Science.gov

Sample records for regulatory dqo privatization

  1. Rationale for Selection of Pesticides, Herbicides, and Related Compounds from the Hanford SST/DST Waste Considered for Analysis in Support of the Regulatory DQO (Privatization)

    SciTech Connect

    Wiemers, K.D.; Daling, P.; Meier, K.

    1999-01-04

    Regulated pesticides, herbicides, miticides, and fungicides were evaluated for their potential past and current use at the Hanford Site. The starting list of these compounds is based on regulatory analyte input lists discussed in the Regulatory DQO. Twelve pesticide, herbicide, miticide, and fungicide compounds are identified for analysis in the Hanford SST and DST waste in support of the Regulatory DQO. The compounds considered for additional analyses are non-detected, considered stable in the tank waste matrix, and of higher toxicity/carcinogenicity.

  2. MARSSIM: Data quality objectives (DQO) process

    SciTech Connect

    Doehnert, M.

    1996-06-01

    The Department of Defense, Department of Energy, Environmental Protection Agency, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission are developing joint Federal guidance for standardized and consistent approaches to accomplish structural and environmental radiation surveys. The guidance is being developed as a draft document titled the {open_quotes}Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM).{close_quotes} MARSSIM is using the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) Process, a series of planning steps based on the scientific method for establishing criteria for data quality and developing survey designs. The DQO Process is iterative; the outputs of one step may lead to reconsideration of prior steps. Planning radiation site surveys using the DQO Process can improve the effectiveness, efficiency, and defensibility of decisions in a resource-effective manner. It also can minimize expenditures related to data collection by eliminating unnecessary, duplicative, or overly precise data. Using the DQO Process assures that the type, quantity, and quality of environmental data used in decision making will be appropriate for the intended application.

  3. Self-Regulatory Private Speech Relates to Children's Recall and Organization of Autobiographical Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Namlah, Abdulrahman S.; Meins, Elizabeth; Fernyhough, Charles

    2012-01-01

    We investigated relations between 4- and 7-year-olds' (N=58) autobiographical memory and their use of self-regulatory private speech in a non-mnemonic context (a cognitive planning task). Children's use of self-regulatory private speech during the planning task was associated with longer autobiographical narratives which included specific rather…

  4. Current Regulation of Private Police: Regulatory Agency Experience and Views.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakalik, James S.; Wildhorn, Sorrel

    This report is the third in a series of five describing a 16-month study of the nature and extent of the private police industry in the United States, its problems, present regulation, and the laws impinging on it. Licensing and regulation of the industry in every state and several cities are described in this volume. Extensive tables present the…

  5. 75 FR 43423 - 1998 Biennial Regulatory Review-Private Land Mobile Radio Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 95 1998 Biennial Regulatory Review--Private Land Mobile Radio Services AGENCY: Federal... Commission denies the petition filed by the Personal Radio Steering Group (PRSG) regarding certain Multi-Use Radio Service (MURS) rules. In essence, the Commission finds that PRSG has not demonstrated that...

  6. Self-Regulatory Functions of Children's Private Speech: A Critical Analysis of Recent Challenges to Vygotsky's Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frauenglass, Marni H.; Diaz, Rafael M.

    1985-01-01

    Recent empirical findings have challenged Vygotsky's theory regarding the self-regulatory functions of children's private speech. This study hypothesized that semantic tasks and instructions to talk out loud would maximize private speech production. Results supported Vygotsky's notion that private speech does not disappear with age but "goes…

  7. DQO Summary Report for 105-N/109-N Interim Safe Storage Project Waste Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    T. A. Lee

    2005-09-15

    The DQO summary report provides the results of the DQO process completed for waste characterization activities for the 105-N/109-N Reactor Interim Safe Storage Project including decommission, deactivate, decontaminate, and demolish activities for six associated buildings.

  8. DQO Summary Report for 324 and 327 Building Hot Cells D4 Project Waste Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    T.A. Lee

    2006-02-06

    This data quality objective (DQO) summary report provides the results of the DQO process conducted for waste characterization activities for the 324 and 327 Building hot cells decommission, deactivate, decontaminate, and demolish activities. This DQO summary report addresses the systems and processes related to the hot cells, air locks, vaults, tanks, piping, basins, air plenums, air ducts, filters, an adjacent elements that have high dose rates, high contamination levels, and/or suspect transuranic waste, which will require nonstandard D4 techniques.

  9. Do private gestures have a self-regulatory function? A case study.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Cintia; Palacios, Pedro

    2007-05-01

    One of the most fascinating phenomena in early development is that babies not only understand signs others direct to them and later use them to communicate with others, but they also come to direct the same signs towards themselves in a private way. Private gestures become "tools of thought". There is a considerable literature about private language, but almost nothing about private gestures. Private gestures pose an intriguing communicative puzzle: they are communicative, but with the self. In this paper we study two types of private gestures (signs) before language: (1) private ostensive gestures and (2) private pointing gestures. We show in a case study of one child between 12 and 18 months of age that both are used with a self-reflexive function, as a way of "thinking" what to do, in order to solve a problem in the conventional use of an object. The private gestures become self-reflexive signs.

  10. Validation of the WeDQoL-Goals-Thailand Measure: Culture-Specific Individualised Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodcock, Alison; Camfield, Laura; McGregor, J. Allister; Martin, Faith

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate an individualised measure of quality of life (WeDQoL-Goals-Thailand). Three hundred and sixty-nine Thai people completed the WeDQoL by interview. Respondents rated (0-2) the perceived necessity for wellbeing of 51 goals (goal necessity), then rated (0-3) their satisfaction with the same goals (goal…

  11. DQO (DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVE) IS NOT JUST A THREE LETTER WORD: MEASURING YOUR DATA FOR QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Harwell, Linda C. and John M. Macauley. In press. DQO (Data Quality Objective) Is Not Just a Three Letter Word: Measuring Your Data for Quality (Abstract). To be presented at EMAP Symposium 2004: Integrated Monitoring and Assessment for Effective Water Quality Management, 3-7 May...

  12. Review of Regulatory Emphasis on Transportation Safety in the United States, 2002-2009: Public versus Private Modes.

    PubMed

    Waycaster, Garrett C; Matsumura, Taiki; Bilotkach, Volodymyr; Haftka, Raphael T; Kim, Nam H

    2017-01-17

    The U.S. Department of Transportation is responsible for implementing new safety improvements and regulations with the goal of ensuring limited funds are distributed to where they can have the greatest impact on safety. In this work, we conduct a study of new regulations and other reactions (such as recalls) to fatal accidents in several different modes of transportation implemented from 2002 to 2009. We find that in the safest modes of commercial aviation and bus transport, the amount of spending on new regulations is high in relation to the number of fatalities compared to the regulatory attention received by less safe modes of general aviation and private automobiles. Additionally, we study two major fatal accident investigations from commercial aviation and two major automotive recalls associated with fatal accidents. We find differences in the cost per expected fatality prevented for these reactions, with the airline accident investigations being more cost effective. Overall, we observe trends in both the automotive and aviation sectors that suggest that public transportation receives more regulatory attention than private transport. We also observe that the types of safety remedies utilized, regulation versus investigation, have varying levels of effectiveness in different transport modes. We suggest that these differences are indicative of increased public demand for safety in modes where a third party may be held responsible, even for those not participating in the transportation. These findings have important implications for the transportation industry, policymakers, and for estimating the public demand for safety in new transport modes.

  13. TWRS phase I privatization site environmental baseline and characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Shade, J.W.

    1997-09-01

    This document provides a plan to characterize and develop an environmental baseline for the TWRS Phase I Privatization Site before construction begins. A site evaluation study selected the former Grout Disposal Area of the Grout Treatment Facility in the 200 East Area as the TWRS Phase I Demonstration Site. The site is generally clean and has not been used for previous activities other than the GTF. A DQO process was used to develop a Sampling and Analysis Plan that would allow comparison of site conditions during operations and after Phase I ends to the presently existing conditions and provide data for the development of a preoperational monitoring plan.

  14. Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Hazardous and Radioactive Air Emissions Sampling and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    MULKEY, C.H.

    1999-07-06

    This document describes the results of the data quality objective (DQO) process undertaken to define data needs for state and federal requirements associated with toxic, hazardous, and/or radiological air emissions under the jurisdiction of the River Protection Project (RPP). Hereafter, this document is referred to as the Air DQO. The primary drivers for characterization under this DQO are the regulatory requirements pursuant to Washington State regulations, that may require sampling and analysis. The federal regulations concerning air emissions are incorporated into the Washington State regulations. Data needs exist for nonradioactive and radioactive waste constituents and characteristics as identified through the DQO process described in this document. The purpose is to identify current data needs for complying with regulatory drivers for the measurement of air emissions from RPP facilities in support of air permitting. These drivers include best management practices; similar analyses may have more than one regulatory driver. This document should not be used for determining overall compliance with regulations because the regulations are in constant change, and this document may not reflect the latest regulatory requirements. Regulatory requirements are also expected to change as various permits are issued. Data needs require samples for both radionuclides and nonradionuclide analytes of air emissions from tanks and stored waste containers. The collection of data is to support environmental permitting and compliance, not for health and safety issues. This document does not address health or safety regulations or requirements (those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration or the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health) or continuous emission monitoring systems. This DQO is applicable to all equipment, facilities, and operations under the jurisdiction of RPP that emit or have the potential to emit regulated air pollutants.

  15. Privatizing Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerrard, Jane; Bolt, Nancy; Strege, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This timely special report from ALA Editions provides a succinct but comprehensive overview of the "privatization" of public libraries. It provides a history of the trend of local and state governments privatizing public services and assets, and then examines the history of public library privatization right up to the California…

  16. Private Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Brian T., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the expanding role of the rehabilitation counselor into private sector rehabilitation in the seven articles of this special issue. Topics cover private rehabilitation in an insurance context including forensics issues, computer applications, recent trends, services in a multiprogram private clinic, and rehabilitation counselor training.…

  17. SRNL PHASE 1 ASSESSMENT OF THE WAC/DQO AND UNIT OPERATIONS FOR THE WTP WASTE QUALIFICATION PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Peeler, D.; Adamson, D.; Bannochie, C.; Cozzi, A.; Eibling, R.; Hay, M.; Hansen, E.; Herman, D.; Martino, C.; Nash, C.; Pennebaker, F.; Poirier, M.; Reboul, S.; Stone, M.; Taylor-Pashow, K.; White, T.; Wilmarth, B.

    2012-05-16

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is currently transitioning its emphasis from a design and construction phase toward start-up and commissioning. With this transition, the WTP Project has initiated more detailed assessments of the requirements related to actual processing of the Hanford Site tank waste. One particular area of interest is the waste qualification program to be implemented to support the WTP. Given the successful implementation of similar waste qualification efforts at the Savannah River Site (SRS), based on critical technical support and guidance from the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), WTP requested the utilization of subject matter experts from SRNL to support a technology exchange to perform a review of the WTP waste qualification program, discuss the general qualification approach at SRS, and to identify critical lessons learned through the support of DWPF's sludge batch qualification efforts. As part of Phase 1, SRNL subject matter experts in critical technical and/or process areas reviewed specific WTP waste qualification information. The Phase 1 review was a collaborative, interactive, and iterative process between the two organizations. WTP provided specific analytical procedures, descriptions of equipment, and general documentation as baseline review material. SRNL subject matter experts reviewed the information and, as appropriate, requested follow-up information or clarification to specific areas of interest. This process resulted in multiple teleconferences with key technical contacts from both organizations resolving technical issues that lead to the results presented in this report. This report provides the results of SRNL's Phase 1 review of the WAC-DQO waste acceptance criteria and processability parameters, and the specific unit operations which are required to support WTP waste qualification efforts. The review resulted in SRNL providing concurrence, alternative methods, or gap identification

  18. Tank 241-AY-101 Privatization Push Mode Core Sampling and Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect

    TEMPLETON, A.M.

    2000-05-19

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for samples obtained from tank 241-AY-101. The purpose of this sampling event is to obtain information about the characteristics of the contents of 241-AY-101 required to satisfy ''Data Quality Objectives For RPP Privatization Phase I: Confirm Tank T Is An Appropriate Feed Source For High-Level Waste Feed Batch X(HLW DQO)' (Nguyen 1999a), ''Data Quality Objectives For TWRS Privatization Phase I: Confirm Tank T Is An Appropriate Feed Source For Low-Activity Waste Feed Butch X (LAW DQO) (Nguyen 1999b)'', ''Low Activity Waste and High-Level Waste Feed Data Quality Objectives (L&H DQO)'' (Patello et al. 1999), and ''Characterization Data Needs for Development, Design, and Operation of Retrieval Equipment Developed through the Data Quality Objective Process (Equipment DQO)'' (Bloom 1996). Special instructions regarding support to the LAW and HLW DQOs are provided by Baldwin (1999). Push mode core samples will be obtained from risers 15G and 150 to provide sufficient material for the chemical analyses and tests required to satisfy these data quality objectives. The 222-S Laboratory will extrude core samples; composite the liquids and solids; perform chemical analyses on composite and segment samples; archive half-segment samples; and provide sub-samples to the Process Chemistry Laboratory. The Process Chemistry Laboratory will prepare test plans and perform process tests to evaluate the behavior of the 241-AY-101 waste undergoing the retrieval and treatment scenarios defined in the applicable DQOs. Requirements for analyses of samples originating in the process tests will be documented in the corresponding test plans and are not within the scope of this SAP.

  19. Tank 241-AY-101 Privatization Push Mode Core Sampling and Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect

    TEMPLETON, A.M.

    2000-01-12

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for samples obtained from tank 241-AY-101. The purpose of this sampling event is to obtain information about the characteristics of the contents of 241-AY-101 required to satisfy Data Quality Objectives For RPP Privatization Phase I: Confirm Tank T Is An Appropriate Feed Source For High-Level Waste Feed Batch X(HLW DQO) (Nguyen 1999a), Data Quality Objectives For TWRS Privatization Phase I : Confirm Tank T Is An Appropriate Feed Source For Low-Activity Waste Feed Batch X (LAW DQO) (Nguyen 1999b), Low Activity Waste and High-Level Waste Feed Data Quality Objectives (L and H DQO) (Patello et al. 1999), and Characterization Data Needs for Development, Design, and Operation of Retrieval Equipment Developed through the Data Quality Objective Process (Equipment DQO) (Bloom 1996). Special instructions regarding support to the LAW and HLW DQOs are provided by Baldwin (1999). Push mode core samples will be obtained from risers 15G and 150 to provide sufficient material for the chemical analyses and tests required to satisfy these data quality objectives. The 222-S Laboratory will extrude core samples; composite the liquids and solids; perform chemical analyses on composite and segment samples; archive half-segment samples; and provide subsamples to the Process Chemistry Laboratory. The Process Chemistry Laboratory will prepare test plans and perform process tests to evaluate the behavior of the 241-AY-101 waste undergoing the retrieval and treatment scenarios defined in the applicable DQOs. Requirements for analyses of samples originating in the process tests will be documented in the corresponding test plans and are not within the scope of this SAP.

  20. Quality of Life with Macular Degeneration Is Not as Dark as It May Seem: Patients' Perceptions of the MacDQoL Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Ord, Lisa M; Wright, JoAnne; DeAngelis, Margaret M; Feehan, Michael

    2015-09-22

    To determine the perceived relevance and value of an individualized measure of the impact of macular degeneration on quality of life (QoL) for elderly people with Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) in the USA, through the assessment of the suitability of the measure's domains and by gaining a deeper insight into the impact of AMD on patients' QoL vis-á-vis these domains, community-dwelling older adults in the metropolitan Salt Lake City, Utah area were interviewed using the macular degeneration on quality of life (MacDQoL) instrument. Participants felt that the MacDQoL was a relevant instrument for use in this US study population, though it could be improved by adding items pertaining to transportation, and independent driving, in particular, as an important QoL indicator. The emerging theme from analysis of the respondent's commentary was that, in spite of AMD, these respondents were committed to engage in, and enjoy life. This is an important concept for clinicians and those who offer support programs to integrate into their care planning and reinforce in messaging to patients with the condition.

  1. Quality of Life with Macular Degeneration Is Not as Dark as It May Seem: Patients’ Perceptions of the MacDQoL Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Ord, Lisa M.; Wright, JoAnne; DeAngelis, Margaret M.; Feehan, Michael

    2015-01-01

    To determine the perceived relevance and value of an individualized measure of the impact of macular degeneration on quality of life (QoL) for elderly people with Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) in the USA, through the assessment of the suitability of the measure’s domains and by gaining a deeper insight into the impact of AMD on patients’ QoL vis-á-vis these domains, community-dwelling older adults in the metropolitan Salt Lake City, Utah area were interviewed using the macular degeneration on quality of life (MacDQoL) instrument. Participants felt that the MacDQoL was a relevant instrument for use in this US study population, though it could be improved by adding items pertaining to transportation, and independent driving, in particular, as an important QoL indicator. The emerging theme from analysis of the respondent’s commentary was that, in spite of AMD, these respondents were committed to engage in, and enjoy life. This is an important concept for clinicians and those who offer support programs to integrate into their care planning and reinforce in messaging to patients with the condition. PMID:26402711

  2. Public-Private Partnerships for Depot-Level Maintenance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-01

    reviews public - private partnerships for depot-level maintenance and leases of DoD depot-level facilities. The Services have used a number of authorities to establish these public-private statutory and regulatory authorities.

  3. Nuclear privatization

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffs, E.

    1995-11-01

    The United Kingdom government announced in May 1995 plans to privatize the country`s two nuclear generating companies, Nuclear Electric and Scottish Nuclear. Under the plan, the two companies will become operating divisions of a unified holding company, to be called British Electric, with headquarters in Scotland. Britain`s nuclear plants were left out of the initial privatization in 1989 because the government believed the financial community would be unwilling to accept the open-ended liability of decommissioning the original nine stations based on the Magnox gas-cooled reactor. Six years later, the government has found a way around this by retaining these power stations in state ownership, leaving the new nuclear company with the eight Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) stations and the recently completed Sizewell B PWR stations. The operating Magnox stations are to be transferred to BNFL, which operates two Magnox stations of their own at Calder Hall and Chapelcross.

  4. Peru privatizes

    SciTech Connect

    Suttil, K.R.

    1993-02-01

    Peru has been undergoing a revolution since the election of Alberto Fujimori as president in 1990. A revolution that is reversing many of the policies of the past 25 years and one which aims to bring Peru back into the mainstream of the world economy. All the enterprises nationalized in the heady days of the early 1970s are set up for privatization. The most important are the three mining companies: Hierro-Peru, Centromin, and Mineroo-Peru. It will not be easy to attract foreign investment after such a long period of political and economic instability but the rewards are there for the intrepid.

  5. Regulatory Foci and Organizational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markovits, Yannis; Ullrich, Johannes; van Dick, Rolf; Davis, Ann J.

    2008-01-01

    We use regulatory focus theory to derive specific predictions regarding the differential relationships between regulatory focus and commitment. We estimated a structural equation model using a sample of 520 private and public sector employees and found in line with our hypotheses that (a) promotion focus related more strongly to affective…

  6. Privatization and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dash, Neena

    2009-01-01

    This paper highlights emerging trends, programmes and policies in privatization of education in Western countries. These trends are educational vouchers, choice of private schools, private school liberalization, private contracting of specific services, tuition tax credits and deductions for parents ,subsidies and assistance grants to private…

  7. Rationales for regulatory activity

    SciTech Connect

    Perhac, R.M.

    1997-02-01

    The author provides an outline which touches on the types of concerns about risk evaluation which are addressed in the process of establishing regulatory guides. Broadly he says regulatory activity serves three broad constituents: (1) Paternalism (private risk); (2) Promotion of social welfare (public risks); (3) Protection of individual rights (public risks). He then discusses some of the major issues encountered in reaching a decision on what is an acceptable level of risk within each of these areas, and how one establishes such a level.

  8. Private Education in Poland: Breaking the Mould?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klus-Stanska, Dorota; Olek, Hilary

    1998-03-01

    The burgeoning private sector is perhaps the most tangible of the changes in education which followed the upheavals of 1989/90 in Central and Eastern Europe. This article sets out to analyse the growth of private education in Poland and its contribution to the ongoing processes of democratisation and educational development. The authors argue that the euphoria of the period immediately following the overthrow of one-party communism encouraged unrealistic expectations of educational reform. Their analysis of private sector schooling in Poland suggests that its development has occurred in a haphazard fashion, reflecting the uncertainties of a society undergoing a painful process of transition. Symptomatic of this has been the failure to establish a clear regulatory framework for the private sector - an omission which has undermined the credibility of private schools. Nevertheless, the authors argue that the development of private sector schooling in Poland has brought diversity and a degree of innovation to a system previously almost devoid of either. There is now an urgent need for the evaluation and dissemination of private sector initiatives, which can serve as examples for future educational decision-making in Poland.

  9. Privatization in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehfuss, John

    1995-01-01

    Privatization calls for substantially trimming the scope and breadth of government services, replacing them with private or other nongovernmental operators. The attraction of privatization is reduced costs and increased management flexibility. To date, the arrangement has received substantial support from students and parents in situations that…

  10. The Effectiveness of Regulatory Disclosure Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, David; Fung, Archon; Graham, Mary; Fagotto, Elena

    2006-01-01

    Regulatory transparency--mandatory disclosure of information by private or public institutions with a regulatory intent--has become an important frontier of government innovation. This paper assesses the effectiveness of such transparency systems by examining the design and impact of financial disclosure, nutritional labeling, workplace hazard…

  11. Maintaining high-volume, low-pressure surface-coating regulatory compliance using the U.s. Environmental Protection Agency's data quality objectives process.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Michael J; Palmer, Glenn R; Peters, Scott; Olivas, Arthur C; Nelson, Tim M

    2005-03-01

    To effectively reduce the environmental compliance costs associated with meeting specific requirements under the Aerospace Manufacturing and Rework Facility's National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants rule, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Data Quality Objective (DQO) process has been proposed as a suitable framework for developing a scientifically defensible surface compliance monitoring program. By estimating the variability associated with the air cap pressure of high- volume, low-pressure (HVLP) surface-coating spray equipment, the number of monitoring samples necessary for an affected facility to claim compliance with a desired statistical confidence level was established. Using data taken from the pilot test facility, the DQO process indicated that the mean of at least 21 HVLP air cap pressure samples taken over the compliance period must be < or = 10 pounds per square inch (psig) gauge for the facility to claim regulatory compliance with 99.99% statistical confidence. Fewer compliance samples could be taken, but that decision would lead to a commensurate reduction in the compliance confidence level. Implementation of the DQO-based compliance sampling plan eliminates the need for an affected facility to sample all regulated HVLP surface-coating processes while still maintaining a high level of compliance assurance.

  12. The Limits of Privatization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Paul

    Transferring public services and public assets to private ownership is not an entirely new idea. Governments at all levels in the United States have for years contracted out many services. However, under the recently coined label "privatization," such policies now come recommended as a more comprehensive approach to the problems of…

  13. Women and Private Pensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Helene A.

    This speech focuses on women and private pension plans, such as private pension coverage and smaller benefit amounts. Pension issues affecting women as employees include participation in plans, vesting, break-in service, benefit accruals, integration with Social Security, sex-based actuarial tables, portability, inflation, and individual…

  14. Private Speech in Ballet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Dale

    2006-01-01

    Authoritarian teaching practices in ballet inhibit the use of private speech. This paper highlights the critical importance of private speech in the cognitive development of young ballet students, within what is largely a non-verbal art form. It draws upon research by Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky and contemporary socioculturalists, to…

  15. Laboring through Privatization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushweller, Kevin

    1994-01-01

    Hiring private contractors to manage school support services, such as food, maintenance, and busing, is a growing trend. Companies such as Marriott Corp., ServiceMaster, ARA Services, and Laidlaw Transit report that school business is steadily increasing. Unions staunchly oppose privatization. This article balances advantages and disadvantages,…

  16. Public Values, Private Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devins, Neal E.

    Controversy surrounding private education involves questions of compulsory education's role in inculcating values, how much alike public and private schools should be, and the duty of educational institutions to conform to constitutional norms. This book examines government regulation and resistance, legislative and judicial approaches, and issues…

  17. Dialogue on private events

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, David C.; Eshleman, John; Brandon, Paul; Layng, T. V. Joe; McDonough, Christopher; Michael, Jack; Schoneberger, Ted; Stemmer, Nathan; Weitzman, Ray; Normand, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    In the fall of 2003, the authors corresponded on the topic of private events on the listserv of the Verbal Behavior Special Interest Group. Extracts from that correspondence raised questions about the role of response amplitude in determining units of analysis, whether private events can be investigated directly, and whether covert behavior differs from other behavior except in amplitude. Most participants took a cautious stance, noting not only conceptual pitfalls and empirical difficulties in the study of private events, but doubting the value of interpretive exercises about them. Others argued that despite such obstacles, in domains where experimental analyses cannot be done, interpretation of private events in the light of laboratory principles is the best that science can offer. One participant suggested that the notion that private events can be behavioral in nature be abandoned entirely; as an alternative, the phenomena should be reinterpreted only as physiological events. PMID:22477293

  18. SUCCESSFUL PRIVATIZATION OF HANFORD SITE FABRICATION SERVICES

    SciTech Connect

    KELLY, D.S.

    2004-11-18

    This paper describes the elements of Fluor Hanford's successful privatization of a major support services function. The privatization has accelerated the closure of the Department of Energy's Hanford Site by streamlining operations and using the realized cost savings to maintain the accelerated schedules set by the Department of Energy (DOE) and other regulatory stakeholders. Issues with worker demographics, future workload forecasting, budget optimization, and long-term community economic development were key components to Fluor Hanford's decision to choose the controversial and difficult pathway of outsourcing a Cold War legacy function to a private company. Many privatization efforts are abandoned in the preliminary planning stages due to extreme risk: frequently the final return on investment is less than anticipated. In this case, Fluor Hanford has successfully leveraged onsite assets to support the ongoing clean-up mission, provide potential long-term employment for the displaced workforce as site closure progresses, and establish a manufacturing base supporting the local economy. Based on several factors, which are described in this paper, the privatization of the Hanford Site Fabrication Services to an offsite vendor operating a large local business unit has been successful for virtually all of the stakeholders.

  19. Latin American privatization

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.; Hennagir, T.; Hernandez, L.A. Jr. )

    1994-01-01

    Fundamental change is reshaping the Latin America power sector as governments explore new and improved privatization schemes. Latin American power markets are second in size only to those found in Asia. As the region grows and capacity needs increase, governments are turning to private power as a way to meet new demands for electric energy. Following the privatization model initiated by Chile, an increasing number of Latin American countries are following suit with an array of private power schemes for their state-owned utilities. The move means great opportunities for developers willing to enter this growing market. The recently established Scudder Latin American Trust for Independent Power is a prime example of new equity players becoming involved in this region. In Chile, the privatization process started more than 12 years ago. Currently, the power sector has been fully restructured to concentrate price and quality regulation on transmission and distribution, leaving generation and sales to a marketplace largely in the hands of the private sector. Furthermore, the Chilean government controls only about 15 percent of the installed generation in the country, so there is free-flow in this segment of the industry or a free market modality.

  20. [Private practice nursing, reacting in emergency situations. Private practice nursing, reacting in emergency situations].

    PubMed

    Royère, Cécile; Allonneau, Alexandre; Genotelle, Nicolas; Lefort, Hugues

    2016-01-01

    Private practice professionals providing care in patients' homes are often isolated. The care is controlled by a multidisciplinary care network. In the event of a life-threatening emergency, the Aide Médicale Urgente control centre activates if necessary the rapid intervention of emergency services. An accurate assessment, the anticipation of an emergency transfer to hospital and knowledge of the regulatory framework ensure the patient is handled efficiently and respectfully.

  1. Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Dangerous Waste Sampling and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    MULKEY, C.H.

    1999-07-02

    This document describes sampling and analytical requirements needed to meet state and federal regulations for dangerous waste (DW). The River Protection Project (RPP) is assigned to the task of storage and interim treatment of hazardous waste. Any final treatment or disposal operations, as well as requirements under the land disposal restrictions (LDRs), fall in the jurisdiction of another Hanford organization and are not part of this scope. The requirements for this Data Quality Objective (DQO) Process were developed using the RPP Data Quality Objective Procedure (Banning 1996), which is based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Guidance for the Data Quality Objectives Process (EPA 1994). Hereafter, this document is referred to as the DW DQO. Federal and state laws and regulations pertaining to waste contain requirements that are dependent upon the composition of the waste stream. These regulatory drivers require that pertinent information be obtained. For many requirements, documented process knowledge of a waste composition can be used instead of analytical data to characterize or designate a waste. When process knowledge alone is used to characterize a waste, it is a best management practice to validate the information with analytical measurements.

  2. Public-private partnerships for innovative technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Nehoda, D.J.; Fitzpatrick, E.S.; McNelly, G.E.; Holland, M.J.; Peters, E.; Powell, D.M.

    1994-12-31

    Most environmental restoration and remediation efforts rely on relatively few existing technologies to accomplish soil and groundwater cleanup. The concept of partnerships to solve common problems is neither new nor unusual. Organizations from private companies to nations have worked together in many facets of society from joint business ventures to military alliances. In one of the most pervasive problems facing society today, environmental contamination and restoration, responsible parties, including the Federal government, work in isolation in their environmental restoration efforts, often at odds with the regulatory community charged with enforcing the cleanup. By forming public-private partnerships which include the regulators to guide the design, construction and evaluation of innovative technologies, the partners are able to bring collective expertise, experience, and resources to bear on the problem. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how partnerships between the Federal government, private companies, and regulators can cooperatively implement and evaluate innovative technologies. By identifying and implementing innovative technologies to improve site remediation at a Federal facility, the partnership seeks to develop better remedies for similarly contaminated sites in both the public and private sectors.

  3. An Inspector Calls: The Regulation of 'Budget' Private Schools in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooley, J.; Dixon, P.

    2005-01-01

    Research explored the regulatory regime, both 'on paper' and 'in practice', for private unaided schools serving low-income families ('budget' private schools), in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. Interviews were conducted with school managers, teachers, parents, and senior government officials and politicians. A Supreme Court Judgement rules out…

  4. Private Universities and Public Funding: Models and Business Plans. Policy Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Roger

    2008-01-01

    The growth of private higher education has come as a surprise to most governments, which have tried to catch up in their regulatory and funding policymaking. In China, Malaysia and South Africa they have given legal recognition to previously disallowed private higher education and this has helped to fuel its subsequent growth. Some governments…

  5. Privatization and Educational Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Myron

    This book describes how and why educational choice movements will affect public education. It uses a public-choice approach to argue that both the supporters and opponents of private and school choice have failed to address several critical issues. Following an introductory chapter, chapter 2 is devoted to the rationale for contracting out…

  6. Private Stimuli, Covert Responses, and Private Events: Conceptual Remarks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tourinho, E. Z.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I discuss the concepts of "private stimuli," "covert responses," and "private events," emphasizing three aspects: the conditions under which private stimuli may acquire discriminative functions to verbal responses, the conditions of unobservability of covert responses, and the complexity of events or phenomena described as…

  7. Film Images of Private Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, David

    2000-01-01

    Examines public debate over private education in the context of the Hollywood dramatic feature film. Analyses four recent films that all portray private schools negatively. Film representation of public schools is more optimistic. Asserts that the films ignore or misrepresent three strengths of private education: effective leadership, small school…

  8. Stimuli, Reinforcers, and Private Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevin, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Radical behaviorism considers private events to be a part of ongoing observable behavior and to share the properties of public events. Although private events cannot be measured directly, their roles in overt action can be inferred from mathematical models that relate private responses to external stimuli and reinforcers according to the same…

  9. Meeting Regulatory Needs.

    PubMed

    Weber, Michael Fred

    2017-02-01

    The world is experiencing change at an unprecedented pace, as reflected in social, cultural, economic, political, and technological advances around the globe. Regulatory agencies, like the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), must also transform in response to and in preparation for these changes. In 2014, the NRC staff commenced Project Aim 2020 to transform the agency by enhancing efficiency, agility, and responsiveness, while accomplishing NRC's safety and security mission. Following Commission review and approval in 2015, the NRC began implementing the approved strategies, including strategic workforce planning to provide confidence that NRC will have employees with the right skills and talents at the right time to accomplish the agency's mission. Based on the work conducted so far, ensuring an adequate pipeline of radiation protection professionals is a significant need that NRC shares with states and other government agencies, private industry, academia, as well as international counterparts. NRC is working to ensure that sufficient radiation protection professionals will be available to fulfill its safety and security mission and leverage the work of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, the Health Physics Society, the Organization of Agreement States, the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Nuclear Energy Agency, and others.

  10. Mobile Virtual Private Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulkkis, Göran; Grahn, Kaj; Mårtens, Mathias; Mattsson, Jonny

    Mobile Virtual Private Networking (VPN) solutions based on the Internet Security Protocol (IPSec), Transport Layer Security/Secure Socket Layer (SSL/TLS), Secure Shell (SSH), 3G/GPRS cellular networks, Mobile IP, and the presently experimental Host Identity Protocol (HIP) are described, compared and evaluated. Mobile VPN solutions based on HIP are recommended for future networking because of superior processing efficiency and network capacity demand features. Mobile VPN implementation issues associated with the IP protocol versions IPv4 and IPv6 are also evaluated. Mobile VPN implementation experiences are presented and discussed.

  11. Robust Quantum Private Queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tian-Yin; Wang, Shu-Yu; Ma, Jian-Feng

    2016-07-01

    We propose a new quantum private query protocol with the technique of decoherence-free states, which is a theoretical study of how decoherence-free states can be used for the protection of quantum information in such a protocol. This protocol can solve the noise problem that will make the user obtain a wrong answer and hence give rise to a bad influence on the reputation of the database provider. Furthermore, this protocol is also flexible, loss-resistant and easily generalized to a large database similar to the previous works.

  12. Public-private interactions in global food safety governance.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Fu

    2014-01-01

    In response to an apparent decline in global food safety, numerous public and private regulatory initiatives have emerged to restore public confidence. This trend has been particularly marked by the growing influence of private regulators such as multinational food companies, supermarket chains and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), who employ private standards, certification protocols, third-party auditing, and transnational contracting practices. This paper explores how the structure and processes of private food safety governance interact with traditional public governance regimes, focusing on Global Good Agricultural Practices (GlobalGAP) as a primary example of the former. Due to the inefficiency and ineffectiveness of public regulation in the face of global problems, private governance in food safety has gradually replaced states' command-and-control regulation with more flexible, market-oriented mechanisms. The paper concludes by emphasizing the importance of constructive regime interaction instead of institutional boundary building to global food safety governance. Public and private ordering must each play a role as integral parts of a larger, dynamic and evolving governance complex.

  13. Medical practice integration: going big in private practice.

    PubMed

    Persley, Kimberly M; Jain, Rajeev

    2012-01-01

    Historically, gastroenterologists entered into solo, small group, or academic practices. The current economic environment and looming regulatory mandates have led to gastroenterologists integrating into large, single-specialty groups to acquire costly practice infrastructure, gain negotiating leverage with health plans, promote high-quality care, and benefit from professional practice management. Individual gastroenterologists must assess whether a large practice will meet their personal goals, financial needs, and professional visions. The decision to integrate into a large practice will also be affected by local practice patterns and regulatory issues. For these and other reasons, gastroenterologists are going big in private practice.

  14. Wastewater privatization: A beneficial alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Wakeman, R.F.; Drewry, W.A.

    1999-07-01

    Municipalities with wastewater operations face increasing requirements to maximize efficiency, implement capital improvements, and ensure environmental compliance. Privatization is a relatively unused alternative offering benefits in the areas of cost-effective operations, flexible financing, technology access, and compliance assurance. Recent executive direction and tax code changes have opened new doors for mutually beneficial public-private partnerships. Wastewater privatization has historically consisted of short-term contract agreements for treatment operations, but looming infrastructure recapitalization and development requirements have catalyzed an exploration of non-traditional alternatives that include private sector financing, development, and operation of entire wastewater systems, The purpose of this paper is to show why privatization must be considered, evaluate the different levels available, and generate an analytical aid for communities taking their first look at privatization opportunities.

  15. Bioremediation of chlorinated solvents through public-private partnerships

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, D.E.; Heitkamp, M.A.; Klecka, G.M.

    1995-12-31

    This paper provides an overview of the program activities of the Remediation Technology Development Forum (RTDF). The consortium is comprised of six private companies and three federal agencies. The program will demonstrate three in-situ processes for biodegradation of chlorinated solvents: cometabolic bioventing, intrinsic bioremediation, and accelerated anaerobic biodegradation. The program objectives are to demonstrate that these processes are effective, reliable, and cost efficient, and to achieve public and regulatory acceptance of these technologies.

  16. Private Stimuli, Covert Responses, and Private Events: Conceptual Remarks

    PubMed Central

    Tourinho, Emmanuel Zagury

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I discuss the concepts of private stimuli, covert responses, and private events, emphasizing three aspects: the conditions under which private stimuli may acquire discriminative functions to verbal responses, the conditions of unobservability of covert responses, and the complexity of events or phenomena described as private. I argue that the role of private stimuli in the control of self-descriptive verbal responses is dependent on a relation (correlation or equivalence relation) with public stimuli, and that responses vary along a continuum of observability. These remarks on private stimuli and covert responses are introductory to an examination of the varying complexity of phenomena described as private. I argue that private events is a verbal response emitted under the control of phenomena of different degrees of complexity, and I interpret these phenomena, based on the principle of selection by consequences. I introduce the notion of inclusiveness to suggest that some phenomena related to privacy are less or more complex as they include relations of a phylogenetic, ontogenetic, and cultural origin. PMID:22478451

  17. Differentially private distributed logistic regression using private and public data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Privacy protecting is an important issue in medical informatics and differential privacy is a state-of-the-art framework for data privacy research. Differential privacy offers provable privacy against attackers who have auxiliary information, and can be applied to data mining models (for example, logistic regression). However, differentially private methods sometimes introduce too much noise and make outputs less useful. Given available public data in medical research (e.g. from patients who sign open-consent agreements), we can design algorithms that use both public and private data sets to decrease the amount of noise that is introduced. Methodology In this paper, we modify the update step in Newton-Raphson method to propose a differentially private distributed logistic regression model based on both public and private data. Experiments and results We try our algorithm on three different data sets, and show its advantage over: (1) a logistic regression model based solely on public data, and (2) a differentially private distributed logistic regression model based on private data under various scenarios. Conclusion Logistic regression models built with our new algorithm based on both private and public datasets demonstrate better utility than models that trained on private or public datasets alone without sacrificing the rigorous privacy guarantee. PMID:25079786

  18. TWRS privatization bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this bibliography is to present a select set of documents that may be of interest to the Offeror, covering a variety of subject areas related to the TWRS Privatization Project. This bibliography is not, nor is intended to be, exhaustive or complete. It was prepared with the intent of providing a sampling of representative documents potentially helpful to Offerors. The documents referenced herein have been identified as representative of those potentially helpful to Offerors. This list of documents does not represent the full extent of available and potentially helpful information, nor should it be taken as a representation of documents determined to be of greater importance than other documents not referenced herein. There are numerous documents available to the public that are NOT cited in this bibliography; the Offeror is encouraged to perform searches for alternate sources of information.

  19. TWRS privatization bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this bibliography is to present a select set of documents that may be of interest to the Offeror, covering a variety of subject areas related to the TWRS Privatization Project. The organization of this bibliography is by subject area. Some of the documents overlap subject areas, and may be presented in more than one. Additionally, assignment of a document to one subject area does not necessarily preclude that document from containing information relevant to other subject areas not identified. The subject areas include, in order of presentation:. Waste Characterization; Pre-treatment; High-level Waste Immobilization; Low-level Waste Immobilization; Low-level Waste Melter Test Program; Performance Assessment; and General Safety.

  20. Regulatory Forum.

    PubMed

    Peden, W Michael

    2016-12-01

    Revision of the International Council for Harmonization (ICH) S1 guidance for rat carcinogenicity studies to be more selective of compounds requiring a 2-year rat carcinogenicity study has been proposed following extensive evaluation of rat carcinogenicity and chronic toxicity studies by industry and drug regulatory authorities. To inform the ICH S1 expert working group in their potential revision of ICH S1, a prospective evaluation study was initiated in 2013, in which sponsors would assess the pharmacologic and toxicologic findings present in the chronic toxicity studies and predict a positive or negative carcinogenicity outcome using a weight of evidence argument (a carcinogenicity assessment document [CAD]). The Scientific and Regulatory Policy Committee was asked by the Society of Toxicology Pathology (STP) executive committee to track these changes with ICH S1 and inform the STP membership of status changes. This commentary is intended to provide a brief summary of recent changes to the CAD guidance and highlight the importance of STP membership participation in the process of CAD submissions.

  1. Michigan School Privatization Survey 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohman, James M.; Anderson, Dustin D.

    2010-01-01

    Privatization of support services has been a method that Michigan school districts have used for several years to lower costs. More than ever before, Michigan school districts are privatizing the three main support services they offer--food, custodial and transportation. The annual survey finds that 48.8 percent of Michigan school districts are…

  2. Public/Private Partnership Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Public Schools, Washington, DC.

    This document presents the Public/Private Partnership Programs, a school-community project developed in 1981 by the District of Columbia public schools and the private sector community to provide career-focused high school programs. The project was designed to motivate and support young people to stay in school, graduate from high school, and…

  3. Private Faith and Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trigg, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Must faith be privatized? Taken at face value, this could seem a curious question, since no one is in a position to "sell off" any religion to private interests, in the way that, for example, British Rail was dismembered. Yet the question is an important one in a contemporary society, characterized as it is by a significant divergence of views…

  4. The Future of Private Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Norward J.

    While the elite private colleges may survive the enrollment declines of the 1980's and 1990's, the less elite, so-called invisible private colleges may have more difficulty. Finance, enrollment, and competition are the three major elements seen to threaten these institutions' futures. They face an uncertain financial future since historically they…

  5. The Law and Private Police.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakalik, James S.; Wildhorn, Sorrel

    This report is one of a series of five describing a 16-month study of the nature and extent of the private police industry in the United States, its problems, its present regulation, and how the law impinges on it. A general discussion of the sources of legal limitations upon private police activities and personnel and sources of legal powers is…

  6. Signed Soliloquy: Visible Private Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Kathrin; Brugger, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Talking to oneself can be silent (inner speech) or vocalized for others to hear (private speech, or soliloquy). We investigated these two types of self-communication in 28 deaf signers and 28 hearing adults. With a questionnaire specifically developed for this study, we established the visible analog of vocalized private speech in deaf signers.…

  7. Private Loans: Facts and Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for College Access & Success, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Private loans are one of the riskiest ways to finance a college education. Like credit cards, they typically have variable interest rates. Both variable and fixed rates are higher for those who can least afford them--as high as 13% in June 2014. Private loans are not eligible for the important deferment, income-based repayment, or loan forgiveness…

  8. Transforming regulatory science 2012: making a difference.

    PubMed

    Goodman, J L

    2012-03-01

    "What does not change is the will to change."-Charles Olson, "The Kingfishers"The world is in the midst of scientific revolutions that can transform medicine and public health. Yet translation to needed products remains slow and expensive. There are major opportunities for new regulatory science to help transform product development and evaluation. A plan by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), "Advancing Regulatory Science," identifies eight priorities and numerous actions to help catalyze transformation. Scientific excellence and collaboration, including public and private sectors, are essential for change that benefits health and economies globally.

  9. Analysis of debt leveraging in private power projects

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, E.P.; Meal, M.; Doerrer, S.; Morse, S.

    1992-08-01

    As private power has grown to become a significant part of the electricity system, increasing concern about its financial implications has arisen. In many cases, the source of this concern has been the substantial reliance of these projects on debt financing. This study examines debt leveraging in private power projects. The policy debate on these issues has typically been conducted at a high level of generality. Critics of the private power industry assert that high debt leveraging confers an unfair competitive advantage by lowering the cost of capital. This leveraging is only possible because risks are shifted to the utility. Further, debt leveraging is claimed to be a threat to reliability. On the opposite side, it is argued that debt leveraging imposes costs and obligations not borne by utilities, and so there is no financial advantage. The private producers also argue that on balance more risk is shifted away from utilities than to them, and that incentives for reliability are strong. In this study we examine the project finance mechanisms used in private power lending in detail, relying on a sample of actual loan documents. This review and its findings should be relevant to the further evolution of this debate. State regulatory commissions are likely to be interested in it, and Federal legislation to amend the Public Utility Holding Company Act (PUHCA) could require states to consider the implications of debt leveraging in relation to their oversight of utility power purchase programs.

  10. Regulatory Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes the term “safety logics” to understand attempts within the European Union (EU) to harmonize member state legislation to ensure a safe and stable supply of human biological material for transplants and transfusions. With safety logics, I refer to assemblages of discourses, legal documents, technological devices, organizational structures, and work practices aimed at minimizing risk. I use this term to reorient the analytical attention with respect to safety regulation. Instead of evaluating whether safety is achieved, the point is to explore the types of “safety” produced through these logics as well as to consider the sometimes unintended consequences of such safety work. In fact, the EU rules have been giving rise to complaints from practitioners finding the directives problematic and inadequate. In this article, I explore the problems practitioners face and why they arise. In short, I expose the regulatory anatomy of the policy landscape. PMID:26139952

  11. Regulatory Physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Putcha, Lakshmi; Baker, Ellen; Smith, Scott M.; Stewart, Karen; Gretebeck, Randall; Nimmagudda, R. R.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Davis-Street, Janis

    1999-01-01

    As noted elsewhere in this report, a central goal of the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was to ensure that cardiovascular and muscle function were adequate to perform an emergency egress after 16 days of spaceflight. The goals of the Regulatory Physiology component of the EDOMP were to identify and subsequently ameliorate those biochemical and nutritional factors that deplete physiological reserves or increase risk for disease, and to facilitate the development of effective muscle, exercise, and cardiovascular countermeasures. The component investigations designed to meet these goals focused on biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrition and metabolism, the risk of renal (kidney) stone formation, gastrointestinal function, and sleep in space. Investigations involved both ground-based protocols to validate proposed methods and flight studies to test those methods. Two hardware tests were also completed.

  12. 75 FR 49932 - Private Transfer Fee Covenants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... AGENCY Private Transfer Fee Covenants AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Guidance, ``Guidance on Private Transfer Fee Covenants,'' to the Federal National Mortgage Association... mortgages on properties encumbered by private transfer fee covenants. Such covenants appear adverse...

  13. Private Information and Insurance Rejections

    PubMed Central

    Hendren, Nathaniel

    2013-01-01

    Across a wide set of non-group insurance markets, applicants are rejected based on observable, often high-risk, characteristics. This paper argues that private information, held by the potential applicant pool, explains rejections. I formulate this argument by developing and testing a model in which agents may have private information about their risk. I first derive a new no-trade result that theoretically explains how private information could cause rejections. I then develop a new empirical methodology to test whether this no-trade condition can explain rejections. The methodology uses subjective probability elicitations as noisy measures of agents beliefs. I apply this approach to three non-group markets: long-term care, disability, and life insurance. Consistent with the predictions of the theory, in all three settings I find significant amounts of private information held by those who would be rejected; I find generally more private information for those who would be rejected relative to those who can purchase insurance; and I show it is enough private information to explain a complete absence of trade for those who would be rejected. The results suggest private information prevents the existence of large segments of these three major insurance markets. PMID:24187381

  14. Relativistic quantum private database queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Si-Jia; Yang, Yu-Guang; Zhang, Ming-Ou

    2015-04-01

    Recently, Jakobi et al. (Phys Rev A 83, 022301, 2011) suggested the first practical private database query protocol (J-protocol) based on the Scarani et al. (Phys Rev Lett 92, 057901, 2004) quantum key distribution protocol. Unfortunately, the J-protocol is just a cheat-sensitive private database query protocol. In this paper, we present an idealized relativistic quantum private database query protocol based on Minkowski causality and the properties of quantum information. Also, we prove that the protocol is secure in terms of the user security and the database security.

  15. Stimuli, Reinforcers, and Private Events

    PubMed Central

    Nevin, John A

    2008-01-01

    Radical behaviorism considers private events to be a part of ongoing observable behavior and to share the properties of public events. Although private events cannot be measured directly, their roles in overt action can be inferred from mathematical models that relate private responses to external stimuli and reinforcers according to the same quantitative relations that characterize public operant behavior. This approach is illustrated by a model of attending to stimuli and to anticipated reinforcers in delayed matching to sample, in which the probabilities of attending are related to reinforcer rates by an expression derived from research on behavioral momentum. PMID:22478505

  16. State Regulation of Private Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lines, Patricia M.

    1982-01-01

    Examines state laws and the actions of various courts on home instruction and unauthorized educational programs. Suggests reforming the regulation of private education through legislative action that requires periodic testing as an alternative to compulsory school attendance. (Author/MLF)

  17. What Future for Private Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cath Sch J, 1970

    1970-01-01

    After examining a small private school (Norwood Academy, Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia) a group of leading educators give their answers to questions about its future and the future of such schools in general. (Editor)

  18. Private Trade and Technical Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Christopher

    1983-01-01

    Among the advantages of private trade and technical schools is their market orientation, a sensitivity to employers' current needs. Teachers recruited from industry, accelerated pace, flexible scheduling, and emphasis on job placement are other benefits found in proprietary schools. (SK)

  19. Privatization of Military Family Housing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Rev. 2-89) (EG) Proscribed by ANSI S IU . 239,1 PRIVATIZATION OF MILITARY FAMILY HOUSING MAJOR PATRICK W. MOUDY* * Major Patrick W. Moudy, United...amendments for Development of Private Sector Housing, Corpus Christi, Texas.29 Landmark Residential, LLC (Landmark) was the successful offeror for the...office, the JAG office, the Civil Engineering office, the Comptroller office, the environmental experts, and the housing office, as well as the command

  20. Joint Hearing on Privatizing Government Sponsored Entities (GSEs). Joint Hearing before the Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education, Training and Life-Long Learning of the Committee on Economic and Educational Opportunities and the Subcommittee on National Economic Growth, Natural Resources, and Regulatory Affairs of the Committee on Government Reform and Oversight. House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Economic and Educational Opportunities.

    This document is a congressional joint hearing report of a panel discussion exploring issues related to privatization of two government-sponsored entities (GSEs): the Student Loan Marketing Association (Sallie Mae) and the College Construction Loan Insurance Association (Connie Lee). The two issues specifically addressed by the panel were: (1)…

  1. The "Decline" of Private Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    No topic in private higher education study has attracted as great attention globally as has growth. This is appropriate as private growth has soared to nearly a third of the world's total higher education enrolment. But while private growth continues to be the dominant trend, important declines in private shares have emerged. These must be…

  2. How To Pick a Perfect Private School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unger, Harlow G.

    This book offers consumer information for parents who are considering enrolling their child in a private school. Beginning with a descriptive overview of private schools, the guide discusses advantages of private schools, how to finance a private school education, and how to determine a child's educational needs. The book offers criteria for…

  3. Private and social costs of surface mine reforestation performance criteria.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Jay; Amacher, Gregory S

    2010-02-01

    We study the potentially unnecessary costs imposed by strict performance standards for forest restoration of surface coal mines in the Appalachian region under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) that can vary widely across states. Both the unnecessary private costs to the mine operator and costs to society (social costs) are reported for two performance standards, a ground cover requirement, and a seedling survival target. These standards are examined using numerical analyses under a range of site productivity class and market conditions. We show that a strict (90%) ground cover standard may produce an unnecessary private cost of more than $700/ha and a social cost ranging from $428/ha to $710/ha, as compared with a 70% standard. A strict tree survival standard of 1235 trees/ha, as compared with the more typical 1087 trees/ha standard, may produce an unnecessary private cost of approximately $200/ha, and a social cost in the range of $120 to $208/ha. We conclude that strict performance standards may impose substantial unnecessary private costs and social costs, that strict performance standards may be discouraging the choice of forestry as a post-mining land use, and that opportunities exist for reform of reforestation performance standards. Our study provides a basis for evaluating tradeoffs between regulatory efficiency and optimal reforestation effort.

  4. The Regulatory Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... [The Regulatory Plan and Unified Agenda of Federal Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions] #7; #7; The Regulatory Plan #7; #7; ] OPEN GOVERNMENT AND EVIDENCE-BASED REGULATION There is a close connection, even an inextricable relationship, between open government and evidence- based regulation. If regulatory choices are based on careful analysis of...

  5. Umbilical cord blood donation: public or private?

    PubMed

    Ballen, K K; Verter, F; Kurtzberg, J

    2015-10-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is a graft source for patients with malignant or genetic diseases who can be cured by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), but who do not have an appropriately HLA-matched family or volunteer unrelated adult donor. Starting in the 1990s, unrelated UCB banks were established, accepting donations from term deliveries and storing UCB units for public use. An estimated 730 000 UCB units have been donated and stored to date and ~35 000 UCB transplants have been performed worldwide. Over the past 20 years, private and family banks have grown rapidly, storing ~4 million UCB units for a particular patient or family, usually charging an up-front and yearly storage fee; therefore, these banks are able to be financially sustainable without releasing UCB units. Private banks are not obligated to fulfill the same regulatory requirements of the public banks. The public banks have released ~30 times more UCB units for therapy. Some countries have transitioned to an integrated banking model, a hybrid of public and family banking. Today, pregnant women, their families, obstetrical providers and pediatricians are faced with multiple choices about the disposition of their newborn's cord blood. In this commentary, we review the progress of UCB banking technology; we also analyze the current data on pediatric and adult unrelated UCB, including the recent expansion of interest in transplantation for hemoglobinopathies, and discuss emerging studies on the use of autologous UCB for neurologic diseases and regenerative medicine. We will review worldwide approaches to UCB banking, ethical considerations, criteria for public and family banking, integrated banking ideas and future strategies for UCB banking.

  6. Relationships among Private Speech and Creativity in Head Start and Low-Socioeconomic Status Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Martha; White, C. Stephen

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore Vygotsky's notion of private speech as a cognitive self-regulatory process and how it related to creativity measures among at-risk children. Thirty-two Head Start and state-funded Pre-K children completed the Torrance creativity test Thinking Creatively in Action and Movement (TCAM). The children's private…

  7. Comparison of Environmental Remediation Contracting Approaches between the Department of Defense and the Private Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-12-01

    35 IV. SWOT ANALYSIS .........................................................................................................37...weaknesses, opportunities, and threats ( SWOT ) analysis to determine the best approaches utilized by DOD and the private sector. The results of the SWOT ...down-sizing efforts were completed under the same regulatory guidance, same real estate market, and with the same pressures from the public for a

  8. Private Pre-University Education in Romania: Mixing Control with Lack of Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanus, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    This paper approaches private provision of pre-university education in Romania, exploring available data on the sector's size and main characteristics and evaluating the extent to which the current regulatory framework enables positive effects in terms of freedom of choice, quality, equity, and social cohesion. The paper argues that the lack of a…

  9. Public or private water management: Experience from different European Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wackerbauer, Johann

    2008-11-01

    Faced with liberalisation proposals and an increasing internationalisation of water resource management, the question arises as to how a change of the regulatory framework would affect the market structure and the supply conditions in this area. While the term "privatisation" relates to the ownership structure of the providers, the term "liberalisation" implies extensive free market ideas. Privatisation involves the outsourcing of public services from the public authorities to a privately organised organisation. Through this, however, nothing needs to change in terms of the market or the intensity of competition for the commodity in question. Within the framework of privatisation it can also occur that the public monopoly is only transferred to a private monopoly. The term "liberalisation" in addition refers to the basic regulatory constraints: liberalisation signifies the cessation of limitations to competition and supply monopolies, and open competition between several suppliers for the consumers. In the EU-15, the only country where the provision of operational services in the water supply has been totally passed to the private sector is the UK, but this is only true for UK and Wales. Another singular case is France, where there is a mix of mainly private operating companies and municipalities which have divided the regional supply areas among themselves. In six other EU-15 countries where some privatisation took place, either the municipalities or (majority) publicly owned companies are controlling water supply. In the remaining seven countries, the water supply is organised by municipality companies only. In an international comparison, there are three basic models for the regulation of natural monopolies in the public water supply: the Anglo-Saxon, the French and the German model. The delimitation between supervisory bodies and operations in the water supply is strongest in the first model and weakest in the last. This has led to three basic types of

  10. 20 CFR 661.400 - What is the purpose of the General Statutory and Regulatory Waiver Authority provided at section...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... statutory and regulatory waiver authority is to provide flexibility to States and local areas and enhance... the private sector; (6) Providing increased State and local flexibility to implement innovative...

  11. Financing of Private Outdoor Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    A survey of financial institutions was undertaken by the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation to evaluate the demand and availability of private credit for enterprises that provide outdoor recreation. The survey provided basic information for (1) evaluating legislative proposals for loan guarantee programs, (2) nationwide planning, and (3) assessing the…

  12. Education Private Practice. Fastback 451.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuelke, Dennis C.

    This fastback document examines small education businesses that provide direct and personal instructional service to clients. Although education private-practice enterprises have not received the attention that high-profile companies have commanded, there are thousands of such one- and two-person enterprises. These practices work with and support…

  13. Private Tutoring and Social Cohesion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyneman, Stephen P.

    2011-01-01

    Mastering the public school curriculum is so important to a child's occupational future that in many regions of the world "shadow" education outside of the public system has now become the norm. In one way, this is excellent news because private investment in human capital is a strong contributor to economic and social development.…

  14. Privatization and the Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Matthew T.

    2015-01-01

    After two centuries of public higher education in the United States, the covenant between public colleges and universities and the public that created and funded them is under strain. In a time of scarce resources and changing policy in many corners of the country and around the globe, privatization has emerged as a possible replacement for the…

  15. Differentially Private Frequent Subgraph Mining

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shengzhi; Xiong, Li; Cheng, Xiang; Xiao, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Mining frequent subgraphs from a collection of input graphs is an important topic in data mining research. However, if the input graphs contain sensitive information, releasing frequent subgraphs may pose considerable threats to individual's privacy. In this paper, we study the problem of frequent subgraph mining (FGM) under the rigorous differential privacy model. We introduce a novel differentially private FGM algorithm, which is referred to as DFG. In this algorithm, we first privately identify frequent subgraphs from input graphs, and then compute the noisy support of each identified frequent subgraph. In particular, to privately identify frequent subgraphs, we present a frequent subgraph identification approach which can improve the utility of frequent subgraph identifications through candidates pruning. Moreover, to compute the noisy support of each identified frequent subgraph, we devise a lattice-based noisy support derivation approach, where a series of methods has been proposed to improve the accuracy of the noisy supports. Through formal privacy analysis, we prove that our DFG algorithm satisfies ε-differential privacy. Extensive experimental results on real datasets show that the DFG algorithm can privately find frequent subgraphs with high data utility. PMID:27616876

  16. Public vs. Private (and beyond)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poliniak, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Different types of schools make for different experiences. Pros and cons abound, whether one teaches at a public, private, magnet, or charter school. Although it's certainly true that some individual schools may offer better environments for music education than others, no type of school is categorically the "best." Still, it can be instructive to…

  17. Michigan School Privatization Survey 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Daniel J.; LaFaive, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    From April 25 through June 30, 2007, the Mackinac Center for Public Policy conducted its fifth survey of the privatization of bus, food and janitorial services among Michigan's 552 conventional public school districts. All Michigan school districts responded. In 2007, the Mackinac Center also conducted a nationwide survey of state education…

  18. Financing a Private School Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    A recent National Association of Independent Schools (NAIS) survey of more than 1,200 individuals who filed financial aid forms underscores the central role financial aid plays in their ability to pursue a private education for their children. This article highlights the survey findings, demonstrating why school leaders need to thoroughly analyze…

  19. Prohibit, constrain, encourage, or purchase: how should we engage with the private health-care sector?

    PubMed

    Montagu, Dominic; Goodman, Catherine

    2016-08-06

    The private for-profit sector's prominence in health-care delivery, and concern about its failures to deliver social benefit, has driven a search for interventions to improve the sector's functioning. We review evidence for the effectiveness and limitations of such private sector interventions in low-income and middle-income countries. Few robust assessments are available, but some conclusions are possible. Prohibiting the private sector is very unlikely to succeed, and regulatory approaches face persistent challenges in many low-income and middle-income countries. Attention is therefore turning to interventions that encourage private providers to improve quality and coverage (while advancing their financial interests) such as social marketing, social franchising, vouchers, and contracting. However, evidence about the effect on clinical quality, coverage, equity, and cost-effectiveness is inadequate. Other challenges concern scalability and scope, indicating the limitations of such interventions as a basis for universal health coverage, though interventions can address focused problems on a restricted scale.

  20. Alternative solutions for public and private catastrophe funding in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, M.

    2008-07-01

    The impacts of natural hazards as well as their frequency of occurrence during the last decades have increased decisively. Therefore, the public as well as the private sector are expected to react to this development by providing sufficient funds, in particular for the improvement of protection measures and an enhanced funding of damage compensation for affected private individuals, corporate and public entities. From the public stance, the establishment of an appropriate regulatory environment seems to be indispensable. Structural and legal changes should, on the one hand, renew and improve the current distribution system of public catastrophe funds as well as the profitable investment of these financial resources, and on the other hand, facilitate the application of alternative mechanisms provided by the capital and insurance markets. In particular, capital markets have developed alternative risk transfer and financing mechanisms, such as captive insurance companies, risk pooling, contingent capital solutions, multi-trigger products and insurance securitisation for hard insurance market phases. These instruments have already been applied to catastrophic (re-)insurance in other countries (mainly the US and off-shore domiciles), and may contribute positively to the insurability of extreme weather events in Austria by enhancing financial capacities. Not only private individuals and corporate entities may use alternative mechanisms in order to retain, thus, to finance certain risks, but also public institutions. This contribution aims at analysing potential solutions for an improved risk management of natural hazards in the private and the public sector by considering alternative mechanisms of the capital and insurance markets. Also the establishment of public-private-partnerships, which may contribute to a more efficient cat funding system in Austria, is considered.

  1. NASA and Public-Private Partnerships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews ways to build public-private partnerships with NASA, and the many efforts that Ames Research Center is engaged in in building partnerships with private businesses, not profit organizations and universities.

  2. Privatization and the Globalization of Energy Markets

    EIA Publications

    1996-01-01

    Discusses recent efforts at privatization in petroleum, electricity, and coal, as well as the impetus that privatization has provided in fostering the evolution of the multinational and multidimensional energy company.

  3. Education and the Private Finance Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griggs, Clive

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the development of Private Finance Initiative schemes in the United Kingdom, and reflects on how profitable opportunities for private financiers and construction companies were created at the expense of the public sector. (Contains 72 notes.)

  4. 49 CFR 176.90 - Private automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private automobiles. 176.90 Section 176.90 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 176.90 Private automobiles. A private automobile which is carrying any Class 1 (explosive)...

  5. Private quantum subsystems and quasiorthogonal operator algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levick, Jeremy; Jochym-O'Connor, Tomas; Kribs, David W.; Laflamme, Raymond; Pereira, Rajesh

    2016-03-01

    We generalize a recently discovered example of a private quantum subsystem to find private subsystems for Abelian subgroups of the n-qubit Pauli group, which exist in the absence of private subspaces. In doing so, we also connect these quantum privacy investigations with the theory of quasiorthogonal operator algebras through the use of tools from group theory and operator theory.

  6. Private vs. Public Higher Education Budgeting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beamer, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Private higher education institutions are those entities owned and operated by the private sector, while public institutions are those established, supported, and controlled by a governmental agency, most often a state. Key differences exist between private and public institutions that affect budgeting in critical ways. Such differences include…

  7. An Analysis of Private School Mission Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boerema, Albert J.

    2006-01-01

    This article is a study of private school mission/vision statements using content analysis. Statements from private schools in British Columbia, Canada, that provided instruction to Grade 12 students were analyzed to explore the diversity that lies within the private school sector. The concepts that emerged from the analysis were grouped into five…

  8. Private and Public Schools: Cooperation or Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denig, Stephen J.

    This papers explores the relationship between private and public schools. It challenges the assumption that competition between the private and public sectors is desirable and argues for a cooperative model in which public and private schools work together to educate children. Each sector has strengths that can help the other. These strengths…

  9. An Alternative Instrument for Private School Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Zada, D.

    2009-01-01

    Empirical studies estimating the effect of private school competition on student outcomes commonly use the share of Catholics in the local population as an instrument for private school competition. I show that this is not a valid instrument since it is endogenous to private school competition and suggest using instead the local share of Catholics…

  10. Policies on Private Education: An Economics Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fengqiao, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Basic principles and analytical methods of economics are used to conduct a preliminary study of state policies for private education in China. It is evident that if public policy is to exert a positive effect on private education, the government must formulate policies at a higher level for private education and give equal attention to choice,…

  11. The Private Presence in American Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Howard R.

    The importance of private initiative has long been recognized in tax exemption by federal, state, and local governments. One outcome of this history is the dual system of higher education--a system that is partly private and partly public. Despite the important service rendered by the private sector, it is today facing a bleak financial future.…

  12. Privatization of Higher Education in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivalingam, G.

    2007-01-01

    The study will trace the external factors influencing the liberalization, deregulation and privatization of higher education in Malaysia from 1970 to the present and to analyze the effects of liberalization, deregulation and privatization on the modes of privatization and the internal restructuring of institutions of higher learning to increase…

  13. 45 CFR 605.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Private education. 605.39 Section 605.39 Public..., Elementary, and Secondary Education § 605.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped...

  14. 38 CFR 18.439 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Private education. 18.439... Adult Education § 18.439 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the...

  15. 45 CFR 605.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Private education. 605.39 Section 605.39 Public..., Elementary, and Secondary Education § 605.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped...

  16. 38 CFR 18.439 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Private education. 18.439... Adult Education § 18.439 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the...

  17. 45 CFR 84.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Private education. 84.39 Section 84.39 Public... Secondary Education § 84.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can,...

  18. 7 CFR 15b.28 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Private education. 15b.28 Section 15b.28 Agriculture... Education § 15b.28 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can,...

  19. 7 CFR 15b.28 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Private education. 15b.28 Section 15b.28 Agriculture... Education § 15b.28 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can,...

  20. 45 CFR 605.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private education. 605.39 Section 605.39 Public..., Elementary, and Secondary Education § 605.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped...

  1. 38 CFR 18.439 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Private education. 18.439... Adult Education § 18.439 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the...

  2. 45 CFR 84.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Private education. 84.39 Section 84.39 Public... Secondary Education § 84.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can,...

  3. 45 CFR 84.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Private education. 84.39 Section 84.39 Public... Secondary Education § 84.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can,...

  4. 45 CFR 84.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private education. 84.39 Section 84.39 Public... Secondary Education § 84.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can,...

  5. 45 CFR 84.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Private education. 84.39 Section 84.39 Public... Secondary Education § 84.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can,...

  6. 7 CFR 15b.28 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Private education. 15b.28 Section 15b.28 Agriculture... Education § 15b.28 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can,...

  7. 45 CFR 605.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Private education. 605.39 Section 605.39 Public..., Elementary, and Secondary Education § 605.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped...

  8. 7 CFR 15b.28 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Private education. 15b.28 Section 15b.28 Agriculture... Education § 15b.28 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can,...

  9. 38 CFR 18.439 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Private education. 18.439... Adult Education § 18.439 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the...

  10. 45 CFR 605.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Private education. 605.39 Section 605.39 Public..., Elementary, and Secondary Education § 605.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped...

  11. 38 CFR 18.439 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Private education. 18.439... Adult Education § 18.439 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the...

  12. 7 CFR 15b.28 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Private education. 15b.28 Section 15b.28 Agriculture... Education § 15b.28 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can,...

  13. Mathematic Achievement of Canadian Private School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadigan, Francoise Jane; Wei, Yichun; Clifton, Rodney A.

    2013-01-01

    Very little Canadian research has examined the academic achievement of private school students. Data from The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 were used to examine the achievement of private school students. The study found that private school students outperformed their public school peers. In addition, the students'…

  14. Does Privatization Affect Access to Government Information?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caponio, Joseph F.; Geffner, Janet

    This paper begins by pointing out that privatization, or relying on the private sector to provide commercial goods and services for government departments and agencies, is a tool that has been used effectively by the federal government for several decades. It then presents the theoretical basis for privatization, describes a number of methods used…

  15. Privatized Space Resource Property Ownership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hope, Dennis M.

    2000-01-01

    In the fall of 1980 a vision for the future was born. Privatized ownership of planetary bodies has been debated and yet skirted by most space enthusiasts for the past 15 years or so. This abstract is an attempt to lay all ideas of privatized ownership to rest. The concentration of efforts to place technological events ahead of property rights and ownership have been the calling card of all the space advocacy groups in recent history. For what ever reason the advocates have decided that this is an issue best left to another time. " Maybe we can sneak up on it and it won't feel so bad when we find that we are too late." This seems to be the general consensus from the conventions I have participated in over the last few years.

  16. The motivations for participation in public-private partnerships for the provision of tuberculosis treatment in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Sinanovic, Edina; Kumaranayake, Lilani

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing interest in public-private partnerships (PPPs) generally, and more specifically for the provision of tuberculosis (TB) treatment, yet little is known about the motivations for such partnerships and the nature of the incentives that are required to achieve a desirable outcome of the partnerships. Using the new institutional economics approach, this study examines the motivations for participation in existing and potential models of PPPs for the provision of TB treatment in South Africa. Fourteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with private providers and government officials. Both current and potential private partners were interviewed. The study found that private providers in existing and potential partnerships appear to have both financial and non-financial motivations for participation in partnership for the provision of TB. For a partnership to be successful, in addition to sufficient motivation, the level of competition between private providers, regulatory framework, and social and political awareness becomes increasingly important.

  17. Privatization and the globalization of energy markets

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This report reviews recent global efforts to privatize energy resources and outlines the opportunities and challenges privatization has presented to U.S. and foreign multinational energy companies. The group of energy companies studied in this report includes the major U.S. petroleum companies and many foreign companies. The foreign companies reviewed include state-run energy enterprises, recently privatized energy enterprises, and foreign multinationals that have been privately held. The privatization of non-petroleum energy industries, such as electricity generation and transmission, natural gas transmission, and coal mining, are also discussed. Overseas investments made by electric companies, natural gas companies, and coal companies are included. The report is organized into six chapters: (1) economics of privatization; (2) petroleum privatization efforts among non-U.S. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development nations; (3) petroleum privatization efforts in Latin America; (4) privatization in socialist and former socialist regimes; (5) privatization efforts in global electric power generation, transmission, and distribution industries; and (6) privatization and globalization of world coal.

  18. Is contracting a form of privatization?

    PubMed Central

    Perrot, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Contracting is often seen as a form of privatization, with contracts functioning as the tool that makes privatization possible. But contracting is also viewed by some as a means for the private sector to expand in a covert way its presence within the health sector. This article discusses the wider meaning of the term privatization in the health sector and the ways in which it is achieved. Privatization is seen here not simply as an action that leads to a new situation but also as one that leads to a change in behaviour. It is proposed that privatization may be assessed by looking at the ownership, management, and mission or objectives of the entity being privatized. Discussed also is the use of contracting by the state as a tool for state interventionism that is not based on authoritarian regulation. PMID:17143466

  19. Health care privatization in Latin America: comparing divergent privatization approaches in Chile, Colombia, and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Arturo Vargas; Méndez, Claudio A

    2014-08-01

    The public-private mix in Chile, Colombia, and Mexico was very similar until the early 1980s when Chile undertook health care privatization as part of comprehensive health care reform. Since then, health care privatization policies have diverged in these countries. In this study we characterize health care privatization in Latin America and identify the main factors that promoted and hindered privatization by comparing the experiences of these countries. We argue that policy elites took advantage of specific policy environments and the diffusion of privatization policies to promote health care privatization while political mobilization against privatization, competing policy priorities, weak market and government institutions, and efforts to reach universal health insurance hindered privatization. The privatization approaches of Chile and Colombia were classified as "big-bang," since these countries implemented health care privatization more rapidly and with a wider scope compared with the case of Mexico, which was classified as gradualist, since the privatization path followed by this country adopted a slower pace and became more limited and focalized over time. We conclude that the emphasis on policy-driven privatization diminished in the 1990s and 2000s because of increased public health care financing and a shift in health care reform priorities. Health care privatization in the region, however, continued as a consequence of demand-driven privatization.

  20. Productivity Analysis of Public and Private Airports: A Causal Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasigh, Bijan; Gorjidooz, Javad

    2007-01-01

    Around the world, airports are being viewed as enterprises, rather than public services, which are expected to be managed efficiently and provide passengers with courteous customer services. Governments are, increasingly, turning to the private sectors for their efficiency in managing the operation, financing, and development, as well as providing security for airports. Operational and financial performance evaluation has become increasingly important to airport operators due to recent trends in airport privatization. Assessing performance allows the airport operators to plan for human resources and capital investment as efficiently as possible. Productivity measurements may be used as comparisons and guidelines in strategic planning, in the internal analysis of operational efficiency and effectiveness, and in assessing the competitive position of an airport in transportation industry. The primary purpose of this paper is to investigate the operational and financial efficiencies of 22 major airports in the United States and Europe. These airports are divided into three groups based on private ownership (7 British Airport Authority airports), public ownership (8 major United States airports), and a mix of private and public ownership (7 major European Union airports. The detail ownership structures of these airports are presented in Appendix A. Total factor productivity (TFP) model was utilized to measure airport performance in terms of financial and operational efficiencies and to develop a benchmarking tool to identify the areas of strength and weakness. A regression model was then employed to measure the relationship between TFP and ownership structure. Finally a Granger causality test was performed to determine whether ownership structure is a Granger cause of TFP. The results of the analysis presented in this paper demonstrate that there is not a significant relationship between airport TFP and ownership structure. Airport productivity and efficiency is

  1. Public-private partnership models in France and in Europe.

    PubMed

    Demotes-Mainard, Jacques; Canet, Emmanuel; Segard, Lionel

    2006-01-01

    The workshop entitled "Public-Private partnerships models in Europe-- comparison between France and European countries" brought together representatives of academia and industry, of national or European health research programs, of regional or national public-private partnership (PPP) initiatives, and of biotechnology with the following objectives: sharing a common vision on the needs, expectations and challenges of public-private partnership, based on the analysis of actual and original cases, and of new initiatives on public-private partnership, drawing conclusions and identifying key success factors, identifying trails for progress and drawing recommendations. The major event in this field is a European public-private partnership initiative between pharmaceutical industry (European Federation of Pharmaceultical Industry and Associations, EFPIA) and the European Commission (DG Research--health priority) resulting in the European Technology Platform project "Innovative Medicines Initiative" (IMI). Its architecture is based on the identification of the main bottlenecks to the development of innovative treatments (predictive pharmacology and toxicology, identification and validation of biomarkers, patients' recruitment, risk evaluation, and cooperation with the regulatory authorities). Simultaneously, initiatives both at the national and regional levels also foster PPP in the therapeutic field. Regional competitivity clusters acting in the biomedical sector, and national PPP calls such as the ANR (National Research Agency) RIB (Research and Innovation in Biotechnology) call are incentives for PPP projects. These regional and national PPP levels help public and private partners to further build consortia able to compete for EU-level calls, thus acting as incubators for EU PPP projects. In spite of incentives and of the regional and national structuring of PPP, weaknesses in the French system are linked to its fragmentation--multiple transfer agencies, multiple

  2. TWRS privatization bibliography. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this bibliography is to present a select set of documents that may be of interest to the Offeror, covering a variety of subject areas related to the TWRS Privatization Project. This bibliography is not, nor is it intended to be, exhaustive or complete. It was prepared with the intent of providing a sampling of representative documents potentially helpful to Offerors. This bibliography is organized by subject area. The subjects covered are: waste characterization; pre-treatment; high-level waste immobilization; low-level waste immobilization; low-level waste melter test program; performance assessment; general; and safety.

  3. Private Observatories in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijsdijk, C.

    2016-12-01

    Descriptions of private observatories in South Africa, written by their owners. Positions, equipment descriptions and observing programmes are given. Included are: Klein Karoo Observatory (B. Monard), Cederberg Observatory (various), Centurion Planetary and Lunar Observatory (C. Foster), Le Marischel Observatory (L. Ferreira), Sterkastaaing Observatory (M. Streicher), Henley on Klip (B. Fraser), Archer Observatory (B. Dumas), Overbeek Observatory (A. Overbeek), Overberg Observatory (A. van Staden), St Cyprian's School Observatory, Fisherhaven Small Telescope Observatory (J. Retief), COSPAR 0433 (G. Roberts), COSPAR 0434 (I. Roberts), Weltevreden Karoo Observatory (D. Bullis), Winobs (M. Shafer)

  4. Power sector privatization in developing countries: Will it solve all problems?

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, S.C.

    1995-05-01

    The wave of economic deregulation and privatization has been sweeping the world for quite some time. The energy sector is also touched by this wave, and there is a sort of competition among developing countries to move fast in order not to miss the train. The power subsector is a major area within the energy sector that is growing fast in the third world and is facing such problems as poor performance and high investment demand for capacity addition that is beyond the capability of the utility. Thus, the power subsector is a target for deregulation and privatization in many countries. However, in many cases the objectives of these programs are too narrow and are designed only to attract private investment. They argue that the problems faced by the power sector are diverse, and privatization and deregulation cannot solve all of them, though the financial burden of the utilities may be eased. At the same time, new institutional and regulatory issues will surface. The authors also argue that the privatization program may lead to neglect of long-term planning of the electricity sector and endanger the energy security of these countries. Finally, they argue for a harmonious cohabitation of private and public utilities in a changed environment where each will play a role.

  5. 34 CFR 200.10 - Applicability of a State's academic assessments to private schools and private school students.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... private schools and private school students. 200.10 Section 200.10 Education Regulations of the Offices of... assessments to private schools and private school students. (a) Nothing in § 200.1 or § 200.2 requires a private school, including a private school whose students receive services under subpart A of this...

  6. Regulatory RNAs in Planarians.

    PubMed

    Pawlicka, Kamila; Perrigue, Patrick M; Barciszewski, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The full scope of regulatory RNA evolution and function in epigenetic processes is still not well understood. The development of planarian flatworms to be used as a simple model organism for research has shown a great potential to address gaps in the knowledge in this field of study. The genomes of planarians encode a wide array of regulatory RNAs that function in gene regulation. Here, we review planarians as a suitable model organism for the identification and function of regulatory RNAs.

  7. Regulatory Information By Sector

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory, compliance, & enforcement information for various business, industry and government sectors, listed by NAICS code. Sectors include agriculture, automotive, petroleum manufacturing, oil & gas extraction & other manufacturing

  8. Private Career Colleges. Made in B.C.: A History of Postsecondary Education in British Columbia. Volume 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowin, Bob

    2013-01-01

    This report describes private colleges serving adults which since 1936 have been required to register with the provincial government of British Columbia, Canada or, since 1993, with a regulatory body created by the government. The sector has always included career colleges, but registration was expanded temporarily in the 1990s to include all…

  9. Setting Up Private Practice in Psychiatry*

    PubMed Central

    De Sousa, Alan; De Sousa, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    Setting up a private practice in Mumbai is an onerous task. The present paper looks at the difficulties face by young psychiatrists when starting a private practice in psychiatry. It suggests certain guidelines to be followed to ensure the development of a successful practice. It also suggests methods to gain popularity among patients and society along with the ethics to be followed, knowledge base to be garnered, and the role of using multiple therapies and versatility in private practice. PMID:25838718

  10. Public Private Partnerships Applicability to Defence Procurement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-01

    Public Private Partnerships Applicability to Defence Procurement Jonathan Barnes KPMG Corporate Finance Report Documentation Page Report Date...25SEP2001 Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) 25SEP2001 - 27SEP2001 Title and Subtitle Public Private Partnerships Applicability to Defence...unclassified Classification of Abstract unclassified Limitation of Abstract UU Number of Pages 6 kpmg Aim Provide an appreciation of: n Public Private Partnerships

  11. Finance schemes for funding private orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Perks, S

    1997-02-01

    Over the last ten years there has been a steady increase in the volume of private dental treatment and numerous finance schemes have been developed to help both patients and dentists. Private orthodontic treatment is increasing and the purpose of this article is to summarise the main features of the schemes currently available to fund private orthodontic treatment and to provide a source of reference.

  12. The funding of private hospitals in Australia.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Abby L

    2002-01-01

    Private hospitals are an essential component of Australia's complex mix of public and private health funding and provision. Private hospitals account for 34.3 per cent of all hospital separations, and over half (56.2%) of all same-day separations. The revenue (funding) of the sector approached $4 billion by 1998/99, and as a result of its recent rapid growth capital expenditure in the sector was nearly $550 million in the same year. Private casemix of private hospitals is distinctive, and characterised by a high proportion of surgical procedures in general (48.1 per cent), and more than a majority of all services in such areas as rehabilitation, orthopaedics (shoulder, knee, spinal fusion, and hand surgery), alcohol disorders, same day colonoscopy and sleep disorders. This chapter synthesizes data from a multitude of sources to produce a comprehensive picture of Australia's private hospital sector and its funding. It examines the funding (revenue) sources of private hospitals, and considers how and why private hospitals approach the issue of funding from a different perspective than their public sector colleagues. To illustrate how Australian private hospitals approach revenue (funding) strategically, a series of indicative types of hospitals is explored.

  13. A matter of health? Legal aspects of private umbilical cord blood banking.

    PubMed

    Vidalis, Takis

    2011-03-01

    Private umbilical cord blood banking raises a question of special legal regulation. This practice promises the safe storage of biological material on the assumption that it may be useful, at a certain moment in future, for its own donor (or for a donor's close family member) for curing serious blood diseases. Although currently the therapeutic value of umbilical cord blood is confirmed, there are strong scientific doubts and relevant controversies regarding its use in autologous transplantations. This fact produces conditions of legal uncertainty, since the benefit for those wanting to conclude contracts with private umbilical cord blood banks is not clear. The Greek example illustrates this situation of regulatory deficit well, which eventually creates a major problem, given the increasing number of private banks offering relevant services in the country.

  14. 75 FR 72965 - Federal Travel Regulation; Removal of Privately Owned Vehicle Rates; Privately Owned Automobile...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ...-AJ09 Federal Travel Regulation; Removal of Privately Owned Vehicle Rates; Privately Owned Automobile Mileage Reimbursement When Government Owned Automobiles Are Authorized; Miscellaneous Amendments AGENCY... for travelers who are authorized to use a Government Owned Automobile (GOA) for temporary duty...

  15. 78 FR 44279 - Regulatory Agenda

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... Regulatory Flexibility Act, 5 U.S.C. sections 601 to 612 (1988). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Robert... mandated for the regulatory flexibility agendas required by the Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 602... regulatory flexibility agenda, in accordance with the Regulatory Flexibility Act, because they are likely...

  16. Private Higgs at the Lhc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentov, Yoni; Zee, A.

    2013-11-01

    We study the LHC phenomenology of a general class of "Private Higgs" (PH) models, in which fermions obtain their masses from their own Higgs doublets with {O}(1) Yukawa couplings, and the mass hierarchy is translated into a dynamical chain of vacuum expectation values. This is accomplished by introducing a number of light gauge-singlet scalars, the "darkons," some of which could play the role of dark matter. These models allow for substantial modifications to the decays of the lightest Higgs boson, for instance through mixing with TeV-scale PH fields and light darkons: in particular, one could accommodate {O}(10%) flavor-uncorrelated deviations from the SM hf\\bar f vertices with TeV-scale degrees of freedom. We also discuss a new implementation of the PH framework, in which the quark and neutrino mixing angles arise as one-loop corrections to the leading order picture.

  17. Private ultrasonic whispering in moths

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Ryo; Ishikawa, Yukio; Tatsuki, Sadahiro; Skals, Niels; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2009-01-01

    Sound-producing moths have evolved a range of mechanisms to emit loud conspicuous ultrasounds directed toward mates, competitors and predators. We recently discovered a novel mechanism of sound production, i.e., stridulation of specialized scales on the wing and thorax, in the Asian corn borer moth, Ostrinia furnacalis, the male of which produces ultrasonic courtship songs in close proximity to a female (<2 cm). The signal is very quiet, being exclusively adapted for private communication. A quiet signal is advantageous in that it prevents eavesdropping by competitors and/or predators. We argue that communication via quiet ultrasound, which has not been reported previously, is probably common in moths and other insects. PMID:20835290

  18. [Practice in private professional corporations].

    PubMed

    Leguillon-Geffard, G; Mignard, J P

    2005-11-01

    Since 1992, doctors may exert through a private professional corporation. The Decree no 94-680 of 3rd of August 1994 details the new regulation. For physicians used to the liberal scene, one of the greatest innovation is the payment mode. It is basically divided in two parts: the work remuneration as wages or management allowance, and capital remuneration as dividends. This last possibility offering important savings on social contribution, social contribution being calculated only on the work remuneration part. Taxation being in this case a taxation of the company and of the physician on his incomes and dividends. It is a precious instrument to take part in a regrouping and to integrate new associates. Nevertheless it still is an individual's choice and before getting engaged, consequences of the choices selected have to be appreciated with a qualified professional.

  19. Private Higher Education in India: A Study of Two Private Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angom, Sangeeta

    2015-01-01

    The Private higher education sector is growing fast in many settings, including India, and there are variations at the national level. Privatization of higher education in India has been the result of changes in the economic policy towards liberalization and privatization by the Government of India. Till 1980, higher education sector was…

  20. The Face of Private Tutoring in Russia: Evidence from Online Marketing by Private Tutors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozar, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Private tutoring is a common and worldwide phenomenon. However, there is a dearth of up-to-date research on private tutoring compared with that on institutional one-to-one teaching, which could be explained by challenges associated with data collection. This article proposes using publicly available online advertisements of private tutors as a…

  1. Public/private cross-training programs to expedite clean-up and development of environmentally impaired property

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, B.

    1994-12-31

    There is a need to learn how to partner better. In this regard, it would be most useful to monitor a partnership from its inception and as it develops. Such a partnership to follow through its various development stages is the California Environmental Enterprise (CEE), a dynamic Statewide environmental technology services partnership linking private industry, the DOE National Laboratories, State and local governments, regulatory agencies community colleges and universities, public interest and environmental organizations, for the common purpose of facilitating the economic and rehabilitative reuse of environmentally impaired property. In cooperation with Federal agencies, CEE will work actively with the private sector and other major institutions to seek innovative technological solutions to environmental restoration and waste management problems. Through the development of public-private partnerships CEE will broker and facilitate private sector solutions that will leverage collective resources as well as demonstrating and commercializing environmental technologies and systems to the economic benefit of the State and the Nation.

  2. Private Sector Contracting and Democratic Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiMartino, Catherine; Scott, Janelle

    2013-01-01

    Public officials are increasingly contracting with the private sector for a range of educational services. With much of the focus on private sector accountability on cost-effectiveness and student performance, less attention has been given to shifts in democratic accountability. Drawing on data from the state of New York, one of the most active…

  3. 47 CFR 1.9080 - Private commons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Spectrum Leasing General Policies and Procedures § 1.9080 Private commons. (a) Overview. A “private commons” arrangement is an arrangement, distinct from a spectrum leasing arrangement but permitted in the same services for which spectrum leasing arrangements are allowed, in which a licensee or spectrum lessee...

  4. 47 CFR 1.9080 - Private commons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Spectrum Leasing General Policies and Procedures § 1.9080 Private commons. (a) Overview. A “private commons” arrangement is an arrangement, distinct from a spectrum leasing arrangement but permitted in the same services for which spectrum leasing arrangements are allowed, in which a licensee or spectrum lessee...

  5. Strange Bedfellows? Reaffirming Rehabilitation and Prison Privatization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Kevin A.

    2010-01-01

    Private prisons are here to stay irrespective of empirical findings for or against their existence in the corrections industry. It is necessary, therefore, to step back and consider them on a broader level to assess how they can benefit current penological practice. It will be argued that prison privatization creates an opportunity to reassess the…

  6. Multicriteria approaches for a private equity fund

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tammer, Christiane; Tannert, Johannes

    2012-09-01

    We develop a new model for a Private Equity Fund based on stochastic differential equations. In order to find efficient strategies for the fund manager we formulate a multicriteria optimization problem for a Private Equity Fund. Using the e-constraint method we solve this multicriteria optimization problem. Furthermore, a genetic algorithm is applied in order to get an approximation of the efficient frontier.

  7. The Privatization of Schooling: Problems and Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph

    Views about privatization's advantages and disadvantages vary widely in the educational research literature. These disparate views are shaped by reviewers' frames of reference and the evaluation criteria that they use. This book was written to help readers develop more refined lenses for viewing the privatization movement. Chapter 1 asserts that…

  8. Preschool Children's Awareness of Private Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manfra, Louis; Winsler, Adam

    2006-01-01

    The present study explored: (a) preschool children's awareness of their own talking and private speech (speech directed to the self); (b) differences in age, speech use, language ability, and mentalizing abilities between children with awareness and those without; and (c) children's beliefs and attitudes about private speech. Fifty-one children…

  9. Private Placement Debt Financing for Public Entities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Lance S.

    2010-01-01

    Private placement financing is a debt or capital lease obligation arranged between a municipality or a 501(c) (3) not-for-profit organization and a single sophisticated institutional investor. The investor can be a bank, insurance company, finance company, hedge fund, or high-net worth individual. Private placement financing is similar to…

  10. Estimating the Demand for Private School Enrollment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gemello, John M.; Osman, Jack W.

    1984-01-01

    Identifies key factors that influence decisions to attend private school through an investigation of variation in private elementary and secondary school enrollment at two levels of aggregation: among unified school districts in California and among census tracts within the San Francisco Bay Area. (Author/RH)

  11. The Economics of the Major Private Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, William G.

    Major public and private universities need substantial amounts of additional income to meet rapidly rising operating costs. After World War II, total educational and general expenditures in all universities went up from less than $1 billion in 1945-46 to more than $7 billion in 1963-64. Some private university operating deficits indicate that…

  12. Private Schools, Choice and The Ethical Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exley, Sonia; Suissa, Judith

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the relationship between the existence of private schools and public attitudes towards questions about educational provision. Data from the 2010 British Social Attitudes survey suggest that parents who choose to send children to private schools may become more entrenched in their support for more extensive forms of…

  13. Philanthropy and Private Foundations: Expanding Revenue Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummer, Carlee; Marshburn, Roxann

    2014-01-01

    As community colleges seek new revenue streams, philanthropic organizations, including college foundations and private funders, have already begun to influence both revenues and college programming. This chapter discusses the current role of philanthropy, especially private foundations such as the Lumina Foundation for Education and the Bill and…

  14. Private Schools Put Spotlight on Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2005-01-01

    Administrators and students at private schools tend to see their schools as safer than public schools. Spurred in part by the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, many private schools have joined the national push to revamp campus safety plans. Kenneth S. Trump, the president of the Cleveland-based National School Safety and Security Services,…

  15. Prospects of Private Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hua, Wu

    2009-01-01

    Private education contributes a great deal to education in China, but people are confused about the prospects of teacher development, tax problems, property rights problems, remunerations, and so forth. Legal provisions stipulate that private education and public education have the same legal status and rights, but there is still a long way to go…

  16. Public-private partnerships. Going into labour.

    PubMed

    Lissauer, R

    2001-06-28

    Public-private partnerships are one of the government's key policy tools. There is little conclusive evidence of the ability of partnerships to manage hospitals. The government should launch small pilot projects. Managers and the public need to be convinced of the viability and equity of public-private partnerships.

  17. Private Supplementary Tutoring in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Štastný, Vít

    2016-01-01

    The study contributes to the literature on private supplementary tutoring by shedding light on this phenomenon in the Czech Republic. The aim of the paper is to identify the reasons for seeking out private supplementary tutoring and to assess the factors underlying its demand. In the representative sample of 1,265 senior upper-secondary school…

  18. 77 FR 15566 - Private Transfer Fees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... AGENCY 12 CFR Part 1228 RIN 2590-AA41 Private Transfer Fees AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency... fee covenants and in certain related securities. This final rule is intended to protect the regulated... participate in any market for mortgages on property encumbered by certain private transfer fees. To allow...

  19. 76 FR 6702 - Private Transfer Fees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... AGENCY 12 CFR Part 1228 RIN 2590-AA41 Private Transfer Fees AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency... transfer fee covenants and in certain related securities. Such covenants are adverse to the liquidity and... except private transfer fees paid to homeowner associations, condominiums, cooperatives, and certain...

  20. Private health insurance: implications for developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Sekhri, Neelam; Savedoff, William

    2005-01-01

    Private health insurance is playing an increasing role in both high- and low-income countries, yet is poorly understood by researchers and policy-makers. This paper shows that the distinction between private and public health insurance is often exaggerated since well regulated private insurance markets share many features with public insurance systems. It notes that private health insurance preceded many modern social insurance systems in western Europe, allowing these countries to develop the mechanisms, institutions and capacities that subsequently made it possible to provide universal access to health care. We also review international experiences with private insurance, demonstrating that its role is not restricted to any particular region or level of national income. The seven countries that finance more than 20% of their health care via private health insurance are Brazil, Chile, Namibia, South Africa, the United States, Uruguay and Zimbabwe. In each case, private health insurance provides primary financial protection for workers and their families while public health-care funds are targeted to programmes covering poor and vulnerable populations. We make recommendations for policy in developing countries, arguing that private health insurance cannot be ignored. Instead, it can be harnessed to serve the public interest if governments implement effective regulations and focus public funds on programmes for those who are poor and vulnerable. It can also be used as a transitional form of health insurance to develop experience with insurance institutions while the public sector increases its own capacity to manage and finance health-care coverage. PMID:15744405

  1. Public-Private Partnerships in Flanders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leemans, Geert

    2006-01-01

    Belgium's Flemish government recently approved a EUR 1 billion investment in school infrastructure through public-private partnerships, its first major initiative of this kind. The Flemish Community's variant of public-private partnerships in school building allows the government to meet urgent needs in the short run, but also to spread the costs…

  2. Private Schooling and Labour Market Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Francis; Henseke, Golo; Vignoles, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Though a relative small part of the school sector, private schools have an important role in British society, and there are policy concerns about their negative effect on social mobility. Other studies show that individuals who have attended a private school go on to have higher levels of educational achievement, are more likely to secure a…

  3. Using Pesticides: Private Applicator Manual, Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Texas Agricultural Extension Service.

    This manual is designed by the Texas Department of Agriculture as a training program for private pesticide applicators to certify them on a voluntary basis, and to apply restricted-use pesticides in compliance with federal law. An introduction with federal and state laws and regulations regarding pesticide use and private applicators is presented.…

  4. Eyes on Ecuador: Pains of privatization

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-25

    International firms are bidding to explore petroliferous land under new more favorable terms by an Administration determined to boost private oil investment. Private sector partnership is also sought in downstream operations, formerly reserved for the state oil company. There is powerful resistance, however, to a too rapid scenario for change.

  5. Capital Financing for Independent Private Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Kevin G.; Doherty, Robert F.; Wienk, Christopher O.

    This document contains summary materials from a presentation by Wye River Capital, Inc. of Annapolis, Maryland, on capital financing for independent private schools. The main sections of the presentation address: (1) overview of the capital financing process; (2) tax law considerations for tax-exempt financings by private schools; and (3) key…

  6. 50 CFR 27.97 - Private operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private operations. 27.97 Section 27.97 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations § 27.97 Private...

  7. 50 CFR 27.92 - Private structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private structures. 27.92 Section 27.92... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations § 27.92 Private structures. No..., pier, dock, fence, wall, pile, anchorage, or other structure or obstruction in any national...

  8. Private Higher Education and Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisz, Robert D.; Stock, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    In Western Europe, especially in Germany, private higher education is generally perceived as an alternative to public higher education for students from relatively affluent families; more broadly, there is a general perception that attending a private higher education institution is correlated to wealth. This perception is influenced by private…

  9. Privatization in a public leadership mixed duopoly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Fernanda A.; Ferreira, Flávio

    2016-06-01

    We consider domestic and international competitions with one public leader firm and one follower private firm, producing complementary goods and competing on prices. We compare the results obtained in both models. Furthermore, we examine the impacts of privatization on consumer surplus and on social welfare.

  10. Private Room as a Test Accommodation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowski, Lawrence; Wood, Whitney; Lambert, Tonya

    2015-01-01

    The effects of a private vs. group test setting were examined on a reading comprehension test for a sample of typical college students. Participants took Forms G and H of the Nelson Denny Reading Comprehension Test in both private and group (classroom) settings. Contrary to expectations, performance was slightly better in the group setting.…

  11. Competition for Private and State School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Francis; Machin, Stephen; Murphy, Richard; Zhu, Yu

    2008-01-01

    We analyse the role of private schools in the teachers' labour market. Private schools employ an increasingly-disproportionate share of teachers in Britain, relative to the number of their pupils. Their teachers are more likely than state school teachers to possess post-graduate qualifications, and to be specialists in shortage subjects.…

  12. Privatizing Higher Education: A New Australian Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, David R., Ed.; Anwyl, John, Ed.

    The papers in this collection deal with the concept of "privatization" in higher education in both the traditional sense of student finance and in relation to recent usage involving non-government funding of research, provision of full-fee places alongside free places in public institutions, the founding of a private sector in addition…

  13. 34 CFR 104.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Private education. 104.39 Section 104.39 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Preschool, Elementary, and Secondary Education § 104.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that...

  14. 34 CFR 104.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Private education. 104.39 Section 104.39 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Preschool, Elementary, and Secondary Education § 104.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that...

  15. 34 CFR 104.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Private education. 104.39 Section 104.39 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Preschool, Elementary, and Secondary Education § 104.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that...

  16. 34 CFR 104.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Private education. 104.39 Section 104.39 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Preschool, Elementary, and Secondary Education § 104.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that...

  17. 34 CFR 104.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Private education. 104.39 Section 104.39 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Preschool, Elementary, and Secondary Education § 104.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that...

  18. Athletic Offerings in Private Junior Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Adam; Modica, Jonathon; Miller, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Little has been done to profile or describe private junior colleges, their role in the higher education landscape, their practices, and in particular, how these institutions use and offer athletic programming. The current study was designed to profile the athletic program offerings of private junior colleges and to describe the extent of their…

  19. Regulatory guidance document

    SciTech Connect

    1994-05-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program Management System Manual requires preparation of the OCRWM Regulatory Guidance Document (RGD) that addresses licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance. The document provides: regulatory compliance policy; guidance to OCRWM organizational elements to ensure a consistent approach when complying with regulatory requirements; strategies to achieve policy objectives; organizational responsibilities for regulatory compliance; guidance with regard to Program compliance oversight; and guidance on the contents of a project-level Regulatory Compliance Plan. The scope of the RGD includes site suitability evaluation, licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance, in accordance with the direction provided by Section 4.6.3 of the PMS Manual. Site suitability evaluation and regulatory compliance during site characterization are significant activities, particularly with regard to the YW MSA. OCRWM`s evaluation of whether the Yucca Mountain site is suitable for repository development must precede its submittal of a license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Accordingly, site suitability evaluation is discussed in Chapter 4, and the general statements of policy regarding site suitability evaluation are discussed in Section 2.1. Although much of the data and analyses may initially be similar, the licensing process is discussed separately in Chapter 5. Environmental compliance is discussed in Chapter 6. Safety and Health compliance is discussed in Chapter 7.

  20. Reputation Effects in Public and Private Interactions.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Iwasa, Yoh; Nowak, Martin A

    2015-11-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in a model of indirect reciprocity where people interact in public and private situations. Public interactions have a high chance to be observed by others and always affect reputation. Private interactions have a lower chance to be observed and only occasionally affect reputation. We explore all second order social norms and study conditions for evolutionary stability of action rules. We observe the competition between "honest" and "hypocritical" strategies. The former cooperate both in public and in private. The later cooperate in public, where many others are watching, but try to get away with defection in private situations. The hypocritical idea is that in private situations it does not pay-off to cooperate, because there is a good chance that nobody will notice it. We find simple and intuitive conditions for the evolution of honest strategies.

  1. Reputation Effects in Public and Private Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Iwasa, Yoh; Nowak, Martin A.

    2015-01-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in a model of indirect reciprocity where people interact in public and private situations. Public interactions have a high chance to be observed by others and always affect reputation. Private interactions have a lower chance to be observed and only occasionally affect reputation. We explore all second order social norms and study conditions for evolutionary stability of action rules. We observe the competition between “honest” and “hypocritical” strategies. The former cooperate both in public and in private. The later cooperate in public, where many others are watching, but try to get away with defection in private situations. The hypocritical idea is that in private situations it does not pay-off to cooperate, because there is a good chance that nobody will notice it. We find simple and intuitive conditions for the evolution of honest strategies. PMID:26606239

  2. Non-private power aggregation: New markets for public-private partnerships

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, R.D.

    1998-07-01

    Motivated by needs to survive the twin thrusts of deregulation and privatization, the non-private sector is beginning to take the initiative in the energy aggregation field. Success in establishing public-private partnerships with it requires appreciation of the legal and also the institutional survival issues with which they are dealing. The results can be creative uses of municipal franchises, a renaissance of non profit power firms, and the continuing financial vitality of the seriously threatened and socially valuable not-for-profit public sector. From the perspective of private firms, aggregation by non-private firms can be a portal to response to the electric power deregulation revolution.

  3. [Politics and strategy of privatization in health care system of Bosnia & Herzegovina. Private practice or private property?].

    PubMed

    Hrabac, Boris; Huseinagić, Senad

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present a professionally sound option to conduct privatization process within the health care system of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The purpose of this text is to represent a milestone for launching a wider public debate and preparation of privatization in-depth plan. Due to complexity of such action, it is not allowed to let it be spontaneous. It is recommended to the Federal Ministry of Health to take over the leadership in order to prepare a comprehensive document entitled "Policy and Strategy of Privatization of Health Care System in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina". After preparation of the privatization concept, the wide public debate would be launched, as well as an appropriate support of the Government and Parliament. Hereinbefore mentioned document should provide answers to important issues, such as: privatization aims; subsectors eligible for privatization; ways of market regulations for providers of care and health insurance; payment mechanisms within public and private sector; issues of competition and solidarity, as well as equality and equity in health.

  4. Select Biosolids Regulatory Processes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Historical Regulatory Development and activities EPA has undertaken to respond to statutory obligations, respond to the National Academy of Sciences, understand pollutants that may occur in sewage sludge, and address dioxins in sewage sludge.

  5. Regulatory T cell memory

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblum, Michael D.; Way, Sing Sing; Abbas, Abul K.

    2016-01-01

    Memory for antigen is a defining feature of adaptive immunity. Antigen-specific lymphocyte populations show an increase in number and function after antigen encounter and more rapidly re-expand upon subsequent antigen exposure. Studies of immune memory have primarily focused on effector B cells and T cells with microbial specificity, using prime challenge models of infection. However, recent work has also identified persistently expanded populations of antigen-specific regulatory T cells that protect against aberrant immune responses. In this Review, we consider the parallels between memory effector T cells and memory regulatory T cells, along with the functional implications of regulatory memory in autoimmunity, antimicrobial host defence and maternal fetal tolerance. In addition, we discuss emerging evidence for regulatory T cell memory in humans and key unanswered questions in this rapidly evolving field. PMID:26688349

  6. 3 CFR - Regulatory Compliance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... protecting the air we breathe and the water we drink. Consistent regulatory enforcement also levels the... can lead the Government to hold itself more accountable, encouraging agencies to identify and...

  7. 3 CFR - Regulatory Review

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... in general—should be revisited. I therefore direct the Director of OMB, in consultation with... delay; clarify the role of the behavioral sciences in formulating regulatory policy; and identify...

  8. Bounds on the sample complexity for private learning and private data release

    SciTech Connect

    Kasiviswanathan, Shiva; Beime, Amos; Nissim, Kobbi

    2009-01-01

    Learning is a task that generalizes many of the analyses that are applied to collections of data, and in particular, collections of sensitive individual information. Hence, it is natural to ask what can be learned while preserving individual privacy. [Kasiviswanathan, Lee, Nissim, Raskhodnikova, and Smith; FOCS 2008] initiated such a discussion. They formalized the notion of private learning, as a combination of PAC learning and differential privacy, and investigated what concept classes can be learned privately. Somewhat surprisingly, they showed that, ignoring time complexity, every PAC learning task could be performed privately with polynomially many samples, and in many natural cases this could even be done in polynomial time. While these results seem to equate non-private and private learning, there is still a significant gap: the sample complexity of (non-private) PAC learning is crisply characterized in terms of the VC-dimension of the concept class, whereas this relationship is lost in the constructions of private learners, which exhibit, generally, a higher sample complexity. Looking into this gap, we examine several private learning tasks and give tight bounds on their sample complexity. In particular, we show strong separations between sample complexities of proper and improper private learners (such separation does not exist for non-private learners), and between sample complexities of efficient and inefficient proper private learners. Our results show that VC-dimension is not the right measure for characterizing the sample complexity of proper private learning. We also examine the task of private data release (as initiated by [Blum, Ligett, and Roth; STOC 2008]), and give new lower bounds on the sample complexity. Our results show that the logarithmic dependence on size of the instance space is essential for private data release.

  9. Regulating the for-profit private health sector: lessons from East and Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Jane E

    2015-03-01

    International evidence shows that, if poorly regulated, the private health sector may lead to distortions in the type, quantity, distribution, quality and price of health services, as well as anti-competitive behaviour. This article provides an overview of legislation governing the for-profit private health sector in East and Southern Africa. It identifies major implementation problems and suggests strategies Ministries of Health could adopt to regulate the private sector more effectively and in line with key public health objectives. This qualitative study was based on a document review of existing legislation in the region, and seven semi-structured interviews with individuals selected purposively on the basis of their experience in policymaking and legislation. Legislation was categorized according to its objectives and the level at which it operates. A thematic content analysis was conducted on interview transcripts. Most legislation focuses on controlling the entry of health professionals and organizations into the market. Most countries have not developed adequate legislation around behaviour following entry. Generally the type and quality of services provided by private practitioners and facilities are not well-regulated or monitored. Even where there is specific health insurance regulation, provisions seldom address open enrolment, community rating and comprehensive benefit packages (except in South Africa). There is minimal control of prices. Several countries are updating and improving legislation although, in most cases, this is without the benefit of an overarching policy on the private sector, or reference to wider public health objectives. Policymakers in the East and Southern African region need to embark on a programme of action to strengthen regulatory frameworks and instruments in relation to private health care provision and insurance. They should not underestimate the power of the private health sector to undermine efforts for increased

  10. Assessing the regulatory picture

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This article addresses the safety of the nation's drinking water supply and discusses compliance of the Clean Water Act. Right now, the shape of the regulatory future is uncertain. The results of the D-DBP regulatory negotiation are imminent. Congress is ready to begin debating reauthorization of the Safe Drinking Water Act, and utilities are trying to comply with the regulations while trying not to price water out of the reach of some of their customers.

  11. NRC regulatory initiatives

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, T.C.

    1989-11-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is addressing several low-level waste disposal issues that will be important to waste generators and to States and Compacts developing new disposal capacity. These issues include Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) waste, mixed waste, below regulatory concern (BRC) waste, and the low-level waste data base. This paper discusses these issues and their current status.

  12. Pathways to privatization: Issues and concerns on the road to privatization of facilities on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Yard, C.R.

    1997-02-01

    Through the cooperative efforts of the State of Tennessee and the Department of Energy, privatization of the first federal facility on the Oak Ridge Reservation has become a reality. One section of the facility has been transferred to private industry while the other portion of the facility remains in control of the government`s prime contractor. Due to this unusual arrangement, there are significant issues to be dealt with. This paper will describe the issues and concerns expressed by the participants in the process. The State of Tennessee`s efforts are primarily conducted by two Divisions of the Department of Environment and Conservation. These two Divisions (Radiological Health and DOE-Oversight) share the responsibility of assuring that the privatization effort is properly implemented. This shared responsibility is divided along distinct lines by the Divisions respective regulatory and nonregulatory functions. DOE responsibilities during transfer are delineated in the Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA) section XLIII. Property Transfer. The FFA states (in part) that {open_quotes}the DOE shall include notice of this agreement in any document transferring ownership or operation of the site to any subsequent owner and/or operator of any portion of the site and shall notify EPA and TDEC of any such sale or Transfer.{close_quotes} The FFA continues by stating that {open_quotes}No change in ownership of the site or any portionthereof or notice pursuant to Section 120 (h) (3) (B) of CERCLA, 42 U.S.C. {delta} 9620 (h) (3) (B), shall relieve the DOE of its obligation to perform pursuant to this agreement. No change of ownership of the site or any portion thereof shall be consummated by the DOE without provision for continued maintenance of any containment system, treatment system, or other response action(s) installed or implemented pursuant to this Agreement. This provision does not relieve the DOE of its obligation under 40 C.F.R. Part 270.{close_quotes}

  13. What explains regulatory failure? Analysing the architecture of health care regulation in two Indian states.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Kabir; Saligram, Prasanna S; Hort, Krishna

    2015-02-01

    Regulating health care is a pre-eminent policy challenge in many low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), particularly those with a strong private health sector. Yet, the regulatory approaches instituted in these countries have often been reported to be ineffective-India being exemplary. There is limited empirical research on the architecture and processes of health care regulation in LMIC that would explain these regulatory failures. We undertook a research study in two Indian states, with the aims of (1) mapping the organizations engaged with, and the written policies focused on health care regulation, (2) identifying gaps in the design and implementation of policies for health care regulation and (3) investigating underlying reasons for the identified gaps. We adopted a stepped research approach and applied a framework of basic regulatory functions for health care, to assess prevailing gaps in policy design and implementation. Qualitative research methods were employed including in-depth interviews with 32 representatives of regulatory organizations and document review. Several gaps in policy design were observed across both states, with a number of basic regulatory functions not underwritten in law, nor assigned to a regulatory organization to enact. In some instances the contents of regulatory policies had been weakened or diluted, rendering them less effective. Implementation gaps were also extensively reported in both states. Regulatory gaps were underpinned by human resource constraints, ambivalence in the roles of regulatory organizations, ineffective co-ordination between regulatory groups and extensive contestation of regulatory policies by private stakeholders. The findings are instructive that prevailing arrangements for health care regulation are ill equipped to enact several basic functions, and further that the performance of regulatory organizations is subject to pressures and distortions similar to those characterizing the wider health system

  14. Differentially Private Empirical Risk Minimization.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Kamalika; Monteleoni, Claire; Sarwate, Anand D

    2011-03-01

    Privacy-preserving machine learning algorithms are crucial for the increasingly common setting in which personal data, such as medical or financial records, are analyzed. We provide general techniques to produce privacy-preserving approximations of classifiers learned via (regularized) empirical risk minimization (ERM). These algorithms are private under the ε-differential privacy definition due to Dwork et al. (2006). First we apply the output perturbation ideas of Dwork et al. (2006), to ERM classification. Then we propose a new method, objective perturbation, for privacy-preserving machine learning algorithm design. This method entails perturbing the objective function before optimizing over classifiers. If the loss and regularizer satisfy certain convexity and differentiability criteria, we prove theoretical results showing that our algorithms preserve privacy, and provide generalization bounds for linear and nonlinear kernels. We further present a privacy-preserving technique for tuning the parameters in general machine learning algorithms, thereby providing end-to-end privacy guarantees for the training process. We apply these results to produce privacy-preserving analogues of regularized logistic regression and support vector machines. We obtain encouraging results from evaluating their performance on real demographic and benchmark data sets. Our results show that both theoretically and empirically, objective perturbation is superior to the previous state-of-the-art, output perturbation, in managing the inherent tradeoff between privacy and learning performance.

  15. Differentially Private Empirical Risk Minimization

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Kamalika; Monteleoni, Claire; Sarwate, Anand D.

    2011-01-01

    Privacy-preserving machine learning algorithms are crucial for the increasingly common setting in which personal data, such as medical or financial records, are analyzed. We provide general techniques to produce privacy-preserving approximations of classifiers learned via (regularized) empirical risk minimization (ERM). These algorithms are private under the ε-differential privacy definition due to Dwork et al. (2006). First we apply the output perturbation ideas of Dwork et al. (2006), to ERM classification. Then we propose a new method, objective perturbation, for privacy-preserving machine learning algorithm design. This method entails perturbing the objective function before optimizing over classifiers. If the loss and regularizer satisfy certain convexity and differentiability criteria, we prove theoretical results showing that our algorithms preserve privacy, and provide generalization bounds for linear and nonlinear kernels. We further present a privacy-preserving technique for tuning the parameters in general machine learning algorithms, thereby providing end-to-end privacy guarantees for the training process. We apply these results to produce privacy-preserving analogues of regularized logistic regression and support vector machines. We obtain encouraging results from evaluating their performance on real demographic and benchmark data sets. Our results show that both theoretically and empirically, objective perturbation is superior to the previous state-of-the-art, output perturbation, in managing the inherent tradeoff between privacy and learning performance. PMID:21892342

  16. 77 FR 21989 - Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... SECURITY Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request AGENCY: National Protection and... information provided. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program (PSCP) sponsors clearances for private sector partners who are responsible for critical...

  17. 75 FR 82029 - Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ...; Sequence 6] Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy...) 2011 Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates. SUMMARY: The General Services Administration's (GSA) annual privately owned vehicle (POV) mileage reimbursement rate reviews have resulted in...

  18. 77 FR 22786 - Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... ADMINISTRATION Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy (OGP...) 2012 Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates. SUMMARY: The General Services Administration's (GSA) special review of privately owned vehicle (POV) mileage reimbursement rates has resulted...

  19. 77 FR 76487 - Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ...; Sequence 6] Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy...) 2013 Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates. SUMMARY: The General Services Administration's annual privately owned vehicle (POV) mileage reimbursement rate reviews have resulted in new...

  20. Argentina's YPF hones in on privatization

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-30

    This paper reports on Argentina's push to privatize and attract more foreign investment to its petroleum sector which continues to gather momentum. The Argentine government plans by year end 1992 to sell unprofitable assets of Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales, then sell as much as 50% of the state oil company through an international stock offering. If privatization proceeds as expected, YPF Pres. Jose Estenssoro the, the company's stock will be offered to private investors early in 1993. The company was founded in 1922. By March 1992, Argentina also will begin selling all assets of state owned Gas del Estado (GDE) through an international bidding process expected to take about 18 months.

  1. [The national union for private hospital oncology].

    PubMed

    Parmentier, Gérard

    2013-06-01

    In the French health system, social security is the same for both public and private hospitals regardless of their status. In terms of number of patients screened, diagnosed, or treated, independant medicine is the most important sector in the French oncology. The multitude of organizations representing private hospitals or independant oncologists, physicians, radiologists or pathologists have a common organization, the National Union for Private Hospital Oncology (UNHPC). It bases its action on two founding postulates to ensure the quality of the oncology practice : the medical and managerial cultures are complementary and should be articulated ; the quality of organizations is as important as professional competence.

  2. Acid deposition research in the private sector

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsman, J.D.; Wisniewski, J.; Nelson, J.

    1984-02-01

    Acid deposition research funded by the private sector since 1980 is reviewed. Types of studies (e.g., atmospheric processes, emissions and monitoring, environmental effects) supported by the private sector during this period are overviewed. The specific industries/organizations (e.g., electric utility industry, environmental interest groups) funding reserach during 1980-1982 are discussed, with relation to the number of studies supported and funds (by year) provided by each. Finally, 13 research projects supported by the private sector and initiated by December 1983, each at greater than $1 million, are described.

  3. Quantum Private Comparison Protocol with Linear Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qing-bin; Yang, Guo-wu; She, Kun; Li, Xiaoyu

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we propose an innovative quantum private comparison(QPC) protocol based on partial Bell-state measurement from the view of linear optics, which enabling two parties to compare the equality of their private information with the help of a semi-honest third party. Partial Bell-state measurement has been realized by using only linear optical elements in experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution(MDI-QKD) schemes, which makes us believe that our protocol can be realized in the near future. The security analysis shows that the participants will not leak their private information.

  4. 47 CFR 1.1151 - Authority to prescribe and collect regulatory fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... costs of certain of its regulatory activities in the private radio, mass media, common carrier, and... fees. 1.1151 Section 1.1151 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND... Stat. 397), enacting section 9 of the Communications Act, 47 U.S.C. 159, which directs the...

  5. 47 CFR 1.1151 - Authority to prescribe and collect regulatory fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... costs of certain of its regulatory activities in the private radio, mass media, common carrier, and... fees. 1.1151 Section 1.1151 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND... Stat. 397), enacting section 9 of the Communications Act, 47 U.S.C. 159, which directs the...

  6. 47 CFR 1.1151 - Authority to prescribe and collect regulatory fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... regulatory activities in the private radio, mass media, common carrier, and cable television services. ... fees. 1.1151 Section 1.1151 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND... section 9 of the Communications Act, 47 U.S.C. 159, which directs the Commission to prescribe and...

  7. 47 CFR 1.1151 - Authority to prescribe and collect regulatory fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... costs of certain of its regulatory activities in the private radio, mass media, common carrier, and... fees. 1.1151 Section 1.1151 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND... Stat. 397), enacting section 9 of the Communications Act, 47 U.S.C. 159, which directs the...

  8. Organic Coasts? Regulatory Challenges of Certifying Integrated Shrimp-Mangrove Production Systems in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Tran Thi Thu; Bush, Simon R.; Mol, Arthur P. J.; van Dijk, Han

    2012-01-01

    The Vietnamese government aims to expand the scale of Naturland certified organic production in integrated shrimp-mangrove farming systems across the coast of Ca Mau province by 2015. In doing so the division between public and private regulation has become blurred. We analyze the government's goal by examining the regulatory challenges of using…

  9. 75 FR 61530 - Issuance of Regulatory Guides

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Engineering, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Issuance of Regulatory Guides AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  10. Radon in private drinking water wells.

    PubMed

    Otahal, P; Merta, J; Burian, I

    2014-07-01

    At least 10% of inhabitants in the Czech Republic are supplied with water from private sources (private wells, boreholes). With the increasing cost of water, the number of people using their own sources of drinking water will be likely to increase. According to the Decree of the State Office for Nuclear Safety about the Radiation Protection 307/2002 as amended by Decree 499/2005, the guideline limit for the supplied drinking water ('drinking water for public supply') for radon concentration is 50 Bq·l(-1). This guideline does not apply to private sources of drinking water. Radon in water influences human health by ingestion and also by inhalation when radon is released from water during showering and cooking. This paper presents results of measurements of radon concentrations in water from private wells in more than 300 cases. The gross concentration of alpha-emitting radionuclides and the concentrations of radium and uranium were also determined.

  11. 75 FR 39090 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Airport Privatization Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Gwinnett County Airport Briscoe Field (LZU), Lawrenceville, Georgia. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has completed its review of the Gwinnett County Airport Briscoe Field (LZU)...

  12. 22 CFR 216.4 - Private applicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... by the officer in A.I.D. who approves the preliminary proposal. In either case, the concurrence of... a Project Paper. The Bureau Environmental Officer shall advise private applicants of studies...

  13. 22 CFR 216.4 - Private applicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... by the officer in A.I.D. who approves the preliminary proposal. In either case, the concurrence of... a Project Paper. The Bureau Environmental Officer shall advise private applicants of studies...

  14. 47 CFR 1.9080 - Private commons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... employing advanced communications technologies that involve peer-to-peer (device-to-device) communications... infrastructure (e.g., base stations, mobile stations, or other related elements). In a private...

  15. Giardia and Drinking Water from Private Wells

    MedlinePlus

    ... Water Treatment Drinking Water FAQ Fast Facts Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ... Submit" /> Healthy Water Home Giardia and Drinking Water from Private Wells Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ...

  16. Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells

    MedlinePlus

    ... Water Treatment Drinking Water FAQ Fast Facts Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ... Submit" /> Healthy Water Home Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ...

  17. Medical tourism private hospitals: focus India.

    PubMed

    Brotman, Billie Ann

    2010-01-01

    This article examines demand factors for sophisticated medical treatments offered by private hospitals operating in India. Three types of medical tourism exist: Outbound, Inbound, and Intrabound. Increased profitability and positive growth trends by private hospital chains can be attributed to rising domestic income levels within India. Not all of the chains examined were financially solvent. Some of the hospital groups in this sample that advertised directly to potential Inbound medical tourists appear to be experiencing negative cash flows.

  18. Private sector joins family planning effort.

    PubMed

    1989-12-01

    Projects supported by the Directorate for Population (S&T/POP) of the U.S. Agency for International Development and aimed at increasing for-profit private sector involvement in providing family planning services and products are described. Making products commercially available through social-marketing partnerships with the commercial sector, USAID has saved $1.1 million in commodity costs from Brazil, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Indonesia, and Peru. Active private sector involvement benefits companies, consumers, and donors through increased corporate profits, healthier employees, improved consumer access at lower cost, and the possibility of sustained family planning programs. Moreover, private, for-profit companies will be able to meet service demands over the next 20 years where traditional government and donor agency sources would fail. Using employee surveys and cost-benefit analyses to demonstrate expected financial and health benefits for businesses and work forces, S&T/POP's Technical Information on Population for the Private Sector (TIPPS) project encourages private companies in developing countries to invest in family planning and maternal/child health care for their employees. 36 companies in 9 countries have responded thus far, which examples provided from Peru and Zimbabwe. The Enterprise program's objectives are also to increase the involvement of for-profit companies in delivering family planning services, and to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of private volunteer organizations in providing services. Projects have been started with mines, factories, banks, insurance companies, and parastatals in 27 countries, with examples cited from Ghana and Indonesia. Finally, the Social Marketing for Change project (SOMARC) builds demand and distributes low-cost contraceptives through commercial channels especially to low-income audiences. Partnerships have been initiated with the private sector in 17 developing countries, with examples provided from

  19. Criteria for Developing a Successful Privatization Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    perception and adequate profit . :" iii BIOGRAPHICAL SKSI wEf; Thoas C. McSwain, Jr. Colonel (Sel) Thomas C. McSwain, Jr is a career Services Officer. He...the private sector in lieu of traditional governrmental financing and operation. In return, private sector entrepreneurs realize profits through long...military and DOD civilian con unity. The banks and credit unions derive normal profit through services they provide. More recently, Congressional and

  20. Hungary petroleum privatization limited by economic concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-04

    Once the leading economic hope of eastern Europe, a newly doubt-filled, postelection Hungary is deciding on limited oil privatization amid strategic worries and falling production. Those worries contrast with the bright promise seen in Hungary after the collapse of communism. The paper discusses energy supplies; profile of the former petroleum monopoly, Magyar Olaj es Gaz (MOL); the state owned Mineralimpex; strategic supplies; MOL privatization; post-election politics; and MOL's subsidiaries.

  1. Privatized Military Operations. Industry Study, Spring 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Jean S. Renouf , “Do Private Security Companies Have a Role in Ensuring the Security of Local Populations and Aid Workers,” Autumn’s Humanitarian...reference. 79 Analysis derived from a combination of the Cockayne, Renouf , and Stoddard articles. 80 Stoddard, 27. 81 Coker, 135. 82 Ibid, 133...3. Renouf , Jean S. “Do Private Security Companies Have a Role in Ensuring the Security of Local Populations and Aid Workers?” Paper

  2. Private financing and operation of a space station: Investment requirements, risk, government support and other primary business management considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M.

    1982-01-01

    Private investment in a manned space station is considered as an alternative to complete government sponsorship of such a program. The implications of manned space operations are discussed from a business perspective. The most significant problems and risks which would be faced by a private company involved in a space station enterprise are outlined and possible government roles in helping to overcome these difficulties suggested. Economic factors such as inflation and the rate of interest are of primary concern, but less obvious conditions such as antitrust and appropriate regulatory laws, government appropriations for space activities, and national security are also considered.

  3. Timing in private digital telecommunication networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abate, J. E.; Near, C. D.; Russo, M. S.

    1993-06-01

    For proper operation of today's large digital private networks, high quality synchronization must be achieved. A general telecommunication performance objective is to maintain long-term frequency accuracy of ten parts per trillion at all synchronous digital equipment in the network. Many times, however, this is not achieved in private networks. Low quality clocks, errored transmission facilities, and incorrectly designed synchronization plans are often cause for poor performance. It is shown that properly-designed private networks can operate with long term frequency averages between ten parts per trillion to ten parts per million. These performance levels can adversely impact customer applications. The most demanding applications are digital and voice band data, encrypted voice, facsimile, and video. In a typical private network operating at 0.01 parts per million, the user would experience reduced data throughput, dropped encrypted calls, unreadable facsimile pages, or interrupted video transmission dozens of times per day. The major contribution to poor private network synchronization performance is the interaction of Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) clocks and the network facilities used to distribute timing. The performance of typical CPE clocks and facilities, and their impact on customer applications, are discussed. CPE clock performance issues, along with private network architectural constraints, make synchronization planning extremely difficult. Planning is usually costly and requires specialized expertise.

  4. Timing in private digital telecommunication networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abate, J. E.; Near, C. D.; Russo, M. S.

    1993-01-01

    For proper operation of today's large digital private networks, high quality synchronization must be achieved. A general telecommunication performance objective is to maintain long-term frequency accuracy of ten parts per trillion at all synchronous digital equipment in the network. Many times, however, this is not achieved in private networks. Low quality clocks, errored transmission facilities, and incorrectly designed synchronization plans are often cause for poor performance. It is shown that properly-designed private networks can operate with long term frequency averages between ten parts per trillion to ten parts per million. These performance levels can adversely impact customer applications. The most demanding applications are digital and voice band data, encrypted voice, facsimile, and video. In a typical private network operating at 0.01 parts per million, the user would experience reduced data throughput, dropped encrypted calls, unreadable facsimile pages, or interrupted video transmission dozens of times per day. The major contribution to poor private network synchronization performance is the interaction of Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) clocks and the network facilities used to distribute timing. The performance of typical CPE clocks and facilities, and their impact on customer applications, are discussed. CPE clock performance issues, along with private network architectural constraints, make synchronization planning extremely difficult. Planning is usually costly and requires specialized expertise.

  5. Decisions, Science, and Values: Crafting Regulatory Alternatives Analysis.

    PubMed

    Malloy, Timothy; Blake, Ann; Linkov, Igor; Sinsheimer, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Emerging "prevention-based" approaches to chemical regulation seek to minimize the use of toxic chemicals by mandating or directly incentivizing the adoption of viable safer alternative chemicals or processes. California and Maine are beginning to implement such programs, requiring manufacturers of consumer products containing certain chemicals of concern to identify and evaluate potential safer alternatives. In the European Union, the REACH program imposes similar obligations on manufacturers of certain substances of very high concern. Effective prevention-based regulation requires regulatory alternatives analysis (RAA), a methodology for comparing and evaluating the regulated chemical or process and its alternatives across a range of relevant criteria. RAA has both public and private dimensions. To a significant degree, alternatives analysis is an aspect of product design; that is, the process by which private industry designs the goods it sells. Accordingly, an RAA method should reflect the attributes of well-crafted product design tools used by businesses. But RAA adds health and environmental objectives to the mix of concerns taken into account by the product designer. Moreover, as part of a prevention-based regulatory regime, it implicates important public values such as legitimacy, equity, public engagement, and accountability. Thus, an RAA should reflect both private standards and public values, and be evaluated against them. This article adopts that perspective, identifying an integrated set of design principles for RAA, and illustrating the application of those principles.

  6. Regulatory Monitoring of Fortified Foods: Identifying Barriers and Good Practices

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Laura A; Vossenaar, Marieke; Garrett, Greg S

    2015-01-01

    While fortification of staple foods and condiments has gained enormous global traction, poor performance persists throughout many aspects of implementation, most notably around the critical element of regulatory monitoring, which is essential for ensuring foods meet national fortification standards. Where coverage of fortified foods is high, limited nutritional impact of fortification programs largely exists due to regulatory monitoring that insufficiently identifies and holds producers accountable for underfortified products. Based on quality assurance data from 20 national fortification programs in 12 countries, we estimate that less than half of the samples are adequately fortified against relevant national standards. In this paper, we outline key findings from a literature review, key informant interviews with 11 fortification experts, and semi-quantitative surveys with 39 individuals from regulatory agencies and the food fortification industry in 17 countries on the perceived effectiveness of regulatory monitoring systems and barriers to compliance against national fortification standards. Findings highlight that regulatory agencies and industry disagree on the value that enforcement mechanisms have in ensuring compliance against standards. Perceived political risk of enforcement and poorly resourced inspectorate capacity appear to adversely reinforce each other within an environment of unclear legislation to create a major hurdle for improving overall compliance of fortification programs against national standards. Budget constraints affect the ability of regulatory agencies to create a well-trained inspector cadre and improve the detection and enforcement of non-compliant and underfortified products. Recommendations to improve fortification compliance include improving technical capacity; ensuring sustained leadership, accountability, and funding in both the private and the public sectors; and removing political barriers to ensure consistent detection of

  7. Regulatory Monitoring of Fortified Foods: Identifying Barriers and Good Practices.

    PubMed

    Luthringer, Corey L; Rowe, Laura A; Vossenaar, Marieke; Garrett, Greg S

    2015-09-02

    While fortification of staple foods and condiments has gained enormous global traction, poor performance persists throughout many aspects of implementation, most notably around the critical element of regulatory monitoring, which is essential for ensuring foods meet national fortification standards. Where coverage of fortified foods is high, limited nutritional impact of fortification programs largely exists due to regulatory monitoring that insufficiently identifies and holds producers accountable for underfortified products. Based on quality assurance data from 20 national fortification programs in 12 countries, we estimate that less than half of the samples are adequately fortified against relevant national standards. In this paper, we outline key findings from a literature review, key informant interviews with 11 fortification experts, and semi-quantitative surveys with 39 individuals from regulatory agencies and the food fortification industry in 17 countries on the perceived effectiveness of regulatory monitoring systems and barriers to compliance against national fortification standards. Findings highlight that regulatory agencies and industry disagree on the value that enforcement mechanisms have in ensuring compliance against standards. Perceived political risk of enforcement and poorly resourced inspectorate capacity appear to adversely reinforce each other within an environment of unclear legislation to create a major hurdle for improving overall compliance of fortification programs against national standards. Budget constraints affect the ability of regulatory agencies to create a well-trained inspector cadre and improve the detection and enforcement of non-compliant and underfortified products. Recommendations to improve fortification compliance include improving technical capacity; ensuring sustained leadership, accountability, and funding in both the private and the public sectors; and removing political barriers to ensure consistent detection of

  8. Privatization: The Challenge Ahead for Public Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeAngelo, Linda

    This paper discusses privatization of public higher education, noting that some form of it exists on almost every college campus and that it is part of the wider movement toward less government. Four models of privatization are defined: public production with public finance; public production with private finance; private production with public…

  9. Privatization of Public Information: Its Impact on Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shill, Harold B.

    1991-01-01

    Explores the ideas and policies behind the movement toward privatization, and traces the history of information privatization during the Reagan administration. A discussion of privatization of government information focuses on attempts to privatize NTIS (National Technical Information Service), and differences between print and electronic…

  10. 77 FR 30351 - Sec. 221 Public Private Partnerships Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Sec. 221 Public Private Partnerships Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal... such a program be based on public- private partnership (PPP) principles and maximize the use of private... effective public-private partnership equipage incentive program. This notice is for the initial meeting....

  11. The Public-Private Nexus in Education. Occasional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Henry M.

    Although explicit public-private partnerships are rare in education, there is a close connection between the public and private goals of education. Education inherently serves both public and private interests. Unfortunately, educational policy may find itself in conflict while simultaneously serving both public and private mandates. This article…

  12. "Affordable" Private Schools in South Africa. Affordable for Whom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Languille, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    The paper sets out to challenge the notions of "affordable" private schools in the context of South Africa. It is guided by one main question: "affordable private schools for whom?" It argues that, contrary to claims by its public and private proponents, affordable private schools in South Africa do not cater for poor children.…

  13. 42 CFR 405.415 - Requirements of the private contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements of the private contract. 405.415... SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM FEDERAL HEALTH INSURANCE FOR THE AGED AND DISABLED Private Contracts § 405.415 Requirements of the private contract. A private contract under this subpart must: (a) Be in writing and...

  14. The regulatory horizon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, ED

    1987-01-01

    The author briefly discusses the FAA's position as it relates to cockpit resource management. For example, if Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) is a positive concept, why isn't everyone required to implement it? The regulatory practice of the FAA is discussed and questions and answers are presented.

  15. Toxicogenomics in Regulatory Ecotoxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential utility of toxicogenomics in toxicological research and regulatory activities has been the subject of scientific discussions, and as with any new technology, there is a wide range of opinion. The purpose of this feature article is to consider roles of toxicogenomic...

  16. Privatized biomedical research, public fears, and the hazards of government regulation: lessons from stem cell research.

    PubMed

    Resnik, D B

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the hazards of regulating controversial biomedical research in light of the emergence of powerful, multi-national biotechnology corporations. Prohibitions on the use of government funds can simply force controversial research into the private sphere, and unilateral or multilateral research bans can simply encourage multi-national companies to conduct research in countries that lack restrictive laws. Thus, a net effect of government regulation is that research migrates from the public to the private sphere. Because private research receives less oversight and external scrutiny than public research, it can threaten the welfare and rights of human subjects, scientific progress and openness, and the quality of the approval process for new biomedical technologies. In order to avoid the harmful effects of government regulation of biotechnology, society should promote meaningful discussion and dialogue among scientists, industry leaders, and the public before resorting to regulatory solutions. Legislative or executive initiatives should be applied with great discretion and care, and should be crafted in such a way that they protect public health and safety, promote scientific progress, and avoid the hazards of privatized research and polarized debates.

  17. An Exploration of Teaching Practices of Private, Public, and Public-Private EFL Teachers in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gholami, Javad; Sarkhosh, Mehdi; Abdi, Heidar

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the practices of public (high) school, private language institute, and public-private teachers. In particular, it aims at addressing the role of contextual factors, the variations teachers introduce to cope with them, and the degree of sustainable behaviour among these three groups of teachers. High school teachers…

  18. Development of Private Higher Education in Macau: Exploring the Relationship between Government and Private Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Cheng Man Diana; Yuen, Pong Kau

    2010-01-01

    The development of private higher education in Macau has experienced rapid growth in the past two decades. The purpose of this paper is to understand this trend by investigating the facts and figures supplied by official sources and to analyze the role between the Government and the private sector. This paper shows that the attitude of the Macau…

  19. Does Private Tutoring Work? The Effectiveness of Private Tutoring: A Nonparametric Bounds Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hof, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Private tutoring has become popular throughout the world. However, evidence for the effect of private tutoring on students' academic outcome is inconclusive; therefore, this paper presents an alternative framework: a nonparametric bounds method. The present examination uses, for the first time, a large representative data-set in a European setting…

  20. More "Private" than Private Institutions: Public Institutions of Higher Education and Financial Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Olin L., III; Robichaux, Rebecca R.; Guarino, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    This research compares the status of managerial accounting practices in public four-year colleges and universities and in private four-year colleges and universities. The investigators surveyed a national sample of chief financial officers (CFOs) at two points in time, 1998-99 and 2003-04. In 1998-99 CFOs representing private institutions reported…

  1. Public private partnership in vascular surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Cynthia de Almeida; Martins, Alexandre de Arruda; Teivelis, Marcelo Passos; Kuzniec, Sérgio; Wolosker, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe and analyze the results of a public-private partnership between the Ministry of Health and a private hospital in a project of assistance and scientific research in the field of endovascular surgery. Methods: The flows, costs and clinical outcomes of patients treated in a the public-private partnership between April 2012 and July 2013 were analyzed. All patients underwent surgery and stayed at least one day at the intensive care unit of the private hospital. They also participated in a research protocol to compare two intravenous contrast media used in endovascular surgery (iodinated contrast and carbon dioxide). Results A total of 62 endovascular procedures were performed in 57 patients from the public healthcare system. Hospital and endovascular supplies expenses were significantly higher as compared to the amount paid by the Unified Health System (SUS - Sistema Único de Saúde) in two out of three disease groups studied. Among outpatients, the average interval between appointment and surgery was 15 days and, in hospitalized patients 7 days. All procedures were successful with no conversion to open surgery. The new contrast medium studied - carbon dioxide – was effective and cheaper. Conclusion The waiting time for patients between indication and accomplishment of surgery was significantly reduced. Public-private partnerships can speed up care of patients from public health services, and generate and improve scientific knowledge. PMID:25295457

  2. Policies to Spur Energy Access. Executive Summary; Volume 1, Engaging the Private Sector in Expanding Access to Electricity; Volume 2, Case Studies to Public-Private Models to Finance Decentralized Electricity Access

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, Terri; Rai, Neha; Esterly, Sean; Cox, Sadie; Reber, Tim; Muzammil, Maliha; Mahmood, Tasfiq; Kaur, Nanki; Tesfaye, Lidya; Mamuye, Simret; Knuckles, James; Morris, Ellen; de Been, Merijn; Steinbach, Dave; Acharya, Sunil; Chhetri, Raju Pandit; Bhushal, Ramesh

    2015-09-01

    Government policy is one of the most important factors in engaging the private sector in providing universal access to electricity. In particular, the private sector is well positioned to provide decentralized electricity products and services. While policy uncertainty and regulatory barriers can keep enterprises and investors from engaging in the market, targeted policies can create opportunities to leverage private investment and skills to expand electricity access. However, creating a sustainable market requires policies beyond traditional electricity regulation. The report reviews the range of policy issues that impact the development and expansion of a market for decentralized electricity services from establishing an enabling policy environment to catalyzing finance, building human capacity, and integrating energy access with development programs. The case studies in this report show that robust policy frameworks--addressing a wide range of market issues--can lead to rapid transformation in energy access. The report highlights examples of these policies in action Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Mali, Mexico, and Nepal.

  3. A practical guideline for identifying research intent with projects that collect private, identifiable health information.

    PubMed

    Amdur, Robert J; Speers, Marjorie A

    2003-06-01

    Radiation oncologists frequently engage in activities that involve the collection and analysis of data from medical records. Access to health information is an ethical issue because, if not done according to appropriate guidelines, it constitutes an invasion of privacy or breach in confidentiality. To protect patients for the social harm that may result from medical record review, our society has established laws and regulations that apply to projects that require medical record review. A major branch point in the guidelines for such projects is whether private information will be collected for research or nonresearch purposes. However, a problem with discussing privacy protection in terms of a research versus nonresearch model is that it is difficult to make this distinction for many kinds of projects. The purpose of this paper is to establish a practical guideline that can be used to decide if a project that involves analysis of private, identifiable medical information should be considered research from the regulatory standpoint.

  4. What can be done about the private health sector in low-income countries?

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Anne; Brugha, Ruairi; Hanson, Kara; McPake, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    A very large private health sector exists in low-income countries. It consists of a great variety of providers and is used by a wide cross-section of the population. There are substantial concerns about the quality of care given, especially at the more informal end of the range of providers. This is particularly true for diseases of public health importance such as tuberculosis, malaria, and sexually transmitted infections. How can the activities of the private sector in these countries be influenced so that they help to meet national health objectives? Although the evidence base is not good, there is a fair amount of information on the types of intervention that are most successful in directly influencing the behaviour of providers and on what might be the necessary conditions for success. There is much less evidence, however, of effective approaches to interventions on the demand side and policies that involve strengthening the purchasing and regulatory roles of governments. PMID:12075370

  5. Water quality and management of private drinking water wells in Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Swistock, Bryan R; Clemens, Stephanie; Sharpe, William E; Rummel, Shawn

    2013-01-01

    Pennsylvania has over three million rural residents using private water wells for drinking water supplies but is one of the few states that lack statewide water well construction or management standards. The study described in this article aimed to determine the prevalence and causes of common health-based pollutants in water wells and evaluate the need for regulatory management along with voluntary educational programs. Water samples were collected throughout Pennsylvania by Master Well Owner Network volunteers trained by Penn State Extension. Approximately 40% of the 701 water wells sampled failed at least one health-based drinking water standard. The prevalence of most water quality problems was similar to past studies although both lead and nitrate-N were reduced over the last 20 years. The authors' study suggests that statewide water well construction standards along with routine water testing and educational programs to assist water well owners would result in improved drinking water quality for private well owners in Pennsylvania.

  6. Toxicogenomics and the Regulatory Framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicogenomics presents regulatory agencies with the opportunity to revolutionize their analyses by enabling the collection of information on a broader range of responses than currently considered in traditional regulatory decision making. Analyses of genomic responses are expec...

  7. Inner behavior: Empirical investigations of private events

    PubMed Central

    Calkin, Abigail B.

    2002-01-01

    The special section on private events in the Spring 2000 issue of The Behavior Analyst discussed the exploration of private events. The four articles focused on conceptualizations of issues related to private events and on behavior analysts' neglect of the area. This response cites 19 data-based articles and two doctoral dissertations involving measurement of what precision teachers term inner behavior—thoughts, feelings, and urges. Of the estimated 1.2 million standard celeration charts, at least 1,600 are inner behavior charts. These extensive data indicate that people can and do count and chart their inner behavior. This response discusses findings on inner behavior and its frequency, celeration (growth), variability, and improvement using antecedent and consequent events. PMID:22478390

  8. Functional footprinting of regulatory DNA

    PubMed Central

    Vierstra, Jeff; Reik, Andreas; Chang, Kai-Hsin; Stehling-Sun, Sandra; Zhou, Yuan-Yue; Hinkley, Sarah J.; Paschon, David E.; Zhang, L.; Psatha, Nikoletta; Bendana, Yuri R.; O'Neill, Colleen M.; Song, Alex H.; Mich, Andrea; Liu, Pei-Qi; Lee, Gary; Bauer, Daniel E.; Holmes, Michael C.; Orkin, Stuart H.; Papayannopoulou, Thalia; Stamatoyannopoulos, George; Rebar, Edward J.; Gregory, Philip D.; Urnov, Fyodor D.; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A.

    2017-01-01

    Regulatory regions harbor multiple transcription factor recognition sites; however, the contribution of individual sites to regulatory function remains challenging to define. We describe a facile approach that exploits the error-prone nature of genome editing-induced double-strand break repair to map functional elements within regulatory DNA at nucleotide resolution. We demonstrate the approach on a human erythroid enhancer, revealing single TF recognition sites that gate the majority of downstream regulatory function. PMID:26322838

  9. Nuclear Regulatory Commission information digest

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1990-03-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission information digest provides summary information regarding the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, its regulatory responsibilities, and areas licensed by the commission. This is an annual publication for the general use of the NRC Staff and is available to the public. The digest is divided into two parts: the first presents an overview of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the second provides data on NRC commercial nuclear reactor licensees and commercial nuclear power reactors worldwide.

  10. Experimental quantum private queries with linear optics

    SciTech Connect

    De Martini, Francesco; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Lloyd, Seth; Maccone, Lorenzo; Nagali, Eleonora; Sansoni, Linda; Sciarrino, Fabio

    2009-07-15

    The quantum private query is a quantum cryptographic protocol to recover information from a database, preserving both user and data privacy: the user can test whether someone has retained information on which query was asked and the database provider can test the amount of information released. Here we discuss a variant of the quantum private query algorithm that admits a simple linear optical implementation: it employs the photon's momentum (or time slot) as address qubits and its polarization as bus qubit. A proof-of-principle experimental realization is implemented.

  11. Public/private partnerships in managed care.

    PubMed

    Bredesen, P

    1994-01-01

    Although public/private partnerships are often viewed as mechanisms for using private monies to finance public needs, partnerships among health care providers, the business and legal communities, and the public sector offer promise as a way to realign the provision of health care to special-needs communities in the present era of managed care. In Nashville, Tennessee, such a partnership promises to provide efficient, state-of-the-art medical care through a centralized city-wide clinic for HIV-positive individuals.

  12. Cognitive regulatory control therapies.

    PubMed

    Bowins, Brad

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive regulatory control processes play an essential but typically unappreciated role in maintaining mental health. The purpose of the current paper is to identify this role and demonstrate how cognitive-behavioral and related techniques can compensate for impairments. Impaired cognitive regulation contributes to the overly intense emotional states present in anxiety disorders, depression, and personality disorders; progression of adaptive hypomania to mania; expression of psychosis in the conscious and awake state; dominance of immature defense mechanisms in borderline and other personality disorders. A wide variety of standard (monitoring, reappraisal, response inhibition, relaxation training) and more novel (suppression therapy, willful detachment, cost-benefit analysis, normalization, mature defense mechanism training) cognitive-behavioral and related techniques can be applied to compensate for cognitive regulatory control impairments, and their success probably aligns with this capacity.

  13. [The regulatory regime and the health insurance industry in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Costa, Nilson do Rosário

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the regulatory regime for health insurance and prepayment schemes in Brazil. It describes the ideas that have influenced the creation of the Agência Nacional de Saúde Suplementar-ANS (National Agency of Supplementary Health) in 2000, showing that the independent agency model was a direct result of the privatization process and of the induction of new competition mechanisms in a natural state monopoly. The paper concludes that the prepayment firms in Brazil are facing a new institutional environment as refers to their market entry or exit conditions.

  14. Detection and Impact of Rare Regulatory Variants in Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Montgomery, Stephen B.

    2013-01-01

    Advances in genome sequencing are providing unprecedented resolution of rare and private variants. However, methods which assess the effect of these variants have relied predominantly on information within coding sequences. Assessing their impact in non-coding sequences remains a significant contemporary challenge. In this review, we highlight the role of regulatory variation as causative agents and modifiers of monogenic disorders. We further discuss how advances in functional genomics are now providing new opportunity to assess the impact of rare non-coding variants and their role in disease. PMID:23755067

  15. TWRS privatization: Phase I monitoring well engineering study and decommissioning plan

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, B.A.

    1996-09-11

    This engineering study evaluates all well owners and users, the status or intended use of each well, regulatory programs, and any future well needs or special purpose use for wells within the TWRS Privatization Phase I demonstration area. Based on the evaluation, the study recommends retaining 11 of the 21 total wells within the demonstration area and decommissioning four wells prior to construction activities per the Well Decommissioning Plan (WHC-SD-EN-AP-161, Rev. 0, Appendix I). Six wells were previously decommissioned.

  16. Mechanisms behind privatization: a case study of private growth in Swedish elderly care.

    PubMed

    Stolt, Ragnar; Winblad, Ulrika

    2009-03-01

    For many years the Swedish Welfare State has been associated with a welfare model in which the public sector dominates both the provision and financing of the elderly care system. However, influenced by the ongoing trend of New Public Management, the past 15 years have been characterized by governmental regimes encouraging competition and as a result there has been a substantial increase in private providers. This case study on elderly care in Sweden provides new insights into the mechanisms behind the spread and growth of privatization. Our results show that in 1990 only 1% of the labour force in the elderly care sector was employed by private organizations, in comparison to 2003 when the private share had increased to 13%. The accompanying organizational changes have been controversial and are often criticized. In general, left-wing politicians have frequently defended the traditional welfare model dominated by public providers, whereas right-wing politicians have urged for a larger share of alternative providers. In this study, statistics between the years 1990 and 2003 were used to model the relationship between privatization and a number of economic, political and social/demographic variables. The results from regression and diffusion analysis imply that privately managed elderly care has established itself mainly in metropolitan areas dominated by right-wing regimes. Surprisingly, neighbouring municipalities tend to follow these pioneers irrespective of their political colour or economic situation. In fact, after shifting political power many of those neighbouring municipalities dominated by left-wing regimes not only maintain an abundance of private contractors but also encourage a continued process of contracting out publicly managed elderly care units. As a result, clusters of municipalities with an increasing degree of privatization arise despite political and economic differences. In conclusion, geographical proximity seems to be an important variable in

  17. 75 FR 61531 - Issuance of Regulatory Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... E. Norris, Component Integrity Branch, Division of Engineering, Office of Nuclear Regulatory... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Issuance of Regulatory Guide AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  18. Blurring of the public/private divide: the Canadian chapter.

    PubMed

    Flood, Colleen M; Thomas, Bryan

    2010-06-01

    Blurring of public/private divide is occurring in different ways around the world, with differential effects in terms of access and equity. In Canada, one pathway towards privatization has received particular attention: duplicative private insurance, allowing those with the financial means to bypass queues in the public system. We assess recent legal and policy developments on this front, but also describe other trends towards the blurring of public and private in Canada: the reliance on mandated private insurance for pharmaceutical coverage; provincial governments' reliance on public-private partnerships to finance hospitals; and the incorporation of for-profit clinics within the public health care system.

  19. How Private Colleges Navigate Tough Economic Waters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiens, Janet

    2002-01-01

    Three presidents of private colleges and universities (Mercy College in New York, Ripon College in Wisconsin, and Pacific Lutheran University in Washington) tell how they are weathering the recent economic storm. At the heart of the lessons shared is having a plan and focusing on the services that are provided to students. (EV)

  20. A Partnership Experience in Private Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacino, Maria A.; Watkins, Alice; Warren, Susan R.; Yee-Sakamoto, Ivy; Lawson, Dan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to document the planning, process, and outcomes resulting from a partnership between two private, faith-based institutions a kindergarten through fifth grade (K-5) school and a university. A team of five university professors formed a partnership with the K-5 school in February 2003. The university faculty continues to…

  1. The Educational Attitudes of Private School Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cookson, Peter W., Jr.

    Values about education held by private school educators tend to be those best suited to preparing their mostly middle- and upper-middle-class students for managerial and professional careers. Social scientists have hypothesized that schools readying students for social leadership will stress internalized student behavior norms instead of obedience…

  2. 28 CFR 36.501 - Private suits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Enforcement § 36.501 Private suits. (a) General. Any person who is....402, 36.403, and 36.405 of this part, injunctive relief shall include an order to alter facilities to make such facilities readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities to the...

  3. Case study of virtual private network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Harold; Chung, Ping-Tsai

    2001-07-01

    In this study, business benefits for this Virtual Private Network (VPN) and protocols, techniques, equipments used in this VPN are reported. In addition, our design experience for fault tolerance, security and network management and administration on this VPN are showed. Finally, the issues for future planning of this VPN is addressed.

  4. Flight Instruction and the Private Pilot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Louis T.

    1975-01-01

    Reports the results of a questionnaire designed to assess the quality of flight instruction given to the private pilot. Areas covered included preparedness of the flight instructor, attitude of the instructor, teaching methods employed, cost of obtaining a license, and condition of the aircraft used. (GS)

  5. Private Pilot Ground School Course. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual consists of 10 lesson plans for use by instructors teaching a private pilot ground school course. Addressed in the individual lesson plans are the following topics: aerodynamics and principles of flight, flight instruments and systems, operational publications, regulations, airplane operations, engine operations, radio communications,…

  6. Privatization in the U.S. Navy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    Eugene. Entrepeneurs Can Do Everything Government Can Do. Only Better- Or Can They?. Inc., Dec 1984, p. 174. 1 8 Finley. Lawrence. K.. Public Sector...For Privatization. The Academy Of Political Science, New York. 1987. I Linden, Eugene. Entrepeneurs Can Do Everything Government Can Do. Only Better

  7. Motivating the Private vs. Public Sector Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khojasteh, Mak

    1993-01-01

    A questionnaire on intrinsic/extrinsic rewards received 362 responses from 380 managers. Pay and security were greater motivators for private than for public sector managers. Recognition had higher motivating potential in the public sector. Both groups were motivated by achievement and advancement. (SK)

  8. Private School Universe Survey, 1997-98.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broughman, Stephen P.; Colaciello, Lenore A.

    This report on the private school universe presents data on K-12 schools broken down by school size, school level, religious orientation, geographical region, community type, and program emphasis. The number of students and teachers is reported in the same categories. The number of students is also reported by race-ethnicity, gender, and grade…

  9. The private sector invades medicare's home town

    PubMed Central

    Gray, C

    1998-01-01

    If Canada's medicare system has a home town it is probably Ottawa, where the system was first welded together 30 years ago. Charlotte Gray reports that there is a certain irony now that examples of private health care are sprouting up in the nations's capital. PMID:9700332

  10. Privacy and the Private Eye in Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, William E.

    Land remote-sensing satellites are developing as a commercial communications technology after years under a government monopoly. The shift to the private sector and improving quality of the pictures produced have given rise to increased concerns about the potential for violations of privacy rights. Although satellites can currently photograph only…

  11. Privatization of Education: An Ongoing Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IIEP Newsletter, 2001

    2001-01-01

    This newsletter focuses on matters related to the privatization of education in different contexts around the world. Over the past few years, the International Institute for Educational Planning has carried out a number of studies in a wide range of contexts to identify what the real-life experiments in school organization are, why they have…

  12. Effect of private information on indirect reciprocity.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Satoshi

    2010-09-01

    Indirect reciprocity is one of the key mechanisms for the evolution of cooperation. It relies on mutual monitoring and assessments, i.e., individuals collect information about the past behavior of others and judge whether that behavior is "good" or "bad." A player will not be helped if labeled with a bad image. There are many ways for assessing others, each of which can be interpreted as an elementary form of a moral sense (i.e., a view on what is good or bad). The information can be either public or private: private information can lead to mismatches between the opinions of individuals even when they share the same moral sense. In this paper, the effect of private information on the best-known assessment rules is investigated. In order to calculate payoffs, the concept of an image matrix is introduced. It describes who is good in the eyes of whom, and its time evolution is given by a probabilistic Boolean automaton. In contrast to the public information case, private information leads to the collapse of the sterner assessment rule. Alternatively, stable polymorphisms may subsist, with the milder rule and a more simple-minded rule coexisting together with unconditional cooperators; thus, cooperation can be sustained by indirect reciprocity even in the absence of public information.

  13. Private versus Public? Where the Twain Meet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Patricia M.

    1979-01-01

    The careers of George N. Rainsford, president of Kalamazoo College, and John T. Bernhard, president of Western Michigan University, and their commitment to institutional cooperation are described. Government control over institutions, the Kalamazoo Consortium, and private-public cooperation at the local, state, and national levels are discussed.…

  14. Ohio Schools and Privatization: Opportunity or Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, William

    Food service, transportation and building cleaning and maintenance are big business and are seen as candidates for privatization. In Ohio, a 30-item questionnaire was developed for the state's school district superintendents. Results were generated from the 143 questionnaires that were returned (70 percent response rate). Findings show that Ohio's…

  15. Legal Problems of Religious and Private Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.

    The range of nonpublic schools in the United States is considerable, from home instruction by parents to prestigious private schools, with or without religious affiliation. The continuing growth in nonpublic education can hardly be blamed on a disenchantment with or an apathy toward public schools; the central common denominator is a basic concern…

  16. Labor Laws Affecting Private Household Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Wages and working conditions for private household workers have not kept pace with other occupations, partly because of lack of coverage by labor laws. This pamphlet describes the protection available to domestics under both federal and state laws. Not only wages and hours, but also coverage by Unemployment Compensation, Workmen's Compensation,…

  17. Phasing Out Private Security Contractors in Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-14

    over and there was a need for all these private security guards, and so there was something of a gold rush to get some of these jobs. But as to whom...December 2005. 37 Almond, 11. 38 Jonathan Weisman and Anitha Reddy, “Spending on Iraq Sets off Gold Rush ,” 9 October 2005, linked from The Washington

  18. Private Firms Run Two Mich. Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ash, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Educators and policy observers are keeping a close eye on two controversial experiments in private management of public schools now unfolding in the western Michigan city of Muskegon Heights and in the Detroit-area community of Highland Park. Citing chronic budget woes in the communities' low-performing school districts, Gov. Rick Snyder of…

  19. Digital Image Processing in Private Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Connie

    1986-01-01

    Examines various types of private industry optical disk installations in terms of business requirements for digital image systems in five areas: records management; transaction processing; engineering/manufacturing; information distribution; and office automation. Approaches for implementing image systems are addressed as well as key success…

  20. Private Cloud Communities for Faculty and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomal, Daniel R.; Grant, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Massive open online courses (MOOCs) and public and private cloud communities continue to flourish in the field of higher education. However, MOOCs have received criticism in recent years and offer little benefit to students already enrolled at an institution. This article advocates for the collaborative creation and use of institutional, program…

  1. Trends in Private Higher Education in Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilak, Jandhyala B. G.

    2009-01-01

    There has been rapid growth in private higher education in most countries, including in Asia, during the last two-three decades. This growth, mostly motivated by profit, has had an effect on education and development in general and caused loss of equity--both social and economic, an increase in regional disparities, an erosion in quality, a change…

  2. Fall 1983 Freshmen at Private Black Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Kathleen

    1984-01-01

    Results of a 1983 study of freshmen at private black four-year colleges and a comparison to freshmen at all four-year colleges are presented. Attention is directed to the educational, financial, and family backgrounds of the students, as well as their aspirations and interests. Data were obtained from "The American Freshman: National Norms for…

  3. Deprivatizing Private Education: The British Columbia Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barman, Jean

    1991-01-01

    The experience of British Columbia in deprivatizing private schools by requiring their registration and providing financial support is reviewed. It is argued that family choice and state control have grown dialectically. Government funding has created higher enrollments and new schools, but resultant public oversight ultimately constrains choice.…

  4. The Future of Private Practice in Audiology.

    PubMed

    Fabry, David A

    2016-11-01

    Although private practice in audiology has evolved during the past 40 years, hearing aids have remained as a central component to success. This article will discuss present and future trends for the next 40 years, including parallels to other professions and the need to innovate beyond technology.

  5. 43 CFR 4750.1 - Private maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Private maintenance. 4750.1 Section 4750.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD...

  6. 43 CFR 4750.1 - Private maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Private maintenance. 4750.1 Section 4750.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD...

  7. 43 CFR 4750.1 - Private maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Private maintenance. 4750.1 Section 4750.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD...

  8. 43 CFR 4750.1 - Private maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Private maintenance. 4750.1 Section 4750.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD...

  9. Reinforcing Consent as a "Private Facts" Defense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberman, David A.

    To delineate the ideas of newsworthiness and consent as they apply to journalism and private facts lawsuits (those in which plaintiffs seek to stop publication of facts about themselves), this paper covers key areas of dispute. Various sections of the paper discuss (1) the definition of newsworthiness, (2) consent as a legal defense, (3) the…

  10. Privatization of Early Childhood Education in Iceland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dýrfjörð, Kristín; Magnúsdóttir, Berglind Rós

    2016-01-01

    The overall aim of this paper is to give a comprehensive picture of the marketization of early childhood education in Iceland. Our theoretical framework is based on Hursh's (2007) analysis of how the governance of schools is reshaped to serve a neoliberal agenda with the help of internal and external privatization (Ball and Youdell, 2007). In this…

  11. Capital Financing For Private & Independent Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This paper is a primer for school boards and management. It provides a basic overview of the key issues, considerations and options associated with the use of debt by private schools to address facility financing needs. In addition, for a school which has decided to pursue debt financing, it provides basic guidelines for the choice of debt…

  12. Australia's First Public Private Partnership School Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The design and construction of nine schools has commenced in Australia using a Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) methodology. This is the first project in Australia where social infrastructure has been acquired in this way. The Australian project is being managed by the New South Wales (NSW) State Government through its Department of Education…

  13. Private Actors and the Right to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsera, Maria Ron; Dorsi, Delphine; Termes, Andreu; Bonal, Xavier; Verger, Antoni; Gonzalez Diaz, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Privatisation of education is on the rise, being offered as the best alternative to achieve universal education and improve its quality and cost-efficiency. However, the benefits of the entry of private providers in education are highly controversial and tend to be judged in terms of market criteria such as choice and efficiency, neglecting the…

  14. Public/Private Partnerships for New Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Matthew C.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how colleges can finance new construction projects during lean financial times by employing public/private partnerships in an off-balance sheet financing format. Construction planning of a new school parking deck is used to illustrate the process. Benefits of savings in operating costs, management fees, and other line-item expenses are…

  15. Private finance initiative. Well-laid plans.

    PubMed

    Player, S; Godden, S; Pollock, A

    1999-11-04

    Private finance schemes in primary care will not be subject to the controls required in hospital programmes. Insurance companies are interested in partnerships with primary care in order to influence NHS spending as services are increasingly contracted out. This state of affairs could lead to the introduction of US-style managed care with a loss of equity for patients.

  16. Fundraising Basics for Private School Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Arthur H.

    2009-01-01

    This report examines the process behind setting up and implementing a "capital campaign": a program for raising money for new or renovated facilities at private K-12 schools. The report covers tax information regarding gifts to institutions then offers advice for setting up a comprehensive development program, including fundraising software and…

  17. Fundraising Basics for Private School Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Arthur H.

    This report examines the process behind setting up and implementing a "capital campaign," a program for raising money for new or renovated facilities at private K-12 schools. The report briefly covers tax information regarding gifts to institutions, then offers advice for setting up a comprehensive development program, including…

  18. Commodity Administrative Manual. Public and Private Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This manual was developed for agencies receiving food commodities distributed to eligible schools and noneducational organizations by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) through the California State Department of Education's Office of Surplus Property. It covers rules, regulations, and forms for recipients who are public or private schools…

  19. Parentally Placed Private School Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sopko, Kimberly M.

    2013-01-01

    This document focuses on state education agency (SEA) support for child find, consultation and provision of equitable service provisions for parentally placed private school students with disabilities. Project Forum at the National Association of State Directors of Special Education (NASDSE) completed this activity as part of its cooperative…

  20. Private Urban Renewal: A Neglected Urban Phenomenon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitz, Eileen

    This is a report on the process of private urban renewal of three areas in Washington, D.C. The areas are Georgetown, Capitol Hill and Adams-Morgan. The paper presents an analysis of general population trends and of the change in composition of the population in these three areas. Two general questions are raised: To what extent does the process…

  1. Effect of private information on indirect reciprocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Satoshi

    2010-09-01

    Indirect reciprocity is one of the key mechanisms for the evolution of cooperation. It relies on mutual monitoring and assessments, i.e., individuals collect information about the past behavior of others and judge whether that behavior is “good” or “bad.” A player will not be helped if labeled with a bad image. There are many ways for assessing others, each of which can be interpreted as an elementary form of a moral sense (i.e., a view on what is good or bad). The information can be either public or private: private information can lead to mismatches between the opinions of individuals even when they share the same moral sense. In this paper, the effect of private information on the best-known assessment rules is investigated. In order to calculate payoffs, the concept of an image matrix is introduced. It describes who is good in the eyes of whom, and its time evolution is given by a probabilistic Boolean automaton. In contrast to the public information case, private information leads to the collapse of the sterner assessment rule. Alternatively, stable polymorphisms may subsist, with the milder rule and a more simple-minded rule coexisting together with unconditional cooperators; thus, cooperation can be sustained by indirect reciprocity even in the absence of public information.

  2. International Determinants of Private School Attendance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutkowski, Leslie; Rutkowski, David; Plucker, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The current study uses Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2006 data to investigate international determinants of private school attendance. In particular, we seek to understand whether student achievement and home background factors such as socioeconomic status (SES) or motivational and goal-oriented factors are more predictive…

  3. 75 FR 39091 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... Mu oz Mar n International Airport (SJU), San Juan, Puerto Rico. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has completed its review of the Luis Mu oz Mar n International Airport International Airport... submitted a preliminary application to the Airport Privatization Pilot Program for Luis Mu oz Mar...

  4. A Survey of Idaho's Private Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catt, Andrew D.

    2014-01-01

    In this memo, we synthesize information collected recently in two private school surveys, one conducted by the U.S. Department of Education and another by the Friedman Foundation and the Idaho Federation of Independent Schools (IDFIS). After a brief description of the data sources, we present the key survey findings in two sections.

  5. Brazil's Mixed Public and Private Hospital System.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Maureen; Penteado, Evandro; Malik, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    Brazil's hospital sector is vibrant and growing. Under the 1988 Brazilian constitution all citizens have the right to health care, anticipating the global commitment to Universal Health Care. Brazil's public sector prides itself on having one of the world's largest single payer health care systems, but complementing that is a significant and larger private sector that is seeing big increase in investment, utilization and prices. This article outlines the structure of the hospital system and analyzes the nature and direction of private health sector expansion. Twenty-six percent of Brazilians have private health insurance and although coverage is concentrated in the urban areas of the Southeastern part of the country, it is growing across the nation. The disease burden shift to chronic diseases affects the nature of demand and the directly affects overall health care costs, which are rising rapidly outstripping national inflation by a factor of 3. Increasingly costs will have to be brought under control to maintain the viability of the private sector. Adaption of integrated care networks and strengthening of the public reimbursement system represent important areas for improvement.

  6. Institutionalisation in a Newly Created Private University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodson, Peter; Connolly, Michael; Younes, Said

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the introduction of a quality assurance system in a new, private university in Syria, and considers the extent to which the theoretical model based on institutional theory and isomorphism is reflected in practice. Design/methodology/approach: A five year longitudinal study which reviews the design,…

  7. Privatization: A Drain on Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, James

    2012-01-01

    According to James Harvey, the scale of the 2011 effort to privatize public education through vouchers and charters is "staggering," representing the culmination of a 30-year assault on public service in general and public education in particular. At a time when states are staring into the abyss of bankruptcy, he notes, public funds intended for…

  8. Are Selective Private and Public Colleges Affordable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karikari, John A.; Dezhbakhsh, Hashem

    2013-01-01

    We examine college affordability under the existing pricing and financial aid system that awards both non need-based and need-based aid. Using data of freshmen attending a large number of selective private and public colleges in the USA, we find that the prices students actually pay for college have increased over time. Need-based grant aid has…

  9. Private initiatives and policy options: recent health system experience in India.

    PubMed

    Purohit, B C

    2001-03-01

    In the recent past the impact of structural adjustment in the Indian health care sector has been felt in the reduction in central grants to States for public health and disease control programmes. This falling share of central grants has had a more pronounced impact on the poorer states, which have found it more difficult to raise local resources to compensate for this loss of revenue. With the continued pace of reforms, the likelihood of increasing State expenditure on the health care sector is limited in the future. As a result, a number of notable trends are appearing in the Indian health care sector. These include an increasing investment by non-resident Indians (NRIs) in the hospital industry, leading to a spurt in corporatization in the States of their original domicile and an increasing participation by multinational companies in diagnostics aiming to capture the potential of the Indian health insurance market. The policy responses to these private initiatives are reflected in measures comprising strategies to attract private sector participation and management inputs into primary health care centres (PHCs), privatization or semi-privatization of public health facilities such as non-clinical services in public hospitals, innovating ways to finance public health facilities through non-budgetary measures, and tax incentives by the State governments to encourage private sector investment in the health sector. Bearing in mind the vital importance of such market forces and policy responses in shaping the future health care scenario in India, this paper examines in detail both of these aspects and their implications for the Indian health care sector. The analysis indicates that despite the promising newly emerging atmosphere, there are limits to market forces; appropriate refinement in the role of government should be attempted to avoid undesirable consequences of rising costs, increasing inequity and consumer exploitation. This may require opening the health

  10. The Elementary Private School Recognition Program: Mike Mulligan's View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lodish, Richard

    1986-01-01

    Describes the goals, the selection criteria, and the selection process of the Elementary Private School Recognition Program. Includes a listing, by states, of the 60 private elementary schools selected for 1985-86 recognition. (IW)

  11. Clinical research: regulatory issues.

    PubMed

    Wermeling, D P

    1999-02-01

    The regulatory issues faced by institutions performing clinical research are described. Many institutions do not have on staff an expert who understands the regulatory issues involved in managing investigational new drug research and who knows the institution's obligations under the federal rules. Because pharmacists understand the FDA regulations that apply to the management of drugs in clinical research, institutions are asking pharmacists to expand their role and manage clinical research offices. Many authorities govern various aspects of investigational drug research. FDA has published regulations for good clinical practice (GCP), and the International Conference on Harmonisation is developing an international standard for the proper management of clinical trials. The guidelines published by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations aim to protect patients who are in the institution to receive health care and also participate in clinical trials. The Social Security Administration Acts specifically state that only items and services that are reasonable and necessary for the diagnosis and treatment of injury or disease can be billed to the government; research-related billings are excluded from coverage. Proper management of drug research is crucial to the success of a research program that is integrated with patient care.

  12. Regulatory considerations for biosimilars.

    PubMed

    Nellore, Ranjani

    2010-01-01

    Currently there is considerable interest in the legislative debate around generic biological drugs or "biosimilars" in the EU and US due to the large, lucrative market that it offers to the industry. While some countries have issued a few regulatory guidelines as well as product specific requirements, there is no general consensus as to a single, simple mechanism similar to the bioequivalence determination that leads to approval of generic small molecules all over the world. The inherent complex nature of the molecules, along with complicated manufacturing and analytical techniques to characterize them make it difficult to rely on a single human pharmacokinetic study for assurance of safety and efficacy. In general, the concept of comparability has been used for evaluation of the currently approved "similar" biological where a step by step assessment on the quality, preclinical and clinical aspects is made. In India, the focus is primarily on the availability and affordability of life-saving drugs. In this context every product needs to be evaluated on its own merit irrespective of the innovator brand. The formation of the National Biotechnology Regulatory Authority may provide a step in the right direction for regulation of these complex molecules. However, in order to have an efficient machinery for initial approval and ongoing oversight with a country-specific focus, cooperation with international authorities for granting approvals and continuous risk-benefit review is essential. Several steps are still needed for India to be perceived as a country that leads the world in providing quality biological products.

  13. Privatizing policy: Market solutions to energy and environmental problems

    SciTech Connect

    Stroup, R.

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses how and why privatization can improve policy, not only in terms of managing production, but also in terms of regulation. Three major aspects of privatization are discussed. The importance for the environment of economic efficiency and prosperity is examined. The role of private law and a rights-based policy for controlling pollution is considered. Finally the claim that privatization would replace farsighted government decisions with shortsighted decisions by owners is examined. 83 refs., 2 figs.

  14. The Public-Private Partnership in ECEC Provision in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haug, Peder

    2014-01-01

    This article seeks to answer three central questions pertaining to public-private partnership in early childhood education and care (ECEC provision) in Norway: How has public-private partnership developed during the last four decades? How is public-private partnership understood in Norwegian ECEC policy? What seem to be the future challenges in…

  15. Documentation for the IFG Public and Private School Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanford, William; Chambers, Jay G.

    The Institute for Research on Educational Finance and Governance (IFG) has designed and implemented a major survey of public and private schools in the six-county San Francisco Bay Area which focuses on organizational dimensions in elementary and secondary schools. Private schools include Catholic parochial and Catholic private schools,…

  16. 36 CFR 907.15 - Approval of private development proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... development proposal submitted by a private developer to the Corporation for its approval, unless... not take any approval action on a submitted development proposal of a private developer until such.... (c) At a minimum, and as part of any submission made by a private developer to the Board of...

  17. 34 CFR 76.654 - Benefits for private school students.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Benefits for private school students. 76.654 Section 76... Conditions Must Be Met by the State and Its Subgrantees? Participation of Students Enrolled in Private Schools § 76.654 Benefits for private school students. (a) Comparable benefits. The program benefits...

  18. 34 CFR 76.654 - Benefits for private school students.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Benefits for private school students. 76.654 Section 76... Conditions Must Be Met by the State and Its Subgrantees? Participation of Students Enrolled in Private Schools § 76.654 Benefits for private school students. (a) Comparable benefits. The program benefits...

  19. 34 CFR 76.654 - Benefits for private school students.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Benefits for private school students. 76.654 Section 76... Conditions Must Be Met by the State and Its Subgrantees? Participation of Students Enrolled in Private Schools § 76.654 Benefits for private school students. (a) Comparable benefits. The program benefits...

  20. 34 CFR 76.654 - Benefits for private school students.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benefits for private school students. 76.654 Section 76... Conditions Must Be Met by the State and Its Subgrantees? Participation of Students Enrolled in Private Schools § 76.654 Benefits for private school students. (a) Comparable benefits. The program benefits...

  1. 34 CFR 76.654 - Benefits for private school students.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Benefits for private school students. 76.654 Section 76... Conditions Must Be Met by the State and Its Subgrantees? Participation of Students Enrolled in Private Schools § 76.654 Benefits for private school students. (a) Comparable benefits. The program benefits...

  2. Private Military and Security Companies - Counterinsurgency and Nation Building Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-25

    120. 37 James J. Carafano, 115. 38 James J. Carafano, 117. 39 Peter Aps, “As Iraq, Afghan wars end, private security firms adapt,” Reuters , October...Bibliography Aps, Peter. “As Iraq, Afghan wars end, private security firms adapt,” Reuters ...International Peace Research Institute, The private military services industry, Online. Thomson , Janice E. Mercenaries, Pirates, and

  3. As Endowment Managers Turn to Private Equity, Questions Arise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Andrea; Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2012-01-01

    Endowment growth in 2011 came in no small part because universities have increasingly invested in private equity--the same private equity that has become a hot-button issue on the 2012 campaign trail, with some candidates and commentators calling into question its social value. Private equity is "of increasing significance" for endowments. It made…

  4. Student Achievement in Public and Private Schools. Issuegram 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Joslyn; Brown, Rexford

    Whether students learn more in private schools is a point of controversy among researchers, though the argument for tuition tax credits for parents of private school students often rests on it. In different studies comparing private and public schools, the main area of disagreement is the extent to which nonschool factors affect achievement. The…

  5. 26 CFR 514.6 - Private pensions and life annuities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Private pensions and life annuities. 514.6...) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS FRANCE Withholding of Tax § 514.6 Private pensions and life annuities. (a) Exemption from tax. Private pensions and life annuities as defined in paragraph (d) of this section,...

  6. 26 CFR 514.6 - Private pensions and life annuities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Private pensions and life annuities. 514.6...) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS FRANCE Withholding of Tax § 514.6 Private pensions and life annuities. (a) Exemption from tax. Private pensions and life annuities as defined in paragraph (d) of this section,...

  7. 26 CFR 509.114 - Private pensions and life annuities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Private pensions and life annuities. 509.114...) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS SWITZERLAND General Income Tax § 509.114 Private pensions and life annuities. (a) General. Private pensions and life annuities derived from sources within the United States...

  8. Private Schools and Public Benefit: Fees, Fee Remissions, and Subsidies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The level of fee remissions offered by private schools bears upon the scope for relying on private schools to provide public benefit. Analyses of education voucher systems have generally ignored the possibility that they will partially crowd out school-financed fee remissions. Moreover, variation in fee remissions between private schools may be…

  9. Exploring Arkansas's Private Education Sector. School Survey Series #6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catt, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    This report synthesizes information about Arkansas's private schools from two separate surveys conducted by the Friedman Foundation and the U.S. Department of Education (USDOE). If the Friedman Foundation survey data are representative of the state's private schools, then Arkansas's private schools have enough empty seats to increase current…

  10. The Public Good in English Private School Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyask, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    There exist some rare private schools that attempt to mitigate the anti-democratic qualities of the private schooling sector in England. This article reports on a study of private schools that aim to promote equality and participation through some aspects of their operations. It considers to what extent the governance structures within the schools…

  11. 24 CFR 92.200 - Private-public partnership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Private-public partnership. 92.200... Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Program Requirements § 92.200 Private-public partnership... private sector in accordance with section 221 of the Act....

  12. 24 CFR 92.200 - Private-public partnership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Private-public partnership. 92.200... Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Program Requirements § 92.200 Private-public partnership... private sector in accordance with section 221 of the Act....

  13. Private Voucher and Scholarship Plans. Trends and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadderman, Margaret

    This article examines an increasingly popular alternative to government-funded voucher plans: private voucher and scholarship plans. Through the 1998-99 school year, spending on privately funded voucher programs totalled $61 million. Private vouchers began with the Golden Rule Program in Indianapolis in 1991 and was inspired by insurance CEO J.…

  14. 47 CFR 32.2341 - Large private branch exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... cost of installation, of multiple manual private branch exchanges and of dial system private branch... Account 2311, Station Apparatus.) (b) The cost of intrabuilding network cables including their associated..., Intrabuilding Network Cable. (c) The cost of outside plant, whether or not on private property, used...

  15. 47 CFR 32.2341 - Large private branch exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... cost of installation, of multiple manual private branch exchanges and of dial system private branch... Account 2311, Station Apparatus.) (b) The cost of intrabuilding network cables including their associated..., Intrabuilding Network Cable. (c) The cost of outside plant, whether or not on private property, used...

  16. 47 CFR 32.2341 - Large private branch exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... cost of installation, of multiple manual private branch exchanges and of dial system private branch... Account 2311, Station Apparatus.) (b) The cost of intrabuilding network cables including their associated..., Intrabuilding Network Cable. (c) The cost of outside plant, whether or not on private property, used...

  17. 47 CFR 32.2341 - Large private branch exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... cost of installation, of multiple manual private branch exchanges and of dial system private branch... Account 2311, Station Apparatus.) (b) The cost of intrabuilding network cables including their associated..., Intrabuilding Network Cable. (c) The cost of outside plant, whether or not on private property, used...

  18. 47 CFR 32.2341 - Large private branch exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... cost of installation, of multiple manual private branch exchanges and of dial system private branch... Account 2311, Station Apparatus.) (b) The cost of intrabuilding network cables including their associated..., Intrabuilding Network Cable. (c) The cost of outside plant, whether or not on private property, used...

  19. 78 FR 76626 - Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... ADMINISTRATION Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates AGENCY: Office of Government-wide Policy (OGP... Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates. SUMMARY: The General Services Administration's annual privately owned vehicle (POV) mileage reimbursement rate reviews have resulted in new CY 2014 rates for...

  20. Analysis of the Choice for Public and Private Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gemello, John M.; Osman, Jack W.

    Key factors influencing the decision to attend private school are identified in this paper. It looks at the factors accounting for varying rates of private school attendance and estimates the responsiveness of such attendance to government support. It studies the variation in private school attendance rates at three levels: across states, across…

  1. 26 CFR 509.114 - Private pensions and life annuities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2014-04-01 2010-04-01 true Private pensions and life annuities. 509.114...) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS SWITZERLAND General Income Tax § 509.114 Private pensions and life annuities. (a) General. Private pensions and life annuities derived from sources within the United States...

  2. 26 CFR 509.114 - Private pensions and life annuities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Private pensions and life annuities. 509.114...) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS SWITZERLAND General Income Tax § 509.114 Private pensions and life annuities. (a) General. Private pensions and life annuities derived from sources within the United States...

  3. 26 CFR 509.114 - Private pensions and life annuities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2013-04-01 2010-04-01 true Private pensions and life annuities. 509.114...) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS SWITZERLAND General Income Tax § 509.114 Private pensions and life annuities. (a) General. Private pensions and life annuities derived from sources within the United States...

  4. 26 CFR 514.6 - Private pensions and life annuities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2013-04-01 2010-04-01 true Private pensions and life annuities. 514.6...) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS FRANCE Withholding of Tax § 514.6 Private pensions and life annuities. (a) Exemption from tax. Private pensions and life annuities as defined in paragraph (d) of this section,...

  5. 26 CFR 514.6 - Private pensions and life annuities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Private pensions and life annuities. 514.6...) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS FRANCE Withholding of Tax § 514.6 Private pensions and life annuities. (a) Exemption from tax. Private pensions and life annuities as defined in paragraph (d) of this section,...

  6. 26 CFR 514.6 - Private pensions and life annuities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2014-04-01 2010-04-01 true Private pensions and life annuities. 514.6...) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS FRANCE Withholding of Tax § 514.6 Private pensions and life annuities. (a) Exemption from tax. Private pensions and life annuities as defined in paragraph (d) of this section,...

  7. 32 CFR 552.116 - Privately owned weapons-security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Privately owned weapons-security. 552.116..., Ammunition, and Explosives-Fort Lewis, Washington § 552.116 Privately owned weapons—security. Privately owned arms and ammunition will be secured in the manner required for military weapons and ammunition...

  8. 32 CFR 552.116 - Privately owned weapons-security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Privately owned weapons-security. 552.116 Section..., Ammunition, and Explosives-Fort Lewis, Washington § 552.116 Privately owned weapons—security. Privately owned arms and ammunition will be secured in the manner required for military weapons and ammunition...

  9. 32 CFR 552.116 - Privately owned weapons-security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Privately owned weapons-security. 552.116 Section..., Ammunition, and Explosives-Fort Lewis, Washington § 552.116 Privately owned weapons—security. Privately owned arms and ammunition will be secured in the manner required for military weapons and ammunition...

  10. 32 CFR 552.116 - Privately owned weapons-security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Privately owned weapons-security. 552.116..., Ammunition, and Explosives-Fort Lewis, Washington § 552.116 Privately owned weapons—security. Privately owned arms and ammunition will be secured in the manner required for military weapons and ammunition...

  11. 32 CFR 552.116 - Privately owned weapons-security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Privately owned weapons-security. 552.116 Section..., Ammunition, and Explosives-Fort Lewis, Washington § 552.116 Privately owned weapons—security. Privately owned arms and ammunition will be secured in the manner required for military weapons and ammunition...

  12. Private Agricultural Extension System in Kenya: Practice and Policy Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muyanga, Milu; Jayne, T. S.

    2008-01-01

    Private extension system has been at the centre of a debate triggered by inefficient public agricultural extension. The debate is anchored on the premise that the private sector is more efficient in extension service delivery. This study evaluates the private extension system in Kenya. It employs qualitative and quantitative methods. The results…

  13. Private Schools: Who Benefits? PISA in Focus. No. 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    At some point in their child's education, many parents have considered whether it would be worth the expense to enrol their child in a private school. For parents, private schools may offer a particular kind of instruction that is not available in public schools. If private schools also attract higher-performing students and better teachers than…

  14. 13 CFR 108.230 - Private Capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Private Capital for NMVC Companies... VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.230 Private Capital for NMVC Companies. (a) General. Private Capital means the contributed capital of a...

  15. 13 CFR 108.230 - Private Capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Private Capital for NMVC Companies... VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.230 Private Capital for NMVC Companies. (a) General. Private Capital means the contributed capital of a...

  16. 13 CFR 108.230 - Private Capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Private Capital for NMVC Companies... VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.230 Private Capital for NMVC Companies. (a) General. Private Capital means the contributed capital of a...

  17. 13 CFR 108.230 - Private Capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Private Capital for NMVC Companies... VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.230 Private Capital for NMVC Companies. (a) General. Private Capital means the contributed capital of a...

  18. 13 CFR 108.230 - Private Capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Private Capital for NMVC Companies... VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.230 Private Capital for NMVC Companies. (a) General. Private Capital means the contributed capital of a...

  19. 32 CFR 643.121 - Private organizations on DA installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Private organizations on DA installations. 643... (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.121 Private organizations on DA installations. (a) AR 210-1 defines and classifies private organizations, such as thrift shops...

  20. Inmate Recidivism as a Measure of Private Prison Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spivak, Andrew L.; Sharp, Susan F.

    2008-01-01

    The growth of the private corrections industry has elicited interest in the comparative performance of state and private prisons. One way to measure the service quality of private prisons is to examine inmates' postrelease performance. Current empirical evidence is limited to four studies, all conducted in Florida. This analysis replicates and…

  1. The Changing Economic Advantage from Private School. CEE DP 115

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Francis; Machin, Stephen; Murphy, Richard; Zhu, Yu

    2010-01-01

    Private schooling, in its various guises, is an important feature of education systems across the world. The existence of a private education sector generates the possibility for parents to opt their children out of state provided education. In the case of the UK, private schools, though far less numerous than state schools, have for a long time…

  2. Sources and Uses of Annual Giving at Private Research Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Christopher L.; Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    2003-01-01

    Investigated why private research universities differ in the sources and uses of their annual giving using data from 74 private universities and a subset of 29 private universities. Findings identify some factors that determine giving, but models could explain only part of the differences in funding from different sources. (SLD)

  3. Summary of Major Findings for Public and Private Schools. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, James; And Others

    Summarizing the findings of a longitudinal study of public and private schooling recently published, this paper provides evidence relevant to proposals that would either increase or decrease the role of private schools in American education. The authors specifically address eight premises that would increase the role of private schools and seven…

  4. Channel One: When Private Interests and the Public Interest Collide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blokhuis, Jason C.

    2008-01-01

    If the notion of public and private spheres seems somehow quaint or old-fashioned, the distinction between public and private corporations will be that much more obscure. Yet Channel One broadcasts in a public school classroom are indisputably the result of a contract between a private corporation (Alloy Media + Marketing) and a public corporation…

  5. When Negotiation Fails: Private Education as a Disciplinary Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Regt, Ali; Weenink, Don

    2005-01-01

    This articles deals with the question why Dutch upper-middle-class parents resort to fee-paying private education, a tiny, recently developed sector of the Dutch educational system. The research is based on interviews with 37 parents and 20 students attending private schools, and on a survey among 376 parents involved in private schooling. From…

  6. Peru action simmering despite privatization delays

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-07

    After months of delays, the sale of Petroleos del Peru SA (Petroperu) was postponed earlier this year until after the elections, which saw Peru`s incumbent President Alberto Fujimori reelected. In June, Fujimori appointed Amado Yataco Minister of Energy and Mines. Yataco, also serving as president of the privatization commission Copri, said a decision on the sale of Petroperu would be made quickly, perhaps by July 28, ahead of this report`s presstime. The uncertain status of Petroperu has not, however, slowed activity in Peru`s petroleum sector. The paper first discusses privatization plans and Petroperu`s budget, then describes exploration and development activities in the supergiant Camisea gas/condensate fields in the central southern jungle. Activities in several smaller fields are briefly described.

  7. Squashed entanglement and approximate private states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilde, Mark M.

    2016-11-01

    The squashed entanglement is a fundamental entanglement measure in quantum information theory, finding application as an upper bound on the distillable secret key or distillable entanglement of a quantum state or a quantum channel. This paper simplifies proofs that the squashed entanglement is an upper bound on distillable key for finite-dimensional quantum systems and solidifies such proofs for infinite-dimensional quantum systems. More specifically, this paper establishes that the logarithm of the dimension of the key system (call it log 2K) in an ɛ -approximate private state is bounded from above by the squashed entanglement of that state plus a term that depends only ɛ and log 2K. Importantly, the extra term does not depend on the dimension of the shield systems of the private state. The result holds for the bipartite squashed entanglement, and an extension of this result is established for two different flavors of the multipartite squashed entanglement.

  8. Venezuelan ``apertura`` invites private exploration capital

    SciTech Connect

    Carnevali, J.

    1995-10-09

    The Congress of the Republic of Venezuela on July 4, 1995, approved the conditions for an Exploration Association Contract. This action opened Venezuela to exploration for light and medium crudes by private companies in association with a special-purpose affiliate of Petroleos de Venezuela (Pdvsa). The objective of the apertura, or opening, is to attract private capital to Venezuela`s petroleum sector and thereby accelerate exploration and development of light and medium crude oil. An important parallel objective is for this incremental investment into the country to stimulate the domestic economy and encourage development and growth across all sectors. The paper discusses the geology of the four primary sedimentary basins in Venezuela, source rocks and maturity, and the costs and terms of Venezuela`s contract.

  9. Perchlorate Regulatory Determination Fact Sheets

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fact sheets have been developed for the perchlorate regulatory determination corresponding to the following stages published in the Federal Register: Final, Supplemental request for comments, and Preliminary.

  10. Obstacles to Private Sector Activities in Africa,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    Finance Corporation (IFC), a World Bank affiliate, has declared its intention to step up its programs to assist the private sector in Africa. Many...and much of it is financed by I the rue Monsieur [the aid Ministry]. In many ways, therefore, France’s "progressive" approach to North-South relations...and the BCEAO together provide a unique and efficient financial system that offers external financing , French-style banking practices, and guarantees

  11. If private equity sized up your business.

    PubMed

    Pozen, Robert C

    2007-11-01

    As the dust settles on the recent frenzy of private equity deals (including transactions topping $20 billion), what lessons can companies glean? Directors and executives of public companies may now be slightly less fearful of imminent takeover, yet the pressure remains: They face shareholders who wonder why they aren't getting private-equity-level returns. Rather than dismiss the value private equity has created as manipulated or aberrant, public company leaders should recognize the disciplined management that often underlies it. Pozen, a longtime leader in the financial services industry, finds that in the aftermath of buyouts, companies undergo five major thrusts of reform. These translate into five key questions that directors should pose to senior management: Have we left too much cash on our balance sheet instead of raising our cash dividends or buying back shares? Do we have the optimal capital structure, with the lowest weighted after-tax cost of total capital, including debt and equity? Do we have an operating plan that will significantly increase shareholder value, with specific metrics to monitor performance? Are the compensation rewards for our top executives tied closely enough to increases in shareholder value, with real penalties for nonperformance? Finally, does our board have enough industry experts who have made the time commitments and been given the financial incentives necessary to maximize shareholder value? The era of private equity is far from over - the top funds have become very large and are likely to play an influential role in future market cycles. Boards that ask these questions, and act on them, won't just beat the takeover artists to the punch. They will build stronger businesses.

  12. TWRS privatization phase 1 electrical power system

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, G.

    1997-05-30

    This document includes Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for a new 11 km (7 miles) 230 kV transmission line and a new 40 MVA substation (A6) which will be located east of Grout Facility in 200E Area tank farm. This substation will provide electrical power up to 20 MW each for two private contractor facilities for immobilization and disposal of low activity waste (LAW).

  13. Why Indiana Voucher Parents Choose Private Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, Indiana enacted the broadest school voucher program in the country. In the program's first year, almost 4,000 families used vouchers to attend participating private schools, with the number of students applying for vouchers more than doubling in each of the following two years, to 9,324 students in 2012-13, and 19,809 in 2013-14. The…

  14. Public and private health initiatives in Kansas.

    PubMed

    Fonner, E

    1998-01-01

    This article summarizes several health initiatives in Kansas that are being forwarded by way of public/private partnerships. Consensus is being shaped on the standardization of health data and use of actionable indicators. Statewide public health improvement planning is also being pursued. A group of large employers and state agencies are creating a basis for group purchasing, consumer assessments of health plans, and coordinated public policy formulation.

  15. Ethical issues in a pediatric private practice.

    PubMed

    Jakubowitz, Melissa

    2011-11-01

    Building a successful pediatric private practice requires clinical expertise and an understanding of the business process, as well as familiarity with the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association Code of Ethics. This article provides an overview of the ethical issues that may be encountered when building a practice, including a look at marketing and advertising, financial management, privacy, and documentation. Ethically sound decision making is a key to a successful business.

  16. The microbiological quality of seven large commercial private water supplies in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Kay, D; Watkins, J; Francis, C A; Wyn-Jones, A P; Stapleton, C M; Fewtrell, L; Wyer, M D; Drury, D

    2007-12-01

    supplies and the results reinforce public health concerns related to domestic supplies. Furthermore, the pattern of contamination is highly episodic, commonly lasting only a few days. Thus, the relatively infrequent regulatory monitoring of such supplies would be unlikely to identify the poor water quality episodes and does not provide the data necessary for public health protection. Although some statistical relationship was found between faecal indicator organisms and the presence of pathogens, the use of FIOs in assessments of regulatory compliance may not always provide a reliable measure of public health risk, i.e. indicator absence does not preclude pathogen presence. The results of this study suggest that a risk assessment system similar to the WHO 'Water Safety Planning' approach might offer a more appropriate regulatory paradigm for private water supplies.

  17. Public-private partnerships for hospitals.

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Martin; Edwards, Nigel; Atun, Rifat

    2006-01-01

    While some forms of public-private partnerships are a feature of hospital construction and operation in all countries with mixed economies, there is increasing interest in a model in which a public authority contracts with a private company to design, build and operate an entire hospital. Drawing on the experience of countries such as Australia, Spain, and the United Kingdom, this paper reviews the experience with variants of this model. Although experience is still very limited and rigorous evaluations lacking, four issues have emerged: cost, quality, flexibility and complexity. New facilities have, in general, been more expensive than they would have been if procured using traditional methods. Compared with the traditional system, new facilities are more likely to be built on time and within budget, but this seems often to be at the expense of compromises on quality. The need to minimize the risk to the parties means that it is very difficult to "future-proof" facilities in a rapidly changing world. Finally, such projects are extremely, and in some cases prohibitively, complex. While it is premature to say whether the problems experienced relate to the underlying model or to their implementation, it does seem that a public-private partnership further complicates the already difficult task of building and operating a hospital. PMID:17143463

  18. Investigating Philosophies Underpinning Dietetic Private Practice

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Claudia; Maher, Judith

    2017-01-01

    There is limited theory or knowledge regarding dietitians’ practice philosophies and how these philosophies are generated and incorporated into their professional practices. For the purposes of this study, a conceptual framework will explain and define the ‘philosophies’ as three different types of knowledge; episteme, techne, and phronesis. This study aimed to develop an explanatory theory of how dietitians in private practice source, utilise, and integrate practice philosophies. A grounded theory qualitative methodology was used to inform the sampling strategy, data collection, and analytical processes. Semi-structured interviews with dietitians in private practice were undertaken and data were collected and analysed concurrently. The results show that dietitians form collaborative relationships with their clients, in order to nurture change over time. They use intrinsic and intertwined forms of episteme, techne, and phronesis, which allow them to respond both practically and sensitively to their clients’ needs. The learning and integration of these forms of knowledge are situated in their own practice experience. Dietitians adapt through experience, feedback, and reflection. This study highlights that private practice offers a unique context in which dietitians deal with complex issues, by utilising and adapting their philosophies. PMID:28257036

  19. Why electronic mail is inherently private

    SciTech Connect

    Granger, S.

    1994-12-31

    Electronic Mail originated in Large-Area Networks and computer Bulletin Board Systems. On LAN`s in offices, it served the purpose of replacing office memos to make work more efficient. On BBS`s, it became a personal way of sending notes back and forth between acquaintances and frields. From the beginning e-mail was private. The Arpanet formed as a way for researchers to discuss their work over long-distances. The Arpanet, solely in existence as a government venture to assist in furthering of research, enjoyed a certain secrecy for a while. Once the Internt formed, the system allowed others inside as it no longer existed merely for the government. Much of the work on the Arpanet/Internet was necessarily private due to its nature. This made it even more important for e-mail to be private. Today the Internet includes not only what was the Arpanet (NSFNet), but companies and several BBS`s as well. Privacy is mor eimportant today than ever and should not even be an option on e-mail systems. It should be considered inherent in all systems.

  20. Economic Public Private Partnerships for Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Thomas C.; Kistler, Walter P.; Citron, Bob

    2008-01-01

    Space transportation has evolved to entrepreneurs offering affordable transportation services to LEO. Society expects space tourism to produce low costs quickly, but entrepreneurs need the larger commercial transportation markets to raise the private money to build the orbital vehicles. Early heavy cargo is the logistics model of remote bases on Earth and is likely to be similar for off planet remote bases. Public Private Partnerships (PPP), (Norment, 2006) and other alliances with governments offer new transportation markets and combines private funding with government markets to accelerate the movement of mankind into space, (Kistler, 2004a). Entrepreneurs bring change like a multitude of innovation, changes to the traditional aerospace industry status quo, commercial market forces and the lowering of the cost of transportation to orbit. Within PPPs, government stretches space budgets, increases vehicle innovation without cost and gains cost advantages of larger markets. Examples of PPPs show some opportunity for change in space commerce is possible, (Stainback, 2000 and Spekman, 2000). Some of the items entrepreneurs bring include innovation in hardware, a maturing of the normal market forces such as the pressures from buyers and sellers rather than those from government planners or from regulation. Launch costs are high, society wants orbital hotels and current/future markets are not emerging because of high transportation costs. The paper proposes a new approach with examples, because mankind has taken a long time to transition from expendable launch vehicles to newer more affordable launch innovation and may require the introduction of new innovative approaches.

  1. Public-private partnerships for hospitals.

    PubMed

    McKee, Martin; Edwards, Nigel; Atun, Rifat

    2006-11-01

    While some forms of public-private partnerships are a feature of hospital construction and operation in all countries with mixed economies, there is increasing interest in a model in which a public authority contracts with a private company to design, build and operate an entire hospital. Drawing on the experience of countries such as Australia, Spain, and the United Kingdom, this paper reviews the experience with variants of this model. Although experience is still very limited and rigorous evaluations lacking, four issues have emerged: cost, quality, flexibility and complexity. New facilities have, in general, been more expensive than they would have been if procured using traditional methods. Compared with the traditional system, new facilities are more likely to be built on time and within budget, but this seems often to be at the expense of compromises on quality. The need to minimize the risk to the parties means that it is very difficult to "future-proof" facilities in a rapidly changing world. Finally, such projects are extremely, and in some cases prohibitively, complex. While it is premature to say whether the problems experienced relate to the underlying model or to their implementation, it does seem that a public-private partnership further complicates the already difficult task of building and operating a hospital.

  2. Public-private partnering gains success stories

    SciTech Connect

    Cogen, J.

    1995-04-01

    Public-private partnerships are fast becoming a preferred way to develop innovative remediation technologies. Many companies are taking part in such programs, which seek to harness both private-sector and public resources to spur development of innovative remediation technologies. In recent years, Clean Sites, a non-profit organization that seeks to improve the process of cleaning hazardous waste sites, has worked under a cooperative agreement with EPA`s Technology Innovation Office to develop these partnerships. One key aim is to gather hard data on performance and costs for full-scale implementation of innovative remediation technologies - many of which have been bench and pilot tested but lack a track record of successful field applications. Partnering with the federal government also increases opportunities for funding a full-scale demonstration. DOD, DOE, and EPA each invest significant resources in the demonstrations. In one case - the McClellan Air Force Base Public-Private Partnership - on-site activities are funded almost exclusively by the US Air Force and EPA.

  3. 75 FR 54210 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ...-2010-032] Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of... Transactions August 30, 2010. On June 17, 2010, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc....

  4. Private Prometheus: Private Higher Education and Development in the 21st Century. Contributions to the Study of Education, Number 77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G., Ed.

    This document addresses changes and trends in private higher education, with particular emphasis on Latin America. It focuses on specific issues facing private higher education, which has developed significantly worldwide. A variety of factors have brought private higher education to the forefront. There has been a shift in several countries from…

  5. The emergence and popularisation of autologous somatic cellular therapies in Australia: therapeutic innovation or regulatory failure?

    PubMed

    McLean, Alison K; Stewart, Cameron; Kerridge, Ian

    2014-09-01

    Private stem cell clinics throughout Australia are providing autologous stem cell therapies for a range of chronic and debilitating illnesses despite the lack of published literature to support the clinical application of these therapies. The Therapeutic Goods Administration has excluded autologous stem cell therapies from its regulatory domain leaving such therapies to be regulated by the same mechanisms that regulate research, such as the National Health and Medical Research Council Research Ethics Guidelines, and clinical practice, such as the Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency. However, the provision of these stem cell therapies does not follow the established pathways for legitimate medical advance--therapeutic innovation or research. The current regulatory framework is failing to achieve its aims of protecting vulnerable patients and ensuring the proper conduct of medical practitioners in the private stem cell industry.

  6. Targeting regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Ménétrier-Caux, Christine; Curiel, Tyler; Faget, Julien; Manuel, Manuarii; Caux, Christophe; Zou, Weiping

    2012-03-01

    Cancers express tumor-associated antigens that should elicit immune response to antagonize the tumor growth, but spontaneous immune rejection of established cancer is rare, suggesting an immunosuppressive environment hindering host antitumor immunity. Among the specific and active tumor-mediated mechanisms, CD4(+)CD25(high) T regulatory cells (Treg) are important mediators of active immune evasion in cancer. In this review, we will discuss Treg subpopulations and the mechanisms of their suppressive functions. Treg depletion improves endogenous antitumor immunity and the efficacy of active immunotherapy in animal models for cancer, suggesting that inhibiting Treg function could also improve the limited successes of human cancer immunotherapy. We will also discuss specific strategies for devising effective cancer immunotherapy targeting Treg.

  7. Toxicogenomics in regulatory ecotoxicology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ankley, Gerald T.; Daston, George P.; Degitz, Sigmund J.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Hoke, Robert A.; Kennedy, Sean W.; Miracle, Ann L.; Perkins, Edward J.; Snape, Jason; Tillitt, Donald E.; Tyler, Charles R.; Versteeg, Donald

    2006-01-01

    Recently, we have witnessed an explosion of different genomic approaches that, through a combination of advanced biological, instrumental, and bioinformatic techniques, can yield a previously unparalleled amount of data concerning the molecular and biochemical status of organisms. Fueled partially by large, well-publicized efforts such as the Human Genome Project, genomic research has become a rapidly growing topical area in multiple biological disciplines. Since 1999, when the term “toxicogenomics” was coined to describe the application of genomics to toxicology (1), a rapid increase in publications on the topic has occurred (Figure 1). The potential utility of toxicogenomics in toxicological research and regulatory activities has been the subject of scientific discussions and, as with any new technology, has evoked a wide range of opinion (2–6).

  8. Regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Claire; Powrie, Fiona

    2004-08-01

    Regulatory T (TR) cells are a subset of T cells that function to control immune responses. Different populations of TR cells have been described, including thymically derived CD4(+)CD25+ TR cells and Tr1 cells induced in the periphery through exposure to antigen. A transcription factor, Foxp3, has been identified that is essential for CD4(+)CD25+ TR cell development and function. There is now evidence that transforming growth factor-beta might play a role in this pathway. CD4(+)CD25+ TR cells proliferate extensively in vivo in an antigen-specific manner, and can respond to both self and foreign peptides. By suppressing excessive immune responses, TR cells play a key role in the maintenance of self-tolerance, thus preventing autoimmune disease, as well as inhibiting harmful inflammatory diseases such as asthma and inflammatory bowel disease.

  9. Regulatory Considerations for Biosimilars

    PubMed Central

    Nellore, Ranjani

    2010-01-01

    Currently there is considerable interest in the legislative debate around generic biological drugs or “biosimilars” in the EU and US due to the large, lucrative market that it offers to the industry. While some countries have issued a few regulatory guidelines as well as product specific requirements, there is no general consensus as to a single, simple mechanism similar to the bioequivalence determination that leads to approval of generic small molecules all over the world. The inherent complex nature of the molecules, along with complicated manufacturing and analytical techniques to characterize them make it difficult to rely on a single human pharmacokinetic study for assurance of safety and efficacy. In general, the concept of comparability has been used for evaluation of the currently approved “similar” biological where a step by step assessment on the quality, preclinical and clinical aspects is made. In India, the focus is primarily on the availability and affordability of life-saving drugs. In this context every product needs to be evaluated on its own merit irrespective of the innovator brand. The formation of the National Biotechnology Regulatory Authority may provide a step in the right direction for regulation of these complex molecules. However, in order to have an efficient machinery for initial approval and ongoing oversight with a country-specific focus, cooperation with international authorities for granting approvals and continuous risk-benefit review is essential. Several steps are still needed for India to be perceived as a country that leads the world in providing quality biological products. PMID:21829775

  10. Regulatory Streamlining and Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Mark A. Carl

    2006-07-11

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) engaged in numerous projects outlined under the scope of work discussed in the United States Department of Energy (DOE) grant number DE-FC26-04NT15456 awarded to the IOGCC. Numerous projects were completed that were extremely valuable to state oil and gas agencies as a result of work performed utilizing resources provided by the grant. There are numerous areas in which state agencies still need assistance. This additional assistance will need to be addressed under future scopes of work submitted annually to DOE's Project Officer for this grant. This report discusses the progress of the projects outlined under the grant scope of work for the 2005-2006 areas of interest, which are as follows: Area of Interest No. 1--Regulatory Streamlining and Improvement: This area of interest continues to support IOGCC's regulatory streamlining efforts that include the identification and elimination of unnecessary duplications of efforts between and among state and federal programs dealing with exploration and production on public lands. Area of Interest No. 2--Technology: This area of interest seeks to improve efficiency in states through the identification of technologies that can reduce costs. Area of Interest No. 3--Training and Education: This area of interest is vital to upgrading the skills of regulators and industry alike. Within the National Energy Policy, there are many appropriate training and education opportunities. Education was strongly endorsed by the President's National Energy Policy Development group. Acting through the governors offices, states are very effective conduits for the dissemination of energy education information. While the IOGCC favors the development of a comprehensive, long-term energy education plan, states are also supportive of immediate action on important concerns, such as energy prices, availability and conservation. Area of Interest No. 4--Resource Assessment and Development: This area

  11. Private cord blood banking: current use and clinical future.

    PubMed

    Hollands, Peter; McCauley, Catherina

    2009-09-01

    International private umbilical cord blood banking has expanded rapidly in recent years since the first cord blood transplant which was 20 years ago. Private companies offer parents the opportunity to store umbilical cord blood for the possible future use by their child or other family members. The private cord blood industry has been criticised by a number of professional bodies including the EU Ethics Committee, the Royal College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, the Royal College of Midwives and the US College of Paediatrics. This review presents the arguments from the opponents of private cord blood banking, and then makes the case for private cord banking based on the latest scientific and clinical evidence.

  12. Privatization Financing Alternatives: Blending Private Capital and Public Resources for a Successful Project

    SciTech Connect

    BT Oakley; JH Holbrook; L Scully; MR Weimar; PK Kearns; R DiPrinzio

    1998-10-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) launched the Contract Reform Initiative in 1994 in order to improve the effectiveness and effkiency of managing major projects and programs. The intent of this initiative is to help DOE harness both technical and market forces to reduce the overall cost of accomplishing DOE's program goals. The new approach transfers greater risk to private contractors in order to develop incentives that align contractor performance with DOE's objectives. In some cases, this goal can be achieved through public-private partnerships wherein the govermhent and the contractor share risks associated with a project in a way that optimizes its economics. Generally, this requires that project risks are allocated to the party best equipped to manage and/or underwrite them. While the merits of privatization are well documented, the question of how privatized services should be financed is often debated. Given the cost of private sector equity and debt, it is difficult to ignore the lure of the government's "risk free" cost of capital. However, the source of financing for a project is an integral part of its overall risk allocation, and therefore, participation by the government as a financing source could alter the allocation of risks in the project, diminishing the incentive structure. Since the government's participation in the project's financing often can be a requirement for financial feasibility, the dilemma of structuring a role for the government without undermining the success of the project is a common and difficult challenge faced by policymakers around the world. However, before reverting to a traditional procurement approach where the government enters into a cost-plus risk profile, the government should exhaust all options that keep the private entity at risk for important aspects of the project. Government participation in a project can include a broad range of options and can be applied with precision to bridge a gap in the project

  13. A planning support system to optimize approval of private housing development projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussnain, M. Q.; Wakil, K.; Waheed, A.; Tahir, A.

    2016-06-01

    Out of 182 million population of Pakistan, 38% reside in urban areas having an average growth rate of 1.6%, raising the urban housing demand significantly. Poor state response to fulfil the housing needs has resulted in a mushroom growth of private housing schemes (PHS) over the years. Consequently, only in five major cities of Punjab, there are 383 legal and 150 illegal private housing development projects against 120 public sector housing schemes. A major factor behind the cancerous growth of unapproved PHS is the prolonged and delayed approval process in concerned approval authorities requiring 13 months on average. Currently, manual and paper-based approaches are used for vetting and for granting the permission which is highly subjective and non-transparent. This study aims to design a flexible planning support system (PSS) to optimize the vetting process of PHS projects under any development authority in Pakistan by reducing time and cost required for site and documents investigations. Relying on the review of regulatory documents and interviews with professional planners and land developers, this study describes the structure of a PSS developed using open- source geo-spatial tools such as OpenGeo Suite, PHP, and PostgreSQL. It highlights the development of a Knowledge Module (based on regulatory documents) containing equations related to scheme type, size (area), location, access road, components of layout plan, planning standards and other related approval checks. Furthermore, it presents the architecture of the database module and system data requirements categorized as base datasets (built-in part of PSS) and input datasets (related to the housing project under approval). It is practically demonstrated that developing a customized PSS to optimize PHS approval process in Pakistan is achievable with geospatial technology. With the provision of such a system, the approval process for private housing schemes not only becomes quicker and user-friendly but also

  14. Public-Private Partnerships in the health sector: the Danish experience.

    PubMed

    Vrangbaek, Karsten

    2008-04-01

    This article investigates the current use of Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) in the Danish health sector based on an initial discussion of theoretical approaches that analyze PPP. The empirical analysis concludes that PPP has been used very sparsely in the Danish health sector. There are few examples of large-scale partnership projects with joint investment and risk taking, but a number of smaller partnerships such as jointly owned companies at the regional level. When defining PPP more broadly, we can identify a long tradition for various types of collaboration between public and private actors in health care in Denmark. An analysis of the regulatory environment is offered as an explanation for the limited use of PPPs in Denmark. Major political and institutional actors at the central level differ in their enthusiasm for the PPP concept, and the regulatory framework is somewhat uncertain. A number of general issues and concerns related to PPPs are also discussed. It is suggested that a risk-based framework can be useful for mapping the potential and challenges for both private and public partners. Such a framework can be used to feed into game theoretical models of pros and cons for PPP projects. In general terms, it is concluded that more empirical research is needed for the assessment of the various risk factors involved in using PPPs in health care. Most PPPs are still very young, and the evidence on performance and broader governance issues is only just emerging. Ideally, such assessments should include comparisons with a purely public alternative.

  15. Paradise Lost; the reputation of the dental profession and regulatory scope.

    PubMed

    Holden, A C L

    2017-02-24

    In their recent article in this Journal, Affleck and Macnish (BDJ 2016) state that when questionable, private behaviour of dental professionals does not directly affect patient care or safety, the General Dental Council should have no interest in disciplinary action. They argue that the private affairs of dental professionals have no bearing upon their professional practice. This article is a response to this conclusion in which I examine the relationship between professional and private matters within the context of social media. I also demonstrate that regulatory action in response to behaviour which damages the reputation of the dental profession is more than just appropriate, but also essential in order to preserve the profession's relationship with society. While valid to a point, I find that Affleck and Macnish's view on this issue is too narrow and to fully appreciate the ethical quandaries within this issue, we must adopt a more holistic perspective of the nature of professionalism.

  16. 75 FR 79763 - Regulatory Agenda

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ...The Regulatory Flexibility Act of 1980 and Executive Order (EO) 12866 require the semi-annual issuance of an inventory of rulemaking actions under development throughout the Department with a view to offering summarized information about forthcoming regulatory actions for public...

  17. Microbial regulatory and metabolic networks.

    PubMed

    Cho, Byung-Kwan; Charusanti, Pep; Herrgård, Markus J; Palsson, Bernhard O

    2007-08-01

    Reconstruction of transcriptional regulatory and metabolic networks is the foundation of large-scale microbial systems and synthetic biology. An enormous amount of information including the annotated genomic sequences and the genomic locations of DNA-binding regulatory proteins can be used to define metabolic and regulatory networks in cells. In particular, advances in experimental methods to map regulatory networks in microbial cells have allowed reliable data-driven reconstruction of these networks. Recent work on metabolic engineering and experimental evolution of microbes highlights the key role of global regulatory networks in controlling specific metabolic processes and the need to consider the integrated function of multiple types of networks for both scientific and engineering purposes.

  18. 75 FR 40000 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Approving...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change Relating to the Restated Certificate of Incorporation of Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. July 2, 2010. On May 21, 2010, Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc....

  19. 75 FR 30453 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Approving...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Approving..., Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA'') (f/k/a National Association of Securities Dealers... National Association of Securities Dealers, Inc., the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc., or...

  20. How to Achieve Transparency in Public-Private Partnerships Engaged in Hunger and Malnutrition Reduction.

    PubMed

    Eggersdorfer, Manfred; Bird, Julia K

    2016-01-01

    Multi-stakeholder partnerships are important facilitators of improving nutrition in developing countries to achieve the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals. Often, the role of industry is challenged and questions are raised as to the ethics of involving for-profit companies in humanitarian projects. The Second International Conference on Nutrition placed great emphasis on the role of the private sector, including industry, in multi-stakeholder partnerships to reduce hunger and malnutrition. Governments have to establish regulatory frameworks and institutions to guarantee fair competition and invest in infrastructure that makes investments for private companies attractive, eventually leading to economic growth. Civil society organizations can contribute by delivering nutrition interventions and behavioral change-related communication to consumers, providing capacity, and holding governments and private sector organizations accountable. Industry provides technical support, innovation, and access to markets and the supply chain. The greatest progress and impact can be achieved if all stakeholders cooperate in multi-stakeholder partnerships aimed at improving nutrition, thereby strengthening local economies and reducing poverty and inequality. Successful examples of public-private partnerships exist, as well as examples in which these partnerships did not achieve mutually agreed objectives. The key requirements for productive alliances between industry and civil society organizations are the establishment of rules of engagement, transparency and mutual accountability. The Global Social Observatory performed a consultation on conflicts of interest related to the Scaling Up Nutrition movement and provided recommendations to prevent, identify, manage and monitor potential conflicts of interest. Multi-stakeholder partnerships can be successful models in improving nutrition if they meet societal demand with transparent decision-making and execution. Solutions to

  1. Understanding genetic regulatory networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffman, Stuart

    2003-04-01

    Random Boolean networks (RBM) were introduced about 35 years ago as first crude models of genetic regulatory networks. RBNs are comprised of N on-off genes, connected by a randomly assigned regulatory wiring diagram where each gene has K inputs, and each gene is controlled by a randomly assigned Boolean function. This procedure samples at random from the ensemble of all possible NK Boolean networks. The central ideas are to study the typical, or generic properties of this ensemble, and see 1) whether characteristic differences appear as K and biases in Boolean functions are introducted, and 2) whether a subclass of this ensemble has properties matching real cells. Such networks behave in an ordered or a chaotic regime, with a phase transition, "the edge of chaos" between the two regimes. Networks with continuous variables exhibit the same two regimes. Substantial evidence suggests that real cells are in the ordered regime. A key concept is that of an attractor. This is a reentrant trajectory of states of the network, called a state cycle. The central biological interpretation is that cell types are attractors. A number of properties differentiate the ordered and chaotic regimes. These include the size and number of attractors, the existence in the ordered regime of a percolating "sea" of genes frozen in the on or off state, with a remainder of isolated twinkling islands of genes, a power law distribution of avalanches of gene activity changes following perturbation to a single gene in the ordered regime versus a similar power law distribution plus a spike of enormous avalanches of gene changes in the chaotic regime, and the existence of branching pathway of "differentiation" between attractors induced by perturbations in the ordered regime. Noise is serious issue, since noise disrupts attractors. But numerical evidence suggests that attractors can be made very stable to noise, and meanwhile, metaplasias may be a biological manifestation of noise. As we learn more

  2. Private participation in infrastructure: A risk analysis of long-term contracts in power sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceran, Nisangul

    macroeconomic uncertainties and insufficient institutional and regulatory environment. It is concluded that the BOT type infrastructure projects are not an efficient way of promoting private sector participation in infrastructure. They tend to serve the interest of rent-seekers rather than the interest of the society. Since concession contracts and Treasury guarantees shift the commercial risk to government, the private sector has no incentive to be efficient. The concession agreements distort the market conditions by preventing free completion in the market.

  3. Building multiservice Internet protocol virtual private networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, William

    1999-11-01

    Multiservice Internet Protocol-based Virtual Private Networks (MIP- VPNs) with Quality of Service (QoS) are becoming a reality due to the availability of new standards from the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). This paper describes how components including security models, IP tunneling protocols, and service differentiation schemes fit together in order to construct such a VPN. First, the concept and rationale of VPN is presented, followed by a discussion of its supporting components. A comparison is made among the various VPN technologies.

  4. Biomarker qualification via public-private partnerships.

    PubMed

    Eck, S L; Paul, S M

    2010-01-01

    Biomarkers linked to patient outcomes (safety and efficacy) have an increasingly important role in drug development. Consequently, validation and qualification of such biomarkers are essential, often requiring large data sets from well-controlled randomized clinical trials. In the December 2009 issue of Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, investigators utilizing data from four pharmaceutical companies and working under the auspices of the Biomarkers Consortium described the utility of adiponectin as an early predictor of glycemic control in diabetic patients taking peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists. This work illustrates the advantages of large public-private partnerships for biomarker qualification.

  5. Full employment maintenance in the private sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, G. A.

    1976-01-01

    Operationally, full employment can be accomplished by applying modern computer capabilities, game and decision concepts, and communication feedback possibilities, rather than accepted economic tools, to the problem of assuring invariant full employment. The government must provide positive direction to individual firms concerning the net number of employees that each firm must hire or refrain from hiring to assure national full employment. To preserve free enterprise and the decision making power of the individual manager, this direction must be based on each private firm's own numerical employment projections.

  6. Private practice--an advanced practice option.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Anne; Jarman, Heather

    2002-10-01

    Currently there is considerable debate on the role and function of nurses in Australia and internationally. This debate stems from developments within the nursing profession itself from political and economic issues in health platforms, due to restructuring of the health care system, consumer expectations of health care and nurses' expectations of a career. This paper provides the opportunity to reflect on the development of the role of the private practice (independent nurse) and where that role is situated in the nursing profession. This forms the basis for discussion of the development of specialty practice at an advanced level in Australia and to demonstrate its relationship with the nurse practitioner movement in Australia.

  7. Internationalization of regulatory requirements.

    PubMed

    Juillet, Y

    2003-02-01

    The aim of harmonisation of medicines regulatory requirements is to allow the patient quicker access to new drugs and to avoid animal and human duplications. Harmonisation in the European Union (EU) is now completed, and has led to the submission of one dossier in one language study leading to European marketing authorizations, thanks in particular to efficacy guidelines published at the European level. With the benefit of the European experience since 1989, more than 40 guidelines have been harmonised amongst the EU, Japan and the USA through the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH). ICH is a unique process gathering regulators and industry experts from the three regions. Its activity is built on expertise and trust. The Common Technical Document (CTD), an agreed common format for application in the three regions, is a logical follow-up to the ICH first phase harmonising the content of the dossier. The CTD final implementation in July 2003 will have considerable influence on the review process and on the exchange of information in the three regions.

  8. 21 CFR 500.88 - Regulatory method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... § 500.88 Regulatory method. (a) The sponsor shall submit for evaluation and validation a regulatory... method validation data. (c) FDA will publish in the Federal Register the complete regulatory method...

  9. Regulatory T cells and COPD.

    PubMed

    Dancer, Rachel; Sansom, David M

    2013-12-01

    While the innate immune system has long been implicated in the pathogenesis of COPD, a role for the acquired immune system is less well studied. The increasing recognition that COPD shares features with autoimmune disease has led to interest in a potential role for regulatory T cells, which are intimately involved in the control of autoimmunity. The suggestion that regulatory T cell numbers are increased in patients with COPD may indicate their dysfunction or resistance to suppression by target cells. Investigation of regulatory T cells may therefore be of importance in understanding the inflammation and tissue damage that occurs in patients with COPD who cease smoking.

  10. A case for increased private sector involvement in Ireland's national animal health services

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Non-regulatory animal health issues, such as Johne's disease, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and mastitis will become increasing important, with ongoing globalisation of markets in animals and animal products. In response, Ireland may need to broaden the scope of its national animal health services. However, there have been concerns about the respective roles and responsibilities (both financial and otherwise) of government and industry in any such moves. This paper argues the case for increased private sector involvement in Ireland's national animal health services, based both on theoretical considerations and country case studies (the Netherlands and Australia). The Dutch and Australian case studies present examples of successful partnerships between government and industry, including systems and processes to address non-regulatory animal health issues. In each case, the roles and responsibilities of government are clear, as are the principles underpinning government involvement. Furthermore, the roles and responsibilities (financial and otherwise) of the Dutch and Australian industry are determined through enabling legislation, providing both legitimacy and accountability. There are constraints on the use of EU and national government funds to support non-regulatory animal health services in EU member states (such as Ireland and the Netherlands). PMID:21851708

  11. Arsenic in private drinking water wells: an assessment of jurisdictional regulations and guidelines for risk remediation in North America.

    PubMed

    Chappells, Heather; Parker, Louise; Fernandez, Conrad V; Conrad, Cathy; Drage, John; O'Toole, Gary; Campbell, Norma; Dummer, Trevor J B

    2014-09-01

    Arsenic is a known carcinogen found globally in groundwater supplies due to natural geological occurrence. Levels exceeding the internationally recognized safe drinking water standard of 10 μg/L have been found in private drinking water supplies in many parts of Canada and the United States. Emerging epidemiological evidence confirms groundwater arsenic to be a significant health concern, even at the low to moderate levels typically found in this region. These findings, coupled with survey data reporting limited public adherence to testing and treatment guidelines, have prompted calls for improved protective measures for private well users. The purpose of this review is to assess current jurisdictional provisions for private well water protection in areas where arsenic is known to naturally occur in groundwater at elevated levels. Significant limitations in risk management approaches are identified, including inconsistent and uncoordinated risk communication approaches, lack of support mechanisms for routine water testing and limited government resources to check that testing and treatment guidelines are followed. Key action areas are discussed that can help to build regulatory, community and individual capacity for improved protection of private well water supplies and enhancement of public health.

  12. 76 FR 71329 - Request for Information Regarding Private Education Loans and Private Educational Lenders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... 1077 of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (``Dodd-Frank'') requires... INFORMATION: In support of the study required under section 1077 of Dodd-Frank, the Bureau seeks information... used in Section 1077 of Dodd-Frank, ``private education loans'' refers to loans made ] by a school...

  13. Enrollment and Completions at Private Career Schools. A Factual Look at Private Career Institutions in Nebraska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Coordinating Commission for Postsecondary Education, Lincoln.

    A survey of 53 private career institutions in Nebraska (56 percent located in the Omaha area) revealed the following statistics for the period July 1, 1990 to June 30, 1991: (1) 9,275 students were enrolled; (2) business programs enrolled the largest percentage (35 percent) of the total student population, with business, trade, and technical…

  14. Public investment does not crowd out private supply of environmental goods on private land.

    PubMed

    Duncan, David H; Kyle, Garreth; Morris, William K; Smith, F Patrick

    2014-04-01

    In landscapes where private land tenure is prevalent, public funds for ecological landscape restoration are sometimes spent subsidising the revegetation of cleared land, and the protection of remnant vegetation from livestock. However, the total area treated may be unclear because such projects are not always recorded, and landholders may undertake similar activities without subsidisation. In the absence of empirical data, in the state of Victoria, Australia, a reporting assumption has been employed that suggests that wholly privately funded sites match publicly subsidised sites on a hectare for hectare basis (a so-called "x2" assumption). Conversely, the "crowding out" theory of investment in public goods such as environmental benefits suggests that public investment may supplant private motivation. Using aerial photography we mapped the extent of revegetation, native vegetation fencing and restoration on 71 representative landholdings in rural south-eastern Australia. We interviewed each landholder and recorded the age and funding model of each site. Contrary to the local "x2" reporting assumption, about 75% of the total area of the 412 sites was from subsidised sites, and that proportion was far higher for the period after 1997. However, rather than displacing unsubsidised activity, our modelling showed that landholders who had recently been subsidised for a project were more likely to have subsequently completed unsubsidised work. This indicates that, at least in terms of medium-term economic impact, the large increase in public subsidies did not diminish privately funded activity, as might be expected according to the theory of crowding out.

  15. Section 1: Looking Broadly at the Politics of Privatization: The Politics of Privatization in American Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, William L.

    2007-01-01

    The long-sustained effort of conservatives and their think tanks and media outlets to win support for school choice, market forces, and privatization schemes in education is paying off. But it is encountering steady resistance from the public education establishment and its supporting teachers' unions. Actions, reactions, strategies, and the…

  16. The private sector, international development and NCDs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses an area that has been largely underserved by the development community, and one in which there is a particularly good opportunity for the private sector to take a lead in making a difference to employees, customers and local communities: chronic, non-communicable diseases (NCDs). It highlights the extent of the epidemic of NCDs in developing countries, sets out the 'business case' for the private sector to act on NCDs, and gives examples of initiatives by business to ensure that the healthy choice really is an easier choice for employees, consumers and local communities. It makes the case that, to be genuinely sustainable, businesses should be addressing health as a core part of what they do and, by working in partnership - as called for by the Millennium Development Goals - they can make a real difference and become part of the solution. Identifying ways in which this can be done should form a key part both of planning for, and action after, the UN High-level Meeting on NCDs, to be held in September 2011. PMID:21798001

  17. The private sector, international development and NCDs.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Christine; Kingo, Lise; Raynaud, Olivier

    2011-07-28

    This article addresses an area that has been largely underserved by the development community, and one in which there is a particularly good opportunity for the private sector to take a lead in making a difference to employees, customers and local communities: chronic, non-communicable diseases (NCDs). It highlights the extent of the epidemic of NCDs in developing countries, sets out the 'business case' for the private sector to act on NCDs, and gives examples of initiatives by business to ensure that the healthy choice really is an easier choice for employees, consumers and local communities. It makes the case that, to be genuinely sustainable, businesses should be addressing health as a core part of what they do and, by working in partnership - as called for by the Millennium Development Goals - they can make a real difference and become part of the solution. Identifying ways in which this can be done should form a key part both of planning for, and action after, the UN High-level Meeting on NCDs, to be held in September 2011.

  18. Public-private partnerships: an overview.

    PubMed

    Widdus, Roy

    2005-10-01

    The development and marketing of medicines needed specifically to combat diseases of the developing world are commercially unattractive because the populations concerned are among the poorest on earth. Partnerships which bring together pharmaceutical companies, academics, not-for-profit organizations, philanthropists, governmental and inter-governmental agencies are an increasingly popular solution. These partnerships result in a complementarity of skills and resources that can accelerate the development and delivery of new medicines to those in need. Over the last 10 years or so, these public-private partnerships (PPPs) have grown significantly in number and diversity. However, they tend to cluster into two main groups: those dealing with product development (PD PPPs), and those concerned with improving the access of new medicines to target populations (Access PPPs). The Initiative on Public-Private Partnerships for Health was set up four years ago to monitor the performance of these new partnerships. After a series of studies of Access PPPs, it concluded that they provide significant benefits with very few side effects, particularly in the case of tropical diseases.

  19. Genetic predictive testing and private insurances.

    PubMed

    Abbing, H D

    1991-08-01

    Genetic information is a potential tool for selection of job applicants and of candidates for insurance. Social implications of genetic information may represent a threshold for the access to health care facilities. Some of the issues related to the use of predictive genetic information by private life and health insurance companies are discussed. They include the potential threat for the privacy of the individual and his relatives, the pressure to undergo genetic testing and the social consequences of the use of genetic information by private insurance companies. The justified financial interests of insurance companies and the interests of the individual to have his privacy protected and to be able to partake in social attainments have to be brought into balance. A ban on genetic testing in connection with access to insurances and a limitation to the use of existing genetic information have been suggested by the Dutch Health Council. This approach to the problem should be adopted throughout the European Communities, so that medical progress does not turn out to be against the interests of the consumer.

  20. TWRS privatization phase I site development engineering study

    SciTech Connect

    Shord, A.L.

    1996-09-30

    The DOE-RL is pursuing a new business strategy of hiring private contractors for treatment of Hanford Site tank wastes. This strategy is called `privatization` and includes design, permitting, construction, operation and deactivation of facilities for tank waste treatment. The TWRS Privatization Infrastructure Project consists of several sub-projects which will provide key services needed to support the privatization mission. One sub-project is to develop the selected site for the privatization facilities. This study addresses the pertinent issues related to the development of the site and specific parcels to be assigned to each of two private contractors. It also summarizes other studies that address provisions for utilities and other site services.

  1. TWRS privatization phase I - raw and potable water service

    SciTech Connect

    Shord, A.L.

    1996-09-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy has chosen to accomplish the Tank Waste Remediation System disposal mission via privatization. The disposal mission has been divided into two phases. Phase 1, a `proof of concept` phase, will establish and demonstrate the technical, commercial, and procurement capabilities necessary for privatization to proceed. Once established on this relatively small scale, privatization will be expanded, through a second competition, in the form of a second phase (Phase II) to dispose of the remainder of the tank waste. The Phase I privatization site will be located in the former Grout Disposal Site area. To prepare the site for use for the private contractors, utilities must be extended from the 200 East Area infrastructure. This study evaluates and recommends the systems to supply raw, fire suppression, and sanitary (potable) water services to the boundary of the area to be assigned to each private contractor.

  2. Private expenditure and the role of private health insurance in Greece: status quo and future trends.

    PubMed

    Siskou, Olga; Kaitelidou, Daphne; Economou, Charalampos; Kostagiolas, Peter; Liaropoulos, Lycourgos

    2009-10-01

    The health care system in Greece is financed in almost equal proportions by public and private sources. Private expenditure, consists mostly of out-of-pocket and under-the-table payments. Such payments strongly suggest dissatisfaction with the public system, due to under financing during the last 25 years. This gap has been filled rapidly by the private sector. From this point of view, one might suggest that the flourishing development of private provision may lead in turn to a corresponding growth in private health insurance (PHI). This paper aims to examine the role of PHI in Greece, to identify the factors influencing its development, and to make some suggestions about future policies and trends. In the decade of 1985-1995 PHI show increasing activity, reflecting the intention of some citizens to seek health insurance solutions in the form of supplementary cover in order to ensure faster access, better quality of services, and increased consumer choice. The benefits include programs covering hospital expenses, cash benefits, outpatient care expenses, disability income insurance, as well as limited managed care programs. However, despite recent interest, PHI coverage remains low in Greece compared to other EU countries. Economic, social and cultural factors such as low average household income, high unemployment, obligatory and full coverage by social insurance, lead to reluctance to pay for second-tier insurance. Instead, there is a preference to pay a doctor or hospital directly even in the form of under-the-table payments (which are remarkably high in Greece), when the need arises. There are also factors endogenous to the PHI industry, related to market policies, low organisational capacity, cream skimming, and the absence of insurance products meeting consumer requirements, which explain the relatively low state of development of PHI in Greece.

  3. Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office evaluation of feasibility studies for private sector treatment of alpha and TRU mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is currently storing a large quantity of alpha contaminated mixed low level waste which will require treatment prior to disposal. The DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) recognized that current knowledge and funding were insufficient to directly pursue services for the requisite treatment. Therefore, it was decided that private sector studies would be funded to clarify cost, regulatory, technology, and contractual issues associated with procuring treatment services. This report analyzes the three private sector studies procured and recommends a path forward for DOE in procuring retrieval, assay, characterization, and treatment services for INEL transuranic and alpha contaminated mixed low level waste. This report was prepared by a team of subject matter experts from the INEL referred to as the DOE-ID Evaluation Team.

  4. State/Federal Regulatory Considerations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains presentations from the Brown to Green: Make the Connection to Renewable Energy workshop held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, during December 10-11, 2008, regarding State/Federal Regulatory Considerations.

  5. Current Regulations and Regulatory Actions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site will provide basic information on clean air permitting under the title V operating permits program, provide access to state and regional permitting programs, and maintain access to proposed and final regulatory requirements.

  6. 77 FR 7972 - Regulatory Agenda

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ... Identifier No. 396 National Standards to 1105-AB34 Prevent, Detect, and Respond to Prison Rape (Reg Plan Seq... Prevent, Detect, and Respond to Prison Rape Regulatory Plan: This entry is Seq. No. 85 in part II of...

  7. Managed care and private health insurance in a global context.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Jonathan P; Famadas, Joanna Case; Waters, Hugh R; Gikic, Djordje

    2008-12-01

    This article provides an overview of the current role of private health insurance and private care management organizations around the globe. We describe past experiences and challenges associated with the export of U.S.-style managed care. We provide a framework for understanding the potential opportunities within a national health system for expanding managed care approaches and also private health insurance more generally. This article is relevant to both the United States and members of the international community.

  8. Public-Private Partnerships at Air Force Maintenance Depots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-10

    Report No. D-2010-067 June 10, 2010 Public - Private Partnerships at Air Force Maintenance Depots Report...2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Public - Private Partnerships at Air Force Maintenance Depots 5a...June 10, 2010 i Results in Brief: Public - Private Partnerships at Air Force Maintenance Depots What We Did We

  9. Electronic Commerce Removing Regulatory Impediments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    AD-A252 691 ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Removing Regulatory Impediments ~DuiG A% ELECTE I JUL1 8 1992 0 C D Daniel J. Drake John A. Ciucci ... - ""N ST AT KE...Management Institute 6400 Goldsboro Road Bethesda, Maryland 20817-5886 92 LMI Executive Summary ELECTRONIC COMMERCE : REMOVING REGULATORY IMPEDIMENTS... Electronic Commerce techniques, such as electronic mail and electronic data interchange (EDI), enable Government agencies to conduct business without the

  10. Regulatory facility guide for Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S.S.; Bock, R.E.; Francis, M.W.; Gove, R.M.; Johnson, P.E.; Kovac, F.M.; Mynatt, J.O.; Rymer, A.C.

    1994-02-28

    The Regulatory Facility Guide (RFG) has been developed for the DOE and contractor facilities located in the state of Ohio. It provides detailed compilations of international, federal, and state transportation-related regulations applicable to shipments originating at destined to Ohio facilities. This RFG was developed as an additional resource tool for use both by traffic managers who must ensure that transportation operations are in full compliance with all applicable regulatory requirements and by oversight personnel who must verify compliance activities.

  11. Public-Private Partnerships in China's Urban Water Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Lijin; Mol, Arthur P. J.; Fu, Tao

    2008-06-01

    During the past decades, the traditional state monopoly in urban water management has been debated heavily, resulting in different forms and degrees of private sector involvement across the globe. Since the 1990s, China has also started experiments with new modes of urban water service management and governance in which the private sector is involved. It is premature to conclude whether the various forms of private sector involvement will successfully overcome the major problems (capital shortage, inefficient operation, and service quality) in China’s water sector. But at the same time, private sector involvement in water provisioning and waste water treatments seems to have become mainstream in transitional China.

  12. A Model for NASA-KSC's Privatization Transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavelle, Jerome P.; Krumwiede, Dennis W.; Flowers, Jean

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a model for government agencies that are considering privatization of all or part of their functions. Privatization encompasses the transitioning of government functions from government run to contractor run. The model developed in this paper is used to analyze the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) decision to privatize space shuttle operations at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Several specific recommendations are given to KSC as they attempt to operationalize this privatization decision at the Center and to transition to a new relationship with their contractors.

  13. Defusion: A Behavior-Analytic Strategy for Addressing Private Events

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Katie; Lambert, Joseph; Twohig, Michael P

    2011-01-01

    Applied behavior analysts encounter situations in which private events hinder client progress, and additional techniques to address these issues are needed. By conceptualizing private events as verbal rules, we provide a behavior-analytic framework for understanding and addressing these events. Relational frame theory (RFT) is the basis for this conceptual foundation; the empirically based principles of RFT are presented along with direct implications for understanding private events. Defusion, an RFT-based technique for addressing private events, is then described and empirical studies that evaluate the effects of defusion are reviewed. Finally, potential clinical applications for practicing behavior analysts are offered. PMID:22649574

  14. Privatizing responsibility: public sector reform under neoliberal government.

    PubMed

    Ilcan, Suzan

    2009-08-01

    In light of public sector reforms in Canada and elsewhere, this paper focuses on the shift of emphasis from social to private responsibilities and raises new questions about the forces of private enterprise and market-based partnerships. Under neoliberal governmental agendas, privatizing responsibility links to three main developments: the reconsideration of the relations of public and private; the mobilization of responsible citizenship; and the formation of a cultural mentality of rule that works alongside these developments. The research for this article is based on extensive analysis of policy documents and public sector reform initiatives, as well as interviews with Canadian federal public service employees.

  15. The limits of regulatory toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Carrington, Clark D.; Bolger, P. Michael

    2010-03-01

    The Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) has been used by regulatory and public health organizations (e.g., the U.S. Food and Drug and Administration, and the World Health Organization) for chemicals for more than 50 years. The ADI concept was also initially employed at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency at its inception in 1971, although with the adoption of newer terminology, it later became known as the Reference Dose (RfD). It is clear from the literature that both were first devised as instruments of regulatory policy. In the intervening years, it has become common to use language that implies that these standards are statements of scientific fact. Similarly, some of the discretionary or default values that are used to derive regulatory standards are represented as scientific assumptions when in fact they also represent regulatory policy. This confusion impedes both the best use of the available science and informed public participation in policy making. In addition, the misconception of the ADI or the RfD as statements of scientific fact may impede the consideration of alternative means to reduce exposure to chemicals that may be harmful, including regulatory measures that do not involve prescribing a regulatory concentration limit.

  16. [Health management in private health insurance].

    PubMed

    Ziegenhagen, D J; Schilling, M K

    2000-09-01

    German private health insurance faces new challenges. The classical tools of cost containment are no longer sufficient to keep up with ever increasing expenses for health care, and international competitors with managed care experience from their home markets are on the point of entering business in Germany. Although the American example of managed care is not fully compatible with customer demands and state regulations, some elements of this approach will gradually be introduced. First agreements were signed with networks or individual preferred providers in outpatient care and rehabilitation medicine. Insurance companies become more and more interested in supporting evidence based guidelines and programmes for disease and case management. The pros and cons of various other health management tools are discussed against the specific background of the quite unique German health care system.

  17. [Private practice: a choice, but what challenges!].

    PubMed

    de Montigny, F

    1997-06-01

    Recent changes in the Canadian health care system are having an impact on the way health care services are delivered. As a result, opportunities are opening up for a whole new generation of autonomous and independent nurses who choose to work directly with clients in a private practice setting. In part one of this two-part article, the author describes the main responsibilities of the nurse entrepreneur. Stressed are the areas of competency and the entrepreneurial spirit required. Administrative, professional, legal and fiscal aspects of independent practice are also outlined. Part two of the article focuses on the ethical responsibilities of the nurse entrepreneur and the regulations concerning fees, publicity, insurance, and office and file management. The author recommends keeping current on new developments and establishing a process whereby clients can evaluate the quality of care they receive.

  18. Privatization And Vouchers In Colombia And Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas, Alberto

    2004-07-01

    The voucher model of financing schooling is becoming increasingly common throughout Latin America, with at least 12 countries using vouchers or voucher-like schemes. The present study focuses on the voucher models of Colombia and Chile, which have the most extensive programs of this type and those of the longest standing in the region. Using empirical evidence, the author compares the two models along four evaluative dimensions: educational quality, segregation, choice and socialization. After weighing the successes and weaknesses of each system, he concludes that, among other characteristics, the most effective and equitable voucher model features: (a) a flexible interpretation of educational quality; (b) financial grants which target solely the poor; (c) vouchers which cover the entire cost of tuition; (d) open enrolment at participating schools; (e) the participation of both secular and religious private schools; (f) accessible and meaningful information to parents; and (g) strong systems of accountability.

  19. Private drinking water quality in rural Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Knobeloch, Lynda; Gorski, Patrick; Christenson, Megan; Anderson, Henry

    2013-03-01

    Between July 1, 2007, and December 31, 2010, Wisconsin health departments tested nearly 4,000 rural drinking water supplies for coliform bacteria, nitrate, fluoride, and 13 metals as part of a state-funded program that provides assistance to low-income families. The authors' review of laboratory findings found that 47% of these wells had an exceedance of one or more health-based water quality standards. Test results for iron and coliform bacteria exceeded safe limits in 21% and 18% of these wells, respectively. In addition, 10% of the water samples from these wells were high in nitrate and 11% had an elevated result for aluminum, arsenic, lead, manganese, or strontium. The high percentage of unsafe test results emphasizes the importance of water quality monitoring to the health of nearly one million families including 300,000 Wisconsin children whose drinking water comes from a privately owned well.

  20. Continuous-variable private quantum channel

    SciTech Connect

    Bradler, Kamil

    2005-10-15

    In this paper we introduce the concept of quantum private channel within the continuous variables framework (CVPQC) and investigate its properties. In terms of CVPQC we naturally define a 'maximally' mixed state in phase space together with its explicit construction and show that for increasing number of encryption operations (which sets the length of a shared key between Alice and Bob) the encrypted state is arbitrarily close to the maximally mixed state in the sense of the Hilbert-Schmidt distance. We bring the exact solution for the distance dependence and give also a rough estimate of the necessary number of bits of the shared secret key (i.e., how much classical resources are needed for an approximate encryption of a generally unknown continuous-variable state). The definition of the CVPQC is analyzed from the Holevo bound point of view which determines an upper bound of information about an incoming state an eavesdropper is able to get from his optimal measurement.

  1. Sample Complexity Bounds for Differentially Private Learning

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Kamalika; Hsu, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This work studies the problem of privacy-preserving classification – namely, learning a classifier from sensitive data while preserving the privacy of individuals in the training set. In particular, the learning algorithm is required in this problem to guarantee differential privacy, a very strong notion of privacy that has gained significant attention in recent years. A natural question to ask is: what is the sample requirement of a learning algorithm that guarantees a certain level of privacy and accuracy? We address this question in the context of learning with infinite hypothesis classes when the data is drawn from a continuous distribution. We first show that even for very simple hypothesis classes, any algorithm that uses a finite number of examples and guarantees differential privacy must fail to return an accurate classifier for at least some unlabeled data distributions. This result is unlike the case with either finite hypothesis classes or discrete data domains, in which distribution-free private learning is possible, as previously shown by Kasiviswanathan et al. (2008). We then consider two approaches to differentially private learning that get around this lower bound. The first approach is to use prior knowledge about the unlabeled data distribution in the form of a reference distribution chosen independently of the sensitive data. Given such a reference , we provide an upper bound on the sample requirement that depends (among other things) on a measure of closeness between and the unlabeled data distribution. Our upper bound applies to the non-realizable as well as the realizable case. The second approach is to relax the privacy requirement, by requiring only label-privacy – namely, that the only labels (and not the unlabeled parts of the examples) be considered sensitive information. An upper bound on the sample requirement of learning with label privacy was shown by Chaudhuri et al. (2006); in this work, we show a lower bound. PMID:25285183

  2. Harnessing the market: The opportunities and challenges of privatization

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The decision to privatize comes from a policy determination that the Government no longer needs particular assets or no longer needs to be in control of all the means by which products or services are obtained or delivered. Most broadly defined, privatization substitutes, in whole or in part, private market mechanisms for the traditional Government role as employer, financier, owner, operator, and/or regulator of a product or service. This definition admits a wide variety of actions, from innovative contractual arrangements to outright divestiture of activities or assets. But all of these actions share common objectives: to remove the agency from those activities that are not inherently governmental functions or core business lines; to improve the management of remaining activities; to reduce the costs of doing business; and to shift greater performance and financial risk to the private sector. This report by the Privatization Working Group provides an indepth analysis of the major issues that surround privatization within the Department of Energy (DOE). The report divides privatization initiatives at the DOE into three major types: divestiture of functions, contracting out, and asset transfers. It includes the results of a survey of the entire DOE system that identifies more than 200 potential privatization opportunities. The report also includes 13 case studies that explore actual DOE privatization efforts over the past 2 years. Additionally, it summarizes the key legal authorities that govern each of the three types of privatization opportunities in the DOE. The report makes a series of recommendations and outlines accompanying actions that will help the DOE seize the opportunities presented by privatization and confront its challenges.

  3. 21 CFR 500.88 - Regulatory method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... § 500.88 Regulatory method. (a) The sponsor shall submit for evaluation and validation a regulatory... method validation data. (c) FDA will publish in the Federal Register the complete regulatory method for... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Regulatory method. 500.88 Section 500.88 Food...

  4. Hazardous waste enforcement. [RCRA and Superfund regulatory programs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    A change is taking place in the enforcement of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and Superfund, a change described by the terms ''environmental results'' and ''cooperation, no confrontation''. Examples are given of environmental results achieved through criminal enforcement. In June 1981, a New York businessman received a two and one-half year prison sentence for dumping PCB-laced oil along North Carolina roads; a second defendant received an 18-month jail term. Other important measures of environmental results achieved by enforcement are 1) commitment of private money and effort for hazardous waste management and 2) the number of facility inspections conducted under RCRA's regulatory program's compliance monitoring system. A new strategy of cooperation between U.S. EPA and the parties affected by RCRA and Superfund should change the pattern which produced the confrontational conflicts of the past. (JMT)

  5. Regulatory Issues Associated with Preharvest Food Safety: European Union Perspective.

    PubMed

    Alban, Lis

    2016-10-01

    Free movement of safe and wholesome food is an essential aspect of any society. This article contains an updated description of the regulatory issues associated with preharvest food safety within the European Union. Salmonella, Campylobacter, Trichinella, antimicrobial resistance, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy are dealt with in detail. Moreover, Cysticercus bovis/Taenia saginata, Toxoplasma, Yersinia, verotoxigenic/shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli, Listeria, and foodborne viruses are briefly covered. The article describes how the focus in the European Union is changing to involve a supply chain view with a focus on cost-effectiveness. The precautionary principle-as well as the use of private standards as an instrument to ensure compliance-is dealt with. In addition, actions in the pipeline are presented and discussed.

  6. An Empirical Evaluation of Private Landowner Participation in Voluntary Forest Conservation Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauneckis, Derek; York, Abigail M.

    2009-09-01

    The use of voluntary programs targeting resource conservation on private land has become increasingly prevalent in environmental policy. Voluntary programs potentially offer significant benefits over regulatory and market-based approaches. This article examines the factors affecting landowner participation in voluntary forest conservation programs using a combination of parcel-level GIS and remotely sensed data and semi-structured interviews of landowners in Monroe County, Indiana. A logistic regression model is applied to determine the probability of participation based on landowner education, membership in other non-forest voluntary programs, dominant land use activity, parcel size, distance from urban center, land resource portfolios, and forest cover. Both land use activity and the spatial configuration of a landholder’s resource portfolio are found to be statistically significant with important implications for the design and implementation of voluntary programs.

  7. Public private partnerships for the operation and modernization of university power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sebesta, J.J.

    1995-09-01

    The availability of funds for maintaining and modernizing University Central Utility systems is becoming more and more difficult to obtain from either the State Legislature or the University internal funds. Many Institutions are faced with the situation of having utility facilities which have exceed normal expected useful life of the major equipment components. In addition, current and future regulatory requirements for operating such facilities are placing increased burdens on the University budget as well as the staff of the University who are not involved in the daily intricacies of operating and regulating such facilities. Universities have a unique capability to pursue partnerships with private companies for the purpose of operating and modernizing these central utility facilities. Further, if pursued properly, competitive forces in the market place offer specific economic advantages to the University in the form of guarantees for items ranging from the cost to construct and expand the facilities to guarantees for fuel efficiency, future operating costs and cogeneration performance.

  8. Regulatory hurdles for genome editing: process- vs. product-based approaches in different regulatory contexts.

    PubMed

    Sprink, Thorben; Eriksson, Dennis; Schiemann, Joachim; Hartung, Frank

    2016-07-01

    Novel plant genome editing techniques call for an updated legislation regulating the use of plants produced by genetic engineering or genome editing, especially in the European Union. Established more than 25 years ago and based on a clear distinction between transgenic and conventionally bred plants, the current EU Directives fail to accommodate the new continuum between genetic engineering and conventional breeding. Despite the fact that the Directive 2001/18/EC contains both process- and product-related terms, it is commonly interpreted as a strictly process-based legislation. In view of several new emerging techniques which are closer to the conventional breeding than common genetic engineering, we argue that it should be actually interpreted more in relation to the resulting product. A legal guidance on how to define plants produced by exploring novel genome editing techniques in relation to the decade-old legislation is urgently needed, as private companies and public researchers are waiting impatiently with products and projects in the pipeline. We here outline the process in the EU to develop a legislation that properly matches the scientific progress. As the process is facing several hurdles, we also compare with existing frameworks in other countries and discuss ideas for an alternative regulatory system.

  9. 75 FR 16202 - Notice of Issuance of Regulatory Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ..., Regulatory Guide Development Branch, Division of Engineering, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. BILLING... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Notice of Issuance of Regulatory Guide AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice...

  10. 76 FR 14107 - Notice of Issuance of Regulatory Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    .... Boyce, Chief, Regulatory Guide Development Branch, Division of Engineering, Office of Nuclear Regulatory... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Notice of Issuance of Regulatory Guide AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice...

  11. 75 FR 1658 - Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 7.5

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    .... Valentin, Chief, Regulatory Guide Development Branch, Division of Engineering, Office of Nuclear Regulatory... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 7.5 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Withdrawal...

  12. Private School Choice in the Chicago Metropolitan Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, William

    2015-01-01

    The determinants of private school choice in the Chicago metropolitan area are examined. Particular attention is given to the effects of race and ethnicity. Results include non-Hispanic White, Blacks, and Hispanics having a higher demand for private schools where there are higher concentrations of Blacks. Non-Hispanic Whites also have a higher…

  13. 42 CFR 440.80 - Private duty nursing services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private duty nursing services. 440.80 Section 440.80 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 440.80 Private...

  14. 40 CFR 230.50 - Municipal and private water supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... water supplies. In addition, certain commonly used water treatment chemicals have the potential for... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Municipal and private water supplies... Potential Effects on Human Use Characteristics § 230.50 Municipal and private water supplies. (a)...

  15. 40 CFR 230.50 - Municipal and private water supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... water supplies. In addition, certain commonly used water treatment chemicals have the potential for... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Municipal and private water supplies... Potential Effects on Human Use Characteristics § 230.50 Municipal and private water supplies. (a)...

  16. 40 CFR 230.50 - Municipal and private water supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... water supplies. In addition, certain commonly used water treatment chemicals have the potential for... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Municipal and private water supplies... Potential Effects on Human Use Characteristics § 230.50 Municipal and private water supplies. (a)...

  17. 40 CFR 230.50 - Municipal and private water supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... water supplies. In addition, certain commonly used water treatment chemicals have the potential for... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Municipal and private water supplies... Potential Effects on Human Use Characteristics § 230.50 Municipal and private water supplies. (a)...

  18. 40 CFR 230.50 - Municipal and private water supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... water supplies. In addition, certain commonly used water treatment chemicals have the potential for... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Municipal and private water supplies... Potential Effects on Human Use Characteristics § 230.50 Municipal and private water supplies. (a)...

  19. Does Private Tutoring Increase Students' Academic Performance? Evidence from Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berberoglu, Giray; Tansel, Aysit

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the effectiveness of private tutoring in Turkey. The authors introduce their study by providing some background information on the two major national examinations and three different kinds of tutoring. They then describe how they aimed to analyse whether attending private tutoring centres (PTCs) enhances Turkish students'…

  20. 32 CFR 636.38 - Impounding privately owned vehicles (POVs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., operator, or person empowered to control the vehicle. In this case, the owner, operator, or person... safeguarding the privately owned vehicle. (3) Impounding of privately owned vehicle is justified when any of... incident and the operator is either unavailable or physically incapable of having the vehicle towed to...

  1. 32 CFR 636.38 - Impounding privately owned vehicles (POVs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., operator, or person empowered to control the vehicle. In this case, the owner, operator, or person... safeguarding the privately owned vehicle. (3) Impounding of privately owned vehicle is justified when any of... incident and the operator is either unavailable or physically incapable of having the vehicle towed to...

  2. 32 CFR 636.38 - Impounding privately owned vehicles (POVs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., operator, or person empowered to control the vehicle. In this case, the owner, operator, or person... safeguarding the privately owned vehicle. (3) Impounding of privately owned vehicle is justified when any of... incident and the operator is either unavailable or physically incapable of having the vehicle towed to...

  3. 32 CFR 636.38 - Impounding privately owned vehicles (POVs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., operator, or person empowered to control the vehicle. In this case, the owner, operator, or person... safeguarding the privately owned vehicle. (3) Impounding of privately owned vehicle is justified when any of... incident and the operator is either unavailable or physically incapable of having the vehicle towed to...

  4. Research at Private Higher Education Institutions in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deacon, Roger; van Vuuren, Rex; Augustyn, Dave

    2014-01-01

    Very little is known about whether and what kinds of research are being undertaken at private higher education institutions (PHEIs) in South Africa. This article draws on a recent survey of all registered PHEIs undertaken by a group of interested private higher education providers. This survey was facilitated by the Council on Higher Education…

  5. The "Big Bang" in Public and Private Faculty Salaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rippner, Jennifer A.; Toutkoushian, Robert K.

    2015-01-01

    The gap between average faculty salaries at public and private institutions has been growing wider over the past 40 years, yet little is known about the nature and causes of the gap. This study uses data on more than 1,000 institutions to examine institutional average faculty salaries and how they have changed for public and private institutions.…

  6. 36 CFR 13.1152 - Private vessel permits and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Vessel Permits § 13.1152 Private vessel permits and conditions. In Glacier Bay from June 1 through... period of time. (a) From June 1 through August 31, when the operator of a private vessel enters...

  7. 36 CFR 13.1152 - Private vessel permits and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Vessel Permits § 13.1152 Private vessel permits and conditions. In Glacier Bay from June 1 through... period of time. (a) From June 1 through August 31, when the operator of a private vessel enters...

  8. 36 CFR 13.1152 - Private vessel permits and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Vessel Permits § 13.1152 Private vessel permits and conditions. In Glacier Bay from June 1 through... period of time. (a) From June 1 through August 31, when the operator of a private vessel enters...

  9. 36 CFR 13.1152 - Private vessel permits and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Vessel Permits § 13.1152 Private vessel permits and conditions. In Glacier Bay from June 1 through... period of time. (a) From June 1 through August 31, when the operator of a private vessel enters...

  10. 36 CFR 13.1152 - Private vessel permits and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Vessel Permits § 13.1152 Private vessel permits and conditions. In Glacier Bay from June 1 through... period of time. (a) From June 1 through August 31, when the operator of a private vessel enters...

  11. Evolution of Ukrainian Private Higher Education: 1991-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stetar, Joseph; Panych, Oleksiy; Berezkina, Elena

    This paper discusses the evolution of private higher education in the Ukraine. It includes responses to a survey about the future of Ukrainian private higher education. Ukrainian higher education has roots going back to the 17th century. With a higher education system that was deeply and well rooted, the newly independent Ukraine did not face the…

  12. 47 CFR 101.1305 - Private internal service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Private internal service. 101.1305 Section 101.1305 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Multiple Address Systems General Provisions § 101.1305 Private internal...

  13. 32 CFR 510.1 - Private ministrations, sacraments, and ordinances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Private ministrations, sacraments, and ordinances. 510.1 Section 510.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS CHAPLAINS § 510.1 Private ministrations, sacraments,...

  14. Education Privatization: The Attitudes and Experiences of Superintendents. Occasional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfield, Clive R.; Wooten, Amy L.

    This paper reports the findings from an Internet survey of 2,318 school superintendents across the U.S. The superintendents were asked about their experiences with, views of, and attitudes toward privatization of education services. The results of the survey suggested four conclusions. First, private contracts for a range of educational services…

  15. Working together: public law enforcement and private security.

    PubMed

    Jones, Harold T

    2010-01-01

    Private security forces, including hospital security professionals, provide a vast largely untapped resource for public law enforcement in a number of critical areas affecting society, the author points out. At the same time, police agencies in some communities have programs which can be used to provide additional training for private security officers.

  16. 6 CFR 11.7 - Private collection agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Private collection agencies. 11.7 Section 11.7 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CLAIMS § 11.7 Private collection agencies. DHS will transfer delinquent DHS debts to the Treasury Department's Financial Management...

  17. 47 CFR 101.1305 - Private internal service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Private internal service. 101.1305 Section 101.1305 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Multiple Address Systems General Provisions § 101.1305 Private internal...

  18. 47 CFR 101.1305 - Private internal service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Private internal service. 101.1305 Section 101.1305 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Multiple Address Systems General Provisions § 101.1305 Private internal...

  19. Leasing Public Facilities to Private Concerns: Some Legal Checkpoints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozlowski, James

    1982-01-01

    Court cases are reviewed to show factors that courts are most likely to examine in determining the legality of leasing public recreational facilities to private operators. A checklist for developing defensible leasing arrangements of public recreational facilities to private operators is provided. (CJ)

  20. 45 CFR 2516.310 - May private school students participate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May private school students participate? 2516.310... May private school students participate? (a) Yes. To the extent consistent with the number of students... and arrangements for the benefit of those students so as to allow for the equitable participation...