrates that increases in platelet Vmax significantly predict default-mode network (DMN) suppression in healthy subjects independent of genetic variation within SLC6A4. Furthermore, functional connectivity analyses indicate that platelet Vmax is related to global DMN activation and not intrinsic DMN connectivity. Conclusion This study provides evidence that platelet Vmax predicts global DMN activation changes in healthy subjects. Given previous reports on platelet-synaptosomal Vmax coupling, results further suggest an important role of neuronal 5-HT reuptake in DMN regulation. PMID:24667541

  19. Peptide-size dependent active transport in the proteasome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaikin, A.; Pöschel, T.

    2005-03-01

    We investigate the transport of proteins inside the proteasome and propose an active-transport mechanism based on a spatially asymmetric interaction potential of peptide chains. The transport is driven by fluctuations which are always present in such systems. We compute the peptide-size dependent transport rate which is essential for the functioning of the proteasome. In agreement with recent experiments, varying temperature changes the transport mechanism qualitatively.

  20. Active electrolyte transport in mammalian buccal mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Orlando, R.C.; Tobey, N.A.; Schreiner, V.J.; Readling, R.D. )

    1988-09-01

    The transmural electrical potential difference (PD) was measured in vivo across the buccal mucosa of humans and experimental animals. Mean PD was {minus}31 {plus minus} 2 mV in humans, {minus}34 {plus minus} 2 mV in dogs, {minus}39 {plus minus} 2 mV in rabbits, and {minus}18 {plus minus} 1 mV in hamsters. The mechanisms responsible for this PD were explored in Ussing chambers using dog buccal mucosa. Fluxes of ({sup 14}C)mannitol, a marker of paracellular permeability, varied directly with tissue conductance. The net fluxes of {sup 22}Na and {sup 36}Cl were +0.21 {plus minus} 0.05 and {minus}0.04 {plus minus} 0.02 {mu}eq/h{center dot}cm{sup 2}, respectively, but only the Na{sup +} flux differed significantly from zero. I{sub sc} was reduced by luminal amiloride, serosal ouabain, or by reducing luminal Na{sup +} below 20 mM. This indicated that the I{sub sc} was determined primarily by active Na{sup +} absorption and that Na{sup +} traverses the apical membrane at least partly through amiloride-sensitive channels and exists across the basolateral membrane through Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase activity. The authors conclude that buccal mucosa is capable of active electrolyte transport and that this capacity contributes to generation of the buccal PD in vivo.

  1. Constant change: dynamic regulation of membrane transport by calcium signalling networks keeps plants in tune with their environment.

    PubMed

    Kleist, Thomas J; Luan, Sheng

    2016-03-01

    Despite substantial variation and irregularities in their environment, plants must conform to spatiotemporal demands on the molecular composition of their cytosol. Cell membranes are the major interface between organisms and their environment and the basis for controlling the contents and intracellular organization of the cell. Membrane transport proteins (MTPs) govern the flow of molecules across membranes, and their activities are closely monitored and regulated by cell signalling networks. By continuously adjusting MTP activities, plants can mitigate the effects of environmental perturbations, but effective implementation of this strategy is reliant on precise coordination among transport systems that reside in distinct cell types and membranes. Here, we examine the role of calcium signalling in the coordination of membrane transport, with an emphasis on potassium transport. Potassium is an exceptionally abundant and mobile ion in plants, and plant potassium transport has been intensively studied for decades. Classic and recent studies have underscored the importance of calcium in plant environmental responses and membrane transport regulation. In reviewing recent advances in our understanding of the coding and decoding of calcium signals, we highlight established and emerging roles of calcium signalling in coordinating membrane transport among multiple subcellular locations and distinct transport systems in plants, drawing examples from the CBL-CIPK signalling network. By synthesizing classical studies and recent findings, we aim to provide timely insights on the role of calcium signalling networks in the modulation of membrane transport and its importance in plant environmental responses.

  2. Identification and characterization of the zinc-regulated transporters, iron-regulated transporter-like protein (ZIP) gene family in maize.

    PubMed

    Li, Suzhen; Zhou, Xiaojin; Huang, Yaqun; Zhu, Liying; Zhang, Shaojun; Zhao, Yongfeng; Guo, Jinjie; Chen, Jingtang; Chen, Rumei

    2013-08-08

    Zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) are essential micronutrients for plant growth and development, their deficiency or excess severely impaired physiological and biochemical reactions of plants. Therefore, a tightly controlled zinc and iron uptake and homeostasis network has been evolved in plants. The Zinc-regulated transporters, Iron-regulated transporter-like Proteins (ZIP) are capable of uptaking and transporting divalent metal ion and are suggested to play critical roles in balancing metal uptake and homeostasis, though a detailed analysis of ZIP gene family in maize is still lacking. Nine ZIP-coding genes were identified in maize genome. It was revealed that the ZmZIP proteins share a conserved transmembrane domain and a variable region between TM-3 and TM-4. Transiently expression in onion epidermal cells revealed that all ZmZIP proteins were localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane. The yeast complementation analysis was performed to test the Zn or Fe transporter activity of ZmZIP proteins. Expression analysis showed that the ZmIRT1 transcripts were dramatically induced in response to Zn- and Fe-deficiency, though the expression profiles of other ZmZIP changed variously. The expression patterns of ZmZIP genes were observed in different stages of embryo and endosperm development. The accumulations of ZmIRT1 and ZmZIP6 were increased in the late developmental stages of embryo, while ZmZIP4 was up-regulated during the early development of embryo. In addition, the expression of ZmZIP5 was dramatically induced associated with middle stage development of embryo and endosperm. These results suggest that ZmZIP genes encode functional Zn or Fe transporters that may be responsible for the uptake, translocation, detoxification and storage of divalent metal ion in plant cells. The various expression patterns of ZmZIP genes in embryo and endosperm indicates that they may be essential for ion translocation and storage during differential stages of embryo and

  3. Identification and characterization of the zinc-regulated transporters, iron-regulated transporter-like protein (ZIP) gene family in maize

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) are essential micronutrients for plant growth and development, their deficiency or excess severely impaired physiological and biochemical reactions of plants. Therefore, a tightly controlled zinc and iron uptake and homeostasis network has been evolved in plants. The Zinc-regulated transporters, Iron-regulated transporter-like Proteins (ZIP) are capable of uptaking and transporting divalent metal ion and are suggested to play critical roles in balancing metal uptake and homeostasis, though a detailed analysis of ZIP gene family in maize is still lacking. Results Nine ZIP-coding genes were identified in maize genome. It was revealed that the ZmZIP proteins share a conserved transmembrane domain and a variable region between TM-3 and TM-4. Transiently expression in onion epidermal cells revealed that all ZmZIP proteins were localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane. The yeast complementation analysis was performed to test the Zn or Fe transporter activity of ZmZIP proteins. Expression analysis showed that the ZmIRT1 transcripts were dramatically induced in response to Zn- and Fe-deficiency, though the expression profiles of other ZmZIP changed variously. The expression patterns of ZmZIP genes were observed in different stages of embryo and endosperm development. The accumulations of ZmIRT1 and ZmZIP6 were increased in the late developmental stages of embryo, while ZmZIP4 was up-regulated during the early development of embryo. In addition, the expression of ZmZIP5 was dramatically induced associated with middle stage development of embryo and endosperm. Conclusions These results suggest that ZmZIP genes encode functional Zn or Fe transporters that may be responsible for the uptake, translocation, detoxification and storage of divalent metal ion in plant cells. The various expression patterns of ZmZIP genes in embryo and endosperm indicates that they may be essential for ion translocation and storage during

  4. RirA is the iron response regulator of the rhizobactin 1021 biosynthesis and transport genes in Sinorhizobium meliloti 2011.

    PubMed

    Viguier, Caroline; O Cuív, Páraic; Clarke, Paul; O'Connell, Michael

    2005-05-15

    The genes encoding the biosynthesis and transport of rhizobactin 1021, a siderophore produced by Sinorhizobium meliloti, are negatively regulated by iron. Mutagenesis of rirA, the rhizobial iron regulator, resulted in abolition of the iron responsive regulation of the biosynthesis and transport genes. Bioassay analysis revealed that the siderophore is produced in the presence of iron in a rirA mutant. RNA analysis and GFP fusions supported the conclusion that RirA is the mediator of iron-responsive transcriptional repression of the two transcripts encoding the biosynthesis and transport genes. RirA in S. meliloti appears to fulfil the role often observed for Fur in other bacterial species. The regulator was found to mediate the iron-responsive expression of two additional genes, smc02726 and dppA1, repressing the former while activating the latter. The rirA mutant nodulated the host plant Medicago sativa (alfalfa) and fixed nitrogen as effectively as the wild type.

  5. Cortisol and IGF-1 synergistically up-regulate taurine transport by the rat skeletal muscle cell line, L6.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung-Hee; Lee, Haemi; Park, Taesun

    2004-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate effects of exercise-induced hormones, cortisol, IGF-1, and beta-endorphin, on the regulation of taurine transport activity in rat skeletal myoblasts, L6 cells. Challenge of L6 cells with cortisol (100 nM) for 24 hrs resulted in a 165% increase in taurine transport activity, 220% increase in Vmax of the taurine transporter, and 55% increase in taurine transporter/ beta-actin mRNA level compared with untreated control cells. Neither IGF-1 (1 approximately 100 nM) nor beta-endorphin (1 approximately 20 nM), added in the incubation medium separately for 24 hrs, affected taurine uptake by L6 cells. However, when cells were co-treated with IGF-1 (10 nM) plus cortisol (100 nM), taurine transport activity (37% increase, p < 0.05), Vmax of the transporter (54%, p < 0.05), and taurine transporter/ beta-actin mRNA level were further increased compared to the value for cells treated with cortisol alone. These results suggest that taurine transport by skeletal muscle cells appear to be synergistically up-regulated during a prolonged exercise via elevated levels of cortisol and IGF-1 in muscle.

  6. Integration of a 'proton antenna' facilitates transport activity of the monocarboxylate transporter MCT4.

    PubMed

    Noor, Sina Ibne; Pouyssegur, Jacques; Deitmer, Joachim W; Becker, Holger M

    2017-01-01

    Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) mediate the proton-coupled transport of high-energy metabolites like lactate and pyruvate and are expressed in nearly every mammalian tissue. We have shown previously that transport activity of MCT4 is enhanced by carbonic anhydrase II (CAII), which has been suggested to function as a 'proton antenna' for the transporter. In the present study, we tested whether creation of an endogenous proton antenna by introduction of a cluster of histidine residues into the C-terminal tail of MCT4 (MCT4-6xHis) could facilitate MCT4 transport activity when heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Our results show that integration of six histidines into the C-terminal tail does indeed increase transport activity of MCT4 to the same extent as did coexpression of MCT4-WT with CAII. Transport activity of MCT4-6xHis could be further enhanced by coexpression with extracellular CAIV, but not with intracellular CAII. Injection of an antibody against the histidine cluster into MCT4-expressing oocytes decreased transport activity of MCT4-6xHis, while leaving activity of MCT4-WT unaltered. Taken together, these findings suggest that transport activity of the proton-coupled monocarboxylate transporter MCT4 can be facilitated by integration of an endogenous proton antenna into the transporter's C-terminal tail. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  7. Characteristics and pharmacological regulation of epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) and epithelial Na+ transport.

    PubMed

    Marunaka, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial Na(+) transport participates in control of various body functions and conditions: e.g., homeostasis of body fluid content influencing blood pressure, control of amounts of fluids covering the apical surface of alveolar epithelial cells at appropriate levels for normal gas exchange, and prevention of bacterial/viral infection. Epithelial Na(+) transport via the transcellular pathway is mediated by the entry step of Na(+) across the apical membrane via Epithelial Na(+) Channel (ENaC) located at the apical membrane, and the extrusion step of Na(+) across the basolateral membrane via the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase located at the basolateral membrane. The rate-limiting step of the epithelial Na(+) transport via the transcellular pathway is generally recognized to be the entry step of Na(+) across the apical membrane via ENaC. Thus, up-/down-regulation of ENaC essentially participates in regulatory systems of blood pressure and normal gas exchange. Amount of ENaC-mediated Na(+) transport is determined by the number of ENaCs located at the apical membrane, activity (open probability) of individual ENaC located at the apical membrane, single channel conductance of ENaC located at the apical membrane, and driving force for the Na(+) entry via ENaCs across the apical membrane. In the present review article, I discuss the characteristics of ENaC and how these factors are regulated.

  8. The maltose ABC transporter: action of membrane lipids on the transporter stability, coupling and ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Bao, Huan; Dalal, Kush; Wang, Victor; Rouiller, Isabelle; Duong, Franck

    2013-08-01

    The coupling between ATP hydrolysis and substrate transport remains a key question in the understanding of ABC-mediated transport. We show using the MalFGK2 complex reconstituted into nanodiscs, that membrane lipids participate directly to the coupling reaction by stabilizing the transporter in a low energy conformation. When surrounded by short acyl chain phospholipids, the transporter is unstable and hydrolyzes large amounts of ATP without inducing maltose. The presence of long acyl chain phospholipids stabilizes the conformational dynamics of the transporter, reduces its ATPase activity and restores dependence on maltose. Membrane lipids therefore play an essential allosteric function, they restrict the transporter ATPase activity to increase coupling to the substrate. In support to the notion, we show that increasing the conformational dynamics of MalFGK2 with mutations in MalF increases the transporter ATPase activity but decreases the maltose transport efficiency.

  9. Post-translational modification by acetylation regulates the mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine transport protein.

    PubMed

    Giangregorio, Nicola; Tonazzi, Annamaria; Console, Lara; Indiveri, Cesare

    2017-02-01

    The carnitine/acylcarnitine transporter (CACT; SLC25A20) mediates an antiport reaction allowing entry of acyl moieties in the form of acylcarnitines into the mitochondrial matrix and exit of free carnitine. The transport function of CACT is crucial for the β-oxidation pathway. In this work, it has been found that CACT is partially acetylated in rat liver mitochondria as demonstrated by anti-acetyl-lys antibody immunostaining. Acetylation was reversed by the deacetylase Sirtuin 3 in the presence of NAD(+). After treatment of the mitochondrial extract with the deacetylase, the CACT activity, assayed in proteoliposomes, increased. The half-saturation constant of the CACT was not influenced, while the V max was increased by deacetylation. Sirtuin 3 was not able to deacetylate the CACT when incubation was performed in intact mitoplasts, indicating that the acetylation sites are located in the mitochondrial matrix. Prediction on the localization of acetylated residues by bioinformatics correlates well with the experimental data. Recombinant CACT treated with acetyl-CoA was partially acetylated by non-enzymatic mechanism with a corresponding decrease of transport activity. The experimental data indicate that acetylation of CACT inhibits its transport activity, and thus may contribute to the regulation of the mitochondrial β-oxidation pathway.

  10. Regulation of glomerulotubular balance: flow-activated proximal tubule function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tong; Weinbaum, Sheldon; Weinstein, Alan M

    2017-03-07

    The purpose of this review is to summarize our knowledge and understanding of the physiological importance and the mechanisms underlying flow-activated proximal tubule transport. Since the earliest micropuncture studies of mammalian proximal tubule, it has been recognized that tubular flow is an important regulator of sodium, potassium, and acid-base transport in the kidney. Increased fluid flow stimulates Na(+) and HCO3(-) absorption in the proximal tubule via stimulation of Na/H-exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) and H(+)-ATPase. In the proximal tubule, brush border microvilli are the major flow sensors, which experience changes in hydrodynamic drag and bending moment as luminal flow velocity changes and which transmit the force of altered flow to cytoskeletal structures within the cell. The signal to NHE3 depends upon the integrity of the actin cytoskeleton; the signal to the H(+)-ATPase depends upon microtubules. We have demonstrated that alterations in fluid drag impact tubule function by modulating ion transporter availability within the brush border membrane of the proximal tubule. Beyond that, there is evidence that transporter activity within the peritubular membrane is also modulated by luminal flow. Secondary messengers that regulate the flow-mediated tubule function have also been delineated. Dopamine blunts the responsiveness of proximal tubule transporters to changes in luminal flow velocity, while a DA1 antagonist increases flow sensitivity of solute reabsorption. IP3 receptor-mediated intracellular Ca(2+) signaling is critical to transduction of microvillus drag. In this review, we summarize our findings of the regulatory mechanism of flow-mediated Na(+) and HCO3(-) transport in the proximal tubule and review available information about flow sensing and regulatory mechanism of glomerulotubular balance.

  11. Calorie restriction up-regulates iron and copper transport genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Praveen Kumar; Mittal, Nitish; Deswal, Sumit; Roy, Nilanjan

    2011-02-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is a non genetic intervention, known to confer longevity benefits across the various phyla from unicellular yeast to mammals. CR also invokes homeostatic responses similar to stress, however the sequence of molecular events leading to longevity is still illusive. In this study, we analysed the whole genome gene expression profile in response to CR, mutations mimicking CR, heat shock and H(2)O(2) from a gene ontology perspective. Our analysis revealed that mitochondrion is a common hub in the gene expression programme under these conditions and the electron transport chain (ETC) is a major player. Consequently the genes involved in the metal ion transport were also significantly up-regulated. We confirmed the results of the in silico analysis using quantitative real time PCR which showed up-regulation of genes involved in respiration and transport of iron and copper. The promoter activity of one of the representative genes, FET3, was also found to be higher upon calorie restriction. Altogether, our results indicate that upon calorie restriction the levels of iron and copper fall in cells, which elicits a transcriptional response up-regulating the genes involved in their uptake to maintain cellular homeostasis.

  12. Regulation of L-cystine transport in Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed Central

    Baptist, E W; Kredich, N M

    1977-01-01

    A kinetic analysis of L-cystine uptake in wild-type Salmonella typhimurium indicates the presence of at least two, and possibly three, separate transport systems. CTS-1 accounts for the majority of uptake at 20 muM L-cystine, with a Vmax of 9.5 nmol/min per mg and a Km of 2.0 muM; CTS-2 is a low-capacity, higher-affinity system with a Vmax of 0.22 nmol/min per mg and a Km of 0.05 muM; a third, nonsaturable process has been designated CTS-3. We find that wild-type CTS-1 levels are at least 11 times higher in sulfur-limited cells than in L-cystine-grown cells. Pleiotropic cysteine auxotrophs of the types cysE (lacking serine transacetylase) and cysB- (lacking a regulatory element of positive control) have very low levels of CTS-1 even when grown under conditions of sulfur limitation, which response is analogous to that previously observed for cysteine biosynthetic enzymes (N . M. Kredich, J. Biol. Chem. 246:3474-3484, 1971). CTS-1 is induced in cysE mutants by growth in the presence of O-acetyl-L-serine (the product of serine transacetylase), again paralleling the behavior of the cysteine biosynthetic pathway. Strain DW25, a prototrophic cysBc mutant, which is constitutive for cysteine biosynthesis, is also derepressed for CTS-1 when grown on L-cystine. Since CTS-1 is regulated by sulfur limitation, O-acetyl-L-serine, and the cysB gene product, the same three conditions controlling cysteine biosynthesis, we propose that this transport system is a part of the cysteine regulon. PMID:326753

  13. Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Regulation of Ion Transport in Porcine Vocal Fold Mucosae

    PubMed Central

    Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi; Nofziger, Charity; Blazer-Yost, Bonnie

    2012-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is an important biological molecule that regulates ion transport and inflammatory responses in epithelial tissue. The present study examined whether the adenylyl cyclase activator, forskolin, would increase cAMP concentration in porcine vocal fold mucosa and whether the effects of increased cAMP would be manifested as a functional increase in transepithelial ion transport. Additionally, changes in cAMP concentrations following exposure to an inflammatory mediator, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) were investigated. Study Design In vitro experimental design with matched treatment and control groups. Methods Porcine vocal fold mucosae (N = 30) and tracheal mucosae (N = 20) were exposed to forskolin, TNFα, or vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide) treatment. cAMP concentrations were determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Ion transport was measured using electrophysiological techniques. Results Thirty minute exposure to forskolin significantly increased cAMP concentration and ion transport in porcine vocal fold and tracheal mucosae. However, 30-minute and 2-hour exposure to TNFα did not significantly alter cAMP concentration. Conclusions We demonstrate that forskolin-sensitive adenylyl cyclase is present in vocal fold mucosa, and further, that the product, cAMP increases vocal fold ion transport. The results presented here contribute to our understanding of the intracellular mechanisms underlying vocal fold ion transport. As ion transport is important for maintaining superficial vocal fold hydration, data demonstrating forskolin-stimulated ion transport in vocal fold mucosa suggest opportunities for developing pharmacological treatments that increase surface hydration. PMID:18596479

  14. Berberine acutely activates the glucose transport activity of GLUT1.

    PubMed

    Cok, Alexandra; Plaisier, Christina; Salie, Matthew J; Oram, Daniel S; Chenge, Jude; Louters, Larry L

    2011-07-01

    Berberine, which has a long history of use in Chinese medicine, has recently been shown to have efficacy in the treatment of diabetes. While the hypoglycemic effect of berberine has been clearly documented in animal and cell line models, such as 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myotube cells, the mechanism of action appears complex with data implicating activation of the insulin signaling pathway as well as activation of the exercise or AMP kinase-mediated pathway. There have been no reports of the acute affects of berberine on the transport activity of the insulin-insensitive glucose transporter, GLUT1. Therefore, we examined the acute effects of berberine on glucose uptake in L929 fibroblast cells, a cell line that express only GLUT1. Berberine- activated glucose uptake reaching maximum stimulation of five-fold at >40 μM. Significant activation (P < 0.05) was measured within 5 min reaching a maximum by 30 min. The berberine effect was not additive to the maximal stimulation by other known stimulants, azide, methylene blue or glucose deprivation, suggesting shared steps between berberine and these stimulants. Berberine significantly reduced the K(m) of glucose uptake from 6.7 ± 1.9 mM to 0.55 ± 0.08 mM, but had no effect on the V(max) of uptake. Compound C, an inhibitor of AMP kinase, did not affect berberine-stimulated glucose uptake, but inhibitors of downstream kinases partially blocked berberine stimulation. SB203580 (inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase) did not affect submaximal berberine activation, but did lower maximal berberine stimulation by 26%, while PD98059 (inhibitor of ERK kinase) completely blocked submaximal berberine activation and decreased the maximal stimulation by 55%. It appears from this study that a portion of the hypoglycemic effects of berberine can be attributed to its acute activation of the transport activity of GLUT1.

  15. Pharmacogenetics, pharmacogenomics and epigenetics of Nrf2-regulated xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes and transporters by dietary phytochemical and cancer chemoprevention.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tien-Yuan; Khor, Tin Oo; Lee, Jong Hun; Cheung, Ka Lung; Shu, Limin; Chen, Chi; Kong, Ah-Ng

    2013-07-01

    Cancer chemopreventive activities of various phytochemicals have been attributed to the modulation of xenobiotic disposition, which includes absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. The interaction between xenobiotics and xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) is bidirectional. XMEs are responsible for the biotransformation of xenobiotics such as bioactivation and detoxification. Conversely, xenobiotics affect XMEs through transcriptional regulation (induction or suppression) and post-translational interactions (inhibition or activation). Similar relationships also exist between xenobiotics and their transporters. Studies conducted over the past decade have demonstrated that the transcription factor, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), plays a critical role in the regulation of detoxifying enzymes and transporters through a signaling system that senses and responds to redox imbalance. The role of Nrf2 in the interaction between chemopreventive phytochemicals and detoxifying enzymes/transporters has become an important topic in cancer chemoprevention. In this review, the genetic and epigenetic factors that contribute to Nrf2-mediated regulation of detoxifying XMEs and transporters are discussed in the context of cancer chemoprevention. Phytochemicals may modulate the genome as well as epigenome, altering the regulation of XMEs and transporters, which may be critical for both cancer chemoprevention and the prevention of other oxidative stress- and inflammatory-related diseases, including cardiovascular, metabolic and neurological pathologies. The pharmacogenomic expression of XMEs and transporters, with an emphasis on both genomics and epigenetics, will also be discussed.

  16. The Vesicle Protein SAM-4 Regulates the Processivity of Synaptic Vesicle Transport

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Qun; Ahlawat, Shikha; Schaefer, Anneliese; Mahoney, Tim; Koushika, Sandhya P.; Nonet, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Axonal transport of synaptic vesicles (SVs) is a KIF1A/UNC-104 mediated process critical for synapse development and maintenance yet little is known of how SV transport is regulated. Using C. elegans as an in vivo model, we identified SAM-4 as a novel conserved vesicular component regulating SV transport. Processivity, but not velocity, of SV transport was reduced in sam-4 mutants. sam-4 displayed strong genetic interactions with mutations in the cargo binding but not the motor domain of unc-104. Gain-of-function mutations in the unc-104 motor domain, identified in this study, suppress the sam-4 defects by increasing processivity of the SV transport. Genetic analyses suggest that SAM-4, SYD-2/liprin-α and the KIF1A/UNC-104 motor function in the same pathway to regulate SV transport. Our data support a model in which the SV protein SAM-4 regulates the processivity of SV transport. PMID:25329901

  17. The vesicle protein SAM-4 regulates the processivity of synaptic vesicle transport.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qun; Ahlawat, Shikha; Schaefer, Anneliese; Mahoney, Tim; Koushika, Sandhya P; Nonet, Michael L

    2014-10-01

    Axonal transport of synaptic vesicles (SVs) is a KIF1A/UNC-104 mediated process critical for synapse development and maintenance yet little is known of how SV transport is regulated. Using C. elegans as an in vivo model, we identified SAM-4 as a novel conserved vesicular component regulating SV transport. Processivity, but not velocity, of SV transport was reduced in sam-4 mutants. sam-4 displayed strong genetic interactions with mutations in the cargo binding but not the motor domain of unc-104. Gain-of-function mutations in the unc-104 motor domain, identified in this study, suppress the sam-4 defects by increasing processivity of the SV transport. Genetic analyses suggest that SAM-4, SYD-2/liprin-α and the KIF1A/UNC-104 motor function in the same pathway to regulate SV transport. Our data support a model in which the SV protein SAM-4 regulates the processivity of SV transport.

  18. Function and Regulation of the C4-Dicarboxylate Transporters in Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    Wösten, Marc M. S. M.; van de Lest, Chris H. A.; van Dijk, Linda; van Putten, Jos P. M.

    2017-01-01

    C4-dicarboxylates are important molecules for the human pathogen C.jejuni, as they are used as carbon and electron acceptor molecules, as sugars cannot be utilized by this microaerophilic organism. Based on the genome analysis, C. jejuni may possess five different C4–dicarboxylate transporters: DctA, DcuA, DcuB, and two homologs of DcuC. Here, we investigated the regulation and function of various C4–dicarboxylate transporters in C. jejuni. Transcription of the dctA and dcuC homologs is constitutive, while dcuA and dcuB are both directly regulated by the two-component RacR/RacS system in response to limited oxygen availability and the presence of nitrate. The DctA transporter is the only C4-dicarboxylate transporter to allow C. jejuni to grow on C4-carbon sources such as aspartate, fumarate, and succinate at high oxygen levels (10% O2) and is indispensable for the uptake of succinate from the medium under these conditions. Both DcuA and DcuB can sequester aspartate from the medium under low-oxygen conditions (0.3% O2). However, under these conditions, DcuB is the only transporter to secrete succinate to the environment. Under low-oxygen conditions, nitrate prevents the secretion of succinate to the environment and was able to overrule the phenotype of the C4-transporter mutants, indicating that the activity of the aspartate–fumarate–succinate pathway in C. jejuni is strongly reduced by the addition of nitrate in the medium. PMID:28223978

  19. Translational and post-translational regulation of mouse cation transport regulator homolog 1

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Yuki; Hirata, Yoko; Kiuchi, Kazutoshi; Oh-hashi, Kentaro

    2016-01-01

    Cation transport regulator homolog 1 (Chac1) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inducible gene that has a function as a γ-glutamyl cyclotransferase involved in the degradation of glutathione. To characterize the translation and stability of Chac1, we found that the Kozak-like sequence present in the 5′ untranslated region (5′UTR) of the Chac1 mRNA was responsible for Chac1 translation. In addition, the short form (ΔChac1), which translated from the second ATG codon, was generated in the absence of the 5′UTR. The proteasome pathway predominantly participated in the stability of the Chac1 protein; however, its expression was remarkably up-regulated by co-transfection with ubiquitin genes. Using an immunoprecipitation assay, we revealed that ubiquitin molecule was directly conjugated to Chac1, and that mutated Chac1 with all lysine residues replaced by arginine was also ubiquitinated. Finally, we showed that WT Chac1 but not ΔChac1 reduced the intracellular level of glutathione. Taken together, our results suggest that the Chac1 protein expression is regulated in translational and post-translational fashion due to the Kozak-like sequence in the 5′UTR and the ubiquitin-mediated pathways. The bidirectional roles of ubiquitination in regulating Chac1 stabilization might give us a new insight into understanding the homeostasis of glutathione under pathophysiological conditions. PMID:27302742

  20. Methamphetamine Regulation of Firing Activity of Dopamine Neurons.

    PubMed

    Lin, Min; Sambo, Danielle; Khoshbouei, Habibeh

    2016-10-05

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a substrate for the dopamine transporter that increases extracellular dopamine levels by competing with dopamine uptake and increasing reverse transport of dopamine via the transporter. METH has also been shown to alter the excitability of dopamine neurons. The mechanism of METH regulation of the intrinsic firing behaviors of dopamine neurons is less understood. Here we identified an unexpected and unique property of METH on the regulation of firing activity of mouse dopamine neurons. METH produced a transient augmentation of spontaneous spike activity of midbrain dopamine neurons that was followed by a progressive reduction of spontaneous spike activity. Inspection of action potential morphology revealed that METH increased the half-width and produced larger coefficients of variation of the interspike interval, suggesting that METH exposure affected the activity of voltage-dependent potassium channels in these neurons. Since METH has been shown to affect Ca(2+) homeostasis, the unexpected findings that METH broadened the action potential and decreased the amplitude of afterhyperpolarization led us to ask whether METH alters the activity of Ca(2+)-activated potassium (BK) channels. First, we identified BK channels in dopamine neurons by their voltage dependence and their response to a BK channel blocker or opener. While METH suppressed the amplitude of BK channel-mediated unitary currents, the BK channel opener NS1619 attenuated the effects of METH on action potential broadening, afterhyperpolarization repression, and spontaneous spike activity reduction. Live-cell total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, electrophysiology, and biochemical analysis suggest METH exposure decreased the activity of BK channels by decreasing BK-α subunit levels at the plasma membrane.

  1. Rab 11 regulates constitutive dopamine transporter trafficking and function in N2A neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Furman, Cheryse A; Lo, Charles B; Stokes, Stephanie; Esteban, Jose A; Gnegy, Margaret E

    2009-09-29

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) is a crucial regulator of dopaminergic neurotransmission which undergoes constitutive and substrate-mediated trafficking to and from the membrane. Although, considerable research has been done to elucidate the regulation of substrate-stimulated DAT trafficking, less is known about which trafficking proteins are involved in constitutive DAT trafficking. Rab proteins are GTPases known to regulate the trafficking of proteins to and from specific endocytic compartments. Rabs 8 and 11, in particular, are involved in trafficking proteins from intracellular compartments to the plasma membrane. In this study, we sought to determine whether Rabs 8 and 11 would modulate DAT activity and trafficking in N2A neuroblastoma cells. We used Rab mutations known to confer constitutively active or dominant negative activity of these proteins to investigate the role of Rab activity in constitutive DAT trafficking and function. We found that constitutively active Rab 11 upregulates DAT function and surface expression while neither the constitutively active nor the dominant negative mutant of Rab 8 had any effect on DA uptake. Furthermore, immunofluorescence experiments revealed that dominant negative Rab 11 overexpression results in decreased surface DAT indicating a necessary function of Rab 11 in DAT trafficking to the plasma membrane. These data show for the first time a functional role of Rab proteins in the constitutive recycling of DAT to the plasma membrane.

  2. pH-dependent regulation of electron transport and ATP synthesis in chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Tikhonov, Alexander N

    2013-10-01

    This review is focused on pH-dependent mechanisms of regulation of photosynthetic electron transport and ATP synthesis in chloroplasts. The light-induced acidification of the thylakoid lumen is known to decelerate the plastoquinol oxidation by the cytochrome b 6 f complex, thus impeding the electron flow between photosystem II and photosystem I. Acidification of the lumen also triggers the dissipation of excess energy in the light-harvesting antenna of photosystem II, thereby protecting the photosynthetic apparatus against a solar stress. After brief description of structural and functional organization of the chloroplast electron transport chain, our attention is focused on the nature of the rate-limiting step of electron transfer between photosystem II and photosystem I. In the context of pH-dependent mechanism of photosynthetic control in chloroplasts, the mechanisms of plastoquinol oxidation by the cytochrome b 6 f complex have been considered. The light-induced alkalization of stroma is another factor of pH-dependent regulation of electron transport in chloroplasts. Alkalization of stroma induces activation of the Bassham-Benson-Calvin cycle reactions, thereby promoting efflux of electrons from photosystem I to NADP(+). The mechanisms of the light-induced activation of ATP synthase are briefly considered.

  3. Ion channels/transporters as epigenetic regulators? -a microRNA perspective.

    PubMed

    Jiang, XiaoHua; Zhang, Jie Ting; Chan, Hsiao Chang

    2012-09-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) alterations in response to changes in an extracellular microenvironment have been observed and considered as one of the major mechanisms for epigenetic modifications of the cell. While enormous efforts have been made in the understanding of the role of miRNAs in regulating cellular responses to the microenvironment, the mechanistic insight into how extracellular signals can be transduced into miRNA alterations in cells is still lacking. Interestingly, recent studies have shown that ion channels/transporters, which are known to conduct or transport ions across the cell membrane, also exhibit changes in levels of expression and activities in response to changes of extracellular microenvironment. More importantly, alterations in expression and function of ion channels/transporters have been shown to result in changes in miRNAs that are known to change in response to alteration of the microenvironment. In this review, we aim to summarize the recent data demonstrating the ability of ion channels/transporters to transduce extracellular signals into miRNA changes and propose a potential link between cells and their microenvironment through ion channels/transporters. At the same time, we hope to provide new insights into epigenetic regulatory mechanisms underlying a number of physiological and pathological processes, including embryo development and cancer metastasis.

  4. Essential Role of the Zinc Transporter ZIP9/SLC39A9 in Regulating the Activations of Akt and Erk in B-Cell Receptor Signaling Pathway in DT40 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, Masanari; Fukunaka, Ayako; Hagihara, Mitsue; Watanabe, Keiko; Kamino, Shinichiro; Kambe, Taiho; Enomoto, Shuichi; Hiromura, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    The essential trace element zinc is important for all living organisms. Zinc functions not only as a nutritional factor, but also as a second messenger. However, the effects of intracellular zinc on the B cell-receptor (BCR) signaling pathway remain poorly understood. Here, we present data indicating that the increase in intracellular zinc level induced by ZIP9/SLC39A9 (a ZIP Zrt-/Irt-like protein) plays an important role in the activation of Akt and Erk in response to BCR activation. In DT40 cells, the enhancement of Akt and Erk phosphorylation following BCR activation requires intracellular zinc. To clarify this event, we used chicken ZnT5/6/7-gene-triple-knockout DT40 (TKO) cells and chicken Zip9-knockout DT40 (cZip9KO) cells. The levels of Akt and ERK phosphorylation significantly decreased in cZip9KO cells. In addition, the enzymatic activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase) increased in cZip9KO cells. These biochemical events were restored by overexpressing the human Zip9 (hZip9) gene. Moreover, we found that the increase in intracellular zinc level depends on the expression of ZIP9. This observation is in agreement with the increased levels of Akt and Erk phosphorylation and the inhibition of total PTPase activity. We concluded that ZIP9 regulates cytosolic zinc level, resulting in the enhancement of Akt and Erk phosphorylation. Our observations provide new mechanistic insights into the BCR signaling pathway underlying the regulation of intracellular zinc level by ZIP9 in response to the BCR activation. PMID:23505453

  5. Macrophage Independent Regulation of Reverse Cholesterol Transport by Liver X Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Breevoort, Sarah R.; Angdisen, Jerry; Schulman, Ira G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The ability of high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles to accept cholesterol from peripheral cells such as lipid-laden macrophages and to transport cholesterol to the liver for catabolism and excretion in a process termed reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) is believed to underlie the beneficial cardiovascular effects of elevated HDL. The liver X receptors (LXRα and LXRβ) regulate RCT by controlling the efflux of cholesterol from macrophages to HDL and the excretion, catabolism and absorption of cholesterol in the liver and intestine. Importantly, treatment with LXR agonists increases RCT and decreases atherosclerosis in animal models. Nevertheless, LXRs are expressed in multiple tissues involved in RCT and their tissue specific contributions to RCT are still not well defined. Approach and Results Utilizing tissue-specific LXR deletions together with in vitro and in vivo assays of cholesterol efflux and fecal cholesterol excretion we demonstrate that macrophage LXR activity is neither necessary nor sufficient for LXR agonist-stimulated RCT. In contrast, the ability of LXR agonists primarily acting in the intestine to increase HDL mass and HDL function appears to underlie the ability of LXR agonists to stimulate RCT in vivo. Conclusions We demonstrate that activation of LXR in macrophages makes little or no contribution to LXR agonist-stimulated RCT. Unexpectedly our studies suggest that the ability of macrophages to efflux cholesterol to HDL in vivo is not regulated by macrophage activity but is primarily determined by the quantity and functional activity of HDL. PMID:24947527

  6. Regulation of the norepinephrine transporter by endothelins: a potential therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Vatta, Marcelo S; Bianciotti, Liliana G; Guil, María J; Hope, Sandra I

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal norepinephrine (NE) uptake is a crucial step in noradrenergic neurotransmission that regulates NE concentration in the synaptic cleft. It is a key mechanism mediated by the NE transporter (NET) which takes the neurotransmitter into the presynaptic neuron terminal or the adrenal medulla chromaffin cell. The activity of NET is short and long terms modulated by phosphorylation mediated by protein kinases A, C, and G and calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, whereas the transporter availability at the cell surface is regulated by glycosylation. Several neuropeptides like angiotensins II, III, and 1-7, bradykinin, natriuretic peptides, as well as endothelins (ETs) regulate a wide variety of biological effects, including noradrenergic transmission and in particular neuronal NE uptake. Diverse reports, including studies from our laboratory, show that ETs differentially modulate the activity and expression of NET not only in normal conditions but also in diverse cardiovascular diseases such as congestive heart failure and hypertension. Current literature supports a key role for the interaction between ETs and NE in maintaining neurotransmission homeostasis and further suggests that this interaction may represent a potential therapeutic target for various diseases, particularly hypertension.

  7. A Simple Laboratory Exercise Illustrating Active Transport in Yeast Cells.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stambuk, Boris U.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a simple laboratory activity illustrating the chemiosmotic principles of active transport in yeast cells. Demonstrates the energy coupling mechanism of active a-glucoside uptake by Saccaromyces cerevisiae cells with a colorimetric transport assay using very simple equipment. (Contains 22 references.) (Author/YDS)

  8. A Simple Laboratory Exercise Illustrating Active Transport in Yeast Cells.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stambuk, Boris U.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a simple laboratory activity illustrating the chemiosmotic principles of active transport in yeast cells. Demonstrates the energy coupling mechanism of active a-glucoside uptake by Saccaromyces cerevisiae cells with a colorimetric transport assay using very simple equipment. (Contains 22 references.) (Author/YDS)

  9. Gene regulation of plasmid- and chromosome-determined inorganic ion transport in bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Silver, S; Walderhaug, M

    1992-01-01

    Regulation of chromosomally determined nutrient cation and anion uptake systems shows important similarities to regulation of plasmid-determined toxic ion resistance systems that mediate the outward transport of deleterious ions. Chromosomally determined transport systems result in accumulation of K+, Mg2+, Fe3+, Mn2+, PO4(3-), SO4(2-), and additional trace nutrients, while bacterial plasmids harbor highly specific resistance systems for AsO2-, AsO4(3-), CrO4(2-), Cd2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Hg2+, Ni2+, SbO2-, TeO3(2-), Zn2+, and other toxic ions. To study the regulation of these systems, we need to define both the trans-acting regulatory proteins and the cis-acting target operator DNA regions for the proteins. The regulation of gene expression for K+ and PO4(3-) transport systems involves two-component sensor-effector pairs of proteins. The first protein responds to an extracellular ionic (or related) signal and then transmits the signal to an intracellular DNA-binding protein. Regulation of Fe3+ transport utilizes the single iron-binding and DNA-binding protein Fur. The MerR regulatory protein for mercury resistance both represses and activates transcription. The ArsR regulatory protein functions as a repressor for the arsenic and antimony(III) efflux system. Although the predicted cadR regulatory gene has not been identified, cadmium, lead, bismuth, zinc, and cobalt induce this system in a carefully regulated manner from a single mRNA start site. The cadA Cd2+ resistance determinant encodes an E1(1)-1E2-class efflux ATPase (consisting of two polypeptides, rather than the one earlier identified). Cadmium resistance is also conferred by the czc system (which confers resistances to zinc and cobalt in Alcaligenes species) via a complex efflux pump consisting of four polypeptides. These two cadmium efflux systems are not otherwise related. For chromate resistance, reduced cellular accumulation is again the resistance mechanism, but the regulatory components are not identified

  10. Transportation as a "Related Service": Issues that Involve Transition Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Missouri LINC.

    The paper discusses transportation as a related service for students with disabilities expecially as related to school-to-work transition activities. First, the legislative and legal basis for providing transportation services is discussed in the form of answers to frequently asked questions: why provide transportation? what is the basis for…

  11. Transportation as a "Related Service": Issues that Involve Transition Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Missouri LINC.

    The paper discusses transportation as a related service for students with disabilities expecially as related to school-to-work transition activities. First, the legislative and legal basis for providing transportation services is discussed in the form of answers to frequently asked questions: why provide transportation? what is the basis for…

  12. Liver X receptor-activating ligands modulate renal and intestinal sodium–phosphate transporters

    PubMed Central

    Caldas, Yupanqui A.; Giral, Hector; Cortázar, Michael A.; Sutherland, Eileen; Okamura, Kayo; Blaine, Judith; Sorribas, Victor; Koepsell, Hermann; Levi, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    Cholesterol is pumped out of the cells in different tissues, including the vasculature, intestine, liver, and kidney, by the ATP-binding cassette transporters. Ligands that activate the liver X receptor (LXR) modulate this efflux. Here we determined the effects of LXR agonists on the regulation of phosphate transporters. Phosphate homeostasis is regulated by the coordinated action of the intestinal and renal sodium–phosphate (NaPi) transporters, and the loss of this regulation causes hyperphosphatemia. Mice treated with DMHCA or TO901317, two LXR agonists that prevent atherosclerosis in ApoE or LDLR knockout mice, significantly decreased the activity of intestinal and kidney proximal tubular brush border membrane sodium gradient-dependent phosphate uptake, decreased serum phosphate, and increased urine phosphate excretion. The effects of DMHCA were due to a significant decrease in the abundance of the intestinal and renal NaPi transport proteins. The same effect was also found in opossum kidney cells in culture after treatment with either agonist. There was increased nuclear expression of the endogenous LXR receptor, a reduction in NaPi4 protein abundance (the main type II NaPi transporter in the opossum cells), and a reduction in NaPi co-transport activity. Thus, LXR agonists modulate intestinal and renal NaPi transporters and, in turn, serum phosphate levels. PMID:21677638

  13. Liver X receptor-activating ligands modulate renal and intestinal sodium-phosphate transporters.

    PubMed

    Caldas, Yupanqui A; Giral, Hector; Cortázar, Michael A; Sutherland, Eileen; Okamura, Kayo; Blaine, Judith; Sorribas, Victor; Koepsell, Hermann; Levi, Moshe

    2011-09-01

    Cholesterol is pumped out of the cells in different tissues, including the vasculature, intestine, liver, and kidney, by the ATP-binding cassette transporters. Ligands that activate the liver X receptor (LXR) modulate this efflux. Here we determined the effects of LXR agonists on the regulation of phosphate transporters. Phosphate homeostasis is regulated by the coordinated action of the intestinal and renal sodium-phosphate (NaPi) transporters, and the loss of this regulation causes hyperphosphatemia. Mice treated with DMHCA or TO901317, two LXR agonists that prevent atherosclerosis in ApoE or LDLR knockout mice, significantly decreased the activity of intestinal and kidney proximal tubular brush border membrane sodium gradient-dependent phosphate uptake, decreased serum phosphate, and increased urine phosphate excretion. The effects of DMHCA were due to a significant decrease in the abundance of the intestinal and renal NaPi transport proteins. The same effect was also found in opossum kidney cells in culture after treatment with either agonist. There was increased nuclear expression of the endogenous LXR receptor, a reduction in NaPi4 protein abundance (the main type II NaPi transporter in the opossum cells), and a reduction in NaPi co-transport activity. Thus, LXR agonists modulate intestinal and renal NaPi transporters and, in turn, serum phosphate levels.

  14. Chill activation of compatible solute transporters in Corynebacterium glutamicum at the level of transport activity.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Nuran; Krämer, Reinhard; Morbach, Susanne

    2005-07-01

    The gram-positive soil bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum harbors four osmoregulated secondary uptake systems for compatible solutes, BetP, EctP, LcoP, and ProP. When reconstituted in proteoliposomes, BetP was shown to sense hyperosmotic conditions via the increase in luminal K(+) and to respond by instant activation. To study further putative ways of stimulus perception and signal transduction, we have investigated the responses of EctP, LcoP, and BetP, all belonging to the betaine-carnitine-choline transporter family, to chill stress at the level of activity. When fully activated by hyperosmotic stress, they showed the expected increase of activity at increasing temperature. In the absence of osmotic stress, EctP was not activated by chill and LcoP to only a very low extent, whereas BetP was significantly stimulated at low temperature. BetP was maximally activated at 10 degrees C, reaching the same transport rate as that observed under hyperosmotic conditions at this temperature. A role of cytoplasmic K(+) in chill-dependent activation of BetP was ruled out, since (i) the cytoplasmic K(+) concentration did not change significantly at lower temperatures and (ii) a mutant BetP lacking the C-terminal 25 amino acids, which was previously shown to have lost the ability to be activated by luminal K(+), was fully competent in chill sensing. When heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, BetP did not respond to chill stress. This may indicate that the membrane in which BetP is inserted plays an important role in chill activation and thus in signal transduction by BetP, different from the previously established K(+)-mediated process.

  15. 14 CFR 223.21 - Free and reduced-rate transportation authorized by statute or regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Free and reduced-rate transportation authorized by statute or regulation. 223.21 Section 223.21 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... International Travel § 223.21 Free and reduced-rate transportation authorized by statute or regulation. (a)...

  16. 14 CFR 223.21 - Free and reduced-rate transportation authorized by statute or regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Free and reduced-rate transportation authorized by statute or regulation. 223.21 Section 223.21 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... International Travel § 223.21 Free and reduced-rate transportation authorized by statute or regulation. (a)...

  17. 14 CFR 223.21 - Free and reduced-rate transportation authorized by statute or regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Free and reduced-rate transportation authorized by statute or regulation. 223.21 Section 223.21 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... International Travel § 223.21 Free and reduced-rate transportation authorized by statute or regulation. (a)...

  18. 14 CFR 223.21 - Free and reduced-rate transportation authorized by statute or regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Free and reduced-rate transportation authorized by statute or regulation. 223.21 Section 223.21 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... International Travel § 223.21 Free and reduced-rate transportation authorized by statute or regulation. (a)...

  19. Control of Arabidopsis meristem development by thioredoxin-dependent regulation of intercellular transport

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cell-to-cell transport in plants occurs through cytoplasmic channels called “plasmodesmata” and is regulated by developmental and environmental factors. Callose deposition modulates plasmodesmal transport in vivo, but little is known about the mechanisms that regulate this process. Here we report a ...

  20. 14 CFR 223.21 - Free and reduced-rate transportation authorized by statute or regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Free and reduced-rate transportation authorized by statute or regulation. 223.21 Section 223.21 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... International Travel § 223.21 Free and reduced-rate transportation authorized by statute or regulation. (a)...

  1. 75 FR 38168 - Hazardous Materials: International Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (TS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (TS-R-1); Draft Revision Available for Comment AGENCY... International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) ``Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material'' (TS-R... Radioactive Material (TS-R-1), to promote the safe and secure transportation of radioactive material. The IAEA...

  2. 75 FR 8329 - Regulations Governing the Conduct of Open Seasons for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Regulations Governing the Conduct of Open Seasons for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects; Notice of Rescheduled Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects Open Season Pre-Filing... for an Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Project. The Workshop is being held at the Commission's...

  3. Air pollution exposure: An activity pattern approach for active transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Matthew D.; Yiannakoulias, Nikolaos; Kanaroglou, Pavlos S.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the calculation of personal air pollution exposure during trips made by active transportation using activity patterns without personal monitors. We calculate exposure as the inhaled dose of particulate matter 2.5 μg or smaller. Two modes of active transportation are compared, and they include cycling and walking. Ambient conditions are calculated by combining mobile and stationary monitoring data in an artificial neural network space-time model. The model uses a land use regression framework and has a prediction accuracy of R2 = 0.78. Exposure is calculated at 10 m or shorter intervals during the trips using inhalation rates associated with both modes. The trips are children's routes between home and school. The average dose during morning cycling trips was 2.17 μg, during morning walking trips was 3.19 μg, during afternoon cycling trips was 2.19 μg and during afternoon walking trips was 3.23 μg. The cycling trip dose was significantly lower than the walking trip dose. The air pollution exposure during walking or cycling trips could not be strongly predicted by either the school or household ambient conditions, either individually or in combination. Multiple linear regression models regressing both the household and school ambient conditions against the dose were only able to account for, at most, six percent of the variance in the exposure. This paper demonstrates that incorporating activity patterns when calculating exposure can improve the estimate of exposure compared to its calculation from ambient conditions.

  4. Regulation of ROCK Activity in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Morgan-Fisher, Marie; Wewer, Ulla M.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer-associated changes in cellular behavior, such as modified cell-cell contact, increased migratory potential, and generation of cellular force, all require alteration of the cytoskeleton. Two homologous mammalian serine/threonine kinases, Rho-associated protein kinases (ROCK I and II), are key regulators of the actin cytoskeleton acting downstream of the small GTPase Rho. ROCK is associated with cancer progression, and ROCK protein expression is elevated in several types of cancer. ROCKs exist in a closed, inactive conformation under quiescent conditions, which is changed to an open, active conformation by the direct binding of guanosine triphosphate (GTP)–loaded Rho. In recent years, a number of ROCK isoform-specific binding partners have been found to modulate the kinase activity through direct interactions with the catalytic domain or via altered cellular localization of the kinases. Thus, these findings demonstrate additional modes to regulate ROCK activity. This review describes the molecular mechanisms of ROCK activity regulation in cancer, with emphasis on ROCK isoform-specific regulation and interaction partners, and discusses the potential of ROCKs as therapeutic targets in cancer. PMID:23204112

  5. 50 CFR 665.964 - Regulated activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Regulated activities. 665.964 Section 665.964 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Rose Atoll Marine National...

  6. 50 CFR 665.964 - Regulated activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Regulated activities. 665.964 Section 665.964 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Rose Atoll Marine National...

  7. 50 CFR 665.904 - Regulated activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Regulated activities. 665.904 Section 665.904 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Marianas Trench...

  8. 50 CFR 665.904 - Regulated activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Regulated activities. 665.904 Section 665.904 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Marianas Trench...

  9. Different transporter systems regulate extracellular GABA from vesicular and non-vesicular sources

    PubMed Central

    Song, Inseon; Volynski, Kirill; Brenner, Tanja; Ushkaryov, Yuri; Walker, Matthew; Semyanov, Alexey

    2013-01-01

    Tonic GABA type A (GABAA) conductance is a key factor regulating neuronal excitability and computation in neuronal networks. The magnitude of the tonic GABAA conductance depends on the concentration of ambient GABA originating from vesicular and non-vesicular sources and is tightly regulated by GABA uptake. Here we show that the transport system regulating ambient GABA responsible for tonic GABAA conductances in hippocampal CA1 interneurons depends on its source. In mice, GABA from vesicular sources is regulated by mouse GABA transporter 1 (mGAT1), while that from non-vesicular sources by mouse GABA transporters 3/4 (mGAT3/4). This finding suggests that the two transporter systems do not just provide backup for each other, but regulate distinct signaling pathways. This allows individual tuning of the two signaling systems and indicates that drugs designed to act at specific transporters will have distinct therapeutic actions. PMID:23494150

  10. Identification and Regulation of Genes for Cobalamin Transport in the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. Strain PCC 7002

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Adam A.; Rodionov, Dmitry A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002 is a cobalamin auxotroph and utilizes this coenzyme solely for the synthesis of l-methionine by methionine synthase (MetH). Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002 is unable to synthesize cobalamin de novo, and because of the large size of this tetrapyrrole, an active-transport system must exist for cobalamin uptake. Surprisingly, no cobalamin transport system was identified in the initial annotation of the genome of this organism. With more sophisticated in silico prediction tools, a btuB-cpdA-btuC-btuF operon encoding components putatively required for a B12 uptake (btu) system was identified. The expression of these genes was predicted to be controlled by a cobalamin riboswitch. Global transcriptional profiling by high-throughput RNA sequencing of a cobalamin-independent form of Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002 grown in the absence or presence of cobalamin confirmed regulation of the btu operon by cobalamin. Pérez et al. (A. A. Pérez, Z. Liu, D. A. Rodionov, Z. Li, and D. A. Bryant, J Bacteriol 198:2743–2752, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.00475-16) developed a cobalamin-dependent yellow fluorescent protein reporter system in a Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002 variant that had been genetically modified to allow cobalamin-independent growth. This reporter system was exploited to validate components of the btu uptake system by assessing the ability of targeted mutants to transport cobalamin. The btuB promoter and a variant counterpart mutated in an essential element of the predicted cobalamin riboswitch were fused to a yfp reporter. The combined data indicate that the btuB-cpdA-btuF-btuC operon in this cyanobacterium is transcriptionally regulated by a cobalamin riboswitch. IMPORTANCE With a cobalamin-regulated reporter system for expression of yellow fluorescent protein, genes previously misidentified as encoding subunits of a siderophore transporter were shown to encode components of cobalamin

  11. Regulation of brain aromatase activity in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Roselli, C.E.; Ellinwood, W.E.; Resko, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The distribution and regulation of aromatase activity in the adult rat brain with a sensitive in vitro assay that measures the amount of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O formed during the conversion of (1 beta-/sup 3/H)androstenedione to estrone. The rate of aromatase activity in the hypothalamus-preoptic area (HPOA) was linear with time up to 1 h, and with tissue concentrations up to 5 mgeq/200 microliters incubation mixture. The enzyme demonstrated a pH optimum of 7.4 and an apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) of 0.04 microns. The greatest amount of aromatase activity was found in amygdala and HPOA from intact male rats. The hippocampus, midbrain tegmentum, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and anterior pituitary all contained negligible enzymatic activity. Castration produced a significant decrease in aromatase activity in the HPOA, but not in the amygdala or cerebral cortex. The HPOAs of male rats contained significantly greater aromatase activity than the HPOAs of female rats. In females, this enzyme activity did not change during the estrous cycle or after ovariectomy. Administration of testosterone to gonadectomized male and female rats significantly enhanced HPOA aromatase activities to levels approximating those found in HPOA from intact males. Therefore, the results suggest that testosterone, or one of its metabolites, is a major steroidal regulator of HPOA aromatase activity in rats.

  12. Active transportation and public transportation use to achieve physical activity recommendations? A combined GPS, accelerometer, and mobility survey study.

    PubMed

    Chaix, Basile; Kestens, Yan; Duncan, Scott; Merrien, Claire; Thierry, Benoît; Pannier, Bruno; Brondeel, Ruben; Lewin, Antoine; Karusisi, Noëlla; Perchoux, Camille; Thomas, Frédérique; Méline, Julie

    2014-09-27

    Accurate information is lacking on the extent of transportation as a source of physical activity, on the physical activity gains from public transportation use, and on the extent to which population shifts in the use of transportation modes could increase the percentage of people reaching official physical activity recommendations. In 2012-2013, 234 participants of the RECORD GPS Study (French Paris region, median age = 58) wore a portable GPS receiver and an accelerometer for 7 consecutive days and completed a 7-day GPS-based mobility survey (participation rate = 57.1%). Information on transportation modes and accelerometry data aggregated at the trip level [number of steps taken, energy expended, moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and sedentary time] were available for 7,644 trips. Associations between transportation modes and accelerometer-derived physical activity were estimated at the trip level with multilevel linear models. Participants spent a median of 1 h 58 min per day in transportation (8.2% of total time). Thirty-eight per-cent of steps taken, 31% of energy expended, and 33% of MVPA over 7 days were attributable to transportation. Walking and biking trips but also public transportation trips with all four transit modes examined were associated with greater steps, MVPA, and energy expenditure when compared to trips by personal motorized vehicle. Two simulated scenarios, implying a shift of approximately 14% and 33% of all motorized trips to public transportation or walking, were associated with a predicted 6 point and 13 point increase in the percentage of participants achieving the current physical activity recommendation. Collecting data with GPS receivers, accelerometers, and a GPS-based electronic mobility survey of activities and transportation modes allowed us to investigate relationships between transportation modes and physical activity at the trip level. Our findings suggest that an increase in active transportation

  13. Vitamin D Up-regulates Glucose Transporter 4 (GLUT4) Translocation and Glucose Utilization Mediated by Cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) Activation and H2S Formation in 3T3L1 Adipocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Manna, Prasenjit; Jain, Sushil K.

    2012-01-01

    A scientific explanation for the beneficial role of vitamin D supplementation in the lowering of glycemia in diabetes remains to be determined. This study examined the biochemical mechanism by which vitamin D supplementation regulates glucose metabolism in diabetes. 3T3L1 adipocytes were treated with high glucose (HG, 25 mm) in the presence or absence of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) (25, 50 nm), the active form of vitamin D. 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment caused significant up-regulation of GLUT4 total protein expression and its translocation to cell surface, and an increase in glucose uptake as well as glucose utilization in HG-treated cells. 1,25(OH)2D3 also caused cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) activation and H2S formation in HG-treated adipocytes. The effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on GLUT4 translocation, glucose utilization, and H2S formation was prevented by propargylglycine, an inhibitor of CSE that catalyzes H2S formation. Studies using antisense CSE also demonstrated the inhibition of GLUT4 translocation as well as glucose uptake and utilization in 1,25(OH)2D3-supplemented CSE-siRNA-transfected adipocytes compared with controls. 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment along with insulin enhanced GLUT4 translocation and glucose utilization compared with either insulin or 1,25(OH)2D3 alone in HG-treated adipocytes. 1,25(OH)2D3 supplementation also inhibited monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and stimulated adiponectin secretion in HG-treated adipocytes, and this positive effect was prevented in propargylglycine-treated or CSE-knockdown adipocytes. This is the first report to demonstrate that 1,25(OH)2D3 up-regulates GLUT4 translocation and glucose utilization and decreases inflammatory markers, which is mediated by CSE activation and H2S formation in adipocytes. This study provides evidence for a novel molecular mechanism by which 1,25(OH)2D3 can up-regulate the GLUT4 translocation essential for maintenance of glucose metabolism. PMID:23074218

  14. Active transmembrane drug transport in microgravity: a validation study using an ABC transporter model.

    PubMed

    Vaquer, Sergi; Cuyàs, Elisabet; Rabadán, Arnau; González, Albert; Fenollosa, Felip; de la Torre, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Microgravity has been shown to influence the expression of ABC (ATP-Binding Cassette) transporters in bacteria, fungi and mammals, but also to modify the activity of certain cellular components with structural and functional similarities to ABC transporters. Changes in activity of ABC transporters could lead to important metabolic disorders and undesired pharmacological effects during spaceflights. However, no current means exist to study the functionality of these transporters in microgravity. To this end, a Vesicular Transport Assay (®) (Solvo Biotechnology, Hungary) was adapted to evaluate multi-drug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) trans-membrane estradiol-17-β-glucuronide (E17βG) transport activity, when activated by adenosine-tri-phosphate (ATP) during parabolic flights. Simple diffusion, ATP-independent transport and benzbromarone inhibition were also evaluated. A high accuracy engineering system was designed to perform, monitor and synchronize all procedures. Samples were analysed using a validated high sensitivity drug detection protocol. Experiments were performed in microgravity during parabolic flights, and compared to 1g on ground results using identical equipment and procedures in all cases. Our results revealed that sufficient equipment accuracy and analytical sensitivity were reached to detect transport activity in both gravitational conditions. Additionally, transport activity levels of on ground samples were within commercial transport standards, proving the validity of the methods and equipment used. MRP2 net transport activity was significantly reduced in microgravity, so was signal detected in simple diffusion samples. Ultra-structural changes induced by gravitational stress upon vesicle membranes or transporters could explain the current results, although alternative explanations are possible. Further research is needed to provide a conclusive answer in this regard. Nevertheless, the present validated technology opens new and

  15. Active transmembrane drug transport in microgravity: a validation study using an ABC transporter model

    PubMed Central

    Vaquer, Sergi; Cuyàs, Elisabet; Rabadán, Arnau; González, Albert; Fenollosa, Felip; de la Torre, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Microgravity has been shown to influence the expression of ABC (ATP-Binding Cassette) transporters in bacteria, fungi and mammals, but also to modify the activity of certain cellular components with structural and functional similarities to ABC transporters. Changes in activity of ABC transporters could lead to important metabolic disorders and undesired pharmacological effects during spaceflights. However, no current means exist to study the functionality of these transporters in microgravity. To this end, a Vesicular Transport Assay ® (Solvo Biotechnology, Hungary) was adapted to evaluate multi-drug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) trans-membrane estradiol-17-β-glucuronide (E17βG) transport activity, when activated by adenosine-tri-phosphate (ATP) during parabolic flights. Simple diffusion, ATP-independent transport and benzbromarone inhibition were also evaluated. A high accuracy engineering system was designed to perform, monitor and synchronize all procedures. Samples were analysed using a validated high sensitivity drug detection protocol. Experiments were performed in microgravity during parabolic flights, and compared to 1g on ground results using identical equipment and procedures in all cases. Our results revealed that sufficient equipment accuracy and analytical sensitivity were reached to detect transport activity in both gravitational conditions. Additionally, transport activity levels of on ground samples were within commercial transport standards, proving the validity of the methods and equipment used. MRP2 net transport activity was significantly reduced in microgravity, so was signal detected in simple diffusion samples. Ultra-structural changes induced by gravitational stress upon vesicle membranes or transporters could explain the current results, although alternative explanations are possible. Further research is needed to provide a conclusive answer in this regard. Nevertheless, the present validated technology opens new and

  16. ATPase activity of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator.

    PubMed

    Li, C; Ramjeesingh, M; Wang, W; Garami, E; Hewryk, M; Lee, D; Rommens, J M; Galley, K; Bear, C E

    1996-11-08

    The gene mutated in cystic fibrosis codes for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a cyclic AMP-activated chloride channel thought to be critical for salt and water transport by epithelial cells. Plausible models exist to describe a role for ATP hydrolysis in CFTR channel activity; however, biochemical evidence that CFTR possesses intrinsic ATPase activity is lacking. In this study, we report the first measurements of the rate of ATP hydrolysis by purified, reconstituted CFTR. The mutation CFTRG551D resides within a motif conserved in many nucleotidases and is known to cause severe human disease. Following reconstitution the mutant protein exhibited both defective ATP hydrolysis and channel gating, providing direct evidence that CFTR utilizes ATP to gate its channel activity.

  17. Pedelecs as a physically active transportation mode.

    PubMed

    Peterman, James E; Morris, Kalee L; Kram, Rodger; Byrnes, William C

    2016-08-01

    Pedelecs are bicycles that provide electric assistance only when a rider is pedaling and have become increasingly popular. Our purpose was to quantify usage patterns over 4 weeks of real-world commuting with a pedelec and to determine if pedelec use would improve cardiometabolic risk factors. Twenty sedentary commuters visited the laboratory for baseline physiological measurements [body composition, maximum oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), blood lipid profile, and 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)]. The following 4 weeks, participants were instructed to commute using a pedelec at least 3 days week(-1) for 40 min day(-1) while wearing a heart rate monitor and a GPS device. Metabolic equivalents (METS) were estimated from heart rate data. Following the intervention, we repeated the physiological measurements. Average total distance and time were 317.9 ± 113.8 km and 15.9 ± 3.4 h, respectively. Participants averaged 4.9 ± 1.2 METS when riding. Four weeks of pedelec commuting significantly improved 2-h post-OGTT glucose (5.53 ± 1.18-5.03 ± 0.91 mmol L(-1), p < 0.05), [Formula: see text] (2.21 ± 0.48-2.39 ± 0.52 L min(-1), p < 0.05), and end of [Formula: see text] test power output (165.1 ± 37.1-189.3 ± 38.2 W, p < 0.05). There were trends for improvements in MAP (84.6 ± 10.5-83.2 ± 9.4 mmHg, p = 0.15) and fat mass (28.6 ± 11.3-28.2 ± 11.4 kg, p = 0.07). Participants rode a pedelec in the real world at a self-selected moderate intensity, which helped them meet physical activity recommendations. Pedelec commuting also resulted in significant improvements in 2-h post-OGTT glucose, [Formula: see text], and power output. Pedelecs are an effective form of active transportation that can improve some cardiometabolic risk factors within only 4 weeks.

  18. Components in seminal plasma regulating sperm transport and elimination.

    PubMed

    Troedsson, M H T; Desvousges, A; Alghamdi, A S; Dahms, B; Dow, C A; Hayna, J; Valesco, R; Collahan, P T; Macpherson, M L; Pozor, M; Buhi, W C

    2005-10-01

    binding and phagocytosis of viable and non-viable spermatozoa (p < 0.05). SP and SPP+ suppressed PMN-binding and phagocytosis of viable sperm. This effect was also seen, but to a lesser degree, in SPP- treated samples. Non-viable spermatozoa showed less PMN-binding and phagocytosis than live sperm in the absence of SP. The addition of SP promoted PMN-binding and phagocytosis of non-viable spermatozoa. SPP- treated samples also restored PMN-binding of non-viable spermatozoa. The addition of protease inhibitors removed this effect. In Experiment 4, seminal plasma proteins were fractionated based on MW by Sephacryl S200 HR columns (range 5000-250,000 kDa). Fractionated proteins were submitted to sperm-PMN binding assays. A protein fraction <35 kDa suppressed PMN-binding to live and snap-frozen spermatozoa. A greater MW protein fraction appeared to promote binding between PMNs and snap-frozen spermatozoa. While the addition of protease inhibitors was necessary to maintain the protective effect of seminal plasma proteins on viable spermatozoa, the promotive effect of seminal plasma on non-viable spermatozoa appeared to require some protease activity. It was concluded from these experiments that components of seminal plasma play active roles in transportation and survival of viable spermatozoa in the female reproductive tract and in the elimination of non-viable spermatozoa from the uterus.

  19. Epigenetic regulation of ADME-related genes: focus on drug metabolism and transport.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xiao-bo; Leeder, J Steven

    2013-10-01

    Epigenetic regulation of gene expression refers to heritable factors that are functionally relevant genomic modifications but that do not involve changes in DNA sequence. Examples of such modifications include DNA methylation, histone modifications, noncoding RNAs, and chromatin architecture. Epigenetic modifications are crucial for packaging and interpreting the genome, and they have fundamental functions in regulating gene expression and activity under the influence of physiologic and environmental factors. Recently, epigenetics has become one of the fastest-growing areas of science and has now become a central issue in biologic studies of development and disease pathogenesis. The interest in epigenetics is also true for studies of drug metabolism and transport. In this issue of Drug Metabolism and Disposition, a series of articles is presented to demonstrate the role of epigenetic factors in regulating the expression of genes involved in drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in organ development, tissue-specific gene expression, sexual dimorphism, and in the adaptive response to xenobiotic exposure, both therapeutic and toxic. The articles also demonstrate that, in addition to genetic polymorphisms, epigenetics may also contribute to wide interindividual variations in drug metabolism and transport. Identification of functionally relevant epigenetic biomarkers in human specimens has the potential to improve prediction of drug responses based on patient's epigenetic profiles.

  20. Genetic and chemical reductions in protein phosphatase activity alter auxin transport, gravity response, and lateral root growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashotte, A. M.; DeLong, A.; Muday, G. K.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Auxin transport is required for important growth and developmental processes in plants, including gravity response and lateral root growth. Several lines of evidence suggest that reversible protein phosphorylation regulates auxin transport. Arabidopsis rcn1 mutant seedlings exhibit reduced protein phosphatase 2A activity and defects in differential cell elongation. Here we report that reduced phosphatase activity alters auxin transport and dependent physiological processes in the seedling root. Root basipetal transport was increased in rcn1 or phosphatase inhibitor-treated seedlings but showed normal sensitivity to the auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). Phosphatase inhibition reduced root gravity response and delayed the establishment of differential auxin-induced gene expression across a gravity-stimulated root tip. An NPA treatment that reduced basipetal transport in rcn1 and cantharidin-treated wild-type plants also restored a normal gravity response and asymmetric auxin-induced gene expression, indicating that increased basipetal auxin transport impedes gravitropism. Increased auxin transport in rcn1 or phosphatase inhibitor-treated seedlings did not require the AGR1/EIR1/PIN2/WAV6 or AUX1 gene products. In contrast to basipetal transport, root acropetal transport was normal in phosphatase-inhibited seedlings in the absence of NPA, although it showed reduced NPA sensitivity. Lateral root growth also exhibited reduced NPA sensitivity in rcn1 seedlings, consistent with acropetal transport controlling lateral root growth. These results support the role of protein phosphorylation in regulating auxin transport and suggest that the acropetal and basipetal auxin transport streams are differentially regulated.

  1. Genetic and chemical reductions in protein phosphatase activity alter auxin transport, gravity response, and lateral root growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashotte, A. M.; DeLong, A.; Muday, G. K.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Auxin transport is required for important growth and developmental processes in plants, including gravity response and lateral root growth. Several lines of evidence suggest that reversible protein phosphorylation regulates auxin transport. Arabidopsis rcn1 mutant seedlings exhibit reduced protein phosphatase 2A activity and defects in differential cell elongation. Here we report that reduced phosphatase activity alters auxin transport and dependent physiological processes in the seedling root. Root basipetal transport was increased in rcn1 or phosphatase inhibitor-treated seedlings but showed normal sensitivity to the auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). Phosphatase inhibition reduced root gravity response and delayed the establishment of differential auxin-induced gene expression across a gravity-stimulated root tip. An NPA treatment that reduced basipetal transport in rcn1 and cantharidin-treated wild-type plants also restored a normal gravity response and asymmetric auxin-induced gene expression, indicating that increased basipetal auxin transport impedes gravitropism. Increased auxin transport in rcn1 or phosphatase inhibitor-treated seedlings did not require the AGR1/EIR1/PIN2/WAV6 or AUX1 gene products. In contrast to basipetal transport, root acropetal transport was normal in phosphatase-inhibited seedlings in the absence of NPA, although it showed reduced NPA sensitivity. Lateral root growth also exhibited reduced NPA sensitivity in rcn1 seedlings, consistent with acropetal transport controlling lateral root growth. These results support the role of protein phosphorylation in regulating auxin transport and suggest that the acropetal and basipetal auxin transport streams are differentially regulated.

  2. Transporting Radioactive Waste: An Engineering Activity. Grades 5-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HAZWRAP, The Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program.

    This brochure contains an engineering activity for upper elementary, middle school, and high school students that examines the transportation of radioactive waste. The activity is designed to inform students about the existence of radioactive waste and its transportation to disposal sites. Students experiment with methods to contain the waste and…

  3. The role of membrane fatty-acid transporters in regulating skeletal muscle substrate use during exercise.

    PubMed

    Pelsers, Maurice M A L; Stellingwerff, Trent; van Loon, Luc J C

    2008-01-01

    While endogenous carbohydrates form the main substrate source during high-intensity exercise, long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) represent the main substrate source during more prolonged low- to moderate-intensity exercise. Adipose tissue lipolysis is responsible for the supply of LCFA to the contracting muscle. Once taken up by skeletal muscle tissue, LCFA can either serve as a substrate for oxidative phosphorylation or can be directed towards esterification into triacylglycerol. Myocellular uptake of LCFA comprises a complex and incompletely understood process. Although LCFA can enter the cell via passive diffusion, more recent reports indicate that LCFA uptake is tightly regulated by plasma membrane-located transport proteins (fatty acid translocase [FAT/CD36], plasmalemmal-located fatty acid binding protein [FABPpm] and fatty acid transport protein [FATP]). Depending on cardiac and skeletal muscle energy demands, some of these LCFA transporters can translocate rapidly from intracellular pools to the plasma membrane to allow greater LCFA uptake. This translocation process can be induced by insulin and/or muscle contraction. However, the precise signalling pathways responsible for activating the translocation machinery remain to be elucidated. This article will provide an overview on the effects of diet, acute exercise and exercise training on the expression and/or translocation of the various LCFA transporters in skeletal muscle tissue (FAT/CD36, FABPpm, FATP).

  4. Molecular regulation of sucrose catabolism and sugar transport for development, defence and phloem function.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Wu, Limin; Foster, Ryan; Ruan, Yong-Ling

    2017-05-01

    Sucrose (Suc) is the major end product of photosynthesis in mesophyll cells of most vascular plants. It is loaded into phloem of mature leaves for long-distance translocation to non-photosynthetic organs where it is unloaded for diverse uses. Clearly, Suc transport and metabolism is central to plant growth and development and the functionality of the entire vascular system. Despite vast information in the literature about the physiological roles of individual sugar metabolic enzymes and transporters, there is a lack of systematic evaluation about their molecular regulation from transcriptional to post-translational levels. Knowledge on this topic is essential for understanding and improving plant development, optimizing resource distribution and increasing crop productivity. We therefore focused our analyses on molecular control of key players in Suc metabolism and transport, including: (i) the identification of promoter elements responsive to sugars and hormones or targeted by transcription factors and microRNAs degrading transcripts of target genes; and (ii) modulation of enzyme and transporter activities through protein-protein interactions and other post-translational modifications. We have highlighted major remaining questions and discussed opportunities to exploit current understanding to gain new insights into molecular control of carbon partitioning for improving plant performance. © 2017 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  5. Identification of a CysB-regulated gene involved in glutathione transport in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Parry, Jesse; Clark, David P

    2002-03-19

    Growth of Escherichia coli using the tripeptide glutathione as a sulfur source is well documented, but transport of glutathione into E. coli is uncharacterized. We have found that the ybiK gene, at 18.7 min, appears to be involved in the transport of glutathione and have therefore renamed ybiK as spt for sulfur peptide transport. The ybiK/spt gene is the first of what appear to be five cotranscribed genes, three of which show high homology to the peptide transport operon dpp. When the lacZ gene encoding beta-galactosidase was fused to the promoter of ybiK/spt, expression of the ybiK-lacZ fusion was repressed in rich media. This was shown to be due to the presence of exogenous cysteine. The ybiK-lacZ fusion was found to be regulated by cysB, the transcriptional activator for the cysteine regulon. Mutations in the cysB or ybiK genes led to severe growth inhibition when cells were given glutathione as the sole sulfur source. In particular, strains of E. coli containing mutations in both the ybiK and cysA genes were unable to grow when the sole sulfur source provided was glutathione whereas single cysA mutants grew well with glutathione. In contrast, no such defects were seen when L-djenkolic acid or cysteine were used as the sole sulfur source.

  6. Osmotically regulated transport of proline by Lactobacillus acidophilus IFO 3532.

    PubMed Central

    Jewell, J B; Kashket, E R

    1991-01-01

    We reported previously that, when exposed to high osmotic pressure, Lactobacillus acidophilus IFO 3532 cells accumulated N,N,N-trimethylglycine (glycine betaine), which serves as a compatible intracellular solute. When grown in medium with high osmotic pressure, these cells also accumulated one amino acid, proline. The uptake of [3H]proline by resting, glucose-energized cells was stimulated by increasing the osmotic pressure of the assay medium with 0.5 to 1.0 M KCl, 1.0 M NaCl, or 0.5 M sucrose. The accumulated [3H]proline was not metabolized further. In contrast, there was no osmotic stimulation of [3H]leucine uptake. The uptake of proline was activated rather than induced by exposure of the cells to high osmotic pressure. Only one proline transport system could be discerned from kinetics plots. The affinity of the carrier for proline remained constant over a range of osmotic pressures from 650 to 1,910 mosM (Kt, 7.8 to 15.5 mM). The Vmax, however, increased from 15 nmol/min/mg of dry weight in 0.5 M sucrose to 27 and 40 nmol/min/mg of dry weight in 0.5 M KCl and in 1.0 M KCl or NaCl, respectively. The efflux of proline from preloaded cells occurred rapidly when the osmotic pressure of the suspending buffer was lowered. PMID:1786048

  7. Tumor marker nucleoporin 88 kDa regulates nucleocytoplasmic transport of NF-{kappa}B

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Nozomi Kilsdonk, Jeroen W.J. van; Ostendorf, Benedikt; Smeets, Ruben; Bruggeman, Sophia W.M.; Alonso, Angel; Loo, Fons van de; Schneider, Matthias; Berg, Wim B. van den; Swart, Guido W.M.

    2008-09-26

    Nucleoporin 88 kDa (Nup88) is a tumor marker, overexpressed in various types of cancer. In Drosophila Nup88 (mbo) was reported to selectively mediate the nucleocytoplasmic transport of NF-{kappa}B, an ubiquitous transcription factor involved in immune responses, apoptosis, and cancer. We addressed the function of Nup88 in mammalian cells. Selective depletion of Nup88 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibited NF-{kappa}B-dependent reporter gene activation and the nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B without affecting the upstream activation pathway in NIH3T3 cells. In contrast, nuclear translocation of glucocorticoid receptor was not reduced by the depletion of Nup88. In metastatic melanoma cells overexpressing Nup88, constitutive activation of NF-{kappa}B was found both in nucleus and cytoplasm. Nup88 depletion in these cells reduced TNF-induced nuclear accumulation of NF-{kappa}B subunits. We conclude that Nup88 regulates the activity of NF-{kappa}B at the level of nucleocytoplasmic transport. Overexpression of Nup88 in tumor cells may, thus be involved in the constitutive NF-{kappa}B activation.

  8. The Role of Flexible Loops in Folding, Trafficking and Activity of Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporters.

    PubMed

    Aseervatham, Jaya; Tran, Lucky; Machaca, Khaled; Boudker, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs) are integral membrane proteins, which reside in plasma membranes of all eukaryotic cells and mediate thermodynamically downhill transport of nucleosides. This process is essential for nucleoside recycling, and also plays a key role in terminating adenosine-mediated cellular signaling. Furthermore, ENTs mediate the uptake of many drugs, including anticancer and antiviral nucleoside analogues. The structure and mechanism, by which ENTs catalyze trans-membrane transport of their substrates, remain unknown. To identify the core of the transporter needed for stability, activity, and for its correct trafficking to the plasma membrane, we have expressed human ENT deletion mutants in Xenopus laevis oocytes and determined their localization, transport properties and susceptibility to inhibition. We found that the carboxyl terminal trans-membrane segments are essential for correct protein folding and trafficking. In contrast, the soluble extracellular and intracellular loops appear to be dispensable, and must be involved in the fine-tuning of transport regulation.

  9. Insights into the post-transcriptional regulation of the mitochondrial electron transport chain.

    PubMed

    Sirey, Tamara M; Ponting, Chris P

    2016-10-15

    The regulation of the mitochondrial electron transport chain is central to the control of cellular homeostasis. There are significant gaps in our understanding of how the expression of the mitochondrial and nuclear genome-encoded components of the electron transport chain are co-ordinated, and how the assembly of the protein complexes that constitute the electron transport chain are regulated. Furthermore, the role post-transcriptional gene regulation may play in modulating these processes needs to be clarified. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the post-transcriptional gene regulation of the electron transport chain and highlights how noncoding RNAs may contribute significantly both to complex electron transport chain regulatory networks and to mitochondrial dysfunction. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Insights into the post-transcriptional regulation of the mitochondrial electron transport chain

    PubMed Central

    Sirey, Tamara M.; Ponting, Chris P.

    2016-01-01

    The regulation of the mitochondrial electron transport chain is central to the control of cellular homeostasis. There are significant gaps in our understanding of how the expression of the mitochondrial and nuclear genome-encoded components of the electron transport chain are co-ordinated, and how the assembly of the protein complexes that constitute the electron transport chain are regulated. Furthermore, the role post-transcriptional gene regulation may play in modulating these processes needs to be clarified. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the post-transcriptional gene regulation of the electron transport chain and highlights how noncoding RNAs may contribute significantly both to complex electron transport chain regulatory networks and to mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:27911731

  11. Regulation of hepatic ABCC transporters by xenobiotics and in disease states

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xinsheng; Manautou, Jose E.

    2015-01-01

    The subfamily of ABCC transporters consists of 13 members in mammals, including the multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs), sulfonylurea receptors (SURs), and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). These proteins play roles in chemical detoxification, disposition, and normal cell physiology. ABCC transporters are expressed differentially in the liver and are regulated at the transcription and translation level. Their expression and function are also controlled by post-translational modification and membrane-trafficking events. These processes are tightly regulated. Information about alterations in the expression of hepatobiliary ABCC transporters could provide important insights into the pathogenesis of diseases and disposition of xenobiotics. In this review, we describe the regulation of hepatic ABCC transporters in humans and rodents by a variety of xenobiotics, under disease states and in genetically modified animal models deficient in transcription factors, transporters, and cell-signaling molecules. PMID:20233023

  12. Regulation of vesicle transport and cell motility by Golgi-localized Dbs

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Ethan R; Hu, Tinghui; Ciccarelli, Bryan T; Whitehead, Ian P

    2014-01-01

    DBS/MCF2L has been recently identified as a risk locus for osteoarthritis. It encodes a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (Dbs) that has been shown to regulate both normal and tumor cell motility. In the current study, we have determined that endogenous Dbs is predominantly expressed as 2 isoforms, a 130 kDa form (Dbs-130) that is localized to the Golgi complex, and an 80 kDa form (Dbs-80) that is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We have previously described an inhibitor that binds to the RhoGEF domain of Dbs and blocks its transforming activity. Here we show that the inhibitor localizes to the Golgi, where it specifically interacts with Dbs-130. Inhibition of endogenous Dbs-130 activity is associated with reduced levels of activated Cdc42, enlarged Golgi, and resistance to Brefeldin A-mediated Golgi dispersal, suggesting a role for Dbs in vesicle transport. Cells treated with the inhibitor exhibit normal protein transport from the ER to the Golgi, but are defective in transport from the Golgi to the plasma membrane. Inhibition of Dbs-130 in MDA-MB-231 human breast tumor cells limits motility in both transwell and wound healing assays, but appears to have no effect on the organization of the microtubule cytoskeleton. The reduced motility is associated with a failure to reorient the Golgi toward the leading edge. This is consistent with the Golgi localization, and suggests that the Dbs-130 regulates aspects of the secretory pathway that are required to support cell polarization during directed migration. PMID:25483302

  13. Copper Transporter 2 Regulates Endocytosis and Controls Tumor Growth and Sensitivity to Cisplatin In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Brian G.; Larson, Christopher A.; Adams, Preston L.; Abada, Paolo B.; Pesce, Catherine E.; Safaei, Roohangiz

    2011-01-01

    Copper transporter 2 (CTR2) is one of the four copper transporters in mammalian cells that influence the cellular pharmacology of cisplatin and carboplatin. CTR2 was knocked down using a short hairpin RNA interference. Robust expression of CTR2 was observed in parental tumors grown in vivo, whereas no staining was found in the tumors formed from cells in which CTR2 had been knocked down. Knockdown of CTR2 reduced growth rate by 5.8-fold, increased the frequency of apoptotic cells, and decreased the vascular density, but it did not change copper content. Knockdown of CTR2 increased the tumor accumulation of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) [cisplatin (cDDP)] by 9.1-fold and greatly increased its therapeutic efficacy. Because altered endocytosis has been implicated in cDDP resistance, uptake of dextran was used to quantify the rate of macropinocytosis. Knockdown of CTR2 increased dextran uptake 2.5-fold without reducing exocytosis. Inhibition of macropinocytosis with either amiloride or wortmannin blocked the increase in macropinocytosis mediated by CTR2 knockdown. Stimulation of macropinocytosis by platelet-derived growth factor coordinately increased dextran and cDDP uptake. Knockdown of CTR2 was associated with activation of the Rac1 and cdc42 GTPases that control macropinocytosis but not activation of the phosphoinositide-3 kinase pathway. We conclude that CTR2 is required for optimal tumor growth and that it is an unusually strong regulator of cisplatin accumulation and cytotoxicity. CTR2 regulates the transport of cDDP in part through control of the rate of macropinocytosis via activation of Rac1 and cdc42. Selective knockdown of CTR2 in tumors offers a strategy for enhancing the efficacy of cDDP. PMID:20930109

  14. Altered Regulation of Hepatic Efflux Transporters Disrupts Acetaminophen Disposition in Pediatric Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Canet, Mark J.; Merrell, Matthew D.; Hardwick, Rhiannon N.; Bataille, Amy M.; Campion, Sarah N.; Ferreira, Daniel W.; Xanthakos, Stavra A.; Manautou, Jose E.; Hesham A-Kader, H.; Erickson, Robert P.

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease, representing a spectrum of liver pathologies that include simple hepatic steatosis and the more advanced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The current study was conducted to determine whether pediatric NASH also results in altered disposition of acetaminophen (APAP) and its two primary metabolites, APAP-sulfate and APAP-glucuronide. Pediatric patients with hepatic steatosis (n = 9) or NASH (n = 3) and healthy patients (n = 12) were recruited in a small pilot study design. All patients received a single 1000-mg dose of APAP. Blood and urine samples were collected at 1, 2, and 4 hours postdose, and APAP and APAP metabolites were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Moreover, human liver tissues from patients diagnosed with various stages of NAFLD were acquired from the Liver Tissue Cell Distribution System to investigate the regulation of the membrane transporters, multidrug resistance–associated protein 2 and 3 (MRP2 and MRP3, respectively). Patients with the more severe disease (i.e., NASH) had increased serum and urinary levels of APAP-glucuronide along with decreased serum levels of APAP-sulfate. Moreover, an induction of hepatic MRP3 and altered canalicular localization of the biliary efflux transporter, MRP2, describes the likely mechanism for the observed increase in plasma retention of APAP-glucuronide, whereas altered regulation of sulfur activation genes may explain decreased sulfonation activity in NASH. APAP-glucuronide and APAP-sulfate disposition is altered in NASH and is likely due to hepatic membrane transporter dysregulation as well as altered intracellular sulfur activation. PMID:25788542

  15. Altered regulation of hepatic efflux transporters disrupts acetaminophen disposition in pediatric nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Canet, Mark J; Merrell, Matthew D; Hardwick, Rhiannon N; Bataille, Amy M; Campion, Sarah N; Ferreira, Daniel W; Xanthakos, Stavra A; Manautou, Jose E; A-Kader, H Hesham; Erickson, Robert P; Cherrington, Nathan J

    2015-06-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease, representing a spectrum of liver pathologies that include simple hepatic steatosis and the more advanced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The current study was conducted to determine whether pediatric NASH also results in altered disposition of acetaminophen (APAP) and its two primary metabolites, APAP-sulfate and APAP-glucuronide. Pediatric patients with hepatic steatosis (n = 9) or NASH (n = 3) and healthy patients (n = 12) were recruited in a small pilot study design. All patients received a single 1000-mg dose of APAP. Blood and urine samples were collected at 1, 2, and 4 hours postdose, and APAP and APAP metabolites were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Moreover, human liver tissues from patients diagnosed with various stages of NAFLD were acquired from the Liver Tissue Cell Distribution System to investigate the regulation of the membrane transporters, multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 and 3 (MRP2 and MRP3, respectively). Patients with the more severe disease (i.e., NASH) had increased serum and urinary levels of APAP-glucuronide along with decreased serum levels of APAP-sulfate. Moreover, an induction of hepatic MRP3 and altered canalicular localization of the biliary efflux transporter, MRP2, describes the likely mechanism for the observed increase in plasma retention of APAP-glucuronide, whereas altered regulation of sulfur activation genes may explain decreased sulfonation activity in NASH. APAP-glucuronide and APAP-sulfate disposition is altered in NASH and is likely due to hepatic membrane transporter dysregulation as well as altered intracellular sulfur activation. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  16. Copper transporter 2 regulates endocytosis and controls tumor growth and sensitivity to cisplatin in vivo.

    PubMed

    Blair, Brian G; Larson, Christopher A; Adams, Preston L; Abada, Paolo B; Pesce, Catherine E; Safaei, Roohangiz; Howell, Stephen B

    2011-01-01

    Copper transporter 2 (CTR2) is one of the four copper transporters in mammalian cells that influence the cellular pharmacology of cisplatin and carboplatin. CTR2 was knocked down using a short hairpin RNA interference. Robust expression of CTR2 was observed in parental tumors grown in vivo, whereas no staining was found in the tumors formed from cells in which CTR2 had been knocked down. Knockdown of CTR2 reduced growth rate by 5.8-fold, increased the frequency of apoptotic cells, and decreased the vascular density, but it did not change copper content. Knockdown of CTR2 increased the tumor accumulation of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) [cisplatin (cDDP)] by 9.1-fold and greatly increased its therapeutic efficacy. Because altered endocytosis has been implicated in cDDP resistance, uptake of dextran was used to quantify the rate of macropinocytosis. Knockdown of CTR2 increased dextran uptake 2.5-fold without reducing exocytosis. Inhibition of macropinocytosis with either amiloride or wortmannin blocked the increase in macropinocytosis mediated by CTR2 knockdown. Stimulation of macropinocytosis by platelet-derived growth factor coordinately increased dextran and cDDP uptake. Knockdown of CTR2 was associated with activation of the Rac1 and cdc42 GTPases that control macropinocytosis but not activation of the phosphoinositide-3 kinase pathway. We conclude that CTR2 is required for optimal tumor growth and that it is an unusually strong regulator of cisplatin accumulation and cytotoxicity. CTR2 regulates the transport of cDDP in part through control of the rate of macropinocytosis via activation of Rac1 and cdc42. Selective knockdown of CTR2 in tumors offers a strategy for enhancing the efficacy of cDDP.

  17. Src regulates the activity of SIRT2

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, You Hee; Kim, Hangun; Lee, Sung Ho; Jin, Yun-Hye; Lee, Kwang Youl

    2014-07-25

    Highlights: • Src decreases the protein levels of Sirt2. • Src inhibitor and knockdown of Src increase the protein levels of Sirt2. • Src interacts with and phosphorylates Sirt2. • Src regulate the activity of Sirt2. - Abstract: SIRT2 is a mammalian member of the Sirtuin family of NAD{sup +}-dependent protein deacetylases. The tyrosine kinase Src is involved in a variety of cellular signaling pathways, leading to the induction of DNA synthesis, cell proliferation, and cytoskeletal reorganization. The function of SIRT2 is modulated by post-translational modifications; however, the precise molecular signaling mechanism of SIRT2 through interactions with c-Src has not yet been established. In this study, we investigated the potential regulation of SIRT2 function by c-Src. We found that the protein levels of SIRT2 were decreased by c-Src, and subsequently rescued by the addition of a Src specific inhibitor, SU6656, or by siRNA-mediated knockdown of c-Src. The c-Src interacts with and phosphorylates SIRT2 at Tyr104. c-Src also showed the ability to regulate the deacetylation activity of SIRT2. Investigation on the phosphorylation of SIRT2 suggested that this was the method of c-Src-mediated SIRT2 regulation.

  18. Proteolytic Processing Regulates Placental Growth Factor Activities*

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Daniel C.; Willenborg, Sebastian; Koch, Manuel; Zwolanek, Daniela; Müller, Stefan; Becker, Ann-Kathrin A.; Metzger, Stephanie; Ehrbar, Martin; Kurschat, Peter; Hellmich, Martin; Hubbell, Jeffrey A.; Eming, Sabine A.

    2013-01-01

    Placental growth factor (PlGF) is a critical mediator of blood vessel formation, yet mechanisms of its action and regulation are incompletely understood. Here we demonstrate that proteolytic processing regulates the biological activity of PlGF. Specifically, we show that plasmin processing of PlGF-2 yields a protease-resistant core fragment comprising the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 binding site but lacking the carboxyl-terminal domain encoding the heparin-binding domain and an 8-amino acid peptide encoded by exon 7. We have identified plasmin cleavage sites, generated a truncated PlGF118 isoform mimicking plasmin-processed PlGF, and explored its biological function in comparison with that of PlGF-1 and -2. The angiogenic responses induced by the diverse PlGF forms were distinct. Whereas PlGF-2 increased endothelial cell chemotaxis, vascular sprouting, and granulation tissue formation upon skin injury, these activities were abrogated following plasmin digestion. Investigation of PlGF/Neuropilin-1 binding and function suggests a critical role for heparin-binding domain/Neuropilin-1 interaction and its regulation by plasmin processing. Collectively, here we provide new mechanistic insights into the regulation of PlGF-2/Neuropilin-1-mediated tissue vascularization and growth. PMID:23645683

  19. Pregnane X receptor regulates drug metabolism and transport in the vasculature and protects from oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Swales, Karen E.; Moore, Rick; Truss, Nicola J.; Tucker, Arthur; Warner, Timothy D.; Negishi, Masahiko; Bishop-Bailey, David

    2012-01-01

    Aims Circulating endogenous, dietary, and foreign chemicals can contribute to vascular dysfunction. The mechanism by which the vasculature protects itself from these chemicals is unknown. This study investigates whether the pregnane X receptor (PXR), the major transcriptional regulator of hepatic drug metabolism and transport that responds to such xenobiotics, mediates vascular protection by co-ordinating a defence gene programme in the vasculature. Methods and results PXR was detected in primary human and rat aortic endothelial and smooth muscle cells (SMC) and blood vessels including the human and rat aorta. Metabolic PXR target genes cytochrome P450 3A, 2B, 2C, and glutathione S-transferase mRNA and activity were induced by PXR ligands in rodent and human vascular cells and absent in the aortas from PXR-null mice stimulated in vivo or in rat aortic SMC expressing dominant-negative PXR. Activation of aortic PXR by classical agonists had several protective effects: increased xenobiotic metabolism demonstrated by bioactivation of the pro-drug clopidogrel, which reduced adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet aggregation; increased expression of multidrug resistance protein 1, mediating chemical efflux from the vasculature; and protection from reactive oxygen species-mediated cell death. Conclusion PXR co-ordinately up-regulates drug metabolism, transport, and antioxidant genes to protect the vasculature from endogenous and exogenous insults, thus representing a novel gatekeeper for vascular defence. PMID:22166712

  20. Salvinorin A Regulates Dopamine Transporter Function Via A Kappa Opioid Receptor and ERK1/2-Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Kivell, Bronwyn; Uzelac, Zeljko; Sundaramurthy, Santhanalakshmi; Rajamanickam, Jeyaganesh; Ewald, Amy; Chefer, Vladimir; Jaligam, Vanaja; Bolan, Elizabeth; Simonson, Bridget; Annamalai, Balasubramaniam; Mannangatti, Padmanabhan; Prisinzano, Thomas; Gomes, Ivone; Devi, Lakshmi A.; Jayanthi, Lankupalle D.; Sitte, Harald H.; Ramamoorthy, Sammanda; Shippenberg, Toni S.

    2014-01-01

    Salvinorin A (SalA), a selective κ-opioid receptor (KOR) agonist, produces dysphoria and pro-depressant like effects. These actions have been attributed to inhibition of striatal dopamine release. The dopamine transporter (DAT) regulates dopamine transmission via uptake of released neurotransmitter. KORs are apposed to DAT in dopamine nerve terminals suggesting an additional target by which SalA modulates dopamine transmission. SalA produced a concentration-dependent, nor-binaltorphimine (BNI)- and pertussis toxin-sensitive increase of ASP+ accumulation in EM4 cells coexpressing myc-KOR and YFP-DAT, using live cell imaging and the fluorescent monoamine transporter substrate, trans 4-(4-(dimethylamino)-styryl)-N-methylpyridinium) (ASP+). Other KOR agonists also increased DAT activity that was abolished by BNI pretreatment. While SalA increased DAT activity, SalA treatment decreased serotonin transporter (SERT) activity and had no effect on norepinephrine transporter (NET) activity. In striatum, SalA increased the Vmax for DAT mediated DA transport and DAT surface expression. SalA up-regulation of DAT function is mediated by KOR activation and the KOR-linked extracellular signal regulated kinase-½ (ERK1/2) pathway. Co-immunoprecipitation and BRET studies revealed that DAT and KOR exist in a complex. In live cells, DAT and KOR exhibited robust FRET signals under basal conditions. SalA exposure caused a rapid and significant increase of the FRET signal. This suggests that the formation of KOR and DAT complexes is promoted in response to KOR activation. Together, these data suggest that enhanced DA transport and decreased DA release resulting in decreased dopamine signaling may contribute to the dysphoric and pro-depressant like effects of SalA and other KOR agonists. PMID:25107591

  1. Salvinorin A regulates dopamine transporter function via a kappa opioid receptor and ERK1/2-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kivell, Bronwyn; Uzelac, Zeljko; Sundaramurthy, Santhanalakshmi; Rajamanickam, Jeyaganesh; Ewald, Amy; Chefer, Vladimir; Jaligam, Vanaja; Bolan, Elizabeth; Simonson, Bridget; Annamalai, Balasubramaniam; Mannangatti, Padmanabhan; Prisinzano, Thomas E; Gomes, Ivone; Devi, Lakshmi A; Jayanthi, Lankupalle D; Sitte, Harald H; Ramamoorthy, Sammanda; Shippenberg, Toni S

    2014-11-01

    Salvinorin A (SalA), a selective κ-opioid receptor (KOR) agonist, produces dysphoria and pro-depressant like effects. These actions have been attributed to inhibition of striatal dopamine release. The dopamine transporter (DAT) regulates dopamine transmission via uptake of released neurotransmitter. KORs are apposed to DAT in dopamine nerve terminals suggesting an additional target by which SalA modulates dopamine transmission. SalA produced a concentration-dependent, nor-binaltorphimine (BNI)- and pertussis toxin-sensitive increase of ASP(+) accumulation in EM4 cells coexpressing myc-KOR and YFP-DAT, using live cell imaging and the fluorescent monoamine transporter substrate, trans 4-(4-(dimethylamino)-styryl)-N-methylpyridinium) (ASP(+)). Other KOR agonists also increased DAT activity that was abolished by BNI pretreatment. While SalA increased DAT activity, SalA treatment decreased serotonin transporter (SERT) activity and had no effect on norepinephrine transporter (NET) activity. In striatum, SalA increased the Vmax for DAT mediated DA transport and DAT surface expression. SalA up-regulation of DAT function is mediated by KOR activation and the KOR-linked extracellular signal regulated kinase-½ (ERK1/2) pathway. Co-immunoprecipitation and BRET studies revealed that DAT and KOR exist in a complex. In live cells, DAT and KOR exhibited robust FRET signals under basal conditions. SalA exposure caused a rapid and significant increase of the FRET signal. This suggests that the formation of KOR and DAT complexes is promoted in response to KOR activation. Together, these data suggest that enhanced DA transport and decreased DA release resulting in decreased dopamine signalling may contribute to the dysphoric and pro-depressant like effects of SalA and other KOR agonists.

  2. Change in active transportation and weight gain in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Skreden, Marianne; Øverby, Nina C; Sagedal, Linda R; Vistad, Ingvild; Torstveit, Monica K; Lohne-Seiler, Hilde; Bere, Elling

    2016-01-27

    Pregnancy is characterised by large weight gain over a short period, and often a notable change in mode of transportation. This makes pregnancy suitable for examining the plausible, but in the scientific literature still unclear, association between active transportation and weight gain. We hypothesize that women continuing an active mode of transportation to work or school from pre- to early pregnancy will have a lower gestational weight gain (GWG) than those who change to a less active mode of transportation. We analysed prospective data from the Norwegian Fit for Delivery (NFFD) trial. Between September 2009 and February 2013 606 women were consecutively enrolled in median gestational week 16 (range; 8-20). Of 219 women who used an active mode of transportation (biking, walking, public transportation) pre-pregnancy, 66 (30%) converted to a less active mode in early pregnancy ("active-less active" group), and 153 (70%) continued with active transportation ("active-active" group). Pre-pregnancy weight was self-reported. Weight at gestational (GA) weeks 16, 30, 36, and at term delivery was objectively measured. Weight gain was compared between the two groups. Linear mixed effects analysis of the repeated weight measures was performed including the group*time interaction. A significant overall group effect was observed for the four time points together ("active-active" group: 77.3 kg vs. "active-less active" group: 78.8 kg, p = 0.008). The interaction term group*time was significant indicating different weight gain throughout pregnancy for the two groups; the mean differences between the groups were 0.7 kg at week 16, 1.4 kg at week 30, 2.1 kg at week 36, and 2.2 kg at term delivery, respectively. The findings indicate that active transportation is one possible approach to prevent excessive weight gain in pregnancy.

  3. (−)-Epicatechin-3-O-β-d-allopyranoside from Davallia formosana, Prevents Diabetes and Hyperlipidemia by Regulation of Glucose Transporter 4 and AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Phosphorylation in High-Fat-Fed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Chun-Ching; Wu, Jin-Bin; Jian, Jia-Ying; Lin, Cheng-Hsiu; Ho, Hui-Ya

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine the antidiabetic and lipid-lowering effects of (−)-epicatechin-3-O-β-d-allopyranoside (BB) from the roots and stems of Davallia formosana in mice. Animal treatment was induced by high-fat diet (HFD) or low-fat diet (control diet, CD). After eight weeks of HFD or CD exposure, the HFD mice were treating with BB or rosiglitazone (Rosi) or fenofibrate (Feno) or water through gavage for another four weeks. However, at 12 weeks, the HFD-fed group had enhanced blood levels of glucose, triglyceride (TG), and insulin. BB treatment significantly decreased blood glucose, TG, and insulin levels. Moreover, visceral fat weights were enhanced in HFD-fed mice, accompanied by increased blood leptin concentrations and decreased adiponectin levels, which were reversed by treatment with BB. Muscular membrane protein levels of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) were reduced in HFD-fed mice and significantly enhanced upon administration of BB, Rosi, and Feno. Moreover, BB treatment markedly increased hepatic and skeletal muscular expression levels of phosphorylation of AMP-activated (adenosine monophosphate) protein kinase (phospho-AMPK). BB also decreased hepatic mRNA levels of phosphenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), which are associated with a decrease in hepatic glucose production. BB-exerted hypotriglyceridemic activity may be partly associated with increased mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα), and with reduced hepatic glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) mRNA levels in the liver, which decreased triacylglycerol synthesis. Nevertheless, we demonstrated BB was a useful approach for the management of type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia in this animal model. PMID:26492243

  4. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste transportation regulations and requirements study. National Low-Level Waste Management Program

    SciTech Connect

    Tyacke, M.; Schmitt, R.

    1993-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify the regulations and requirements for transporting greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and to identify planning activities that need to be accomplished in preparation for transporting GTCC LLW. The regulations and requirements for transporting hazardous materials, of which GTCC LLW is included, are complex and include several Federal agencies, state and local governments, and Indian tribes. This report is divided into five sections and three appendices. Section 1 introduces the report. Section 2 identifies and discusses the transportation regulations and requirements. The regulations and requirements are divided into Federal, state, local government, and Indian tribes subsections. This report does not identify the regulations or requirements of specific state, local government, and Indian tribes, since the storage, treatment, and disposal facility locations and transportation routes have not been specifically identified. Section 3 identifies the planning needed to ensure that all transportation activities are in compliance with the regulations and requirements. It is divided into (a) transportation packaging; (b) transportation operations; (c) system safety and risk analysis, (d) route selection; (e) emergency preparedness and response; and (f) safeguards and security. This section does not provide actual planning since the details of the Department of Energy (DOE) GTCC LLW Program have not been finalized, e.g., waste characterization and quantity, storage, treatment and disposal facility locations, and acceptance criteria. Sections 4 and 5 provide conclusions and referenced documents, respectively.

  5. Regulation of adenosine transport by acute and chronic ethanol exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, L.E.; Casso, D.; Diamond, I.; Gordon, A.S. )

    1989-02-09

    Chronic exposure to ethanol results in a desensitization of adenosine receptor-stimulated cAMP production. Since adenosine is released by cells and is known to desensitize its own as well as other receptors, it may be involved in ethanol-induced desensitization of adenosine receptor function. Therefore, we have examine the acute and chronic effects of ethanol on the transport of adenosine via the nucleoside transport. Acute exposure to ethanol caused an inhibition of adenosine uptake in S49 lymphoma cells. This decrease in uptake resulted in accumulation of extracellular adenosine after ethanol exposure. The effect of ethanol was specific to nucleoside transport. Uptake of uridine, also transported by the nucleoside transporter, was inhibited by ethanol to the same degree as adenosine uptake, while neither isoleucine nor deoxyglucose uptake was altered by ethanol treatment. Inhibition of adenosine uptake by ethanol was non-competitive and dependent on the concentration of ethanol. After chronic exposure to ethanol, cells became tolerant to the acute effects of ethanol. There was no longer an acute inhibition of adenosine uptake, nor was these accumulation of extracellular adenosine. Chronic ethanol exposure also resulted in a decrease in the absolute rate of adenosine uptake. Binding studies using a high affinity lignad for the nucleoside transporter, nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR), indicate that this decreased uptake was due to a decrease in the maximal number of binding sites. These ethanol-induced changes in adenosine transport may be important for the acute and chronic effects of ethanol.

  6. Heat transport in active harmonic chains

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Mei C.; Ellis, Fred M.; Kottos, Tsampikos; Fleischmann, Ragnar; Geisel, Theo; Prosen, Tomaz

    2011-08-15

    We show that a harmonic lattice model with amplifying and attenuating elements, when coupled to two thermal baths, exhibits unique heat transport properties. Some of these novel features include anomalous nonequilibrium steady-state heat currents, negative differential thermal conductance, as well as nonreciprocal heat transport. We find that when these elements are arranged in a PT-symmetric manner, the domain of existence of the nonequilibrium steady state is maximized. We propose an electronic experimental setup based on resistive-inductive-capacitive (RLC) transmission lines, where our predictions can be tested.

  7. Expression and regulated nuclear transport of transducers of regulated CREB 1 in retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Deng, J; Zhang, X-L; Wang, J-W; Teng, L-L; Ge, J; Takemori, H; Xiong, Z-Q; Zhou, Y

    2009-03-31

    Calcium- and cAMP-dependent activation of CREB and transcription of cAMP-responsive element (CRE)-target genes play critical roles in various physiological and pathological conditions. TORCs (transducers of regulated CREB) represent a new family of conserved CREB coactivators that function as intracellular calcium- and cAMP-sensitive coincidence detectors, controlling the kinetics of CRE-mediated responses and long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission. Here we examined the expression and activity-dependent translocation of TORCs in adult retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the primary target of acute retinal ischemic injury as well as chronic retinal degenerative diseases. We found that both mRNAs of TORC1 and TORC2, but not TORC3, were enriched in adult rat retina. Comparing with TORC2, TORC1 protein was highly and selectively expressed in RGCs. At resting condition, TORC1 protein was localized in the cytoplasm but not nucleus of RGCs. Activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors by intravitreous injection of NMDA or increase of cAMP signaling by administration of forskolin triggered nuclear accumulation of TORC1. Furthermore, transient retinal ischemic injury resulted in peri-nuclear and nuclear accumulation of TORC1 as well as transcription of BDNF in RGCs. Our results demonstrate that TORC1 is enriched in RGCs and its subcellular location could be regulated by Ca(2+) and cAMP, suggesting that manipulation of TORC1 activity may promote survival of RGCs in some optic disease conditions.

  8. Neurofilament subunit (NFL) head domain phosphorylation regulates axonal transport of neurofilaments.

    PubMed

    Yates, Darran M; Manser, Catherine; De Vos, Kurt J; Shaw, Christopher E; McLoughlin, Declan M; Miller, Christopher C J

    2009-04-01

    Neurofilaments are the intermediate filaments of neurons and are synthesised in neuronal cell bodies and then transported through axons. Neurofilament light chain (NFL) is a principal component of neurofilaments, and phosphorylation of NFL head domain is believed to regulate the assembly of neurofilaments. However, the role that NFL phosphorylation has on transport of neurofilaments is poorly understood. To address this issue, we monitored axonal transport of phosphorylation mutants of NFL. We mutated four known phosphorylation sites in NFL head domain to either preclude phosphorylation, or mimic permanent phosphorylation. Mutation to preclude phosphorylation had no effect on transport but mutation of three sites to mimic permanent phosphorylation inhibited transport. Mutation of all four sites together to mimic permanent phosphorylation proved especially potent at inhibiting transport and also disrupted neurofilament assembly. Our results suggest that NFL head domain phosphorylation is a regulator of neurofilament axonal transport.

  9. Functional Characterization of Liver Enhancers That Regulate Drug-Associated Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Kim, MJ; Skewes-Cox, P; Fukushima, H; Hesselson, S; Yee, SW; Ramsey, LB; Nguyen, L; Eshragh, JL; Castro, RA; Wen, CC; Stryke, D; Johns, SJ; Ferrin, TE; Kwok, P-Y; Relling, MV; Giacomini, KM; Kroetz, DL; Ahituv, N

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about how genetic variations in enhancers influence drug response. In this study, we investigated whether nucleotide variations in enhancers that regulate drug transporters can alter their expression levels. Using comparative genomics and liver-specific transcription factor binding site (TFBS) analyses, we identified evolutionary conserved regions (ECRs) surrounding nine liver membrane transporters that interact with commonly used pharmaceuticals. The top 50 ECRs were screened for enhancer activity in vivo, of which five—located around ABCB11, SLC10A1, SLCO1B1, SLCO1A2, and SLC47A1—exhibited significant enhancer activity. Common variants identified in a large ethnically diverse cohort (n = 272) were assayed for differential enhancer activity, and three variants were found to have significant effects on reporter activity as compared with the reference allele. In addition, one variant was associated with reduced SLCO1A2 mRNA expression levels in human liver tissues, and another was associated with increased methotrexate (MTX) clearance in patients. This work provides a general model for the rapid characterization of liver enhancers and identifies associations between enhancer variants and drug response. PMID:21368754

  10. Regulation of potassium transport in human lens epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lauf, Peter K; Warwar, Ronald; Brown, Thomas L; Adragna, Norma C

    2006-01-01

    The major K influx pathways and their response to thiol modification by N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) and protein kinase and phosphatase inhibitors were characterized in human lens epithelial B3 (HLE-B3) cells with Rb as K congener. Ouabain (0.1 mM) and bumetanide (5 microM) discriminated between the Na/K pump ( approximately 35% of total Rb influx) and Na-K-2Cl cotransport (NKCC) ( approximately 50%). Cl-replacement with nitrate or sulfamate revealed <10% residual [ouabain+bumetanide]-insensitive K-Cl cotransport (KCC). At 0.3-0.5 mM, NEM stimulated the Na/K pump by 2-fold independent of external Na, KCC between 2 and 4-fold, and abolished approximately 90% of NKCC. Calyculin-A, a serine/threonine protein phosphatase-1 inhibitor, did not affect NKCC but inhibited KCC, whereas 10 microM staurosporine, a serine/threonine kinase inhibitor, abolished NKCC, and stimulated KCC only when followed by NEM treatment. The tyrosine-kinase inhibitor genistein, at concentrations >100 microM, activated the Na/K pump and abolished NKCC but did not affect KCC. The data suggest at least partial inverse regulation of KCC and NKCC in HLE-B3 cells by signaling cascades involving serine, threonine and tyrosine phosphorylation/dephosphorylation equilibria.

  11. Inverse pH Regulation of Plant and Fungal Sucrose Transporters: A Mechanism to Regulate Competition for Sucrose at the Host/Pathogen Interface?

    PubMed Central

    Wippel, Kathrin; Wittek, Anke; Hedrich, Rainer; Sauer, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    Background Plant sucrose transporter activities were shown to respond to changes in the extracellular pH and redox status, and oxidizing compounds like glutathione (GSSG) or H2O2 were reported to effect the subcellular targeting of these proteins. We hypothesized that changes in both parameters might be used to modulate the activities of competing sucrose transporters at a plant/pathogen interface. We, therefore, compared the effects of redox-active