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Sample records for regulations das neue

  1. Neue Entwicklungen in der Berufsdermatologie.

    PubMed

    Diepgen, Thomas L

    2016-09-01

    Berufsbedingte Hautkrankheiten nach BK-Nr. 5101 stehen in Deutschland seit vielen Jahren an der Spitze der angezeigten Berufskrankheiten. Durch die Optimierung von Maßnahmen der primären, sekundären und tertiären Prävention können heutzutage die meisten Betroffenen im Beruf verbleiben. Zum 01.01.2015 wurde die Berufskrankheitenverordnung (BKV) novelliert und es wurde die BK-Nr. 5103 "Plattenepithelkarzinome oder multiple aktinische Keratosen der Haut durch natürliche UV-Strahlung" als neue Berufskrankheit in die BK-Liste der BKV aufgenommen. Die Definition von "multipel" bedeutet dabei entweder mehr als fünf einzelne aktinische Keratosen innerhalb eines Zeitraums von 12 Monaten oder das Vorliegen einer Feldkanzerisierung von größer 4 cm(2) . Wichtige Aspekte dieser neuen Berufskrankheit werden aufgezeigt und diskutiert sowie Neuerungen bei der BK 5101 angesprochen. PMID:27607028

  2. Weltall im Wandel. Die neue Astronomie.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsässer, H.

    Contents: Alte und neue Astronomie. Die Sterne des Milchstraßensystems. Sternentstehung und interstellare Materie. Unser Sonnensystem und seine Geschichte. Interplanetarer Staub. Vom Sterben der Sterne. Arbeitsmittel der optischen Astronomie. Ein neues Zentrum astronomischer Forschung. Galaxien. Ursprung und Entwicklung des Weltalls.

  3. Crystal Structures of the Global Regulator DasR from Streptomyces coelicolor: Implications for the Allosteric Regulation of GntR/HutC Repressors

    PubMed Central

    Fillenberg, Simon B.; Friess, Mario D.; Körner, Samuel; Böckmann, Rainer A.; Muller, Yves A.

    2016-01-01

    Small molecule effectors regulate gene transcription in bacteria by altering the DNA-binding affinities of specific repressor proteins. Although the GntR proteins represent a large family of bacterial repressors, only little is known about the allosteric mechanism that enables their function. DasR from Streptomyces coelicolor belongs to the GntR/HutC subfamily and specifically recognises operators termed DasR-responsive elements (dre-sites). Its DNA-binding properties are modulated by phosphorylated sugars. Here, we present several crystal structures of DasR, namely of dimeric full-length DasR in the absence of any effector and of only the effector-binding domain (EBD) of DasR without effector or in complex with glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN-6-P) and N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcNAc-6-P). Together with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and a comparison with other GntR/HutC family members these data allowed for a structural characterisation of the different functional states of DasR. Allostery in DasR and possibly in many other GntR/HutC family members is best described by a conformational selection model. In ligand-free DasR, an increased flexibility in the EBDs enables the attached DNA-binding domains (DBD) to sample a variety of different orientations and among these also a DNA-binding competent conformation. Effector binding to the EBDs of DasR significantly reorganises the atomic structure of the latter. However, rather than locking the orientation of the DBDs, the effector-induced formation of β-strand β* in the DBD-EBD-linker segment merely appears to take the DBDs ‘on a shorter leash’ thereby impeding the ‘downwards’ positioning of the DBDs that is necessary for a concerted binding of two DBDs of DasR to operator DNA. PMID:27337024

  4. Der neue Kosmos. Einführung in die Astronomie und Astrophysik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unsöld, Albrecht; Baschek, Bodo

    Der neue Kosmos bietet in überschaubarem Umfang eine zusammenhängende Einführung in das Gesamtgebiet der Astronomie und Astrophysik. Aus den Bereichen: Klassische Astronomie und Planetensystem, Instrumente und Beobachtungsverfahren, Sonne und Sterne, Milchstraße und Galaxien, Kosmologie, Entstehung des Planetensystems, Entwicklung der Erde und des Lebens werden die Beobachtungsmethoden und die Ergebnisse astronomischer Forschung sowie deren theoretische Grundlagen und wechselseitigen Zusammenhänge vermittelt. Die aktualisierte 7. Auflage berücksichtigt den raschen Fortschritt astronomischer Forschung der letzten drei Jahre von unserem Planetensystem und den Entdeckungen zahlreicher Planeten bei anderen Sternen, über die fernsten Galaxien und Quasare bis zur Entwicklung der modernen Kosmologie.

  5. Das heissschlagverdichten — ein neues verfahren zur herstellung keramischer brennstofftabletten mit engen formtoleranzen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrovat, M.; Mühling, G.; Rachor, L.; Vollath, D.; Zimmermann, H.

    1984-05-01

    The hot impact densification (HID) is a new powerful method for producing ceramic fuel pellets for nuclear reactors. Green ceramic bodies are directly processed to pellets by high speed shaping in the plastic temperature region of ceramic material. Opposed to the well established press sintering procedure it can be heated, densified, and cooled by orders of magnitude faster. Therefore, at high throughputs, small equipment dimensions become possible. The fuel pellets produced meet all requirements, particular the dimensional tolerances achieved are very closed, consequently circular grinding is omitted. Furthermore, the relatively high temperature level of the impact pressing favors the mixed crystal formation of uranium and plutonium oxide. This improves the solubility of the fuel in nitric acid, an essential point at reprocessing. A prototype facility is designed so that automatic fabrication in continuous operation will be possible. The target working cycle for a fuel pellet is in the range of some seconds.

  6. Ländliche Entwicklung durch erneuerbare Energien - Das Beispiel Photovoltaik in Niederbayern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zink, Roland

    2013-09-01

    Der Ausbau erneuerbarer Energien ist in Deutschland eine zentrale und politisch konsensfähige Forderung, um die Energieversorgung klimafreundlich und nachhaltig zu gestalten. Speziell ländliche Regionen rücken dabei in den Fokus, bieten sie doch aufgrund ihrer hohen Flächenverfügbarkeit große Potenziale für die flächenintensiven dezentralen Energieformen. Folglich erkennen Kommunen zunehmend das Entwicklungspotenzial dieser Technologien und sehen sie auch als Chance, neue wirtschaftliche Impulse vor Ort zu setzen. Der Beitrag skizziert die rasante Entwicklung der Photovoltaik im Regierungsbezirk Niederbayern und diskutiert anhand des Beispiels die Folgen für eine nachhaltige Regionalentwicklung.

  7. Solarzellen aus Folien-Silizium: Neue Materialien der Photovoltaik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Giso

    2004-01-01

    Die Photovoltaik wird auf absehbare Zeit vor allem kristallines Silizium als Baumaterial nutzen, mit Tendenz zu billigeren, multikristallinen Wafern. Allerdings werden heutige Wafer aus großen Silizium-Blöcken gesägt, was viel Material verpulvert. Das treibt den Anteil des Wafers an den Gesamtkosten des Solarmoduls auf 50% hoch. Folien-Silizium nutzt dagegen durch eine andere Herstellungstechnik das Material viel besser aus und senkt so die Waferkosten erheblich. Im Wirkungsgrad können Solarzellen aus Folien-Silizium schon fast mit herkömmlichen Zellen konkurrieren. Ein weiterer Vorteil von Folien-Silizium: Es kann relativ problemlos in die Produktionslinien heutiger Solarzellen aus kristallinem Silizium eingegliedert werden. Allerdings sind die attraktivsten Herstellungsverfahren noch nicht serienreif.

  8. Die neue Kosmologie. Von Dunkelmaterie, GUTs und Superhaufen.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornell, J.

    This book is a German translation, by M. Röser, of the American original "Bubbles, voids, and bumps in time: the new cosmology", published 1989 (see 49.003.045). Contents: 1. Die Entdeckung des Weltalls: Eine Einleitung (A. P. Lightman). 2. Die Vermessung des Weltalls: Rotverschiebungen und Standardkerzen (R. P. Kirshner). 3. Die Kartierung des Weltalls: Scheiben und Blasen (M. J. Geller). 4. Die Bestimmung der Masse im Weltall: Dunkelmaterie und fehlende Masse (V. C. Rubin). 5. Der Beginn des Weltalls: Urknall und kosmische Inflation (A. H. Guth). 6. Die Ausweitung des Weltalls: Das Weltraumteleskop und Perspektiven für die nächsten 20 Jahre (J. E. Gunn).

  9. Neues "Francais fondamental?" Das Europa-Projekt "Un niveau seuil." (A New "Francais fondamental?" The European Project "A Threshold Level").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raasch, Albert

    1978-01-01

    The project "Threshold Level," initiated by the Council of Europe in 1976, is compared with "Francais fondamental," comparing their aims and their differences. Offered as an interim statement, the article leaves open the question of whether Francais fondamental should be replaced by the the Threshold Level. (IFS/WGA)

  10. Das DNA-Puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner, Stefan

    Im Jahre 1953 wurde von James Watson und Francis Crick erstmalig der strukturelle Aufbau der sogenannten DNA (Desoxyribonukleinsäure) beschrieben, welche das Erbgut jedes Lebewesens enthält. Der wesentliche Teil des Erbguts wird dabei durch eine sehr lange Folge der vier Basen Adenin (A), Cytosin (C), Guanin (G) und Thymin (T) codiert. Seit einigen Jahren ist es möglich, die Folge der vier Basen zu einer gegebenen DNA zu bestimmen. Biologen bezeichnen diesen Vorgang als Sequenzierung.

  11. Schönheit und andere Provokationen - Eine neue evolutionsbiologische Theorie der Kunst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junker, Thomas

    Die Evolution hat viele spektakuläre Phänomene hervorgebracht - von der Eleganz des Vogelflugs über die gigantischen Körper der Dinosaurier und die farbenprächtige Vielfalt der Korallenriffe bis hin zu ihrem jüngsten Geniestreich - der menschlichen Kunst. Die schönen Künste - Malerei, Bildhauerei und Architektur, Theater, Tanz, Oper und Filmkunst, Musik und Literatur - Produkte der Evolution? Diese Vorstellung mutet vielen Menschen fremd an, aber wie könnte es anders sein? Denn wenn Charles Darwin recht hat, dann sind nicht nur die körperlichen Merkmale der Menschen als Antworten auf die Erfordernisse des Lebens entstanden, sondern auch ihre geistigen Fähigkeiten und Verhaltensweisen. Im Jahr 1859 hatte er auf den letzten Seiten seines berühmten Buches über die Entstehung der Arten eine kühne Prophezeiung gemacht: Durch die Evolutionstheorie werde es "zu einer bemerkenswerten Revolution in der Naturwissenschaft kommen […]. Die Psychologie wird auf die neue Grundlage gestellt, dass jede geistige Kraft und Fähigkeit notwendigerweise durch graduelle Übergänge erworben wird“ (Darwin 1859, S. 484, 488; Junker 2008).

  12. Connecting the Dots in DAS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    Many institutions implement a distributed antenna system (DAS) as part of a holistic approach to providing better wireless coverage and capacity on campus. A DAS provides wireless service within a particular area or structure via a network of separate antenna nodes that are connected to a common source through fiber or coaxial cable. Because DAS…

  13. Development Trends in Librarianship and Schools of Library and Information Science in the Neue Bundeslander of the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freytag, Jurgen

    1994-01-01

    Presents results of a report on development trends in librarianship and schools of library and information science in the Neue Bundeslander of the Federal Republic of Germany. Discusses political, economic, and technical factors; cites specific changes in public, union, university, scientific, and special libraries; and reviews trends in library…

  14. Neue Lautzeichen im Advanced Learners Dictionary (ALD). Stellungnahmen zum Pro und Kontra (New Sound Symbols in the Advanced Learners Dictionary [ALD]. Considerations Pro and Con)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zielsprache Englisch, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The phonetic symbols in the "Advanced Learners Dictionary" (Oxford University Press, London) are discussed critically in articles by L. Alfes, H. Arndt, E. Bauch, G. Dahlmann-Resing, W. Friedrich, E. Germer, B. Haycraft, H. P. Kelz. Reference is made to an earlier article "Neue Zeichen", by H. G. Hoffmann. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  15. Das Universum der Sterne. Himmelsbeobachtungen und Streifzüge durch die moderne Astronomie.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowan-Robinson, M.

    This book is a German translation, by M. Röser, of the English original published in 1990 (see 52.003.046). Contents: 1. Der Halleysche Komet. 2. Alpha Centauri - Der sonnennächste Stern. 3. Sirius und sein Begleiter, ein Weißer Zwerg. 4. Polaris - Der Polarstern. 5. Wega - Ein Planetensystem im Entstehen? 6. Mira - Der erste bekannte veränderliche Stern. 7. Der Ring-Nebel - "Todeskampf" eines sonnenähnlichen Sterns. 8. Der Orion-Nebel - Die Geburt neuer Sterne. 9. Delta Cephei - Die Meßlatte des Weltalls. 10. Algol - Der Teufelsstern. 11. Nova Aquilae - Der neue Stern von 1918. 12. Der Krebs-Nebel - Die Supernova des Jahres 1054. 13. Die Hyaden und Plejaden - Sternhaufen. 14. Die Milchstraße - Unsere Galaxis. 15. Die Magellanschen Wolken - Unsere Nachbarn im Weltall. 16. Der Andromeda-Nebel - Zwilling unserer Galaxis. 17. Messier 87 - Eine Radiogalaxie. 18. 3C 273 - Rätselhafter Quasar. 19. Messier 82 - Eine "Starburst"-Galaxie. 20. Der Virgo-Haufen - Ein reicher Galaxienhaufen. 21. Das Universum.

  16. DAS Writeback: A Collaborative Annotation System

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Centralised resources such as GenBank and UniProt are perfect examples of the major international efforts that have been made to integrate and share biological information. However, additional data that adds value to these resources needs a simple and rapid route to public access. The Distributed Annotation System (DAS) provides an adequate environment to integrate genomic and proteomic information from multiple sources, making this information accessible to the community. DAS offers a way to distribute and access information but it does not provide domain experts with the mechanisms to participate in the curation process of the available biological entities and their annotations. Results We designed and developed a Collaborative Annotation System for proteins called DAS Writeback. DAS writeback is a protocol extension of DAS to provide the functionalities of adding, editing and deleting annotations. We implemented this new specification as extensions of both a DAS server and a DAS client. The architecture was designed with the involvement of the DAS community and it was improved after performing usability experiments emulating a real annotation task. Conclusions We demonstrate that DAS Writeback is effective, usable and will provide the appropriate environment for the creation and evolution of community protein annotation. PMID:21569281

  17. Neue biosensorische Prinzipien für die Hämoglobin-A1c Bestimmung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stöllner, Daniela

    2002-06-01

    Hämoglobin-A1c (HbA1c) ist ein Hämoglobin (Hb)-Subtypus, der durch nicht-enzymatische Glykierung des N-terminalen Valinrestes der Hämoglobin-beta-Kette entsteht. Das gemessene Verhältnis von HbA1c zum Gesamt-Hämoglobin (5-20 % bei Diabetikern) repräsentiert den Mittelwert der Blutglucosekonzentration über einen zweimonatigen Zeitraum und stellt zur Beurteilung der diabetischen Stoffwechsellage eine Ergänzung zur Akutkontrolle der Glukosekonzentration dar. Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit war es, einen amperometrischen Biosensor für die Bestimmung des medizinisch relevanten Parameters HbA1c zu entwickeln. Durch Selektion geeigneter Bioerkennungselemente und deren Immobilisierung unter Erhalt der Bindungsfunktion für die Zielmoleküle Hämoglobin bzw. HbA1c wurden spezifische, hochaffine und regenerationsstabile Sensoroberflächen geschaffen. Für die Entwicklung des HbA1c-Biosensors wurden zwei Konzepte - Enzymsensor und Immunosensor - miteinander verglichen. Die enzymatische Umsetzung von HbA1c erfolgte mit der Fructosylamin Oxidase (FAO) aus Pichia pastoris N 1-1 unter Freisetzung von H2O2, welches sowohl optisch über eine Indikatorreaktion als auch elektrochemisch nach Einschluss der FAO in PVA-SbQ und Fixierung des Immobilisats vor einer H2O2-Elektrode nachgewiesen wurde. Die Kalibration des Enzymsensors mit der HbA1c-Modellsubstanz Fructosyl-Valin ergab Nachweisgrenzen, die ausserhalb des physiologisch relevanten HbA1c-Konzentrationsbereich lagen. Aus der Umsetzung von glykierten Peptiden mit einer nicht HbA1c analogen Aminosäurensequenz, z.B. Fructosyl-Valin-Glycin wurde zudem eine geringe HbA1c-Spezifität abgeleitet. Für den Immunosensor wurden zwei heterogene Immunoassay-Formate unter Verwendung von hochaffinen und spezifischen Antikörpern in Kombination mit Glucose Oxidase (GOD) als Markerenzym zum Nachweis von HbA1c untersucht. Beim indirekt-kompetitiven Immunoassay wurde anstelle des kompletten HbA1c-Moleküls das glykierte Pentapeptid

  18. Neue biosensorische Prinzipien für die Hämoglobin-A1c Bestimmung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stöllner, Daniela

    2002-06-01

    Hämoglobin-A1c (HbA1c) ist ein Hämoglobin (Hb)-Subtypus, der durch nicht-enzymatische Glykierung des N-terminalen Valinrestes der Hämoglobin-beta-Kette entsteht. Das gemessene Verhältnis von HbA1c zum Gesamt-Hämoglobin (5-20 % bei Diabetikern) repräsentiert den Mittelwert der Blutglucosekonzentration über einen zweimonatigen Zeitraum und stellt zur Beurteilung der diabetischen Stoffwechsellage eine Ergänzung zur Akutkontrolle der Glukosekonzentration dar. Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit war es, einen amperometrischen Biosensor für die Bestimmung des medizinisch relevanten Parameters HbA1c zu entwickeln. Durch Selektion geeigneter Bioerkennungselemente und deren Immobilisierung unter Erhalt der Bindungsfunktion für die Zielmoleküle Hämoglobin bzw. HbA1c wurden spezifische, hochaffine und regenerationsstabile Sensoroberflächen geschaffen. Für die Entwicklung des HbA1c-Biosensors wurden zwei Konzepte - Enzymsensor und Immunosensor - miteinander verglichen. Die enzymatische Umsetzung von HbA1c erfolgte mit der Fructosylamin Oxidase (FAO) aus Pichia pastoris N 1-1 unter Freisetzung von H2O2, welches sowohl optisch über eine Indikatorreaktion als auch elektrochemisch nach Einschluss der FAO in PVA-SbQ und Fixierung des Immobilisats vor einer H2O2-Elektrode nachgewiesen wurde. Die Kalibration des Enzymsensors mit der HbA1c-Modellsubstanz Fructosyl-Valin ergab Nachweisgrenzen, die ausserhalb des physiologisch relevanten HbA1c-Konzentrationsbereich lagen. Aus der Umsetzung von glykierten Peptiden mit einer nicht HbA1c analogen Aminosäurensequenz, z.B. Fructosyl-Valin-Glycin wurde zudem eine geringe HbA1c-Spezifität abgeleitet. Für den Immunosensor wurden zwei heterogene Immunoassay-Formate unter Verwendung von hochaffinen und spezifischen Antikörpern in Kombination mit Glucose Oxidase (GOD) als Markerenzym zum Nachweis von HbA1c untersucht. Beim indirekt-kompetitiven Immunoassay wurde anstelle des kompletten HbA1c-Moleküls das glykierte Pentapeptid

  19. GHRSST-14 DAS-TAG Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Edward; Piolle, Jean Francois

    2013-01-01

    The DAS-TAG provides the informatics and data management expertise in emerging information technologies for the GHRSST community. It provides expertise in data and metadata formats and standards, fosters improvements for GHRSST data curation, experiments with new data processing paradigms, and evaluates services and tools for data usage. It provides a forum for producer and distributor data management issues and coordination.

  20. Physik gestern und heute Das Eiskalorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heering, P.

    2003-07-01

    Kalorimetrische Messungen gehören heute zum experimentellen Standardrepertoire im Bereich der Thermodynamik und der physikalischen Chemie. Das erste Gerät für derartige Messungen entwickelten Ende des 18. Jahrhunderts die französischen Wissenschaftler Antoine Laurent Lavoisier und Pierre Simon de Laplace.

  1. Blick in das kalte Weltall. Protosterne, Staubscheiben und schwarze Löcher.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezger, P. G.

    Contents: 1. Radioastronomie: Ein neues Fenster ins Weltall öffnet sich. Die Entwicklung der Radioastronomie. Vom Anfang der Welt: Der Urknall. Die Milchstraße und ihr infrarotes Bild. Sterne und interstellare Materie. Die Suche nach den Protosternen. Der Zentralbereich der Milchstraße. Im Zentrum der Milchstraße: Ein schwarzes Loch mit einer Akkretionsscheibe? 2. Der Wissenschaftsbetrieb.

  2. Moisture Forecast Bias Correction in GEOS DAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dee, D.

    1999-01-01

    Data assimilation methods rely on numerous assumptions about the errors involved in measuring and forecasting atmospheric fields. One of the more disturbing of these is that short-term model forecasts are assumed to be unbiased. In case of atmospheric moisture, for example, observational evidence shows that the systematic component of errors in forecasts and analyses is often of the same order of magnitude as the random component. we have implemented a sequential algorithm for estimating forecast moisture bias from rawinsonde data in the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS). The algorithm is designed to remove the systematic component of analysis errors and can be easily incorporated in an existing statistical data assimilation system. We will present results of initial experiments that show a significant reduction of bias in the GEOS DAS moisture analyses.

  3. Das Licht am Ende des Tunnels: Motivationsstrukturen fur den Deutschunterricht Reflexionen uber ein altes und stets neues Problem (The Light at the End of the Tunnel: Structures for Motivating German Teaching. Reflections on an Old and Continually New Problem).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classen, Albrecht

    2001-01-01

    Argues that despite the decline in enrollments in German at elementary and secondary schools and colleges and universities, there is reason to hope that interest can be invigorated. Suggests that there are easy instructional methods and materials for developing a new motivation in learning the language. (Author/VWL)

  4. Das CARNOTsche Paradigma und seine erkenntnistheoretischen Implikationen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöpf, Hans-Georg

    Der vorliegende historisch-kritische Essay führt die Eigentümlichkeiten der klassischen phänomenologischen Thermodynamik auf das von CARNOT geschaffene Paradigma zurück und greift einige damit zusammenhängende Fragen auf.Translated AbstractCARNOT's Paradigm and its Epistemological ImplicationsThe present historic-critical essay traces the pecularities of classical phenomenological thermodynamics back to the paradigm, created by CARNOT, and takes up some questions to which this paradigm gives rise.

  5. Das singuläre Modell der über der Oberfläche von Kryodielektrikas lokalisierten Elektronenzustände

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorofeyev, O. F.; Lysov, B. A.; Pavlova, O. S.; Ternov, I. M.

    Wir schlagen ein neues Modell zur Beschreibung der in der Nähe der Oberfläche von Kryodielektrika lokalisierten Elektronenzustände vor. Dabei wird die Nichteindeutigkeit der selbstadjungierten Erweiterung des Hamilton-Operators der elektrostatischen Bildkräfte an der flachen Grenze Dielektrikum-Vakuum benutzt. Im Unterschied zum bekannten Modell von Grimes enthält das von uns vorgeschlagene Modell nur einen einzigen phänomenologischen Parameter, den Vermischungswinkel. Es zeigt sich, daß die entsprechende Wahl des Vermischungswinkels es erlaubt, die spektroskopischen Daten von elektrischen Dipolübergängen zwischen den Einteilchen-Elektronenzuständen, die über der Oberfläche flüssigen 4He und 3He sowie festen Wasserstoffe lokalisiert sind, vollständig zu beschreiben.Translated AbstractA Singular Model of Electronic States, Localized over the Surface of Cryogenized DielectricA new model for the description of localized electronic states near the surface of a cryogenized dielectric is proposed. In this model an ambiguity of the self-adjoined extention of the Hamiltonian for the problem of the motion of an electron in the field of the electrostatic image at flat boundary dielectric-vacuum is used. The proposed model, in contrast with the well known model of Grimes, contains as only phenomenological parameter the mixing angle. It is shown that the proper choise of the mixing angle makes it possible to completely account for the spectroscopic data on electric dipole transitions between singleparticle electronic states localized over the surfaces of 4He, 3He and also solid hydrogen.

  6. "Das Konkrete ist das Abstrakte, an das man sich schließlich gewöhnt hat." (Laurent Schwartz) Über den Ablauf des mathematischen Verstehens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowsky, Martin

    Die im Titel genannte Aussage findet sich in den Lebenserinnerungen von Laurent Schwartz (1915-2002), einem der fruchtbarsten Mathematiker, Mitglied der Gruppe Bourbaki. Im Original lautet die Aussage: "un objet concret est un objet abstrait auquel on a fini par s'habituer." Schwartz erläutert sie am Beispiel des Integrals über {e^{-1/2{x^2}}} , das den Wert Wurzel aus 2π hat und in dem sich also die Zahlen e und π verknüpfen. Was Schwartz aber vor allem ausdrücken will, ist dies: Das mathematische Verständnisd geht langsam vor sich und es bedarf der Anstrengung. "Es ist eine Frage der Zeit und der Energie", sagt Schwartz, und gerade dies mache es so schwer, die höhere Mathematik unter das Volk zu bringen. Das Lernen und Lehren von Mathematik laufe eben mühevoll und langsam ab.

  7. Evidence of Motor Programming Deficits in Children Diagnosed with DAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijland, Lian; Maassen, Ben; van der Meulen, Sjoeke

    2003-01-01

    Five children with developmental apraxia of speech (DAS), 5 controls (ages 5-6), and 6 adults produced utterances in a normal condition and in a bite-block condition in which the mandible was in a fixed position. In children with DAS, the bite-block had large effects on coarticulatory patterns and vowel quality. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  8. Pedagogical Basis of DAS Formalism in Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiltunen, J.; Heikkinen, E.-P.; Jaako, J.; Ahola, J.

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a new approach for a bachelor-level curriculum structure in engineering. The approach is called DAS formalism according to its three phases: description, analysis and synthesis. Although developed specifically for process and environmental engineering, DAS formalism has a generic nature and it could also be used in other…

  9. Twenty‐eight‐joint counts invalidate the DAS28 remission definition owing to the omission of the lower extremity joints: a comparison with the original DAS remission

    PubMed Central

    Landewé, R; van der Heijde, D; van der Linden, S; Boers, M

    2006-01-01

    Objective To compare 28 joint disease activity score (DAS28) remission with comprehensive joint count DAS remission in rheumatoid arthritis. Methods 620 actually measured paired observations of DAS28 and DAS were analysed in 155 patients. Discordant observations (either DAS or DAS28 below remission cut off level: 1.6 for DAS and 2.6 for DAS28) and concordant observations (both DAS and DAS28 below their remission cut off level) were analysed separately. Results 91 of 620 paired DAS observations (15%) were discordant; 87 (in 53 patients) comprised observations in which the DAS28 remission criterion, but not the DAS remission criterion, was met. The reverse was found in only four observations, which were therefore omitted. With the original DAS as standard, DAS28 sensitivity was 95% and specificity 84%. Probability plots showed a swollen joint count >0 in 75% of discordant pairs v 48% of concordant pairs. The same was found for total joint count (TJC >0 in 90% v 40%; median TJC, 0 v 6) and patient global assessment, but not for ESR. Individual joint analysis showed that 51% of discordant v 18% of concordant observations (p<0.0005) had involvement of lower extremity joints that are not included in the DAS28. Conclusions DAS remission is more conservative than DAS28 remission. Activity (tenderness and swelling) in joints not included in the reduced joint counts (ankles, feet) mainly account for the discrepancy between the two assessments. DAS28 remission at a cut off level of 2.6 has insufficient construct validity and should be used with caution in clinical practice and clinical trials. PMID:16219709

  10. DAS: A Data Management System for Instrument Tests and Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frailis, M.; Sartor, S.; Zacchei, A.; Lodi, M.; Cirami, R.; Pasian, F.; Trifoglio, M.; Bulgarelli, A.; Gianotti, F.; Franceschi, E.; Nicastro, L.; Conforti, V.; Zoli, A.; Smart, R.; Morbidelli, R.; Dadina, M.

    2014-05-01

    The Data Access System (DAS) is a and data management software system, providing a reusable solution for the storage of data acquired both from telescopes and auxiliary data sources during the instrument development phases and operations. It is part of the Customizable Instrument WorkStation system (CIWS-FW), a framework for the storage, processing and quick-look at the data acquired from scientific instruments. The DAS provides a data access layer mainly targeted to software applications: quick-look displays, pre-processing pipelines and scientific workflows. It is logically organized in three main components: an intuitive and compact Data Definition Language (DAS DDL) in XML format, aimed for user-defined data types; an Application Programming Interface (DAS API), automatically adding classes and methods supporting the DDL data types, and providing an object-oriented query language; a data management component, which maps the metadata of the DDL data types in a relational Data Base Management System (DBMS), and stores the data in a shared (network) file system. With the DAS DDL, developers define the data model for a particular project, specifying for each data type the metadata attributes, the data format and layout (if applicable), and named references to related or aggregated data types. Together with the DDL user-defined data types, the DAS API acts as the only interface to store, query and retrieve the metadata and data in the DAS system, providing both an abstract interface and a data model specific one in C, C++ and Python. The mapping of metadata in the back-end database is automatic and supports several relational DBMSs, including MySQL, Oracle and PostgreSQL.

  11. Pedagogical basis of DAS formalism in engineering education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiltunen, J.; Heikkinen, E.-P.; Jaako, J.; Ahola, J.

    2011-03-01

    The paper presents a new approach for a bachelor-level curriculum structure in engineering. The approach is called DAS formalism according to its three phases: description, analysis and synthesis. Although developed specifically for process and environmental engineering, DAS formalism has a generic nature and it could also be used in other engineering fields. The motivation for this new curriculum structure originates from the urge to solve the problems that engineering education has faced during the past decades, e.g. student recruitment problems and dissatisfactory learning outcomes. The focus of this paper is on the structure of the curriculum but the content is also discussed when it has an effect on the structure and its implementation. The presented structure, i.e. DAS formalism, builds upon the ideas of some classical pedagogical theories, which have regularly been applied at course level but seldom used to solve curriculum-level issues.

  12. The development of the disease activity score (DAS) and the disease activity score using 28 joint counts (DAS28).

    PubMed

    van Riel, P L C M

    2014-01-01

    In rheumatoid arthritis, disease activity cannot be measured using a single variable. The Disease Activity Score (DAS) has been developed as a quantitative index to be able to measure, study and manage disease activity in RA in daily clinical practice, clinical trials, and long term observational studies. The DAS is a continuous measure of RA disease activity that combines information from swollen joints, tender joints, acute phase response and patient self-report of general health. Cut points were developed to classify patients in remission, as well as low, moderate, and severe disease activity in the 1990s. DAS-based EULAR response criteria were primarily developed to be used in clinical trials to classify individual patients as non-, moderate, or good responders, depending on the magnitude of change and absolute level of disease activity at the conclusion of the test.

  13. On the Law of Inertia. Translation of: Ueber das Beharrungsgesetz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Ludwig

    2014-04-01

    This article is a translation of Ludwig Lange: "Ueber das Beharrungsgesetz" in: Berichte ueber Verhandlungen der Koenigl. Saechsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, math.-physik. Klasse (Leipzig, 1885), SS. 333-351. Translated by Herbert Pfister, Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, 72076 Tübingen, Germany; herbert.pfister@uni-tuebingen.de. Kind assistance by Julian Barbour is acknowledged.

  14. VOLTAGE REGULATOR

    DOEpatents

    Von Eschen, R.L.; Scheele, P.F.

    1962-04-24

    A transistorized voltage regulator which provides very close voitage regulation up to about 180 deg F is described. A diode in the positive line provides a constant voltage drop from the input to a regulating transistor emitter. An amplifier is coupled to the positive line through a resistor and is connected between a difference circuit and the regulating transistor base which is negative due to the difference in voltage drop across thc diode and the resistor so that a change in the regulator output causes the amplifier to increase or decrease the base voltage and current and incrcase or decrease the transistor impedance to return the regulator output to normal. (AEC)

  15. Das Vakuum kommt zu Kräften: Der Casimir-Effekt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambrecht, Astrid

    2005-03-01

    Die Casimir-Kraft zwischen zwei Spiegeln im Vakuum wird durch Vakuumfluktuationen verursacht. Dieser bedeutende Effekt ermöglicht es, in präzisen Laborversuchen unser Verständnis vom Quantenvakuum zu vertiefen. Eine Vielzahl neuer Experimente setzt dazu moderne Techniken wie die atomare Kraftmikroskopie oder mikroelektromechanische Systeme ein. Auch die theoretischen Modelle werden verbessert, um diese Experimente realistischer nachzubilden. Bislang stimmen die experimentellen Daten gut mit den theoretischen Vorhersagen überein. Da der Casimir-Effekt auf kurzen Distanzen dominieren kann, wird er für die zukünftige Nanotechnik wichtig sein. Der Grundlagenforschung bietet er eine gute Möglichkeit, neue Theorien zur Vereinigung aller Kräfte zu überprüfen.

  16. Das menschliche Gehör und Grundlagen der Psychoakustik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genuit, Klaus; Sottek, Roland

    Das menschliche Gehör ist ein äußerst komplexes Empfangs- und Signalverarbeitungssystem. Es ist als Schallanalysator in Leistungsfähigkeit und Vielseitigkeit von technisch-analytischen Verfahren nach wie vor unerreicht. Die Signalverarbeitung läuft auf Grundlage komplexer Prozesse ab, die in ihrer Gesamtheit bislang nicht vollständig erfasst sind. Verschiedene Modelle zur gehörgerechten Zeit- und Frequenzanalyse ahmen jene komplexen Prozesse und Verarbeitungsmechanismen nach, die im menschlichen Gehör vollzogen werden.

  17. Discrepancies in assessment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and secondary Sjögren's syndrome by DAS28-ESR and DAS28-CRP

    PubMed Central

    Olesińska, Marzena; Paradowska-Gorycka, Agnieszka; Mańczak, Małgorzata; Felis-Giemza, Anna; Wojdasiewicz, Piotr; Szukiewicz, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether a difference exists between DAS28 from CRP and DAS28 from ESR in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and secondary Sjögren's syndrome (sSS). Material and methods One group comprised patients with RA and sSS, the control group comprised patients with RA. The inclusion criteria for the RA and sSS group have been specified as follows: presence of at least one symptom of dryness, and also presence of anti-SS-A and anti-SS-B or at least focus score of one in biopsy. Results The disease activity score 28 (DAS28) was assessed using both ESR and CRP in 60 patients with RA and sSS and 59 patients with RA alone. However, concordance between these two methods was good (Cohen's κ coefficient κ = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.45-0.75 in the first group and κ = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.56-0.86 in the control group). In the group with RA and sSS, the mean value of DAS28-ESR = 5.2, whereas the mean value of DAS28-CRP = 4.7 (p < 0.0001). In the group with RA alone, mean DAS28-ESR = 4.7 while mean DAS28-CRP = 4.6; no significant difference was identified. Moreover, in RA patients with sSS, mean ESR = 39 mm/h compared with mean CRP at 25 mg/l. 79% of all patients demonstrated dysproteinaemia. There were connections between higher ESR and dysproteinaemia. In the control group there was no statistically significant difference between CRP and ESR. Conclusions Both DAS28-ESR and DAS28-CRP are useful outcome measures in RA. However, in patients with RA and sSS, DAS28 should be evaluated based on CRP. PMID:27536205

  18. Next-Generation DAS for the Russian VLBI-Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosov, E.

    2011-07-01

    The digital DAS R1002M was developed by Institute of Applied Astronomy. The system consists of 16 Base Band Converters (BBC) with digital signals processing on video frequencies and provides the total data recording rate up to 2048 Mbps. The data format is VSI-H. Input frequency range is 100-1000 MHz. Selectable bandwidths of BBC's are from 0.5 to 32 MHz. The sample rate of ADC is 64 Msps. R1002M system is compatible to analog systems and is intended for their replacement. Two R1002M systems have been installed in Svetloe and Zelenchukskaya observatories. The results of Svetloe-Zelenchukskaya observation with use of R1002M are considered. In 2011 the same system will be established in Badary.

  19. Keine Panik vor Statistik!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oestreich, Markus; Romberg, Oliver

    Die Statistik - unendliche Fragen. Sternzeit 0511,22: Wir schreiben das Jahr mit J wie "Juhu!" denn dies sind die Abenteuer der Doktorissimi Oestreich und Romberg, die mit Ihrem zusammen 28 Punkte zählenden IQ zwei Jahre lang unterwegs waren, um neue Statistik-Darstellungen zu erforschen, neue Formulierungen und neue Applikationen. Viele Lichtjahre von der faden Theorie entfernt, dringen die Autoren dabei in Phantasien vor, die nie ein Mensch zuvor so gehabt hat. Willkommen an Bord!

  20. Psychometric Properties of the Disability Assessment Schedule (DAS) for Behavior Problems: An Independent Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsakanikos, Elias; Underwood, Lisa; Sturmey, Peter; Bouras, Nick; McCarthy, Jane

    2011-01-01

    The present study employed the Disability Assessment Schedule (DAS) to assess problem behaviors in a large sample of adults with ID (N = 568) and evaluate the psychometric properties of this instrument. Although the DAS problem behaviors were found to be internally consistent (Cronbach's [alpha] = 0.87), item analysis revealed one weak item…

  1. Detecting Changes Following the Provision of Assistive Devices: Utility of the WHO-DAS II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raggi, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II) is a non-disease-specific International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health-based disability assessment instrument developed to measure activity limitations and restrictions to participation. The aim of this pilot study is to evaluate WHO-DAS II…

  2. 50 CFR 648.10 - VMS and DAS requirements for vessel owners/operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false VMS and DAS requirements for vessel... UNITED STATES General Provisions § 648.10 VMS and DAS requirements for vessel owners/operators. (a) VMS Demarcation Line. The VMS Demarcation Line is defined by straight lines connecting the following...

  3. 50 CFR 648.10 - VMS and DAS requirements for vessel owners/operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false VMS and DAS requirements for vessel owners... General Provisions § 648.10 VMS and DAS requirements for vessel owners/operators. (a) VMS Demarcation Line. The VMS Demarcation Line is defined by straight lines connecting the following coordinates in...

  4. 50 CFR 648.10 - VMS and DAS requirements for vessel owners/operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false VMS and DAS requirements for vessel... UNITED STATES General Provisions § 648.10 VMS and DAS requirements for vessel owners/operators. (a) VMS Demarcation Line. The VMS Demarcation Line is defined by straight lines connecting the following...

  5. 50 CFR 648.10 - VMS and DAS requirements for vessel owners/operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false VMS and DAS requirements for vessel... UNITED STATES General Provisions § 648.10 VMS and DAS requirements for vessel owners/operators. (a) VMS Demarcation Line. The VMS Demarcation Line is defined by straight lines connecting the following...

  6. Das Programm Oder 2006. Hochwasserschutz in Polen im Zuge der EU-Osterweiterung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühne, Olaf

    Hochwasser ist ein natürliches Ereignis: Seit jeher sind die Menschen mit Hochwasser und seinen Auswirkungen konfrontiert. Das Ausmaß von Hochwasser reicht dabei von Straßenüberschwemmungen bis zur Überflutung ganzer Landesteile. Auch im Oderflußsystem waren und sind Überschwemmungen keine Seltenheit, in den letzten 200 Jahren ereigneten sie sich in den Jahren 1813, 1838, 1854, 1870, 1903, 1958, 1965, 1970, 1972, 1977, 1981, 1985 und 1997. Das Hochwasser von 1997 war jedoch das schwerste im genannten Zeitraum. Als Reaktion auf das Hochwasser von 1997 wurde in der betroffenen Region das Programm 〝Oder 2006`` entwickelt. Mit seiner Hilfe sollen die Auswirkungen künftiger Hochwasserereignisse abgeschwächt werden.

  7. NORM regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, P.

    1997-02-01

    The author reviews the question of regulation for naturally occuring radioactive material (NORM), and the factors that have made this a more prominent concern today. Past practices have been very relaxed, and have often involved very poor records, the involvment of contractors, and the disposition of contaminated equipment back into commercial service. The rationale behind the establishment of regulations is to provide worker protection, to exempt low risk materials, to aid in scrap recycling, to provide direction for remediation and to examine disposal options. The author reviews existing regulations at federal and state levels, impending legislation, and touches on the issue of site remediation and potential liabilities affecting the release of sites contaminated by NORM.

  8. Crosslinking effect of dialdehyde starch (DAS) on decellularized porcine aortas for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Gu, Zhipeng; Qin, Huanhuan; Li, Li; Yang, Xu; Yu, Xixun

    2015-08-01

    Biological tissue-derived biomaterials must be chemically modified to avoid immediate degradation and immune response before being implanted in human body to replace malfunctioning organs. DAS with active aldehyde groups was employed to replace glutaraldehyde (GA), a most common synthetic crosslinking reagent in clinical practice, to fix bioprostheses for lower cytotoxicity. The aim of this research was to evaluate fixation effect of DAS. The tensile strength, crosslinking stability, cytotoxicity especially the anti-calcification capability of DAS-fixed tissues were investigated. The tensile strength and resistance to enzymatic degradation of samples were increased after DAS fixation, the values maintained stably in D-Hanks solution for several days. Meanwhile, ultrastructure of samples preserved well and the anti-calcification capability of samples were improved, the amount of positive staining points in the whole visual field of 15% DAS-fixed samples was only 0.576 times to GA-fixed ones. Moreover, both unreacted DAS and its hydrolytic products were nontoxic in cytotoxicity study. The results demonstrated DAS might be an effective crosslinking reagent to fix biological tissue-derived biomaterials in tissue engineering. PMID:26038106

  9. Compositional safety of herbicide-tolerant DAS-81910-7 cotton.

    PubMed

    Herman, Rod A; Fast, Brandon J; Johnson, Tempest Y; Sabbatini, Jane; Rudgers, Gary W

    2013-11-27

    DAS-81910-7 cotton is a transgenic event that was transformed to contain the aad-12 and pat genes. These genes code for the AAD-12 and PAT proteins, which confer tolerance to the herbicides 2,4-D and glufosinate, respectively. Crop composition studies were conducted with DAS-81910-7 cotton (both nonsprayed and sprayed with 2,4-D and glufosinate) to comply with requirements of regulatory authorities responsible for evaluating crop safety. Results indicate compositional equivalence between DAS-81910-7 cottonseed and nontransgenic cottonseed and between sprayed and nonsprayed DAS-81910-7 cottonseed. This study builds on the results from many prior studies which support the conclusion that transgenesis is less likely to unexpectedly alter the composition of crops as compared with traditional breeding.

  10. Gravitationswellen - ein neues Fenster zum Universum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aufmuth, Peter; Rüdiger, Albrecht

    2000-01-01

    Die von der Allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie vorhergesagten Gravitationswellen sind bisher noch nicht direkt beobachtet worden. In Europa, Japan und den USA hat man mit dem Bau von großen Laserinterferometern begonnen, die dies ermöglichen sollen. Damit eröffnet sich die Aussicht, bisher verschlossene Bereiche des Weltalls durch Gravitationswellenastronomie zu studieren.

  11. Highlighting young investigators: guest editor Ramanuj DasGupta. Ram DasGupta: pushing the boundaries of β-catenin signaling and drug development.

    PubMed

    Cowin, Pamela

    2013-12-01

    From generating the TOP-GAL mouse to pioneering high-throughput RNAi, and small molecule chemical genetic screens in Drosophila and mammalian cells, Ram DasGupta has consistently developed innovative technological tools of immense value to the fields in which he has chosen to work.

  12. The WHO-DAS II: Measuring Outcomes of Hearing Aid Intervention for Adults

    PubMed Central

    McArdle, Rachel; Chisolm, Theresa H.; Abrams, Harvey B.; Wilson, Richard H.; Doyle, Patrick J.

    2005-01-01

    The World Health Organization's Disability Assessment Scale II (WHO-DAS II) is a generic health-status instrument that provides six domain scores and a total, aggregate score. Two of the domain scores, communication and participation, and the total score, have good validity, internal-consistency reliability, and test-retest stability in individuals with adult-onset hearing loss. As such, these two domain scores and the total WHO-DAS II score may be useful as generic outcome measures to assess the effectiveness of hearing aid intervention for this population. Before the use of the WHO-DAS II in hearing aid clinical trials, however, the responsiveness of the instrument and the short- and long-term outcomes to hearing aid intervention had to be determined. Responsiveness and outcomes were assessed in 380 veterans (approximately half received hearing aids and half served as controls) by examining group differences, effect-size estimates, and individual differences as a function of hearing aid intervention. For comparison, data also were obtained on two disease-specific measures, the APHAB and the HHIE. The WHO-DAS II communication domain and total scores were sufficiently responsive to hearing aid intervention for use in future studies in which group differences are to be detected. The WHO-DAS II participation domain was not sufficiently responsive to hearing aid intervention. The APHAB and HHIE, both disease-specific measures, were more sensitive to hearing aid intervention than the generic measure. The short- and long-term outcomes of hearing aid intervention were also examined in the present study. Group outcomes for hearing aid intervention can be expected to be stable for at least 6 months when measured by WHO-DAS II total score and for at least 12 months when measured by the WHO-DAS II communication domain scores. Effect-size estimates and examination of the number of individuals exhibiting change scores exceeding 90% critical differences for true changes in

  13. BOOK REVIEW: Geheimnisvolles Universum - Europas Astronomen entschleiern das Weltall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, H. W.; Lorenzen, D. H.

    2002-12-01

    The 25th birthday of ESO, in 1987, was celebrated by the publication of an illustrated popular book, "Exploring the Southern Sky" (Springer-Verlag 1987), which also saw editions in Danish, English, French, German, and Spanish. Written and illustrated by the ESO staff members Svend Laustsen, Claus Madsen and Richard M. West, its many pictures were mainly taken with the ESO 3.6m and Schmidt telescopes. The structure of the book - perhaps at that time somewhat unusual - started with things far away (Universe and galaxies), zoomed in to the Milky Way, and finally reached the Solar System (with a concluding chapter dealing with the La Silla observatory). Now, with the 4 units of the Very Large Telescope in full operation, and on the occasion of ESO's 40th birthday, another jubilee book has appeared: "Geheimnisvolles Universum: Europas Astronomen entschleiern das Weltall", written by the science journalist Dirk H. Lorenzen, of Hamburg, Germany, and prefaced by Catherine Cesarsky, Director General of ESO. Presumably, this book will also soon become available in more languages spoken in ESO member countries. Thus it may be worthwhile to review the first edition, although some readers may like to wait for more easily accessible editions. Before going into details, let me first mention that I find this a very impressing book, great to look at and refreshing to read. With ESO seen through the eyes of a visitor, things gain a perspective that is quite different from that of the previous book, and at least as attractive. It comes as no surprise that the book starts with a visit of ESO's showcase, the Paranal Observatory, and the writer not only notes down his own impressions, but also cites statements of some of the many people that keep Paranal going - technicians and staff astronomers. This mixture of texts provides a good impression of the operations at a large observatory for the general reader. The two more 'astronomical' parts that follow deal with star and planet

  14. Charge regulation circuit

    DOEpatents

    Ball, Don G.

    1992-01-01

    A charge regulation circuit provides regulation of an unregulated voltage supply in the range of 0.01%. The charge regulation circuit is utilized in a preferred embodiment in providing regulated voltage for controlling the operation of a laser.

  15. Bottom characterization of Lagoa das Furnas on São Miguel, Azores archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Tommy; Hermelin, Otto; Skelton, Alasdair; Jakobsson, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Lagoa das Furnas is a crater lake located in an area exposed to geohazards from earthquakes and volcanic activity on the island of São Miguel in the Azores Archipelago. Geophysical mapping of Lagoa das Furnas reveals a previously undiscovered volcanic dome. This dome is comprised largely of subaquatic pyroclastic debris of trachytic composition. Sedimentological, petrological, geochemical and geochronological studies of pyroclastic deposits from the dome link it to the historically documented "Furnas 1630" eruption. The chemistry of glass and crystal fragments sampled from the dome suggests that it is comprised of more evolved magma than that of the main Furnas 1630 dome located 1400 m away. This suggests that the dome was formed during a final phase of the 1630 eruption in the Lagoa das Furnas area.

  16. Amerikas Einschätzung der deutschen Atomforschung: Das deutsche Uranprojekt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Mark

    2002-07-01

    Die amerikanischen Wissenschaftler und ihre emigrierten Kollegen, die am Bau der Atombombe beteiligt waren, verfügten über sehr widersprüchliche und großteils falsche Informationen über den Fortschritt des deutschen Uranprogramms. Noch nach Kriegsende lässt sich dies an Aussagen des Leiters der amerikanischen Alsos-Mission, Samuel Goudsmit, festmachen. Tatsächlich war das deutsche Programm hinsichtlich seiner wissenschaftlichen Grundlagen und des Managements nicht so unterlegen, wie vielfach behauptet wurde. Aber die deutschen Behörden waren nicht in der Lage, Geld und Ressourcen in gleichem Maße in das Uranprojekt zu investieren, wie etwa in das Peenemünder Raketenprojekt.

  17. Visualization of DAS28, SDAI, and CDAI: the magic carpets of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Futó, Gábor; Somogyi, Attila; Szekanecz, Zoltán

    2014-05-01

    There has been continuous debate regarding the applicability of various composite measures for the assessment of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In order to further dissect this issue, we numerically and graphically modeled 28-joint disease activity scale (DAS28), simplified disease activity index (SDAI), and clinical disease activity index (CDAI) by three-dimensional (3D) plotting. We wished to graphically visualize the relative contribution of various elements in the three activity indices to each other. We calculated DAS28 (3 variables), SDAI, and CDAI by the standard equations. We plotted 3D "carpets" showing all combinations of the corresponding variables yielding to DAS28 = 5.1, DAS28 = 3.2, DAS28 = 2.6, SDAI = 26, SDAI = 11, and SDAI = 3.3. We also plotted the 3D carpet for CDAI. In patients with high or moderate disease activity, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) or C-reactive protein (CRP) was not a major confounding factor when calculating DAS28 and SDAI, respectively. In contrast, ESR and CRP highly overshadowed changes in joint counts and global assessments in patients with low disease activity (LDA) or those in remission. No reliable assessment of LDA can be performed in cases where ESR >54 mm/h or CRP >20 mg/dl. Similarly, remission cannot be determined if ESR >19 mm/h or CRP >5 mg/dl. As CDAI does not include acute phase reactants, CDAI may be a useful tool even in states of remission or LDA. Our results suggest that acute phase reactants are indeed major confounding factors and should be omitted when assessing RA disease activity at least in special cases. PMID:24599677

  18. Knaurs moderne Astronomie. Das Standardwerk völlig neu bearbeitet.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Störig, H. J.

    This elementary textbook covers the following topics: cosmic dimensions, the sun as a star, the solar system, basic knowledge about stars, binary and variable stars, the cosmic windows, birth and death of stars, the Milky Way, extragalactic systems and cosmology. Contents: 1. Weißt du, wieviel Sterne stehen... 2. Die Sonne als Durchschnittsstern. 3. Das Sonnensystem im Überblick. 4. Grundwissen über Sterne. 5. Doppelsterne und Veränderliche. 6. Fenster zum Weltall. 7. Geburt und Tod der Sterne. 8. Die Milchstraße. 9. Extragalaktische Systeme. 10. Das Weltganze in Raum und Zeit.

  19. Anbindung des SISIS-SunRise-Bibliothekssystems an das zentrale Identitätsmanagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebner, Ralf; Pretz, Edwin

    Wir berichten über Konzepte und Implementierungen zur Datenprovisionierung aus den Personenverwaltungssystemen der Technischen Universität München (TUM) über das zentrale Metadirectory am Leibniz-Rechenzentrum (LRZ) in das SISIS-SunRise-Bibliothekssystem der Universitätsbibliothek der TUM (TUB). Es werden drei Implementierungsvarianten diskutiert, angefangen von der Generierung und Übertragung einfacher CSV-Dateien über ein OpenLDAP-basiertes Konzept als Backend für die SISIS-Datenbank bis zur endgültigen Implementierung mit dem OCLC IDM Connector.

  20. An exploratory analysis of the factor structure of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale-Form A (DAS).

    PubMed

    Moore, Michael T; Fresco, David M; Segal, Zindel V; Brown, Timothy A

    2014-10-01

    A number of studies have attempted to identify the factor structure of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS). However, no studies have done so using a clinical sample of outpatients likely to generalize to the clinical trials in which the DAS is commonly used. The current investigation utilized exploratory structural equation modeling in an outpatient sample (N = 982) and found support for a one-factor solution (composed of 19 items). This solution was largely confirmed in a second outpatient sample (N = 301). Construct validity was demonstrated in correlations with measures of depression, social interaction anxiety, and symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

  1. An exploratory analysis of the factor structure of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale-Form A (DAS).

    PubMed

    Moore, Michael T; Fresco, David M; Segal, Zindel V; Brown, Timothy A

    2014-10-01

    A number of studies have attempted to identify the factor structure of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS). However, no studies have done so using a clinical sample of outpatients likely to generalize to the clinical trials in which the DAS is commonly used. The current investigation utilized exploratory structural equation modeling in an outpatient sample (N = 982) and found support for a one-factor solution (composed of 19 items). This solution was largely confirmed in a second outpatient sample (N = 301). Construct validity was demonstrated in correlations with measures of depression, social interaction anxiety, and symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder. PMID:24577308

  2. The Deaf Acculturation Scale (DAS): Development and Validation of a 58-Item Measure

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell-McCaw, Deborah; Zea, Maria Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    This study involved the development and validation of the Deaf Acculturation Scale (DAS), a new measure of cultural identity for Deaf and hard-of-hearing (hh) populations. Data for this study were collected online and involved a nation-wide sample of 3,070 deaf/hh individuals. Results indicated strong internal reliabilities for all the subscales, and construct validity was established by demonstrating that the DAS could discriminate groups based on parental hearing status, school background, and use of self-labels. Construct validity was further demonstrated through factorial analyses, and findings resulted in a final 58-item measure. Directions for future research are discussed. PMID:21263041

  3. Das Prinzip Bewegung - Herz und Gehirn als Metaphern des menschlichen Lebens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otis, Laura

    In diesem Jahr, in dem wir Charles Darwins gedenken, möchte ich etwas riskieren und eine Frage erörtern, die für die Literatur ebenso wie für die Biologie zentral ist: Was ist das Leben? Die Antwort auf diese Frage finden wir nicht in der Bibliothek und nicht im Labor, zumindest nicht an diesen erkenntnisproduzierenden Stellen allein. Als Literaturwissenschaftlerin und ehemalige Naturwissenschaftlerin glaube ich, dass wir das Leben nur verstehen werden, wenn wir seinen Wirkungen überall nachforschen, inklusive in der Literatur.

  4. MiDAS: the field guide to the microbes of activated sludge.

    PubMed

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Saunders, Aaron Marc; Albertsen, Mads; Nierychlo, Marta; McIlroy, Bianca; Hansen, Aviaja Anna; Karst, Søren Michael; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2015-01-01

    The Microbial Database for Activated Sludge (MiDAS) field guide is a freely available online resource linking the identity of abundant and process critical microorganisms in activated sludge wastewater treatment systems to available data related to their functional importance. Phenotypic properties of some of these genera are described, but most are known only from sequence data. The MiDAS taxonomy is a manual curation of the SILVA taxonomy that proposes a name for all genus-level taxa observed to be abundant by large-scale 16 S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of full-scale activated sludge communities. The taxonomy can be used to classify unknown sequences, and the online MiDAS field guide links the identity to the available information about their morphology, diversity, physiology and distribution. The use of a common taxonomy across the field will provide a solid foundation for the study of microbial ecology of the activated sludge process and related treatment processes. The online MiDAS field guide is a collaborative workspace intended to facilitate a better understanding of the ecology of activated sludge and related treatment processes--knowledge that will be an invaluable resource for the optimal design and operation of these systems. PMID:26120139

  5. A Brief History of the J.P. Das Developmental Disabilities Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobsey, Dick

    2008-01-01

    The J.P. Das Developmental Disabilities Centre celebrated its 40th anniversary on September 1, 2007, followed by The University of Alberta's 100th anniversary in 2008. The year 2008 also brought the appointment of a new Director for the Centre. As the immediate past Director of the Centre, the author recounts some of the history of the J.P. Das…

  6. MiDAS: the field guide to the microbes of activated sludge

    PubMed Central

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Saunders, Aaron Marc; Albertsen, Mads; Nierychlo, Marta; McIlroy, Bianca; Hansen, Aviaja Anna; Karst, Søren Michael; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2015-01-01

    The Microbial Database for Activated Sludge (MiDAS) field guide is a freely available online resource linking the identity of abundant and process critical microorganisms in activated sludge wastewater treatment systems to available data related to their functional importance. Phenotypic properties of some of these genera are described, but most are known only from sequence data. The MiDAS taxonomy is a manual curation of the SILVA taxonomy that proposes a name for all genus-level taxa observed to be abundant by large-scale 16 S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of full-scale activated sludge communities. The taxonomy can be used to classify unknown sequences, and the online MiDAS field guide links the identity to the available information about their morphology, diversity, physiology and distribution. The use of a common taxonomy across the field will provide a solid foundation for the study of microbial ecology of the activated sludge process and related treatment processes. The online MiDAS field guide is a collaborative workspace intended to facilitate a better understanding of the ecology of activated sludge and related treatment processes—knowledge that will be an invaluable resource for the optimal design and operation of these systems. Database URL: http://www.midasfieldguide.org PMID:26120139

  7. The Deaf Acculturation Scale (DAS): Development and Validation of a 58-Item Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell-McCaw, Deborah; Zea, Maria Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    This study involved the development and validation of the Deaf Acculturation Scale (DAS), a new measure of cultural identity for Deaf and hard-of-hearing (hh) populations. Data for this study were collected online and involved a nation-wide sample of 3,070 deaf/hh individuals. Results indicated strong internal reliabilities for all the subscales,…

  8. The Great War and Remembrance in Jose Leon Machado's "Memoria das Estrelas sem Brilho"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azevedo, Milton M.

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes Jose Leon Machado's novel, "Memoria das Estrelas sem Brilho," as a multilayered historical novel in which a war story provides a background for comments on aspects of early twentieth-century Portuguese society, such as male bonding, religion, sexual mores, and social stratification. (Contains 11 notes.)

  9. PoroTomo Project - Subatask 6.2: Deploy and Operate DAS and DTS arrays

    DOE Data Explorer

    Dante Fratta

    2016-03-31

    This metadata submission includes the coordinates of the DAS and DTS surface and borehole arrays, the list of file names, and the list of recorded files during testing at the PoroTomo Natural Laboratory at Brady Hot Spring in Nevada. Testing was completed during March 2016.

  10. National Study of Postsecondary Faculty. NSOPF:88/93: Public Access Data Analysis System (DAS).[CD-ROM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics (ED), Washington, DC.

    This CD-ROM (for both MS-DOS and Windows) contains data from the 1993 National Study of Postsecondary Faculty (NSOPF) and all other available National Center for Education Statistics data analysis systems (DAS). The DAS is a menu-driven system that allows the user to produce frequencies, cross tabulations, and correlation matrices without access…

  11. A 90 day chronic toxicity study of Nigerian herbal preparation DAS-77 in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The herbal preparation DAS-77, used for the treatment of various ailments in Nigeria, contains the milled bark of Mangifera indica L. and root of Carica papaya L. Toxicological assessment of the preparation was carried out in this study. Methods In the acute toxicity study, DAS-77 was administered to mice p.o. up to 20 g/kg in divided doses and i.p. at 250–3000 mg/kg. Mortality within 24 h was recorded. In the chronic toxicity study, rats were treated p.o. for 90 days at doses of 80, 400 (therapeutic dose, TD) and 2000 mg/kg. By 90 days, animals were sacrificed and blood samples collected for hematological and biochemical analysis. Organs were harvested for weight determination, antioxidants and histopathological assessments. Results DAS-77 did not produce any lethality administered p.o. up to 20 g/kg in divided doses but the i.p. LD50 was 1122.0 mg/kg. At TD, DAS-77 produced significant (p < 0.05) reductions in body weight, food intake and K+, and increases in ovary weight, neutrophils and HDL, which were reversible. Histopathological presentations were generally normal. Effects at the other doses were comparable to those at TD except for reversible increases in antioxidants in the liver, kidney and testes, and sperm abnormality, and reductions in liver enzymes, sperm motility and count. Conclusions Findings in this study revealed that DAS-77 is relatively safe with the potential for enhancing in vivo antioxidant activity. However, possibly reversible side-effects include electrolyte imbalance and sterility in males. PMID:22892317

  12. Performance of broiler chickens fed diets containing DAS-68416-4 soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Herman, Rod A; Dunville, Christina M; Juberg, Daland R; Fletcher, Dale W; Cromwell, Gary L

    2011-01-01

    Broiler chickens are a fast growing monogastric animal commonly used to evaluate the equivalence between transgenic and non-transgenic grains as part of the human safety assessment process. While commonly viewed like other livestock feeding trials, such studies are performed with transgenic crops with input traits (that are not designed to improve nutrition) to aid regulatory authorities in evaluating safety. Studies of this type are actually more similar to toxicology studies in purpose, with sensitive endpoints like growth used to detect metabolic perturbations. DAS-68416-4 soybean expresses the aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase-12 (AAD-12) enzyme which inactivates 2,4-diclorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and provides DAS-68416-4 soybeans tolerance to this herbicide. DAS-68416-4 also expresses the phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) enzyme from Streptomyces viridochromogenes which confers tolerance to glufosinate-ammonium herbicides. A 6-week broiler study was conducted with diets containing toasted DAS-68416-4 soybean meal (40, 36, and 32% in starter, grower and finisher diets, respectively) to evaluate nutritional wholesomeness and safety compared with conventional comparators. Toasting soybean meal is required to inactivate endogenous antinutrients making soybean suitable for consumption by monogastric animals like broiler chickens. Toasting was found to denature both the AAD-12 and PAT proteins rendering them non-detectable by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. Broiler growth and performance parameters were measured over a 6-week period of exposure to diets containing different sources of toasted soybean meal, and results indicate that DAS-68416-4 soybean is nutritionally equivalent to non-transgenic soybean.

  13. Elternbriefe des Arbeitskreises Neue Erziehung (The Letters for Parents of the "Arbeitskreis Neue Erziehung").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbeitskreis Neue Erziehung, Berlin (Germany).

    Recognizing that first time parents often have more questions than answers about child rearing, youth welfare services in the Federal Republic of Germany have been sending a series of newsletters since 1975 to all first time parents from the time of the child's birth to their child's eighth birthday. A board of representatives from the youth…

  14. Cytotoxicity of diacetoxyscirpenol is associated with apoptosis by activation of caspase-8 and interruption of cell cycle progression by down-regulation of cdk4 and cyclin B1 in human Jurkat T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jun, Do Youn; Kim, Jun Seok; Park, Hae Sun; Song, Woo Sun; Bae, Young Seuk; Kim, Young Ho . E-mail: ykim@knu.ac.kr

    2007-07-15

    To understand the mechanism underlying T-cell toxicity of diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS) from Fusarium sambucinum, its apoptogenic as well as growth retardation activity was investigated in human Jurkat T cells. Exposure to DAS (0.01-0.15 {mu}M) caused apoptotic DNA fragmentation along with caspase-8 activation, Bid cleavage, mitochondrial cytochrome c release, activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, and PARP degradation, without any alteration in the levels of Fas or FasL. Under these conditions, necrosis was not accompanied. The cytotoxicity of DAS was not blocked by the anti-Fas neutralizing antibody ZB-4. Although the DAS-induced apoptotic events were completely prevented by overexpression of Bcl-xL, the cells overexpressing Bcl-xL were unable to divide in the presence of DAS, resulting from the failure of cell cycle progression possibly due to down-regulation in the protein levels of cdk4 and cyclin B1. The DAS-mediated apoptosis and activation of caspase-8, -9, and -3 were abrogated by either pan-caspase inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk) or caspase-8 inhibitor (z-IETD-fmk). While the DAS-mediated apoptosis and activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 were slightly suppressed by the mitochondrial permeability transition pore inhibitor (CsA), both caspase-8 activation and Bid cleavage were not affected by CsA. The activated normal peripheral T cells possessed a similar susceptibility to the cytotoxicity of DAS. These results demonstrate that the T-cell toxicity of DAS is attributable to not only apoptosis initiated by caspase-8 activation and subsequent mitochondrion-dependent or -independent activation of caspase cascades, which can be regulated by Bcl-xL, but also interruption of cell cycle progression caused by down-regulation of cdk4 and cyclin B1 proteins.

  15. Annotation and visualization of endogenous retroviral sequences using the Distributed Annotation System (DAS) and eBioX

    PubMed Central

    Martínez Barrio, Álvaro; Lagercrantz, Erik; Sperber, Göran O; Blomberg, Jonas; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Background The Distributed Annotation System (DAS) is a widely used network protocol for sharing biological information. The distributed aspects of the protocol enable the use of various reference and annotation servers for connecting biological sequence data to pertinent annotations in order to depict an integrated view of the data for the final user. Results An annotation server has been devised to provide information about the endogenous retroviruses detected and annotated by a specialized in silico tool called RetroTector. We describe the procedure to implement the DAS 1.5 protocol commands necessary for constructing the DAS annotation server. We use our server to exemplify those steps. Data distribution is kept separated from visualization which is carried out by eBioX, an easy to use open source program incorporating multiple bioinformatics utilities. Some well characterized endogenous retroviruses are shown in two different DAS clients. A rapid analysis of areas free from retroviral insertions could be facilitated by our annotations. Conclusion The DAS protocol has shown to be advantageous in the distribution of endogenous retrovirus data. The distributed nature of the protocol is also found to aid in combining annotation and visualization along a genome in order to enhance the understanding of ERV contribution to its evolution. Reference and annotation servers are conjointly used by eBioX to provide visualization of ERV annotations as well as other data sources. Our DAS data source can be found in the central public DAS service repository, , or at . PMID:19534743

  16. DAS Boot!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chretien, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    The residential services group is lobbying to dump its aging hard-wired phone system because students don't use it. The town and campus public safety officials are demanding that their portable two-way radios operate well not only outdoors, but within campus buildings. Students are now expecting text messaging and WiFi service to work everywhere…

  17. Proposal of adaptive wireless cell configuration for RoF-DAS over WDM-PON system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwakuni, Tatsuhiko; Miyamoto, Kenji; Higashino, Takeshi; Tsukamoto, Katsutoshi; Komaki, Shozo; Tashiro, Takayoshi; Fukada, Youichi; Kani, Jun-ichi; Yoshimoto, Naoto; Iwatsuki, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    Radio on fiber (RoF) - distributed antenna system (DAS) over wavelength division multiplexing - passive optical network (WDM-PON) with multiple - input multiple - output (MIMO) has been proposed as a next generation radio access network (RAN). This system employs optical time division multiplexing (OTDM) over one WDM channel to multiplex and transmit various types of wireless interfaces such as 3.9G, Wireless LAN and WiMAX. A combination of star and bus topologies has employed to cover a wider service area. The optical transmission loss is caused notably at remote base stations (RBSs) quipped on a WDM bus link. The loss is relatively small, but at the RBS far from the center station (CS), the RBS suffers the large accumulated loss, so the reduction of cell size provides the increasing of the number of RBSs, causes the degradation of the SNR of RoF link. This paper addresses this trade-off problem, and considers the application to the actual service area by the channel capacity investigation of RoF-DAS over WDM-PON with computer simulation. Then, this paper focuses on the flexibility of RoF-DAS over WDM-PON, considers the adaptive wireless cell configuration according to population fluctuations of day and night, or densely populated areas and sparsely populated areas, respectively.

  18. Assimilation of SBUV Version 8 Radiances into the GEOS Ozone DAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Martin D.; Stajner, Ivanka; Bhartia, Pawan K.

    2004-01-01

    In operational weather forecasting, the assimilation of brightness temperatures from satellite sounders, instead of assimilation of 1D-retrievals has become increasingly common practice over the last two decades. Compared to these systems, assimilation of trace gases is still at a relatively early stage of development, and efforts to directly assimilate radiances instead of retrieved products have just begun a few years ago, partially because it requires much more computation power due to the employment of a radiative transport forward model (FM). This paper will focus on a method to assimilate SBUV/2 radiances (albedos) into the Global Earth Observation System Ozone Data Assimilation Scheme (GEOS-03DAS). While SBUV-type instruments cannot compete with newer sensors in terms of spectral and horizontal resolution, they feature a continuous data record back to 1978, which makes them very valuable for trend studies. Assimilation can help spreading their ground coverage over the whole globe, as has been previously demonstrated with the GEOS-03DAS using SBUV Version 6 ozone profiles. Now, the DAS has been updated to use the newly released SBUV Version 8 data. We will compare pre]lmlnarv results of SBUV radiance assimilation with the assimilation of retrieved ozone profiles, discuss methods to deal with the increased computational load, and try to assess the error characteristics and future potential of the new approach.

  19. pH modulates arsenic toxicity in Bacillus licheniformis DAS-2.

    PubMed

    Tripti, K; Shardendu

    2016-08-01

    The toxic characteristics of arsenic species, As(V) and As(III) result in ecological risks. Arsenic tolerant bacterium was isolated and identified as the Bacillus licheniformis DAS-2 through 16SrDNA sequencing. B. licheniformis DAS-2 was efficient to tolerate and remove both the As(V)[MIC 8mM] and As(III)[MIC 6mM] from the growth medium. The potential for the removal/uptake of arsenic from the 3, 5 and 7mM As(V) enriched growth media was 100%, 60% and 35% respectively and from the 1, 3 and 5mM As(III) enrichment it was 100%, 99% and 58% respectively at neutral pH. 80% of uptake As(V) was reduced to As(III) in 3mM As(V) enrichment which was gradually decreased to only 17% at 7mM As(V) enrichment at neutral pH. The arsenic toxicity in B. licheniformis DAS-2 was found modulated by pH and was examined through alteration in growth, uptake/removal, reduction and measurement of chemical toxicity. PMID:27135959

  20. Performance of broiler chickens fed event DAS-40278-9 maize containing the aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase-1 protein.

    PubMed

    Herman, Rod A; Dunville, Christina M; Juberg, Daland R; Fletcher, Dale W; Cromwell, Gary L

    2011-08-01

    Event DAS-40278-9 maize grain (containing the aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase-1 protein), a non-transgenic near-isogenic maize grain, or one of three commercial maize grains were included in the diets of broiler chickens for six weeks. Growth, feed conversion, and carcass measurements indicated no significant difference between the groups fed the diets containing the DAS-40278-9 maize grain and those fed diets containing the matched control grain. The absence of adverse effects in this study supports the dietary safety of the AAD-1 protein expressed in event DAS-40278-9 maize.

  1. A Letter to the Parent(s) of a Child with Developmental Apraxia of Speech. Part II: The Nature and Causes of DAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Penelope K.

    2000-01-01

    One of a series of letters to parents of children with developmental apraxia of speech (DAS), this letter discusses issues and current thinking about the nature and causes of the disorder. These include the idea that DAS is a disorder of overall language development or that DAS is a problem of the "motor-programming" system for speech. An…

  2. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

    1998-12-15

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig.

  3. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, Lawrence M.; Strum, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components.

  4. The S2 VLBI Systems: DAS, RT/PT and Correlator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrachenko, William T.; Bujold, Marc; Cannon, Wayne H.; Carlson, Brent R.; Dewdney, Peter E.; Feil, Georg H.; Newby, Paul; Novikov, Alexander; Popelar, Josef; Wietfeldt, Richard D.

    2000-01-01

    The S2 VLBI system synthesizes wide IF bandwidths by rapidly switching the local oscillator (LO) frequency in a small (1-4) number of baseband converters (BBC's). Data are recorded on video cassettes using an array of 8 VHS transports. Characteristics of the S2 Data Acquisition System (DAS), the S2 Record and Playback Terminals (RT and PT) and the S2 Correlator are summarized. The bandwidth synthesis (BWS) frequency switching sequence used in a series of system validation experiments is presented.

  5. Die Evolution des Universums. Eine Geschichte der Kosmologie.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiller, H.

    This volume covers in an elementary course a historical overview on cosmology ranging from the ancient aspects up to big bang theory and the concepts of inflationary universe and grand unified theories. Contents: 1. Auf dem Wege zur Wissenschaft. 2. Die neue Kosmologie. 3. Die Struktur des Weltalls. 4. Dramatik im Weltall. 5. Die endliche Welt. 6. Die Evolution des frühen Universums. 7. Die Zukunft. 8. Die neue Teleologie. 9. Das Leben.

  6. Hermann Cohen's Das Princip der Infinitesimal-Methode: The history of an unsuccessful book.

    PubMed

    Giovanelli, Marco

    2016-08-01

    This paper offers an introduction to Hermann Cohen's Das Princip der Infinitesimal-Methode (1883), and recounts the history of its controversial reception by Cohen's early sympathizers, who would become the so-called 'Marburg school' of Neo-Kantianism, as well as the reactions it provoked outside this group. By dissecting the ambiguous attitudes of the best-known representatives of the school (Paul Natorp and Ernst Cassirer), as well as those of several minor figures (August Stadler, Kurd Lasswitz, Dimitry Gawronsky, etc.), this paper shows that Das Princip der Infinitesimal-Methode is a unicum in the history of philosophy: it represents a strange case of an unsuccessful book's enduring influence. The "puzzle of Cohen's Infinitesimalmethode," as we will call it, can be solved by looking beyond the scholarly results of the book, and instead focusing on the style of philosophy it exemplified. Moreover, the paper shows that Cohen never supported, but instead explicitly opposed, the doctrine of the centrality of the 'concept of function', with which Marburg Neo-Kantianism is usually associated. PMID:27474182

  7. The development of Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS)

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Orii; Orrell, Martin; Ridder, Hanne Mette

    2015-01-01

    There is a need to develop an outcome measure specific to music therapy in dementia that reflects a holistic picture of the therapy process and outcome. This study aimed to develop a clinically relevant and scientifically robust music therapy outcome measure incorporating the values and views of people with dementia. Focus groups and interviews were conducted to obtain qualitative data on what music meant to people with dementia and the observed effects of music. Expert and peer consultations were conducted at each stage of the measure development to maximise its content validity. The new measure was field-tested by clinicians in a care home. Feedback from the clinicians and music therapy experts were incorporated during the review and refinement process of the measure. A review of the existing literature, the experiential results and the consensus process enabled the development of the new outcome measure “Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS)”. Analysis of the qualitative data identified five key areas of the impact of music on people with dementia and they were transformed as the five Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) items: levels of Interest, Response, Initiation, Involvement and Enjoyment. MiDAS comprises the five VAS items and a supplementary checklist of notable positive and negative reactions from the individual. This study demonstrates that it is possible to design and develop an easy to apply and rigorous quantitative outcome measure which has a high level of clinical relevance for people with dementia, care home staff and music therapists. PMID:26246670

  8. Ocean Color Measurements from Landsat-8 OLI using SeaDAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franz, Bryan Alden; Bailey, Sean W.; Kuring, Norman; Werdell, P. Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    The Operational Land Imager (OLI) is a multi-spectral radiometer hosted on the recently launched Landsat-8 satellite. OLI includes a suite of relatively narrow spectral bands at 30-meter spatial resolution in the visible to shortwave infrared that make it a potential tool for ocean color radiometry: measurement of the reflected spectral radiance upwelling from beneath the ocean surface that carries information on the biogeochemical constituents of the upper ocean euphotic zone. To evaluate the potential of OLI to measure ocean color, processing support was implemented in SeaDAS, which is an open-source software package distributed by NASA for processing, analysis, and display of ocean remote sensing measurements from a variety of satellite-based multi-spectral radiometers. Here we describe the implementation of OLI processing capabilities within SeaDAS, including support for various methods of atmospheric correction to remove the effects of atmospheric scattering and absorption and retrieve the spectral remote-sensing reflectance (Rrs; sr exp 1). The quality of the retrieved Rrs imagery will be assessed, as will the derived water column constituents such as the concentration of the phytoplankton pigment chlorophyll a.

  9. A causa das estações do ano: modelos mentais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Campos, J. A. S.; de Araujo, J. F. S.

    2003-08-01

    A década de 70 do século passado foi marcada pelo estudo das concepções alternativas que os alunos trazem para a sala de aula. A identificação destas concepções foi o ponto de partida para promover a mudança conceitual, onde as pré-concepções seriam trocadas pelas concepções científicas. Na década seguinte, surgiram muitas propostas de estratégias educacionais para facilitar esta troca, na sua maioria baseadas na idéia do conflito cognitivo, proposta por Piaget. Entretanto, os resultados pouco animadores conduziram à percepção de que a mudança conceitual é um processo mais complexo. Pelas idéias da Ciência Cognitiva, a mudança conceitual é uma mudança progressiva dos modelos mentais que o aluno tem sobre o mundo físico, através de enriquecimento e revisão. A causa das Estações do Ano é um tópico sobre o qual a maioria dos estudantes apresenta concepções alternativas. Os autores fizeram um levantamento sobre as pré-concepções encontradas em trabalhos sobre o tema (16 referências), procurando encontrar elementos comuns que indicassem a presença de modelos mentais específicos. As pré-concepções encontradas na literatura foram obtidas usando-se diversas metodologias (desde entrevistas clínicas até questionários de múltipla escolha) e envolvendo alunos e professores de diferentes regiões geográficas. A partir de uma análise aprofundada de cada trabalho, e utilizando-se a técnica das Redes Sistêmicas, chegou-se a conclusão que as diversas pré-concepções identificadas (em torno de 50), poderiam ser representadas por 6 modelos mentais, onde a explicação da causa das estações do ano tem um mecanismo causal responsável. Os mecanismos causais identificados foram: a dependência da distância, a dependência da orientação, a dependência conjunta da distância e orientação, a dependência da obstrução, a dependência da velocidade e a dependência da inclinação dos raios solares. Foram ainda identificadas

  10. Pressure reducing regulator

    DOEpatents

    Whitehead, J.C.; Dilgard, L.W.

    1995-10-10

    A pressure reducing regulator that controls its downstream or outlet pressure to a fixed fraction of its upstream or inlet pressure is disclosed. The regulator includes a housing which may be of a titanium alloy, within which is located a seal or gasket at the outlet end which may be made of annealed copper, a rod, and piston, each of which may be made of high density graphite. The regulator is insensitive to temperature by virtue of being without a spring or gas sealed behind a diaphragm, and provides a reference for a system in which it is being used. The rod and piston of the regulator are constructed, for example, to have a 1/20 ratio such that when the downstream pressure is less than 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator opens and when the downstream pressure exceeds 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator closes. 10 figs.

  11. Pressure reducing regulator

    DOEpatents

    Whitehead, John C.; Dilgard, Lemoyne W.

    1995-01-01

    A pressure reducing regulator that controls its downstream or outlet pressure to a fixed fraction of its upstream or inlet pressure. The regulator includes a housing which may be of a titanium alloy, within which is located a seal or gasket at the outlet end which may be made of annealed copper, a rod, and piston, each of which may be made of high density graphite. The regulator is insensitive to temperature by virtue of being without a spring or gas sealed behind a diaphragm, and provides a reference for a system in which it is being used. The rod and piston of the regulator are constructed, for example, to have a 1/20 ratio such that when the downstream pressure is less than 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator opens and when the downstream pressure exceeds 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator closes.

  12. TOWARD MORE EFFECTIVE REGULATION

    SciTech Connect

    J. GRAF

    2000-06-01

    This paper proposes a model relationship between the operator engaged in a hazardous activity, the regulator of that activity, and the general public. The roles and responsibilities of each entity are described in a way that allows effective communication flow. The role of the regulator is developed using the steam boiler as an example of a hazard subject to regulation; however, the model applies to any regulated activity. In this model the safety analyst has the extremely important role of communicating sometimes difficult technical information to the regulator in a way that the regulator can provide credible assurance to the general public as to the adequacy of the control of the hazardous activity. The conclusion asserts that acceptance of the model, understanding of the roles and responsibilities and definition of who communicates what information to whom will mitigate frustration on the part of each of the three entities.

  13. Establishment of feeder-free culture system for human induced pluripotent stem cell on DAS nanocrystalline graphene

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyunah; Nam, Donggyu; Choi, Jae-Kyung; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J.; Kwon, Soon-Yong; Zaehres, Holm; Lee, Taehee; Park, Chan Young; Kang, Hyun-Wook; Schöler, Hans R.; Kim, Jeong Beom

    2016-01-01

    The maintenance of undifferentiated human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) under xeno-free condition requires the use of human feeder cells or extracellular matrix (ECM) coating. However, human-derived sources may cause human pathogen contamination by viral or non-viral agents to the patients. Here we demonstrate feeder-free and xeno-free culture system for hPSC expansion using diffusion assisted synthesis-grown nanocrystalline graphene (DAS-NG), a synthetic non-biological nanomaterial which completely rule out the concern of human pathogen contamination. DAS-NG exhibited advanced biocompatibilities including surface nanoroughness, oxygen containing functional groups and hydrophilicity. hPSC cultured on DAS-NG could maintain pluripotency in vitro and in vivo, and especially cell adhesion-related gene expression profile was comparable to those of cultured on feeders, while hPSC cultured without DAS-NG differentiated spontaneously with high expression of somatic cell-enriched adhesion genes. This feeder-free and xeno-free culture method using DAS-NG will facilitate the generation of clinical-grade hPSC. PMID:26846167

  14. Establishment of feeder-free culture system for human induced pluripotent stem cell on DAS nanocrystalline graphene.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunah; Nam, Donggyu; Choi, Jae-Kyung; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J; Kwon, Soon-Yong; Zaehres, Holm; Lee, Taehee; Park, Chan Young; Kang, Hyun-Wook; Schöler, Hans R; Kim, Jeong Beom

    2016-02-05

    The maintenance of undifferentiated human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) under xeno-free condition requires the use of human feeder cells or extracellular matrix (ECM) coating. However, human-derived sources may cause human pathogen contamination by viral or non-viral agents to the patients. Here we demonstrate feeder-free and xeno-free culture system for hPSC expansion using diffusion assisted synthesis-grown nanocrystalline graphene (DAS-NG), a synthetic non-biological nanomaterial which completely rule out the concern of human pathogen contamination. DAS-NG exhibited advanced biocompatibilities including surface nanoroughness, oxygen containing functional groups and hydrophilicity. hPSC cultured on DAS-NG could maintain pluripotency in vitro and in vivo, and especially cell adhesion-related gene expression profile was comparable to those of cultured on feeders, while hPSC cultured without DAS-NG differentiated spontaneously with high expression of somatic cell-enriched adhesion genes. This feeder-free and xeno-free culture method using DAS-NG will facilitate the generation of clinical-grade hPSC.

  15. Establishment of feeder-free culture system for human induced pluripotent stem cell on DAS nanocrystalline graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyunah; Nam, Donggyu; Choi, Jae-Kyung; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J.; Kwon, Soon-Yong; Zaehres, Holm; Lee, Taehee; Park, Chan Young; Kang, Hyun-Wook; Schöler, Hans R.; Kim, Jeong Beom

    2016-02-01

    The maintenance of undifferentiated human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) under xeno-free condition requires the use of human feeder cells or extracellular matrix (ECM) coating. However, human-derived sources may cause human pathogen contamination by viral or non-viral agents to the patients. Here we demonstrate feeder-free and xeno-free culture system for hPSC expansion using diffusion assisted synthesis-grown nanocrystalline graphene (DAS-NG), a synthetic non-biological nanomaterial which completely rule out the concern of human pathogen contamination. DAS-NG exhibited advanced biocompatibilities including surface nanoroughness, oxygen containing functional groups and hydrophilicity. hPSC cultured on DAS-NG could maintain pluripotency in vitro and in vivo, and especially cell adhesion-related gene expression profile was comparable to those of cultured on feeders, while hPSC cultured without DAS-NG differentiated spontaneously with high expression of somatic cell-enriched adhesion genes. This feeder-free and xeno-free culture method using DAS-NG will facilitate the generation of clinical-grade hPSC.

  16. Measuring Primary Teachers' Attitudes Toward Teaching Science: Development of the Dimensions of Attitude Toward Science (DAS) Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Aalderen-Smeets, Sandra; Walma van der Molen, Juliette

    2013-03-01

    In this article, we present a valid and reliable instrument which measures the attitude of in-service and pre-service primary teachers toward teaching science, called the Dimensions of Attitude Toward Science (DAS) Instrument. Attention to the attitudes of primary teachers toward teaching science is of fundamental importance to the professionalization of these teachers in the field of primary science education. With the development of this instrument, we sought to fulfill the need for a statistically and theoretically valid and reliable instrument to measure pre-service and in-service teachers' attitudes. The DAS Instrument is based on a comprehensive theoretical framework for attitude toward (teaching) science. After pilot testing, the DAS was revised and subsequently validated using a large group of respondents (pre-service and in-service primary teachers) (N = 556). The theoretical underpinning of the DAS combined with the statistical data indicate that the DAS possesses good construct validity and that it proves to be a promising instrument that can be utilized for research purposes, and also as a teacher training and coaching tool. This instrument can therefore make a valuable contribution to progress within the field of science education.

  17. Establishment of feeder-free culture system for human induced pluripotent stem cell on DAS nanocrystalline graphene.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunah; Nam, Donggyu; Choi, Jae-Kyung; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J; Kwon, Soon-Yong; Zaehres, Holm; Lee, Taehee; Park, Chan Young; Kang, Hyun-Wook; Schöler, Hans R; Kim, Jeong Beom

    2016-01-01

    The maintenance of undifferentiated human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) under xeno-free condition requires the use of human feeder cells or extracellular matrix (ECM) coating. However, human-derived sources may cause human pathogen contamination by viral or non-viral agents to the patients. Here we demonstrate feeder-free and xeno-free culture system for hPSC expansion using diffusion assisted synthesis-grown nanocrystalline graphene (DAS-NG), a synthetic non-biological nanomaterial which completely rule out the concern of human pathogen contamination. DAS-NG exhibited advanced biocompatibilities including surface nanoroughness, oxygen containing functional groups and hydrophilicity. hPSC cultured on DAS-NG could maintain pluripotency in vitro and in vivo, and especially cell adhesion-related gene expression profile was comparable to those of cultured on feeders, while hPSC cultured without DAS-NG differentiated spontaneously with high expression of somatic cell-enriched adhesion genes. This feeder-free and xeno-free culture method using DAS-NG will facilitate the generation of clinical-grade hPSC. PMID:26846167

  18. [Epigenetic regulation in spermatogenesis].

    PubMed

    Xu, Chen; Song, Ning

    2014-05-01

    Spermatogenesis is a process consisting of spermatogonial proliferation, spermatocytic meiosis, and spermiogenesis, and is also considered to be a process in which heterochromatins gradually aggregate and finally reach a highly condensed formation in the sperm head. Recent studies show that epigenetic regulation plays a key role in spermatogenesis. This review discusses the mechanisms of epigenetic regulation in spermatogenesis in three aspects, DNA methylation, histone modification, and noncoding RNAs. These factors are essential for spermatogenesis, fertilization, and embryogenesis by mutual regulation as well as by gene expression regulation, transposon activation, sex chromosome inactivation, and genome imprinting. PMID:24908726

  19. DasPy – Open Source Multivariate Land Data Assimilation Framework with High Performance Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xujun; Li, Xin; Montzka, Carsten; Kollet, Stefan; Vereecken, Harry; Hendricks Franssen, Harrie-Jan

    2015-04-01

    Data assimilation has become a popular method to integrate observations from multiple sources with land surface models to improve predictions of the water and energy cycles of the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. In recent years, several land data assimilation systems have been developed in different research agencies. Because of the software availability or adaptability, these systems are not easy to apply for the purpose of multivariate land data assimilation research. Multivariate data assimilation refers to the simultaneous assimilation of observation data for multiple model state variables into a simulation model. Our main motivation was to develop an open source multivariate land data assimilation framework (DasPy) which is implemented using the Python script language mixed with C++ and Fortran language. This system has been evaluated in several soil moisture, L-band brightness temperature and land surface temperature assimilation studies. The implementation allows also parameter estimation (soil properties and/or leaf area index) on the basis of the joint state and parameter estimation approach. LETKF (Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter) is implemented as the main data assimilation algorithm, and uncertainties in the data assimilation can be represented by perturbed atmospheric forcings, perturbed soil and vegetation properties and model initial conditions. The CLM4.5 (Community Land Model) was integrated as the model operator. The CMEM (Community Microwave Emission Modelling Platform), COSMIC (COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Interaction Code) and the two source formulation were integrated as observation operators for assimilation of L-band passive microwave, cosmic-ray soil moisture probe and land surface temperature measurements, respectively. DasPy is parallelized using the hybrid MPI (Message Passing Interface) and OpenMP (Open Multi-Processing) techniques. All the input and output data flow is organized efficiently using the commonly used NetCDF file

  20. Plant Growth Regulators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickell, Louis G.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the effect of "plant growth regulators" on plants, such as controlling the flowering, fruit development, plant size, and increasing crop yields. Provides a list of plant growth regulators which includes their chemical, common, and trade names, as well as their different use(s). (GA)

  1. Regulation of University Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindblom-Ylanne, Sari; Nevgi, Anne; Trigwell, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The aims of the present study are twofold: firstly, to explore dimensions in the regulation of teaching in a multidisciplinary sample of university teachers, and secondly, to analyse factors related to the regulation of university teaching. Seventy-three university teachers representing several disciplines participated in the study. These teachers…

  2. Taxonomic notes and distribution extension of Durga Das's leaf-nosed bat Hipposiderosdurgadasi Khajuria, 1970 (Chiroptera: Hipposideridae) from south India.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Harpreet; Chelmala, Srinivasulu; Srinivasulu, Bhargavi; Shah, Tariq Ahmed; Devender, Gundena; Srinivasulu, Aditya

    2014-01-01

    Durga Das's leaf-nosed bat Hipposiderosdurgadasi Khajuria, 1970 is endemic to India, and was known only from Katanga, Katangi, and Richhai villages, in Jabalpur district, Madhya Pradesh. During surveys conducted in Kolar district, Karnataka, India, we successfully mist-netted a few individuals belonging to the bicolor species group which, upon detailed external, craniodental and bacular studies were identified as Durga Das's leaf-nosed bat. This paper reports the presence of this species in southern India, extending its distribution range by almost 1300 km. We also provide a detailed morphological description for this species. PMID:25535483

  3. Event DAS-444Ø6-6 soybean grown in Brazil is compositionally equivalent to non-transgenic soybean.

    PubMed

    Fast, Brandon J; Galan, Maria P; Schafer, Ariane C

    2016-04-01

    Soybean event DAS-444Ø6-6 is tolerant to the herbicides 2,4-D, glyphosate, and glufosinate. An investigation of potential unintended adverse compositional changes in a genetically modified crop is required to meet government regulatory requirements in various geographies. A study to meet these requirements in Brazil was completed demonstrating compositional equivalency between DAS-444Ø6-6 and non-transgenic soybean. This study supplements the extensive literature supporting transgenesis as less disruptive of crop composition compared with traditional breeding methods. PMID:27248569

  4. Software strategies and hardware upgrades to the PPL data acquisition system (DAS)

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, W.M.; Roney, P.; Gibney, T.; Funk, P.; Keller, M.; Sauthoff, N.; Davis, S.; Bates, G.; Corneliussen, M.; Fishman, H.

    1987-08-01

    This paper describes upgrades to the Data Acquisition System for the Experimental Projects Department at PPL, especially in support of the PBX-M upgrade to be completed this year. Hardware and software maintenance problems with the old configuration, consisting of a DEC KL-10 and eight PDP-11's, are described. The real-time software and hardware performance requirements and projections for CAMAC I/O and data analysis and display are presented. Described are three applications that have realtime requirements and are located on separate processors, connected to PPPL's VAX Cluster by an Ethernet link. Building upon a previous large software base, general-purpose subroutine libraries and utilities are being emphasized. The most useful of these are described. The use of software packages from DEC, third-party vendors, and the fusion community, is also described. The new approaches to software development that are being incorporated into the DAS efforts are discussed. Specific future challenges are also described.

  5. Sobre o uso das séries de Puiseux em mecanica celeste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloni, O. I.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho é apresentada uma demonstração do uso dos diferentes desenvolvimentos em séries para as equações de perturbação em Mecânica Celeste no marco Hamiltoniano. Em trabalhos clássicos como os de Poincaré (Poincaré, 1893) por exemplo, já esta planteado o uso de potências não inteiras no pequeno parâmetro, o que evidencia a não analiticidade das funções quando uma ressonância ocorre. Nestes trabalhos os desenvolvimentos são na raíz quadrada da massa de Júpiter (o pequeno parâmetro). Mais recentemente (Ferraz-Mello, 1985) outros tipos de desenvolvimentos foram aplicados modificando substancialmente as ordens de grandeza e a velocidade de convergência das séries. Com esta abordagem, os desenvolvimentos foram expressados em termos da raíz cúbica do pequeno parâmetro. Neste trabalho apresentamos um enfoque geral, onde os diferentes tipos de desenvolvimentos em séries de Puiseux (Valiron, 1950) são obtidos a partir da aplicação de Teorema de Preparação de Weierstrass (Goursat, 1916) considerando a equação de Hamilton-Jacobi como uma equação algébrica. Os resultados são aplicados ao problema restrito dos três corpos em ressonância de primeira ordem e, dependendo da grandeza da excentricidade do asteróide em relação à de Júpiter, obtemos os diferentes desenvolvimentos, em raíz quadrada ou raíz cúbica da massa de Júpiter.

  6. A Novel 3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase That Regulates Reproductive Development and Longevity

    PubMed Central

    Wollam, Joshua; Magner, Daniel B.; Magomedova, Lilia; Rass, Elisabeth; Shen, Yidong; Rottiers, Veerle; Habermann, Bianca; Cummins, Carolyn L.; Antebi, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Endogenous small molecule metabolites that regulate animal longevity are emerging as a novel means to influence health and life span. In C. elegans, bile acid-like steroids called the dafachronic acids (DAs) regulate developmental timing and longevity through the conserved nuclear hormone receptor DAF-12, a homolog of mammalian sterol-regulated receptors LXR and FXR. Using metabolic genetics, mass spectrometry, and biochemical approaches, we identify new activities in DA biosynthesis and characterize an evolutionarily conserved short chain dehydrogenase, DHS-16, as a novel 3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Through regulation of DA production, DHS-16 controls DAF-12 activity governing longevity in response to signals from the gonad. Our elucidation of C. elegans bile acid biosynthetic pathways reveals the possibility of novel ligands as well as striking biochemical conservation to other animals, which could illuminate new targets for manipulating longevity in metazoans. PMID:22505847

  7. Phosphoinositides regulate ion channels

    PubMed Central

    Hille, Bertil; Dickson, Eamonn J.; Kruse, Martin; Vivas, Oscar; Suh, Byung-Chang

    2014-01-01

    Phosphoinositides serve as signature motifs for different cellular membranes and often are required for the function of membrane proteins. Here, we summarize clear evidence supporting the concept that many ion channels are regulated by membrane phosphoinositides. We describe tools used to test their dependence on phosphoinositides, especially phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, and consider mechanisms and biological meanings of phosphoinositide regulation of ion channels. This lipid regulation can underlie changes of channel activity and electrical excitability in response to receptors. Since different intracellular membranes have different lipid compositions, the activity of ion channels still in transit towards their final destination membrane may be suppressed until they reach an optimal lipid environment. PMID:25241941

  8. ATP-Binding Cassette Transport System Involved in Regulation of Morphological Differentiation in Response to Glucose in Streptomyces griseus

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jeong-Woo; Ohnishi, Yasuo; Hirata, Aiko; Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2002-01-01

    Streptomyces griseus NP4, which was derived by UV mutagenesis from strain IFO13350, showed a bald and wrinkled colony morphology in response to glucose. Mutant NP4 formed ectopic septa at intervals along substrate hyphae, and each of the compartments developed into a spore which was indistinguishable from an aerial spore in size, shape, and thickness of the spore wall and in susceptibility to lysozyme and heat. The ectopic spores of NP4 formed in liquid medium differed from “submerged spores” in lysozyme sensitivity. Shotgun cloning experiments with a library of the chromosomal DNA of the parental strain and mutant NP4 as the host gave rise to DNA fragments giving two different phenotypes; one complementing the bald phenotype of the host, and the other causing much severe wrinkled morphology in the host. Subcloning identified a gene (dasR) encoding a transcriptional repressor belonging to the GntR family that was responsible for the reversal of the bald phenotype and a gene (dasA) encoding a lipoprotein probably serving as a substrate-binding protein in an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transport system that was responsible for the severe wrinkled morphology. These genes were adjacent but divergently encoded. Two genes, named dasB and dasC, encoding a membrane-spanning protein were present downstream of dasA, which suggested that dasRABC comprises a gene cluster for an ABC transporter, probably for sugar import. dasR was transcribed actively during vegetative growth, and dasA was transcribed just after commencement of aerial hypha formation and during sporulation, indicating that both were developmentally regulated. Transcriptional analysis and direct sequencing of dasRA in mutant NP4 suggested a defect of this mutant in the regulatory system to control the expression of these genes. Introduction of multicopies of dasA into the wild-type strain caused ectopic septation in very young substrate hyphae after only 1 day of growth and subsequent sporulation in response

  9. HIGH PRESSURE GAS REGULATOR

    DOEpatents

    Ramage, R.W.

    1962-05-01

    A gas regulator operating on the piston and feedback principle is described. The device is particularly suitable for the delicate regulation of high pressure, i.e., 10,000 psi and above, gas sources, as well as being perfectly adaptable for use on gas supplies as low as 50 psi. The piston is adjustably connected to a needle valve and the movement of the piston regulates the flow of gas from the needle valve. The gas output is obtained from the needle valve. Output pressure is sampled by a piston feedback means which, in turn, regulates the movement of the main piston. When the output is other than the desired value, the feedback system initiates movement of the main piston to allow the output pressure to be corrected or to remain constant. (AEC)

  10. Stable hydraulic pressure regulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, H.

    1979-01-01

    Neither sensing line restrictors nor frictional dampers are required for stability. Analysis presents method by which stability margin, response, and droop magnitude can be incorporated during design of direct-acting hydraulic pressure regulators.

  11. Proposed EEOC Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Michael

    1978-01-01

    This article explains how proposed Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) regulations attempt to circumvent the case of Weber vs Kaiser Aluminum Corp. by providing employers with backpay immunity in reverse discrimination suits. (Author)

  12. The Hippo pathway: regulators and regulations

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Fa-Xing; Guan, Kun-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Control of cell number is crucial in animal development and tissue homeostasis, and its dysregulation may result in tumor formation or organ degeneration. The Hippo pathway in both Drosophila and mammals regulates cell number by modulating cell proliferation, cell death, and cell differentiation. Recently, numerous upstream components involved in the Hippo pathway have been identified, such as cell polarity, mechanotransduction, and G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling. Actin cytoskeleton or cellular tension appears to be the master mediator that integrates and transmits upstream signals to the core Hippo signaling cascade. Here, we review regulatory mechanisms of the Hippo pathway and discuss potential implications involved in different physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:23431053

  13. Latent Factor Structure of the Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis in a Chinese Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Ci-ping; Liu, Ming; Wei, Wei; Chan, Raymond C. K.; Das, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to measure the psychometric properties of the Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System (D-N CAS) and to determine its clinical utility in a Chinese context. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to examine the construct validity of the Chinese version of the D-N CAS among a group of 567, normally developed children.…

  14. Test Review: Naglieri, J. A., Das, J. P., & Goldstein, S. (2014). Cognitive Assessment System-Second Edition (2nd Ed.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill, Ryan J.

    2015-01-01

    The Cognitive Assessment System-Second Edition (CAS2) is an individually administered measure of cognitive ability designed for children and adolescents ages 5 through 18 years. The measure, authored by Jack A. Naglieri, J. P. Das, and Sam Goldstein, was published by Pro-Ed in 2014 and is the first revision of the Cognitive Assessment System (CAS;…

  15. Planning Ability across Ranges of Intellectual Ability: An Examination of the Luria-Das Information-Processing Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCallum, R. Steve; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Based on Luria-Das information processing theory, hypothesized that 26 educable mentally retarded children would score significantly less well on relatively pure measures of planning ability than would 13 younger average ability students after students were matched on cognitive processing ability. Hypothesis was not supported by study. (Author/NB)

  16. Measuring Primary Teachers' Attitudes toward Teaching Science: Development of the Dimensions of Attitude toward Science (DAS) Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Aalderen-Smeets, Sandra; Walma van der Molen, Juliette

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we present a valid and reliable instrument which measures the attitude of in-service and pre-service primary teachers toward teaching science, called the Dimensions of Attitude Toward Science (DAS) Instrument. Attention to the attitudes of primary teachers toward teaching science is of fundamental importance to the…

  17. Concurrent Validity of the WISC-IV and DAS-II in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuriakose, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive assessments are used for a variety of research and clinical purposes in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study establishes concurrent validity of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-fourth edition (WISC-IV) and Differential Ability Scales-second edition (DAS-II) in a sample of children with ASD with a broad…

  18. Phase Velocity and Full-Waveform Analysis of Co-located Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) Channels and Geophone Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, L.; Mellors, R. J.; Thurber, C. H.; Wang, H. F.; Zeng, X.

    2015-12-01

    A 762-meter Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) array with a channel spacing of one meter was deployed at the Garner Valley Downhole Array in Southern California. The array was approximately rectangular with dimensions of 180 meters by 80 meters. The array also included two subdiagonals within the rectangle along which three-component geophones were co-located. Several active sources were deployed, including a 45-kN, swept-frequency, shear-mass shaker, which produced strong Rayleigh waves across the array. Both DAS and geophone traces were filtered in 2-Hz steps between 4 and 20 Hz to obtain phase velocities as a function of frequency from fitting the moveout of travel times over distances of 35 meters or longer. As an alternative to this traditional means of finding phase velocity, it is theoretically possible to find the Rayleigh-wave phase velocity at each point of co-location as the ratio of DAS and geophone responses, because DAS is sensitive to ground strain and geophones are sensitive to ground velocity, after suitable corrections for instrument response (Mikumo & Aki, 1964). The concept was tested in WPP, a seismic wave propagation program, by first validating and then using a 3D synthetic, full-waveform seismic model to simulate the effect of increased levels of noise and uncertainty as data go from ideal to more realistic. The results obtained from this study provide a better understanding of the DAS response and its potential for being combined with traditional seismometers for obtaining phase velocity at a single location. This analysis is part of the PoroTomo project (Poroelastic Tomography by Adjoint Inverse Modeling of Data from Seismology, Geodesy, and Hydrology, http://geoscience.wisc.edu/feigl/porotomo).

  19. Neuroendocrine Regulation of Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, M P; Hentges, S T; Maliqueo, M; Coirini, H; Becu-Villalobos, D; Elias, C F

    2016-07-01

    Given the current environment in most developed countries, it is a challenge to maintain a good balance between calories consumed and calories burned, although maintenance of metabolic balance is key to good health. Therefore, understanding how metabolic regulation is achieved and how the dysregulation of metabolism affects health is an area of intense research. Most studies focus on the hypothalamus, which is a brain area that acts as a key regulator of metabolism. Among the nuclei that comprise the hypothalamus, the arcuate nucleus is one of the major mediators in the regulation of food intake. The regulation of energy balance is also a key factor ensuring the maintenance of any species as a result of the dependence of reproduction on energy stores. Adequate levels of energy reserves are necessary for the proper functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. This review discusses valuable data presented in the 2015 edition of the International Workshop of Neuroendocrinology concerning the fundamental nature of the hormonal regulation of the hypothalamus and the impact on energy balance and reproduction.

  20. Worldwide regulations for mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    van Egmond, Hans P

    2002-01-01

    Since the discovery of the aflatoxins in the 1960s, regulations have been established in many countries to protect the consumer from the harmful effects of mycotoxins that may contaminate foodstuffs. Various factors play a role in the decision-making process of setting limits for mycotoxins. These include scientific factors such as the availability of toxicological data, survey data, knowledge about the distribution of mycotoxins in commodities, and analytical methodology. Economical and political factors such as commercial interests and sufficiency of food supply have their impact as well. International enquiry's on existing mycotoxin legislation in foodstuffs and animal feedstuffs have been carried out several times in the 1980s and 1990s and details about tolerances, legal basis, responsible authorities, official protocols of analysis and sampling have been published. Recently a comprehensive update on worldwide regulations was published as FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 64. It appeared that at least 77 countries now have specific regulations for mycotoxins, 13 countries are known to have no specific regulations, whereas no data are available for about 50 countries, many of them in Africa. Over the years, a large diversity in tolerance levels for mycotoxins has remained. Some free trade zones (EU, MERCOSUR) are in the process of harmonizing the limits and regulations for mycotoxins in their respective member states, but it is not likely that worldwide harmonized limits for mycotoxins will soon be within reach.

  1. Using Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) for Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) to Evaluate Ground Stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, J. A.; Fratta, D.; Wang, H. F.; Lord, N. E.; Chalari, A.; Karaulanov, R.; Nigbor, R. L.; Lancelle, C.; Castongia, E.

    2014-12-01

    Since its introduction by Park, et al. (1999), Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) has become an invaluable geophysical technique for geotechnical site investigation. The technique is primarily focused on developing 2-D and 3-D shear stiffness vs. depth images of the near surface. MASW involves measuring surfaces waves of various frequencies produced by a seismic source, such as a sledgehammer or vibroseis source, which is evaluated to determine the velocity of the shear waves propagating through the subsurface at shallow depths. Traditionally, this technique relies on a long string of geophones as receivers. However, our study utilized a Distributed Acoustic Sensor array to detect ground motion caused by passing surface waves at a spatial resolution of one meter. The purpose of this investigation is to compare the effectiveness of using a DAS array for MASW data collection instead of traditional geophones. Data were collected at the Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation's Garner Valley Downhole Array site (NEES's GVDA). Various time-frequency filtering and moving window cross correlation (MWCC) techniques were examined for extracting the surface wave dispersion. The results were found to be in good agreement with those previously obtained by Stokoe et al. (2004).

  2. Common Data Acquisition Systems (DAS) Software Development for Rocket Propulsion Test (RPT) Test Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebert, Phillip W., Sr.; Davis, Dawn M.; Turowski, Mark P.; Holladay, Wendy T.; Hughes, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    The advent of the commercial space launch industry and NASA's more recent resumption of operation of Stennis Space Center's large test facilities after thirty years of contractor control resulted in a need for a non-proprietary data acquisition systems (DAS) software to support government and commercial testing. The software is designed for modularity and adaptability to minimize the software development effort for current and future data systems. An additional benefit of the software's architecture is its ability to easily migrate to other testing facilities thus providing future commonality across Stennis. Adapting the software to other Rocket Propulsion Test (RPT) Centers such as MSFC, White Sands, and Plumbrook Station would provide additional commonality and help reduce testing costs for NASA. Ultimately, the software provides the government with unlimited rights and guarantees privacy of data to commercial entities. The project engaged all RPT Centers and NASA's Independent Verification & Validation facility to enhance product quality. The design consists of a translation layer which provides the transparency of the software application layers to underlying hardware regardless of test facility location and a flexible and easily accessible database. This presentation addresses system technical design, issues encountered, and the status of Stennis development and deployment.

  3. Androgen receptor genomic regulation

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Hong-Jian; Kim, Jung

    2013-01-01

    The transcriptional activity of the androgen receptor (AR) is not only critical for the normal development and function of the prostate but also pivotal to the onset and progression of prostate cancer (PCa). The studies of AR transcriptional regulation were previously limited to a handful of AR-target genes. Owing to the development of various high-throughput genomic technologies, significant advances have been made in recent years. Here we discuss the discoveries of genome-wide androgen-regulated genes in PCa cell lines, animal models and tissues using expression microarray and sequencing, the mapping of genomic landscapes of AR using Combining Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-on-chip and ChIP-seq assays, the interplay of transcriptional cofactors in defining AR binding profiles, and the genomic regulation and AR reprogramming in advanced PCa. PMID:25237629

  4. Environmentally regulated aerospace coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Virginia L.

    1995-01-01

    Aerospace coatings represent a complex technology which must meet stringent performance requirements in the protection of aerospace vehicles. Topcoats and primers are used, primarily, to protect the structural elements of the air vehicle from exposure to and subsequent degradation by environmental elements. There are also many coatings which perform special functions, i.e., chafing resistance, rain erosion resistance, radiation and electric effects, fuel tank coatings, maskants, wire and fastener coatings. The scheduled promulgation of federal environmental regulations for aerospace manufacture and rework materials and processes will regulate the emissions of photochemically reactive precursors to smog and air toxics. Aerospace organizations will be required to identify, qualify and implement less polluting materials. The elimination of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC's) and implementation of pollution prevention requirements are added constraints which must be addressed concurrently. The broad categories of operations affected are the manufacture, operation, maintenance, and repair of military, commercial, general aviation, and space vehicles. The federal aerospace regulations were developed around the precept that technology had to be available to support the reduction of organic and air toxic emissions, i.e., the regulations cannot be technology forcing. In many cases, the regulations which are currently in effect in the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), located in Southern California, were used as the baseline for the federal regulations. This paper addresses strategies used by Southern California aerospace organizations to cope with these regulatory impacts on aerospace productions programs. All of these regulatory changes are scheduled for implementation in 1993 and 1994, with varying compliance dates established.

  5. Nuclear regulation and safety

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrie, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear regulation and safety are discussed from the standpoint of a hypothetical country that is in the process of introducing a nuclear power industry and setting up a regulatory system. The national policy is assumed to be in favor of nuclear power. The regulators will have responsibility for economic, reliable electric production as well as for safety. Reactor safety is divided into three parts: shut it down, keep it covered, take out the afterheat. Emergency plans also have to be provided. Ways of keeping the core covered with water are discussed. (DLC)

  6. Other-Regulation in Collaborative Groups: Implications for Regulation Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogat, Toni Kempler; Adams-Wiggins, Karlyn R.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examines variation in other-regulation, conceptualized as efforts by one student to regulate their group's work. This study extends research which has conceptualized other-regulation as temporarily guiding others' conceptual understanding and skill development by broadening the spectrum of other-regulation to include…

  7. The Impact of Regulating Social Science Research with Biomedical Regulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durosinmi, Brenda Braxton

    2011-01-01

    The Impact of Regulating Social Science Research with Biomedical Regulations Since 1974 Federal regulations have governed the use of human subjects in biomedical and social science research. The regulations are known as the Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects, and often referred to as the "Common Rule" because 18 Federal…

  8. Focus on PTEN Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Bermúdez Brito, Miriam; Goulielmaki, Evangelia; Papakonstanti, Evangelia A.

    2015-01-01

    The role of phosphatase and tensin homolog on chromosome 10 (PTEN) as a tumor suppressor has been for a long time attributed to its lipid phosphatase activity against PI(3,4,5)P3, the phospholipid product of the class I PI3Ks. Besides its traditional role as a lipid phosphatase at the plasma membrane, a wealth of data has shown that PTEN can function independently of its phosphatase activity and that PTEN also exists and plays a role in the nucleus, in cytoplasmic organelles, and extracellularly. Accumulating evidence has shed light on diverse physiological functions of PTEN, which are accompanied by a complex regulation of its expression and activity. PTEN levels and function are regulated transcriptionally, post-transcriptionally, and post-translationally. PTEN is also sensitive to regulation by its interacting proteins and its localization. Herein, we summarize the current knowledge on mechanisms that regulate the expression and enzymatic activity of PTEN and its role in human diseases. PMID:26284192

  9. REGULATIONS FOR COMMUNITY COLLEGES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Board of Education, Harrisburg.

    THE COMMUNITY COLLEGE LAW AND PROCEDURES ESTABLISHED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION ARE THE BASIS FOR ADMINISTRATION OF COMMUNITY COLLEGES IN PENNSYLVANIA. REGULATIONS PROVIDE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATION, CURRICULUM, TUITION, AND STANDARDS FOR GRADING, RECORD KEEPING, FACULTY AND STAFF RATIOS. ALSO DESCRIBED ARE PROCEDURES FOR…

  10. Metabolic regulation of yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiechter, A.

    1982-12-01

    Metabolic regulation which is based on endogeneous and exogeneous process variables which may act constantly or time dependently on the living cell is discussed. The observed phenomena of the regulation are the result of physical, chemical, and biological parameters. These parameters are identified. Ethanol is accumulated as an intermediate product and the synthesis of biomass is reduced. This regulatory effect of glucose is used for the aerobic production of ethanol. Very high production rates are thereby obtained. Understanding of the regulation mechanism of the glucose effect has improved. In addition to catabolite repression, several other mechanisms of enzyme regulation have been described, that are mostly governed by exogeneous factors. Glucose also affects the control of respiration in a third class of yeasts which are unable to make use of ethanol as a substrate for growth. This is due to the lack of any anaplerotic activity. As a consequence, diauxic growth behavior is reduced to a one-stage growth with a drastically reduced cell yield. The pulse chemostat technique, a systematic approach for medium design is developed and medium supplements that are essential for metabolic control are identified.

  11. Regulated Gene Therapy.

    PubMed

    Breger, Ludivine; Wettergren, Erika Elgstrand; Quintino, Luis; Lundberg, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Gene therapy represents a promising approach for the treatment of monogenic and multifactorial neurological disorders. It can be used to replace a missing gene and mutated gene or downregulate a causal gene. Despite the versatility of gene therapy, one of the main limitations lies in the irreversibility of the process: once delivered to target cells, the gene of interest is constitutively expressed and cannot be removed. Therefore, efficient, safe and long-term gene modification requires a system allowing fine control of transgene expression.Different systems have been developed over the past decades to regulate transgene expression after in vivo delivery, either at transcriptional or post-translational levels. The purpose of this chapter is to give an overview on current regulatory system used in the context of gene therapy for neurological disorders. Systems using external regulation of transgenes using antibiotics are commonly used to control either gene expression using tetracycline-controlled transcription or protein levels using destabilizing domain technology. Alternatively, specific promoters of genes that are regulated by disease mechanisms, increasing expression as the disease progresses or decreasing expression as disease regresses, are also examined. Overall, this chapter discusses advantages and drawbacks of current molecular methods for regulated gene therapy in the central nervous system.

  12. Regulating the New Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, Stephen; Goodship, Jo; Holloway, David

    2003-01-01

    This article arises out of a research project that sought to assess the development of regulation within the public sector. It examines the forms and impact of the regulatory systems that now operate within the public sector focusing on the further education sector. The research project developed out of an awareness that the increase in various…

  13. Mitochondrial regulation of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Bernd; Oberbauer, Rainer

    2003-06-01

    Mitochondria play a central part in cellular survival and apoptotic death. These processes are highly regulated by pro- and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 superfamily members. A key feature within apoptosis cascades is disruption of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and apoptogenic protein release, caused by opening of the permeability transition pore (PT). New data, however, indicate that mitochondrial apoptosis may occur without PT involvement.

  14. Regulation and Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Margaret; Wells, Julie

    2007-01-01

    There has been much critical comment in recent years about the tensions between the regulation imposed on public universities and the flexibility needed to compete effectively in international and national markets for students and funding. In the partisan world of politics each side points the finger at the other as the author of "too much"…

  15. Lightweight Regulated Power Supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, C. W.

    1985-01-01

    Power-supply circuit regulates output voltage by adjusting frequency of chopper circuit according to variations. Currently installed in battery charger for electric wheelchair, circuit is well suited to other uses in which light weight is important - for example, in portable computers, radios, and test instruments.

  16. Lysosomal Trafficking Regulator (LYST).

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiaojie; Chang, Bo; Naggert, Jürgen K; Nishina, Patsy M

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of vesicle trafficking to lysosomes and lysosome-related organelles (LROs) as well as regulation of the size of these organelles are critical to maintain their functions. Disruption of the lysosomal trafficking regulator (LYST) results in Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS), a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by oculocutaneous albinism, prolonged bleeding, severe immunodeficiency, recurrent bacterial infection, neurologic dysfunction and hemophagocytic lympohistiocytosis (HLH). The classic diagnostic feature of the syndrome is enlarged LROs in all cell types, including lysosomes, melanosomes, cytolytic granules and platelet dense bodies. The most striking CHS ocular pathology observed is an enlargement of melanosomes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), which leads to aberrant distribution of eye pigmentation, and results in photophobia and decreased visual acuity. Understanding the molecular function of LYST and identification of its interacting partners may provide therapeutic targets for CHS and other diseases associated with the regulation of LRO size and/or vesicle trafficking, such as asthma, urticaria and Leishmania amazonensis infections. PMID:26427484

  17. Regulation of serum phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Lederer, Eleanor

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of serum phosphate, an acknowledged risk factor for chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular mortality, is poorly understood. The discovery of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) as a key regulator of renal phosphate handling and activation of vitamin D has revolutionized our comprehension of phosphate homeostasis. Through as yet undetermined mechanisms, circulating and dietary phosphate appear to have a direct effect on FGF23 release by bone cells that, in turn, causes renal phosphate excretion and decreases intestinal phosphate absorption through a decrease in vitamin D production. Thus, the two major phosphaturic hormones, PTH and FGF23, have opposing effects on vitamin D production, placing vitamin D at the nexus of phosphate homeostasis. While our understanding of phosphate homeostasis has advanced, the factors determining regulation of serum phosphate level remain enigmatic. Diet, time of day, season, gender, age and genetics have all been identified as significant contributors to serum phosphate level. The effects of these factors on serum phosphate have major implications for what is understood as ‘normal’ and for studies of phosphate homeostasis and metabolism. Moreover, other hormonal mediators such as dopamine, insulin-like growth factor, and angiotensin II also affect renal handling of phosphate. How the major hormone effects on phosphate handling are regulated and how the effect of these other factors are integrated to yield the measurable serum phosphate are only now beginning to be studied. PMID:24973411

  18. Sensitivity of Global Modeling Initiative CTM predictions of Antarctic ozone recovery to GCM and DAS generated meteorological fields

    SciTech Connect

    Rotman, D; Bergmann, D

    2003-12-04

    We use the Global Modeling Initiative chemistry and transport model to simulate the evolution of stratospheric ozone between 1995 and 2030, using boundary conditions consistent with the recent World Meteorological Organization ozone assessment. We compare the Antarctic ozone recovery predictions of two simulations, one driven by meteorological data from a general circulation model (GCM), the other using the output of a data assimilation system (DAS), to examine the sensitivity of Antarctic ozone recovery predictions to the characteristic dynamical differences between GCM and DAS-generated meteorological data. Although the age of air in the Antarctic lower stratosphere differs by a factor of 2 between the simulations, we find little sensitivity of the 1995-2030 Antarctic ozone recovery between 350 K and 650 K to the differing meteorological fields, particularly when the recovery is specified in mixing ratio units. Relative changes are smaller in the DAS-driven simulation compared to the GCM-driven simulation due to a surplus of Antarctic ozone in the DAS-driven simulation which is not consistent with observations. The peak ozone change between 1995 and 2030 in both simulations is {approx}20% lower than photochemical expectations, indicating that changes in ozone transport at 450 K between 1995 and 2030 constitute a small negative feedback. Total winter/spring ozone loss during the base year (1995) of both simulations and the rate of ozone loss during August and September is somewhat weaker than observed. This appears to be due to underestimates of Antarctic Cl{sub y} at the 450 K potential temperature level.

  19. Alice Vance ("Das Bärenweib"): a historical case of Nievergelt syndrome.

    PubMed

    Urban, M; Krüger, S

    1998-03-01

    Several malformed individuals were presented at the World Exhibition in Antwerp in 1894. Among them was Mrs. Alice Vance from Mount Pleasant, Texas, with congenital limb defects, and Mr. Eugen Berry, who had asymmetrical, monstrous enlargement and macrodactyly of the feet, i.e., Proteus syndrome. After the World Exhibition Mrs. Vance presented herself to the public in Castan's Panopticon imitating a bear. She became famous under the stage name "Das Bärenweib" ("the bear-like woman") and was examined by several German clinicians, and her malformations were considered to be of high scientific interest. Mrs. Vance had mesomelic dwarfism and her mother was known to have similar malformations. Her limb deficiencies were generally considered a unique congenital condition those days, and the diagnosis of "a maternally inherited malformation of the forearms and the shanks" [Daffner 1898: Munch Med Wochenschr 25:782] was made. Virchow [1897: Verh Berl Ges Ethnol Urgeschichte 29:624], feeling attacked by a daily newspaper stating that the physicians as well as the police of Berlin had missed the diagnosis of an "English disease," eventually exercised his authority and diagnosed Alice Vance as a "phocomelic." Clearly, she was not a phocomelic according to past and current definition of this term. Thus, from a historical point of view, the story illustrates how pressure from the daily press altered the definition of an up-to-then precisely defined medical term for decades. According to the clinical data and an X-ray report available from the literature, Alice Vance had a dominantly inherited type of mesomelic dwarfism. We propose the diagnosis of Nievergelt syndrome. PMID:9511977

  20. Was gibt's Neues? New Ideas for the German Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehrmann, Alfred

    Two solutions for teaching college-level German instruction in Japan are described. The first solution is the TALK Learning System, materials designed for use in large classes. Instead of a course book, each learner has a manual in Japanese, three tool cards for each of four topics (one with dialogue patterns, a question card, and a data card), a…

  1. Neue Norm zur thermischen Nutzung des Grundwassers in der Schweiz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppei, Joachim; Altenburger, Adrian; Mettauer, Pascal; Papritz, Kaspar; Signorelli, Sarah

    2016-03-01

    The utilization of groundwater for heating and cooling is the second most common application of shallow geothermal energy. In contrast to closed-loop ground-coupled heat exchangers, changes in groundwater temperature and pumping in open-loop systems can have far-reaching impacts, often exceeding property limits. The limited resources on one hand, and the justified protection of groundwater on the other hand, result in a need for standardisation of this energy source. The Swiss Society of Engineers and Architects (SIA) released the standard 384/6 "Ground-coupled heat exchanger" in 2010, which was followed in April 2015 by standard 384/7 "Thermal utilization of groundwater". The authors—associates and head of the commission—give an overview on how to deal with the specific needs, resulting from the interdisciplinary subject area, and from differences in demands and claims of the involved parties. We show how the challenges in quality assurance, functionality and environmental aspects are being met with a consensus of planners, managers and authorities during the implementation of the new standard.

  2. ELECTRON EMISSION REGULATING MEANS

    DOEpatents

    Brenholdt, I.R.

    1957-11-19

    >An electronic regulating system is described for controlling the electron emission of a cathode, for example, the cathode in a mass spectrometer. The system incorporates a transformer having a first secondary winding for the above-mentioned cathode and a second secondary winding for the above-mentioned cathode and a second secondary winding load by grid controlled vacuum tubes. A portion of the electron current emitted by the cathode is passed through a network which develops a feedback signal. The system arrangement is completed by using the feedback signal to control the vacuum tubes in the second secondary winding through a regulator tube. When a change in cathode emission occurs, the feedback signal acts to correct this change by adjusting the load on the transformer.

  3. European Union Regulations.

    PubMed

    Fürst, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The European Union (EU) has been a leader in the development of both guidance and regulations to ensure food safety throughout the member states. Because of the free movement of food commodities among the countries that belong to the European Union, there is a great need to assure high quality monitoring of both imported food and member state products. The procedures and methods required need to be practical, state-of-the art, and harmonised. The European Commission has developed a network of laboratories and scientific studies to meet this goal. This chapter describes the current Regulations, Directives and Decisions of the European Commission that protect the food supply throughout Europe. Because imported food needs to comply with the EU requirements, and the need to have common compliance throughout the member states, the developed system could be a worldwide template for monitoring the food supply. In addition, the integral role of chromatography hyphenated to mass spectrometry is described.

  4. Regulation of Meiotic Recombination

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory p. Copenhaver

    2011-11-09

    Meiotic recombination results in the heritable rearrangement of DNA, primarily through reciprocal exchange between homologous chromosome or gene conversion. In plants these events are critical for ensuring proper chromosome segregation, facilitating DNA repair and providing a basis for genetic diversity. Understanding this fundamental biological mechanism will directly facilitate trait mapping, conventional plant breeding, and development of genetic engineering techniques that will help support the responsible production and conversion of renewable resources for fuels, chemicals, and the conservation of energy (1-3). Substantial progress has been made in understanding the basal recombination machinery, much of which is conserved in organisms as diverse as yeast, plants and mammals (4, 5). Significantly less is known about the factors that regulate how often and where that basal machinery acts on higher eukaryotic chromosomes. One important mechanism for regulating the frequency and distribution of meiotic recombination is crossover interference - or the ability of one recombination event to influence nearby events. The MUS81 gene is thought to play an important role in regulating the influence of interference on crossing over. The immediate goals of this project are to use reverse genetics to identify mutants in two putative MUS81 homologs in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, characterize those mutants and initiate a novel forward genetic screen for additional regulators of meiotic recombination. The long-term goal of the project is to understand how meiotic recombination is regulated in higher eukaryotes with an emphasis on the molecular basis of crossover interference. The ability to monitor recombination in all four meiotic products (tetrad analysis) has been a powerful tool in the arsenal of yeast geneticists. Previously, the qrt mutant of Arabidopsis, which causes the four pollen products of male meiosis to remain attached, was developed as a facile system

  5. Redox regulated peroxisome homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Li, Shuo; Liu, Yu; Ma, Changle

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisomes are ubiquitous organelles present in nearly all eukaryotic cells. Conserved functions of peroxisomes encompass beta-oxidation of fatty acids and scavenging of reactive oxygen species generated from diverse peroxisomal metabolic pathways. Peroxisome content, number, and size can change quickly in response to environmental and/or developmental cues. To achieve efficient peroxisome homeostasis, peroxisome biogenesis and degradation must be orchestrated. We review the current knowledge on redox regulated peroxisome biogenesis and degradation with an emphasis on yeasts and plants.

  6. Redox regulated peroxisome homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Li, Shuo; Liu, Yu; Ma, Changle

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisomes are ubiquitous organelles present in nearly all eukaryotic cells. Conserved functions of peroxisomes encompass beta-oxidation of fatty acids and scavenging of reactive oxygen species generated from diverse peroxisomal metabolic pathways. Peroxisome content, number, and size can change quickly in response to environmental and/or developmental cues. To achieve efficient peroxisome homeostasis, peroxisome biogenesis and degradation must be orchestrated. We review the current knowledge on redox regulated peroxisome biogenesis and degradation with an emphasis on yeasts and plants. PMID:25545794

  7. Taiwan Regulation of Biobanks.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chien-Te; Hung, Tzu-Hsun; Yeh, Chan-Kun

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces legal framework and governance structure in relation to the management and development of biobanks in Taiwan. At first, we briefly describe Taiwan's population, political system and health care system. Secondly, this research introduces biobanking framework of Taiwan including 25 biobanks established with the approval of the Ministry of Health and Welfare. In those biobanks, "Taiwan Biobank" is the first and the largest government-supported biobank which comprises population-based cohort study and disease- oriented study. Since the collection of information, data, and biological specimen of biobanks often involve highly sensitive personal information, in the legal framework of Taiwan, there is a specific regulation, "Human Biobank Management Act" (HBMA), which plays an important role in regulating biobanks in Taiwan. HBMA, the Personal Information Act and other regulations constitute a comprehensive legal and regulatory privacy framework of biobanks. Through the introduction and analysis of the current legal framework applicable to biobanks, we found that there are several challenges that need to be solved appropriately that involve duplicate review systems, the obstacles in the international collaboration, and data sharing between biobanks in Taiwan.

  8. Flow compensating pressure regulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baehr, E. F. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus for regulating pressure of treatment fluid during ophthalmic procedures is described. Flow sensing and pressure regulating diaphragms are used to modulate a flow control valve. The pressure regulating diaphragm is connected to the flow control valve to urge the valve to an open position due to pressure being applied to the diaphragm by bias means such as a spring. The flow sensing diaphragm is mechanically connected to the flow control valve and urges it to an opened position because of the differential pressure on the diaphragm generated by a flow of incoming treatment fluid through an orifice in the diaphragm. A bypass connection with a variable restriction is connected in parallel relationship to the orifice to provide for adjusting the sensitivity of the flow sensing diaphragm. A multiple lever linkage system is utilized between the center of the second diaphragm and the flow control valve to multiply the force applied to the valve by the other diaphragm and reverse the direction of the force.

  9. Regulation reform slows down

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-29

    Regulatory reformers in Congress are easing off the accelerator as they recognize that some of their more far-reaching proposals lack sufficient support to win passage. Last week the proposed one-year moratorium on new regulations was set back in the Senate by it main sponsor, Sen. Non Nickles (R., OK), who now seeks to replace it with a more moderate bill. Nickel`s substitute bill would give Congress 45 days after a regulation is issued to decide whether to reject it. It also retroactively allows for review of 80 regulations issued since last November 9, 1994. Asked how his new proposal is superior to a moratorium, which is sharply opposed by the Clinton Administration, Nickles says he thinks it is better because its permanent. The Chemical Manufacturer`s Association (CMA) has not publicly made a regulatory moratorium a top priority, but has quietly supported it by joining with other industry groups lobbying on the issue. A moratorium would halt EPA expansion of the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) and alloys the delisting of several TRI chemicals.

  10. Ensembl regulation resources.

    PubMed

    Zerbino, Daniel R; Johnson, Nathan; Juetteman, Thomas; Sheppard, Dan; Wilder, Steven P; Lavidas, Ilias; Nuhn, Michael; Perry, Emily; Raffaillac-Desfosses, Quentin; Sobral, Daniel; Keefe, Damian; Gräf, Stefan; Ahmed, Ikhlak; Kinsella, Rhoda; Pritchard, Bethan; Brent, Simon; Amode, Ridwan; Parker, Anne; Trevanion, Steven; Birney, Ewan; Dunham, Ian; Flicek, Paul

    2016-01-01

    New experimental techniques in epigenomics allow researchers to assay a diversity of highly dynamic features such as histone marks, DNA modifications or chromatin structure. The study of their fluctuations should provide insights into gene expression regulation, cell differentiation and disease. The Ensembl project collects and maintains the Ensembl regulation data resources on epigenetic marks, transcription factor binding and DNA methylation for human and mouse, as well as microarray probe mappings and annotations for a variety of chordate genomes. From this data, we produce a functional annotation of the regulatory elements along the human and mouse genomes with plans to expand to other species as data becomes available. Starting from well-studied cell lines, we will progressively expand our library of measurements to a greater variety of samples. Ensembl's regulation resources provide a central and easy-to-query repository for reference epigenomes. As with all Ensembl data, it is freely available at http://www.ensembl.org, from the Perl and REST APIs and from the public Ensembl MySQL database server at ensembldb.ensembl.org. Database URL: http://www.ensembl.org. PMID:26888907

  11. Taiwan Regulation of Biobanks.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chien-Te; Hung, Tzu-Hsun; Yeh, Chan-Kun

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces legal framework and governance structure in relation to the management and development of biobanks in Taiwan. At first, we briefly describe Taiwan's population, political system and health care system. Secondly, this research introduces biobanking framework of Taiwan including 25 biobanks established with the approval of the Ministry of Health and Welfare. In those biobanks, "Taiwan Biobank" is the first and the largest government-supported biobank which comprises population-based cohort study and disease- oriented study. Since the collection of information, data, and biological specimen of biobanks often involve highly sensitive personal information, in the legal framework of Taiwan, there is a specific regulation, "Human Biobank Management Act" (HBMA), which plays an important role in regulating biobanks in Taiwan. HBMA, the Personal Information Act and other regulations constitute a comprehensive legal and regulatory privacy framework of biobanks. Through the introduction and analysis of the current legal framework applicable to biobanks, we found that there are several challenges that need to be solved appropriately that involve duplicate review systems, the obstacles in the international collaboration, and data sharing between biobanks in Taiwan. PMID:26711420

  12. Epigenetic regulation in obesity.

    PubMed

    Lavebratt, C; Almgren, M; Ekström, T J

    2012-06-01

    The availability to the DNA strand and the activity of the transcription machinery is crucial for the cell to use the information in the DNA. The epigenetic mechanisms DNA methylation, modification of histone tails, other chromatin-modifying processes and interference by small RNAs regulate the cell-type-specific DNA expression. Epigenetic marks can be more or less plastic perpetuating responses to various molecular signals and environmental stimuli, but in addition apparently stochastic epigenetic marks have been found. There is substantial evidence from animal and man demonstrating that both transient and more long-term epigenetic mechanisms have a role in the regulation of the molecular events governing adipogenesis and glucose homeostasis. Intrauterine exposure such as poor maternal nutrition has consistently been demonstrated to contribute to a particular epigenotype and thereby developmental metabolic priming of the exposed offspring in animal and man. Epigenetic modifications can be passed not only from one cell generation to the next, but metabolic disease-related epigenotypes have been proposed to also be transmitted germ-line. Future more comprehensive knowledge on epigenetic regulation will complement genome sequence data for the understanding of the complex etiology of obesity and related disorder.

  13. Cross-talk of global nutritional regulators in the control of primary and secondary metabolism in Streptomyces.

    PubMed

    Martín, Juan F; Sola-Landa, Alberto; Santos-Beneit, Fernando; Fernández-Martínez, Lorena T; Prieto, Carlos; Rodríguez-García, Antonio

    2011-03-01

    Limitation of different nutrients in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) triggers nutrient-stress responses, mediated by PhoP, GlnR, AfsR and other regulators, that are integrated at the molecular level and control secondary metabolite biosynthesis and differentiation. In addition, utilization of chitin or N-acetylglucosamine regulates secondary metabolite biosynthesis by a mechanism mediated by DasR. Phosphate control of primary and secondary metabolism in Streptomyces species is mediated by the two-component PhoR-PhoP system. In S. coelicolor, PhoP controls secondary metabolism by binding to a PHO box in the afsS promoter overlapping with the AfsR binding site. Therefore, the afsS promoter serves to integrate the PhoP-mediated response to phosphate limitation and AfsR-mediated responses to other unknown environmental stimuli. Interestingly, phosphate control oversees nitrogen regulation but not vice versa. In ΔphoP mutants, expression of some nitrogen metabolism genes including glnA, glnII and glnK is increased. Phosphate control of these genes is exerted through binding of PhoP to the promoters of glnR (the global nitrogen regulator), glnA, glnII and the amtB-glnK-glnD operon. This regulation allows a 'metabolic homeostasis' of phosphate and nitrogen utilization pathways, preventing nutritional unbalances. Similar mechanisms of interaction between phosphate control and carbon catabolite regulation or between phosphate and DasR-mediated N-acetylglucosamine regulation appear to exist. Transport of N-acetylglucosamine by the NagE2 permease and, therefore, regulation of secondary metabolism, is dependent upon the balance of phosphorylated/dephosphorylated proteins of the N-acetylglucosamine phosphotransferase system. These findings provide the bases for understanding the mechanisms underlying systems biology of Streptomyces species.

  14. Cross‐talk of global nutritional regulators in the control of primary and secondary metabolism in Streptomyces

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Juan F; Sola‐Landa, Alberto; Santos‐Beneit, Fernando; Fernández‐Martínez, Lorena T; Prieto, Carlos; Rodríguez‐García, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Summary Limitation of different nutrients in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) triggers nutrient‐stress responses, mediated by PhoP, GlnR, AfsR and other regulators, that are integrated at the molecular level and control secondary metabolite biosynthesis and differentiation. In addition, utilization of chitin or N‐acetylglucosamine regulates secondary metabolite biosynthesis by a mechanism mediated by DasR. Phosphate control of primary and secondary metabolism in Streptomyces species is mediated by the two‐component PhoR–PhoP system. In S. coelicolor, PhoP controls secondary metabolism by binding to a PHO box in the afsS promoter overlapping with the AfsR binding site. Therefore, the afsS promoter serves to integrate the PhoP‐mediated response to phosphate limitation and AfsR‐mediated responses to other unknown environmental stimuli. Interestingly, phosphate control oversees nitrogen regulation but not vice versa. In ΔphoP mutants, expression of some nitrogen metabolism genes including glnA, glnII and glnK is increased. Phosphate control of these genes is exerted through binding of PhoP to the promoters of glnR (the global nitrogen regulator), glnA, glnII and the amtB–glnK–glnD operon. This regulation allows a ‘metabolic homeostasis’ of phosphate and nitrogen utilization pathways, preventing nutritional unbalances. Similar mechanisms of interaction between phosphate control and carbon catabolite regulation or between phosphate and DasR‐mediated N‐acetylglucosamine regulation appear to exist. Transport of N‐acetylglucosamine by the NagE2 permease and, therefore, regulation of secondary metabolism, is dependent upon the balance of phosphorylated/dephosphorylated proteins of the N‐acetylglucosamine phosphotransferase system. These findings provide the bases for understanding the mechanisms underlying systems biology of Streptomyces species. PMID:21342462

  15. Regulation of adipocyte lipolysis.

    PubMed

    Frühbeck, Gema; Méndez-Giménez, Leire; Fernández-Formoso, José-Antonio; Fernández, Secundino; Rodríguez, Amaia

    2014-06-01

    In adipocytes the hydrolysis of TAG to produce fatty acids and glycerol under fasting conditions or times of elevated energy demands is tightly regulated by neuroendocrine signals, resulting in the activation of lipolytic enzymes. Among the classic regulators of lipolysis, adrenergic stimulation and the insulin-mediated control of lipid mobilisation are the best known. Initially, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) was thought to be the rate-limiting enzyme of the first lipolytic step, while we now know that adipocyte TAG lipase is the key enzyme for lipolysis initiation. Pivotal, previously unsuspected components have also been identified at the protective interface of the lipid droplet surface and in the signalling pathways that control lipolysis. Perilipin, comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58) and other proteins of the lipid droplet surface are currently known to be key regulators of the lipolytic machinery, protecting or exposing the TAG core of the droplet to lipases. The neuroendocrine control of lipolysis is prototypically exerted by catecholaminergic stimulation and insulin-induced suppression, both of which affect cyclic AMP levels and hence the protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation of HSL and perilipin. Interestingly, in recent decades adipose tissue has been shown to secrete a large number of adipokines, which exert direct effects on lipolysis, while adipocytes reportedly express a wide range of receptors for signals involved in lipid mobilisation. Recently recognised mediators of lipolysis include some adipokines, structural membrane proteins, atrial natriuretic peptides, AMP-activated protein kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase. Lipolysis needs to be reanalysed from the broader perspective of its specific physiological or pathological context since basal or stimulated lipolytic rates occur under diverse conditions and by different mechanisms.

  16. Regulation of adipocyte lipolysis.

    PubMed

    Frühbeck, Gema; Méndez-Giménez, Leire; Fernández-Formoso, José-Antonio; Fernández, Secundino; Rodríguez, Amaia

    2014-06-01

    In adipocytes the hydrolysis of TAG to produce fatty acids and glycerol under fasting conditions or times of elevated energy demands is tightly regulated by neuroendocrine signals, resulting in the activation of lipolytic enzymes. Among the classic regulators of lipolysis, adrenergic stimulation and the insulin-mediated control of lipid mobilisation are the best known. Initially, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) was thought to be the rate-limiting enzyme of the first lipolytic step, while we now know that adipocyte TAG lipase is the key enzyme for lipolysis initiation. Pivotal, previously unsuspected components have also been identified at the protective interface of the lipid droplet surface and in the signalling pathways that control lipolysis. Perilipin, comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58) and other proteins of the lipid droplet surface are currently known to be key regulators of the lipolytic machinery, protecting or exposing the TAG core of the droplet to lipases. The neuroendocrine control of lipolysis is prototypically exerted by catecholaminergic stimulation and insulin-induced suppression, both of which affect cyclic AMP levels and hence the protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation of HSL and perilipin. Interestingly, in recent decades adipose tissue has been shown to secrete a large number of adipokines, which exert direct effects on lipolysis, while adipocytes reportedly express a wide range of receptors for signals involved in lipid mobilisation. Recently recognised mediators of lipolysis include some adipokines, structural membrane proteins, atrial natriuretic peptides, AMP-activated protein kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase. Lipolysis needs to be reanalysed from the broader perspective of its specific physiological or pathological context since basal or stimulated lipolytic rates occur under diverse conditions and by different mechanisms. PMID:24872083

  17. Bifunctional gas-flow regulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, E. F.

    1979-01-01

    Simple modification converts conventional high-pressure regulator to combination pressure-regulator/shutoff valve. Modification entails adding second diaphragm and pressure compartment. Modified valve is switched between its two functions by external two-position low-pressure valve.

  18. REGULATION OF VASCULOGENESIS AND ANGIOGENESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regulation of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis.
    B.D. Abbott
    Reproductive Toxicology Division, Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
    Vasculogenesis and angiogenesis are regulated by a complex, interactive family of receptors and lig...

  19. 77 FR 13155 - Waste Regulation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... received under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, Public Law 95-541. SUMMARY: The National Science... regulated under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541; Code of Federal Regulations Title...

  20. Genes and gene regulation

    SciTech Connect

    MacLean, N.

    1988-01-01

    Genetics has long been a central topic for biologists, and recent progress has captured the public imagination as well. This book addresses questions that are at the leading edge of this continually advancing discipline. In tune with the increasing emphasis on molecular biology and genetic engineering, this text emphasizes the molecular aspects of gene expression, and the evolution of gene sequence organization and control. It reviews the genetic material of viruses, bacteria, and of higher organisms. Cells and organisms are compared in terms of gene numbers, their arrangements within a cell, and the control mechanisms which regulate the activity of genes.

  1. [Regulation of terpene metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Croteau, R.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes accomplishments over the past year on understanding of terpene synthesis in mint plants and sage. Specifically reported are the fractionation of 4-S-limonene synthetase, the enzyme responsible for the first committed step to monoterpene synthesis, along with isolation of the corresponding RNA and DNA cloning of its gene; the localization of the enzyme within the oil glands, regulation of transcription and translation of the synthetase, the pathway to camphor biosynthesis,a nd studies on the early stages and branch points of the isoprenoid pathway.

  2. Self-regulating valve

    DOEpatents

    Humphreys, D.A.

    1982-07-20

    A variable, self-regulating valve having a hydraulic loss coefficient proportional to a positive exponential power of the flow rate. The device includes two objects in a flow channel and structure which assures that the distance between the two objects is an increasing function of the flow rate. The range of spacing between the objects is such that the hydraulic resistance of the valve is an increasing function of the distance between the two objects so that the desired hydraulic loss coefficient as a function of flow rate is obtained without variation in the flow area.

  3. Circadian regulation of chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Kelly A; Dodd, Antony N

    2014-10-01

    Circadian rhythms produce a biological measure of time that increases plant performance. The mechanisms that underlie this increase in productivity require investigation to provide information that will underpin future crop improvement. There is a growing body of evidence that a sophisticated signalling network interconnects the circadian oscillator and chloroplasts. We consider this in the context of circadian signalling to chloroplasts and the relationship between retrograde signalling and circadian regulation. We place circadian signalling to chloroplasts by sigma factors within an evolutionary context. We describe selected recent developments in the integration of light and circadian signals that control chloroplast gene expression.

  4. Variable orifice flow regulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christianson, Rollin C. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A flow regulator for high-pressure fluids at elevated temperatures includes a body having a flow passage extending between inlet and outlet openings. First and second orifice members are arranged in the flow passage so at least one of the orifice members can be moved transversely in relation to the flow passage between one operating position where the two orifice openings are aligned for establishing a maximum flow rate of fluids flowing through the flow passage and at least one other operating position in which the two openings are moderately misaligned with one another for establishing a predetermined reduced flow rate of fluids flowing through the flow passage.

  5. Growth regulation by macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Wharton, W.; Walker, E.; Stewart, C.C.

    1982-01-01

    The evidence reviewed here indicates that macrophages, either acting alone or in concert with other cells, influence the proliferation of multiple types of cells. Most of the data indicate that these effects are mediated by soluble macrophage-elaborated products (probably proteins) although the role of direct cell-to-cell contacts cannot be ruled out in all cases. A degree of success has been achieved on the biochemical characterization of these factors, due mainly to their low specific activity in conditioned medium and the lack of rapid, specific assays. Understanding the growth-regulating potential of macrophages is an important and needed area of research.

  6. Industry perspective on regulation issues

    SciTech Connect

    Myrick, C.

    1994-12-31

    Current industry estimates indicate that regulatory compliance costs for retail crop protection chemical and fertilizer dealers will on average increase 300% from 1990 to 1997. Even though recent studies show that most dealers are willing to proactively comply with environmental and worker safety regulations, the impact of over-regulation could be substantial. The agrichemical industry must begin to develop and implement a strategy to increase compliance with needed regulations and prohibit duplicative or unnecessary regulations.

  7. Temperature controlled high voltage regulator

    DOEpatents

    Chiaro, Jr., Peter J.; Schulze, Gerald K.

    2004-04-20

    A temperature controlled high voltage regulator for automatically adjusting the high voltage applied to a radiation detector is described. The regulator is a solid state device that is independent of the attached radiation detector, enabling the regulator to be used by various models of radiation detectors, such as gas flow proportional radiation detectors.

  8. Effective doses, guidelines & regulations.

    PubMed

    Burch, Michael D

    2008-01-01

    A number of countries have developed regulations or guidelines for cyanotoxins and cyanobacteria in drinking water, and in some cases in water used for recreational activity and agriculture. The main focus internationally has been upon microcystin toxins, produced predominantly by Microcystis aeruginosa. This is because microcystins are widely regarded as the most significant potential source of human injury from cyanobacteria on a world-wide scale. Many international guidelines have taken their lead from the World Health Organization's (WHO) provisional guideline of 1 microg L(-1) for microcystin-LR in drinking-water released in 1998 (WHO 2004). The WHO guideline value is stated as being 'provisional', because it covers only microcystin-LR, for reasons that the toxicology is limited and new data for toxicity of cyanobacterial toxins are being generated. The derivation of this guideline is based upon data that there is reported human injury related to consumption of drinking water containing cyanobacteria, or from limited work with experimental animals. It was also recognised that at present the human evidence for microcystin tumor promotion is inadequate and animal evidence is limited. As a result the guideline is based upon the model of deriving a Tolerable Daily intake (TDI) from an animal study No Observed Adverse Effects Level (NOAEL), with the application of appropriate safety or uncertainty factors. The resultant WHO guideline by definition is the concentration of a toxin that does not result in any significant risk to health of the consumer over a lifetime of consumption. Following the release of this WHO provisional guideline many countries have either adopted it directly (e.g., Czech Republic, France, Japan, Korea, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Brazil and Spain), or have adopted the same animal studies, TDI and derivation convention to arrive at slight variants based upon local requirements (e.g., Australia, Canada). Brazil currently has the most

  9. Environmental regulations on chlorofluorocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, J.S.; Wells, J.B. )

    1989-05-01

    In August 1988, the US Environmental Protection Agency issued final regulations that implement the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. The regulations require a 50% reduction in consumption of fully halogenated chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) within 10 years and a freeze on consumption of halons within 4 years. The Montreal Protocol provisions were designed in September 1987 based on the results of a 2-year international series of scientific, technical, and economic workshops. As would be expected, scientific investigations continued during this period. While these investigations suggested that significant global depletion had already occurred, these preliminary findings were not taken into account during negotiations or rulemaking. In March 1988, however, the international Ozone Trends Panel confirmed the findings. Depletion greater than that projected under the Montreal Protocol has already occurred. An early reassessment of the Protocol provisions appears to be inevitable. Restrictions on CFCs will affect the refrigeration and air-conditioning industries. Emerging alternatives to CFCs include newly developed refrigerants, innovative designs, and engineering controls. Key issues in evaluating these alternatives include energy efficiency, capital costs, service to consumers, and compatibility with existing designs.

  10. [Regulation of terpene metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Croteau, R.

    1991-01-01

    During the last grant period, we have completed studies on the key pathways of monoterpene biosynthesis and catabolism in sage and peppermint, and have, by several lines of evidence, deciphered the rate-limiting step of each pathway. We have at least partially purified and characterized the relevant enzymes of each pathway. We have made a strong case, based on analytical, in vivo, and in vitro studies, that terpene accumulation depends upon the balance between biosynthesis and catabolism, and provided supporting evidence that these processes are developmentally-regulated and very closely associated with senescence of the oil glands. Oil gland ontogeny has been characterized at the ultrastructural level. We have exploited foliar-applied bioregulators to delay gland senescence, and have developed tissue explant and cell culture systems to study several elusive aspects of catabolism. We have isolated pure gland cell clusters and localized monoterpene biosynthesis and catabolism within these structures, and have used these preparations as starting materials for the purification to homogeneity of target regulatory'' enzymes. We have thus developed the necessary background knowledge, based on a firm understanding of enzymology, as well as the necessary experimental tools for studying the regulation of monoterpene metabolism at the molecular level. Furthermore, we are now in a position to extend our systematic approach to other terpenoid classes (C[sub 15]-C[sub 30]) produced by oil glands.

  11. Regulation of testicular descent.

    PubMed

    Hutson, John M; Li, Ruili; Southwell, Bridget R; Newgreen, Don; Cousinery, Mary

    2015-04-01

    Testicular descent occurs in two morphologically distinct phases, each under different hormonal control from the testis itself. The first phase occurs between 8 and 15 weeks when insulin-like hormone 3 (Insl3) from the Leydig cells stimulates the gubernaculum to swell, thereby anchoring the testis near the future inguinal canal as the foetus grows. Testosterone causes regression of the cranial suspensory ligament to augment the transabdominal phase. The second, or inguinoscrotal phase, occurs between 25 and 35 weeks, when the gubernaculum bulges out of the external ring and migrates to the scrotum, all under control of testosterone. However, androgen acts mostly indirectly via the genitofemoral nerve (GFN), which produces calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) to control the direction of migration. In animal models the androgen receptors are in the inguinoscrotal fat pad, which probably produces a neurotrophin to masculinise the GFN sensory fibres that regulate gubernacular migration. There is little direct evidence that this same process occurs in humans, but CGRP can regulate closure of the processus vaginalis in inguinal hernia, confirming that the GFN probably mediates human testicular descent by a similar mechanism as seen in rodent models. Despite increased understanding about normal testicular descent, the common causes of cryptorchidism remain elusive.

  12. Regulation of brain aquaporins.

    PubMed

    Zelenina, Marina

    2010-11-01

    Three aquaporins are expressed in the brain. AQP4, the predominant brain water channel, is expressed in astrocyte endfeet facing brain capillaries, perisynaptic spaces, and nodes of Ranvier. It is implicated in brain edema formation and resolution. It is also believed to assist clearance of K(+) released during neuronal activity. AQP1 is expressed in epithelial cells of choroid plexus and is implicated in cerebrospinal fluid formation. AQP9, which has been reported to be present in astrocytes and in subpopulations of neurons, is implicated in the brain energy metabolism. All three brain AQPs are strongly upregulated in brain tumors and in injured brain tissue. Water and solute transport via AQPs depends on concentration gradients across the membrane, but the magnitude of the transport is to a large extent determined by the single channel permeability of AQPs and by their abundance in the cell membrane. The future therapies will have to address not only the forces driving the water and solute transport (e.g. as mannitol infusion does in the treatment of brain edema), but also the regulation of AQPs, which provide the means for water entry to the brain, for water exit from the brain, and for redistribution of water and solutes within the brain compartments. This review summarizes the data concerning structure, permeability, role in the brain, short-term and long-term regulation of the three AQPs.

  13. Federal energy regulation

    SciTech Connect

    McKie, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    Federal energy policy since World War II has developed into a vast and multidirectional program of controls, incentives, restraints, and promotions. This development accelerated greatly during the critical decade after 1973, and has become a pervasive and sometimes controlling influence in the energy economy. Its purposes, responding to a multitude of interests and aims in the economy, have frequently been inconsistent, if not obscure, and the results have often been confusing or disappointing. This contribution considers the development and purposes of federal energy regulation during the last twenty years, especially since the ''''energy crisis'' of the early 1970s, and offers an appraisal of the successes and failures of several major federal regulatory programs. Whatever the motives and purposes that have actually guided the federal government in its intervention in the energy economy, economists and other critics may evaluate its programs according to whether or not they promote various ends that are deemed to be in the ''public interest.'' Regulation is often rationalized as an attempt to correct or compensate for a failure of the free, unregulated market to achieve some goal thought to be essential for good economic performance, or to fulfill other necessary public purposes.

  14. Natural convection in a wavy open porous cavity filled with a nanofluid: Tiwari and Das' nanofluid model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheremet, M. A.; Pop, I.; Shenoy, A.

    2016-03-01

    Natural convective heat transfer and fluid flow in an open porous cavity filled with a nanofluid is studied numerically using the Tiwari and Das nanofluid model. The transport equations for mass, momentum and energy formulated in dimensionless stream function and temperature are solved numerically using a second-order accurate finite difference method. Particular efforts are focused on the effects of the governing parameters on the heat and fluid flow. It is found that an increase in undulation number of the wavy vertical wall leads to an attenuation of convective flow and a decrease in the heat transfer rate.

  15. Bidirectional Pressure-Regulator System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth; Miller, John R.

    2008-01-01

    A bidirectional pressure-regulator system has been devised for use in a regenerative fuel cell system. The bidirectional pressure-regulator acts as a back-pressure regulator as gas flows through the bidirectional pressure-regulator in one direction. Later, the flow of gas goes through the regulator in the opposite direction and the bidirectional pressure-regulator operates as a pressure- reducing pressure regulator. In the regenerative fuel cell system, there are two such bidirectional regulators, one for the hydrogen gas and another for the oxygen gas. The flow of gases goes from the regenerative fuel cell system to the gas storage tanks when energy is being stored, and reverses direction, flowing from the storage tanks to the regenerative fuel cell system when the stored energy is being withdrawn from the regenerative fuel cell system. Having a single bidirectional regulator replaces two unidirectional regulators, plumbing, and multiple valves needed to reverse the flow direction. The term "bidirectional" refers to both the bidirectional nature of the gas flows and capability of each pressure regulator to control the pressure on either its upstream or downstream side, regardless of the direction of flow.

  16. Emotion Regulation and Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cisler, Josh M.; Olatunji, Bunmi O.

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research suggests that the construct of emotion regulation is important for understanding the onset, maintenance, and treatment of anxiety disorders. In this review, we provide a selective overview of this emerging field and highlight the major sources of evidence. First, evidence suggests that the construct of emotion regulation can be differentiated from the construct of emotion. Second, there is a large and consistent body of research demonstrating that emotion regulation strategies can modulate emotional responding, and this finding is observed in both behavioral and neuroimaging studies. Third, measures of emotion regulation explain incremental variance in measures of anxiety disorder symptoms not accounted for by measures of negative affect. Although the research implicating emotion regulation in the anxiety disorders is promising, future research will be necessary to further clarify causal mechanisms explaining how emotion regulation confers vulnerability for anxiety disorders and to improve the clarity and consistency of definitions of emotion regulation. PMID:22392595

  17. Regulation of Potassium Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Biff F

    2015-06-01

    Potassium is the most abundant cation in the intracellular fluid, and maintaining the proper distribution of potassium across the cell membrane is critical for normal cell function. Long-term maintenance of potassium homeostasis is achieved by alterations in renal excretion of potassium in response to variations in intake. Understanding the mechanism and regulatory influences governing the internal distribution and renal clearance of potassium under normal circumstances can provide a framework for approaching disorders of potassium commonly encountered in clinical practice. This paper reviews key aspects of the normal regulation of potassium metabolism and is designed to serve as a readily accessible review for the well informed clinician as well as a resource for teaching trainees and medical students.

  18. Magnetostrictive Pressure Regulating System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, James A. (Inventor); Pickens, Herman L. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A magnetostrictive pressure regulating system includes a magnetostrictive valve that incorporates a magnetostrictive actuator with at least one current-carrying coil disposed thereabout. A pressure force sensor, in fluid communication with the fluid exiting the valve, includes (i) a magnetostrictive material, (ii) a magnetic field generator in proximity to the magnetostrictive material for inducing a magnetic field in and surrounding the magnetostrictive material wherein lines of magnetic flux passing through the magnetostrictive material are defined, and (iii) a sensor positioned adjacent to the magnetostrictive material and in the magnetic field for measuring changes in at least one of flux angle and flux density when the magnetostrictive material experiences an applied force that is aligned with the lines of magnetic flux. The pressure of the fluid exiting the valve causes the applied force. A controller coupled to the sensor and to the current-carrying coil adjusts a current supplied to the current-carrying coil based on the changes so-measured.

  19. Regulation of Terpene Metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Rodney Croteau

    2004-03-14

    OAK-B135 Research over the last four years has progressed fairly closely along the lines initially proposed, with progress-driven expansion of Objectives 1, 2 and 3. Recent advances have developed from three research thrusts: 1. Random sequencing of an enriched peppermint oil gland cDNA library has given access to a large number of potential pathway and regulatory genes for test of function; 2. The availability of new DNA probes and antibodies has permitted investigation of developmental regulation and organization of terpenoid metabolism; and 3. The development of a transformation system for peppermint by colleagues at Purdue University has allowed direct transgenic testing of gene function and added a biotechnological component to the project. The current status of each of the original research objectives is outlined below.

  20. Pubertal development and regulation.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Ana Paula; Kaiser, Ursula B

    2016-03-01

    Puberty marks the end of childhood and is a period when individuals undergo physiological and psychological changes to achieve sexual maturation and fertility. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis controls puberty and reproduction and is tightly regulated by a complex network of excitatory and inhibitory factors. This axis is active in the embryonic and early postnatal stages of life and is subsequently restrained during childhood, and its reactivation culminates in puberty initiation. The mechanisms underlying this reactivation are not completely known. The age of puberty onset varies between individuals and the timing of puberty initiation is associated with several health outcomes in adult life. In this Series paper, we discuss pubertal markers, epidemiological trends of puberty initiation over time, and the mechanisms whereby genetic, metabolic, and other factors control secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone to determine initiation of puberty.

  1. [Regulation of terpene metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Croteau, R.

    1989-11-09

    Terpenoid oils, resins, and waxes from plants are important renewable resources. The objective of this project is to understand the regulation of terpenoid metabolism using the monoterpenes (C[sub 10]) as a model. The pathways of monoterpene biosynthesis and catabolism have been established, and the relevant enzymes characterized. Developmental studies relating enzyme levels to terpene accumulation within the oil gland sites of synthesis, and work with bioregulators, indicate that monoterpene production is controlled by terpene cyclases, the enzymes catalyzing the first step of the monoterpene pathway. As the leaf oil glands mature, cyclase levels decline and monoterpene biosynthesis ceases. Yield then decreases as the monoterpenes undergo catabolism by a process involving conversion to a glycoside and transport from the leaf glands to the root. At this site, the terpenoid is oxidatively degraded to acetate that is recycled into other lipid metabolites. During the transition from terpene biosynthesis to catabolism, the oil glands undergo dramatic ultrastructural modification. Degradation of the producing cells results in mixing of previously compartmentized monoterpenes with the catabolic enzymes, ultimately leading to yield decline. This regulatory model is being applied to the formation of other terpenoid classes (C[sub 15] C[sub 20], C[sub 30], C[sub 40]) within the oil glands. Preliminary investigations on the formation of sesquiterpenes (C[sub 15]) suggest that the corresponding cyclases may play a lesser role in determining yield of these products, but that compartmentation effects are important. From these studies, a comprehensive scheme for the regulation of terpene metabolism is being constructed. Results from this project wail have important consequences for the yield and composition of terpenoid natural products that can be made available for industrial exploitation.

  2. Regulation of melanopsin expression.

    PubMed

    Hannibal, Jens

    2006-01-01

    Circadian rhythms in mammals are adjusted daily to the environmental day/night cycle by photic input via the retinohypothalamic tract (RHT). Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) of the RHT constitute a separate light-detecting system in the mammalian retina used for irradiance detection and for transmission to the circadian system and other non-imaging forming processes in the brain. The RGCs of the RHT are intrinsically photosensitive due to the expression of melanopsin, an opsin-like photopigment. This notion is based on anatomical and functional data and on studies of mice lacking melanopsin. Furthermore, heterologous expression of melanopsin in non-neuronal mammalian cell lines was found sufficient to render these cells photosensitive. Even though solid evidence regarding the function of melanopsin exists, little is known about the regulation of melanopsin gene expression. Studies in albino Wistar rats showed that the expression of melanopsin is diurnal at both the mRNA and protein levels. The diurnal changes in melanopsin expression seem, however, to be overridden by prolonged exposure to light or darkness. Significant increase in melanopsin expression was observed from the first day in constant darkness and the expression continued to increase during prolonged exposure in constant darkness. Prolonged exposure to constant light, on the other hand, decreased melanopsin expression to an almost undetectable level after 5 days of constant light. The induction of melanopsin by darkness was even more pronounced if darkness was preceded by light suppression for 5 days. These observations show that dual mechanisms regulate melanopsin gene expression and that the intrinsic light-responsive RGCs in the albino Wistar rat adapt their expression of melanopsin to environmental light and darkness.

  3. TFEB regulates lysosomal proteostasis.

    PubMed

    Song, Wensi; Wang, Fan; Savini, Marzia; Ake, Ashley; di Ronza, Alberto; Sardiello, Marco; Segatori, Laura

    2013-05-15

    Loss-of-function diseases are often caused by destabilizing mutations that lead to protein misfolding and degradation. Modulating the innate protein homeostasis (proteostasis) capacity may lead to rescue of native folding of the mutated variants, thereby ameliorating the disease phenotype. In lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs), a number of highly prevalent alleles have missense mutations that do not impair the enzyme's catalytic activity but destabilize its native structure, resulting in the degradation of the misfolded protein. Enhancing the cellular folding capacity enables rescuing the native, biologically functional structure of these unstable mutated enzymes. However, proteostasis modulators specific for the lysosomal system are currently unknown. Here, we investigate the role of the transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master regulator of lysosomal biogenesis and function, in modulating lysosomal proteostasis in LSDs. We show that TFEB activation results in enhanced folding, trafficking and lysosomal activity of a severely destabilized glucocerebrosidase (GC) variant associated with the development of Gaucher disease (GD), the most common LSD. TFEB specifically induces the expression of GC and of key genes involved in folding and lysosomal trafficking, thereby enhancing both the pool of mutated enzyme and its processing through the secretory pathway. TFEB activation also rescues the activity of a β-hexosaminidase mutant associated with the development of another LSD, Tay-Sachs disease, thus suggesting general applicability of TFEB-mediated proteostasis modulation to rescue destabilizing mutations in LSDs. In summary, our findings identify TFEB as a specific regulator of lysosomal proteostasis and suggest that TFEB may be used as a therapeutic target to rescue enzyme homeostasis in LSDs. PMID:23393155

  4. Endocannabinoids in cerebrovascular regulation.

    PubMed

    Benyó, Zoltán; Ruisanchez, Éva; Leszl-Ishiguro, Miriam; Sándor, Péter; Pacher, Pál

    2016-04-01

    The cerebral blood flow is tightly regulated by myogenic, endothelial, metabolic, and neural mechanisms under physiological conditions, and a large body of recent evidence indicates that inflammatory pathways have a major influence on the cerebral blood perfusion in certain central nervous system disorders, like hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke, traumatic brain injury, and vascular dementia. All major cell types involved in cerebrovascular control pathways (i.e., smooth muscle, endothelium, neurons, astrocytes, pericytes, microglia, and leukocytes) are capable of synthesizing endocannabinoids and/or express some or several of their target proteins [i.e., the cannabinoid 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2) receptors and the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 ion channel]. Therefore, the endocannabinoid system may importantly modulate the regulation of cerebral circulation under physiological and pathophysiological conditions in a very complex manner. Experimental data accumulated since the late 1990s indicate that the direct effect of cannabinoids on cerebral vessels is vasodilation mediated, at least in part, by CB1 receptors. Cannabinoid-induced cerebrovascular relaxation involves both a direct inhibition of smooth muscle contractility and a release of vasodilator mediator(s) from the endothelium. However, under stress conditions (e.g., in conscious restrained animals or during hypoxia and hypercapnia), cannabinoid receptor activation was shown to induce a reduction of the cerebral blood flow, probably via inhibition of the electrical and/or metabolic activity of neurons. Finally, in certain cerebrovascular pathologies (e.g., subarachnoid hemorrhage, as well as traumatic and ischemic brain injury), activation of CB2 (and probably yet unidentified non-CB1/non-CB2) receptors appear to improve the blood perfusion of the brain via attenuating vascular inflammation. PMID:26825517

  5. Efficacy of Soybean's Event DAS-81419-2 Expressing Cry1F and Cry1Ac to Manage Key Tropical Lepidopteran Pests Under Field Conditions in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marques, L H; Castro, B A; Rossetto, J; Silva, O A B N; Moscardini, V F; Zobiole, L H S; Santos, A C; Valverde-Garcia, P; Babcock, J M; Rule, D M; Fernandes, O A

    2016-08-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) event DAS-81419-2 (Conkesta technology) in soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, expresses Cry1F and Cry1Ac proteins to provide protection from feeding by several lepidopteran pests. A total of 27 field experiments across nine locations were conducted from 2011 to 2015 in southern and central Brazil to characterize the efficacy of DAS-81419-2 soybean infested with Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), Chrysodeixis includens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Heliothis virescens (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) during vegetative (V4) and reproductive (R2 and R4) crop developmental stages. The efficacy of DAS-81419-2 was compared to that of a non-Bt isogenic variety managed with or without applications of commercial foliar insecticides for lepidopteran control. DAS-81419-2 soybean consistently experienced defoliation levels of 0.5% or less (compared with 20.05-56.74% in the non-Bt, nonsprayed treatment) and larval survival of < 0.1% in all four species across the vegetative and reproductive plant stages evaluated. The efficacy of DAS-81419-2 was significantly higher than commercial foliar insecticides applied to the non-Bt variety. DAS-81419-2 soybeans containing two highly effective Bt proteins are expected to be a more robust IRM tool compared to single-trait Bt technologies. The consistent efficacy of DAS-81419-2 soybeans across years, locations, and crop stages suggests that it will be a valuable product for management of hard-to-control key lepidopteran pests in South American soybean production. PMID:27401112

  6. Branded prescription drug fee. Final regulations, temporary regulations, and removal of temporary regulations.

    PubMed

    2014-07-28

    This document contains final regulations that provide guidance on the annual fee imposed on covered entities engaged in the business of manufacturing or importing branded prescription drugs. This fee was enacted by section 9008 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by section 1404 of the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010. This document also withdraws the Branded Prescription Drug Fee temporary regulations and contains new temporary regulations regarding the definition of controlled group that apply beginning on January 1, 2015. The final regulations and the new temporary regulations affect persons engaged in the business of manufacturing or importing certain branded prescription drugs. The text of the temporary regulations in this document also serves as the text of proposed regulations set forth in a notice of proposed rulemaking (REG-123286-14) on this subject in the Proposed Rules section in this issue of the Federal Register.

  7. Sustainable regulation of construction.

    PubMed

    2000-11-01

    The seminar examined the role building codes and regulations can have in promoting a more sustainable approach to construction, particularly through their application to non-industrial building materials. A range of building materials such as straw, bamboo, rammed earth, adobe, and cob (a mixture of clay and chopped straw) were described and illustrated by slides to show their building potential. The current codes have a prime concern to protect the health and safety of people from the built environment. They have been developed almost exclusively for mainstream industrial materials and methods of construction, which makes them difficult to use with alternative, indigenous, or non-industrial building materials, even though those materials may be considered more sustainable. The argument was put forward that with only one-third of the world population living in modern industrial buildings today, it is not sustainable to re-house the remaining rapidly expanding population in high technology dwellings. Many of the low technology building materials and methods now used by the majority of people in the world need only incremental improvement to be equal or superior to many of their industrial replacements. Since these can be more sustainable methods of building, there needs to be an acceptance of the use of alternative materials, particularly in the developing parts of the world, where they are being rejected for less sustainable industrial methods. However, many codes make it difficult to use non-industrial materials; indeed, many of the industrial materials would not meet the demands that must be now met if they were now being introduced as new materials. Consequently, there is a need to develop codes to facilitate the use of a wider range of materials than in current use, and research is needed to assist this development. Sustainable regulation should take into account the full range of real impacts that materials and systems have in areas such as resource use and

  8. Predictors of European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) good response, DAS-28 remission and sustained responses to TNF-inhibitors in rheumatoid arthritis: a prospective study in refractory disease.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Reem Hamdy A; Farahat, Faisal; Kewan, Hanady H; Bukhari, Mohammed A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to survey factors related to EULAR good response, the DAS-28 definition of remission, ACR 50 response, sustained response to tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNF-I) therapy in biologic naïve patients with refractory rheumatoid arthritis. This was a single center observational clinical prospective 2 years' study, EULAR response criteria, DAS 28, HAQ and radiographic changes were recorded. Eighty patients included (64 females and 16 males, mean age was 48.4 + -17.9 years, mean disease duration 7.3 + -5.9 years). At 6 months 70% achieved EULAR good response, 51.8% achieved DAS-28 remission. Good response/sustained responses inversely correlated with baseline DAS-28 and radiographic erosions P <0.05. EULAR good response/remission by 6 months, sustained response at 2 years positively correlated with the decline in RF titers (r = 0.33, P < 0.05 & r = 0.30, P < 0.03 respectively), negatively correlated with the baseline HAQ. Regression analysis identified higher serum hemoglobin concentration, lower baseline HAQ scores, and the absence of radiographic erosions as significant predictors of good as well as sustained responses after adjustment for potential covariates. Methotrexate was associated with favorable responses and remission at 6 months (ORs = 1.13, 1.30 respectively). The study concluded that a lower baseline DAS-28 and HAQ scores, the lack of radiographic erosions favored EULAR good response and were significant predictors of sustained response to TNF-I.

  9. Regulation of sphingomyelin metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bienias, Kamil; Fiedorowicz, Anna; Sadowska, Anna; Prokopiuk, Sławomir; Car, Halina

    2016-06-01

    Sphingolipids (SFs) represent a large class of lipids playing diverse functions in a vast number of physiological and pathological processes. Sphingomyelin (SM) is the most abundant SF in the cell, with ubiquitous distribution within mammalian tissues, and particularly high levels in the Central Nervous System (CNS). SM is an essential element of plasma membrane (PM) and its levels are crucial for the cell function. SM content in a cell is strictly regulated by the enzymes of SM metabolic pathways, which activities create a balance between SM synthesis and degradation. The de novo synthesis via SM synthases (SMSs) in the last step of the multi-stage process is the most important pathway of SM formation in a cell. The SM hydrolysis by sphingomyelinases (SMases) increases the concentration of ceramide (Cer), a bioactive molecule, which is involved in cellular proliferation, growth and apoptosis. By controlling the levels of SM and Cer, SMSs and SMases maintain cellular homeostasis. Enzymes of SM cycle exhibit unique properties and diverse tissue distribution. Disturbances in their activities were observed in many CNS pathologies. This review characterizes the physiological roles of SM and enzymes controlling SM levels as well as their involvement in selected pathologies of the Central Nervous System, such as ischemia/hypoxia, Alzheimer disease (AD), Parkinson disease (PD), depression, schizophrenia and Niemann Pick disease (NPD). PMID:26940196

  10. Redox regulation in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Das, Ila; Chandhok, Des

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative stress, implicated in the etiology of cancer, results from an imbalance in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell’s own antioxidant defenses. ROS deregulate the redox homeostasis and promote tumor formation by initiating an aberrant induction of signaling networks that cause tumorigenesis. Ultraviolet (UV) exposures, γ-radiation and other environmental carcinogens generate ROS in the cells, which can exert apoptosis in the tumors, thereby killing the malignant cells or induce the progression of the cancer growth by blocking cellular defense system. Cancer stem cells take the advantage of the aberrant redox system and spontaneously proliferate. Oxidative stress and gene-environment interactions play a significant role in the development of breast, prostate, pancreatic and colon cancer. Prolonged lifetime exposure to estrogen is associated with several kinds of DNA damage. Oxidative stress and estrogen receptor-associated proliferative changes are suggested to play important roles in estrogen-induced breast carcinogenesis. BRCA1, a tumor suppressor against hormone responsive cancers such as breast and prostate cancer, plays a significant role in inhibiting ROS and estrogen mediated DNA damage; thereby regulate the redox homeostasis of the cells. Several transcription factors and tumor suppressors are involved during stress response such as Nrf2, NFκB and BRCA1. A promising strategy for targeting redox status of the cells is to use readily available natural substances from vegetables, fruits, herbs and spices. Many of the phytochemicals have already been identified to have chemopreventive potential, capable of intervening in carcinogenesis. PMID:20716925

  11. Regulation of ovarian hyperluteinization.

    PubMed

    Ivanisevic-Milovanovic, O K; Demajo, M A; Karakasevic, A M; Pantic, V R

    1998-01-01

    Adult female rats with neonatally damaged posterior hypothalamus, made by a transversal cut, were investigated. Plasma levels of prolactin (PRL), gonadotropic hormones (GTH) and female gonadal steroids (GS) were determined by radioimmunoassay. The animals were sacrificed, at the ages of 4 and 6 months and their hypothalamus, pituitary gland, ovary and uterus were examined using light microscopy. The results can be summarized as follows: body mass of animals, with damaged posterior hypothalamus, was significantly reduced. Masses of luteinized ovaries were increased and uterine tissues decreased. Serum levels of PRL were significantly increased and luteinizing hormone (LH) decreased. Ultrastructural changes in the corpora lutea (CL), previously described, showed clear signs of their reduced capacities to produce GS, both estradiol (Oe) and progesterone (Pg) per total ovarian mass. However, prostaglandin 2 alfa (PGF2alpha) known as a luteolytic factor, was also diminished in the evidently retarded endometrium. As a result of decreased plasma values of LH, Pg and PGF2 alpha, luteolysis of CL in hyperluteinized ovaries did not occur, and their new generations were accumulated during subsequent cycles. The character of interruption and recovery of aminergic and peptidergic neurons, involved in regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal axis and feed-back effects of steroid hormones, require further studies.

  12. Load regulating latch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleberry, W. T. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A load regulating mechanical latch is described that has a pivotally mounted latch element having a hook-shaped end with a strike roller-engaging laterally open hook for engaging a stationary strike roller. The latch element or hook is pivotally mounted in a clevis end of an elongated latch stem that is adapted for axial movement through an opening in a support plate or bracket mounted to a structural member. A coil spring is disposed over and around the extending latch stem and the lower end of the coil spring engages the support bracket. A thrust washer is removably attached to the other end of the latch stem and engages the other end of the coil spring and compresses the coil spring thereby preloading the spring and the latch element carried by the latch stem. The hook-shaped latch element has a limited degree of axial travel for loading caused by structural distortion which may change the relative positions of the latch element hook and the strike roller. Means are also provided to permit limited tilt of the latch element due to loading of the hook.

  13. Metabolic regulation via enzyme filamentation

    PubMed Central

    Aughey, Gabriel N.; Liu, Ji-Long

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Determining the mechanisms of enzymatic regulation is central to the study of cellular metabolism. Regulation of enzyme activity via polymerization-mediated strategies has been shown to be widespread, and plays a vital role in mediating cellular homeostasis. In this review, we begin with an overview of the filamentation of CTP synthase, which forms filamentous structures termed cytoophidia. We then highlight other important examples of the phenomenon. Moreover, we discuss recent data relating to the regulation of enzyme activity by compartmentalization into cytoophidia. Finally, we hypothesize potential roles for enzyme filament formation in the regulation of metabolism, development and disease. PMID:27098510

  14. Glucocorticoid Regulation of Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Geraghty, Anna C; Kaufer, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    It is well accepted that stress, measured by increased glucocorticoid secretion, leads to profound reproductive dysfunction. In times of stress, glucocorticoids activate many parts of the fight or flight response, mobilizing energy and enhancing survival, while inhibiting metabolic processes that are not necessary for survival in the moment. This includes reproduction, an energetically costly procedure that is very finely regulated. In the short term, this is meant to be beneficial, so that the organism does not waste precious energy needed for survival. However, long-term inhibition can lead to persistent reproductive dysfunction, even if no longer stressed. This response is mediated by the increased levels of circulating glucocorticoids, which orchestrate complex inhibition of the entire reproductive axis. Stress and glucocorticoids exhibits both central and peripheral inhibition of the reproductive hormonal axis. While this has long been recognized as an issue, understanding the complex signaling mechanism behind this inhibition remains somewhat of a mystery. What makes this especially difficult is attempting to differentiate the many parts of both of these hormonal axes, and new neuropeptide discoveries in the last decade in the reproductive field have added even more complexity to an already complicated system. Glucocorticoids (GCs) and other hormones within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis (as well as contributors in the sympathetic system) can modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis at all levels-GCs can inhibit release of GnRH from the hypothalamus, inhibit gonadotropin synthesis and release in the pituitary, and inhibit testosterone synthesis and release from the gonads, while also influencing gametogenesis and sexual behavior. This chapter is not an exhaustive review of all the known literature, however is aimed at giving a brief look at both the central and peripheral effects of glucocorticoids on the reproductive function.

  15. Properties of Noise Cross Correlation Functions Obtained from a Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) Array at Garner Valley, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, X.; Lancelle, C.; Thurber, C. H.; Fratta, D.; Wang, H. F.; Chalari, A.; Clarke, A.

    2015-12-01

    The field test of Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) conducted at Garner Valley, California on September 11-12, 2013 provided a continuous overnight record of ambient noise. The DAS array recorded ground motions every one meter of optical cable that was arranged approximately in the shape of a rectangle with dimensions of 160 m by 80 m. The long dimension of the array was adjacent to a state highway. Three hours of record were used to compute noise cross-correlation functions (NCFs) in one-minute windows. The trace from each sensor channel was pre-processed by downsampling to 200 Hz, followed by normalization in the time-domain and bandpass filtering between 2 and 20 Hz (Bensen et al., 2007). The one-minute NCFs were then stacked using the time-frequency domain phase-weighted stacking method (Schimmel & Gallart, 2007). The NCFs between channels were asymmetrical reflecting the direction of traffic noise. The group velocities were found using the frequency-time analysis method. The energy was concentrated between 5 and 15 Hz, which falls into the typical traffic noise frequency band. The resulting velocities were between 100 and 300 m/s for frequencies between 10 and 20 Hz, which are in the same range as described in the results for surface-wave dispersion obtained using an active source for the same site (Lancelle et al., 2015). The group velocity starts to decrease for frequencies greater than ~10 Hz, which was expected on the basis of a previous shear-wave velocity model (Steidl et al., 1996). Then, the phase velocity was calculated using the multichannel analysis of surface wave technique (MASW - Park et al., 1999) with 114 NCFs spaced one meter apart. The resulting dispersion curve between 5 and 15 Hz gave phase velocities that ranged from approximately 170 m/s at 15 Hz to 250 m/s at 5 Hz. These results are consistent with other results of active-source DAS and seismometer records obtained at the Garner Valley site (e.g., Stokoe et al. 2004). This analysis is

  16. Insect-Protected Event DAS-81419-2 Soybean (Glycine max L.) Grown in the United States and Brazil Is Compositionally Equivalent to Nontransgenic Soybean

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The transgenic soybean event DAS-81419-2 contains genes that encode the Cry1F, Cry1Ac, and PAT proteins. Cry1F and Cry1Ac provide protection against key lepidopteran insect pests, while PAT confers tolerance to the herbicide glufosinate. To satisfy regulatory requirements for the safety evaluation of transgenic crops, studies were conducted in the United States and Brazil to evaluate the nutrient and antinutrient composition of event DAS-81419-2 soybean. On the basis of the results of these studies, event DAS-81419-2 soybean is compositionally equivalent to nontransgenic soybean. This conclusion concurs with numerous other published studies in soybean and other crops where compositional equivalence between the transgenic crop and its nontransgenic comparator has been demonstrated. PMID:25641393

  17. Insect-protected event DAS-81419-2 soybean (Glycine max L.) grown in the United States and Brazil is compositionally equivalent to nontransgenic soybean.

    PubMed

    Fast, Brandon J; Schafer, Ariane C; Johnson, Tempest Y; Potts, Brian L; Herman, Rod A

    2015-02-25

    The transgenic soybean event DAS-81419-2 contains genes that encode the Cry1F, Cry1Ac, and PAT proteins. Cry1F and Cry1Ac provide protection against key lepidopteran insect pests, while PAT confers tolerance to the herbicide glufosinate. To satisfy regulatory requirements for the safety evaluation of transgenic crops, studies were conducted in the United States and Brazil to evaluate the nutrient and antinutrient composition of event DAS-81419-2 soybean. On the basis of the results of these studies, event DAS-81419-2 soybean is compositionally equivalent to nontransgenic soybean. This conclusion concurs with numerous other published studies in soybean and other crops where compositional equivalence between the transgenic crop and its nontransgenic comparator has been demonstrated.

  18. Team Regulation, Regulation of Social Activities or Co-Regulation: Different Labels for Effective Regulation of Learning in CSCL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saab, Nadira

    2012-01-01

    Computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) is an approach to learning in which learners can actively and collaboratively construct knowledge by means of interaction and joint problem solving. Regulation of learning is especially important in the domain of CSCL. Next to the regulation of task performance, the interaction between learners who…

  19. Deceptive Business Practices: Federal Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrer, Daniel Morgan

    Federal regulations to prevent deceptive advertising seek to balance the advertiser's freedom of speech with protection of the consumer. This paper discusses what the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has done to regulate advertising and evaluates the adequacy of its controls. The commission uses cease-and-desist orders, affirmative disclosure,…

  20. Design for pressure regulating components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wichmann, H.

    1973-01-01

    The design development for Pressure Regulating Components included a regulator component trade-off study with analog computer performance verification to arrive at a final optimized regulator configuration for the Space Storable Propulsion Module, under development for a Jupiter Orbiter mission. This application requires the pressure regulator to be capable of long-term fluorine exposure. In addition, individual but basically identical (for purposes of commonality) units are required for separate oxidizer and fuel pressurization. The need for dual units requires improvement in the regulation accuracy over present designs. An advanced regulator concept was prepared featuring redundant bellows, all metallic/ceramic construction, friction-free guidance of moving parts, gas damping, and the elimination of coil springs normally used for reference forces. The activities included testing of actual size seat/poppet components to determine actual discharge coefficients and flow forces. The resulting data was inserted into the computer model of the regulator. Computer simulation of the propulsion module performance over two mission profiles indicated satisfactory minimization of propellant residual requirements imposed by regulator performance uncertainties.

  1. Gravity and body mass regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, L. E.; Horwitz, B. A.; Fuller, C. A.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of altered gravity on body mass, food intake, energy expenditure, and body composition are examined. Metabolic adjustments are reviewed in maintenance of energy balance, neural regulation, and humoral regulation are discussed. Experiments with rats indicate that genetically obese rats respond differently to hypergravity than lean rats.

  2. Affect and Self-Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmivuori, Marja-Liisa

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents affect as an essential aspect of students' self-reflection and self-regulation. The introduced concepts of self-system and self-system process stress the importance of self-appraisals of personal competence and agency in affective responses and self-regulation in problem solving. Students are viewed as agents who constantly…

  3. Technological Change in Regulated Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capron, William M., Ed.

    The articles in this volume discuss how well industries operating under government regulation respond to technical innovation: do the effects of regulations vary among industries, and if so, does this result from variations in the regulatory approach, the organization of the firms, or the nature of the technology? Industries considered include…

  4. Regulating Pornography: A Public Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Margaret E.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examines attitudes toward sex and pornography by means of a telephone survey of Dane County, Wisconsin, adults. Describes survey questions about sexual attitudes, perceived effects of pornography, and pornography regulation. Concludes that adults who feel more strongly that pornography has negative effects are more opposed to its regulation. (SG)

  5. The Universities and Federal Regulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, John C.

    The impact of increasing federal regulation on American universities is discussed based on an informal survey of senior academic and administrative officials in 13 public and private universities. As government regulation is becoming more intensive and compliance more resource- and time-consuming, government is perceived as having little…

  6. Street sweeping and stormwater regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This article examines the role of street sweeping in meeting the requirements of the Clean Water Act stormwater regulations. The article identifies those industrial and municipal activities which are covered by the regulations and cites frequent sweeping of site surfaces for industry and street sweeping for municipalities as an integral part of compliance plans.

  7. Dialektische Kosmosophie.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petri, W.

    Neue Erkenntnisse und Spekulationen über Frühstadien und Entwicklungsprozesse im Weltall werfen über das engere Fachgebiet hinausgehende Probleme auf, denen auch die "dialektische" Naturphilosophie, repräsentativ vertreten durch armenische Forscher, beksondere Aufmerksamkeit widmet. Einschlägige Veröffentlichungen der jüngsten Zeit werden kritisch gewürdigt.

  8. Regulation of GMOs in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yinliang

    2008-12-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are created by biotechnology to serve people with much benefit while may impose risks to ecological environment and human health and therefore need careful regulation. During the past two decades, GMOs have been well developed in China and so has their corresponding regulation. This paper reviews and comments the multiple aspects of mainly the agricultural GMOs, including their safety assessment, control measures, trade activities, import, labels, and GM food, which have been prescribed by the corresponding laws, regulations and administrative measures. It is held that till present a framework for regulation of agricultural GMOs and GM food has been established basically in China, while a more comprehensive system for regulation of all kinds of GMOs and all kinds of related activities is still needed at present and in the future.

  9. RNA-guided transcriptional regulation

    DOEpatents

    Church, George M.; Mali, Prashant G.; Esvelt, Kevin M.

    2016-02-23

    Methods of modulating expression of a target nucleic acid in a cell are provided including introducing into the cell a first foreign nucleic acid encoding one or more RNAs complementary to DNA, wherein the DNA includes the target nucleic acid, introducing into the cell a second foreign nucleic acid encoding a nuclease-null Cas9 protein that binds to the DNA and is guided by the one or more RNAs, introducing into the cell a third foreign nucleic acid encoding a transcriptional regulator protein or domain, wherein the one or more RNAs, the nuclease-null Cas9 protein, and the transcriptional regulator protein or domain are expressed, wherein the one or more RNAs, the nuclease-null Cas9 protein and the transcriptional regulator protein or domain co-localize to the DNA and wherein the transcriptional regulator protein or domain regulates expression of the target nucleic acid.

  10. REGULATION OF AUTOSENSITIZATION

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Irun R.; Wekerle, Hartmut

    1973-01-01

    lymphocytes to self-antigens can be regulated by serum factors which act on the lymphocytes. The immunospecificity of the inhibitory effect suggests that these factors may be soluble self-antigens in a tolerogenic form. PMID:4539845

  11. Der vollständige Brief Brahes an Sørensen über das Erscheinen des Kometen von 1577

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschner, Stefan

    Es ist erstaunlich, daß sowohl Friis als auch Dreyer in ihrer Ausgabe der Briefe Tycho Brahes den Brief vom 14. November 1577 an Peter Sørensen, die erste bekannte Nachricht Brahes von seiner Entdeckung des Kometen von 1577, nur unvollständig, und zwar ohne den astronomischen Inhalt, ediert haben. Der Brief, dessen Original sehr wahrscheinlich nicht mehr existiert, wurde von dem Kieler Arzt und Medizinprofessor Johann Daniel Major (1634 - 1693) in Kopenhagen in sein Reisetagebuch kopiert. Das Original des Majorschen Reisetagebuches ist verschollen, doch es existieren zwei Abschriften davon (Kopenhagen, Königl. Bibl., Ny Kgl. Sml., 365, Fol. u. Ledreborg, 410, Fol.). Im folgenden wird nach einer kurzen Beschreibung des Stellenwerts, den der Komet von 1577 für Brahe besaß, der Brief nach diesen beiden Abschriften kritisch ediert, mit einer deutschen Übersetzung versehen und kurz kommentiert.

  12. Regulating chemicals: law, science, and the unbearable burdens of regulation.

    PubMed

    Silbergeld, Ellen K; Mandrioli, Daniele; Cranor, Carl F

    2015-03-18

    The challenges of regulating industrial chemicals remain unresolved in the United States. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) of 1976 was the first legislation to extend coverage to the regulation of industrial chemicals, both existing and newly registered. However, decisions related to both law and science that were made in passing this law inevitably rendered it ineffectual. Attempts to fix these shortcomings have not been successful. In light of the European Union's passage of innovative principles and requirements for chemical regulation, it is no longer possible to deny the opportunity and need for reform in US law and practice. PMID:25785889

  13. Regulating chemicals: law, science, and the unbearable burdens of regulation.

    PubMed

    Silbergeld, Ellen K; Mandrioli, Daniele; Cranor, Carl F

    2015-03-18

    The challenges of regulating industrial chemicals remain unresolved in the United States. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) of 1976 was the first legislation to extend coverage to the regulation of industrial chemicals, both existing and newly registered. However, decisions related to both law and science that were made in passing this law inevitably rendered it ineffectual. Attempts to fix these shortcomings have not been successful. In light of the European Union's passage of innovative principles and requirements for chemical regulation, it is no longer possible to deny the opportunity and need for reform in US law and practice.

  14. Mental fatigue impairs emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Grillon, Christian; Quispe-Escudero, David; Mathur, Ambika; Ernst, Monique

    2015-06-01

    Because healthy physical and mental functioning depends on the ability to regulate emotions, it is important to identify moderators of such regulations. Whether mental fatigue, subsequent to the depletion of cognitive resources, impairs explicit emotion regulation to negative stimuli is currently unknown. This study explored this possibility. In a within-subject design over 2 separate sessions, healthy individuals performed easy (control session) or difficult (depletion session) cognitive tasks. Subsequently, they were presented with neutral and negative pictures, with instructions to either maintain or regulate (i.e., reduce) the emotions evoked by the pictures. Emotional reactivity was probed with the startle reflex. The negative pictures evoked a similar aversive state in the control and depletion sessions as measured by startle potentiation. However, subjects were able to down-regulate their aversive state only in the control session, not in the depletion session. These results indicate that mental fatigue following performance of cognitive tasks impairs emotion regulation without affecting emotional reactivity. These findings suggest that mental fatigue needs to be incorporated into models of emotion regulation.

  15. Precipitated silica as flow regulator.

    PubMed

    Müller, Anne-Kathrin; Ruppel, Joanna; Drexel, Claus-Peter; Zimmermann, Ingfried

    2008-08-01

    Flow regulators are added to solid pharmaceutical formulations to improve the flow properties of the powder mixtures. The primary particles of the flow regulators exist in the form of huge agglomerates which are broken down into smaller aggregates during the blending process. These smaller aggregates adsorb at the surface of the solid's grains and thus diminish attractive Van-der-Waals-forces by increasing the roughness of the host's surface. In most cases amorphous silica is used as flow additive but material properties like particle size or bond strength influence the desagglomeration tendency of the agglomerates and thus the flow regulating potency of each silica. For some silica types we will show that the differences in their flow regulating potency are due to the rate and extent by which they are able to cover the surface of the host particles. Binary powder mixtures consisting of a pharmaceutical excipient and an added flow regulator were blended in a Turbula mixer for a defined period of time. As pharmaceutical excipient corn starch was used. The flow regulators were represented by a selection of amorphous silicon dioxide types like a commercial fumed silica and various types of SIPERNAT precipitated silica provided by Evonik-Degussa GmbH, Hanau, Germany. Flowability parameters of the mixtures were characterized by means of a tensile strength tester. The reduction of tensile strength with the blending time can be correlated with an increase in fragmentation of the flow regulator. PMID:18595668

  16. Regulation and selection of patients.

    PubMed

    Leenen, H J

    1985-01-01

    During the past decades health legislation and regulation have been on the increase in most industrialized countries. The growing role of government in the provision and financing of health care, the need to correct given aspects of health care and the mandate to protect the underprivileged have been some of the many reasons for increased regulation. Different regulatory approaches and their respective advantages and disadvantages are reviewed in this paper. Particular attention is given to the crucial issue of how to regulate the access to scarce resources and how to cope within a legislative approach with the resulting patient selection. PMID:10270736

  17. Wolf population regulation revisited: again

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McRoberts, Ronald E.; Mech, L. David

    2014-01-01

    The long-accepted conclusion that wolf density is regulated by nutrition was recently challenged, and the conclusion was reached that, at greater levels of prey biomass, social factors such as intraspecific strife and territoriality tend to regulate wolf density. We reanalyzed the data used in that study for 2 reasons: 1) we disputed the use of 2 data points, and 2) because of recognized heteroscedasticity, we used weighted-regression analysis instead of the unweighted regressions used in the original study. We concluded that the data do not support the hypothesis that wolf densities are regulated by social factors.

  18. Voltage Regulators for Photovoltaic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delombard, R.

    1986-01-01

    Two simple circuits developed to provide voltage regulation for highvoltage (i.e., is greater than 75 volts) and low-voltage (i.e., is less than 36 volts) photovoltaic/battery power systems. Use of these circuits results in voltage regulator small, low-cost, and reliable, with very low power dissipation. Simple oscillator circuit controls photovoltaic-array current to regulate system voltage and control battery charging. Circuit senses battery (and system) voltage and adjusts array current to keep battery voltage from exceeding maximum voltage.

  19. Flow-compensating pressure regulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baehr, E. F.

    1979-01-01

    Pressure regulator developed for use with cataract-surgery instrument controls intraocular pressure during substantial variations in flow rate of infusion fluid. Device may be applicable to variety of eye-surgery instruments.

  20. Lipid Regulation of Sodium Channels.

    PubMed

    D'Avanzo, N

    2016-01-01

    The lipid landscapes of cellular membranes are complex and dynamic, are tissue dependent, and can change with the age and the development of a variety of diseases. Researchers are now gaining new appreciation for the regulation of ion channel proteins by the membrane lipids in which they are embedded. Thus, as membrane lipids change, for example, during the development of disease, it is likely that the ionic currents that conduct through the ion channels embedded in these membranes will also be altered. This chapter provides an overview of the complex regulation of prokaryotic and eukaryotic voltage-dependent sodium (Nav) channels by fatty acids, sterols, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, and cannabinoids. The impact of lipid regulation on channel gating kinetics, voltage-dependence, trafficking, toxin binding, and structure are explored for Nav channels that have been examined in heterologous expression systems, native tissue, and reconstituted into artificial membranes. Putative mechanisms for Nav regulation by lipids are also discussed. PMID:27586290

  1. State Regulation of Private Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lines, Patricia M.

    1982-01-01

    Examines state laws and the actions of various courts on home instruction and unauthorized educational programs. Suggests reforming the regulation of private education through legislative action that requires periodic testing as an alternative to compulsory school attendance. (Author/MLF)

  2. Transistorized converter provides nondissipative regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    A transistorized regulator converter efficiently converts fluctuating input voltages to a constant output voltage, avoiding the use of saturable reactors. It is nondissipative in operation and functions in an open loop through variable duty cycles.

  3. Turgor regulation in hyphal organisms.

    PubMed

    Lew, Roger R; Levina, Natalia N; Walker, Sophie K; Garrill, Ashley

    2004-11-01

    Turgor regulation in two saprophytic hyphal organisms was examined directly with the pressure probe technique. The ascomycete Neurospora crassa, a terrestrial fungi, regulates turgor after hyperosmotic treatments when growing in a minimal medium containing K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Cl(-), and sucrose. Turgor recovery by N. crassa after hyperosmotic treatment is concurrent with changes in ion transport: hyperpolarization of the plasma membrane potential and a decline in transmembrane ion conductance. In contrast the oomycete Achlya bisexualis, a freshwater hyphal organism, does not regulate turgor after hyperosmotic treatment, although small transient increases in turgor were occasionally observed. We also monitored turgor in both organisms during hypoosmotic treatment and did not observe a turgor increase, possibly due to turgor regulation. Both hyphal organisms grow with similar morphologies, cellular expansion rates and turgor (0.4-0.7 MPa), yet respond differently to osmotic stress. The results do not support the assumption of a universal mechanism of tip growth driven by cell turgor.

  4. APPARATUS FOR REGULATING HIGH VOLTAGE

    DOEpatents

    Morrison, K.G.

    1951-03-20

    This patent describes a high-voltage regulator of the r-f type wherein the modulation of the r-f voltage is accomplished at a high level, resulting in good stabilization over a large range of load conditions.

  5. Development of a surface-wave imaging system for geotechnical applications based on distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) and ambient noise interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Daley, T. M.; Freifeld, B. M.; Tang, D. G.; Zhang, R.; Wagner, A. M.; Dou, S.; Lindsey, N.; Bjella, K.; Pevzner, R.

    2014-12-01

    Distributed fiber-optic sensing methods have been used since the 1980's for continuous monitoring of near-surface soil properties, typically exploiting Raman scattering to measure temperature (DTS) or stimulated Brillouin scattering to measure strain (DSS). Recent advances in high speed measurement of Rayleigh scattering has enabled distributed recording of seismic waves over long sections of fiber; this approach, referred to as distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) has the potential to allow nearly continuous monitoring of near-surface mechanical properties, a crucial target for geotechnical management of infrastructure dependent on soil strength. We present initial results from our effort to build a real-time soil property monitoring system based on DAS; our approach employs seismic interferometry and dispersion analysis of ambient noise generated by infrastructure to provide a continuously updated model of shear modulus. Our preliminary results include an in-depth investigation of DAS fiber response in the context of active sources; this component of our study verifies classical models for the azimuthal response of straight fibers to propagating surface waves. We also explore the "noisescape" of linear infrastructure and show a usable seismic signal band of 8-40 hz at a series of sites, primarily consisting of Rayleigh waves. Finally, we present preliminary results from a DAS monitoring array installed at the Richmond Field Station near a heavily used road and compare interferometric processing of the acquired data to that generated by surface deployment of geophones.

  6. Epigenetic regulation of persistent pain

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Guang; Ren, Ke; Dubner, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Persistent or chronic pain is tightly associated with various environmental changes and linked to abnormal gene expression within cells processing nociceptive signaling. Epigenetic regulation governs gene expression in response to environmental cues. Recent animal model and clinical studies indicate that epigenetic regulation plays an important role in the development/maintenance of persistent pain and, possibly the transition of acute pain to chronic pain, thus shedding light in a direction for development of new therapeutics for persistent pain. PMID:24948399

  7. Novas determinações dos parâmetros atmosféricos das estrelas anãs brancas DA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannini, O.; Costa, A. F. M.; Kepler, S. O.

    2003-08-01

    Nós temos selecionado uma amostra de estrelas anãs brancas DA (atmosfera de hidrogênio) a partir dos índices de Strömgren cujos valores estão próximos a região de instabilidade das estrelas anãs brancas DA variáveis, as chamadas estrelas DAV ou ZZ Ceti. O objetivo é determinar os parâmetros fundamentais (temperatura efetiva, Teff, aceleração da gravidade, log g, e massa) destas estrelas para verificar quais os parâmetros estelares estão envolvidos com o mecanismo de pulsação das estrelas DAV. Nós obtemos, até agora, mais de 120 espectros óticos de estrelas DA. Entre as estrelas selecionadas há 20 estrelas variáveis (DAV). Assim, podemos verificar se existem ou não estrelas não variáveis dentro da faixa de instabilidade das estrelas ZZ Ceti. Neste trabalho nós apresentamos a determinação dos parâmetros atmosféricos (temperatura efetiva, Teff, e aceleração da gravidade, log g) das estrelas anãs brancas DA usando os novos modelos de atmosfera ML2/a = 0.6. Estes modelos têm sido utilizados recentemente por fornecerem uma excelente consistência interna na determinação das temperaturas nas regiões do ultra-violeta e ótico. Os parâmetros atmosféricos são determinados espectroscopicamente através da comparação do fluxo de energia das linhas de Balmer (Hb à H9) entre os espectros observados e sintéticos (gerados pelos modelos de atmosfera). As temperaturas obtidas com os novos modelos são, em geral, menores (~ 1000 K menos) que as temperaturas determinadas anteriormente, com modelos ML1. Os valores de log g não mudaram significativamente (menos de 10%). A faixa de instabilidade das DAVs está entre 11000 e 13000 K, consistente com dados de outros autores.

  8. YCRD: Yeast Combinatorial Regulation Database

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei-Sheng; Hsieh, Yen-Chen; Lai, Fu-Jou

    2016-01-01

    In eukaryotes, the precise transcriptional control of gene expression is typically achieved through combinatorial regulation using cooperative transcription factors (TFs). Therefore, a database which provides regulatory associations between cooperative TFs and their target genes is helpful for biologists to study the molecular mechanisms of transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Because there is no such kind of databases in the public domain, this prompts us to construct a database, called Yeast Combinatorial Regulation Database (YCRD), which deposits 434,197 regulatory associations between 2535 cooperative TF pairs and 6243 genes. The comprehensive collection of more than 2500 cooperative TF pairs was retrieved from 17 existing algorithms in the literature. The target genes of a cooperative TF pair (e.g. TF1-TF2) are defined as the common target genes of TF1 and TF2, where a TF’s experimentally validated target genes were downloaded from YEASTRACT database. In YCRD, users can (i) search the target genes of a cooperative TF pair of interest, (ii) search the cooperative TF pairs which regulate a gene of interest and (iii) identify important cooperative TF pairs which regulate a given set of genes. We believe that YCRD will be a valuable resource for yeast biologists to study combinatorial regulation of gene expression. YCRD is available at http://cosbi.ee.ncku.edu.tw/YCRD/ or http://cosbi2.ee.ncku.edu.tw/YCRD/. PMID:27392072

  9. YCRD: Yeast Combinatorial Regulation Database.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei-Sheng; Hsieh, Yen-Chen; Lai, Fu-Jou

    2016-01-01

    In eukaryotes, the precise transcriptional control of gene expression is typically achieved through combinatorial regulation using cooperative transcription factors (TFs). Therefore, a database which provides regulatory associations between cooperative TFs and their target genes is helpful for biologists to study the molecular mechanisms of transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Because there is no such kind of databases in the public domain, this prompts us to construct a database, called Yeast Combinatorial Regulation Database (YCRD), which deposits 434,197 regulatory associations between 2535 cooperative TF pairs and 6243 genes. The comprehensive collection of more than 2500 cooperative TF pairs was retrieved from 17 existing algorithms in the literature. The target genes of a cooperative TF pair (e.g. TF1-TF2) are defined as the common target genes of TF1 and TF2, where a TF's experimentally validated target genes were downloaded from YEASTRACT database. In YCRD, users can (i) search the target genes of a cooperative TF pair of interest, (ii) search the cooperative TF pairs which regulate a gene of interest and (iii) identify important cooperative TF pairs which regulate a given set of genes. We believe that YCRD will be a valuable resource for yeast biologists to study combinatorial regulation of gene expression. YCRD is available at http://cosbi.ee.ncku.edu.tw/YCRD/ or http://cosbi2.ee.ncku.edu.tw/YCRD/. PMID:27392072

  10. 7 CFR 29.29 - Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulations. 29.29 Section 29.29 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.29 Regulations. Rules and regulations of the Secretary under the Act....

  11. 7 CFR 987.48 - Container regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container regulation. 987.48 Section 987.48... IN RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Container Regulation § 987.48 Container regulation. Whenever the Committee deems it advisable to establish a container regulation for any variety...

  12. 50 CFR 20.153 - Regulations committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Regulations committee. 20.153 Section 20... Regulations § 20.153 Regulations committee. (a) Notice of meetings. Notice of each meeting of the Regulations... meeting of the Regulations Committee for which notice is published pursuant to paragraph (a) of...

  13. 50 CFR 20.153 - Regulations committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Regulations committee. 20.153 Section 20... Regulations § 20.153 Regulations committee. (a) Notice of meetings. Notice of each meeting of the Regulations... meeting of the Regulations Committee for which notice is published pursuant to paragraph (a) of...

  14. 7 CFR 993.49 - Incoming regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Incoming regulation. 993.49 Section 993.49 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Order Regulating Handling Grade and Size Regulations § 993.49 Incoming regulation. (a) No handler...

  15. 7 CFR 993.50 - Outgoing regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Outgoing regulation. 993.50 Section 993.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Order Regulating Handling Grade and Size Regulations § 993.50 Outgoing regulation. (a) Except...

  16. 50 CFR 20.153 - Regulations committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Regulations committee. 20.153 Section 20... Regulations § 20.153 Regulations committee. (a) Notice of meetings. Notice of each meeting of the Regulations... meeting of the Regulations Committee for which notice is published pursuant to paragraph (a) of...

  17. 50 CFR 20.153 - Regulations committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Regulations committee. 20.153 Section 20... Regulations § 20.153 Regulations committee. (a) Notice of meetings. Notice of each meeting of the Regulations... meeting of the Regulations Committee for which notice is published pursuant to paragraph (a) of...

  18. Development and evaluation of a DAS-ELISA for rapid detection of Tembusu virus using monoclonal antibodies against the envelope protein.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Ou, Quanbin; Tang, Yi; Gao, Xuhui; Wu, Lili; Xue, Cong; Yu, Chunmei; Cui, Jingteng; Diao, Youxiang

    2014-01-01

    Since April 2010, Tembusu virus (TMUV) which is a contagious pathogen of waterfowls, causing symptoms of high fever, loss of appetite and fall in egg production, has been reported in east of China. A double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) which detects for TMUV was developed, using two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the TMUV envelope (E) protein. BALB/c mice were immunized with purified recombinant E protein expressed in E. coli. Three hybridoma cell lines designated as 12B1, 10C6 and 2D2, were screened by cell fusion and indirect ELISA for their ability to recognize different linear epitopes on the E protein, and were characterized subsequently. High-affinity mAbs 12B1 and 2D2 were used as capture and detection antibodies, respectively. The reaction conditions for the DAS-ELISA were optimized for TMUV detection. The cross-reactivity of the DAS-ELISA was determined using TMUV, duck plague virus, avian influenza virus subtype H9, Newcastle disease virus, duck hepatitis A virus type 1 and duck reovirus samples. A total of 191 homogenized tissues of field samples were simultaneously detected by DAS-ELISA and by RT-PCR. The former was found to have a high specificity of 99.1% and a sensitivity of 93.1%. These results reveal a positive coincidence between DAS-ELISA and RT-PCR at a coincidence rate of 95.8%. The method developed in this study can be used for the diagnosis of TMUV infection of duck origin. PMID:24797141

  19. Precision Adjustable Liquid Regulator (ALR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinhold, R.; Parker, M.

    2004-10-01

    A passive mechanical regulator has been developed for the control of fuel or oxidizer flow to a 450N class bipropellant engine for use on commercial and interplanetary spacecraft. There are several potential benefits to the propulsion system, depending on mission requirements and spacecraft design. This system design enables more precise control of main engine mixture ratio and inlet pressure, and simplifies the pressurization system by transferring the function of main engine flow rate control from the pressurization/propellant tank assemblies, to a single component, the ALR. This design can also reduce the thermal control requirements on the propellant tanks, avoid costly Qualification testing of biprop engines for missions with more stringent requirements, and reduce the overall propulsion system mass and power usage. In order to realize these benefits, the ALR must meet stringent design requirements. The main advantage of this regulator over other units available in the market is that it can regulate about its nominal set point to within +/-0.85%, and change its regulation set point in flight +/-4% about that nominal point. The set point change is handled actively via a stepper motor driven actuator, which converts rotary into linear motion to affect the spring preload acting on the regulator. Once adjusted to a particular set point, the actuator remains in its final position unpowered, and the regulator passively maintains outlet pressure. The very precise outlet regulation pressure is possible due to new technology developed by Moog, Inc. which reduces typical regulator mechanical hysteresis to near zero. The ALR requirements specified an outlet pressure set point range from 225 to 255 psi, and equivalent water flow rates required were in the 0.17 lb/sec range. The regulation output pressure is maintained at +/-2 psi about the set point from a P (delta or differential pressure) of 20 to over 100 psid. Maximum upstream system pressure was specified at 320 psi

  20. Optimierung von Kommunikationsnetzen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberspächer, Jörg; Kiese, Moritz; Wessäly, Roland

    Die weltweiten Telekommunikationsnetze (Telefon-, Mobilfunknetze, Internet) bilden heute das Nervensystem von Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft. Durch den anhaltenden technologischen Fortschritt in der Elektronik, der Computer- und Kommunikationstechnik steigt nicht nur die Zahl der Teilnehmer in den Netzen ständig, sondern es entstehen auch laufend neue Anwendungen, wie Radio und Fernsehen im Internet, elektronischer Handel und interaktive Spiele im Internet. Auf den Kupfer- und Glasfaserkabeln sowie den Funkstrecken werden gigantische Informationsmengen transportiert. Das Verkehrs-wachstum ist nach wie vor exponentiell.

  1. Simulation of the single-vibronic-level emission spectra of HAsO and DAsO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mok, Daniel K. W.; Lee, Edmond P. F.; Dyke, John M.

    2016-05-01

    The single-vibronic-level (SVL) emission spectra of HAsO and DAsO have been simulated by electronic structure/Franck-Condon factor calculations to confirm the spectral molecular carrier and to investigate the electronic states involved. Various multi-reference (MR) methods, namely, NEVPT2 (n-electron valence state second order perturbation theory), RSPT2-F12 (explicitly correlated Rayleigh-Schrodinger second order perturbation theory), and MRCI-F12 (explicitly correlated multi-reference configuration interaction) were employed to compute the geometries and relative electronic energies for the X ˜ 1 A ' and A ˜ 1 A ″ states of HAsO. These are the highest level calculations on these states yet reported. The MRCI-F12 method gives computed T0 (adiabatic transition energy including zero-point energy correction) values, which agree well with the available experimental T0 value much better than previously computed values and values computed with other MR methods in this work. In addition, the potential energy surfaces of the X ˜ 1 A ' and A ˜ 1 A ″ states of HAsO were computed using the MRCI-F12 method. Franck-Condon factors between the two states, which include anharmonicity and Duschinsky rotation, were then computed and used to simulate the recently reported SVL emission spectra of HAsO and DAsO [R. Grimminger and D. J. Clouthier, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 184308 (2011)]. Our simulated SVL emission spectra confirm the assignments of the molecular carrier, the electronic states involved, and the vibrational structures observed in the SVL emission spectra but suggest a loss of intensity in the reported experimental spectra at the low emission energy region almost certainly due to a loss of responsivity near the cutoff region (˜800 nm) of the detector used. Computed and experimentally derived re (equilibrium) and/or r0 {the (0,0,0) vibrational level} geometries of the two states of HAsO are discussed.

  2. Entomological fauna from Reserva Biológica do Atol das Rocas, RN, Brazil: I. Morphospecies composition.

    PubMed

    Almeida; Marchon-Silva; Ribeiro; Serpa-Filho; Almeida; Costa

    2000-05-01

    Atol das Rocas, the unique atoll in the South-western Atlantic, is located 144 nautical miles (266 Km) northeast from the city of Natal, NE Brazil and 80 nautical miles from Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha, with geographic co-ordinates 3 masculine51'S and 33 masculine49"W. It's of volcanic origin and coralline formation. The reef is ellipsoid, its largest axis (E-W) is approximately 3.7 km long, and the shortest (N-S) is 2.5 km. Inside the lagoon, there are two islands: the Ilha do Farol and Ilha do Cemitério, which comprehend 7.2 Km2 of emerged area. The Atol das Rocas lodges 143,000 birds, mainly by Sula dactilatra, S. leucogaster, Anous stolidus, A. minuta and Sterna fuscata. Due to their remote location, the islands remain largely undisturbed by the human activities. Aiming to a first characterization of the entomological diversity and the general trophic niches of atoll's entomofauna, three collects were made (1994, 1995 and 1996) utilizing several methods for a wide sample. One thousand six hundred and six insect specimens were collected belonging to eight orders: 1. Coleoptera - 333 individuals of Dermestidae (Dermestes cadaverinus); Tenebrionidae (Phaleria testacea and morphospecies) and Curculionidae (one morphospecies); 2. Dermaptera - 50 individuals of Carcinophoridae (Anisolabis maritima); 3. Diptera - 281 individuals of Ephydridae (Scatella sp. and Hecamede sp.) and Hippoboscidae (one morphospecies); 4. Hymenoptera - 45 individuals of Formicidae (Brachymyrmex sp.); 5. Lepidoptera - 111 individuals of Microlepidoptera (one morphospecies); 6. Mallophaga - 18 individuals in birds (two morphospecies); 7. Orthoptera - 237 individuals of Acrididae (Schistocerca cancellata), Tridactylidae (one morphospecies) and Blattidae (three morphospecies); 8. Thysanoptera -531 individuals (one morphospecies). Also were collected 112 individuals of Arachnida. The taxa of the Order Araneae were represented by the families: 1. Miturgidae (Cheiracanthium inclusum); 2

  3. Thyroid hormone regulation of metabolism.

    PubMed

    Mullur, Rashmi; Liu, Yan-Yun; Brent, Gregory A

    2014-04-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) is required for normal development as well as regulating metabolism in the adult. The thyroid hormone receptor (TR) isoforms, α and β, are differentially expressed in tissues and have distinct roles in TH signaling. Local activation of thyroxine (T4), to the active form, triiodothyronine (T3), by 5'-deiodinase type 2 (D2) is a key mechanism of TH regulation of metabolism. D2 is expressed in the hypothalamus, white fat, brown adipose tissue (BAT), and skeletal muscle and is required for adaptive thermogenesis. The thyroid gland is regulated by thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). In addition to TRH/TSH regulation by TH feedback, there is central modulation by nutritional signals, such as leptin, as well as peptides regulating appetite. The nutrient status of the cell provides feedback on TH signaling pathways through epigentic modification of histones. Integration of TH signaling with the adrenergic nervous system occurs peripherally, in liver, white fat, and BAT, but also centrally, in the hypothalamus. TR regulates cholesterol and carbohydrate metabolism through direct actions on gene expression as well as cross-talk with other nuclear receptors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), liver X receptor (LXR), and bile acid signaling pathways. TH modulates hepatic insulin sensitivity, especially important for the suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis. The role of TH in regulating metabolic pathways has led to several new therapeutic targets for metabolic disorders. Understanding the mechanisms and interactions of the various TH signaling pathways in metabolism will improve our likelihood of identifying effective and selective targets.

  4. To Regulate or Not to Regulate? Views on Electronic Cigarette Regulations and Beliefs about the Reasons for and against Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Sanders-Jackson, Ashley; Tan, Andy S. L.; Bigman, Cabral A.; Mello, Susan; Niederdeppe, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Background Policies designed to restrict marketing, access to, and public use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are increasingly under debate in various jurisdictions in the US. Little is known about public perceptions of these policies and factors that predict their support or opposition. Methods Using a sample of US adults from Amazon Mechanical Turk in May 2015, this paper identifies beliefs about the benefits and costs of regulating e-cigarettes and identifies which of these beliefs predict support for e-cigarette restricting policies. Results A higher proportion of respondents agreed with 8 different reasons to regulate e-cigarettes (48.5% to 83.3% agreement) versus 7 reasons not to regulate e-cigarettes (11.5% to 18.9%). The majority of participants agreed with 7 out of 8 reasons for regulation. When all reasons to regulate or not were included in a final multivariable model, beliefs about protecting people from secondhand vapor and protecting youth from trying e-cigarettes significantly predicted stronger support for e-cigarette restricting policies, whereas concern about government intrusion into individual choices was associated with reduced support. Discussion This research identifies key beliefs that may underlie public support or opposition to policies designed to regulate the marketing and use of e-cigarettes. Advocates on both sides of the issue may find this research valuable in developing strategic campaigns related to the issue. Implications Specific beliefs of potential benefits and costs of e-cigarette regulation (protecting youth, preventing exposure to secondhand vapor, and government intrusion into individual choices) may be effectively deployed by policy makers or health advocates in communicating with the public. PMID:27517716

  5. Post regulation circuit with energy storage

    DOEpatents

    Ball, Don G.; Birx, Daniel L.; Cook, Edward G.

    1992-01-01

    A charge regulation circuit provides regulation of an unregulated voltage supply and provides energy storage. The charge regulation circuit according to the present invention provides energy storage without unnecessary dissipation of energy through a resistor as in prior art approaches.

  6. Cosmetic Regulations: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Suhag, Jyoti; Dureja, Harish

    2015-01-01

    The regulatory framework, compliance requirement, efficacy, safety, and marketing of cosmetic products are considered the most important factors for growth of the cosmetic industry. There are different regulatory bodies across the globe that have their own insights for regulation; moreover, governments such as the United States, European Union, and Japan follow a stringent regulatory framework, whereas cosmetics are not so much strictly regulated in countries such as India, Brazil, and China. The alignment of a regulatory framework will play a significant role in the removal of barriers to trade, growth of market at an international level, innovation in the development and presentation of new products, and most importantly safety and efficacy of the marketed products. The present contribution gives insight into the important cosmetic regulations in areas of premarket approval, ingredient control, and labeling and warnings, with a special focus on the cosmetic regulatory environments in the United States, European Union, Japan, and India. Most importantly, the authors highlight the dark side of cosmetics associated with allergic reactions and even skin cancer. The importance of cosmetic regulations has been highlighted by dint of which the society can be healthier, accomplished by more stringent and harmonized regulations. PMID:26380505

  7. Neuronal regulation of tendon homoeostasis.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, Paul W

    2013-08-01

    The regulation of tendon homoeostasis, including adaptation to loading, is still not fully understood. Accumulating data, however, demonstrates that in addition to afferent (sensory) functions, the nervous system, via efferent pathways which are associated with through specific neuronal mediators plays an active role in regulating pain, inflammation and tendon homeostasis. This neuronal regulation of intact-, healing- and tendinopathic tendons has been shown to be mediated by three major groups of molecules including opioid, autonomic and excitatory glutamatergic neuroregulators. In intact healthy tendons the neuromediators are found in the surrounding structures: paratenon, endotenon and epitenon, whereas the proper tendon itself is practically devoid of neurovascular supply. This neuroanatomy reflects that normal tendon homoeostasis is regulated from the tendon surroundings. After injury and during tendon repair, however, there is extensive nerve ingrowth into the tendon proper, followed by a time-dependent emergence of sensory, autonomic and glutamatergic mediators, which amplify and fine-tune inflammation and regulate tendon regeneration. In tendinopathic condition, excessive and protracted presence of sensory and glutamatergic neuromediators has been identified, suggesting involvement in inflammatory, nociceptive and hypertrophic (degenerative) tissue responses. Under experimental and clinical conditions of impaired (e.g. diabetes) as well as excessive (e.g. tendinopathy) neuromediator release, dysfunctional tendon homoeostasis develops resulting in chronic pain and gradual degeneration. Thus there is a prospect that in the future pharmacotherapy and tissue engineering approaches targeting neuronal mediators and their receptors may prove to be effective therapies for painful, degenerative and traumatic tendon disorders.

  8. Progress toward risk informed regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, K.C.

    1997-01-01

    For the last several years, the NRC, with encouragement from the industry, has been moving in the direction of risk informed regulation. This is consistent with the regulatory principle of efficiency, formally adopted by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in 1991, which requires that regulatory activities be consistent with the degree of risk reduction they achieve. Probabilistic risk analysis has become the tool of choice for selecting the best of several alternatives. Closely related to risk informed regulation is the development of performance based rules. Such rules focus on the end result to be achieved. They do not specify the process, but instead establish the goals to be reached and how the achievement of those goals is to be judged. The inspection and enforcement activity is based on whether or not the goals have been met. The author goes on to offer comments on the history of the development of this process and its probable development in the future. He also addresses some issues which must be resolved or at least acknowledged. The success of risk informed regulation ultimately depends on having sufficiently reliable data to allow quantification of regulatory alternatives in terms of relative risk. Perhaps the area of human reliability and organizational performance has the greatest potential for improvement in reactor safety. The ability to model human performance is significantly less developed that the ability to model mechanical or electrical systems. The move toward risk informed, performance based regulation provides an unusual, perhaps unique, opportunity to establish a more rational, more effective basis for regulation.

  9. How Europe regulates its genes

    SciTech Connect

    Balter, M.

    1991-06-07

    As Europe moves toward unification in 1992, more than two dozen regulations and directives that will affect biotech are working their way through the complex European legislative system. The result could mean tough scrutiny for genetically engineered products. One reason is that the European Community (EC) has chosen to examine genetically engineered products as a special category - an approach the FDA has rejected. Another is that the EC is considering enacting regulations that would mandate consideration of the socioeconomic effects of biotech products in addition to their safety. In addition, some - particularly in industry - fear a nightmare of overlapping and contradictory regulations. It's too soon to tell how well the European system will work, or how stifling the regulations might be. In all likelihood the regulations emerging in Europe won't be demonstrably superior - or inferior - to the American ones, just different, with different strengths and weaknesses. But since many US biotech companies are looking to the huge market that a unified Europe represents, the specifics of those strengths and weaknesses will ultimately be of more than passing interest.

  10. Law and regulation of benzene.

    PubMed Central

    Feitshans, I L

    1989-01-01

    OSHA has created final benzene regulations after extensive rulemakings on two occasions, 1978 and 1987. These standards have been the subject of extensive litigation for nearly 20 years. This article examines in detail the conceptual underpinnings of the Benzene Case, (which was decided by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1980) in light of U.S. administrative law precedents that have set limits upon administrative discretion under the test for "substantial evidence" and the "hard look doctrine." This article also addresses recent developments in the wake of the Benzene Case and their implications for benzene regulations following the "significant risk" doctrine in that case. This article briefly describes other national, regional, and international laws governing the use of benzene. This article concludes that the revisions of the benzene regulation and subsequent rulemaking provide substantial evidence of scientific underpinnings for regulatory action and that laws from other nations reflect an international consensus that occupational exposure to benzene is a proper subject of regulation. Such regulations and policies are therefore likely to withstand scrutiny and remain enforceable as widely accepted norms. PMID:2792048

  11. Cosmetic Regulations: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Suhag, Jyoti; Dureja, Harish

    2015-01-01

    The regulatory framework, compliance requirement, efficacy, safety, and marketing of cosmetic products are considered the most important factors for growth of the cosmetic industry. There are different regulatory bodies across the globe that have their own insights for regulation; moreover, governments such as the United States, European Union, and Japan follow a stringent regulatory framework, whereas cosmetics are not so much strictly regulated in countries such as India, Brazil, and China. The alignment of a regulatory framework will play a significant role in the removal of barriers to trade, growth of market at an international level, innovation in the development and presentation of new products, and most importantly safety and efficacy of the marketed products. The present contribution gives insight into the important cosmetic regulations in areas of premarket approval, ingredient control, and labeling and warnings, with a special focus on the cosmetic regulatory environments in the United States, European Union, Japan, and India. Most importantly, the authors highlight the dark side of cosmetics associated with allergic reactions and even skin cancer. The importance of cosmetic regulations has been highlighted by dint of which the society can be healthier, accomplished by more stringent and harmonized regulations.

  12. Neuronal regulation of tendon homoeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Ackermann, Paul W

    2013-01-01

    The regulation of tendon homoeostasis, including adaptation to loading, is still not fully understood. Accumulating data, however, demonstrates that in addition to afferent (sensory) functions, the nervous system, via efferent pathways which are associated with through specific neuronal mediators plays an active role in regulating pain, inflammation and tendon homeostasis. This neuronal regulation of intact-, healing- and tendinopathic tendons has been shown to be mediated by three major groups of molecules including opioid, autonomic and excitatory glutamatergic neuroregulators. In intact healthy tendons the neuromediators are found in the surrounding structures: paratenon, endotenon and epitenon, whereas the proper tendon itself is practically devoid of neurovascular supply. This neuroanatomy reflects that normal tendon homoeostasis is regulated from the tendon surroundings. After injury and during tendon repair, however, there is extensive nerve ingrowth into the tendon proper, followed by a time-dependent emergence of sensory, autonomic and glutamatergic mediators, which amplify and fine-tune inflammation and regulate tendon regeneration. In tendinopathic condition, excessive and protracted presence of sensory and glutamatergic neuromediators has been identified, suggesting involvement in inflammatory, nociceptive and hypertrophic (degenerative) tissue responses. Under experimental and clinical conditions of impaired (e.g. diabetes) as well as excessive (e.g. tendinopathy) neuromediator release, dysfunctional tendon homoeostasis develops resulting in chronic pain and gradual degeneration. Thus there is a prospect that in the future pharmacotherapy and tissue engineering approaches targeting neuronal mediators and their receptors may prove to be effective therapies for painful, degenerative and traumatic tendon disorders. PMID:23718724

  13. 50 CFR 402.04 - Counterpart regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED General § 402.04 Counterpart regulations....

  14. 50 CFR 402.04 - Counterpart regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED General § 402.04 Counterpart regulations....

  15. 50 CFR 402.04 - Counterpart regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED General § 402.04 Counterpart regulations....

  16. 50 CFR 402.04 - Counterpart regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED General § 402.04 Counterpart regulations....

  17. 50 CFR 402.04 - Counterpart regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED General § 402.04 Counterpart regulations....

  18. Common Data Acquisition Systems (DAS) Software Development for Rocket Propulsion Test (RPT) Test Facilities - A General Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebert, Phillip W., Sr.; Hughes, Mark S.; Davis, Dawn M.; Turowski, Mark P.; Holladay, Wendy T.; Marshall, PeggL.; Duncan, Michael E.; Morris, Jon A.; Franzl, Richard W.

    2012-01-01

    The advent of the commercial space launch industry and NASA's more recent resumption of operation of Stennis Space Center's large test facilities after thirty years of contractor control resulted in a need for a non-proprietary data acquisition system (DAS) software to support government and commercial testing. The software is designed for modularity and adaptability to minimize the software development effort for current and future data systems. An additional benefit of the software's architecture is its ability to easily migrate to other testing facilities thus providing future commonality across Stennis. Adapting the software to other Rocket Propulsion Test (RPT) Centers such as MSFC, White Sands, and Plumbrook Station would provide additional commonality and help reduce testing costs for NASA. Ultimately, the software provides the government with unlimited rights and guarantees privacy of data to commercial entities. The project engaged all RPT Centers and NASA's Independent Verification & Validation facility to enhance product quality. The design consists of a translation layer which provides the transparency of the software application layers to underlying hardware regardless of test facility location and a flexible and easily accessible database. This presentation addresses system technical design, issues encountered, and the status of Stennis' development and deployment.

  19. Das Lektin aus der Erbse Pisum sativum : Bindungsstudien, Monomer-Dimer-Gleichgewicht und Rückfaltung aus Fragmenten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küster, Frank

    2002-11-01

    Das Lektin aus Pisum sativum, der Gartenerbse, ist Teil der Familie der Leguminosenlektine. Diese Proteine haben untereinander eine hohe Sequenzhomologie, und die Struktur ihrer Monomere, ein all-ß-Motiv, ist hoch konserviert. Dagegen gibt es innerhalb der Familie eine große Vielfalt an unterschiedlichen Quartärstrukturen, die Gegenstand kristallographischer und theoretischer Arbeiten waren. Das Erbsenlektin ist ein dimeres Leguminosenlektin mit einer Besonderheit in seiner Struktur: Nach der Faltung in der Zelle wird aus einem Loop eine kurze Aminosäuresequenz herausgeschnitten, so dass sich in jeder Untereinheit zwei unabhängige Polypeptidketten befinden. Beide Ketten sind aber stark miteinander verschränkt und bilden eine gemeinsame strukturelle Domäne. Wie alle Lektine bindet Erbsenlektin komplexe Oligosaccharide, doch sind seine physiologische Rolle und der natürliche Ligand unbekannt. In dieser Arbeit wurden Versuche zur Entwicklung eines Funktionstests für Erbsenlektin durchgeführt und seine Faltung, Stabilität und Monomer-Dimer-Gleichgewicht charakterisiert. Um die spezifische Rolle der Prozessierung für Stabilität und Faltung zu untersuchen, wurde ein unprozessiertes Konstrukt in E. coli exprimiert und mit der prozessierten Form verglichen. Beide Proteine zeigen die gleiche kinetische Stabilität gegenüber chemischer Denaturierung. Sie denaturieren extrem langsam, weil nur die isolierten Untereinheiten entfalten können und das Monomer-Dimer-Gleichgewicht bei mittleren Konzentrationen an Denaturierungsmittel auf der Seite der Dimere liegt. Durch die extrem langsame Entfaltung zeigen beide Proteine eine apparente Hysterese im Gleichgewichtsübergang, und es ist nicht möglich, die thermodynamische Stabilität zu bestimmen. Die Stabilität und die Geschwindigkeit der Assoziation und Dissoziation in die prozessierten bzw. nichtprozessierten Untereinheiten sind für beide Proteine gleich. Darüber hinaus konnte gezeigt werden, dass auch unter

  20. Free convection in a parallelogrammic porous cavity filled with a nanofluid using Tiwari and Das' nanofluid model.

    PubMed

    Ghalambaz, Mohammad; Sheremet, Mikhail A; Pop, Ioan

    2015-01-01

    The free convection heat transfer of Cu-water nanofluids in a parallelogrammic enclosure filled with porous media is numerically analyzed. The bottom and top of the enclosure are insulated while the sidewalls are subject to limited temperature difference. The Darcy flow and the Tiwari and Das' nanofluid models are considered. The governing dimensionless partial differential equations are numerically solved using a finite difference code. The results are reported for isotherms and streamlines as well as Nusselt number as a function of the volume fraction of nanoparticles, porosity, types of the porous matrix, inclination angle, aspect ratio and different Rayleigh numbers. It is found that the presence of the nanoparticles inside the enclosure deteriorates the heat transfer rate, which is caused due to the increase of dynamic viscosity by the presence of nanoparticles. Therefore, in applications in which the nanofluids are used for their advantages, such as enhanced dielectric properties or antibacterial properties, more caution for the heat transfer design of the enclosure is necessary. PMID:25993540

  1. Chloroplast retrograde signal regulates flowering.

    PubMed

    Feng, Peiqiang; Guo, Hailong; Chi, Wei; Chai, Xin; Sun, Xuwu; Xu, Xiumei; Ma, Jinfang; Rochaix, Jean-David; Leister, Dario; Wang, Haiyang; Lu, Congming; Zhang, Lixin

    2016-09-20

    Light is a major environmental factor regulating flowering time, thus ensuring reproductive success of higher plants. In contrast to our detailed understanding of light quality and photoperiod mechanisms involved, the molecular basis underlying high light-promoted flowering remains elusive. Here we show that, in Arabidopsis, a chloroplast-derived signal is critical for high light-regulated flowering mediated by the FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). We also demonstrate that PTM, a PHD transcription factor involved in chloroplast retrograde signaling, perceives such a signal and mediates transcriptional repression of FLC through recruitment of FVE, a component of the histone deacetylase complex. Thus, our data suggest that chloroplasts function as essential sensors of high light to regulate flowering and adaptive responses by triggering nuclear transcriptional changes at the chromatin level. PMID:27601637

  2. Developmental regulators in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Park, Hee-Soo; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2016-03-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is the most prevalent airborne fungal pathogen causing severe and usually fatal invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. This fungus produces a large number of small hydrophobic asexual spores called conidia as the primary means of reproduction, cell survival, propagation, and infectivity. The initiation, progression, and completion of asexual development (conidiation) is controlled by various regulators that govern expression of thousands of genes associated with formation of the asexual developmental structure conidiophore, and biogenesis of conidia. In this review, we summarize key regulators that directly or indirectly govern conidiation in this important pathogenic fungus. Better understanding these developmental regulators may provide insights into the improvement in controlling both beneficial and detrimental aspects of various Aspergillus species.

  3. Transcriptional Regulation of Hepatic Lipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuhui; Viscarra, Jose; Kim, Sun-Joong; Sul, Hei Sook

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid and fat synthesis in liver is a highly regulated metabolic pathway critical for energy distribution. Having common features at their promoter regions, lipogenic genes are coordinately regulated at the transcription level. Transcription factors, such as USF, SREBP-1c, LXR and ChREBP play critical roles in this process. Recently, insights have been gained into how various signaling pathways regulate these transcription factors. After feeding, high blood glucose and insulin induce lipogenic genes through several pathways, including DNA-PK, aPKC and Akt-mTOR. Various transcription factors and coregulators undergo specific modifications, such as phosphorylation, acetylation, or ubiquitination, which affect their function, stability, or localization. Dysregulation of lipogenesis can contribute to hepatosteatosis, which is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. PMID:26490400

  4. Neuroendocrine regulation of maternal behavior.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    The expression of maternal behavior in mammals is regulated by the developmental and experiential events over a female's lifetime. In this review the relationships between the endocrine and neural systems that play key roles in these developmental and experiential processes that affect both the establishment and maintenance of maternal care are presented. The involvement of the hormones estrogen, progesterone, and lactogens are discussed in the context of ligand, receptor, and gene activity in rodents and to a lesser extent in higher mammals. The roles of neuroendocrine factors, including oxytocin, vasopressin, classical neurotransmitters, and other neural gene products that regulate aspects of maternal care are set forth, and the interactions of hormones with central nervous system mediators of maternal behavior are discussed. The impact of prior developmental factors, including epigenetic events, and maternal experience on subsequent maternal care are assessed over the course of the female's lifespan. It is proposed that common neuroendocrine mechanisms underlie the regulation of maternal care in mammals.

  5. Girls, aggression, and emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Conway, Anne M

    2005-04-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that boys are more aggressive than girls (see J. D. Coie & K. Dodge, 1997, for a review) and that emotion regulation difficulties are associated with problematic behaviors (N. Eisenberg & R. A. Fabes, 1999; M. Gilliom, D. S. Shaw, J. E. Beck, M. A. Schonberg, & J. L. Lukon, 2002). However, recent findings indicate that gender differences in aggressive behaviors disappear when assessments are broadened to include relational aggression--behaviors designed to harm the relationship goals of others by spreading rumors, gossiping, and eliciting peer rejection of others. Moreover, although difficulties regulating emotions have been reported for physically aggressive children, little research has examined these processes in relationally aggressive children. This article argues that investigation into the associations between emotion regulation and relational aggression is a critical direction for future research on the etiology and prevention of mental health problems in girls. PMID:15839769

  6. Developmental regulators in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Park, Hee-Soo; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2016-03-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is the most prevalent airborne fungal pathogen causing severe and usually fatal invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. This fungus produces a large number of small hydrophobic asexual spores called conidia as the primary means of reproduction, cell survival, propagation, and infectivity. The initiation, progression, and completion of asexual development (conidiation) is controlled by various regulators that govern expression of thousands of genes associated with formation of the asexual developmental structure conidiophore, and biogenesis of conidia. In this review, we summarize key regulators that directly or indirectly govern conidiation in this important pathogenic fungus. Better understanding these developmental regulators may provide insights into the improvement in controlling both beneficial and detrimental aspects of various Aspergillus species. PMID:26920882

  7. Phosphoinositide regulation of TRP channels

    PubMed Central

    Rohacs, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels are activated by stimuli as diverse as heat, cold, noxious chemicals, mechanical forces, hormones, neurotransmitters, spices, and voltage. Besides their presumably similar general architecture, probably the only common factor regulating them is phosphoinositides. The regulation of TRP channels by phosphoinositides is complex. There is a large number of TRP channels where phosphatidylinositol 4,5 bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2 or PIP2], acts as a positive cofactor, similarly to many other ion channels. In several cases however, PI(4,5)P2 inhibits TRP channel activity, sometimes even concurrently with the activating effect. This review will provide a comprehensive overview of the literature on regulation of TRP channels by membrane phosphoinositides. PMID:24961984

  8. Circadian Regulation of Macronutrient Absorption.

    PubMed

    Hussain, M Mahmood; Pan, Xiaoyue

    2015-12-01

    Various intestinal functions exhibit circadian rhythmicity. Disruptions in these rhythms as in shift workers and transcontinental travelers are associated with intestinal discomfort. Circadian rhythms are controlled at the molecular level by core clock and clock-controlled genes. These clock genes are expressed in intestinal cells, suggesting that they might participate in the circadian regulation of intestinal functions. A major function of the intestine is nutrient absorption. Here, we will review absorption of proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids and circadian regulation of various transporters involved in their absorption. A better understanding of circadian regulation of intestinal absorption might help control several metabolic disorders and attenuate intestinal discomfort associated with disruptions in sleep-wake cycles.

  9. ISOs: The new antitrust regulators?

    SciTech Connect

    Raskin, D.B.

    1998-04-01

    Fear of seller market power in emerging electricity markets has led regulators to sanction use of independent system operators as private market police. A more restrained approach is likely to yield better results without the chilling effects of private regulation. This new industry regulatory paradigm has received little critical attention to date. This is unfortunate because ISO antitrust regulation raises serious legal and policy concerns. The California and New England Power Pool (NEPOOL) plans are quite intrusive. They require the ISO to make difficult distinctions between acceptable and unacceptable market behavior. They create considerable risk that desirable competitive behavior will be chilled and that market participants will incur significant explicit and implicit costs to meet regulatory requirements.

  10. PTEN regulates cilia through Dishevelled

    PubMed Central

    Shnitsar, Iryna; Bashkurov, Mikhail; Masson, Glenn R.; Ogunjimi, Abiodun A.; Mosessian, Sherly; Cabeza, Eduardo Aguiar; Hirsch, Calley L.; Trcka, Daniel; Gish, Gerald; Jiao, Jing; Wu, Hong; Winklbauer, Rudolf; Williams, Roger L.; Pelletier, Laurence; Wrana, Jeffrey L.; Barrios-Rodiles, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Cilia are hair-like cellular protrusions important in many aspects of eukaryotic biology. For instance, motile cilia enable fluid movement over epithelial surfaces, while primary (sensory) cilia play roles in cellular signalling. The molecular events underlying cilia dynamics, and particularly their disassembly, are not well understood. Phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) is an extensively studied tumour suppressor, thought to primarily act by antagonizing PI3-kinase signalling. Here we demonstrate that PTEN plays an important role in multicilia formation and cilia disassembly by controlling the phosphorylation of Dishevelled (DVL), another ciliogenesis regulator. DVL is a central component of WNT signalling that plays a role during convergent extension movements, which we show here are also regulated by PTEN. Our studies identify a novel protein substrate for PTEN that couples PTEN to regulation of cilia dynamics and WNT signalling, thus advancing our understanding of potential underlying molecular etiologies of PTEN-related pathologies. PMID:26399523

  11. Cellular regulation by protein phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Edmond H

    2013-01-11

    A historical account of the discovery of reversible protein phosphorylation is presented. This process was uncovered in the mid 1950s in a study undertaken with Edwin G. Krebs to elucidate the complex hormonal regulation of skeletal muscle glycogen phosphorylase. Contrary to the known activation of this enzyme by AMP which serves as an allosteric effector, its hormonal regulation results from a phosphorylation of the protein by phosphorylase kinase following the activation of the latter by Ca(2+) and ATP. The study led to the establishment of the first hormonal cascade of successive enzymatic reactions, kinases acting on kinases, initiated by cAMP discovered by Earl Sutherland. It also showed how two different physiological processes, carbohydrate metabolism and muscle contraction, could be regulated in concert.

  12. Updating the International Health Regulations.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Jonathan B

    2005-01-01

    First adopted in 1951, the International Health Regulations (IHR) provide the international legal framework for efforts to prevent and control the cross-border spread of communicable diseases. In 1995, after outbreaks of emerging infections had rendered the IHR increasingly obsolete, the 192 member states of the World Health Organization (WHO) requested a major updating of the regulations to adapt them to the highly mobile, globalized world of the 21st century. After negotiations in 2004 and 2005, the revised IHR text was adopted unanimously by the World Health Assembly, WHO's highest policymaking body. This article reviews the 2005 regulations and discusses their implications for the international response to natural epidemics and to incidents involving the accidental or deliberate release of biological or chemical agents or radiological materials. PMID:16366843

  13. 75 FR 68217 - Acquisition Regulation: Agency Supplementary Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... (65 FR 13735). DOE has examined today's rule and has determined that it does not preempt State law and... Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) on DOE Management and Operating Contracts to make changes to conform to the... does not alter substantive rights or obligations under current law. DATES: Effective Date: December...

  14. 75 FR 32719 - Acquisition Regulation: Agency Supplementary Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... ``significant regulatory action'' under Executive Order 12866, ``Regulatory Planning and Review,'' (58 FR 51735... new regulations, section 3(a) of Executive Order 12988, ``Civil Justice Reform,'' 61 FR 4729 (February... 13132 Executive Order 13132, 64 FR 43255 (August 4, 1999), imposes certain requirements on...

  15. Autoimmune regulator, Aire, is a novel regulator of chondrocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Si, Yuan; Inoue, Kazuki; Igarashi, Katsuhide; Kanno, Jun; Imai, Yuuki

    2013-08-01

    Chondrocyte differentiation is controlled by various regulators, such as Sox9 and Runx2, but the process is complex. To further understand the precise underlying molecular mechanisms of chondrocyte differentiation, we aimed to identify a novel regulatory factor of chondrocyte differentiation using gene expression profiles of micromass-cultured chondrocytes at different differentiation stages. From the results of microarray analysis, the autoimmune regulator, Aire, was identified as a novel regulator. Aire stable knockdown cells, and primary cultured chondrocytes obtained from Aire(-/-) mice, showed reduced mRNA expression levels of chondrocyte-related genes. Over-expression of Aire induced the early stages of chondrocyte differentiation by facilitating expression of Bmp2. A ChIP assay revealed that Aire was recruited on an Airebinding site (T box) in the Bmp2 promoter region in the early stages of chondrocyte differentiation and histone methylation was modified. These results suggest that Aire can facilitate early chondrocyte differentiation by expression of Bmp2 through altering the histone modification status of the promoter region of Bmp2. Taken together, Aire might play a role as an active regulator of chondrocyte differentiation, which leads to new insights into the regulatory mechanisms of chondrocyte differentiation.

  16. Positively regulated bacterial expression systems

    PubMed Central

    Brautaset, Trygve; Lale, Rahmi; Valla, Svein

    2009-01-01

    Summary Regulated promoters are useful tools for many aspects related to recombinant gene expression in bacteria, including for high‐level expression of heterologous proteins and for expression at physiological levels in metabolic engineering applications. In general, it is common to express the genes of interest from an inducible promoter controlled either by a positive regulator or by a repressor protein. In this review, we discuss established and potentially useful positively regulated bacterial promoter systems, with a particular emphasis on those that are controlled by the AraC‐XylS family of transcriptional activators. The systems function in a wide range of microorganisms, including enterobacteria, soil bacteria, lactic bacteria and streptomycetes. The available systems that have been applied to express heterologous genes are regulated either by sugars (l‐arabinose, l‐rhamnose, xylose and sucrose), substituted benzenes, cyclohexanone‐related compounds, ε‐caprolactam, propionate, thiostrepton, alkanes or peptides. It is of applied interest that some of the inducers require the presence of transport systems, some are more prone than others to become metabolized by the host and some have been applied mainly in one or a limited number of species. Based on bioinformatics analyses, the AraC‐XylS family of regulators contains a large number of different members (currently over 300), but only a small fraction of these, the XylS/Pm, AraC/PBAD, RhaR‐RhaS/rhaBAD, NitR/PnitA and ChnR/Pb regulator/promoter systems, have so far been explored for biotechnological applications. PMID:21261879

  17. Positively regulated bacterial expression systems.

    PubMed

    Brautaset, Trygve; Lale, Rahmi; Valla, Svein

    2009-01-01

    Regulated promoters are useful tools for many aspects related to recombinant gene expression in bacteria, including for high-level expression of heterologous proteins and for expression at physiological levels in metabolic engineering applications. In general, it is common to express the genes of interest from an inducible promoter controlled either by a positive regulator or by a repressor protein. In this review, we discuss established and potentially useful positively regulated bacterial promoter systems, with a particular emphasis on those that are controlled by the AraC-XylS family of transcriptional activators. The systems function in a wide range of microorganisms, including enterobacteria, soil bacteria, lactic bacteria and streptomycetes. The available systems that have been applied to express heterologous genes are regulated either by sugars (L-arabinose, L-rhamnose, xylose and sucrose), substituted benzenes, cyclohexanone-related compounds, ε-caprolactam, propionate, thiostrepton, alkanes or peptides. It is of applied interest that some of the inducers require the presence of transport systems, some are more prone than others to become metabolized by the host and some have been applied mainly in one or a limited number of species. Based on bioinformatics analyses, the AraC-XylS family of regulators contains a large number of different members (currently over 300), but only a small fraction of these, the XylS/Pm, AraC/P(BAD), RhaR-RhaS/rhaBAD, NitR/PnitA and ChnR/Pb regulator/promoter systems, have so far been explored for biotechnological applications.

  18. Medical device regulation for manufacturers.

    PubMed

    McAllister, P; Jeswiet, J

    2003-01-01

    Manufacturers of medical devices are held to a higher standard than manufacturers of many other products due to the potential severity of the consequences of introducing inferior or unsafe products to the market-place. In Canada, the medical device industry is regulated by Health Canada under the Medical Device Regulations of the Food and Drug Act. The Medical Device Regulations define requirements of medical device design, development and manufacture to ensure that products reaching the public are safe and effective. Health Canada also requires that medical device manufacturers maintain distribution records to ensure that devices can be traced to the source and consumers can be contacted successfully in the event that a device is recalled. Medical devices exported from Canada must be compliant with the regulations of the country of import. The Canadian Medical Device Regulations were based on the Medical Device Directives of the European Union thus facilitating approval of Canadian devices for the European market. The United States Food and Drug Administration has separate and distinct requirements for safety and quality of medical devices. While effort has been made to facilitate approval and trade of Canadian medical devices in the United States and the European Union, obtaining approval from multiple regulatory bodies can result in increased device development time and cost. The Global Harmonization Task Force is an organization composed of members from Japanese, Australian, European, Canadian and American medical device regulatory bodies. This organization was formed with the objective of harmonizing medical device regulations in an effort to facilitate international trade and standardize the quality of medical devices available to all countries. This paper discusses the requirements that must be met by manufacturers when designing and manufacturing medical devices.

  19. Regulations against the human nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elizondo-Garza, Fernando J.

    2001-05-01

    The discussion around the concept of the addiction to noise has evidenced the importance of noise for the human being and explains why in some cases the regulations fail to control the noise in cities. In this presentation the different uses, consciously or unconsciously, of the noise will be analyzed, uses that go from habits to maybe addictions. Also discussed are the implications of establishing regulations against the human nature as well as the importance of education to manage the noise and design acoustically instead of trying to ban the noise in some social circumstances.

  20. The role of food intake regulating peptides in cardiovascular regulation.

    PubMed

    Mikulášková, B; Maletínská, L; Zicha, J; Kuneš, J

    2016-11-15

    Obesity is a risk factor that worsens cardiovascular events leading to higher morbidity and mortality. However, the exact mechanisms of relation between obesity and cardiovascular events are unclear. Nevertheless, it has been demonstrated that pharmacological therapy for obesity has great potential to improve some cardiovascular problems. Therefore, it is important to determine the common mechanisms regulating both food intake and blood pressure. Several hormones produced by peripheral tissues work together with neuropeptides involved in the regulation of both food intake and blood pressure. Anorexigenic (food intake lowering) hormones such as leptin, glucagon-like peptide-1 and cholecystokinin cooperate with α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated peptide as well as prolactin-releasing peptide. Curiously their collective actions result in increased sympathetic activity, especially in the kidney, which could be one of the factors responsible for the blood pressure increases seen in obesity. On the other hand, orexigenic (food intake enhancing) peptides, especially ghrelin released from the stomach and acting in the brain, cooperates with orexins, neuropeptide Y, melanin-concentrating hormone and galanin, which leads to decreased sympathetic activity and blood pressure. This paradox should be intensively studied in the future. Moreover, it is important to know that the hypothalamus together with the brainstem seem to be major structures in the regulation of food intake and blood pressure. Thus, the above mentioned regions might be essential brain components in the transmission of peripheral signals to the central effects. In this short review, we summarize the current information on cardiovascular effects of food intake regulating peptides. PMID:27450151

  1. The role of food intake regulating peptides in cardiovascular regulation.

    PubMed

    Mikulášková, B; Maletínská, L; Zicha, J; Kuneš, J

    2016-11-15

    Obesity is a risk factor that worsens cardiovascular events leading to higher morbidity and mortality. However, the exact mechanisms of relation between obesity and cardiovascular events are unclear. Nevertheless, it has been demonstrated that pharmacological therapy for obesity has great potential to improve some cardiovascular problems. Therefore, it is important to determine the common mechanisms regulating both food intake and blood pressure. Several hormones produced by peripheral tissues work together with neuropeptides involved in the regulation of both food intake and blood pressure. Anorexigenic (food intake lowering) hormones such as leptin, glucagon-like peptide-1 and cholecystokinin cooperate with α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated peptide as well as prolactin-releasing peptide. Curiously their collective actions result in increased sympathetic activity, especially in the kidney, which could be one of the factors responsible for the blood pressure increases seen in obesity. On the other hand, orexigenic (food intake enhancing) peptides, especially ghrelin released from the stomach and acting in the brain, cooperates with orexins, neuropeptide Y, melanin-concentrating hormone and galanin, which leads to decreased sympathetic activity and blood pressure. This paradox should be intensively studied in the future. Moreover, it is important to know that the hypothalamus together with the brainstem seem to be major structures in the regulation of food intake and blood pressure. Thus, the above mentioned regions might be essential brain components in the transmission of peripheral signals to the central effects. In this short review, we summarize the current information on cardiovascular effects of food intake regulating peptides.

  2. Sorb Tech - ein neuer Konstruktionswerkstoff für den Holzbearbeitungsmaschinenbau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gringel, Martin

    Innovationen im Maschinenbau und insbesondere bei Holzbearbeitungsmaschinen werden in erster Linie durch neue Produkte unserer Kunden, neue Herstellungsund Bearbeitungsverfahren sowie neue hochproduktive Maschinenkonzepte vorangetrieben. Beste Beispiele hierfür sind Leichtbaukonstruktionen bei Möbeln, das Laserfügen bei Kantenanleimmaschinen, Technologien zur Oberflächengestaltung von Möbelteilen sowie die Entwicklung von Automatisierungslösungen für die gesamte Möbelproduktion. Neben diesen Highlights stellt sich im Konstruktionsalltag einer Entwicklungsabteilung immer wieder die Frage, welcher Konstruktionswerkstoff ist für welche Aufgabenstellung bei einer Maschinen-Neuentwicklung die optimale Wahl? Die Funktion des Bauteiles einer Maschine ist hierbei meist hinreichend bekannt, ebenso die für dessen Auslegung relevanten Belastungen.

  3. Hormonal regulation of female reproduction.

    PubMed

    Christensen, A; Bentley, G E; Cabrera, R; Ortega, H H; Perfito, N; Wu, T J; Micevych, P

    2012-07-01

    Reproduction is an event that requires the coordination of peripheral organs with the nervous system to ensure that the internal and external environments are optimal for successful procreation of the species. This is accomplished by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis that coordinates reproductive behavior with ovulation. The primary signal from the central nervous system is gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which modulates the activity of anterior pituitary gonadotropes regulating follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) release. As ovarian follicles develop they release estradiol, which negatively regulates further release of GnRH and FSH. As estradiol concentrations peak they trigger the surge release of GnRH, which leads to LH release inducing ovulation. Release of GnRH within the central nervous system helps modulate reproductive behaviors providing a node at which control of reproduction is regulated. To address these issues, this review focuses on several critical questions. How is the HPG axis regulated in species with different reproductive strategies? What internal and external conditions modulate the synthesis and release of GnRH? How does GnRH modulate reproductive behavior within the hypothalamus? How does disease shift the activity of the HPG axis?

  4. Student Travel: Policies - Regulations - Exhibits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trujillo, Lorenzo A.; And Others

    The Jefferson County (Colorado) Public Schools' regulations and policies concerning student travel covers these forms of travel: student activity travel, extended student travel, district sponsored student travel, district authorized student travel, student exchange, and bonus learning trips. Issues and items addressed include: (1) authorization…

  5. Deceptive Business Practices: State Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrer, Daniel Morgan

    Although much has been done at the federal level to control deceptive advertising practices, many states have no criminal laws designed to regulate advertising, and several states recently repealed such laws. This paper examines states' efforts to balance the advertiser's freedom of speech with the consumer's need for information about products by…

  6. Regulation of International Information Flows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maisonrouge, J. G.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the current status of developments concerning the regulation of information flow across national borders. Similarities and trends in various privacy laws from European countries are discussed, as are the business position on data protection and efforts to harmonize national laws. (SW)

  7. The Regulation of Carcinogenic Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gori, Gio Batta

    1980-01-01

    It is suggested that a system of relative standards be formulated which would compare utility of substances to their relative risk as carcinogens. This would define a range of use restrictions. Substances intended for specific uses would then be regulated according to these standards. (Author/RE)

  8. Endolysosomal proteolysis and its regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Pillay, Ché S; Elliott, Edith; Dennison, Clive

    2002-01-01

    The endolysosomal system comprises a unique environment for proteolysis, which is regulated in a manner that apparently does not involve protease inhibitors. The system comprises a series of membrane-bound intracellular compartments, within which endocytosed material and redundant cellular components are hydrolysed. Endocytosed material tends to flow vectorially through the system, proceeding through the early endosome, the endosome carrier vesicle, the late endosome and the lysosome. Phagocytosis and autophagy provide alternative entry points into the system. Late endosomes, lysosome/late endosome hybrid organelles, phagosomes and autophagosomes are the principal sites for proteolysis. In each case, hydrolytic competence is due to components of the endolysosomal system, i.e. proteases, lysosome-associated membrane proteins, H(+)-ATPases and possibly cysteine transporters. The view is emerging that lysosomes are organelles for the storage of hydrolases, perhaps in an inactivated form. Once a substrate has entered a proteolytically competent environment, the rate-limiting proteolytic steps are probably effected by cysteine endoproteinases. As these are affected by pH and possibly redox potential, they may be regulated by the organelle luminal environment. Regulation is probably also affected, among other factors, by organelle fusion reactions, whereby the meeting of enzyme and substrate may be controlled. Such systems would permit simultaneous regulation of a number of unrelated hydrolases. PMID:11964142

  9. Mechanisms of Hsp90 regulation

    PubMed Central

    Prodromou, Chrisostomos

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a molecular chaperone that is involved in the activation of disparate client proteins. This implicates Hsp90 in diverse biological processes that require a variety of co-ordinated regulatory mechanisms to control its activity. Perhaps the most important regulator is heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), which is primarily responsible for upregulating Hsp90 by binding heat shock elements (HSEs) within Hsp90 promoters. HSF1 is itself subject to a variety of regulatory processes and can directly respond to stress. HSF1 also interacts with a variety of transcriptional factors that help integrate biological signals, which in turn regulate Hsp90 appropriately. Because of the diverse clientele of Hsp90 a whole variety of co-chaperones also regulate its activity and some are directly responsible for delivery of client protein. Consequently, co-chaperones themselves, like Hsp90, are also subject to regulatory mechanisms such as post translational modification. This review, looks at the many different levels by which Hsp90 activity is ultimately regulated. PMID:27515256

  10. Temperature: Human Regulating, Ants Conforming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clopton, Joe R.

    2007-01-01

    Biological processes speed up as temperature rises. Procedures for demonstrating this with ants traveling on trails, and data gathered by students on the Argentine ant ("Linepithema humile") are presented. The concepts of temperature regulation and conformity are detailed with a focus on the processes rather than on terms that label the organisms.

  11. Wood stove air flow regulating

    SciTech Connect

    Brefka, P.E.

    1983-10-04

    A wood stove has primary and secondary air regulator doors at the bottom and top, respectively, of the stove door each rotating about the axis of a tightening knob in the center of the door opposite a baffle plate that defines with the door inside an air channel open at the top and bottom.

  12. Adrenocortical Activity and Emotion Regulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansbury, Kathy; Gunnar, Megan R.

    1994-01-01

    This essay argues that the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system does not appear to be related to emotion regulation processes in children, although individual differences in emotion processes related to negative emotion temperaments appear to be associated with individual differences in HPA reactivity among normally…

  13. Nutritional regulation of epigenetic changes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The "Nutritional Regulation of Epigenetic Changes" Symposium was held in San Diego on April 25 in conjunction with the 2012 Annual Meetings of the American Society of Nutrition. The symposium was co-chaired by Drs. Romagnoo and Ziegler. In his opening remarks, Dr. Zeigler highlighted salient aspec...

  14. 77 FR 14571 - Waste Regulation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Waste Regulation AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Correction to notice of permit modification request received under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, Public Law 95-541. SUMMARY:...

  15. Regulating Collaboration in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobber, Marjolein; Akkerman, Sanne F.; Verloop, Nico; Vermunt, Jan D.

    2014-01-01

    Collaboration in teacher education can be seen as a way to prepare student teachers for future social practices at school. When people collaborate with each other, they have to regulate their collaboration. In the Dutch teacher education programme that was investigated, student teachers were members of different types of groups, each of which had…

  16. Regulated Childhood: Equivalence with Variation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallberg Roth, Ann-Christine; Mansson, Annika

    2009-01-01

    The overriding aim of this article is to make a contribution to the discussion on individual development plans (IDPs) in Sweden as an expression of a regulated childhood and institutional practice. Individual development plans are seen as a phenomenon linked to the emergence of an auditing society. In sum, children are studied as subjects in…

  17. 27 CFR 25.4 - Related regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Scope of Regulations § 25.4 Related regulations. Regulations relating to this part are listed below: 27 CFR Part 7—Labeling and Advertising of Malt Beverages. 27 CFR Part 28—Exportation of Alcohol. 27 CFR Part 29—Stills and Miscellaneous Regulations. 31 CFR Part 225—Acceptance...

  18. 27 CFR 25.4 - Related regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Scope of Regulations § 25.4 Related regulations. Regulations relating to this part are listed below: 27 CFR Part 7—Labeling and Advertising of Malt Beverages. 27 CFR Part 28—Exportation of Alcohol. 27 CFR Part 29—Stills and Miscellaneous Regulations. 31 CFR Part 225—Acceptance...

  19. 27 CFR 25.4 - Related regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Scope of Regulations § 25.4 Related regulations. Regulations relating to this part are listed below: 27 CFR Part 7—Labeling and Advertising of Malt Beverages. 27 CFR Part 28—Exportation of Alcohol. 27 CFR Part 29—Stills and Miscellaneous Regulations. 31 CFR Part 225—Acceptance...

  20. 27 CFR 25.4 - Related regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Scope of Regulations § 25.4 Related regulations. Regulations relating to this part are listed below: 27 CFR Part 7—Labeling and Advertising of Malt Beverages. 27 CFR Part 28—Exportation of Alcohol. 27 CFR Part 29—Stills and Miscellaneous Regulations. 31 CFR Part 225—Acceptance...

  1. 18 CFR 415.30 - Regulations generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Regulations generally. 415.30 Section 415.30 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-FLOOD PLAIN REGULATIONS Standards § 415.30 Regulations generally....

  2. 27 CFR 25.4 - Related regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Scope of Regulations § 25.4 Related regulations. Regulations relating to this part are listed below: 27 CFR Part 7—Labeling and Advertising of Malt Beverages. 27 CFR Part 28—Exportation of Alcohol. 27 CFR Part 29—Stills and Miscellaneous Regulations. 31 CFR Part 225—Acceptance...

  3. 76 FR 35740 - North Korea Sanctions Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control 31 CFR Part 510 North Korea Sanctions Regulations AGENCY: Office of... Foreign Assets Control (``OFAC'') is amending the North Korea Sanctions Regulations to implement Executive... Control published the North Korea Sanctions Regulations, 31 CFR part 510 (the ``Regulations''),...

  4. 31 CFR 316.3 - Governing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....3 Governing regulations. (a) The regulations in 31 CFR part 315 apply to definitive Series E bonds that have not been converted to book-entry bonds. (b) The regulations in 31 CFR part 363 apply to... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Governing regulations. 316.3...

  5. 31 CFR 316.3 - Governing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....3 Governing regulations. (a) The regulations in 31 CFR part 315 apply to definitive Series E bonds that have not been converted to book-entry bonds. (b) The regulations in 31 CFR part 363 apply to... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Governing regulations. 316.3...

  6. 31 CFR 316.3 - Governing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....3 Governing regulations. (a) The regulations in 31 CFR part 315 apply to definitive Series E bonds that have not been converted to book-entry bonds. (b) The regulations in 31 CFR part 363 apply to... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Governing regulations. 316.3...

  7. 31 CFR 316.3 - Governing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... § 316.3 Governing regulations. (a) The regulations in 31 CFR part 315 apply to definitive Series E bonds that have not been converted to book-entry bonds. (b) The regulations in 31 CFR part 363 apply to... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Governing regulations. 316.3...

  8. 31 CFR 316.3 - Governing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....3 Governing regulations. (a) The regulations in 31 CFR part 315 apply to definitive Series E bonds that have not been converted to book-entry bonds. (b) The regulations in 31 CFR part 363 apply to... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Governing regulations. 316.3...

  9. 8 CFR 100.5 - Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Regulations. 100.5 Section 100.5 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION § 100.5 Regulations. The regulations of the Department of Homeland Security, published as chapter I of title 8 of...

  10. 33 CFR 165.13 - General regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General regulations. 165.13... Areas § 165.13 General regulations. (a) The master of a vessel in a regulated navigation area shall operate the vessel in accordance with the regulations contained in Subpart F. (b) No person may cause...

  11. 50 CFR 216.86 - Local regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Local regulations. 216.86 Section 216.86..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.86 Local regulations. Local regulations will be published from...

  12. 7 CFR 3.87 - Agency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agency regulations. 3.87 Section 3.87 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Federal Salary Offset § 3.87 Agency regulations. USDA agencies may issue regulations or policies not inconsistent with OPM regulations (5 CFR part...

  13. 25 CFR 275.4 - Implementing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Implementing regulations. 275.4 Section 275.4 Indians... ACT PROGRAM STAFFING § 275.4 Implementing regulations. Regulations to implement section 105 of the Act will be issued by the Civil Service Commission. The regulations will cover the situations described...

  14. 8 CFR 100.5 - Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Regulations. 100.5 Section 100.5 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION § 100.5 Regulations. The regulations of the Department of Homeland Security, published as chapter I of title 8 of...

  15. 50 CFR 35.3 - General regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General regulations. 35.3 Section 35.3... regulations. Rules and regulations governing administration of the National Wildlife Refuge System will apply to wilderness units where said rules and regulations do not conflict with provisions of...

  16. 50 CFR 35.14 - Special regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Special regulations. 35.14 Section 35.14... regulations. (a) Special regulations will be issued by the Director for individual wilderness units within the National Wildlife Refuge System as established by Public Law. These special regulations will supplement...

  17. 5 CFR 610.306 - Supplemental regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supplemental regulations. 610.306 Section 610.306 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS HOURS OF... regulations. Each agency is authorized to issue supplemental regulations not inconsistent with this subpart....

  18. 7 CFR 993.48 - Regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Regulation. 993.48 Section 993.48 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Order Regulating Handling Prohibition on Handling § 993.48 Regulation. No handler shall handle...

  19. 7 CFR 3.87 - Agency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agency regulations. 3.87 Section 3.87 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Federal Salary Offset § 3.87 Agency regulations. USDA agencies may issue regulations or policies not inconsistent with OPM regulations (5 CFR part...

  20. 5 CFR 610.306 - Supplemental regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supplemental regulations. 610.306 Section 610.306 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS HOURS OF... regulations. Each agency is authorized to issue supplemental regulations not inconsistent with this subpart....

  1. 15 CFR 922.44 - Emergency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Emergency regulations. 922.44 Section 922.44 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Regulations of General Applicability §...

  2. 5 CFR 610.306 - Supplemental regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Supplemental regulations. 610.306 Section 610.306 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS HOURS OF... regulations. Each agency is authorized to issue supplemental regulations not inconsistent with this subpart....

  3. 28 CFR 42.403 - Agency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Agency regulations. 42.403 Section 42.403... regulations. (a) Any federal agency subject to title VI which has not issued a regulation implementing title... submit a proposed regulation to the Assistant Attorney General pursuant to paragraph (c) of this...

  4. 7 CFR 987.48 - Container regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Container regulation. 987.48 Section 987.48 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... IN RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Container Regulation § 987.48...

  5. 7 CFR 993.48 - Regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Regulation. 993.48 Section 993.48 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Prohibition on Handling § 993.48 Regulation. No handler shall handle...

  6. 7 CFR 993.48 - Regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulation. 993.48 Section 993.48 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Prohibition on Handling § 993.48 Regulation. No handler shall handle...

  7. 50 CFR 35.3 - General regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General regulations. 35.3 Section 35.3... regulations. Rules and regulations governing administration of the National Wildlife Refuge System will apply to wilderness units where said rules and regulations do not conflict with provisions of...

  8. 25 CFR 275.4 - Implementing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Implementing regulations. 275.4 Section 275.4 Indians... ACT PROGRAM STAFFING § 275.4 Implementing regulations. Regulations to implement section 105 of the Act will be issued by the Civil Service Commission. The regulations will cover the situations described...

  9. 25 CFR 275.4 - Implementing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Implementing regulations. 275.4 Section 275.4 Indians... ACT PROGRAM STAFFING § 275.4 Implementing regulations. Regulations to implement section 105 of the Act will be issued by the Civil Service Commission. The regulations will cover the situations described...

  10. 5 CFR 610.306 - Supplemental regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supplemental regulations. 610.306 Section 610.306 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS HOURS OF... regulations. Each agency is authorized to issue supplemental regulations not inconsistent with this subpart....

  11. 28 CFR 14.11 - Supplementing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Supplementing regulations. 14.11 Section... ACT § 14.11 Supplementing regulations. Each agency is authorized to issue regulations and establish procedures consistent with the regulations in this part....

  12. 7 CFR 983.51 - Quality regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Quality regulations. 983.51 Section 983.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Regulations § 983.51 Quality regulations. For any production year, the...

  13. 28 CFR 14.11 - Supplementing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Supplementing regulations. 14.11 Section... ACT § 14.11 Supplementing regulations. Each agency is authorized to issue regulations and establish procedures consistent with the regulations in this part....

  14. 36 CFR 34.5 - Applicable regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicable regulations. 34.5... PORTAL ADMINISTRATIVE SITE REGULATIONS § 34.5 Applicable regulations. The following sections and... incorporated and made a part of this part except as modified by the regulations in this part: (a)...

  15. 33 CFR 165.13 - General regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General regulations. 165.13... Areas § 165.13 General regulations. (a) The master of a vessel in a regulated navigation area shall operate the vessel in accordance with the regulations contained in Subpart F. (b) No person may cause...

  16. 7 CFR 993.48 - Regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Regulation. 993.48 Section 993.48 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Order Regulating Handling Prohibition on Handling § 993.48 Regulation. No handler shall handle...

  17. 50 CFR 35.14 - Special regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special regulations. 35.14 Section 35.14... regulations. (a) Special regulations will be issued by the Director for individual wilderness units within the National Wildlife Refuge System as established by Public Law. These special regulations will supplement...

  18. 50 CFR 35.3 - General regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General regulations. 35.3 Section 35.3... regulations. Rules and regulations governing administration of the National Wildlife Refuge System will apply to wilderness units where said rules and regulations do not conflict with provisions of...

  19. 7 CFR 927.316 - Handling regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Handling regulation. 927.316 Section 927.316 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Assessment Rate § 927.316 Handling regulation. During the period August...

  20. 15 CFR 922.44 - Emergency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Emergency regulations. 922.44 Section 922.44 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Regulations of General Applicability §...

  1. 15 CFR 922.44 - Emergency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Emergency regulations. 922.44 Section 922.44 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Regulations of General Applicability §...

  2. 5 CFR 610.306 - Supplemental regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplemental regulations. 610.306 Section 610.306 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS HOURS OF... regulations. Each agency is authorized to issue supplemental regulations not inconsistent with this subpart....

  3. 8 CFR 100.5 - Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Regulations. 100.5 Section 100.5 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION § 100.5 Regulations. The regulations of the Department of Homeland Security, published as chapter I of title 8 of...

  4. 50 CFR 35.14 - Special regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Special regulations. 35.14 Section 35.14... regulations. (a) Special regulations will be issued by the Director for individual wilderness units within the National Wildlife Refuge System as established by Public Law. These special regulations will supplement...

  5. 8 CFR 100.5 - Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Regulations. 100.5 Section 100.5 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION § 100.5 Regulations. The regulations of the Department of Homeland Security, published as chapter I of title 8 of...

  6. 25 CFR 275.4 - Implementing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Implementing regulations. 275.4 Section 275.4 Indians... ACT PROGRAM STAFFING § 275.4 Implementing regulations. Regulations to implement section 105 of the Act will be issued by the Civil Service Commission. The regulations will cover the situations described...

  7. 15 CFR 922.44 - Emergency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Emergency regulations. 922.44 Section 922.44 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Regulations of General Applicability §...

  8. 7 CFR 983.51 - Quality regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Quality regulations. 983.51 Section 983.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Regulations § 983.51 Quality regulations. For any production year, the...

  9. 7 CFR 927.316 - Handling regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Handling regulation. 927.316 Section 927.316 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Assessment Rate § 927.316 Handling regulation. During the period August...

  10. 8 CFR 100.5 - Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulations. 100.5 Section 100.5 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION § 100.5 Regulations. The regulations of the Department of Homeland Security, published as chapter I of title 8 of...

  11. 28 CFR 14.11 - Supplementing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplementing regulations. 14.11 Section... ACT § 14.11 Supplementing regulations. Each agency is authorized to issue regulations and establish procedures consistent with the regulations in this part....

  12. 7 CFR 927.316 - Handling regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Handling regulation. 927.316 Section 927.316 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Assessment Rate § 927.316 Handling regulation. During the period August...

  13. 28 CFR 14.11 - Supplementing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Supplementing regulations. 14.11 Section... ACT § 14.11 Supplementing regulations. Each agency is authorized to issue regulations and establish procedures consistent with the regulations in this part....

  14. 28 CFR 42.403 - Agency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Agency regulations. 42.403 Section 42.403... regulations. (a) Any federal agency subject to title VI which has not issued a regulation implementing title... submit a proposed regulation to the Assistant Attorney General pursuant to paragraph (c) of this...

  15. 7 CFR 993.48 - Regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Regulation. 993.48 Section 993.48 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Prohibition on Handling § 993.48 Regulation. No handler shall handle...

  16. 7 CFR 987.48 - Container regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Container regulation. 987.48 Section 987.48 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... IN RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Container Regulation § 987.48...

  17. 7 CFR 3.87 - Agency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agency regulations. 3.87 Section 3.87 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Federal Salary Offset § 3.87 Agency regulations. USDA agencies may issue regulations or policies not inconsistent with OPM regulations (5 CFR part...

  18. 25 CFR 167.2 - General regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true General regulations. 167.2 Section 167.2 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.2 General regulations. Part 166 of this subchapter authorizes the Commissioner of Indian Affairs to regulate the...

  19. 50 CFR 35.3 - General regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General regulations. 35.3 Section 35.3... regulations. Rules and regulations governing administration of the National Wildlife Refuge System will apply to wilderness units where said rules and regulations do not conflict with provisions of...

  20. 7 CFR 3.87 - Agency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agency regulations. 3.87 Section 3.87 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Federal Salary Offset § 3.87 Agency regulations. USDA agencies may issue regulations or policies not inconsistent with OPM regulations (5 CFR part...

  1. 36 CFR 34.5 - Applicable regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicable regulations. 34.5... PORTAL ADMINISTRATIVE SITE REGULATIONS § 34.5 Applicable regulations. The following sections and... incorporated and made a part of this part except as modified by the regulations in this part: (a)...

  2. 28 CFR 42.403 - Agency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agency regulations. 42.403 Section 42.403... regulations. (a) Any federal agency subject to title VI which has not issued a regulation implementing title... submit a proposed regulation to the Assistant Attorney General pursuant to paragraph (c) of this...

  3. 28 CFR 42.403 - Agency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Agency regulations. 42.403 Section 42.403... regulations. (a) Any federal agency subject to title VI which has not issued a regulation implementing title... submit a proposed regulation to the Assistant Attorney General pursuant to paragraph (c) of this...

  4. 50 CFR 35.14 - Special regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special regulations. 35.14 Section 35.14... regulations. (a) Special regulations will be issued by the Director for individual wilderness units within the National Wildlife Refuge System as established by Public Law. These special regulations will supplement...

  5. 18 CFR 415.30 - Regulations generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Regulations generally. 415.30 Section 415.30 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-FLOOD PLAIN REGULATIONS Standards § 415.30 Regulations generally....

  6. Regulation of the fungal secretome.

    PubMed

    McCotter, Sean W; Horianopoulos, Linda C; Kronstad, James W

    2016-08-01

    The ability of countless representatives of the Kingdom Fungi to adapt to and proliferate in diverse environments is facilitated by regulation of their secretomes to respond to changes in environmental conditions and to mediate interactions with other organisms. Secretome changes often fulfill common functions of nutrient acquisition, facilitation of host/symbiont interactions, cell wall modification, and optimization of the enzyme suite to adapt to new environmental resources. In this review, we expand on our recent work on signaling and the secretome in the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans to consider a range of selected examples of regulation of fungal secretomes. These examples include the impact of carbon source and aspects of the response to plant and animal hosts. Additionally, the influence of key protein kinases (e.g., Pka1, Snf1) and transcription factors (e.g., Rim101/PacC) is highlighted to illustrate some underlying regulatory factors influencing the secretome. Although there is a wealth of information about fungal secretomes from both experimentation and genome sequence mining, there are also major gaps in our knowledge about the complete composition of fungal secretomes and mechanisms of dynamic change. For example, a more comprehensive understanding of the composition and regulation of the secretome will require consideration of the emerging roles of unconventional secretion and extracellular vesicles in delivering proteins outside the cell. Overall, changes in the secretome are well documented in diverse fungi and the underlying mechanisms are currently under investigation; however, there remain unknown steps in the regulation of secretory pathways and gaps in understanding the regulation of unconventional secretion, which warrant further research. PMID:26879194

  7. Calcium regulation of mitochondrial carriers.

    PubMed

    Del Arco, Araceli; Contreras, Laura; Pardo, Beatriz; Satrustegui, Jorgina

    2016-10-01

    Mitochondrial function is regulated by calcium. In addition to the long known effects of matrix Ca(2+), regulation of metabolite transport by extramitochondrial Ca(2+) represents an alternative Ca(2+)-dependent mechanism to regulate mitochondrial function. The Ca(2+) regulated mitochondrial transporters (CaMCs) are well suited for that role, as they contain long N-terminal extensions harboring EF-hand Ca(2+) binding domains facing the intermembrane space. They fall in two groups, the aspartate/glutamate exchangers, AGCs, major components of the NADH malate aspartate shuttle (MAS) and urea cycle, and the ATP-Mg(2+)/Pi exchangers or short CaMCs (APCs or SCaMCs). The AGCs are activated by relatively low Ca(2+) levels only slightly higher than resting Ca(2+), whereas all SCaMCs studied so far require strong Ca(2+) signals, above micromolar, for activation. In addition, AGCs are not strictly Ca(2+) dependent, being active even in Ca(2+)-free conditions. Thus, AGCs are well suited to respond to small Ca(2+) signals and that do not reach mitochondria. In contrast, ATP-Mg(2+)/Pi carriers are inactive in Ca(2+) free conditions and activation requires Ca(2+) signals that will also activate the calcium uniporter (MCU). By changing the net content of adenine nucleotides of the matrix upon activation, SCaMCs regulate the activity of the permeability transition pore, and the Ca(2+) retention capacity of mitochondria (CRC), two functions synergizing with those of the MCU. The different Ca(2+) activation properties of the two CaMCs are discussed in relation to their newly obtained structures. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mitochondrial Channels edited by Pierre Sonveaux, Pierre Maechler and Jean-Claude Martinou. PMID:27033520

  8. Essential infrastructure: national nuclear regulation.

    PubMed

    Paperiello, Carl J

    2011-01-01

    In order for nuclear power to expand to many countries that do not currently have it, it will be essential for these countries to have laws, regulations, guidance and organizations that can license or permit nuclear power plants and support nuclear facilities, ensure compliance by inspection, and enforce nuclear regulations. The viability of nuclear power worldwide depends on an extremely high level of safety everywhere, and compliance with a number of international treaties is required before supplier nations will provide the material, both hardware and software, to build and operate nuclear power plants. While infrastructure support can be obtained from the IAEA and other countries, an essential core of expertise must exist in the country seeking to establish domestic nuclear power generation. While some reliance can be placed on the safety reviews of standard reactor designs by the nuclear regulators in supplier nations, the certification of fuel design, the quality of instruments, and the matching of a new reactor to a proposed site in the importing nation will require site-specific reviews. National arrangements are also needed for emergency preparedness, environmental protection, fuel transportation and the storage, transportation and disposal of radioactive waste. If foreign contractors and consultants are engaged to perform much of the technical work for the regulatory body(s) that has to be performed by the importing nation, that nation must have a core cadre of technically knowledgeable regulators and an organization to provide management and oversight of the contractors and consultants. Consistency in national nuclear regulations, the deployment of standardized nuclear power plant designs and standardized supporting material infrastructure can promote the safe and secure worldwide growth in nuclear power.

  9. Essential infrastructure: national nuclear regulation.

    PubMed

    Paperiello, Carl J

    2011-01-01

    In order for nuclear power to expand to many countries that do not currently have it, it will be essential for these countries to have laws, regulations, guidance and organizations that can license or permit nuclear power plants and support nuclear facilities, ensure compliance by inspection, and enforce nuclear regulations. The viability of nuclear power worldwide depends on an extremely high level of safety everywhere, and compliance with a number of international treaties is required before supplier nations will provide the material, both hardware and software, to build and operate nuclear power plants. While infrastructure support can be obtained from the IAEA and other countries, an essential core of expertise must exist in the country seeking to establish domestic nuclear power generation. While some reliance can be placed on the safety reviews of standard reactor designs by the nuclear regulators in supplier nations, the certification of fuel design, the quality of instruments, and the matching of a new reactor to a proposed site in the importing nation will require site-specific reviews. National arrangements are also needed for emergency preparedness, environmental protection, fuel transportation and the storage, transportation and disposal of radioactive waste. If foreign contractors and consultants are engaged to perform much of the technical work for the regulatory body(s) that has to be performed by the importing nation, that nation must have a core cadre of technically knowledgeable regulators and an organization to provide management and oversight of the contractors and consultants. Consistency in national nuclear regulations, the deployment of standardized nuclear power plant designs and standardized supporting material infrastructure can promote the safe and secure worldwide growth in nuclear power. PMID:21399415

  10. Calcium regulation of mitochondrial carriers.

    PubMed

    Del Arco, Araceli; Contreras, Laura; Pardo, Beatriz; Satrustegui, Jorgina

    2016-10-01

    Mitochondrial function is regulated by calcium. In addition to the long known effects of matrix Ca(2+), regulation of metabolite transport by extramitochondrial Ca(2+) represents an alternative Ca(2+)-dependent mechanism to regulate mitochondrial function. The Ca(2+) regulated mitochondrial transporters (CaMCs) are well suited for that role, as they contain long N-terminal extensions harboring EF-hand Ca(2+) binding domains facing the intermembrane space. They fall in two groups, the aspartate/glutamate exchangers, AGCs, major components of the NADH malate aspartate shuttle (MAS) and urea cycle, and the ATP-Mg(2+)/Pi exchangers or short CaMCs (APCs or SCaMCs). The AGCs are activated by relatively low Ca(2+) levels only slightly higher than resting Ca(2+), whereas all SCaMCs studied so far require strong Ca(2+) signals, above micromolar, for activation. In addition, AGCs are not strictly Ca(2+) dependent, being active even in Ca(2+)-free conditions. Thus, AGCs are well suited to respond to small Ca(2+) signals and that do not reach mitochondria. In contrast, ATP-Mg(2+)/Pi carriers are inactive in Ca(2+) free conditions and activation requires Ca(2+) signals that will also activate the calcium uniporter (MCU). By changing the net content of adenine nucleotides of the matrix upon activation, SCaMCs regulate the activity of the permeability transition pore, and the Ca(2+) retention capacity of mitochondria (CRC), two functions synergizing with those of the MCU. The different Ca(2+) activation properties of the two CaMCs are discussed in relation to their newly obtained structures. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mitochondrial Channels edited by Pierre Sonveaux, Pierre Maechler and Jean-Claude Martinou.

  11. Vasopressin and the Regulation of Aquaporin-2

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Justin L.L.; Miranda, Carlos A.; Knepper, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Water excretion is regulated in large part through the regulation of the osmotic water permeability of the renal collecting duct epithelium. The water permeability is controlled by vasopressin through regulation of the water channel, aquaporin-2 (AQP2). Two processes contribute: 1) regulation of AQP2 trafficking to the apical plasma membrane; and 2) regulation of the total amount of the AQP2 protein in the cells. Regulation of AQP2 abundance is defective in several water balance disorders including many polyuric disorders and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIADH). Here we review vasopressin signaling in the renal collecting duct that is relevant to the two modes of water permeability regulation. PMID:23584881

  12. Variation of the anthropic vulnerability in Ribeirão das Pedras watershed in Campinas/SP - Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damame, Desirée; Longo, Regina; Ribeiro, Admilson; Fengler, Felipe

    2015-04-01

    The human actions has caused over the years profound changes in environmental quality in urban ecosystems suffering losses in the quality of air, soil , water and vegetation also the quality of life of the population that inhabit these areas . The study area is characterized by being a highly urbanized watershed, with about 43 % of its area covered by buildings, houses , and commercial and industrial establishments . Called the Ribeirão das Pedras Basin, located in Campinas / SP - Brazil and is bounded by coordinates 22˚47'10 '' and 22˚52'20 '' S , and 47˚ 07'15 '' and 46˚ 02 ' 15' ' . Has an average temperature of 22.4 ° C and average annual rainfall of 1424.5 mm . It has an area of about 42 km² . This is located two universities and a large mall. It also demands a strong agriculture , which occupies about 30 % of the area . It has also been part of two major forest reserves of the municipality, the Forest Santa Geneva and the Forest of Quilombo , both added to other small fragments overlying only about 6% of the total basin area . Avalição to environmental quality , the analysis of the vulnerability of urban watershed becomes an important environmental management tool. The vulnerability can be defined by susceptibility to changes of environment in its initial state , a current tax status by human intervention , and is almost always associated with risk , and the intensity at which such projects in one place, person or structure. In this context , this study aimed to assess environmental vulnerability in an urban watershed coming under increasing human pressures , especially in recent years . For this analysis were prepared soil graphics, slope , elevation and land use and land cover for the years 2009 and 2014 , generating with these , comparative anthropic vulnerability maps of the past five years. Crafting vulnerability maps is a sensitivity in order to enable appropriate management of biotic systems. With the results can be seen that the variation of

  13. Ventos em supergigantes B[e] das nuvens de Magalhães e da Galáxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Araújo, F. X.; Pilling, D. A.; Pereira, C. B.; Fernandes, M. B.

    2003-08-01

    As Supergigantes B[e] apresentam as seguintes características: (i) alta luminosidade; (ii) espectro típico de estrelas de tipo B; (iii) linhas permitidas e proibidas em emissão de metais de baixa ionização, especialmente FeII; (iv) linhas de Balmer, e por vêzes também dos ions HeI e FeII, com perfis tipo P Cygni indicativos de altas taxas de perda de massa. Atualmente estamos desenvolvendo um projeto que visa comparar as propriedades fisicas (principalmente e v¥) dos ventos destes objetos nas Nuvens de Magalhães e na Galaxia. O objetivo é estudar a influência da metalicidade. No presente painel apresentamos uma determinação das velocidades terminais de 11 estrelas, sendo 4 na GNM (Hen S111, 66, R126 e Hen S93), 4 na PNM (Hen S18, S23, S65 e R4) e 3 na Galaxia (CPD-529243, MWC 300 e GG Car). Nossos dados são espectros de alta resolução obtidos no telescópio 1.52m do ESO com o espectrógrafo FEROS. Para determinar as velocidades terminais usamos as linhas Hd e HeI 3888 Å cujas componentes em absorção costumam estar livres de "blends" e estruturas. Nossos resultados sugerem que as velocidades de expansão na GNM são maiores (ainda que apenas ligeiramente) do que aquelas da PNM, como esperado. No entanto, os objetos da Galaxia não parecem seguir a mesma tendência.

  14. Latent factor structure of the Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System: a confirmatory factor analysis in a Chinese setting.

    PubMed

    Deng, Ci-ping; Liu, Ming; Wei, Wei; Chan, Raymond C K; Das, J P

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to measure the psychometric properties of the Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System (D-N CAS) and to determine its clinical utility in a Chinese context. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to examine the construct validity of the Chinese version of the D-N CAS among a group of 567, normally developed children. Test-retest reliability was examined in a random subsample of 30 children at a five-week interval. The clinical discrimination of the D-N CAS was also examined by comparing children with and without ADHD (18 children in each group) and by comparing children with and without Chinese reading disabilities (18 children in each group). The current Chinese sample demonstrated a four-factor solution for cognitive performance among children with normal development: Planning, Attention, Simultaneous processing and Successive processing (χ2(48)=91.90, p=.000; χ2/df=1.92, RMSEA=.050, GFI=.966, CFI=.954). Moreover, all subtests of the battery demonstrated acceptable test-retest reliability (r=.72-.90, p<.01) at a five-week interval among the subjects of the small subsample. Children with ADHD performed significantly worse than normal children on the Attention factor (p<.001) and the Planning factor (p<.05) of the D-N CAS, and children with Chinese reading disabilities performed significantly worse than normal children on the Simultaneous processing factor (p<.01), the Successive processing factor (p<.001) and the Planning factor (p<.05) of the D-N CAS. These findings suggested that the current four-factor structure of the D-N CAS was similar to the original factor structure of the test. The latent factor of the D-N CAS was fairly stable across the cultures. Moreover, the D-N CAS can distinguish between children with ADHD or Chinese reading disabilities and normally developed children. PMID:21571501

  15. Kernfusion und das Energieproblem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlüter, Arnulf

    1982-05-01

    The present understanding of the physics and technology problems of confining a hot plasma ring by magnetic fields and of heating it to such temperatures that thermonuclear fusions between deuterium and tritium nuclei provide the energy required to maintain this temperature seems to allow to predict the possibility of a self-sustaining thermonuclear reactor. Imbedding this chance into world energy scenarios for the next fifty years, it is shown that fusion reactors of a type of which each may supply about ten slow fission reactors with fissionable material may play a critical rôle by drastically reducing the number of required fast fission breeder reactors.

  16. Das motorische Intentionspotential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keidel, Matthias

    1983-04-01

    Autocorrelation of the EEG was used to registrate a potential from the intact human scalp during intended, but not executed movements (dorsalflexion of the right hallux, imaginated in equal time intervals). This “Motor Intention Potential” (MIP) is a possible electrophysiological sign of the otherwise purely introspectively experienced intention of a voluntary movement and the cortex of the frontal lobes is suspected to be its origin. The average maximum amplitude height is 6 μV, and the potential shows a continuous decrease from the frontal to occipital region. The duration of MIP is in the range of seconds. Methodological questions are discussed, and the MIP is differentiated from other event-, movement- and imagination-related potentials. An attempt is made to place the motor intention potential in the context of existing movement theories.

  17. Nongenomic Mechanisms of PTEN Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Fata, Jimmie E.; Debnath, Shawon; Jenkins, Edmund C.; Fournier, Marcia V.

    2012-01-01

    A large amount of data supports the view that PTEN is a bona fide tumor suppressor gene. However, recent evidence suggests that derailment of cellular localization and expression levels of functional nonmutated PTEN is a determining force in inducing abnormal cellular and tissue outcomes. As the cellular mechanisms that regulate normal PTEN enzymatic activity resolve, it is evident that deregulation of these mechanisms can alter cellular processes and tissue architecture and ultimately lead to oncogenic transformation. Here we discuss PTEN ubiquitination, PTEN complex formation with components of the adherens junction, PTEN nuclear localization, and microRNA regulation of PTEN as essential regulatory mechanisms that determine PTEN function independent of gene mutations and epigenetic events. PMID:22536248

  18. Regulation of an Actin Spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, Barney; Shin, Jennifer; Brau, Ricardo; Lang, Matthew; Mahadevan, L.; Matsudaira, Paul

    2006-03-01

    To produce motion, cells rely on the conversion of potential energy into mechanical work. One such example is the dramatic process involving the acrosome reaction of Limulus sperm, whereby a 60 μm-long bundle of actin filaments straightens from a coiled conformation to extend out of the cell in five seconds. This cellular engine and the motion it produces represent a third type of actin-based motility fundamentally different from polymerization or myosin-driven processes. The motive force for this extension originates from stored elastic energy in the overtwisted, pre-formed coil---much like a compressed mechanical spring. When the actin bundle untwists, this energy is converted to mechanical work powering the extension. We report on experiments probing the regulation of this actin spring by extracellular calcium. We find that extracellular calcium needs to be present for the spring to activate, and that calcium regulates the velocity of the extension.

  19. Various Themes of Myosin Regulation.

    PubMed

    Heissler, Sarah M; Sellers, James R

    2016-05-01

    Members of the myosin superfamily are actin-based molecular motors that are indispensable for cellular homeostasis. The vast functional and structural diversity of myosins accounts for the variety and complexity of the underlying allosteric regulatory mechanisms that determine the activation or inhibition of myosin motor activity and enable precise timing and spatial aspects of myosin function at the cellular level. This review focuses on the molecular basis of posttranslational regulation of eukaryotic myosins from different classes across species by allosteric intrinsic and extrinsic effectors. First, we highlight the impact of heavy and light chain phosphorylation. Second, we outline intramolecular regulatory mechanisms such as autoinhibition and subsequent activation. Third, we discuss diverse extramolecular allosteric mechanisms ranging from actin-linked regulatory mechanisms to myosin:cargo interactions. At last, we briefly outline the allosteric regulation of myosins with synthetic compounds.

  20. Cardiac myofilaments: mechanics and regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    de Tombe, Pieter P.; Bers, D. M. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    The mechanical properties of the cardiac myofilament are an important determinant of pump function of the heart. This report is focused on the regulation of myofilament function in cardiac muscle. Calcium ions form the trigger that induces activation of the thin filament which, in turn, allows for cross-bridge formation, ATP hydrolysis, and force development. The structure and protein-protein interactions of the cardiac sarcomere that are responsible for these processes will be reviewed. The molecular mechanism that underlies myofilament activation is incompletely understood. Recent experimental approaches have been employed to unravel the mechanism and regulation of myofilament mechanics and energetics by activator calcium and sarcomere length, as well as contractile protein phosphorylation mediated by protein kinase A. Central to these studies is the question whether such factors impact on muscle function simply by altering thin filament activation state, or whether modulation of cross-bridge cycling also plays a part in the responses of muscle to these stimuli.

  1. Biosimilar regulation in the EU.

    PubMed

    Kurki, Pekka; Ekman, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    In the EU, the EMA has been working with biosimilars since 1998. This experience is crystallized in the extensive set of guidelines, which range from basic principles to details of clinical trials. While the guidance may appear complicated, it has enabled the development of biosimilars, of which 21 have managed to get marketing authorization. Currently marketed biosimilars in the EU have a good track record in safety and traceability. No biosimilars have been withdrawn from the market because of safety concerns. The most controversial issues with biosimilars are immunogenicity and extrapolation of therapeutic indications. The available data for these topics do not raise concerns among EU regulators. Interchangeability and substitution are regulated by individual EU member states. PMID:26294076

  2. Gene regulation by mechanical forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oluwole, B. O.; Du, W.; Mills, I.; Sumpio, B. E.

    1997-01-01

    Endothelial cells are subjected to various mechanical forces in vivo from the flow of blood across the luminal surface of the blood vessel. The purpose of this review was to examine the data available on how these mechanical forces, in particular cyclic strain, affect the expression and regulation of endothelial cell function. Studies from various investigators using models of cyclic strain in vitro have shown that various vasoactive mediators such as nitric oxide and prostacyclin are induced by the effect of mechanical deformation, and that the expression of these mediators may be regulated at the transcription level by mechanical forces. There also seems to be emerging evidence that endothelial cells may also act as mechanotransducers, whereby the transmission of external forces induces various cytoskeletal changes and second messenger cascades. Furthermore, it seems these forces may act on specific response elements of promoter genes.

  3. Renewable energy and utility regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-10

    This report summarizes the results of a joint project on renewable energy of the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) and the US DOE. NARUC'S Task Force on Renewable Energy conducted a review of the current state of renewable energy technologies to evaluate their potential and extract key policy lessons from experience already gained in deployment of these technologies in numerous states. The main focus of this effort has been to clarify how utility regulators affect the development of renewable energy resources. The goal of the project was twofold: (1) identify the factors that have led to success or failure or renewable energy technologies in various energy markets, and (2) to develop an agenda on renewable energy and utility regulation for NARUC and the DOE. This report consists of three sections: renewable energy contributions, costs and potential; factors affecting development of renewable energy resources; and a renewable energy agenda for NARUC.

  4. Renewable energy and utility regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-10

    This report summarizes the results of a joint project on renewable energy of the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) and the US DOE. NARUC`S Task Force on Renewable Energy conducted a review of the current state of renewable energy technologies to evaluate their potential and extract key policy lessons from experience already gained in deployment of these technologies in numerous states. The main focus of this effort has been to clarify how utility regulators affect the development of renewable energy resources. The goal of the project was twofold: (1) identify the factors that have led to success or failure or renewable energy technologies in various energy markets, and (2) to develop an agenda on renewable energy and utility regulation for NARUC and the DOE. This report consists of three sections: renewable energy contributions, costs and potential; factors affecting development of renewable energy resources; and a renewable energy agenda for NARUC.

  5. Astrocytes: Key Regulators of Neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Emanuela; Farina, Cinthia

    2016-09-01

    Astrocytes are crucial regulators of innate and adaptive immune responses in the injured central nervous system. Depending on timing and context, astrocyte activity may exacerbate inflammatory reactions and tissue damage, or promote immunosuppression and tissue repair. Recent literature has unveiled key factors and intracellular signaling pathways that govern astrocyte behavior during neuroinflammation. Here we have re-visited in vivo studies on astrocyte signaling in neuroinflammatory models focusing on evidences obtained from the analysis of transgenic mice where distinct genes involved in ligand binding, transcriptional regulation and cell communication have been manipulated in astrocytes. The integration of in vivo observations with in vitro data clarifies precise signaling steps, highlights the crosstalk among pathways and identifies shared effector mechanisms in neuroinflammation.

  6. Genetic Regulation of Prostate Development

    PubMed Central

    Meeks, Joshua; Schaeffer, Edward M

    2011-01-01

    Prostatic development is a dynamic process in which basic mechanisms of epithelial outgrowth and epithelial-mesenchymal interaction are initiated by androgens and androgen receptor signaling. Even in adulthood, the prostate's function remains tightly regulated by androgens--without them, pathologic diseases including hyperplastic and malignant growth which together plague nearly 50% of aging males does not occur. Unraveling the etiology of these pathologic processes is a complex and important goal. In fact, many insights into these processes have come from an intimate understanding of the complex signaling networks that regulate physiologic prostatic growth in development. This review aims to highlight important key molecules such as Nkx3.1, sonic hedgehog and Sox9 as well as key signaling pathways including the Fibroblast growth factor and Wnt pathways. These molecules and pathways are critical for prostate development with both know and postulated roles in prostatic pathology. PMID:20930191

  7. Regulation by light in Fusarium.

    PubMed

    Avalos, Javier; Estrada, Alejandro F

    2010-11-01

    The genus Fusarium stands out as research model for pathogenesis and secondary metabolism. Light stimulates the production of some Fusarium metabolites, such as the carotenoids, and in many species it influences the production of asexual spores and sexual fruiting bodies. As found in other fungi with well-known photoresponses, the Fusarium genomes contain several genes for photoreceptors, among them a set of White Collar (WC) proteins, a cryptochrome, a photolyase, a phytochrome and two presumably photoactive opsins. The mutation of the opsin genes produced no apparent phenotypic alterations, but the loss of the only WC-1 orthologous protein eliminated the photoinduced expression of the photolyase and opsin genes. In contrast to other carotenogenic species, lack of the WC photoreceptor did not impede the light-induced accumulation of carotenoids, but produced alterations in conidiation, animal pathogenicity and nitrogen-regulated secondary metabolism. The regulation and functional role of other Fusarium photoreceptors is currently under investigation.

  8. Regulation of inflammasomes by autophagy.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Tatsuya; Akira, Shizuo

    2016-07-01

    Inflammasomes detect pathogen-associated molecular patterns to induce inflammatory innate immune responses and play a key role in host defense against infectious agents. However, inflammasomes are often wrongly activated by metabolites, amyloids, and environmental irritants. This induces massive inflammation, causing severe tissue damage, and results in the development of inflammatory diseases. Hence cellular machineries regulating both "activation" and "inactivation" of inflammasomes are definitely important. Recent studies have shown that autophagy, an intracellular degradation system associated with maintenance of cellular homeostasis, plays a key role in inflammasome inactivation. Notably, autophagy deficiency caused by gene mutation disrupts organelle elimination and thus induces aberrant activation of inflammasomes, leading to severe tissue damage. Here we review recent findings regarding the involvement of autophagy in the regulation of inflammasome activation and development of inflammatory disorders. PMID:27373323

  9. Lipid Regulation of Acrosome Exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Roy; Mukai, Chinatsu; Travis, Alexander J

    2016-01-01

    Lipids are critical regulators of mammalian sperm function, first helping prevent premature acrosome exocytosis, then enabling sperm to become competent to fertilize at the right place/time through the process of capacitation, and ultimately triggering acrosome exocytosis. Yet because they do not fit neatly into the "DNA--RNA-protein" synthetic pathway, they are understudied and poorly understood. Here, we focus on three lipids or lipid classes-cholesterol, phospholipids, and the ganglioside G(M1)--in context of the modern paradigm of acrosome exocytosis. We describe how these various- species are precisely segregated into membrane macrodomains and microdomains, simultaneously preventing premature exocytosis while acting as foci for organizing regulatory and effector molecules that will enable exocytosis. Although the mechanisms responsible for these domains are poorly defined, there is substantial evidence for their composition and functions. We present diverse ways that lipids and lipid modifications regulate capacitation and acrosome exocytosis, describing in more detail how removal of cholesterol plays a master regulatory role in enabling exocytosis through at least two complementary pathways. First, cholesterol efflux leads to proteolytic activation of phospholipase B, which cleaves both phospholipid tails. The resultant changes in membrane curvature provide a mechanism for the point fusions now known to occur far before a sperm physically interacts with the zona pellucida. Cholesterol efflux also enables G(M1) to regulate the voltage-dependent cation channel, Ca(V)2.3, triggering focal calcium transients required for acrosome exocytosis in response to subsequent whole-cell calcium rises. We close with a model integrating functions for lipids in regulating acrosome exocytosis. PMID:27194352

  10. Frequency regulator for synchronous generators

    DOEpatents

    Karlicek, R.F.

    1982-08-10

    The present invention is directed to a novel frequency regulator which controls a generator output frequency for variations in both the input power to the generator and the power supplied to an uncontrolled external load. The present invention further includes over current and current balance protection devices which are relatively inexpensive to manufacture, which may be encapsulated to provide protection from the operating environment and which respond more quickly than previously known electromechanical devices. 11 figs.

  11. Photomultiplier tube gain regulating system

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Wayne F.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved system for regulating the gain of a photomultiplier tube, and was designed for use with the photomultiplier tubes of a GeMSAEC fast analyzers. It has the following advantages over the prior system: noise is virtually eliminated; sample analysis can begin after 3 to 4 revolutions of the rotor; fluorescent and light scattering solutions can be used as a reference; and the reference solution can be in any cuvette on the rotor.

  12. Frequency regulator for synchronous generators

    DOEpatents

    Karlicek, Robert F.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a novel frequency regulator which controls a generator output frequency for variations in both the input power to the generator and the power supplied to an uncontrolled external load. The present invention further includes over current and current balance protection devices which are relatively inexpensive to manufacture, which may be encapsulated to provide protection from the operating environment and which respond more quickly than previously known electromechanical devices.

  13. 9 CFR 83.4 - VHS-regulated fish and VHS-regulated areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false VHS-regulated fish and VHS-regulated... HEMORRHAGIC SEPTICEMIA § 83.4 VHS-regulated fish and VHS-regulated areas. (a)(1) APHIS will list as a VHS-regulated fish any fish species found in freshwater to be susceptible to the North American (type IV)...

  14. 9 CFR 83.4 - VHS-regulated fish and VHS-regulated areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false VHS-regulated fish and VHS-regulated... HEMORRHAGIC SEPTICEMIA § 83.4 VHS-regulated fish and VHS-regulated areas. (a)(1) APHIS will list as a VHS-regulated fish any fish species found in freshwater to be susceptible to the North American (type IV)...

  15. 9 CFR 83.4 - VHS-regulated fish and VHS-regulated areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false VHS-regulated fish and VHS-regulated... HEMORRHAGIC SEPTICEMIA § 83.4 VHS-regulated fish and VHS-regulated areas. (a)(1) APHIS will list as a VHS-regulated fish any fish species found in freshwater to be susceptible to the North American (type IV)...

  16. 9 CFR 83.4 - VHS-regulated fish and VHS-regulated areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false VHS-regulated fish and VHS-regulated... HEMORRHAGIC SEPTICEMIA § 83.4 VHS-regulated fish and VHS-regulated areas. (a)(1) APHIS will list as a VHS-regulated fish any fish species found in freshwater to be susceptible to the North American (type IV)...

  17. Negative regulators of cell proliferation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, T. C.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Cell proliferation is governed by the influence of both mitogens and inhibitors. Although cell contact has long been thought to play a fundamental role in cell cycling regulation, and negative regulators have long been suspected to exist, their isolation and purification has been complicated by a variety of technical difficulties. Nevertheless, over recent years an ever-expanding list of putative negative regulators have emerged. In many cases, their biological inhibitory activities are consistent with density-dependent growth inhibition. Most likely their interactions with mitogenic agents, at an intracellular level, are responsible for either mitotic arrest or continued cell cycling. A review of naturally occurring cell growth inhibitors is presented with an emphasis on those factors shown to be residents of the cell surface membrane. Particular attention is focused on a cell surface sialoglycopeptide, isolated from intact bovine cerebral cortex cells, which has been shown to inhibit the proliferation of an unusually wide range of target cells. The glycopeptide arrest cells obtained from diverse species, both fibroblasts and epithelial cells, and a broad variety of transformed cells. Signal transduction events and a limited spectrum of cells that are refractory to the sialoglycopeptide have provided insight into the molecular events mediated by this cell surface inhibitor.

  18. Detecting aquaporin function and regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madeira, Ana; Moura, Teresa; Soveral, Graça

    2016-02-01

    Water is the major component of cells and tissues throughout all forms of life. Fluxes of water and solutes through cell membranes and epithelia are essential for osmoregulation and energy homeostasis. Aquaporins are membrane channels expressed in almost every organism and involved in the bidirectional transfer of water and small solutes across cell membranes. Aquaporins have important biological roles and have been implicated in several pathophysiological conditions suggesting a great translational potential in aquaporin-based diagnostic and therapeutics. Detecting aquaporin function is critical for assessing regulation and screening for new activity modulators that can prompt the development of efficient medicines. Appropriate methods for functional analysis comprising suitable cell models and techniques to accurately evaluate water and solute membrane permeability are essential to validate aquaporin function and assess short-term regulation. The present review describes established assays commonly used to assess aquaporin function in cells and tissues, as well as the experimental biophysical strategies required to reveal functional regulation and identify modulators, the first step for aquaporin drug discovery.

  19. Epigenetic regulation in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Labbé, Catherine; Lorenzo-Betancor, Oswaldo; Ross, Owen A

    2016-10-01

    Recent efforts have shed new light on the epigenetic mechanisms driving gene expression alterations associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis. Changes in gene expression are a well-established cause of PD, and epigenetic mechanisms likely play a pivotal role in regulation. Studies in families with PD harboring duplications and triplications of the SNCA gene have demonstrated that gene dosage is associated with increased expression of both SNCA mRNA and protein, and correlates with a fulminant disease course. Furthermore, it is postulated that even subtle changes in SNCA expression caused by common variation is associated with disease risk. Of note, genome-wide association studies have identified over 30 loci associated with PD with most signals located in non-coding regions of the genome, thus likely influencing transcript expression levels. In health, epigenetic mechanisms tightly regulate gene expression, turning genes on and off to balance homeostasis and this, in part, explains why two cells with the same DNA sequence will have different RNA expression profiles. Understanding this phenomenon will be crucial to our interpretation of the selective vulnerability observed in neurodegeneration and specifically dopaminergic neurons in the PD brain. In this review, we discuss epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, involved in regulating the expression of genes relevant to PD, RNA-based mechanisms, as well as the effect of toxins and potential epigenetic-based treatments for PD.

  20. Blue light regulated shade avoidance.

    PubMed

    Keuskamp, Diederik H; Keller, Mercedes M; Ballaré, Carlos L; Pierik, Ronald

    2012-04-01

    Most plants grow in dense vegetation with the risk of being out-competed by neighboring plants. These neighbors can be detected not only through the depletion in light quantity that they cause, but also through the change in light quality, which plants perceive using specific photoreceptors. Both the reduction of the red:far-red ratio and the depletion of blue light are signals that induce a set of phenotypic traits, such as shoot elongation and leaf hyponasty, which increase the likelihood of light capture in dense plant stands. This set of phenotypic responses are part of the so called shade avoidance syndrome (SAS). This addendum discusses recent findings on the regulation of the SAS of Arabidopsis thaliana upon blue light depletion. Keller et al. and Keuskamp et al. show that the low blue light attenuation induced shade avoidance response of seedling and rosette-stage A. thaliana plants differ in their hormonal regulation. These studies also show there is a regulatory overlap with the R:FR-regulated SAS.

  1. Detecting Aquaporin Function and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Madeira, Ana; Moura, Teresa F.; Soveral, Graça

    2016-01-01

    Water is the major component of cells and tissues throughout all forms of life. Fluxes of water and solutes through cell membranes and epithelia are essential for osmoregulation and energy homeostasis. Aquaporins are membrane channels expressed in almost every organism and involved in the bidirectional transfer of water and small solutes across cell membranes. Aquaporins have important biological roles and have been implicated in several pathophysiological conditions suggesting a great translational potential in aquaporin-based diagnostics and therapeutics. Detecting aquaporin function is critical for assessing regulation and screening for new activity modulators that can prompt the development of efficient medicines. Appropriate methods for functional analysis comprising suitable cell models and techniques to accurately evaluate water and solute membrane permeability are essential to validate aquaporin function and assess short-term regulation. The present review describes established assays commonly used to assess aquaporin function in cells and tissues, as well as the experimental biophysical strategies required to reveal functional regulation and identify modulators, the first step for aquaporin drug discovery. PMID:26870725

  2. Auricular Acupuncture and Vagal Regulation

    PubMed Central

    He, Wei; Wang, Xiaoyu; Shi, Hong; Shang, Hongyan; Li, Liang; Jing, Xianghong; Zhu, Bing

    2012-01-01

    Auricular acupuncture has been utilized in the treatment of diseases for thousands of years. Dr. Paul Nogier firstly originated the concept of an inverted fetus map on the external ear. In the present study, the relationship between the auricular acupuncture and the vagal regulation has been reviewed. It has been shown that auricular acupuncture plays a role in vagal activity of autonomic functions of cardiovascular, respiratory, and gastrointestinal systems. Mechanism studies suggested that afferent projections from especially the auricular branch of the vagus nerve (ABVN) to the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) form the anatomical basis for the vagal regulation of auricular acupuncture. Therefore, we proposed the “auriculovagal afferent pathway” (AVAP): both the autonomic and the central nervous system could be modified by auricular vagal stimulation via projections from the ABVN to the NTS. Auricular acupuncture is also proposed to prevent neurodegenerative diseases via vagal regulation. There is a controversy on the specificity and the efficacy of auricular acupoints for treating diseases. More clinical RCT trials on auricular acupuncture and experimental studies on the mechanism of auricular acupuncture should be further investigated. PMID:23304215

  3. Regulation of the centrosome cycle

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Hiroki; Yoshino, Yuki; Chiba, Natsuko

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The centrosome, consisting of mother and daughter centrioles surrounded by the pericentriolar matrix (PCM), functions primarily as a microtubule organizing center (MTOC) in most animal cells. In dividing cells the centrosome duplicates once per cell cycle and its number and structure are highly regulated during each cell cycle to organize an effective bipolar spindle in the mitotic phase. Defects in the regulation of centrosome duplication lead to a variety of human diseases, including cancer, through abnormal cell division and inappropriate chromosome segregation. At the end of mitosis the daughter centriole disengages from the mother centriole. This centriole disengagement is an important licensing step for centrosome duplication. In S phase, one new daughter centriole forms perpendicular to each centriole. The centrosome recruits further PCM proteins in the late G2 phase and the two centrosomes separate at mitotic entry to form a bipolar spindle. Here, we summarize research findings in the field of centrosome biology, focusing on the mechanisms of regulation of the centrosome cycle in human cells. PMID:27308597

  4. NRC - regulator of nuclear safety

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) was formed in 1975 to regulate the various commercial and institutional uses of nuclear energy, including nuclear power plants. The agency succeeded the Atomic Energy Commission, which previously had responsibility for both developing and regulating nuclear activities. Federal research and development work for all energy sources, as well as nuclear weapons production, is now conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy. Under its responsibility to protect public health and safety, the NRC has three principal regulatory functions: (1) establish standards and regulations, (2) issue licenses for nuclear facilities and users of nuclear materials, and (3) inspect facilities and users of nuclear materials to ensure compliance with the requirements. These regulatory functions relate to both nuclear power plants and to other uses of nuclear materials - like nuclear medicine programs at hospitals, academic activities at educational institutions, research work, and such industrial applications as gauges and testing equipment. The NRC places a high priority on keeping the public informed of its work. The agency recognizes the interest of citizens in what it does through such activities as maintaining public document rooms across the country and holding public hearings, public meetings in local areas, and discussions with individuals and organizations.

  5. Redox Regulation of Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Thu H.; Carroll, Kate S.

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinases represent one of the largest families of genes found in eukaryotes. Kinases mediate distinct cellular processes ranging from proliferation, differentiation, survival, and apoptosis. Ligand-mediated activation of receptor kinases can lead to the production of endogenous H2O2 by membrane-bound NADPH oxidases. In turn, H2O2 can be utilized as a secondary messenger in signal transduction pathways. This review presents an overview of the molecular mechanisms involved in redox regulation of protein kinases and its effects on signaling cascades. In the first half, we will focus primarily on receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), whereas the latter will concentrate on downstream non-receptor kinases involved in relaying stimulant response. Select examples from the literature are used to highlight the functional role of H2O2 regarding kinase activity, as well as the components involved in H2O2 production and regulation during cellular signaling. In addition, studies demonstrating direct modulation of protein kinases by H2O2 through cysteine oxidation will be emphasized. Identification of these redox-sensitive residues may help uncover signaling mechanisms conserved within kinase subfamilies. In some cases, these residues can even be exploited as targets for the development of new therapeutics. Continued efforts in this field will further basic understanding of kinase redox regulation, and delineate the mechanisms involved in physiologic and pathological H2O2 responses. PMID:23639002

  6. Detecting Aquaporin Function and Regulation.

    PubMed

    Madeira, Ana; Moura, Teresa F; Soveral, Graça

    2016-01-01

    Water is the major component of cells and tissues throughout all forms of life. Fluxes of water and solutes through cell membranes and epithelia are essential for osmoregulation and energy homeostasis. Aquaporins are membrane channels expressed in almost every organism and involved in the bidirectional transfer of water and small solutes across cell membranes. Aquaporins have important biological roles and have been implicated in several pathophysiological conditions suggesting a great translational potential in aquaporin-based diagnostics and therapeutics. Detecting aquaporin function is critical for assessing regulation and screening for new activity modulators that can prompt the development of efficient medicines. Appropriate methods for functional analysis comprising suitable cell models and techniques to accurately evaluate water and solute membrane permeability are essential to validate aquaporin function and assess short-term regulation. The present review describes established assays commonly used to assess aquaporin function in cells and tissues, as well as the experimental biophysical strategies required to reveal functional regulation and identify modulators, the first step for aquaporin drug discovery. PMID:26870725

  7. Epigenetic regulation and heart failure.

    PubMed

    Cao, Dian J

    2014-09-01

    Heart failure has become a huge public health problem. The treatment options for heart failure, however, are considerably limited. The significant disparity between the scope of a prominent health problem and the restricted means of therapy propagates heart failure epidemics. Delineating novel mechanisms of heart failure is imperative. Emerging evidence suggests that epigenetic regulation may take part in the pathogenesis of heart failure. Epigenetic regulation involves DNA and histone modifications that lead to changes in DNA-based transcriptional programs without altering the DNA sequence. Although more and more mechanisms are being discovered, the best understood epigenetic modifications are achieved through covalent biochemical reactions including histone acetylation, histone methylation and DNA methylation. Connecting environmental stimuli with genomic programs, epigenetic regulation remains important in maintaining homeostases and the pathogeneses of diseases. This review summarizes the most recent developments regarding individual epigenetic modifications and their implications in the pathogenesis of heart failure. Understanding this strategically important mechanism is potentially the key for developing powerful interventions in the future.

  8. Regulation of the centrosome cycle.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Hiroki; Yoshino, Yuki; Chiba, Natsuko

    2016-03-01

    The centrosome, consisting of mother and daughter centrioles surrounded by the pericentriolar matrix (PCM), functions primarily as a microtubule organizing center (MTOC) in most animal cells. In dividing cells the centrosome duplicates once per cell cycle and its number and structure are highly regulated during each cell cycle to organize an effective bipolar spindle in the mitotic phase. Defects in the regulation of centrosome duplication lead to a variety of human diseases, including cancer, through abnormal cell division and inappropriate chromosome segregation. At the end of mitosis the daughter centriole disengages from the mother centriole. This centriole disengagement is an important licensing step for centrosome duplication. In S phase, one new daughter centriole forms perpendicular to each centriole. The centrosome recruits further PCM proteins in the late G2 phase and the two centrosomes separate at mitotic entry to form a bipolar spindle. Here, we summarize research findings in the field of centrosome biology, focusing on the mechanisms of regulation of the centrosome cycle in human cells. PMID:27308597

  9. Rethinking regulations for disposal criticality

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, M.; Doering, T.

    1997-08-01

    This paper provides the basis for the position that the current U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) criticality regulation is in need of revision to address problems in implementing it for the postclosure period in a geologic high-level waste repository. The authors believe that the applicant for such a facility should be able to demonstrate that postulated postclosure criticality events will not cause unacceptable risk of deleterious effects on public health and safety. In addition, the applicant should be expected to take practical and feasible measures to reduce the probability of a criticality occurring, even if (as expected) the consequences of such a criticality for repository performance and public health and safety would be negligible. This approach, while recognizing the probabilistic nature of analyses of events and conditions in the distant future, is also arguably consistent with the defense in depth concept that has been successfully applied to nuclear reactor regulation. The authors believe regulations for postclosure criticality control should support this dual approach, rather than require a deterministic prohibition of criticality as does the current rule. The existing rule seems appropriate for the preclosure period, as long as it is clearly specified to apply only to that period.

  10. Endocannabinoid Regulation of Neuroendocrine Systems.

    PubMed

    Tasker, Jeffrey G; Chen, Chun; Fisher, Marc O; Fu, Xin; Rainville, Jennifer R; Weiss, Grant L

    2015-01-01

    The hypothalamus is a part of the brain that is critical for sustaining life through its homeostatic control and integrative regulation of the autonomic nervous system and neuroendocrine systems. Neuroendocrine function in mammals is mediated mainly through the control of pituitary hormone secretion by diverse neuroendocrine cell groups in the hypothalamus. Cannabinoid receptors are expressed throughout the hypothalamus, and endocannabinoids have been found to exert pronounced regulatory effects on neuroendocrine function via modulation of the outputs of several neuroendocrine systems. Here, we review the physiological regulation of neuroendocrine function by endocannabinoids, focusing on the role of endocannabinoids in the neuroendocrine regulation of the stress response, food intake, fluid homeostasis, and reproductive function. Cannabis sativa (marijuana) has a long history of recreational and/or medicinal use dating back to ancient times. It was used as an analgesic, anesthetic, and antianxiety herb as early as 2600 B.C. The hedonic, anxiolytic, and mood-elevating properties of cannabis have also been cited in ancient records from different cultures. However, it was not until 1964 that the psychoactive constituent of cannabis, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, was isolated and its chemical structure determined (Gaoni & Mechoulam, 1964). PMID:26638767

  11. Self-regulation: the need to succeed

    SciTech Connect

    Sorenson, G.C.

    1985-11-01

    The nuclear industry has long complained that it is over-regulated. Others - including the regulator - are now beginning to accept this complaint and acknowledge that perhaps the industry is over regulated and something should be done to provide relief. It is clear that regulation will not simply go away. The industry is perceived by some as one that cannot be trusted and must be closely regulated or serious health and safety consequences will result. Headlines claiming coverup of design deficiencies, allegations concerning construction problems, cheating on exams, mismanagement, intimidation of QA/QC personnel, etc., do little to dispel these concerns for the layman. This paper looks at two areas that must be considered in attempting to decrease the amount of regulator-imposed activities and increase self-regulation: 1) establish greater trust and confidence in the industry's ability to do a good job and be responsible for self-regulation; and 2) establish industry initiatives to regulate itself.

  12. Desenvolvimento das câmeras de raios-X duros do satélite MIRAX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, J.; Rothschild, R.; Staubert, R.; Heise, J.; Remillard, R.; D'Amico, F.; Jablonski, F.; Mejía, J.; Carvalho, H.; Heindl, B.; Matteson, J.; Kendziorra, E.; Wilms, J.; in't Zand, J.; Kuulkers, E.

    2003-08-01

    O MIRAX (Monitor e Imageador de RAios-X) é um projeto de desenvolvimento de um pequeno satélite astronômico de raios-X (~200 kg, ~240 W). A estratégia básica da missão será observar continuamente (~9 meses por ano) a região central (~1000 graus2) do plano Galáctico e realizar estudos espectroscópicos de banda larga (2-200 keV) e alta sensibilidade de um grande conjunto de fontes através de imagens com resolução de ~6'. Isso proporcionará uma cobertura inédita do "espaço de descobertas" através da detecção, localização, identificação e estudo detalhado de fenômenos imprevisíveis, tais como transientes fracos de raios-X, novas rápidas de raios-X e bursts de raios gama, assim como o estudo de fontes com emissão persistente. Neste trabalho apresentamos o projeto das duas câmeras de raios-X duros (CXDs) do MIRAX, que irão operar na faixa de 10 a 200 keV. Cada CXD consistirá de um plano de detectores CZT (Cd0,9Zn0,1Te) de 0,5 mm de resolução espacial e 370 cm2 de área total, e de uma máscara codificada com elementos quadrados de 1,3 mm de lado e 0,5 cm de espessura. A máscara terá dimensões de 315 cm ´ 275 cm e será montada a 700 cm de distância dos detectores. Com essa configuração as CXDs terão 6' de resolução angular e, quando colocadas a um ângulo de 29° entre si, as duas câmeras propiciam um campo totalmente codificado de 39° ´ 6°12' e um campo total de 76° ´ 44°. Serão apresentadas simulações de observações da região do plano Galáctico com o conjunto formado pelas duas CXDs.

  13. Soil gas Rn monitoring at Chã das Caldeiras prior the 2014-15 Fogo eruption, Cape Verde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla, Germán; Barrancos, José; Dionis, Samara; Fernandes, Paulo; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Sagiya, Takeshi; Padrón, Eleazar; Melián, Gladys V.; Hernández, Pedro A.; Silva, Sónia; Pereira, José Manuel; Rodríguez, Fátima; Asensio-Ramos, María; Calvo, David; Semedo, Helio

    2015-04-01

    Since 2007 the ITER-INVOLCAN/UNICV-OVCV/SNPC research team has implemented a geochemical program for the volcanic surveillance of Fogo volcano by means of applying different geochemical methods in a regularly basis (diffuse degassing surveys, fumarole gas sampling, etc.). This program was improved by setting up a geochemical permanent station (CHA01) to perform continuous measurements of soil gas radon (222Rn) and thoron (220Rn) activities at Chã das Caldeiras, more specific in Portela village, since April 20, 2013. Both gases are characterized to ascend towards the surface mainly through cracks or faults via diffusion and/or advection mechanisms dependent of both soil porosity and permeability, which in turn vary as a function of the stress/strain changes at depth. Measurements of 222Rn and 220Rn activities were performed by an alpha-spectrometer after pumping the soil gas from a thermally isolated PVC pipe inserted 1m in the ground. Even though during the study period the recorded data did not show high 222Rn activity values, a change in the temporal evolution of soil gas 222Rn activity was observed. During the first six months, from April to October, 2013, recorded time series of 222Rn and 220Rn activities showed normal background levels with values of 80.5 and 55.2 Bqm-3, respectively. However, from October, 2013, to February, 2014, 222Rn time series showed an increase trend reaching peak values of 396 Bqm-3 and having an average activity of 134 Bqm-3 until the removal of the station on November 25, 2014 due to the potential danger of being destroyed by the lava flows. The observed increase in the soil gas 222Rn activity from October 2013 to February 2014 occurs almost at the same time of slight observed changes in the vertical displacements detected by the geodetic network installed at the Fogo Island by the ITER-INVOLCAN/UNICV-OVCV/SNPC/Nagoya University research team. Since seismic data are not available, we cannot conclude if the observed changes in soil

  14. Future of Radiation Protection Regulations.

    PubMed

    Doss, Mohan

    2016-03-01

    THERE IS considerable disagreement in the scientific community regarding the carcinogenicity of low-dose radiation (LDR), with publications supporting opposing points of view. However, major flaws have been identified in many of the publications claiming increased cancer risk from LDR. The data generally recognized as the most important for assessing radiation effects in humans, the atomic bomb survivor data, are often cited to raise LDR cancer concerns. However, these data no longer support the linear no-threshold (LNT) model after the 2012 update but are consistent with radiation hormesis. Thus, a resolution of the controversy regarding the carcinogenicity of LDR appears to be imminent, with the rejection of the LNT model and acceptance of radiation hormesis. Hence, for setting radiation protection regulations, an alternative approach to the present one based on the LNT model is needed. One approach would be to determine the threshold dose for the carcinogenic effect of radiation from existing data and establish regulations to ensure radiation doses are kept well below the threshold dose. This can be done by setting dose guidelines specifying safe levels of radiation doses, with the requirement that these safe levels, referred to as guidance levels, not be exceeded significantly. Using this approach, a dose guidance level of 10 cGy for acute radiation exposures and 10 cGy y for exposures over extended periods of time are recommended. The concept of keeping doses as low as reasonably achievable, known as ALARA, would no longer be required for low-level radiation exposures not expected to exceed the dose guidance levels significantly. These regulations would facilitate studies using LDR for prevention and treatment of diseases. Results from such studies would be helpful in refining dose guidance levels. The dose guidance levels would be the same for the public and radiation workers to ensure everyone's safety.

  15. [Hunan announces planned parenthood regulations].

    PubMed

    1979-06-26

    The Hunan Provincial Revolutionary Committee has promulgated trial regulations on several questions relating to planned parenthood in order to ensure that population growth corresponds to the development of the national economy and to speed up socialist modernization. The regulations propose that each couple of reproductive age ideally produces only 1 child and not more than 2 children. Couples who marry late and produce only 1 child will be commended and rewarded. The country and muncipal planned parenthood offices will issue a "1 child certificate." Cadres and workers in units under ownership by the whole people or by the collective will receive an annual bonus of 30-40 yuan, and rural peasants will receive an annual bonus of 400 work points. These bonuses will be issued until their child is 14 years old. A single child for whom a certificate has been issued will receive priority in admission to the nursery and kindergarten as well as in hospital treatment. Such a child will also receive priority in personnel recruitment. These couples will receive priority in urban housing, and rural couples will receive private plots and housing areas of a 2 child standard. When retiring because of old age, cadres and workers will receive an extra retirement allowance of 5% for both husband and wife. If a couple has a 2nd child after receiving the rewards and bonuses, the bonuses and bonus work points must be returned along with their 1 child certificate. The regulations point out that every Chinese citizen has the right and duty to practice and publicize planned parenthood and that economic sanctions are to be levied against couples of reproductive age who refuse to practice planned parenthood and produce many children. This also applies to cadres and workers who produce a 3rd child.

  16. Redox Regulation of Plant Development

    PubMed Central

    Considine, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: We provide a conceptual framework for the interactions between the cellular redox signaling hub and the phytohormone signaling network that controls plant growth and development to maximize plant productivity under stress-free situations, while limiting growth and altering development on exposure to stress. Recent Advances: Enhanced cellular oxidation plays a key role in the regulation of plant growth and stress responses. Oxidative signals or cycles of oxidation and reduction are crucial for the alleviation of dormancy and quiescence, activating the cell cycle and triggering genetic and epigenetic control that underpin growth and differentiation responses to changing environmental conditions. Critical Issues: The redox signaling hub interfaces directly with the phytohormone network in the synergistic control of growth and its modulation in response to environmental stress, but a few components have been identified. Accumulating evidence points to a complex interplay of phytohormone and redox controls that operate at multiple levels. For simplicity, we focus here on redox-dependent processes that control root growth and development and bud burst. Future Directions: The multiple roles of reactive oxygen species in the control of plant growth and development have been identified, but increasing emphasis should now be placed on the functions of redox-regulated proteins, along with the central roles of reductants such as NAD(P)H, thioredoxins, glutathione, glutaredoxins, peroxiredoxins, ascorbate, and reduced ferredoxin in the regulation of the genetic and epigenetic factors that modulate the growth and vigor of crop plants, particularly within an agricultural context. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 1305–1326. PMID:24180689

  17. Future of Radiation Protection Regulations.

    PubMed

    Doss, Mohan

    2016-03-01

    THERE IS considerable disagreement in the scientific community regarding the carcinogenicity of low-dose radiation (LDR), with publications supporting opposing points of view. However, major flaws have been identified in many of the publications claiming increased cancer risk from LDR. The data generally recognized as the most important for assessing radiation effects in humans, the atomic bomb survivor data, are often cited to raise LDR cancer concerns. However, these data no longer support the linear no-threshold (LNT) model after the 2012 update but are consistent with radiation hormesis. Thus, a resolution of the controversy regarding the carcinogenicity of LDR appears to be imminent, with the rejection of the LNT model and acceptance of radiation hormesis. Hence, for setting radiation protection regulations, an alternative approach to the present one based on the LNT model is needed. One approach would be to determine the threshold dose for the carcinogenic effect of radiation from existing data and establish regulations to ensure radiation doses are kept well below the threshold dose. This can be done by setting dose guidelines specifying safe levels of radiation doses, with the requirement that these safe levels, referred to as guidance levels, not be exceeded significantly. Using this approach, a dose guidance level of 10 cGy for acute radiation exposures and 10 cGy y for exposures over extended periods of time are recommended. The concept of keeping doses as low as reasonably achievable, known as ALARA, would no longer be required for low-level radiation exposures not expected to exceed the dose guidance levels significantly. These regulations would facilitate studies using LDR for prevention and treatment of diseases. Results from such studies would be helpful in refining dose guidance levels. The dose guidance levels would be the same for the public and radiation workers to ensure everyone's safety. PMID:26808881

  18. Feedback regulation between autophagy and PKA

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Quiroz, Francisco; Filteau, Marie; Landry, Christian R

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinase A (PKA) controls diverse cellular processes and homeostasis in eukaryotic cells. Many processes and substrates of PKA have been described and among them are direct regulators of autophagy. The mechanisms of PKA regulation and how they relate to autophagy remain to be fully understood. We constructed a reporter of PKA activity in yeast to identify genes affecting PKA regulation. The assay systematically measures relative protein-protein interactions between the regulatory and catalytic subunits of the PKA complex in a systematic set of genetic backgrounds. The candidate PKA regulators we identified span multiple processes and molecular functions (autophagy, methionine biosynthesis, TORC signaling, protein acetylation, and DNA repair), which themselves include processes regulated by PKA. These observations suggest the presence of many feedback loops acting through this key regulator. Many of the candidate regulators include genes involved in autophagy, suggesting that not only does PKA regulate autophagy but that autophagy also sends signals back to PKA. PMID:26046386

  19. Feedback regulation between autophagy and PKA.

    PubMed

    Torres-Quiroz, Francisco; Filteau, Marie; Landry, Christian R

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinase A (PKA) controls diverse cellular processes and homeostasis in eukaryotic cells. Many processes and substrates of PKA have been described and among them are direct regulators of autophagy. The mechanisms of PKA regulation and how they relate to autophagy remain to be fully understood. We constructed a reporter of PKA activity in yeast to identify genes affecting PKA regulation. The assay systematically measures relative protein-protein interactions between the regulatory and catalytic subunits of the PKA complex in a systematic set of genetic backgrounds. The candidate PKA regulators we identified span multiple processes and molecular functions (autophagy, methionine biosynthesis, TORC signaling, protein acetylation, and DNA repair), which themselves include processes regulated by PKA. These observations suggest the presence of many feedback loops acting through this key regulator. Many of the candidate regulators include genes involved in autophagy, suggesting that not only does PKA regulate autophagy but that autophagy also sends signals back to PKA.

  20. Penal Institutions, Environmental Health Regulations and Inspections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, W. W.

    1974-01-01

    The need for better regulations concerning environmental health standards for jails is emphasized. Areas that should be covered by regulations are specified. The form and frequency of inspections, and qualifications of the inspecting personnel, are discussed. (DT)

  1. Regulation of Compound Leaf Development

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuan; Chen, Rujin

    2013-01-01

    Leaf morphology is one of the most variable, yet inheritable, traits in the plant kingdom. How plants develop a variety of forms and shapes is a major biological question. Here, we discuss some recent progress in understanding the development of compound or dissected leaves in model species, such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), Cardamine hirsuta and Medicago truncatula, with an emphasis on recent discoveries in legumes. We also discuss progress in gene regulations and hormonal actions in compound leaf development. These studies facilitate our understanding of the underlying regulatory mechanisms and put forward a prospective in compound leaf studies. PMID:27135488

  2. Neurobiology of Circadian Rhythm Regulation.

    PubMed

    Rosenwasser, Alan M; Turek, Fred W

    2015-12-01

    Over the past few decades, multilevel research has elucidated the basic neuroanatomy, neurochemistry, and molecular neurobiology of the master circadian pacemaker located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The circadian timing system is composed of a large number of cellular oscillators located in the SCN, in non-SCN brain structures, and throughout the body. Cellular-level oscillations are generated by a molecular feedback loop in which circadian clock genes rhythmically regulate their own transcription, as well as that of hundreds of clock-controlled genes. The maintenance of proper coordination within this network of cellular- and tissue-level clocks is essential for health and well-being. PMID:26568118

  3. Doing justice to allosteric regulation.

    PubMed

    Keller, Evelyn Fox

    2015-06-01

    Jacques Monod gave us not only our first regulatory system, but also our first smart molecules - i.e., he gave us allosteric proteins. But both of these contributions hung in a certain tension with his primary commitments. In particular, I focus here on the ways in which his ontological commitments constrained his thinking about the power of allostery. Although he wrote that "so far as regulation through allosteric interaction is concerned, everything is possible", for him, not everything was conceivable. In particular, what was not conceivable was a challenge to the primacy of DNA.

  4. Neurobiology of Circadian Rhythm Regulation.

    PubMed

    Rosenwasser, Alan M; Turek, Fred W

    2015-12-01

    Over the past few decades, multilevel research has elucidated the basic neuroanatomy, neurochemistry, and molecular neurobiology of the master circadian pacemaker located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The circadian timing system is composed of a large number of cellular oscillators located in the SCN, in non-SCN brain structures, and throughout the body. Cellular-level oscillations are generated by a molecular feedback loop in which circadian clock genes rhythmically regulate their own transcription, as well as that of hundreds of clock-controlled genes. The maintenance of proper coordination within this network of cellular- and tissue-level clocks is essential for health and well-being.

  5. QB1 - Stochastic Gene Regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Munsky, Brian

    2012-07-23

    Summaries of this presentation are: (1) Stochastic fluctuations or 'noise' is present in the cell - Random motion and competition between reactants, Low copy, quantization of reactants, Upstream processes; (2) Fluctuations may be very important - Cell-to-cell variability, Cell fate decisions (switches), Signal amplification or damping, stochastic resonances; and (3) Some tools are available to mode these - Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations (SSA and variants), Moment approximation methods, Finite State Projection. We will see how modeling these reactions can tell us more about the underlying processes of gene regulation.

  6. Oxygen, homeostasis, and metabolic regulation.

    PubMed

    Hochachka, P W

    2000-01-01

    Even a cursory review of the literature today indicates that two views dominate experimental approaches to metabolic regulation. Model I assumes that cell behavior is quite similar to that expected for a bag of enzymes. Model II assumes that 3-D order and structure constrain metabolite behavior and that metabolic regulation theory has to incorporate structure to ever come close to describing reality. The phosphagen system may be used to illustrate that both approaches lead to very productive experimentation and significant advances are being made within both theoretical frameworks. However, communication between the two approaches or the two 'groups' is essentially nonexistent and in many cases (our own for example) some experiments are done in one framework and some in the other (implying some potential schizophrenia in the field). In our view, the primary paradox and problem which no one has solved so far is that essentially all metabolite concentrations are remarkably stable (are homeostatic) over large changes in pathway fluxes. For muscle cells O2 is one of the most perfectly homeostatic of all even though O2 delivery and metabolic rate usually correlate in a 1:1 fashion. Four explanations for this behavior are given by traditional metabolic regulation models. Additionally, there is some evidence for universal O2 sensors which could help to get us out of the paradox. In contrast, proponents of an ultrastructurally dominated view of the cell assume intracellular perfusion or convection as the main means for accelerating enzyme-substrate encounter and as a way to account for the data which have been most perplexing so far: the striking lack of correlation between changes in pathway reaction rates and changes in concentrations of pathway substrates and intermediates, including oxygen. The polarization illustrated by these two views of living cells extends throughout the metabolic regulation field (and has caused the field to progress along two surprisingly

  7. Returning common sense to regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, M.R.

    1995-10-01

    While these sessions of the November 1995 meeting of the American Nuclear Society are being devoted to the Linear Theory of harm from radiation, it must be realized that the low-level radiation issue, as important as it may be, is but a subset of an entire body of environmental issues running afoul of common sense. Cellular phones, electromagnetic fields, asbestos, dioxin, acid rain, and others especially in their public portrayals, some in their regulatory treatment, are based upon exaggerated or misunderstood risks. One must recognize that what lies ahead is an immense effort to revisit the underlying science of the existing regulations of radiation exposures. New evidence has been published, and most importantly, it is now recognized that many of these regulations--promulgated with the best of intentions--have been extraordinarily harmful to the public. In many cases, the harm has been exaggerated, and has created in the public policy arena the notion that the public is at great risk from the smallest sources of radiation. The national cost of compliance with these regulations has been enormous. To the extent that existing environmental regulations are not being moderated, they pose major economic threats to present and future industries involving nuclear materials and technology. These would include the pharmaceutical industries as well as those seeking U.S. isotope markets in separations, purification, labeling, and manufacturing of new radiopharmaceuticals for cancer therapy, diagnosis, pain mitigation, treatment of arthritis, and other new applications. For those who are not aware of the results of recent advances in radiopharmaceuticals, clinical trials have demonstrated an 80% remission rate in the treatment of b-cell lymphoma and leukemia. New isotopes and new isotope technology promise greater effectiveness in the treatment of cancer and other diseases. The regulatory problems and their enormous costs exist at all stages in nuclear medicine, from the

  8. Regulation of aquaporin-2 trafficking.

    PubMed

    Nedvetsky, Pavel I; Tamma, Grazia; Beulshausen, Sven; Valenti, Giovanna; Rosenthal, Walter; Klussmann, Enno

    2009-01-01

    Principal cells lining renal collecting ducts control the fine-tuning of body water homeostasis by regulating water reabsorption through the water channels aquaporin-2 (AQP2), aquaporin-3 (AQP3), and aquaporin-4 (AQP4). While the localization of AQP2 is subject to regulation by arginine-vasopressin (AVP), AQP3 and AQP4 are constitutively expressed in the basolateral plasma membrane. AVP adjusts the amount of AQP2 in the plasma membrane by triggering its redistribution from intracellular vesicles into the plasma membrane. This permits water entry into the cells and water exit through AQP3 and AQP4. The translocation of AQP2 is initiated by an increase in cAMP following V2R activation through AVP. The AVP-induced rise in cAMP activates protein kinase A (PKA), which in turn phosphorylates AQP2, and thereby triggers the redistribution of AQP2. Several proteins participating in the control of cAMP-dependent AQP2 trafficking have been identified; for example, A kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) tethering PKA to cellular compartments; phosphodiesterases (PDEs) regulating the local cAMP level; cytoskeletal components such as F-actin and microtubules; small GTPases of the Rho family controlling cytoskeletal dynamics; motor proteins transporting AQP2-bearing vesicles to and from the plasma membrane for exocytic insertion and endocytic retrieval; SNAREs inducing membrane fusions, hsc70, a chaperone, important for endocytic retrieval. In addition, cAMP-independent mechanisms of translocation mainly involving the F-actin cytoskeleton have been uncovered. Defects of AQP2 trafficking cause diseases such as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), a disorder characterized by a massive loss of hypoosmotic urine.This review summarizes recent data elucidating molecular mechanisms underlying the trafficking of AQP2. In particular, we focus on proteins involved in the regulation of trafficking, and physiological and pathophysiological stimuli determining the cellular localization of AQP2

  9. Doing justice to allosteric regulation.

    PubMed

    Keller, Evelyn Fox

    2015-06-01

    Jacques Monod gave us not only our first regulatory system, but also our first smart molecules - i.e., he gave us allosteric proteins. But both of these contributions hung in a certain tension with his primary commitments. In particular, I focus here on the ways in which his ontological commitments constrained his thinking about the power of allostery. Although he wrote that "so far as regulation through allosteric interaction is concerned, everything is possible", for him, not everything was conceivable. In particular, what was not conceivable was a challenge to the primacy of DNA. PMID:25908117

  10. Mathematical Models of Gene Regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackey, Michael C.

    2004-03-01

    This talk will focus on examples of mathematical models for the regulation of repressible operons (e.g. the tryptophan operon), inducible operons (e.g. the lactose operon), and the lysis/lysogeny switch in phage λ. These ``simple" gene regulatory elements can display characteristics experimentally of rapid response to perturbations and bistability, and biologically accurate mathematical models capture these aspects of the dynamics. The models, if realistic, are always nonlinear and contain significant time delays due to transcriptional and translational delays that pose substantial problems for the analysis of the possible ranges of dynamics.

  11. Transglutaminase Regulation of Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Kaartinen, Mari T.; Nurminskaya, Maria; Belkin, Alexey M.; Colak, Gozde; Johnson, Gail V. W.; Mehta, Kapil

    2014-01-01

    Transglutaminases (TGs) are multifunctional proteins having enzymatic and scaffolding functions that participate in regulation of cell fate in a wide range of cellular systems and are implicated to have roles in development of disease. This review highlights the mechanism of action of these proteins with respect to their structure, impact on cell differentiation and survival, role in cancer development and progression, and function in signal transduction. We also discuss the mechanisms whereby TG level is controlled and how TGs control downstream targets. The studies described herein begin to clarify the physiological roles of TGs in both normal biology and disease states. PMID:24692352

  12. Environmental justice regulations draw fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Advocates of “environmental justice” say that proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations are necessary to ensure that an unfair share of industrial facilities and waste plants are not sited in poor and minority communities, as they claim has occurred in the past.However, a number of state and local government agencies, business groups, and Democratic and Republican politicians argue that EPA guidelines—written to put some teeth into the Title VI clause of the Civil Rights Act that prohibits discrimination in all federally funded programs and activities—are unworkable and need to be overhauled.

  13. Environmental justice regulations draw fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Advocates of "environmental justice" say that proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations are necessary to ensure that an unfair share of industrial facilities and waste plants are not sited in poor and minority communities, as they claim has occurred in the past.However, a number of state and local government agencies, business groups, and Democratic and Republican politicians argue that EPA guidelines—written to put some teeth into the Title VI clause of the Civil Rights Act that prohibits discrimination in all federally funded programs and activities—are unworkable and need to be overhauled.

  14. Regulation of Noxa-mediated apoptosis in Helicobacter pylori–infected gastric epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Rath, Suvasmita; Das, Lopamudra; Kokate, Shrikant Babanrao; Pratheek, B. M.; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Goswami, Chandan; Chattopadhyay, Ranajoy; Crowe, Sheila Eileen; Bhattacharyya, Asima

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori induces the antiapoptotic protein myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl1) in human gastric epithelial cells (GECs). Apoptosis of oncogenic protein Mcl1-expressing cells is mainly regulated by Noxa-mediated degradation of Mcl1. We wanted to elucidate the status of Noxa in H. pylori–infected GECs. For this, various GECs such as AGS, MKN45, and KATO III were either infected with H. pylori or left uninfected. The effect of infection was examined by immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, in vitro binding assay, flow cytometry, and confocal microscopy. Infected GECs, surgical samples collected from patients with gastric adenocarcinoma as well as biopsy samples from patients infected with H. pylori showed significant up-regulation of both Mcl1 and Noxa compared with noninfected samples. Coexistence of Mcl1 and Noxa was indicative of an impaired Mcl-Noxa interaction. We proved that Noxa was phosphorylated at Ser13 residue by JNK in infected GECs, which caused cytoplasmic retention of Noxa. JNK inhibition enhanced Mcl1-Noxa interaction in the mitochondrial fraction of infected cells, whereas overexpression of nonphosphorylatable Noxa resulted in enhanced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in the infected epithelium. Because phosphorylation-dephosphorylation can regulate the apoptotic function of Noxa, this could be a potential target molecule for future treatment approaches for H. pylori–induced gastric cancer.—Rath, S., Das, L., Kokate, S. B., Pratheek, B. M., Chattopadhyay, S., Goswami, C., Chattopadhyay, R., Crowe, S. E., Bhattacharyya, A. Regulation of Noxa-mediated apoptosis in Helicobacter pylori–infected gastric epithelial cells. PMID:25404713

  15. 21 CFR 868.2700 - Pressure regulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pressure regulator. 868.2700 Section 868.2700 Food... DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2700 Pressure regulator. (a) Identification. A pressure regulator is a device, often called a pressure-reducing valve, that is intended for...

  16. 21 CFR 868.2700 - Pressure regulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pressure regulator. 868.2700 Section 868.2700 Food... DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2700 Pressure regulator. (a) Identification. A pressure regulator is a device, often called a pressure-reducing valve, that is intended for...

  17. 21 CFR 868.2700 - Pressure regulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pressure regulator. 868.2700 Section 868.2700 Food... DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2700 Pressure regulator. (a) Identification. A pressure regulator is a device, often called a pressure-reducing valve, that is intended for...

  18. 21 CFR 868.2700 - Pressure regulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pressure regulator. 868.2700 Section 868.2700 Food... DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2700 Pressure regulator. (a) Identification. A pressure regulator is a device, often called a pressure-reducing valve, that is intended for...

  19. 21 CFR 868.2700 - Pressure regulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pressure regulator. 868.2700 Section 868.2700 Food... DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2700 Pressure regulator. (a) Identification. A pressure regulator is a device, often called a pressure-reducing valve, that is intended for...

  20. Becoming an Engaged, Self-Regulated Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Sherri L.; Shwery, Craig S.

    2002-01-01

    Explains how students self-regulate while reading, describing students' personal beliefs of self-efficacy, task value, and motivation and how these beliefs influence their self- regulated reading; discussing the processes of self-regulated reading (goal setting; selection, use, and monitoring of reading strategies; and self-evaluation); and…

  1. Self Regulated Learning of High Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathod, Ami

    2010-01-01

    The study was conducted on high achievers of Senior Secondary school. Main objectives were to identify the self regulated learners among the high achievers, to find out dominant components and characteristics operative in self regulated learners and to compare self regulated learning of learners with respect to their subject (science and non…

  2. 36 CFR 34.5 - Applicable regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicable regulations. 34.5 Section 34.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EL PORTAL ADMINISTRATIVE SITE REGULATIONS § 34.5 Applicable regulations. The following sections and paragraphs of this chapter, as amended from time...

  3. 7 CFR 983.50 - Aflatoxin regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aflatoxin regulations. 983.50 Section 983.50..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Regulations § 983.50 Aflatoxin regulations. The committee shall establish, with the approval of the Secretary, such aflatoxin sampling, analysis, and inspection...

  4. 7 CFR 983.150 - Aflatoxin regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aflatoxin regulations. 983.150 Section 983.150..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Rules and Regulations § 983.150 Aflatoxin regulations. (a) Maximum level. No handler shall ship for domestic human consumption, pistachios that exceed an aflatoxin level of 15...

  5. 7 CFR 983.150 - Aflatoxin regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aflatoxin regulations. 983.150 Section 983.150..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Rules and Regulations § 983.150 Aflatoxin regulations. (a) Maximum level. No handler shall ship for domestic human consumption, pistachios that exceed an aflatoxin level of 15...

  6. 7 CFR 983.50 - Aflatoxin regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aflatoxin regulations. 983.50 Section 983.50..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Regulations § 983.50 Aflatoxin regulations. The committee shall establish, with the approval of the Secretary, such aflatoxin sampling, analysis, and inspection...

  7. 7 CFR 983.50 - Aflatoxin regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aflatoxin regulations. 983.50 Section 983.50..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Regulations § 983.50 Aflatoxin regulations. The committee shall establish, with the approval of the Secretary, such aflatoxin sampling, analysis, and inspection...

  8. 7 CFR 983.150 - Aflatoxin regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aflatoxin regulations. 983.150 Section 983.150..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Rules and Regulations § 983.150 Aflatoxin regulations. (a) Maximum level. No handler shall ship for domestic human consumption, pistachios that exceed an aflatoxin level of 15...

  9. 7 CFR 983.150 - Aflatoxin regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aflatoxin regulations. 983.150 Section 983.150..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Rules and Regulations § 983.150 Aflatoxin regulations. (a) Maximum level. No handler shall ship for domestic human consumption, pistachios that exceed an aflatoxin level of 15...

  10. 7 CFR 983.50 - Aflatoxin regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aflatoxin regulations. 983.50 Section 983.50..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Regulations § 983.50 Aflatoxin regulations. The committee shall establish, with the approval of the Secretary, such aflatoxin sampling, analysis, and inspection...

  11. Bureaucrats and Brainpower: Government Regulation of Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seabury, Paul, Ed.

    The exploration of the growth and cost benefit effectiveness of governmental regulation of higher education is examined in this book. An introductory article by Robert Hatfield examines university regulation from a businessman's perspective. Hatfield concludes that business and higher education must work together to curb the stream of regulation.…

  12. 7 CFR 983.51 - Quality regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Quality regulations. 983.51 Section 983.51 Agriculture..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Regulations § 983.51 Quality regulations. For any production year, the committee may establish, with the approval of the Secretary, such quality and inspection requirements...

  13. International Radio Regulations Resulting from WARC 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berrada, Abderrazak

    The main features of international regulations on radio communications of the International Telecommunication Union are summarized and the possible effects on these regulations of the World Administrative Radio Conference of 1979 (WARC-79) are discussed in this paper. It is noted that while the international radio regulations are regarded as…

  14. 43 CFR 424.1 - Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... applicable Federal, state and local laws, rules and regulations pertaining to water quality standards and... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Regulations. 424.1 Section 424.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  15. 43 CFR 424.1 - Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... applicable Federal, state and local laws, rules and regulations pertaining to water quality standards and... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Regulations. 424.1 Section 424.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  16. 43 CFR 424.1 - Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... applicable Federal, state and local laws, rules and regulations pertaining to water quality standards and... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Regulations. 424.1 Section 424.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  17. 43 CFR 424.1 - Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... applicable Federal, state and local laws, rules and regulations pertaining to water quality standards and... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Regulations. 424.1 Section 424.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  18. 15 CFR 922.185 - Emergency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency regulations. 922.185 Section... Sanctuary § 922.185 Emergency regulations. Where necessary to prevent or minimize the destruction of, loss... relevant Federal agency and the Governor of the State of Hawaii. Emergency regulations shall not...

  19. 15 CFR 922.165 - Emergency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency regulations. 922.165 Section... Emergency regulations. Where necessary to prevent or minimize the destruction of, loss of, or injury to a... all activities are subject to immediate temporary regulation, including prohibition....

  20. 15 CFR 922.44 - Emergency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency regulations. 922.44 Section... Emergency regulations. Where necessary to prevent or minimize the destruction of, loss of, or injury to a..., respectively, for the authority to issue emergency regulations with respect to those sanctuaries....

  1. 50 CFR 229.9 - Emergency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency regulations. 229.9 Section 229.9... PROTECTION ACT OF 1972 General Provisions § 229.9 Emergency regulations. (a) If the Assistant Administrator... effect— (i) Prescribe emergency regulations that, consistent with such plan to the maximum...

  2. 78 FR 2319 - Relocation of Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ...The Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) is relocating six Federal Housing Finance Board (Finance Board) regulations to new locations within the FHFA chapter of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). The regulations relate to: Community Investment Cash Advance Programs (CICA); Federal Home Loan Bank (Bank) collection, settlement, and processing of payment instruments; miscellaneous Bank......

  3. Regulation of Motivation: Contextual and Social Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolters, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Models of self-regulated learning have been used extensively as a way of understanding how students understand, monitor, and manage their own academic functioning. The regulation of motivation is a facet of self-regulated learning that describes students' efforts to control their own motivation or motivational processing. The…

  4. 25 CFR 167.2 - General regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false General regulations. 167.2 Section 167.2 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.2 General regulations. Part 166 of this subchapter authorizes the Commissioner of Indian Affairs to...

  5. 31 CFR 332.3 - Governing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., H, J and K, contained in 31 CFR part 315, also published as Department of the Treasury Circular No... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Governing regulations. 332.3 Section....3 Governing regulations. Series H bonds are subject to the regulations of the Department of...

  6. 31 CFR 342.8 - Governing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Governing regulations. Savings notes are subject to the regulations of the Department of the Treasury, now or hereafter prescribed, governing United States Savings Bonds, contained in 31 CFR part 315, also... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Governing regulations. 342.8...

  7. 31 CFR 332.3 - Governing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., H, J and K, contained in 31 CFR part 315, also published as Department of the Treasury Circular No... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Governing regulations. 332.3 Section... § 332.3 Governing regulations. Series H bonds are subject to the regulations of the Department of...

  8. 31 CFR 342.8 - Governing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Governing regulations. Savings notes are subject to the regulations of the Department of the Treasury, now or hereafter prescribed, governing United States Savings Bonds, contained in 31 CFR part 315, also... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Governing regulations. 342.8...

  9. 31 CFR 352.1 - Governing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in Department of the Treasury Circular, Public Debt Series No. 3-80, as amended (31 CFR part 353... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Governing regulations. 352.1 Section....1 Governing regulations. Series HH bonds are subject to the regulations of the Department of...

  10. 31 CFR 352.1 - Governing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... in Department of the Treasury Circular, Public Debt Series No. 3-80, as amended (31 CFR part 353... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Governing regulations. 352.1 Section....1 Governing regulations. Series HH bonds are subject to the regulations of the Department of...

  11. 31 CFR 352.1 - Governing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in Department of the Treasury Circular, Public Debt Series No. 3-80, as amended (31 CFR part 353... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Governing regulations. 352.1 Section....1 Governing regulations. Series HH bonds are subject to the regulations of the Department of...

  12. 31 CFR 339.5 - Governing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Governing regulations. 339.5 Section 339.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... H § 339.5 Governing regulations. All Series H bonds issued under this circular are subject to...

  13. 31 CFR 342.8 - Governing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Governing regulations. Savings notes are subject to the regulations of the Department of the Treasury, now or hereafter prescribed, governing United States Savings Bonds, contained in 31 CFR part 315, also... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Governing regulations. 342.8...

  14. 31 CFR 339.5 - Governing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Governing regulations. 339.5 Section 339.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... H § 339.5 Governing regulations. All Series H bonds issued under this circular are subject to...

  15. 31 CFR 352.1 - Governing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in Department of the Treasury Circular, Public Debt Series No. 3-80, as amended (31 CFR part 353... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Governing regulations. 352.1 Section....1 Governing regulations. Series HH bonds are subject to the regulations of the Department of...

  16. 31 CFR 332.3 - Governing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., H, J and K, contained in 31 CFR part 315, also published as Department of the Treasury Circular No... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Governing regulations. 332.3 Section....3 Governing regulations. Series H bonds are subject to the regulations of the Department of...

  17. 31 CFR 342.8 - Governing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Governing regulations. Savings notes are subject to the regulations of the Department of the Treasury, now or hereafter prescribed, governing United States Savings Bonds, contained in 31 CFR part 315, also... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Governing regulations. 342.8...

  18. 31 CFR 339.5 - Governing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Governing regulations. 339.5 Section 339.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE..., SERIES H § 339.5 Governing regulations. All Series H bonds issued under this circular are subject to...

  19. 31 CFR 332.3 - Governing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., H, J and K, contained in 31 CFR part 315, also published as Department of the Treasury Circular No... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Governing regulations. 332.3 Section....3 Governing regulations. Series H bonds are subject to the regulations of the Department of...

  20. 31 CFR 352.1 - Governing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in Department of the Treasury Circular, Fiscal Service Series No. 3-80, as amended (31 CFR part 353... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Governing regulations. 352.1 Section... § 352.1 Governing regulations. Series HH bonds are subject to the regulations of the Department of...

  1. 31 CFR 339.5 - Governing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Governing regulations. 339.5 Section 339.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... H § 339.5 Governing regulations. All Series H bonds issued under this circular are subject to...

  2. 31 CFR 339.5 - Governing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Governing regulations. 339.5 Section 339.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... H § 339.5 Governing regulations. All Series H bonds issued under this circular are subject to...

  3. 31 CFR 342.8 - Governing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Governing regulations. Savings notes are subject to the regulations of the Department of the Treasury, now or hereafter prescribed, governing United States Savings Bonds, contained in 31 CFR part 315, also... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Governing regulations. 342.8...

  4. 31 CFR 332.3 - Governing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., H, J and K, contained in 31 CFR part 315, also published as Department of the Treasury Circular No... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Governing regulations. 332.3 Section....3 Governing regulations. Series H bonds are subject to the regulations of the Department of...

  5. Emotion Regulation and Depressive Symptoms in Preadolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siener, Shannon; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined associations among several measures of emotion regulation, and their links to depressive symptoms, in a sample of children ages 10-12 years old (N = 87). Both temporal features of emotion regulation and regulation processes involved in the evaluation, monitoring, and modification of emotion were assessed through parent and…

  6. 34 CFR 300.716 - Applicable regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicable regulations. 300.716 Section 300.716 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION... Secretary of the Interior § 300.716 Applicable regulations. The Secretary of the Interior must comply...

  7. 50 CFR 216.105 - Specific regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specific regulations. 216.105 Section 216... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS General Regulations Governing Small Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified...

  8. 50 CFR 216.105 - Specific regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specific regulations. 216.105 Section 216... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS General Regulations Governing Small Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified...

  9. 28 CFR 0.128b - Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the United States are published in 45 CFR chapter V. ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Regulations. 0.128b Section 0.128b... Settlement Commission § 0.128b Regulations. All rules of practice and regulations applicable to...

  10. 50 CFR 216.105 - Specific regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Specific regulations. 216.105 Section 216... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS General Regulations Governing Small Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified...

  11. 46 CFR 310.67 - Academy regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Academy regulations. 310.67 Section 310.67 Shipping... Training of Midshipmen at the United States Merchant Marine Academy § 310.67 Academy regulations. The Superintendent of the Academy is delegated authority to issue all regulations necessary for the accomplishment...

  12. 33 CFR 165.33 - General regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General regulations. 165.33 Section 165.33 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... General regulations. Unless otherwise provided in the special regulations in Subpart F of this part:...

  13. 27 CFR 20.3 - Related regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... regulations. Regulations related to this part are listed below: 16 CFR Chapter I—Federal Trade Commission. 16 CFR Chapter II—Consumer Product Safety Commission. 21 CFR Chapter I—Food and Drug Administration... Regulations. 27 CFR Part 71—Rules of Practice in Permit Proceedings....

  14. 28 CFR 0.128b - Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the United States are published in 45 CFR chapter V. ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Regulations. 0.128b Section 0.128b... Settlement Commission § 0.128b Regulations. All rules of practice and regulations applicable to...

  15. 34 CFR 361.4 - Applicable regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Administrative Regulations (EDGAR) as follows: (1) 34 CFR part 74 (Administration of Grants and Agreements with...-Administered Programs). (3) 34 CFR part 77 (Definitions that Apply to Department Regulations). (4) 34 CFR part... Alcohol Abuse Prevention). (b) The regulations in this part 361. (c) 20 CFR part 662 (Description of...

  16. 15 CFR 2.7 - Supplementary regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Supplementary regulations. 2.7 Section... SETTLEMENT OF CLAIMS UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 2.7 Supplementary regulations. (a) The Assistant General Counsel for Finance and Litigation may from time to time issue such supplementary regulations...

  17. 44 CFR 1.7 - Regulations agendas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Regulations agendas. 1.7... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL RULEMAKING; POLICY AND PROCEDURES General § 1.7 Regulations agendas. (a) The FEMA... Regulations published in April and October of each year. (b) In accordance with 5 U.S.C. 605, the...

  18. 25 CFR 167.2 - General regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false General regulations. 167.2 Section 167.2 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.2 General regulations. Part 166 of this subchapter authorizes the Commissioner of Indian Affairs to...

  19. 31 CFR 29.102 - Related regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Related regulations. 29.102 Section... UNDER CERTAIN DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA RETIREMENT PROGRAMS General Provisions § 29.102 Related regulations... (Subpart E). (b) Part 581 of Title 5, Code of Federal Regulations, contains information about...

  20. 10 CFR 50.81 - Creditor regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Creditor regulations. 50.81 Section 50.81 Energy NUCLEAR...-Creditors' Rights-Surrender of Licenses § 50.81 Creditor regulations. (a) Pursuant to section 184 of the Act... Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, and regulations issued by the Commission pursuant to said Act;...