Science.gov

Sample records for regulatory dqo privatization

  1. Rationale for Selection of Pesticides, Herbicides, and Related Compounds from the Hanford SST/DST Waste Considered for Analysis in Support of the Regulatory DQO (Privatization)

    SciTech Connect

    Wiemers, K.D.; Daling, P.; Meier, K.

    1999-01-04

    Regulated pesticides, herbicides, miticides, and fungicides were evaluated for their potential past and current use at the Hanford Site. The starting list of these compounds is based on regulatory analyte input lists discussed in the Regulatory DQO. Twelve pesticide, herbicide, miticide, and fungicide compounds are identified for analysis in the Hanford SST and DST waste in support of the Regulatory DQO. The compounds considered for additional analyses are non-detected, considered stable in the tank waste matrix, and of higher toxicity/carcinogenicity.

  2. MARSSIM: Data quality objectives (DQO) process

    SciTech Connect

    Doehnert, M.

    1996-06-01

    The Department of Defense, Department of Energy, Environmental Protection Agency, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission are developing joint Federal guidance for standardized and consistent approaches to accomplish structural and environmental radiation surveys. The guidance is being developed as a draft document titled the {open_quotes}Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM).{close_quotes} MARSSIM is using the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) Process, a series of planning steps based on the scientific method for establishing criteria for data quality and developing survey designs. The DQO Process is iterative; the outputs of one step may lead to reconsideration of prior steps. Planning radiation site surveys using the DQO Process can improve the effectiveness, efficiency, and defensibility of decisions in a resource-effective manner. It also can minimize expenditures related to data collection by eliminating unnecessary, duplicative, or overly precise data. Using the DQO Process assures that the type, quantity, and quality of environmental data used in decision making will be appropriate for the intended application.

  3. Self-Regulatory Private Speech Relates to Children's Recall and Organization of Autobiographical Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Namlah, Abdulrahman S.; Meins, Elizabeth; Fernyhough, Charles

    2012-01-01

    We investigated relations between 4- and 7-year-olds' (N=58) autobiographical memory and their use of self-regulatory private speech in a non-mnemonic context (a cognitive planning task). Children's use of self-regulatory private speech during the planning task was associated with longer autobiographical narratives which included specific rather…

  4. Self-Regulatory Private Speech Relates to Children's Recall and Organization of Autobiographical Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Namlah, Abdulrahman S.; Meins, Elizabeth; Fernyhough, Charles

    2012-01-01

    We investigated relations between 4- and 7-year-olds' (N=58) autobiographical memory and their use of self-regulatory private speech in a non-mnemonic context (a cognitive planning task). Children's use of self-regulatory private speech during the planning task was associated with longer autobiographical narratives which included specific rather…

  5. Current Regulation of Private Police: Regulatory Agency Experience and Views.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakalik, James S.; Wildhorn, Sorrel

    This report is the third in a series of five describing a 16-month study of the nature and extent of the private police industry in the United States, its problems, present regulation, and the laws impinging on it. Licensing and regulation of the industry in every state and several cities are described in this volume. Extensive tables present the…

  6. DQO Summary Report for 105-N/109-N Interim Safe Storage Project Waste Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    T. A. Lee

    2005-09-15

    The DQO summary report provides the results of the DQO process completed for waste characterization activities for the 105-N/109-N Reactor Interim Safe Storage Project including decommission, deactivate, decontaminate, and demolish activities for six associated buildings.

  7. Public Rules on Private Schools: Measuring the Regulatory Impact of State Statutes and School Choice Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catt, Andrew D.

    2014-01-01

    This report provides a framework for understanding the impacts of state government statutes regulating private schools, regulations distinct to a given school choice program, and any regulatory growth over a program's lifespan. Examining school choice programs in operation for at least a few years provides important context and comparisons for…

  8. 75 FR 43423 - 1998 Biennial Regulatory Review-Private Land Mobile Radio Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 95 1998 Biennial Regulatory Review--Private Land Mobile Radio Services AGENCY: Federal... Commission denies the petition filed by the Personal Radio Steering Group (PRSG) regarding certain Multi-Use Radio Service (MURS) rules. In essence, the Commission finds that PRSG has not demonstrated that the...

  9. How State Regulatory Agencies Address Privatization: The Case of Wastewater Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilman, John G.; Johnson, Gerald W.

    1991-01-01

    How state agencies have addressed privatization in a service setting (municipal wastewater treatment) is discussed. The implications for evaluations of many types of programs, particularly those of local service programs regulated by the states, are explored. Data from a national survey of state environmental regulatory agencies are highlighted.…

  10. Self-Regulatory Functions of Children's Private Speech: A Critical Analysis of Recent Challenges to Vygotsky's Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frauenglass, Marni H.; Diaz, Rafael M.

    1985-01-01

    Recent empirical findings have challenged Vygotsky's theory regarding the self-regulatory functions of children's private speech. This study hypothesized that semantic tasks and instructions to talk out loud would maximize private speech production. Results supported Vygotsky's notion that private speech does not disappear with age but "goes…

  11. DQO Summary Report for 324 and 327 Building Hot Cells D4 Project Waste Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    T.A. Lee

    2006-02-06

    This data quality objective (DQO) summary report provides the results of the DQO process conducted for waste characterization activities for the 324 and 327 Building hot cells decommission, deactivate, decontaminate, and demolish activities. This DQO summary report addresses the systems and processes related to the hot cells, air locks, vaults, tanks, piping, basins, air plenums, air ducts, filters, an adjacent elements that have high dose rates, high contamination levels, and/or suspect transuranic waste, which will require nonstandard D4 techniques.

  12. Tank 241-AZ-102 Privatization Push Mode Core Sampling and Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect

    RASMUSSEN, J.H.

    1999-08-02

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for samples obtained from tank 241-AZ-102. The purpose of this sampling event is to obtain information about the characteristics of the contents of 241-AZ-102 required to satisfy the Data Quality Objectives For TWRS Privatization Phase I: Confirm Tank TIS An Appropriate Feed Source For High-Level Waste Feed Batch X(HLW DQO) (Nguyen 1999a), Data Quality Objectives For TWRS Privatization Phase 1: Confirm Tank TIS An Appropriate Feed Source For Low-Activity Waste Feed Batch X (LAW DQO) (Nguyen 1999b), Low Activity Waste and High Level Waste Feed Data Quality Objectives (L&H DQO) (Patello et al. 1999) and Characterization Data Needs for Development, Design, and Operation of Retrieval Equipment Developed through the Data Quality Objective Process (Equipment DQO) (Bloom 1996). The Tank Characterization Technical Sampling Basis document (Brown et al. 1998) indicates that these issues, except the Equipment DQO apply to tank 241-AZ-102 for this sampling event. The Equipment DQO is applied for shear strength measurements of the solids segments only. Poppiti (1999) requires additional americium-241 analyses of the sludge segments. Brown et al. (1998) also identify safety screening, regulatory issues and provision of samples to the Privatization Contractor(s) as applicable issues for this tank. However, these issues will not be addressed via this sampling event. Reynolds et al. (1999) concluded that information from previous sampling events was sufficient to satisfy the safety screening requirements for tank 241 -AZ-102. Push mode core samples will be obtained from risers 15C and 24A to provide sufficient material for the chemical analyses and tests required to satisfy these data quality objectives. The 222-S Laboratory will extrude core samples, composite the liquids and solids, perform chemical analyses

  13. Do private gestures have a self-regulatory function? A case study.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Cintia; Palacios, Pedro

    2007-05-01

    One of the most fascinating phenomena in early development is that babies not only understand signs others direct to them and later use them to communicate with others, but they also come to direct the same signs towards themselves in a private way. Private gestures become "tools of thought". There is a considerable literature about private language, but almost nothing about private gestures. Private gestures pose an intriguing communicative puzzle: they are communicative, but with the self. In this paper we study two types of private gestures (signs) before language: (1) private ostensive gestures and (2) private pointing gestures. We show in a case study of one child between 12 and 18 months of age that both are used with a self-reflexive function, as a way of "thinking" what to do, in order to solve a problem in the conventional use of an object. The private gestures become self-reflexive signs.

  14. Validation of the WeDQoL-Goals-Thailand Measure: Culture-Specific Individualised Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodcock, Alison; Camfield, Laura; McGregor, J. Allister; Martin, Faith

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate an individualised measure of quality of life (WeDQoL-Goals-Thailand). Three hundred and sixty-nine Thai people completed the WeDQoL by interview. Respondents rated (0-2) the perceived necessity for wellbeing of 51 goals (goal necessity), then rated (0-3) their satisfaction with the same goals (goal…

  15. Validation of the WeDQoL-Goals-Thailand Measure: Culture-Specific Individualised Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodcock, Alison; Camfield, Laura; McGregor, J. Allister; Martin, Faith

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate an individualised measure of quality of life (WeDQoL-Goals-Thailand). Three hundred and sixty-nine Thai people completed the WeDQoL by interview. Respondents rated (0-2) the perceived necessity for wellbeing of 51 goals (goal necessity), then rated (0-3) their satisfaction with the same goals (goal…

  16. DQO (DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVE) IS NOT JUST A THREE LETTER WORD: MEASURING YOUR DATA FOR QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Harwell, Linda C. and John M. Macauley. In press. DQO (Data Quality Objective) Is Not Just a Three Letter Word: Measuring Your Data for Quality (Abstract). To be presented at EMAP Symposium 2004: Integrated Monitoring and Assessment for Effective Water Quality Management, 3-7 May...

  17. Concierge, Wellness, and Block Fee Models of Primary Care: Ethical and Regulatory Concerns at the Public-Private Boundary.

    PubMed

    Reid, Lynette

    2017-06-01

    In bioethics and health policy, we often discuss the appropriate boundaries of public funding; how the interface of public and private purchasers and providers should be organized and regulated receives less attention. In this paper, I discuss ethical and regulatory issues raised at this interface by three medical practice models (concierge care, executive wellness clinics, and block fee charges) in which physicians provide insured services (whether publicly insured, privately insured, or privately insured by public mandate) while requiring or requesting that patients pay for services or for the non-insured services of the physicians themselves or their associates. This choice for such practice models is different from the decision to design an insurance plan to include or exclude user fees, co-payments and deductibles. I analyze the issues raised with regards to familiar health care values of equity and efficiency, while highlighting additional concerns about fair terms of access, provider integrity, and fair competition. I then analyze the common Canadian regulatory response to block fee models, considering their extension to wellness clinics, with regards to fiduciary standards governing the physician-patient relationship and the role of informed consent. I close by highlighting briefly issues that are of common concern across different fundamental normative frameworks for health policy.

  18. Review of Regulatory Emphasis on Transportation Safety in the United States, 2002-2009: Public versus Private Modes.

    PubMed

    Waycaster, Garrett C; Matsumura, Taiki; Bilotkach, Volodymyr; Haftka, Raphael T; Kim, Nam H

    2017-01-17

    The U.S. Department of Transportation is responsible for implementing new safety improvements and regulations with the goal of ensuring limited funds are distributed to where they can have the greatest impact on safety. In this work, we conduct a study of new regulations and other reactions (such as recalls) to fatal accidents in several different modes of transportation implemented from 2002 to 2009. We find that in the safest modes of commercial aviation and bus transport, the amount of spending on new regulations is high in relation to the number of fatalities compared to the regulatory attention received by less safe modes of general aviation and private automobiles. Additionally, we study two major fatal accident investigations from commercial aviation and two major automotive recalls associated with fatal accidents. We find differences in the cost per expected fatality prevented for these reactions, with the airline accident investigations being more cost effective. Overall, we observe trends in both the automotive and aviation sectors that suggest that public transportation receives more regulatory attention than private transport. We also observe that the types of safety remedies utilized, regulation versus investigation, have varying levels of effectiveness in different transport modes. We suggest that these differences are indicative of increased public demand for safety in modes where a third party may be held responsible, even for those not participating in the transportation. These findings have important implications for the transportation industry, policymakers, and for estimating the public demand for safety in new transport modes. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  19. The development and validation of the Dementia Quality of Life Scale for Older Family Carers (DQoL-OC).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Deborah C; Vass, Catherine; Aubeeluck, Aimee

    2017-03-02

    Little is known about how caregiving affects the quality of life (QoL) of older family carers and no dementia and age-specific QoL scale is available for use with this population. This study aimed to develop and validate a unique dementia caregiving- and age-specific tool - the 'Dementia Quality of Life Scale for Older Family Carers' (DQoL-OC). The scale items were identified in focus groups with older family carers in the UK. Content and face validity were evaluated by a panel of six experts. A set of 100 items assessed on a 5-point Likert scale was tested with 182 older family carers. Test-re-test reliability was conducted with 18 individuals. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify the QoL model and reduce the number of scale items. Convergent construct validity and internal consistency were also established. A one-factor solution containing 22 items was obtained. Test-re-test reliability (lower bound r = 0.835; p < 0.001), internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.936), and convergent construct validity were established. Significantly lower levels of QoL were found in female older carers; those who perceived their relatives with dementia as being at the earlier stages of the disease and with unstable dementia symptoms; those providing care more hours per day and more days per week; and those in younger-old age. The DQoL-OC is a valid and reliable scale that will be useful for research and in clinical practice with older family carers of people with dementia. These study results will inform future health and social care aiming to improve life quality for this overlooked population of carers.

  20. Linguistic and psychometric validation of the Malaysian version of Diabetes Quality of Life-Brief Clinical Inventory (DQoL-BCI).

    PubMed

    Samah, Syamimi; Neoh, Chin Fen; Wong, Yuet Yen; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Lim, Siong Meng; Ramasamy, Kalavathy; Mat Nasir, Nafiza; Han, Yung Wen; Burroughs, Thomas

    2016-10-24

    Quality of life (QoL) assessment provides valuable outcome to support clinical decision-making, particularly for patients with chronic diseases that are incurable. A brief, 15-item diabetes-specific tool [i.e. Diabetes Quality of Life-Brief Clinical Inventory (DQoL-BCI)] is known to be developed in English and validated for use in clinical practice. This simplified tool, however, is not readily available for use in the Malaysian setting. To translate the DQoL-BCI into a Malaysian version and to assess its construct validity (factorial validity, convergent validity and discriminant validity), reliability (internal consistency) and floor and ceiling effects among the Malaysian diabetic population. A forward-backward translation, involving professional translators and experts with vast experience in translation of patient reported outcome measures, was conducted. A total of 202 patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were invited to complete the translated DQoL-BCI. Data were analysed using SPSS for exploratory factor analysis (EFA), convergent and discriminant validity, reliability and test-retest, and AMOS software for confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Findings from EFA indicated that the 4-factor structure of the Malaysian version of DQoL-BCI was optimal and explained 50.9% of the variance; CFA confirmed the 4-factor model fit. There was negative, moderate correlation between the scores of DQoL-BCI (Malaysian version) and EQ-5D-3L utility score (r = -0.329, p = 0.003). Patients with higher glycated haemoglobin levels (p = 0.008), diabetes macrovascular (p = 0.017) and microvascular (p = 0.013) complications reported poorer QoL. Cronbach's alpha coefficient and intraclass coefficient correlations (range) obtained were 0.703 and 0.86 (0.734-0.934), indicating good reliability and stability of the translated DQoL-BCI. This study had validated the linguistic and psychometric properties of DQoL-BCI (Malaysian

  1. Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Hazardous and Radioactive Air Emissions Sampling and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    MULKEY, C.H.

    1999-07-06

    This document describes the results of the data quality objective (DQO) process undertaken to define data needs for state and federal requirements associated with toxic, hazardous, and/or radiological air emissions under the jurisdiction of the River Protection Project (RPP). Hereafter, this document is referred to as the Air DQO. The primary drivers for characterization under this DQO are the regulatory requirements pursuant to Washington State regulations, that may require sampling and analysis. The federal regulations concerning air emissions are incorporated into the Washington State regulations. Data needs exist for nonradioactive and radioactive waste constituents and characteristics as identified through the DQO process described in this document. The purpose is to identify current data needs for complying with regulatory drivers for the measurement of air emissions from RPP facilities in support of air permitting. These drivers include best management practices; similar analyses may have more than one regulatory driver. This document should not be used for determining overall compliance with regulations because the regulations are in constant change, and this document may not reflect the latest regulatory requirements. Regulatory requirements are also expected to change as various permits are issued. Data needs require samples for both radionuclides and nonradionuclide analytes of air emissions from tanks and stored waste containers. The collection of data is to support environmental permitting and compliance, not for health and safety issues. This document does not address health or safety regulations or requirements (those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration or the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health) or continuous emission monitoring systems. This DQO is applicable to all equipment, facilities, and operations under the jurisdiction of RPP that emit or have the potential to emit regulated air pollutants.

  2. The influence of diabetic retinopathy on quality of life: interviews to guide the design of a condition-specific, individualised questionnaire: the RetDQoL.

    PubMed

    Woodcock, Alison; Bradley, Clare; Plowright, Rosalind; ffytche, Timothy; Kennedy-Martin, Tessa; Hirsch, Axel

    2004-06-01

    An individualised measure of the impact of diabetic retinopathy on quality of life (QoL) was developed, using a four-phase iterative approach, incorporating qualitative and quantitative methods. In semi-structured interviews, eleven people with diabetic retinopathy in each of two UK and two German hospitals described how QoL would be different without diabetic retinopathy. They completed and commented on the latest Retinopathy Dependent QoL (RetDQoL) draft. Interviews were content analysed before questionnaire revision and translation for the next centre. Twenty-six men and 18 women were interviewed: median age 60.5 (28-82) years; severity ranged from untreated background diabetic retinopathy to proliferative diabetic retinopathy requiring photocoagulation in both eyes, and vitrectomy. The resulting 26-domain RetDQoL asks about the impact of 'diabetic eye problems'. Iterative methodology ensured good understanding, face and content validity. It can be self- or interviewer-completed. Visual impairment, worries and movement restrictions impaired many aspects of QoL, with impacts before vision loss. Practice implications relate to using the RetDQoL and improving practitioner-patient communication.

  3. TWRS phase I privatization site environmental baseline and characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Shade, J.W.

    1997-09-01

    This document provides a plan to characterize and develop an environmental baseline for the TWRS Phase I Privatization Site before construction begins. A site evaluation study selected the former Grout Disposal Area of the Grout Treatment Facility in the 200 East Area as the TWRS Phase I Demonstration Site. The site is generally clean and has not been used for previous activities other than the GTF. A DQO process was used to develop a Sampling and Analysis Plan that would allow comparison of site conditions during operations and after Phase I ends to the presently existing conditions and provide data for the development of a preoperational monitoring plan.

  4. SRNL PHASE 1 ASSESSMENT OF THE WAC/DQO AND UNIT OPERATIONS FOR THE WTP WASTE QUALIFICATION PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Peeler, D.; Adamson, D.; Bannochie, C.; Cozzi, A.; Eibling, R.; Hay, M.; Hansen, E.; Herman, D.; Martino, C.; Nash, C.; Pennebaker, F.; Poirier, M.; Reboul, S.; Stone, M.; Taylor-Pashow, K.; White, T.; Wilmarth, B.

    2012-05-16

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is currently transitioning its emphasis from a design and construction phase toward start-up and commissioning. With this transition, the WTP Project has initiated more detailed assessments of the requirements related to actual processing of the Hanford Site tank waste. One particular area of interest is the waste qualification program to be implemented to support the WTP. Given the successful implementation of similar waste qualification efforts at the Savannah River Site (SRS), based on critical technical support and guidance from the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), WTP requested the utilization of subject matter experts from SRNL to support a technology exchange to perform a review of the WTP waste qualification program, discuss the general qualification approach at SRS, and to identify critical lessons learned through the support of DWPF's sludge batch qualification efforts. As part of Phase 1, SRNL subject matter experts in critical technical and/or process areas reviewed specific WTP waste qualification information. The Phase 1 review was a collaborative, interactive, and iterative process between the two organizations. WTP provided specific analytical procedures, descriptions of equipment, and general documentation as baseline review material. SRNL subject matter experts reviewed the information and, as appropriate, requested follow-up information or clarification to specific areas of interest. This process resulted in multiple teleconferences with key technical contacts from both organizations resolving technical issues that lead to the results presented in this report. This report provides the results of SRNL's Phase 1 review of the WAC-DQO waste acceptance criteria and processability parameters, and the specific unit operations which are required to support WTP waste qualification efforts. The review resulted in SRNL providing concurrence, alternative methods, or gap identification

  5. Tank 241-AY-101 Privatization Push Mode Core Sampling and Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect

    TEMPLETON, A.M.

    2000-05-19

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for samples obtained from tank 241-AY-101. The purpose of this sampling event is to obtain information about the characteristics of the contents of 241-AY-101 required to satisfy ''Data Quality Objectives For RPP Privatization Phase I: Confirm Tank T Is An Appropriate Feed Source For High-Level Waste Feed Batch X(HLW DQO)' (Nguyen 1999a), ''Data Quality Objectives For TWRS Privatization Phase I: Confirm Tank T Is An Appropriate Feed Source For Low-Activity Waste Feed Butch X (LAW DQO) (Nguyen 1999b)'', ''Low Activity Waste and High-Level Waste Feed Data Quality Objectives (L&H DQO)'' (Patello et al. 1999), and ''Characterization Data Needs for Development, Design, and Operation of Retrieval Equipment Developed through the Data Quality Objective Process (Equipment DQO)'' (Bloom 1996). Special instructions regarding support to the LAW and HLW DQOs are provided by Baldwin (1999). Push mode core samples will be obtained from risers 15G and 150 to provide sufficient material for the chemical analyses and tests required to satisfy these data quality objectives. The 222-S Laboratory will extrude core samples; composite the liquids and solids; perform chemical analyses on composite and segment samples; archive half-segment samples; and provide sub-samples to the Process Chemistry Laboratory. The Process Chemistry Laboratory will prepare test plans and perform process tests to evaluate the behavior of the 241-AY-101 waste undergoing the retrieval and treatment scenarios defined in the applicable DQOs. Requirements for analyses of samples originating in the process tests will be documented in the corresponding test plans and are not within the scope of this SAP.

  6. Tank 241-AY-101 Privatization Push Mode Core Sampling and Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect

    TEMPLETON, A.M.

    2000-01-12

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for samples obtained from tank 241-AY-101. The purpose of this sampling event is to obtain information about the characteristics of the contents of 241-AY-101 required to satisfy Data Quality Objectives For RPP Privatization Phase I: Confirm Tank T Is An Appropriate Feed Source For High-Level Waste Feed Batch X(HLW DQO) (Nguyen 1999a), Data Quality Objectives For TWRS Privatization Phase I : Confirm Tank T Is An Appropriate Feed Source For Low-Activity Waste Feed Batch X (LAW DQO) (Nguyen 1999b), Low Activity Waste and High-Level Waste Feed Data Quality Objectives (L and H DQO) (Patello et al. 1999), and Characterization Data Needs for Development, Design, and Operation of Retrieval Equipment Developed through the Data Quality Objective Process (Equipment DQO) (Bloom 1996). Special instructions regarding support to the LAW and HLW DQOs are provided by Baldwin (1999). Push mode core samples will be obtained from risers 15G and 150 to provide sufficient material for the chemical analyses and tests required to satisfy these data quality objectives. The 222-S Laboratory will extrude core samples; composite the liquids and solids; perform chemical analyses on composite and segment samples; archive half-segment samples; and provide subsamples to the Process Chemistry Laboratory. The Process Chemistry Laboratory will prepare test plans and perform process tests to evaluate the behavior of the 241-AY-101 waste undergoing the retrieval and treatment scenarios defined in the applicable DQOs. Requirements for analyses of samples originating in the process tests will be documented in the corresponding test plans and are not within the scope of this SAP.

  7. Quality of Life with Macular Degeneration Is Not as Dark as It May Seem: Patients' Perceptions of the MacDQoL Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Ord, Lisa M; Wright, JoAnne; DeAngelis, Margaret M; Feehan, Michael

    2015-09-22

    To determine the perceived relevance and value of an individualized measure of the impact of macular degeneration on quality of life (QoL) for elderly people with Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) in the USA, through the assessment of the suitability of the measure's domains and by gaining a deeper insight into the impact of AMD on patients' QoL vis-á-vis these domains, community-dwelling older adults in the metropolitan Salt Lake City, Utah area were interviewed using the macular degeneration on quality of life (MacDQoL) instrument. Participants felt that the MacDQoL was a relevant instrument for use in this US study population, though it could be improved by adding items pertaining to transportation, and independent driving, in particular, as an important QoL indicator. The emerging theme from analysis of the respondent's commentary was that, in spite of AMD, these respondents were committed to engage in, and enjoy life. This is an important concept for clinicians and those who offer support programs to integrate into their care planning and reinforce in messaging to patients with the condition.

  8. Quality of Life with Macular Degeneration Is Not as Dark as It May Seem: Patients’ Perceptions of the MacDQoL Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Ord, Lisa M.; Wright, JoAnne; DeAngelis, Margaret M.; Feehan, Michael

    2015-01-01

    To determine the perceived relevance and value of an individualized measure of the impact of macular degeneration on quality of life (QoL) for elderly people with Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) in the USA, through the assessment of the suitability of the measure’s domains and by gaining a deeper insight into the impact of AMD on patients’ QoL vis-á-vis these domains, community-dwelling older adults in the metropolitan Salt Lake City, Utah area were interviewed using the macular degeneration on quality of life (MacDQoL) instrument. Participants felt that the MacDQoL was a relevant instrument for use in this US study population, though it could be improved by adding items pertaining to transportation, and independent driving, in particular, as an important QoL indicator. The emerging theme from analysis of the respondent’s commentary was that, in spite of AMD, these respondents were committed to engage in, and enjoy life. This is an important concept for clinicians and those who offer support programs to integrate into their care planning and reinforce in messaging to patients with the condition. PMID:26402711

  9. Privatizing Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerrard, Jane; Bolt, Nancy; Strege, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This timely special report from ALA Editions provides a succinct but comprehensive overview of the "privatization" of public libraries. It provides a history of the trend of local and state governments privatizing public services and assets, and then examines the history of public library privatization right up to the California…

  10. Private Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Brian T., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the expanding role of the rehabilitation counselor into private sector rehabilitation in the seven articles of this special issue. Topics cover private rehabilitation in an insurance context including forensics issues, computer applications, recent trends, services in a multiprogram private clinic, and rehabilitation counselor training.…

  11. Privatizing Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerrard, Jane; Bolt, Nancy; Strege, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This timely special report from ALA Editions provides a succinct but comprehensive overview of the "privatization" of public libraries. It provides a history of the trend of local and state governments privatizing public services and assets, and then examines the history of public library privatization right up to the California…

  12. Salazar on private power

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.

    1995-02-01

    The Philipines power market, considered one of the more mature markets in Asia, continues to expand with economic growth. Independent power producers will find opportunities in the next few years as new additions are required. Currently, the government is encouraging private investment and is awaiting feedback from financiers as it considers eliminating its government guarantee. In a recent interview, the Honorable Mariano S. Salazar, secretary of energy, with the Philippines` Department of Energy, discussed the regulatory structure, encouragement of private power and his country`s capital needs.

  13. Public-Private Partnerships for Depot-Level Maintenance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-01

    reviews public - private partnerships for depot-level maintenance and leases of DoD depot-level facilities. The Services have used a number of authorities to establish these public-private statutory and regulatory authorities.

  14. The Traumatic Brain Injury Endpoints Development (TED) Initiative: Progress on a Public-Private Regulatory Collaboration to Accelerate Diagnosis and Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Manley, Geoffrey T; MacDonald, Christine L; Markowitz, Amy; Stephenson, Diane; Robbins, Ann; Gardner, Raquel C; Winkler, Ethan A; Bodien, Yelena; Taylor, Sabrina; Yue, John K; Kannan, Lakshmi; Kumar, Allison; McCrea, Michael; Wang, Kevin K W

    2017-03-31

    The Traumatic Brain Injury Endpoints Development (TED) Initiative is a 5-year, Department of Defense (DoD) funded project that is working toward the ultimate goal of developing better designed clinical trials, leading to more precise diagnosis, and effective treatments for traumatic brain injury (TBI). TED is comprised of leading academic clinician-scientists, along with innovative industry leaders in biotechnology and imaging technology, patient advocacy organizations, and philanthropists, working collaboratively with regulatory authorities, specifically the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The goals of the TED Initiative are to gain consensus and validation of TBI clinical outcome assessment measures and biomarkers for endorsement by global regulatory agencies for use in drug and device development processes. This manuscript summarizes the Initiative's Stage 1 progress over the first 18 months, including intensive engagement with a number of FDA divisions responsible for review and validation of biomarkers and clinical outcome assessments, progression into the prequalification phase of FDA's Medical Device Development Tool program for a candidate set of neuroimaging biomarkers, and receipt of FDA's Recognition of Research Importance Letter regarding TBI. Other signal achievements relate to the creation of the TED Metadataset, harmonizing study measures across eight major TBI studies, and the leadership role played by TED investigators in the conversion of the NINDS TBI Common Data Elements (CDEs) to Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium (CDISC) standards. This paper frames both the near-term expectations and the Initiative's long-term vision to accelerate approval of treatments for patients affected by TBI in urgent need of effective therapies.

  15. Nordic privatization and private healthcare.

    PubMed

    Ovretveit, John

    2003-01-01

    The role of the private sector in public healthcare systems is much debated, but there is little research to inform the debate. In the Nordic countries the extent and type of private sector involvement is largely unknown and the changes and the consequences have not been studied. This paper presents a conceptual framework and some limited data about the changing private-public mix and privatization in the Nordic countries between 1985 and 2000. The data suggest a small increase in both private financing and provision which has accelerated in recent years, especially in specific healthcare fields such as diagnostic centres, dentistry, primary medical care and care for older people. The overall increase is small, but large in certain sectors. Differences between the countries can only be understood in relation to their historical, financial, economic and political context, even though there are many commonalities. Impact also is context dependent, but the findings do show a cross-country pattern of a willingness to experiment and a change in underlying assumptions. The findings show a more extensive interpenetration of private and public than previously recognized but more research is required, especially about changes in recent years about which data are scarce. The paper considers the factors driving these trends, the likely larger changes in the next 10 years and the possible consequences for patients, professionals, managers and governments. It notes the different ways governments can control or influence finance and provision. It proposes that the Nordic and other governments improve regulation and data collection about the private sector and consider influencing private providers through partnership arrangements, rather than leaving the developments to be shaped by growing consumer demands or market logic alone.

  16. Nuclear privatization

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffs, E.

    1995-11-01

    The United Kingdom government announced in May 1995 plans to privatize the country`s two nuclear generating companies, Nuclear Electric and Scottish Nuclear. Under the plan, the two companies will become operating divisions of a unified holding company, to be called British Electric, with headquarters in Scotland. Britain`s nuclear plants were left out of the initial privatization in 1989 because the government believed the financial community would be unwilling to accept the open-ended liability of decommissioning the original nine stations based on the Magnox gas-cooled reactor. Six years later, the government has found a way around this by retaining these power stations in state ownership, leaving the new nuclear company with the eight Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) stations and the recently completed Sizewell B PWR stations. The operating Magnox stations are to be transferred to BNFL, which operates two Magnox stations of their own at Calder Hall and Chapelcross.

  17. Regulatory Foci and Organizational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markovits, Yannis; Ullrich, Johannes; van Dick, Rolf; Davis, Ann J.

    2008-01-01

    We use regulatory focus theory to derive specific predictions regarding the differential relationships between regulatory focus and commitment. We estimated a structural equation model using a sample of 520 private and public sector employees and found in line with our hypotheses that (a) promotion focus related more strongly to affective…

  18. Peru privatizes

    SciTech Connect

    Suttil, K.R.

    1993-02-01

    Peru has been undergoing a revolution since the election of Alberto Fujimori as president in 1990. A revolution that is reversing many of the policies of the past 25 years and one which aims to bring Peru back into the mainstream of the world economy. All the enterprises nationalized in the heady days of the early 1970s are set up for privatization. The most important are the three mining companies: Hierro-Peru, Centromin, and Mineroo-Peru. It will not be easy to attract foreign investment after such a long period of political and economic instability but the rewards are there for the intrepid.

  19. Audiology Assistants in Private Practice.

    PubMed

    Hamill, Teri A; Andrews, Julia P

    2016-11-01

    Using audiology assistants allows a practice to meet the expected increase in patient demand in a cost-effective manner, without compromise to quality of patient care. Assistants are particularly valuable in private practice settings that have an emphasis in amplification, as many of the tasks involved do not require the unique skills of the doctor of audiology. Regulatory considerations, methods of training, and scope of practice of the assistant are discussed.

  20. Rationales for regulatory activity

    SciTech Connect

    Perhac, R.M.

    1997-02-01

    The author provides an outline which touches on the types of concerns about risk evaluation which are addressed in the process of establishing regulatory guides. Broadly he says regulatory activity serves three broad constituents: (1) Paternalism (private risk); (2) Promotion of social welfare (public risks); (3) Protection of individual rights (public risks). He then discusses some of the major issues encountered in reaching a decision on what is an acceptable level of risk within each of these areas, and how one establishes such a level.

  1. 77 FR 4065 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-26

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of... Rule to secondary transactions of private placements). The ABA stated that the concept of a ``non... reasons for so finding or if the self- regulatory organization consents to the extension. The Commission...

  2. Privatization and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dash, Neena

    2009-01-01

    This paper highlights emerging trends, programmes and policies in privatization of education in Western countries. These trends are educational vouchers, choice of private schools, private school liberalization, private contracting of specific services, tuition tax credits and deductions for parents ,subsidies and assistance grants to private…

  3. The Motivational Function of Private Speech: An Experimental Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Dios, M. J.; Montero, I.

    Recently, some works have been published exploring the role of private speech as a tool for motivation, reaching beyond the classical research on its regulatory function for cognitive processes such as attention or executive function. In fact, the authors' own previous research has shown that a moderate account of spontaneous private speech of…

  4. Private Education in Poland: Breaking the Mould?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klus-Stanska, Dorota; Olek, Hilary

    1998-03-01

    The burgeoning private sector is perhaps the most tangible of the changes in education which followed the upheavals of 1989/90 in Central and Eastern Europe. This article sets out to analyse the growth of private education in Poland and its contribution to the ongoing processes of democratisation and educational development. The authors argue that the euphoria of the period immediately following the overthrow of one-party communism encouraged unrealistic expectations of educational reform. Their analysis of private sector schooling in Poland suggests that its development has occurred in a haphazard fashion, reflecting the uncertainties of a society undergoing a painful process of transition. Symptomatic of this has been the failure to establish a clear regulatory framework for the private sector - an omission which has undermined the credibility of private schools. Nevertheless, the authors argue that the development of private sector schooling in Poland has brought diversity and a degree of innovation to a system previously almost devoid of either. There is now an urgent need for the evaluation and dissemination of private sector initiatives, which can serve as examples for future educational decision-making in Poland.

  5. The Effectiveness of Regulatory Disclosure Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, David; Fung, Archon; Graham, Mary; Fagotto, Elena

    2006-01-01

    Regulatory transparency--mandatory disclosure of information by private or public institutions with a regulatory intent--has become an important frontier of government innovation. This paper assesses the effectiveness of such transparency systems by examining the design and impact of financial disclosure, nutritional labeling, workplace hazard…

  6. The Effectiveness of Regulatory Disclosure Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, David; Fung, Archon; Graham, Mary; Fagotto, Elena

    2006-01-01

    Regulatory transparency--mandatory disclosure of information by private or public institutions with a regulatory intent--has become an important frontier of government innovation. This paper assesses the effectiveness of such transparency systems by examining the design and impact of financial disclosure, nutritional labeling, workplace hazard…

  7. The Private Language Argument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Gordon

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the private language argument (PLA)--the argument against the possibility of a private language. Raises questions about the PLA, suggesting there are a number of problems that PLA interpretation generates and fails to resolve. (Author/JL)

  8. The regulation of private hospitals in Asia.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Rosemary; Ensor, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Private providers play a significant role in the provision of health services in low and middle income countries (LMICs), and the number of private hospitals is increasing rapidly. The growth of the sector has drawn attention to the many problems that are often associated with this sector and the need for effective regulation if private providers are to contribute to the effective provision of healthcare. This paper outlines three main regulatory strategies-command and control, incentives, and self-regulation, providing examples of each approach in Asia. Traditionally, command and control regulatory instruments have dominated the regulation of private hospitals in Asia; however, when deciding on which approach is most appropriate, it is important to consider the goal of the regulation, the context in which it is to be implemented, and the advantages and disadvantages of each approach. This paper concludes that regulation needs to extend beyond command and control to include a full range of mechanisms. Doing so will help address many of the challenges found within individual approaches, in addition to helping address the regulatory challenges particular to many LMICs. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. A Primer on Privatization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menell, Seth J.; Phelps, Richard P.

    This paper provides a detailed examination of "contracting," a type of privatization, and is intended to clarify the issues surrounding decisions to privatize public services. Privatization introduces competition among market participants as a means of generating revenue, spurring development of an industry, and/or improving the quality of…

  10. Privatization in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehfuss, John

    1995-01-01

    Privatization calls for substantially trimming the scope and breadth of government services, replacing them with private or other nongovernmental operators. The attraction of privatization is reduced costs and increased management flexibility. To date, the arrangement has received substantial support from students and parents in situations that…

  11. Future Of Privatized Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-26

    explanations for the recent growth of private military companies (PMCs). This study fills this void by defining the logic of privatized warfare, those... Companies , PMCs, State-Society Relationship, Evolution of the Nation- State and Warfare 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18...future in the United States. Current literature is nearly devoid of theoretical explanations for the recent growth of private military companies

  12. Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Dangerous Waste Sampling and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    MULKEY, C.H.

    1999-07-02

    This document describes sampling and analytical requirements needed to meet state and federal regulations for dangerous waste (DW). The River Protection Project (RPP) is assigned to the task of storage and interim treatment of hazardous waste. Any final treatment or disposal operations, as well as requirements under the land disposal restrictions (LDRs), fall in the jurisdiction of another Hanford organization and are not part of this scope. The requirements for this Data Quality Objective (DQO) Process were developed using the RPP Data Quality Objective Procedure (Banning 1996), which is based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Guidance for the Data Quality Objectives Process (EPA 1994). Hereafter, this document is referred to as the DW DQO. Federal and state laws and regulations pertaining to waste contain requirements that are dependent upon the composition of the waste stream. These regulatory drivers require that pertinent information be obtained. For many requirements, documented process knowledge of a waste composition can be used instead of analytical data to characterize or designate a waste. When process knowledge alone is used to characterize a waste, it is a best management practice to validate the information with analytical measurements.

  13. Public Values, Private Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devins, Neal E.

    Controversy surrounding private education involves questions of compulsory education's role in inculcating values, how much alike public and private schools should be, and the duty of educational institutions to conform to constitutional norms. This book examines government regulation and resistance, legislative and judicial approaches, and issues…

  14. The Limits of Privatization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Paul

    Transferring public services and public assets to private ownership is not an entirely new idea. Governments at all levels in the United States have for years contracted out many services. However, under the recently coined label "privatization," such policies now come recommended as a more comprehensive approach to the problems of…

  15. Private Speech in Ballet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Dale

    2006-01-01

    Authoritarian teaching practices in ballet inhibit the use of private speech. This paper highlights the critical importance of private speech in the cognitive development of young ballet students, within what is largely a non-verbal art form. It draws upon research by Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky and contemporary socioculturalists, to…

  16. Public Values, Private Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devins, Neal E.

    Controversy surrounding private education involves questions of compulsory education's role in inculcating values, how much alike public and private schools should be, and the duty of educational institutions to conform to constitutional norms. This book examines government regulation and resistance, legislative and judicial approaches, and issues…

  17. Laboring through Privatization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushweller, Kevin

    1994-01-01

    Hiring private contractors to manage school support services, such as food, maintenance, and busing, is a growing trend. Companies such as Marriott Corp., ServiceMaster, ARA Services, and Laidlaw Transit report that school business is steadily increasing. Unions staunchly oppose privatization. This article balances advantages and disadvantages,…

  18. Women and Private Pensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Helene A.

    This speech focuses on women and private pension plans, such as private pension coverage and smaller benefit amounts. Pension issues affecting women as employees include participation in plans, vesting, break-in service, benefit accruals, integration with Social Security, sex-based actuarial tables, portability, inflation, and individual…

  19. Private Speech in Ballet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Dale

    2006-01-01

    Authoritarian teaching practices in ballet inhibit the use of private speech. This paper highlights the critical importance of private speech in the cognitive development of young ballet students, within what is largely a non-verbal art form. It draws upon research by Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky and contemporary socioculturalists, to…

  20. The Limits of Privatization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Paul

    Transferring public services and public assets to private ownership is not an entirely new idea. Governments at all levels in the United States have for years contracted out many services. However, under the recently coined label "privatization," such policies now come recommended as a more comprehensive approach to the problems of…

  1. Dialogue on private events

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, David C.; Eshleman, John; Brandon, Paul; Layng, T. V. Joe; McDonough, Christopher; Michael, Jack; Schoneberger, Ted; Stemmer, Nathan; Weitzman, Ray; Normand, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    In the fall of 2003, the authors corresponded on the topic of private events on the listserv of the Verbal Behavior Special Interest Group. Extracts from that correspondence raised questions about the role of response amplitude in determining units of analysis, whether private events can be investigated directly, and whether covert behavior differs from other behavior except in amplitude. Most participants took a cautious stance, noting not only conceptual pitfalls and empirical difficulties in the study of private events, but doubting the value of interpretive exercises about them. Others argued that despite such obstacles, in domains where experimental analyses cannot be done, interpretation of private events in the light of laboratory principles is the best that science can offer. One participant suggested that the notion that private events can be behavioral in nature be abandoned entirely; as an alternative, the phenomena should be reinterpreted only as physiological events. PMID:22477293

  2. SUCCESSFUL PRIVATIZATION OF HANFORD SITE FABRICATION SERVICES

    SciTech Connect

    KELLY, D.S.

    2004-11-18

    This paper describes the elements of Fluor Hanford's successful privatization of a major support services function. The privatization has accelerated the closure of the Department of Energy's Hanford Site by streamlining operations and using the realized cost savings to maintain the accelerated schedules set by the Department of Energy (DOE) and other regulatory stakeholders. Issues with worker demographics, future workload forecasting, budget optimization, and long-term community economic development were key components to Fluor Hanford's decision to choose the controversial and difficult pathway of outsourcing a Cold War legacy function to a private company. Many privatization efforts are abandoned in the preliminary planning stages due to extreme risk: frequently the final return on investment is less than anticipated. In this case, Fluor Hanford has successfully leveraged onsite assets to support the ongoing clean-up mission, provide potential long-term employment for the displaced workforce as site closure progresses, and establish a manufacturing base supporting the local economy. Based on several factors, which are described in this paper, the privatization of the Hanford Site Fabrication Services to an offsite vendor operating a large local business unit has been successful for virtually all of the stakeholders.

  3. Private Health Insurance Exchanges

    PubMed Central

    Buttorff, Christine; Nowak, Sarah; Syme, James; Eibner, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Private health insurance exchanges offer employer health insurance, combining online shopping, increased plan choice, benefit administration, and cost-containment strategies. This article examines how private exchanges function, how they may affect employers and employees, and the possible implications for the Affordable Care Act's (ACA's) Small Business Health Options Program (SHOP) Marketplaces. The authors found that private exchanges could encourage employees to select less-generous plans. This could expose employees to higher out-of-pocket costs, but premium contributions would drop substantially, so net spending would decrease. On the other hand, employee spending may increase if, in moving to private exchanges, employers decrease their health insurance contributions. Most employers can avoid the ACA's “Cadillac tax” by reducing the generosity of the plans they offer, regardless of whether they move to a private exchange. There is not yet enough evidence to determine whether the private exchanges will become prominent in the insurance market and how they will affect employers and their employees. PMID:28845340

  4. Latin American privatization

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.; Hennagir, T.; Hernandez, L.A. Jr. )

    1994-01-01

    Fundamental change is reshaping the Latin America power sector as governments explore new and improved privatization schemes. Latin American power markets are second in size only to those found in Asia. As the region grows and capacity needs increase, governments are turning to private power as a way to meet new demands for electric energy. Following the privatization model initiated by Chile, an increasing number of Latin American countries are following suit with an array of private power schemes for their state-owned utilities. The move means great opportunities for developers willing to enter this growing market. The recently established Scudder Latin American Trust for Independent Power is a prime example of new equity players becoming involved in this region. In Chile, the privatization process started more than 12 years ago. Currently, the power sector has been fully restructured to concentrate price and quality regulation on transmission and distribution, leaving generation and sales to a marketplace largely in the hands of the private sector. Furthermore, the Chilean government controls only about 15 percent of the installed generation in the country, so there is free-flow in this segment of the industry or a free market modality.

  5. [Private practice nursing, reacting in emergency situations. Private practice nursing, reacting in emergency situations].

    PubMed

    Royère, Cécile; Allonneau, Alexandre; Genotelle, Nicolas; Lefort, Hugues

    2016-01-01

    Private practice professionals providing care in patients' homes are often isolated. The care is controlled by a multidisciplinary care network. In the event of a life-threatening emergency, the Aide Médicale Urgente control centre activates if necessary the rapid intervention of emergency services. An accurate assessment, the anticipation of an emergency transfer to hospital and knowledge of the regulatory framework ensure the patient is handled efficiently and respectfully.

  6. Public-private partnerships for innovative technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Nehoda, D.J.; Fitzpatrick, E.S.; McNelly, G.E.; Holland, M.J.; Peters, E.; Powell, D.M.

    1994-12-31

    Most environmental restoration and remediation efforts rely on relatively few existing technologies to accomplish soil and groundwater cleanup. The concept of partnerships to solve common problems is neither new nor unusual. Organizations from private companies to nations have worked together in many facets of society from joint business ventures to military alliances. In one of the most pervasive problems facing society today, environmental contamination and restoration, responsible parties, including the Federal government, work in isolation in their environmental restoration efforts, often at odds with the regulatory community charged with enforcing the cleanup. By forming public-private partnerships which include the regulators to guide the design, construction and evaluation of innovative technologies, the partners are able to bring collective expertise, experience, and resources to bear on the problem. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how partnerships between the Federal government, private companies, and regulators can cooperatively implement and evaluate innovative technologies. By identifying and implementing innovative technologies to improve site remediation at a Federal facility, the partnership seeks to develop better remedies for similarly contaminated sites in both the public and private sectors.

  7. Global implications from the US hospitals privatization experience.

    PubMed

    Dube, Monte

    2012-01-01

    This Article summarizes the US market and regulatory forces which have contributed to--and are expected to accelerate the pace of--"public" or "governmental" hospital privatizations. It also sets forth the rationale for why we can expect to see an increasing number of governmental hospitals worldwide likewise choosing to restructure their governance platforms.

  8. An Inspector Calls: The Regulation of 'Budget' Private Schools in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooley, J.; Dixon, P.

    2005-01-01

    Research explored the regulatory regime, both 'on paper' and 'in practice', for private unaided schools serving low-income families ('budget' private schools), in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. Interviews were conducted with school managers, teachers, parents, and senior government officials and politicians. A Supreme Court Judgement rules out…

  9. An Inspector Calls: The Regulation of 'Budget' Private Schools in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooley, J.; Dixon, P.

    2005-01-01

    Research explored the regulatory regime, both 'on paper' and 'in practice', for private unaided schools serving low-income families ('budget' private schools), in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. Interviews were conducted with school managers, teachers, parents, and senior government officials and politicians. A Supreme Court Judgement rules out…

  10. The Public-Private Divide in Ethiopian Higher Education: Issues and Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nega, Mulu

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the current issues on the public-private divide in the Ethiopian higher education landscape and their policy implications. It critically examines issues related to legal and regulatory frameworks in order to understand the public-private divide in the Ethiopian higher education context. The article is based on two premises.…

  11. Private Universities and Public Funding: Models and Business Plans. Policy Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Roger

    2008-01-01

    The growth of private higher education has come as a surprise to most governments, which have tried to catch up in their regulatory and funding policymaking. In China, Malaysia and South Africa they have given legal recognition to previously disallowed private higher education and this has helped to fuel its subsequent growth. Some governments…

  12. Private Universities and Public Funding: Models and Business Plans. Policy Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Roger

    2008-01-01

    The growth of private higher education has come as a surprise to most governments, which have tried to catch up in their regulatory and funding policymaking. In China, Malaysia and South Africa they have given legal recognition to previously disallowed private higher education and this has helped to fuel its subsequent growth. Some governments…

  13. The benefits of privatization.

    PubMed Central

    Dirnfeld, V

    1996-01-01

    The promise of a universal, comprehensive, publicly funded system of medical care that was the foundation of the Medical Care Act passed in 1966 is no longer possible. Massive government debt, increasing health care costs, a growing and aging population and advances in technology have challenged the system, which can no longer meet the expectations of the public or of the health care professions. A parallel, private system, funded by a not-for-profit, regulated system of insurance coverage affordable for all wage-earners, would relieve the overstressed public system without decreasing the quality of care in that system. Critics of a parallel, private system, who base their arguments on the politics of fear and envy, charge that such a private system would "Americanize" Canadian health care and that the wealthy would be able to buy better, faster care than the rest of the population. But this has not happened in the parallel public and private health care systems in other Western countries or in the public and private education system in Canada. Wealthy Canadians can already buy medical care in the United States, where they spend $1 billion each year, an amount that represents a loss to Canada of 10,000 health care jobs. Parallel-system schemes in other countries have proven that people are driven to a private system by dissatisfaction with the quality of service, which is already suffering in Canada. Denial of choice is unacceptable to many people, particularly since the terms and conditions under which Canadians originally decided to forgo choice in medical care no longer apply. PMID:8752066

  14. A Logical Model of Private International Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dung, Phan Minh; Sartor, Giovanni

    We provide a logical analysis of private international law, the body of law establishing when courts of a country should decide a case (jurisdiction) and what legal system they should apply to this purpose (choice of law). A formal model of the resulting interaction among multiple legal systems is proposed based on modular argumentation. It is argued that this model may be useful for understanding this rather esoteric, but increasingly important, domain of the law. Moreover, it might be useful for modelling the way in which interactions between heterogeneous agents, belonging to different and differently regulated virtual societies, can be governed without recourse to a central regulatory agency.

  15. Meeting Regulatory Needs.

    PubMed

    Weber, Michael Fred

    2017-02-01

    The world is experiencing change at an unprecedented pace, as reflected in social, cultural, economic, political, and technological advances around the globe. Regulatory agencies, like the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), must also transform in response to and in preparation for these changes. In 2014, the NRC staff commenced Project Aim 2020 to transform the agency by enhancing efficiency, agility, and responsiveness, while accomplishing NRC's safety and security mission. Following Commission review and approval in 2015, the NRC began implementing the approved strategies, including strategic workforce planning to provide confidence that NRC will have employees with the right skills and talents at the right time to accomplish the agency's mission. Based on the work conducted so far, ensuring an adequate pipeline of radiation protection professionals is a significant need that NRC shares with states and other government agencies, private industry, academia, as well as international counterparts. NRC is working to ensure that sufficient radiation protection professionals will be available to fulfill its safety and security mission and leverage the work of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, the Health Physics Society, the Organization of Agreement States, the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Nuclear Energy Agency, and others.

  16. Privatization and Educational Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Myron

    This book describes how and why educational choice movements will affect public education. It uses a public-choice approach to argue that both the supporters and opponents of private and school choice have failed to address several critical issues. Following an introductory chapter, chapter 2 is devoted to the rationale for contracting out…

  17. Slouching toward Privatization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickeson, Robert C.; Figuli, David J.

    2007-01-01

    The past two decades have seen a significant shift in the financial model of American higher education, laying groundwork for a transformation that could reshape people's understanding of the academy. The shift--toward increasing degrees of privatization--is unmistakable and has affected every American college and university to varying extents.…

  18. Private Stimuli, Covert Responses, and Private Events: Conceptual Remarks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tourinho, E. Z.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I discuss the concepts of "private stimuli," "covert responses," and "private events," emphasizing three aspects: the conditions under which private stimuli may acquire discriminative functions to verbal responses, the conditions of unobservability of covert responses, and the complexity of events or phenomena described as…

  19. Private Stimuli, Covert Responses, and Private Events: Conceptual Remarks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tourinho, E. Z.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I discuss the concepts of "private stimuli," "covert responses," and "private events," emphasizing three aspects: the conditions under which private stimuli may acquire discriminative functions to verbal responses, the conditions of unobservability of covert responses, and the complexity of events or phenomena described as…

  20. Low-Activity Waste Feed Data Quality Objectives

    SciTech Connect

    MJ Truex; KD Wiemers

    1998-12-11

    This document describes characterization requirements for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Waste Disposal Program's privatization efforts in support of low-activity waste (LAW) treatment and immobilization, This revised Data Quality Objective (DQO) replaces earlier documents (PNNL 1997; DOE-W 1998zq Wiemers 1996). Revision O of this DQO was completed to meet Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) target milestone M-60-14-TO1. Revision 1 updates the data requirements based on the contract issued `August 1998 (DOE-RL 1998b). In addition, sections of Revision O pertaining to "environmental planning" were not acceptable to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and have been removed. Regulatory compliance for TWRS Privatization is being addressed in a separate DQO (Wiemers et al. 1998). The Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) Contractors and the private contractor may elect to complete issue-specific DQOS to accommodate their individual work scope.

  1. Film Images of Private Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, David

    2000-01-01

    Examines public debate over private education in the context of the Hollywood dramatic feature film. Analyses four recent films that all portray private schools negatively. Film representation of public schools is more optimistic. Asserts that the films ignore or misrepresent three strengths of private education: effective leadership, small school…

  2. Stimuli, Reinforcers, and Private Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevin, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Radical behaviorism considers private events to be a part of ongoing observable behavior and to share the properties of public events. Although private events cannot be measured directly, their roles in overt action can be inferred from mathematical models that relate private responses to external stimuli and reinforcers according to the same…

  3. Stimuli, Reinforcers, and Private Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevin, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Radical behaviorism considers private events to be a part of ongoing observable behavior and to share the properties of public events. Although private events cannot be measured directly, their roles in overt action can be inferred from mathematical models that relate private responses to external stimuli and reinforcers according to the same…

  4. Privatized multipurpose reactor initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, G.A.

    1995-12-31

    ABB Combustion Engineering (ABB CE) and seven other companies have submitted a plan to the DOE for deploying a multipurpose reactor at the Savannah River Plant. The facility would consume excess plutonium as fuel, irradiate tritium producing targets, and generate electricity. The plan proposes to establish a consortium that would privately finance and own two System 80+ nuclear units and a mixed oxide fuel fabrication facility.

  5. Regulatory Forum.

    PubMed

    Peden, W Michael

    2016-12-01

    Revision of the International Council for Harmonization (ICH) S1 guidance for rat carcinogenicity studies to be more selective of compounds requiring a 2-year rat carcinogenicity study has been proposed following extensive evaluation of rat carcinogenicity and chronic toxicity studies by industry and drug regulatory authorities. To inform the ICH S1 expert working group in their potential revision of ICH S1, a prospective evaluation study was initiated in 2013, in which sponsors would assess the pharmacologic and toxicologic findings present in the chronic toxicity studies and predict a positive or negative carcinogenicity outcome using a weight of evidence argument (a carcinogenicity assessment document [CAD]). The Scientific and Regulatory Policy Committee was asked by the Society of Toxicology Pathology (STP) executive committee to track these changes with ICH S1 and inform the STP membership of status changes. This commentary is intended to provide a brief summary of recent changes to the CAD guidance and highlight the importance of STP membership participation in the process of CAD submissions.

  6. Regulatory Physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Putcha, Lakshmi; Baker, Ellen; Smith, Scott M.; Stewart, Karen; Gretebeck, Randall; Nimmagudda, R. R.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Davis-Street, Janis

    1999-01-01

    As noted elsewhere in this report, a central goal of the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was to ensure that cardiovascular and muscle function were adequate to perform an emergency egress after 16 days of spaceflight. The goals of the Regulatory Physiology component of the EDOMP were to identify and subsequently ameliorate those biochemical and nutritional factors that deplete physiological reserves or increase risk for disease, and to facilitate the development of effective muscle, exercise, and cardiovascular countermeasures. The component investigations designed to meet these goals focused on biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrition and metabolism, the risk of renal (kidney) stone formation, gastrointestinal function, and sleep in space. Investigations involved both ground-based protocols to validate proposed methods and flight studies to test those methods. Two hardware tests were also completed.

  7. Regulatory Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes the term “safety logics” to understand attempts within the European Union (EU) to harmonize member state legislation to ensure a safe and stable supply of human biological material for transplants and transfusions. With safety logics, I refer to assemblages of discourses, legal documents, technological devices, organizational structures, and work practices aimed at minimizing risk. I use this term to reorient the analytical attention with respect to safety regulation. Instead of evaluating whether safety is achieved, the point is to explore the types of “safety” produced through these logics as well as to consider the sometimes unintended consequences of such safety work. In fact, the EU rules have been giving rise to complaints from practitioners finding the directives problematic and inadequate. In this article, I explore the problems practitioners face and why they arise. In short, I expose the regulatory anatomy of the policy landscape. PMID:26139952

  8. Public-private interactions in global food safety governance.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Fu

    2014-01-01

    In response to an apparent decline in global food safety, numerous public and private regulatory initiatives have emerged to restore public confidence. This trend has been particularly marked by the growing influence of private regulators such as multinational food companies, supermarket chains and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), who employ private standards, certification protocols, third-party auditing, and transnational contracting practices. This paper explores how the structure and processes of private food safety governance interact with traditional public governance regimes, focusing on Global Good Agricultural Practices (GlobalGAP) as a primary example of the former. Due to the inefficiency and ineffectiveness of public regulation in the face of global problems, private governance in food safety has gradually replaced states' command-and-control regulation with more flexible, market-oriented mechanisms. The paper concludes by emphasizing the importance of constructive regime interaction instead of institutional boundary building to global food safety governance. Public and private ordering must each play a role as integral parts of a larger, dynamic and evolving governance complex.

  9. Mobile Virtual Private Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulkkis, Göran; Grahn, Kaj; Mårtens, Mathias; Mattsson, Jonny

    Mobile Virtual Private Networking (VPN) solutions based on the Internet Security Protocol (IPSec), Transport Layer Security/Secure Socket Layer (SSL/TLS), Secure Shell (SSH), 3G/GPRS cellular networks, Mobile IP, and the presently experimental Host Identity Protocol (HIP) are described, compared and evaluated. Mobile VPN solutions based on HIP are recommended for future networking because of superior processing efficiency and network capacity demand features. Mobile VPN implementation issues associated with the IP protocol versions IPv4 and IPv6 are also evaluated. Mobile VPN implementation experiences are presented and discussed.

  10. Robust Quantum Private Queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tian-Yin; Wang, Shu-Yu; Ma, Jian-Feng

    2016-07-01

    We propose a new quantum private query protocol with the technique of decoherence-free states, which is a theoretical study of how decoherence-free states can be used for the protection of quantum information in such a protocol. This protocol can solve the noise problem that will make the user obtain a wrong answer and hence give rise to a bad influence on the reputation of the database provider. Furthermore, this protocol is also flexible, loss-resistant and easily generalized to a large database similar to the previous works.

  11. Private sex workers.

    PubMed

    Thng, C; Blackledge, E; McIver, R; Smith, L Watchirs; McNulty, A

    2017-09-01

    This study examined where private sex workers (PSW) present for sexual health services, disclosure, services received, and their satisfaction with care. An online anonymous survey was conducted via SurveyMonkey (surveymonkey.com). Among the 53 participants, 42% attended a sexual health clinic, 24% attended a general practitioner (GP) and 34% attended both. Participants attending GPs were less likely to be offered a throat swab and opportunities for cervical screening, contraception and vaccination were often missed in both service models. Participants attending GPs were less likely to disclose sex work and were less satisfied. Better awareness of the sexual health needs of PSWs is important in GP services.

  12. Medical practice integration: going big in private practice.

    PubMed

    Persley, Kimberly M; Jain, Rajeev

    2012-01-01

    Historically, gastroenterologists entered into solo, small group, or academic practices. The current economic environment and looming regulatory mandates have led to gastroenterologists integrating into large, single-specialty groups to acquire costly practice infrastructure, gain negotiating leverage with health plans, promote high-quality care, and benefit from professional practice management. Individual gastroenterologists must assess whether a large practice will meet their personal goals, financial needs, and professional visions. The decision to integrate into a large practice will also be affected by local practice patterns and regulatory issues. For these and other reasons, gastroenterologists are going big in private practice.

  13. Transforming regulatory science 2012: making a difference.

    PubMed

    Goodman, J L

    2012-03-01

    "What does not change is the will to change."-Charles Olson, "The Kingfishers"The world is in the midst of scientific revolutions that can transform medicine and public health. Yet translation to needed products remains slow and expensive. There are major opportunities for new regulatory science to help transform product development and evaluation. A plan by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), "Advancing Regulatory Science," identifies eight priorities and numerous actions to help catalyze transformation. Scientific excellence and collaboration, including public and private sectors, are essential for change that benefits health and economies globally.

  14. Wastewater privatization: A beneficial alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Wakeman, R.F.; Drewry, W.A.

    1999-07-01

    Municipalities with wastewater operations face increasing requirements to maximize efficiency, implement capital improvements, and ensure environmental compliance. Privatization is a relatively unused alternative offering benefits in the areas of cost-effective operations, flexible financing, technology access, and compliance assurance. Recent executive direction and tax code changes have opened new doors for mutually beneficial public-private partnerships. Wastewater privatization has historically consisted of short-term contract agreements for treatment operations, but looming infrastructure recapitalization and development requirements have catalyzed an exploration of non-traditional alternatives that include private sector financing, development, and operation of entire wastewater systems, The purpose of this paper is to show why privatization must be considered, evaluate the different levels available, and generate an analytical aid for communities taking their first look at privatization opportunities.

  15. Bioremediation of chlorinated solvents through public-private partnerships

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, D.E.; Heitkamp, M.A.; Klecka, G.M.

    1995-12-31

    This paper provides an overview of the program activities of the Remediation Technology Development Forum (RTDF). The consortium is comprised of six private companies and three federal agencies. The program will demonstrate three in-situ processes for biodegradation of chlorinated solvents: cometabolic bioventing, intrinsic bioremediation, and accelerated anaerobic biodegradation. The program objectives are to demonstrate that these processes are effective, reliable, and cost efficient, and to achieve public and regulatory acceptance of these technologies.

  16. Private medical education: provider's perspective.

    PubMed

    Riches, D J

    2000-08-01

    Issues related to the provision of private education are discussed in relation to the need, clinical teaching, professional standards and financial implications. The advantages and disadvantages are summarised.

  17. Differentially private distributed logistic regression using private and public data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Privacy protecting is an important issue in medical informatics and differential privacy is a state-of-the-art framework for data privacy research. Differential privacy offers provable privacy against attackers who have auxiliary information, and can be applied to data mining models (for example, logistic regression). However, differentially private methods sometimes introduce too much noise and make outputs less useful. Given available public data in medical research (e.g. from patients who sign open-consent agreements), we can design algorithms that use both public and private data sets to decrease the amount of noise that is introduced. Methodology In this paper, we modify the update step in Newton-Raphson method to propose a differentially private distributed logistic regression model based on both public and private data. Experiments and results We try our algorithm on three different data sets, and show its advantage over: (1) a logistic regression model based solely on public data, and (2) a differentially private distributed logistic regression model based on private data under various scenarios. Conclusion Logistic regression models built with our new algorithm based on both private and public datasets demonstrate better utility than models that trained on private or public datasets alone without sacrificing the rigorous privacy guarantee. PMID:25079786

  18. Private Stimuli, Covert Responses, and Private Events: Conceptual Remarks

    PubMed Central

    Tourinho, Emmanuel Zagury

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I discuss the concepts of private stimuli, covert responses, and private events, emphasizing three aspects: the conditions under which private stimuli may acquire discriminative functions to verbal responses, the conditions of unobservability of covert responses, and the complexity of events or phenomena described as private. I argue that the role of private stimuli in the control of self-descriptive verbal responses is dependent on a relation (correlation or equivalence relation) with public stimuli, and that responses vary along a continuum of observability. These remarks on private stimuli and covert responses are introductory to an examination of the varying complexity of phenomena described as private. I argue that private events is a verbal response emitted under the control of phenomena of different degrees of complexity, and I interpret these phenomena, based on the principle of selection by consequences. I introduce the notion of inclusiveness to suggest that some phenomena related to privacy are less or more complex as they include relations of a phylogenetic, ontogenetic, and cultural origin. PMID:22478451

  19. Private stimuli, covert responses, and private events: conceptual remarks.

    PubMed

    Tourinho, Emmanuel Zagury

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I discuss the concepts of private stimuli, covert responses, and private events, emphasizing three aspects: the conditions under which private stimuli may acquire discriminative functions to verbal responses, the conditions of unobservability of covert responses, and the complexity of events or phenomena described as private. I argue that the role of private stimuli in the control of self-descriptive verbal responses is dependent on a relation (correlation or equivalence relation) with public stimuli, and that responses vary along a continuum of observability. These remarks on private stimuli and covert responses are introductory to an examination of the varying complexity of phenomena described as private. I argue that private events is a verbal response emitted under the control of phenomena of different degrees of complexity, and I interpret these phenomena, based on the principle of selection by consequences. I introduce the notion of inclusiveness to suggest that some phenomena related to privacy are less or more complex as they include relations of a phylogenetic, ontogenetic, and cultural origin.

  20. TWRS privatization bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this bibliography is to present a select set of documents that may be of interest to the Offeror, covering a variety of subject areas related to the TWRS Privatization Project. This bibliography is not, nor is intended to be, exhaustive or complete. It was prepared with the intent of providing a sampling of representative documents potentially helpful to Offerors. The documents referenced herein have been identified as representative of those potentially helpful to Offerors. This list of documents does not represent the full extent of available and potentially helpful information, nor should it be taken as a representation of documents determined to be of greater importance than other documents not referenced herein. There are numerous documents available to the public that are NOT cited in this bibliography; the Offeror is encouraged to perform searches for alternate sources of information.

  1. TWRS privatization bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this bibliography is to present a select set of documents that may be of interest to the Offeror, covering a variety of subject areas related to the TWRS Privatization Project. The organization of this bibliography is by subject area. Some of the documents overlap subject areas, and may be presented in more than one. Additionally, assignment of a document to one subject area does not necessarily preclude that document from containing information relevant to other subject areas not identified. The subject areas include, in order of presentation:. Waste Characterization; Pre-treatment; High-level Waste Immobilization; Low-level Waste Immobilization; Low-level Waste Melter Test Program; Performance Assessment; and General Safety.

  2. The Future of Private Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Norward J.

    While the elite private colleges may survive the enrollment declines of the 1980's and 1990's, the less elite, so-called invisible private colleges may have more difficulty. Finance, enrollment, and competition are the three major elements seen to threaten these institutions' futures. They face an uncertain financial future since historically they…

  3. The Future of Private Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Norward J.

    While the elite private colleges may survive the enrollment declines of the 1980's and 1990's, the less elite, so-called invisible private colleges may have more difficulty. Finance, enrollment, and competition are the three major elements seen to threaten these institutions' futures. They face an uncertain financial future since historically they…

  4. Private Faith and Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trigg, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Must faith be privatized? Taken at face value, this could seem a curious question, since no one is in a position to "sell off" any religion to private interests, in the way that, for example, British Rail was dismembered. Yet the question is an important one in a contemporary society, characterized as it is by a significant divergence of views…

  5. Michigan School Privatization Survey 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohman, James M.; Anderson, Dustin D.

    2010-01-01

    Privatization of support services has been a method that Michigan school districts have used for several years to lower costs. More than ever before, Michigan school districts are privatizing the three main support services they offer--food, custodial and transportation. The annual survey finds that 48.8 percent of Michigan school districts are…

  6. Public Funds and Private Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Kenneth H.

    Financial and survival problems facing private colleges, unless the state governments make major changes in the way public education is financed, are discussed in this speech. The gap between the cost of attending public and private institutions is growing, at least for families with incomes above the median. Many of the best academic colleges and…

  7. Public Funds and Private Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Kenneth H.

    Financial and survival problems facing private colleges, unless the state governments make major changes in the way public education is financed, are discussed in this speech. The gap between the cost of attending public and private institutions is growing, at least for families with incomes above the median. Many of the best academic colleges and…

  8. Private Faith and Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trigg, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Must faith be privatized? Taken at face value, this could seem a curious question, since no one is in a position to "sell off" any religion to private interests, in the way that, for example, British Rail was dismembered. Yet the question is an important one in a contemporary society, characterized as it is by a significant divergence of views…

  9. Public/Private Partnership Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Public Schools, Washington, DC.

    This document presents the Public/Private Partnership Programs, a school-community project developed in 1981 by the District of Columbia public schools and the private sector community to provide career-focused high school programs. The project was designed to motivate and support young people to stay in school, graduate from high school, and…

  10. Signed Soliloquy: Visible Private Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Kathrin; Brugger, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Talking to oneself can be silent (inner speech) or vocalized for others to hear (private speech, or soliloquy). We investigated these two types of self-communication in 28 deaf signers and 28 hearing adults. With a questionnaire specifically developed for this study, we established the visible analog of vocalized private speech in deaf signers.…

  11. The Law and Private Police.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakalik, James S.; Wildhorn, Sorrel

    This report is one of a series of five describing a 16-month study of the nature and extent of the private police industry in the United States, its problems, its present regulation, and how the law impinges on it. A general discussion of the sources of legal limitations upon private police activities and personnel and sources of legal powers is…

  12. Wisconsin private timberland owners: 1997.

    Treesearch

    Earl C. Leatherberry

    2001-01-01

    Identifies and profiles Wisconsin's private timberland owners. Estimates the number and distribution of private timberland owners by owner attitudes and objectives concerning forest ownership; management, and use. Provides 45 tables relating owner and property characteristics for the State and its five survey units.

  13. Private Loans: Facts and Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for College Access & Success, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Private loans are one of the riskiest ways to finance a college education. Like credit cards, they typically have variable interest rates. Both variable and fixed rates are higher for those who can least afford them--as high as 13% in June 2014. Private loans are not eligible for the important deferment, income-based repayment, or loan forgiveness…

  14. The status and impact of state and local regulation on private timber supply

    Treesearch

    John L. Greene; William C. Siegel

    1994-01-01

    State and local regulatory enactments that affect private forest management are identified and summarized. The results of a Delphi technique survey of the current  and long-term effects of such regulation on private timber harvests, and TAMM projec­ tions of  their impact on U.S. timber supply and price, are de­scribed.

  15. Analysis of debt leveraging in private power projects

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, E.P.; Meal, M.; Doerrer, S.; Morse, S.

    1992-08-01

    As private power has grown to become a significant part of the electricity system, increasing concern about its financial implications has arisen. In many cases, the source of this concern has been the substantial reliance of these projects on debt financing. This study examines debt leveraging in private power projects. The policy debate on these issues has typically been conducted at a high level of generality. Critics of the private power industry assert that high debt leveraging confers an unfair competitive advantage by lowering the cost of capital. This leveraging is only possible because risks are shifted to the utility. Further, debt leveraging is claimed to be a threat to reliability. On the opposite side, it is argued that debt leveraging imposes costs and obligations not borne by utilities, and so there is no financial advantage. The private producers also argue that on balance more risk is shifted away from utilities than to them, and that incentives for reliability are strong. In this study we examine the project finance mechanisms used in private power lending in detail, relying on a sample of actual loan documents. This review and its findings should be relevant to the further evolution of this debate. State regulatory commissions are likely to be interested in it, and Federal legislation to amend the Public Utility Holding Company Act (PUHCA) could require states to consider the implications of debt leveraging in relation to their oversight of utility power purchase programs.

  16. Analysis of debt leveraging in private power projects. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, E.P.; Meal, M.; Doerrer, S.; Morse, S.

    1992-08-01

    As private power (non-utility generation) has grown to become a significant part of the electricity system, increasing concern about its financial implications has arisen. In many cases, the source of this concern has been the substantial reliance of these projects on debt financing. This study examines debt leveraging in private power projects. The policy debate on these issues has typically been conducted at a high level of generality. Critics of the private power industry assert that high debt leveraging confers an unfair competitive advantage by lowering the cost of capital, and that this leveraging is only possible because risks are shifted to the utility. Further, debt leveraging is claimed to be a threat to reliability. On the opposite side, it is argued that debt leveraging imposes costs and obligations not home by utilities, and so there is no financial advantage. The private producers also argue that on balance more risk is shifted away from utilities than to them, and that incentives for reliability are strong. In this study we examine the project finance mechanisms used in private power lending in detail, relying on a sample of actual loan documents. This review and its findings should be relevant to the further evolution of this debate. State regulatory commissions are likely to be interested in it, and Federal legislation to amend the Public Utility Holding Company Act (PUHCA) could require states to consider the implications of debt leveraging in relation to their oversight of utility power purchase programs.

  17. Analysis of debt leveraging in private power projects

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, E.P. ); Meal, M.; Doerrer, S.; Morse, S. )

    1992-08-01

    As private power (non-utility generation) has grown to become a significant part of the electricity system, increasing concern about its financial implications has arisen. In many cases, the source of this concern has been the substantial reliance of these projects on debt financing. This study examines debt leveraging in private power projects. The policy debate on these issues has typically been conducted at a high level of generality. Critics of the private power industry assert that high debt leveraging confers an unfair competitive advantage by lowering the cost of capital, and that this leveraging is only possible because risks are shifted to the utility. Further, debt leveraging is claimed to be a threat to reliability. On the opposite side, it is argued that debt leveraging imposes costs and obligations not home by utilities, and so there is no financial advantage. The private producers also argue that on balance more risk is shifted away from utilities than to them, and that incentives for reliability are strong. In this study we examine the project finance mechanisms used in private power lending in detail, relying on a sample of actual loan documents. This review and its findings should be relevant to the further evolution of this debate. State regulatory commissions are likely to be interested in it, and Federal legislation to amend the Public Utility Holding Company Act (PUHCA) could require states to consider the implications of debt leveraging in relation to their oversight of utility power purchase programs.

  18. Redefining private insurance in a changing market structure.

    PubMed

    Chollet, D J

    1996-01-01

    This discussion on likely changes and challenges for the health insurance industry over the coming decade assumes that significant national reform of health care financing for the privately insured population will not occur--or, if it does, that it will mirror the insurance market reforms that many states already have undertaken. First, the changes in private insurance coverage during the past several years are considered, with particular attention to the erosion of employer-based coverage and to the rising influence of public insurance programs--especially Medicaid--on the private insurance market. Next is a description of the changing web of state laws and regulations governing private health insurance. At this writing, virtually every state has enacted or is considering reforms of the small group market to limit what many perceive as unfair or destructive insurer practices and to set new ground rules for competition among insurance arrangements. The changing nature of private insurance contracts in the United States is considered next. Evolving from conventional fee-for-service contracts, private insurance is increasingly a complex mixture of capitation, partial capitation, and reinsurance of capitated arrangements. Finally, this chapter discusses three issues of increasing importance in shaping the marketplace for private insurers: (1) the federal preemption of states' regulatory authority over self-insured employer plans; (2) emerging state regulation to restructure competition in the health insurance and health care markets; and (3) the growing interest of both federal and state governments in medical savings accounts to finance health insurance and health care spending.

  19. 75 FR 68018 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ...] Airport Privatization Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... Airport's preliminary application for participation in the airport privatization pilot program received... 47134 establishes an airport privatization pilot program and authorizes the Department of Transportation...

  20. Private Information and Insurance Rejections

    PubMed Central

    Hendren, Nathaniel

    2013-01-01

    Across a wide set of non-group insurance markets, applicants are rejected based on observable, often high-risk, characteristics. This paper argues that private information, held by the potential applicant pool, explains rejections. I formulate this argument by developing and testing a model in which agents may have private information about their risk. I first derive a new no-trade result that theoretically explains how private information could cause rejections. I then develop a new empirical methodology to test whether this no-trade condition can explain rejections. The methodology uses subjective probability elicitations as noisy measures of agents beliefs. I apply this approach to three non-group markets: long-term care, disability, and life insurance. Consistent with the predictions of the theory, in all three settings I find significant amounts of private information held by those who would be rejected; I find generally more private information for those who would be rejected relative to those who can purchase insurance; and I show it is enough private information to explain a complete absence of trade for those who would be rejected. The results suggest private information prevents the existence of large segments of these three major insurance markets. PMID:24187381

  1. Stimuli, Reinforcers, and Private Events

    PubMed Central

    Nevin, John A

    2008-01-01

    Radical behaviorism considers private events to be a part of ongoing observable behavior and to share the properties of public events. Although private events cannot be measured directly, their roles in overt action can be inferred from mathematical models that relate private responses to external stimuli and reinforcers according to the same quantitative relations that characterize public operant behavior. This approach is illustrated by a model of attending to stimuli and to anticipated reinforcers in delayed matching to sample, in which the probabilities of attending are related to reinforcer rates by an expression derived from research on behavioral momentum. PMID:22478505

  2. Relativistic quantum private database queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Si-Jia; Yang, Yu-Guang; Zhang, Ming-Ou

    2015-04-01

    Recently, Jakobi et al. (Phys Rev A 83, 022301, 2011) suggested the first practical private database query protocol (J-protocol) based on the Scarani et al. (Phys Rev Lett 92, 057901, 2004) quantum key distribution protocol. Unfortunately, the J-protocol is just a cheat-sensitive private database query protocol. In this paper, we present an idealized relativistic quantum private database query protocol based on Minkowski causality and the properties of quantum information. Also, we prove that the protocol is secure in terms of the user security and the database security.

  3. Stimuli, reinforcers, and private events.

    PubMed

    Nevin, John A

    2008-01-01

    Radical behaviorism considers private events to be a part of ongoing observable behavior and to share the properties of public events. Although private events cannot be measured directly, their roles in overt action can be inferred from mathematical models that relate private responses to external stimuli and reinforcers according to the same quantitative relations that characterize public operant behavior. This approach is illustrated by a model of attending to stimuli and to anticipated reinforcers in delayed matching to sample, in which the probabilities of attending are related to reinforcer rates by an expression derived from research on behavioral momentum.

  4. Joint Hearing on Privatizing Government Sponsored Entities (GSEs). Joint Hearing before the Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education, Training and Life-Long Learning of the Committee on Economic and Educational Opportunities and the Subcommittee on National Economic Growth, Natural Resources, and Regulatory Affairs of the Committee on Government Reform and Oversight. House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Economic and Educational Opportunities.

    This document is a congressional joint hearing report of a panel discussion exploring issues related to privatization of two government-sponsored entities (GSEs): the Student Loan Marketing Association (Sallie Mae) and the College Construction Loan Insurance Association (Connie Lee). The two issues specifically addressed by the panel were: (1)…

  5. Private Trade and Technical Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Christopher

    1983-01-01

    Among the advantages of private trade and technical schools is their market orientation, a sensitivity to employers' current needs. Teachers recruited from industry, accelerated pace, flexible scheduling, and emphasis on job placement are other benefits found in proprietary schools. (SK)

  6. State Regulation of Private Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lines, Patricia M.

    1982-01-01

    Examines state laws and the actions of various courts on home instruction and unauthorized educational programs. Suggests reforming the regulation of private education through legislative action that requires periodic testing as an alternative to compulsory school attendance. (Author/MLF)

  7. State Regulation of Private Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lines, Patricia M.

    1982-01-01

    Examines state laws and the actions of various courts on home instruction and unauthorized educational programs. Suggests reforming the regulation of private education through legislative action that requires periodic testing as an alternative to compulsory school attendance. (Author/MLF)

  8. What Future for Private Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cath Sch J, 1970

    1970-01-01

    After examining a small private school (Norwood Academy, Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia) a group of leading educators give their answers to questions about its future and the future of such schools in general. (Editor)

  9. Privatization of Military Family Housing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Rev. 2-89) (EG) Proscribed by ANSI S IU . 239,1 PRIVATIZATION OF MILITARY FAMILY HOUSING MAJOR PATRICK W. MOUDY* * Major Patrick W. Moudy, United...amendments for Development of Private Sector Housing, Corpus Christi, Texas.29 Landmark Residential, LLC (Landmark) was the successful offeror for the...office, the JAG office, the Civil Engineering office, the Comptroller office, the environmental experts, and the housing office, as well as the command

  10. An Analysis of Private School Closings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandey, Lakshmi; Sjoquist, David L.; Walker, Mary Beth

    2009-01-01

    We add to the small literature on private school supply by exploring exits of K-12 private schools. We find that the closure of private schools is not an infrequent event and use national survey data from the National Center for Education Statistics to study closures of private schools. We assume that the probability of an exit is a function of…

  11. Private Higher Education in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattillo, Manning M., Jr.

    This monograph offers reflections on the role of private higher education in American society. Chapter 1, "Scope and Diversity of Private Higher Education," defines private higher education and notes that private institutions run the gamut from liberal arts colleges to comprehensive colleges and universities, to specialized institutions, two-year…

  12. The "Decline" of Private Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    No topic in private higher education study has attracted as great attention globally as has growth. This is appropriate as private growth has soared to nearly a third of the world's total higher education enrolment. But while private growth continues to be the dominant trend, important declines in private shares have emerged. These must be…

  13. Professional and Regulatory Search

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Professional and Regulatory search are designed for people who use EPA web resources to do their job. You will be searching collections where information that is not relevant to Environmental and Regulatory professionals.

  14. Private and Social Costs of Surface Mine Reforestation Performance Criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Jay; Amacher, Gregory S.

    2010-02-01

    We study the potentially unnecessary costs imposed by strict performance standards for forest restoration of surface coal mines in the Appalachian region under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) that can vary widely across states. Both the unnecessary private costs to the mine operator and costs to society (social costs) are reported for two performance standards, a ground cover requirement, and a seedling survival target. These standards are examined using numerical analyses under a range of site productivity class and market conditions. We show that a strict (90%) ground cover standard may produce an unnecessary private cost of more than 700/ha and a social cost ranging from 428/ha to 710/ha, as compared with a 70% standard. A strict tree survival standard of 1235 trees/ha, as compared with the more typical 1087 trees/ha standard, may produce an unnecessary private cost of approximately 200/ha, and a social cost in the range of 120 to 208/ha. We conclude that strict performance standards may impose substantial unnecessary private costs and social costs, that strict performance standards may be discouraging the choice of forestry as a post-mining land use, and that opportunities exist for reform of reforestation performance standards. Our study provides a basis for evaluating tradeoffs between regulatory efficiency and optimal reforestation effort.

  15. Private and social costs of surface mine reforestation performance criteria.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Jay; Amacher, Gregory S

    2010-02-01

    We study the potentially unnecessary costs imposed by strict performance standards for forest restoration of surface coal mines in the Appalachian region under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) that can vary widely across states. Both the unnecessary private costs to the mine operator and costs to society (social costs) are reported for two performance standards, a ground cover requirement, and a seedling survival target. These standards are examined using numerical analyses under a range of site productivity class and market conditions. We show that a strict (90%) ground cover standard may produce an unnecessary private cost of more than $700/ha and a social cost ranging from $428/ha to $710/ha, as compared with a 70% standard. A strict tree survival standard of 1235 trees/ha, as compared with the more typical 1087 trees/ha standard, may produce an unnecessary private cost of approximately $200/ha, and a social cost in the range of $120 to $208/ha. We conclude that strict performance standards may impose substantial unnecessary private costs and social costs, that strict performance standards may be discouraging the choice of forestry as a post-mining land use, and that opportunities exist for reform of reforestation performance standards. Our study provides a basis for evaluating tradeoffs between regulatory efficiency and optimal reforestation effort.

  16. Steering healthcare service delivery: a regulatory perspective.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Gyan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore regulation in India's healthcare sector and makes recommendations needed for enhancing the healthcare service. The literature was reviewed to understand healthcare's regulatory context. To understand the current healthcare system, qualitative data were collected from state-level officials, public and private hospital staff. A patient survey was performed to assess service quality (QoS). Regulation plays a central role in driving healthcare QoS. India needs to strengthen market and institutional co-production based approaches for steering its healthcare in which delivery processes are complex and pose different challenges. This study assesses current healthcare regulation in an Indian state and presents a framework for studying and strengthening regulation. Agile regulation should be based on service delivery issues (pull approach) rather than monitoring and sanctions based regulatory environment (push approach). Healthcare pitfalls across the world seem to follow similar follies. India's complexity and experience is useful for emerging and developed economies. The author reviewed around 70 publications and synthesised them in healthcare regulatory contexts. Patient's perception of private providers could be a key input towards steering regulation. Identifying gaps across QoS dimensions would be useful in taking corrective measures.

  17. Home Schools, Private Schools, Parochial Schools--What Are A Public School's Special Education Obligations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opuda, Michael J.

    This paper examines issues related to the provision of special education services by public schools to students in private, parochial, or home school settings and offers guidelines for local education agencies. First, the paper reviews federal statutory and regulatory obligations, particularly those under the Individuals with Disabilities…

  18. Comparison of Environmental Remediation Contracting Approaches between the Department of Defense and the Private Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-12-01

    35 IV. SWOT ANALYSIS .........................................................................................................37...weaknesses, opportunities, and threats ( SWOT ) analysis to determine the best approaches utilized by DOD and the private sector. The results of the SWOT ...down-sizing efforts were completed under the same regulatory guidance, same real estate market, and with the same pressures from the public for a

  19. Relationships among Private Speech and Creativity in Head Start and Low-Socioeconomic Status Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Martha; White, C. Stephen

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore Vygotsky's notion of private speech as a cognitive self-regulatory process and how it related to creativity measures among at-risk children. Thirty-two Head Start and state-funded Pre-K children completed the Torrance creativity test Thinking Creatively in Action and Movement (TCAM). The children's private…

  20. Private Pre-University Education in Romania: Mixing Control with Lack of Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanus, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    This paper approaches private provision of pre-university education in Romania, exploring available data on the sector's size and main characteristics and evaluating the extent to which the current regulatory framework enables positive effects in terms of freedom of choice, quality, equity, and social cohesion. The paper argues that the lack of a…

  1. Umbilical cord blood donation: public or private?

    PubMed

    Ballen, K K; Verter, F; Kurtzberg, J

    2015-10-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is a graft source for patients with malignant or genetic diseases who can be cured by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), but who do not have an appropriately HLA-matched family or volunteer unrelated adult donor. Starting in the 1990s, unrelated UCB banks were established, accepting donations from term deliveries and storing UCB units for public use. An estimated 730 000 UCB units have been donated and stored to date and ~35 000 UCB transplants have been performed worldwide. Over the past 20 years, private and family banks have grown rapidly, storing ~4 million UCB units for a particular patient or family, usually charging an up-front and yearly storage fee; therefore, these banks are able to be financially sustainable without releasing UCB units. Private banks are not obligated to fulfill the same regulatory requirements of the public banks. The public banks have released ~30 times more UCB units for therapy. Some countries have transitioned to an integrated banking model, a hybrid of public and family banking. Today, pregnant women, their families, obstetrical providers and pediatricians are faced with multiple choices about the disposition of their newborn's cord blood. In this commentary, we review the progress of UCB banking technology; we also analyze the current data on pediatric and adult unrelated UCB, including the recent expansion of interest in transplantation for hemoglobinopathies, and discuss emerging studies on the use of autologous UCB for neurologic diseases and regenerative medicine. We will review worldwide approaches to UCB banking, ethical considerations, criteria for public and family banking, integrated banking ideas and future strategies for UCB banking.

  2. By Private Arrangement? Safeguarding the Welfare of Private Foster Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostock, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    A key characteristic of debates on caring for children has been the distinction made between the public and the private or formal and informal sector of care. In particular, the impact on adult relationships of the material, emotional and moral dimensions of this division has been highlighted. What are the implications for children, however, of…

  3. The privatization of environmental health services: a national survey of practices and perspectives in local health departments.

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Christopher; Marx, John; Ricci, Edmund

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This article presents nationally representative data on environmental health (EH) services privatized by local public health departments, enforcement and assurance mechanisms for privatized services, and administrators' views about EH services that should not be privatized. METHODS: A national sample of 380 local public health departments, stratified by jurisdiction size, was drawn from a universe of 2,488 departments. Telephone interviews were conducted with 347 administrators of departments. Results were weighted to be nationally representative. RESULTS: Approximately one-quarter of departments had privatized at least one EH service, almost always to for-profit organizations. The two most common reasons given for privatizing EH services were cost savings or increased efficiency and lack of capacity or expertise to carry out the service. The most rigorous, although infrequent, technique of enforcement and assurance of EH standards when services were privatized was double-testing of samples. Departments more commonly relied on state licensing and certification of contractors. When asked what services should not be privatized, 27% of respondents cited EH services. Many respondents argued against privatizing environmental services that have inherent regulatory functions. They expressed concern that privatization would fragment the public health infrastructure by impairing communication, diminishing control over performance, or weakening health departments' capacity to respond to environmental and other health crises. CONCLUSION: These findings raise serious concerns about the privatization of EH. PMID:12297683

  4. Public or private water management: Experience from different European Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wackerbauer, Johann

    2008-11-01

    Faced with liberalisation proposals and an increasing internationalisation of water resource management, the question arises as to how a change of the regulatory framework would affect the market structure and the supply conditions in this area. While the term "privatisation" relates to the ownership structure of the providers, the term "liberalisation" implies extensive free market ideas. Privatisation involves the outsourcing of public services from the public authorities to a privately organised organisation. Through this, however, nothing needs to change in terms of the market or the intensity of competition for the commodity in question. Within the framework of privatisation it can also occur that the public monopoly is only transferred to a private monopoly. The term "liberalisation" in addition refers to the basic regulatory constraints: liberalisation signifies the cessation of limitations to competition and supply monopolies, and open competition between several suppliers for the consumers. In the EU-15, the only country where the provision of operational services in the water supply has been totally passed to the private sector is the UK, but this is only true for UK and Wales. Another singular case is France, where there is a mix of mainly private operating companies and municipalities which have divided the regional supply areas among themselves. In six other EU-15 countries where some privatisation took place, either the municipalities or (majority) publicly owned companies are controlling water supply. In the remaining seven countries, the water supply is organised by municipality companies only. In an international comparison, there are three basic models for the regulation of natural monopolies in the public water supply: the Anglo-Saxon, the French and the German model. The delimitation between supervisory bodies and operations in the water supply is strongest in the first model and weakest in the last. This has led to three basic types of

  5. Private sector's role in public transportation in New York City: regulation and contracting. Technical report, September 1986-March 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Sparrow, R.; Eichenthal, D.

    1987-06-01

    This report examines the role of the privately owned and operated component of New York City's public-transportation system, including buses, vans, and taxis. Particular attention is given to the nature, rationale, and impact of governmental regulation of private carriers. Additionally, the report explores the potential for increased contracting by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority with private providers. The study found serious inadequacies in New York City's regulation of private transit companies, including harmful fragmentation of regulatory authority and unwarranted delays in the processing of applications. Tied to the regulatory framework is a bus-subsidization system which contains significant disincentives for good management, marketing, and financial practices. These failings have contributed to rider dissatisfaction with transit service as well as the development of extensive illegal and extralegal transit services such as unregulated buses, vans, and cabs.

  6. Prohibit, constrain, encourage, or purchase: how should we engage with the private health-care sector?

    PubMed

    Montagu, Dominic; Goodman, Catherine

    2016-08-06

    The private for-profit sector's prominence in health-care delivery, and concern about its failures to deliver social benefit, has driven a search for interventions to improve the sector's functioning. We review evidence for the effectiveness and limitations of such private sector interventions in low-income and middle-income countries. Few robust assessments are available, but some conclusions are possible. Prohibiting the private sector is very unlikely to succeed, and regulatory approaches face persistent challenges in many low-income and middle-income countries. Attention is therefore turning to interventions that encourage private providers to improve quality and coverage (while advancing their financial interests) such as social marketing, social franchising, vouchers, and contracting. However, evidence about the effect on clinical quality, coverage, equity, and cost-effectiveness is inadequate. Other challenges concern scalability and scope, indicating the limitations of such interventions as a basis for universal health coverage, though interventions can address focused problems on a restricted scale.

  7. The politics of managed competition: public abuse of the private interest.

    PubMed

    Robinson, James C

    2003-01-01

    The doctrine of managed competition in health care sought to achieve the social goals of access and efficiency using market incentives and consumer choice rather than governmental regulation and public administration. In retrospect, it demanded too much from both the public and the private sectors. Rather than develop choice-supporting rules and institutions, the public sector has promoted process regulation and benefit mandates. The private health insurance sector has pursued short-term profitability rather than cooperate in the development of fair competition and informed consumer choice. Purchasers have subsidized inefficient insurance designs in order to exploit tax and regulatory loopholes and to retain an image of corporate paternalism. America's health care system suffers from the public abuse of private interests and the private abuse of the public interest.

  8. Private Landowners Rate Forest Certification

    Treesearch

    Richard P. Vlosky

    1999-01-01

    Dr. Richard Vlosky, Associate Professor of Forest Products Marketing, School of Forestry, Wildlife, and Fisheries at the Louisiana State University Agricultural Center in Baton Rouge recently cotlducted a study that identifies Louisiana non-indi1strial private forest attitudes toward third-party forestry certification. This study was suported by a grant...

  9. Public-Private Manpower Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Arnold R., Ed.; And Others

    This book deals with the question of identifying the optimal mix between public and private programs and provides some guides concerning the appropriate role of government in the manpower area. There is a need for public manpower programs which give some long range direction to manpower policies and which give continuing emphasis to the…

  10. Michigan School Privatization Survey 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Daniel J.; LaFaive, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    From April 25 through June 30, 2007, the Mackinac Center for Public Policy conducted its fifth survey of the privatization of bus, food and janitorial services among Michigan's 552 conventional public school districts. All Michigan school districts responded. In 2007, the Mackinac Center also conducted a nationwide survey of state education…

  11. Public vs. Private (and beyond)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poliniak, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Different types of schools make for different experiences. Pros and cons abound, whether one teaches at a public, private, magnet, or charter school. Although it's certainly true that some individual schools may offer better environments for music education than others, no type of school is categorically the "best." Still, it can be instructive to…

  12. Private Colleges, to the Barricades!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Charles E. P.

    1975-01-01

    The private college can hold its place, the author maintains, but only after a thoroughgoing revolution: tenure must be done away with, the word "curriculum" done away with, financial reforms undertaken, and innovative approaches found, e.g. getting out of all varsity sports and concentrating on a new concept of physical education/recreation. (JT)

  13. Financing a Private School Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    A recent National Association of Independent Schools (NAIS) survey of more than 1,200 individuals who filed financial aid forms underscores the central role financial aid plays in their ability to pursue a private education for their children. This article highlights the survey findings, demonstrating why school leaders need to thoroughly analyze…

  14. Private Tutoring and Social Cohesion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyneman, Stephen P.

    2011-01-01

    Mastering the public school curriculum is so important to a child's occupational future that in many regions of the world "shadow" education outside of the public system has now become the norm. In one way, this is excellent news because private investment in human capital is a strong contributor to economic and social development.…

  15. Privatization and the Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Matthew T.

    2015-01-01

    After two centuries of public higher education in the United States, the covenant between public colleges and universities and the public that created and funded them is under strain. In a time of scarce resources and changing policy in many corners of the country and around the globe, privatization has emerged as a possible replacement for the…

  16. Differentially Private Frequent Subgraph Mining

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shengzhi; Xiong, Li; Cheng, Xiang; Xiao, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Mining frequent subgraphs from a collection of input graphs is an important topic in data mining research. However, if the input graphs contain sensitive information, releasing frequent subgraphs may pose considerable threats to individual's privacy. In this paper, we study the problem of frequent subgraph mining (FGM) under the rigorous differential privacy model. We introduce a novel differentially private FGM algorithm, which is referred to as DFG. In this algorithm, we first privately identify frequent subgraphs from input graphs, and then compute the noisy support of each identified frequent subgraph. In particular, to privately identify frequent subgraphs, we present a frequent subgraph identification approach which can improve the utility of frequent subgraph identifications through candidates pruning. Moreover, to compute the noisy support of each identified frequent subgraph, we devise a lattice-based noisy support derivation approach, where a series of methods has been proposed to improve the accuracy of the noisy supports. Through formal privacy analysis, we prove that our DFG algorithm satisfies ε-differential privacy. Extensive experimental results on real datasets show that the DFG algorithm can privately find frequent subgraphs with high data utility. PMID:27616876

  17. Education Private Practice. Fastback 451.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuelke, Dennis C.

    This fastback document examines small education businesses that provide direct and personal instructional service to clients. Although education private-practice enterprises have not received the attention that high-profile companies have commanded, there are thousands of such one- and two-person enterprises. These practices work with and support…

  18. Washington's public and private forests.

    Treesearch

    Charles L. Bolsinger; Neil McKay; Donald FL Gedney; Carol. Alerich

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes and analyzes 1988-91 timber inventories of western and eastern Washington. These inventories were conducted on all private and public lands except National Forests. Timber resource statistics from National Forest inventories also are presented. Detailed tables provide estimates of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest. Data...

  19. Ins and Outs of Privatization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daneman, Kathy

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the pros and cons of privatization as a way of saving money while improving non-educational operations. Questions about why some services should be kept in-house are addressed, as well as what to look for when considering outsourcing. One school's experience with outsourcing health-care services is highlighted. (GR)

  20. The Privatization of Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Richard

    2010-01-01

    For-profit education is not a new focus for public schools in the United States. It has been around for several decades, has stimulated considerable controversy, and has been heralded by some as a panacea for improving learning for the nation's public school students. For-profit schools are run by private, for-profit companies or organizations…

  1. Charter Schools and Private Profits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plank, David; Arsen, David; Sykes, Gary

    2000-01-01

    Although charter schools are both public and accountable, they are increasingly being operated by private, for-profit educational management organizations. EMOs profit by reducing labor costs (cutting employment or compensation), using economies of scale (operating larger facilities); and providing fewer services (educating "mainstream"…

  2. Financing of Private Outdoor Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    A survey of financial institutions was undertaken by the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation to evaluate the demand and availability of private credit for enterprises that provide outdoor recreation. The survey provided basic information for (1) evaluating legislative proposals for loan guarantee programs, (2) nationwide planning, and (3) assessing the…

  3. Privatization and the Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Matthew T.

    2015-01-01

    After two centuries of public higher education in the United States, the covenant between public colleges and universities and the public that created and funded them is under strain. In a time of scarce resources and changing policy in many corners of the country and around the globe, privatization has emerged as a possible replacement for the…

  4. Alternative solutions for public and private catastrophe funding in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, M.

    2008-07-01

    The impacts of natural hazards as well as their frequency of occurrence during the last decades have increased decisively. Therefore, the public as well as the private sector are expected to react to this development by providing sufficient funds, in particular for the improvement of protection measures and an enhanced funding of damage compensation for affected private individuals, corporate and public entities. From the public stance, the establishment of an appropriate regulatory environment seems to be indispensable. Structural and legal changes should, on the one hand, renew and improve the current distribution system of public catastrophe funds as well as the profitable investment of these financial resources, and on the other hand, facilitate the application of alternative mechanisms provided by the capital and insurance markets. In particular, capital markets have developed alternative risk transfer and financing mechanisms, such as captive insurance companies, risk pooling, contingent capital solutions, multi-trigger products and insurance securitisation for hard insurance market phases. These instruments have already been applied to catastrophic (re-)insurance in other countries (mainly the US and off-shore domiciles), and may contribute positively to the insurability of extreme weather events in Austria by enhancing financial capacities. Not only private individuals and corporate entities may use alternative mechanisms in order to retain, thus, to finance certain risks, but also public institutions. This contribution aims at analysing potential solutions for an improved risk management of natural hazards in the private and the public sector by considering alternative mechanisms of the capital and insurance markets. Also the establishment of public-private-partnerships, which may contribute to a more efficient cat funding system in Austria, is considered.

  5. Government regulation of forestry practices on private forest land in the United States: an assessment of state government responsibilities and program performance

    Treesearch

    Paul V. Ellefson; Michael A. Kilgore; James E. Granskog

    2006-01-01

    In 2003, a comprehensive assessment of state government, forest practice regulatory programs in the United States was undertaken. Involved was an extensive review of the literature and information gathering h m program administration in all 50 states. The assessment determined that regulatory programs focus on a wide range of forestry practices applied to private...

  6. Performance of private sector health care: implications for universal health coverage.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Rosemary; Ensor, Tim; Waters, Hugh

    2016-08-06

    Although the private sector is an important health-care provider in many low-income and middle-income countries, its role in progress towards universal health coverage varies. Studies of the performance of the private sector have focused on three main dimensions: quality, equity of access, and efficiency. The characteristics of patients, the structures of both the public and private sectors, and the regulation of the sector influence the types of health services delivered, and outcomes. Combined with characteristics of private providers-including their size, objectives, and technical competence-the interaction of these factors affects how the sector performs in different contexts. Changing the performance of the private sector will require interventions that target the sector as a whole, rather than individual providers alone. In particular, the performance of the private sector seems to be intrinsically linked to the structure and performance of the public sector, which suggests that deriving population benefit from the private health-care sector requires a regulatory response focused on the health-care sector as a whole. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Methadone prescribing to opiate addicts by private doctors: comparison with NHS practice in south east England.

    PubMed

    Strang, J; Sheridan, J

    2001-04-01

    To compare National Health Service (NHS) and private practice in prescribing methadone to opiate addicts. Survey of community pharmacies during 1995 (one in four random sample) and during 1997 (one in two random sample) in which data were collected on all methadone prescriptions currently being dispensed to opiate addicts. Dispensing community pharmacies in south east England. UNITS MEASURED: 829 methadone prescriptions (785 NHS and 44 private) from 1995, and 761 (703 NHS and 58 private) from 1997. (i) The prescribed daily dose of methadone; (ii) the form (oral mixture, tablets or ampoules); and (iii) the pick-up duration (daily collection of prescribed dose, through to weekly or fortnightly collection in a single pick-up). Private methadone prescriptions issued to addicts typically give twice the daily dose, are more than four times as likely to give the methadone in injectable form, and most commonly give prescriptions to be collected in a single large weekly or fortnightly installment instead of through daily dispensing, compared with NHS methadone prescriptions. The disparity between private and NHS methadone prescriptions is striking. The much higher doses, the lack of arrangements for installment collection and the frequent choice of injectable forms of methadone increase greatly the risk of abuse and diversion to the black market. Regulatory scrutiny of this private practice in the United Kingdom is currently minimal. Independent research is required to explore more fully the different nature of such private methadone prescribing.

  8. Regulatory RNAs in Planarians.

    PubMed

    Pawlicka, Kamila; Perrigue, Patrick M; Barciszewski, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The full scope of regulatory RNA evolution and function in epigenetic processes is still not well understood. The development of planarian flatworms to be used as a simple model organism for research has shown a great potential to address gaps in the knowledge in this field of study. The genomes of planarians encode a wide array of regulatory RNAs that function in gene regulation. Here, we review planarians as a suitable model organism for the identification and function of regulatory RNAs.

  9. Privatization and the Globalization of Energy Markets

    EIA Publications

    1996-01-01

    Discusses recent efforts at privatization in petroleum, electricity, and coal, as well as the impetus that privatization has provided in fostering the evolution of the multinational and multidimensional energy company.

  10. Privatization and subsidization in a leadership duopoly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Fernanda A.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we consider a competition in both mixed and privatized markets, in which the firms set prices in a sequential way. We study the effects of optimal production subsidies in both mixed and privatized duopoly.

  11. Education and the Private Finance Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griggs, Clive

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the development of Private Finance Initiative schemes in the United Kingdom, and reflects on how profitable opportunities for private financiers and construction companies were created at the expense of the public sector. (Contains 72 notes.)

  12. NASA and Public-Private Partnerships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews ways to build public-private partnerships with NASA, and the many efforts that Ames Research Center is engaged in in building partnerships with private businesses, not profit organizations and universities.

  13. Education and the Private Finance Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griggs, Clive

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the development of Private Finance Initiative schemes in the United Kingdom, and reflects on how profitable opportunities for private financiers and construction companies were created at the expense of the public sector. (Contains 72 notes.)

  14. Privatization and the Globalization of Energy Markets

    EIA Publications

    1996-01-01

    Discusses recent efforts at privatization in petroleum, electricity, and coal, as well as the impetus that privatization has provided in fostering the evolution of the multinational and multidimensional energy company.

  15. Regulatory Information By Sector

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory, compliance, & enforcement information for various business, industry and government sectors, listed by NAICS code. Sectors include agriculture, automotive, petroleum manufacturing, oil & gas extraction & other manufacturing

  16. Mathematic Achievement of Canadian Private School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadigan, Francoise Jane; Wei, Yichun; Clifton, Rodney A.

    2013-01-01

    Very little Canadian research has examined the academic achievement of private school students. Data from The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 were used to examine the achievement of private school students. The study found that private school students outperformed their public school peers. In addition, the students'…

  17. The Private Presence in American Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Howard R.

    The importance of private initiative has long been recognized in tax exemption by federal, state, and local governments. One outcome of this history is the dual system of higher education--a system that is partly private and partly public. Despite the important service rendered by the private sector, it is today facing a bleak financial future.…

  18. Private and Public Schools: Cooperation or Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denig, Stephen J.

    This papers explores the relationship between private and public schools. It challenges the assumption that competition between the private and public sectors is desirable and argues for a cooperative model in which public and private schools work together to educate children. Each sector has strengths that can help the other. These strengths…

  19. An Alternative Instrument for Private School Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Zada, D.

    2009-01-01

    Empirical studies estimating the effect of private school competition on student outcomes commonly use the share of Catholics in the local population as an instrument for private school competition. I show that this is not a valid instrument since it is endogenous to private school competition and suggest using instead the local share of Catholics…

  20. Policies on Private Education: An Economics Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fengqiao, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Basic principles and analytical methods of economics are used to conduct a preliminary study of state policies for private education in China. It is evident that if public policy is to exert a positive effect on private education, the government must formulate policies at a higher level for private education and give equal attention to choice,…

  1. Privatization of Higher Education in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivalingam, G.

    2007-01-01

    The study will trace the external factors influencing the liberalization, deregulation and privatization of higher education in Malaysia from 1970 to the present and to analyze the effects of liberalization, deregulation and privatization on the modes of privatization and the internal restructuring of institutions of higher learning to increase…

  2. Estimating timber supply from private forests

    Treesearch

    D.F. Dennis

    1991-01-01

    Nonindustrial private landowners, who hold a majority of the Nation's commercial forests, own land primarily for reasons other than timber production. The multiple objective and dynamic nature of private ownership make planning and estimation of timber availability from this sector extremely difficult. Insight into the determinants of timber supply from private...

  3. Private vs. Public Higher Education Budgeting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beamer, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Private higher education institutions are those entities owned and operated by the private sector, while public institutions are those established, supported, and controlled by a governmental agency, most often a state. Key differences exist between private and public institutions that affect budgeting in critical ways. Such differences include…

  4. Does Privatization Affect Access to Government Information?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caponio, Joseph F.; Geffner, Janet

    This paper begins by pointing out that privatization, or relying on the private sector to provide commercial goods and services for government departments and agencies, is a tool that has been used effectively by the federal government for several decades. It then presents the theoretical basis for privatization, describes a number of methods used…

  5. An Analysis of Private School Mission Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boerema, Albert J.

    2006-01-01

    This article is a study of private school mission/vision statements using content analysis. Statements from private schools in British Columbia, Canada, that provided instruction to Grade 12 students were analyzed to explore the diversity that lies within the private school sector. The concepts that emerged from the analysis were grouped into five…

  6. Policies on Private Education: An Economics Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fengqiao, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Basic principles and analytical methods of economics are used to conduct a preliminary study of state policies for private education in China. It is evident that if public policy is to exert a positive effect on private education, the government must formulate policies at a higher level for private education and give equal attention to choice,…

  7. Building and Managing Your Private Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Daniel L.

    The number of clinicians entering private practice is growing each day. This book presents a step-by-step process for prospective entrepreneurs who wish to become a private practitioner. The text is divided into eight sections. Section 1 looks at the rationale for private practice and addresses the personal questions involving clinical skills,…

  8. Private vs. Public Higher Education Budgeting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beamer, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Private higher education institutions are those entities owned and operated by the private sector, while public institutions are those established, supported, and controlled by a governmental agency, most often a state. Key differences exist between private and public institutions that affect budgeting in critical ways. Such differences include…

  9. Private quantum subsystems and quasiorthogonal operator algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levick, Jeremy; Jochym-O'Connor, Tomas; Kribs, David W.; Laflamme, Raymond; Pereira, Rajesh

    2016-03-01

    We generalize a recently discovered example of a private quantum subsystem to find private subsystems for Abelian subgroups of the n-qubit Pauli group, which exist in the absence of private subspaces. In doing so, we also connect these quantum privacy investigations with the theory of quasiorthogonal operator algebras through the use of tools from group theory and operator theory.

  10. Does Privatization Affect Access to Government Information?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caponio, Joseph F.; Geffner, Janet

    This paper begins by pointing out that privatization, or relying on the private sector to provide commercial goods and services for government departments and agencies, is a tool that has been used effectively by the federal government for several decades. It then presents the theoretical basis for privatization, describes a number of methods used…

  11. Mathematic Achievement of Canadian Private School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadigan, Francoise Jane; Wei, Yichun; Clifton, Rodney A.

    2013-01-01

    Very little Canadian research has examined the academic achievement of private school students. Data from The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 were used to examine the achievement of private school students. The study found that private school students outperformed their public school peers. In addition, the students'…

  12. 7 CFR 15b.28 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Private education. 15b.28 Section 15b.28 Agriculture... Education § 15b.28 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can, with...

  13. 7 CFR 15b.28 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Private education. 15b.28 Section 15b.28 Agriculture... Education § 15b.28 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can, with...

  14. 45 CFR 84.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Private education. 84.39 Section 84.39 Public... Secondary Education § 84.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can, with...

  15. 45 CFR 605.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Private education. 605.39 Section 605.39 Public..., Elementary, and Secondary Education § 605.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person...

  16. 38 CFR 18.439 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Private education. 18.439... Adult Education § 18.439 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person...

  17. 45 CFR 605.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Private education. 605.39 Section 605.39 Public..., Elementary, and Secondary Education § 605.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person...

  18. 38 CFR 18.439 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Private education. 18.439... Adult Education § 18.439 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person...

  19. 45 CFR 84.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Private education. 84.39 Section 84.39 Public... Secondary Education § 84.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can, with...

  20. 7 CFR 15b.28 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Private education. 15b.28 Section 15b.28 Agriculture... Education § 15b.28 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can, with...

  1. 38 CFR 18.439 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Private education. 18.439... Adult Education § 18.439 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person...

  2. 45 CFR 84.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Private education. 84.39 Section 84.39 Public... Secondary Education § 84.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can, with...

  3. 45 CFR 605.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Private education. 605.39 Section 605.39 Public..., Elementary, and Secondary Education § 605.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person...

  4. 75 FR 39090 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Airport Privatization Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation... application for participation in the airport privatization pilot program received under 49 U.S.C. Section... privatization pilot program and authorizes the Department of Transportation to grant exemptions from certain...

  5. Trends in private and commercial recreation

    Treesearch

    Arlin F. Epperson

    1980-01-01

    Although there has been substantial growth in the supply of outdoor recreation resources, there is no existing system or program to track annual changes in private and commercial facilities or enterprises. This paper traces efforts to assess the supply of private recreation resources and provides the reader with information on where to look for data on the private...

  6. 45 CFR 605.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Private education. 605.39 Section 605.39 Public..., Elementary, and Secondary Education § 605.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped...

  7. 38 CFR 18.439 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Private education. 18.439... Adult Education § 18.439 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the...

  8. 38 CFR 18.439 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Private education. 18.439... Adult Education § 18.439 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the...

  9. 45 CFR 84.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Private education. 84.39 Section 84.39 Public... Secondary Education § 84.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can,...

  10. 7 CFR 15b.28 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Private education. 15b.28 Section 15b.28 Agriculture... Education § 15b.28 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can,...

  11. 45 CFR 605.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private education. 605.39 Section 605.39 Public..., Elementary, and Secondary Education § 605.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped...

  12. 45 CFR 84.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private education. 84.39 Section 84.39 Public... Secondary Education § 84.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can,...

  13. 7 CFR 15b.28 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Private education. 15b.28 Section 15b.28 Agriculture... Education § 15b.28 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can,...

  14. The motivations for participation in public-private partnerships for the provision of tuberculosis treatment in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Sinanovic, Edina; Kumaranayake, Lilani

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing interest in public-private partnerships (PPPs) generally, and more specifically for the provision of tuberculosis (TB) treatment, yet little is known about the motivations for such partnerships and the nature of the incentives that are required to achieve a desirable outcome of the partnerships. Using the new institutional economics approach, this study examines the motivations for participation in existing and potential models of PPPs for the provision of TB treatment in South Africa. Fourteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with private providers and government officials. Both current and potential private partners were interviewed. The study found that private providers in existing and potential partnerships appear to have both financial and non-financial motivations for participation in partnership for the provision of TB. For a partnership to be successful, in addition to sufficient motivation, the level of competition between private providers, regulatory framework, and social and political awareness becomes increasingly important.

  15. Privatized Space Resource Property Ownership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hope, Dennis M.

    2000-01-01

    In the fall of 1980 a vision for the future was born. Privatized ownership of planetary bodies has been debated and yet skirted by most space enthusiasts for the past 15 years or so. This abstract is an attempt to lay all ideas of privatized ownership to rest. The concentration of efforts to place technological events ahead of property rights and ownership have been the calling card of all the space advocacy groups in recent history. For what ever reason the advocates have decided that this is an issue best left to another time. " Maybe we can sneak up on it and it won't feel so bad when we find that we are too late." This seems to be the general consensus from the conventions I have participated in over the last few years.

  16. Private Sector Engagement: An Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamin, G.

    2016-12-01

    Public health organizations serve as scientific societies as a major part of their core mission. In addition, mobilizing partners to identify health threats and to work collaboratively to improve community health involves engagement of a variety of partners including those in the private sector. Increased concerns about conflicts of interest, transparency and undue influence are emerging as a major concern. This presentation will explore one framework for decision making to minimize risks and enhancing independence in scientific inquiry and public health programming.

  17. Privatization and the globalization of energy markets

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This report reviews recent global efforts to privatize energy resources and outlines the opportunities and challenges privatization has presented to U.S. and foreign multinational energy companies. The group of energy companies studied in this report includes the major U.S. petroleum companies and many foreign companies. The foreign companies reviewed include state-run energy enterprises, recently privatized energy enterprises, and foreign multinationals that have been privately held. The privatization of non-petroleum energy industries, such as electricity generation and transmission, natural gas transmission, and coal mining, are also discussed. Overseas investments made by electric companies, natural gas companies, and coal companies are included. The report is organized into six chapters: (1) economics of privatization; (2) petroleum privatization efforts among non-U.S. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development nations; (3) petroleum privatization efforts in Latin America; (4) privatization in socialist and former socialist regimes; (5) privatization efforts in global electric power generation, transmission, and distribution industries; and (6) privatization and globalization of world coal.

  18. Prison privatization and HIV prevention in Australia.

    PubMed

    Cregan, J

    Prison privatization is being increasingly discussed as an alternative that might help drive down the cost of corrections in Canada. An Australian conference recently addressed prison privatization. Australia has a long history with privatizing corrections and historically being the site of private penal colonies. Private and State-owned corporations own and manage Australian prisons and the balance of private and public sector activity within the prisons is discussed. HIV/AIDS care and prevention programs provide bleach distribution, education programs for staff and inmates, and safety training. Moral issues debating how much time and money is allocated to HIV/AIDS are addressed. Private operators of prisons have no financial incentive to educate, rehabilitate, or release prisoners.

  19. Is contracting a form of privatization?

    PubMed

    Perrot, Jean

    2006-11-01

    Contracting is often seen as a form of privatization, with contracts functioning as the tool that makes privatization possible. But contracting is also viewed by some as a means for the private sector to expand in a covert way its presence within the health sector. This article discusses the wider meaning of the term privatization in the health sector and the ways in which it is achieved. Privatization is seen here not simply as an action that leads to a new situation but also as one that leads to a change in behaviour. It is proposed that privatization may be assessed by looking at the ownership, management, and mission or objectives of the entity being privatized. Discussed also is the use of contracting by the state as a tool for state interventionism that is not based on authoritarian regulation.

  20. Is contracting a form of privatization?

    PubMed Central

    Perrot, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Contracting is often seen as a form of privatization, with contracts functioning as the tool that makes privatization possible. But contracting is also viewed by some as a means for the private sector to expand in a covert way its presence within the health sector. This article discusses the wider meaning of the term privatization in the health sector and the ways in which it is achieved. Privatization is seen here not simply as an action that leads to a new situation but also as one that leads to a change in behaviour. It is proposed that privatization may be assessed by looking at the ownership, management, and mission or objectives of the entity being privatized. Discussed also is the use of contracting by the state as a tool for state interventionism that is not based on authoritarian regulation. PMID:17143466

  1. Health care privatization in Latin America: comparing divergent privatization approaches in Chile, Colombia, and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Arturo Vargas; Méndez, Claudio A

    2014-08-01

    The public-private mix in Chile, Colombia, and Mexico was very similar until the early 1980s when Chile undertook health care privatization as part of comprehensive health care reform. Since then, health care privatization policies have diverged in these countries. In this study we characterize health care privatization in Latin America and identify the main factors that promoted and hindered privatization by comparing the experiences of these countries. We argue that policy elites took advantage of specific policy environments and the diffusion of privatization policies to promote health care privatization while political mobilization against privatization, competing policy priorities, weak market and government institutions, and efforts to reach universal health insurance hindered privatization. The privatization approaches of Chile and Colombia were classified as "big-bang," since these countries implemented health care privatization more rapidly and with a wider scope compared with the case of Mexico, which was classified as gradualist, since the privatization path followed by this country adopted a slower pace and became more limited and focalized over time. We conclude that the emphasis on policy-driven privatization diminished in the 1990s and 2000s because of increased public health care financing and a shift in health care reform priorities. Health care privatization in the region, however, continued as a consequence of demand-driven privatization. Copyright © 2014 by Duke University Press.

  2. Productivity Analysis of Public and Private Airports: A Causal Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasigh, Bijan; Gorjidooz, Javad

    2007-01-01

    Around the world, airports are being viewed as enterprises, rather than public services, which are expected to be managed efficiently and provide passengers with courteous customer services. Governments are, increasingly, turning to the private sectors for their efficiency in managing the operation, financing, and development, as well as providing security for airports. Operational and financial performance evaluation has become increasingly important to airport operators due to recent trends in airport privatization. Assessing performance allows the airport operators to plan for human resources and capital investment as efficiently as possible. Productivity measurements may be used as comparisons and guidelines in strategic planning, in the internal analysis of operational efficiency and effectiveness, and in assessing the competitive position of an airport in transportation industry. The primary purpose of this paper is to investigate the operational and financial efficiencies of 22 major airports in the United States and Europe. These airports are divided into three groups based on private ownership (7 British Airport Authority airports), public ownership (8 major United States airports), and a mix of private and public ownership (7 major European Union airports. The detail ownership structures of these airports are presented in Appendix A. Total factor productivity (TFP) model was utilized to measure airport performance in terms of financial and operational efficiencies and to develop a benchmarking tool to identify the areas of strength and weakness. A regression model was then employed to measure the relationship between TFP and ownership structure. Finally a Granger causality test was performed to determine whether ownership structure is a Granger cause of TFP. The results of the analysis presented in this paper demonstrate that there is not a significant relationship between airport TFP and ownership structure. Airport productivity and efficiency is

  3. Regulatory guidance document

    SciTech Connect

    1994-05-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program Management System Manual requires preparation of the OCRWM Regulatory Guidance Document (RGD) that addresses licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance. The document provides: regulatory compliance policy; guidance to OCRWM organizational elements to ensure a consistent approach when complying with regulatory requirements; strategies to achieve policy objectives; organizational responsibilities for regulatory compliance; guidance with regard to Program compliance oversight; and guidance on the contents of a project-level Regulatory Compliance Plan. The scope of the RGD includes site suitability evaluation, licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance, in accordance with the direction provided by Section 4.6.3 of the PMS Manual. Site suitability evaluation and regulatory compliance during site characterization are significant activities, particularly with regard to the YW MSA. OCRWM`s evaluation of whether the Yucca Mountain site is suitable for repository development must precede its submittal of a license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Accordingly, site suitability evaluation is discussed in Chapter 4, and the general statements of policy regarding site suitability evaluation are discussed in Section 2.1. Although much of the data and analyses may initially be similar, the licensing process is discussed separately in Chapter 5. Environmental compliance is discussed in Chapter 6. Safety and Health compliance is discussed in Chapter 7.

  4. Public-private partnership models in France and in Europe.

    PubMed

    Demotes-Mainard, Jacques; Canet, Emmanuel; Segard, Lionel

    2006-01-01

    The workshop entitled "Public-Private partnerships models in Europe-- comparison between France and European countries" brought together representatives of academia and industry, of national or European health research programs, of regional or national public-private partnership (PPP) initiatives, and of biotechnology with the following objectives: sharing a common vision on the needs, expectations and challenges of public-private partnership, based on the analysis of actual and original cases, and of new initiatives on public-private partnership, drawing conclusions and identifying key success factors, identifying trails for progress and drawing recommendations. The major event in this field is a European public-private partnership initiative between pharmaceutical industry (European Federation of Pharmaceultical Industry and Associations, EFPIA) and the European Commission (DG Research--health priority) resulting in the European Technology Platform project "Innovative Medicines Initiative" (IMI). Its architecture is based on the identification of the main bottlenecks to the development of innovative treatments (predictive pharmacology and toxicology, identification and validation of biomarkers, patients' recruitment, risk evaluation, and cooperation with the regulatory authorities). Simultaneously, initiatives both at the national and regional levels also foster PPP in the therapeutic field. Regional competitivity clusters acting in the biomedical sector, and national PPP calls such as the ANR (National Research Agency) RIB (Research and Innovation in Biotechnology) call are incentives for PPP projects. These regional and national PPP levels help public and private partners to further build consortia able to compete for EU-level calls, thus acting as incubators for EU PPP projects. In spite of incentives and of the regional and national structuring of PPP, weaknesses in the French system are linked to its fragmentation--multiple transfer agencies, multiple

  5. Power sector privatization in developing countries: Will it solve all problems?

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, S.C.

    1995-05-01

    The wave of economic deregulation and privatization has been sweeping the world for quite some time. The energy sector is also touched by this wave, and there is a sort of competition among developing countries to move fast in order not to miss the train. The power subsector is a major area within the energy sector that is growing fast in the third world and is facing such problems as poor performance and high investment demand for capacity addition that is beyond the capability of the utility. Thus, the power subsector is a target for deregulation and privatization in many countries. However, in many cases the objectives of these programs are too narrow and are designed only to attract private investment. They argue that the problems faced by the power sector are diverse, and privatization and deregulation cannot solve all of them, though the financial burden of the utilities may be eased. At the same time, new institutional and regulatory issues will surface. The authors also argue that the privatization program may lead to neglect of long-term planning of the electricity sector and endanger the energy security of these countries. Finally, they argue for a harmonious cohabitation of private and public utilities in a changed environment where each will play a role.

  6. Private Observatories in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijsdijk, C.

    2016-12-01

    Descriptions of private observatories in South Africa, written by their owners. Positions, equipment descriptions and observing programmes are given. Included are: Klein Karoo Observatory (B. Monard), Cederberg Observatory (various), Centurion Planetary and Lunar Observatory (C. Foster), Le Marischel Observatory (L. Ferreira), Sterkastaaing Observatory (M. Streicher), Henley on Klip (B. Fraser), Archer Observatory (B. Dumas), Overbeek Observatory (A. Overbeek), Overberg Observatory (A. van Staden), St Cyprian's School Observatory, Fisherhaven Small Telescope Observatory (J. Retief), COSPAR 0433 (G. Roberts), COSPAR 0434 (I. Roberts), Weltevreden Karoo Observatory (D. Bullis), Winobs (M. Shafer)

  7. TWRS privatization bibliography. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this bibliography is to present a select set of documents that may be of interest to the Offeror, covering a variety of subject areas related to the TWRS Privatization Project. This bibliography is not, nor is it intended to be, exhaustive or complete. It was prepared with the intent of providing a sampling of representative documents potentially helpful to Offerors. This bibliography is organized by subject area. The subjects covered are: waste characterization; pre-treatment; high-level waste immobilization; low-level waste immobilization; low-level waste melter test program; performance assessment; general; and safety.

  8. Employment effects of hospital privatization in Germany.

    PubMed

    Heimeshoff, Mareike; Schreyögg, Jonas; Tiemann, Oliver

    2014-09-01

    The main argument for the ongoing privatization process is that privatization will lead to an increase in efficiency, which has been confirmed by a large number of studies. An important argument against privatization is that privatization may lead to employment reductions. In the hospital sector, potential employment reductions might also lead to a decrease in the quality of care. This is the first study to investigate the employment effects of different types of hospital privatization (i.e., for-profit vs non-profit privatization) on different categories of staff. A combination of propensity score matching and difference-in-difference methods was used to identify the causal effect. We found large employment reductions after for-profit privatization, while there were no permanent reductions after non-profit privatization. Moreover, even for-profit privatization does not affect all types of staff. While there are large reductions in non-clinical staff, we could not detect any reduction in the number of physicians. The consequences of the detected employment effects of privatization have to be addressed in greater detail in future research.

  9. Regulating the for-profit private healthcare providers towards universal health coverage: A qualitative study of legal and organizational framework in Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Tsevelvaanchig, Uranchimeg; Narula, Indermohan S; Gouda, Hebe; Hill, Peter S

    2017-05-29

    Regulating the behavior of private providers in the context of mixed health systems has become increasingly important and challenging in many developing countries moving towards universal health coverage including Mongolia. This study examines the current regulatory architecture for private healthcare in Mongolia exploring its role for improving accessibility, affordability, and quality of private care and identifies gaps in policy design and implementation. Qualitative research methods were used including documentary review, analysis, and in-depth interviews with 45 representatives of key actors involved in and affected by regulations in Mongolia's mixed health system, along with long-term participant observation. There has been extensive legal documentation developed regulating private healthcare, with specific organizations assigned to conduct health regulations and inspections. However, the regulatory architecture for healthcare in Mongolia is not optimally designed to improve affordability and quality of private care. This is not limited only to private care: important regulatory functions targeted to quality of care do not exist at the national level. The imprecise content and details of regulations in laws inviting increased political interference, governance issues, unclear roles, and responsibilities of different government regulatory bodies have contributed to failures in implementation of existing regulations. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. 34 CFR 200.10 - Applicability of a State's academic assessments to private schools and private school students.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... private schools and private school students. 200.10 Section 200.10 Education Regulations of the Offices of... assessments to private schools and private school students. (a) Nothing in § 200.1 or § 200.2 requires a private school, including a private school whose students receive services under subpart A of this part...

  11. 3 CFR - Regulatory Review

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... in general—should be revisited. I therefore direct the Director of OMB, in consultation with... delay; clarify the role of the behavioral sciences in formulating regulatory policy; and identify...

  12. Select Biosolids Regulatory Processes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Historical Regulatory Development and activities EPA has undertaken to respond to statutory obligations, respond to the National Academy of Sciences, understand pollutants that may occur in sewage sludge, and address dioxins in sewage sludge.

  13. Regulatory T cell memory

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblum, Michael D.; Way, Sing Sing; Abbas, Abul K.

    2016-01-01

    Memory for antigen is a defining feature of adaptive immunity. Antigen-specific lymphocyte populations show an increase in number and function after antigen encounter and more rapidly re-expand upon subsequent antigen exposure. Studies of immune memory have primarily focused on effector B cells and T cells with microbial specificity, using prime challenge models of infection. However, recent work has also identified persistently expanded populations of antigen-specific regulatory T cells that protect against aberrant immune responses. In this Review, we consider the parallels between memory effector T cells and memory regulatory T cells, along with the functional implications of regulatory memory in autoimmunity, antimicrobial host defence and maternal fetal tolerance. In addition, we discuss emerging evidence for regulatory T cell memory in humans and key unanswered questions in this rapidly evolving field. PMID:26688349

  14. Assessing the regulatory picture

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This article addresses the safety of the nation's drinking water supply and discusses compliance of the Clean Water Act. Right now, the shape of the regulatory future is uncertain. The results of the D-DBP regulatory negotiation are imminent. Congress is ready to begin debating reauthorization of the Safe Drinking Water Act, and utilities are trying to comply with the regulations while trying not to price water out of the reach of some of their customers.

  15. NRC regulatory initiatives

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, T.C.

    1989-11-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is addressing several low-level waste disposal issues that will be important to waste generators and to States and Compacts developing new disposal capacity. These issues include Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) waste, mixed waste, below regulatory concern (BRC) waste, and the low-level waste data base. This paper discusses these issues and their current status.

  16. Private Career Colleges. Made in B.C.: A History of Postsecondary Education in British Columbia. Volume 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowin, Bob

    2013-01-01

    This report describes private colleges serving adults which since 1936 have been required to register with the provincial government of British Columbia, Canada or, since 1993, with a regulatory body created by the government. The sector has always included career colleges, but registration was expanded temporarily in the 1990s to include all…

  17. Effect of conserving habitat for biodiversity on optimal management of non-industrial private forests in Florida

    Treesearch

    Jagannadha R. Matta; Janaki R. R. Alavalapati; George A. Stainback

    2008-01-01

    Healthy forests and enhanced habitat for wildlife is a growing concern among public and policy makers. These concerns have led to substantial interest in promoting various regulatory and voluntary compliance policies to further biodiversity on private forests. These policies, however, might result in additional cost to forestland owners. In this paper, we estimate the...

  18. Potential collaboration with the private sector for the provision of ambulatory care in the Mekong region, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Duc, Ha Anh; Sabin, Lora L; Cuong, Le Quang; Thien, Duong Duc; Feeley, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, health insurance in Vietnam has expanded nationwide. Concurrently, Vietnam's private health sector has developed rapidly and become an increasingly integral part of the health system. To date, however, little is understood regarding the potential for expanding public-private partnerships to improve health care access and outcomes in Vietnam. To explore possibilities for public-private collaboration in the provision of ambulatory care at the primary level in the Mekong region, Vietnam. We employed a mixed methods research approach. Qualitative methods included focus group discussions with health officials and in-depth interviews with managers of private health facilities. Quantitative methods encompassed facility assessments, and exit surveys of clients at the same private facilities. Discussions with health officials indicated generally favorable attitudes towards partnerships with private providers. Concerns were also voiced, regarding the over- and irrational use of antibiotics, and in terms of limited capacity for regulation, monitoring, and quality assurance. Private facility managers expressed a willingness to collaborate in the provision of ambulatory care, and private providers facilites were relatively well staffed and equipped. The client surveys indicated that 80% of clients first sought treatment at a private facility, even though most lived closer to a public provider. This choice was motivated mainly by perceptions of quality of care. Clients who reported seeking care at both a public and private facility were more satisfied with the latter. Public-private collaboration in the provision of ambulatory care at the primary level in Vietnam has substantial potential for improving access to quality services. We recommend that such collaboration be explored by Vietnamese policy-makers. If implemented, we strongly urge attention to effectively managing such partnerships, establishing a quality assurance system, and strengthening

  19. Potential collaboration with the private sector for the provision of ambulatory care in the Mekong region, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Duc, Ha Anh; Sabin, Lora L.; Cuong, Le Quang; Thien, Duong Duc; Feeley, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the past two decades, health insurance in Vietnam has expanded nationwide. Concurrently, Vietnam's private health sector has developed rapidly and become an increasingly integral part of the health system. To date, however, little is understood regarding the potential for expanding public-private partnerships to improve health care access and outcomes in Vietnam. Objective To explore possibilities for public-private collaboration in the provision of ambulatory care at the primary level in the Mekong region, Vietnam. Design We employed a mixed methods research approach. Qualitative methods included focus group discussions with health officials and in-depth interviews with managers of private health facilities. Quantitative methods encompassed facility assessments, and exit surveys of clients at the same private facilities. Results Discussions with health officials indicated generally favorable attitudes towards partnerships with private providers. Concerns were also voiced, regarding the over- and irrational use of antibiotics, and in terms of limited capacity for regulation, monitoring, and quality assurance. Private facility managers expressed a willingness to collaborate in the provision of ambulatory care, and private providers facilites were relatively well staffed and equipped. The client surveys indicated that 80% of clients first sought treatment at a private facility, even though most lived closer to a public provider. This choice was motivated mainly by perceptions of quality of care. Clients who reported seeking care at both a public and private facility were more satisfied with the latter. Conclusions Public-private collaboration in the provision of ambulatory care at the primary level in Vietnam has substantial potential for improving access to quality services. We recommend that such collaboration be explored by Vietnamese policy-makers. If implemented, we strongly urge attention to effectively managing such partnerships, establishing a

  20. Size and usage patterns of private TB drug markets in the high burden countries.

    PubMed

    Wells, William A; Ge, Colin Fan; Patel, Nitin; Oh, Teresa; Gardiner, Elizabeth; Kimerling, Michael E

    2011-05-04

    Tuberculosis (TB) control is considered primarily a public health concern, and private sector TB treatment has attracted less attention. Thus, the size and characteristics of private sector TB drug sales remain largely unknown. We used IMS Health data to analyze private TB drug consumption in 10 high burden countries (HBCs), after first mapping how well IMS data coverage overlapped with private markets. We defined private markets as any channels not used or influenced by national TB programs. Private markets in four countries--Pakistan, the Philippines, Indonesia and India--had the largest relative sales volumes; annually, they sold enough first line TB drugs to provide 65-117% of the respective countries' estimated annual incident cases with a standard 6-8 month regimen. First line drug volumes in five countries were predominantly fixed dose combinations (FDCs), but predominantly loose drugs in the other five. Across 10 countries, these drugs were available in 37 (loose drug) plus 74 (FDCs) distinct strengths. There were 54 distinct, significant first line manufacturers (range 2-11 per country), and most companies sold TB drugs in only a single study country. FDC markets were, however, more concentrated, with 4 companies capturing 69% of FDC volume across the ten countries. Among second line drugs, fluoroquinolones were widely available, with significant volumes used for TB in India, Pakistan and Indonesia. However, certain WHO-recommended drugs were not available and in general there were insufficient drug volumes to cover the majority of the expected burden of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). Private TB drug markets in several HBCs are substantial, stable, and complicated. This calls for appropriate policy and market responses, including expansion of Public-Private Mix (PPM) programs, greater reach, flexibility and appeal of public programs, regulatory and quality enforcement, and expansion of public MDR-TB treatment programs.

  1. Setting Up Private Practice in Psychiatry*

    PubMed Central

    De Sousa, Alan; De Sousa, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    Setting up a private practice in Mumbai is an onerous task. The present paper looks at the difficulties face by young psychiatrists when starting a private practice in psychiatry. It suggests certain guidelines to be followed to ensure the development of a successful practice. It also suggests methods to gain popularity among patients and society along with the ethics to be followed, knowledge base to be garnered, and the role of using multiple therapies and versatility in private practice. PMID:25838718

  2. Public Private Partnerships Applicability to Defence Procurement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-01

    Public Private Partnerships Applicability to Defence Procurement Jonathan Barnes KPMG Corporate Finance Report Documentation Page Report Date...25SEP2001 Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) 25SEP2001 - 27SEP2001 Title and Subtitle Public Private Partnerships Applicability to Defence...unclassified Classification of Abstract unclassified Limitation of Abstract UU Number of Pages 6 kpmg Aim Provide an appreciation of: n Public Private Partnerships

  3. Finance schemes for funding private orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Perks, S

    1997-02-01

    Over the last ten years there has been a steady increase in the volume of private dental treatment and numerous finance schemes have been developed to help both patients and dentists. Private orthodontic treatment is increasing and the purpose of this article is to summarise the main features of the schemes currently available to fund private orthodontic treatment and to provide a source of reference.

  4. A matter of health? Legal aspects of private umbilical cord blood banking.

    PubMed

    Vidalis, Takis

    2011-03-01

    Private umbilical cord blood banking raises a question of special legal regulation. This practice promises the safe storage of biological material on the assumption that it may be useful, at a certain moment in future, for its own donor (or for a donor's close family member) for curing serious blood diseases. Although currently the therapeutic value of umbilical cord blood is confirmed, there are strong scientific doubts and relevant controversies regarding its use in autologous transplantations. This fact produces conditions of legal uncertainty, since the benefit for those wanting to conclude contracts with private umbilical cord blood banks is not clear. The Greek example illustrates this situation of regulatory deficit well, which eventually creates a major problem, given the increasing number of private banks offering relevant services in the country.

  5. The funding of private hospitals in Australia.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Abby L

    2002-01-01

    Private hospitals are an essential component of Australia's complex mix of public and private health funding and provision. Private hospitals account for 34.3 per cent of all hospital separations, and over half (56.2%) of all same-day separations. The revenue (funding) of the sector approached $4 billion by 1998/99, and as a result of its recent rapid growth capital expenditure in the sector was nearly $550 million in the same year. Private casemix of private hospitals is distinctive, and characterised by a high proportion of surgical procedures in general (48.1 per cent), and more than a majority of all services in such areas as rehabilitation, orthopaedics (shoulder, knee, spinal fusion, and hand surgery), alcohol disorders, same day colonoscopy and sleep disorders. This chapter synthesizes data from a multitude of sources to produce a comprehensive picture of Australia's private hospital sector and its funding. It examines the funding (revenue) sources of private hospitals, and considers how and why private hospitals approach the issue of funding from a different perspective than their public sector colleagues. To illustrate how Australian private hospitals approach revenue (funding) strategically, a series of indicative types of hospitals is explored.

  6. [Regulatory T cells].

    PubMed

    Marinić, Igor; Gagro, Alenka; Rabatić, Sabina

    2006-12-01

    Regulatory T-cells are a subset of T cells that have beene extensively studied in modern immunology. They are important for the maintenance of peripheral tolerance, and have an important role in various clinical conditions such as allergy, autoimmune disorders, tumors, infections, and in transplant medicine. Basically, this population has a suppressive effect on the neighboring immune cells, thus contributing to the local modulation and control of immune response. There are two main populations of regulatory T cells - natural regulatory T cells, which form a distinct cellular lineage, develop in thymus and perform their modulatory action through direct intercellular contact, along with the secreted cytokines; and inducible regulatory T cells, which develop in the periphery after contact with the antigen that is presented on the antigen presenting cell, and their primary mode of action is through the interleukin 10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-alpha) cytokines. Natural regulatory T cells are activated through T cell receptor after contact with specific antigen and inhibit proliferation of other T cells in an antigen independent manner. One of the major difficulties in the research of regulatory T cells is the lack of specific molecular markers that would identify these cells. Natural regulatory T cells constitutively express surface molecule CD25, but many other surface and intracellular molecules (HLA-DR, CD122, CD45RO, CD62, CTLA-4, GITR, PD-1, Notch, FOXP3, etc.) are being investigated for further phenotypic characterization of these cells. Because regulatory T cells have an important role in establishing peripheral tolerance, their importance is manifested in a number of clinical conditions. In the IPEX syndrome (immunodysregulation, polyendocrinopathy and enteropathy, X-linked), which is caused by mutation in Foxp3 gene that influences the development and function of regulatory T cells, patients develop severe autoimmune reactions that

  7. 75 FR 72965 - Federal Travel Regulation; Removal of Privately Owned Vehicle Rates; Privately Owned Automobile...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ...-AJ09 Federal Travel Regulation; Removal of Privately Owned Vehicle Rates; Privately Owned Automobile Mileage Reimbursement When Government Owned Automobiles Are Authorized; Miscellaneous Amendments AGENCY... for travelers who are authorized to use a Government Owned Automobile (GOA) for temporary duty...

  8. What explains regulatory failure? Analysing the architecture of health care regulation in two Indian states.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Kabir; Saligram, Prasanna S; Hort, Krishna

    2015-02-01

    Regulating health care is a pre-eminent policy challenge in many low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), particularly those with a strong private health sector. Yet, the regulatory approaches instituted in these countries have often been reported to be ineffective-India being exemplary. There is limited empirical research on the architecture and processes of health care regulation in LMIC that would explain these regulatory failures. We undertook a research study in two Indian states, with the aims of (1) mapping the organizations engaged with, and the written policies focused on health care regulation, (2) identifying gaps in the design and implementation of policies for health care regulation and (3) investigating underlying reasons for the identified gaps. We adopted a stepped research approach and applied a framework of basic regulatory functions for health care, to assess prevailing gaps in policy design and implementation. Qualitative research methods were employed including in-depth interviews with 32 representatives of regulatory organizations and document review. Several gaps in policy design were observed across both states, with a number of basic regulatory functions not underwritten in law, nor assigned to a regulatory organization to enact. In some instances the contents of regulatory policies had been weakened or diluted, rendering them less effective. Implementation gaps were also extensively reported in both states. Regulatory gaps were underpinned by human resource constraints, ambivalence in the roles of regulatory organizations, ineffective co-ordination between regulatory groups and extensive contestation of regulatory policies by private stakeholders. The findings are instructive that prevailing arrangements for health care regulation are ill equipped to enact several basic functions, and further that the performance of regulatory organizations is subject to pressures and distortions similar to those characterizing the wider health system

  9. Private Higgs at the Lhc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentov, Yoni; Zee, A.

    2013-11-01

    We study the LHC phenomenology of a general class of "Private Higgs" (PH) models, in which fermions obtain their masses from their own Higgs doublets with {O}(1) Yukawa couplings, and the mass hierarchy is translated into a dynamical chain of vacuum expectation values. This is accomplished by introducing a number of light gauge-singlet scalars, the "darkons," some of which could play the role of dark matter. These models allow for substantial modifications to the decays of the lightest Higgs boson, for instance through mixing with TeV-scale PH fields and light darkons: in particular, one could accommodate {O}(10%) flavor-uncorrelated deviations from the SM hf\\bar f vertices with TeV-scale degrees of freedom. We also discuss a new implementation of the PH framework, in which the quark and neutrino mixing angles arise as one-loop corrections to the leading order picture.

  10. Private ultrasonic whispering in moths

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Ryo; Ishikawa, Yukio; Tatsuki, Sadahiro; Skals, Niels; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2009-01-01

    Sound-producing moths have evolved a range of mechanisms to emit loud conspicuous ultrasounds directed toward mates, competitors and predators. We recently discovered a novel mechanism of sound production, i.e., stridulation of specialized scales on the wing and thorax, in the Asian corn borer moth, Ostrinia furnacalis, the male of which produces ultrasonic courtship songs in close proximity to a female (<2 cm). The signal is very quiet, being exclusively adapted for private communication. A quiet signal is advantageous in that it prevents eavesdropping by competitors and/or predators. We argue that communication via quiet ultrasound, which has not been reported previously, is probably common in moths and other insects. PMID:20835290

  11. [Practice in private professional corporations].

    PubMed

    Leguillon-Geffard, G; Mignard, J P

    2005-11-01

    Since 1992, doctors may exert through a private professional corporation. The Decree no 94-680 of 3rd of August 1994 details the new regulation. For physicians used to the liberal scene, one of the greatest innovation is the payment mode. It is basically divided in two parts: the work remuneration as wages or management allowance, and capital remuneration as dividends. This last possibility offering important savings on social contribution, social contribution being calculated only on the work remuneration part. Taxation being in this case a taxation of the company and of the physician on his incomes and dividends. It is a precious instrument to take part in a regrouping and to integrate new associates. Nevertheless it still is an individual's choice and before getting engaged, consequences of the choices selected have to be appreciated with a qualified professional.

  12. 76 FR 71329 - Request for Information Regarding Private Education Loans and Private Educational Lenders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... used in Section 1077 of Dodd-Frank, ``private education loans'' refers to loans made ] by a school or... out private education loans made directly by the school they are attending? How do such programs compare to those offered by non-school private educational lenders (e.g., interest rates, ease of approval...

  13. The Face of Private Tutoring in Russia: Evidence from Online Marketing by Private Tutors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozar, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Private tutoring is a common and worldwide phenomenon. However, there is a dearth of up-to-date research on private tutoring compared with that on institutional one-to-one teaching, which could be explained by challenges associated with data collection. This article proposes using publicly available online advertisements of private tutors as a…

  14. Private Higher Education in India: A Study of Two Private Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angom, Sangeeta

    2015-01-01

    The Private higher education sector is growing fast in many settings, including India, and there are variations at the national level. Privatization of higher education in India has been the result of changes in the economic policy towards liberalization and privatization by the Government of India. Till 1980, higher education sector was…

  15. The Face of Private Tutoring in Russia: Evidence from Online Marketing by Private Tutors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozar, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Private tutoring is a common and worldwide phenomenon. However, there is a dearth of up-to-date research on private tutoring compared with that on institutional one-to-one teaching, which could be explained by challenges associated with data collection. This article proposes using publicly available online advertisements of private tutors as a…

  16. Public Schools/Private Enterprise: What You Should Know and Do about Privatization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flam, Samuel; Keane, William G.

    It is likely that most school districts will need to think through the possibilities of privatizing one or more functions. This book was written to help all concerned parties understand the privatization debate. No political or philosophical conclusions about the feasibility of privatization were made. Chapter 1 relates the experience of the…

  17. Private Higher Education in India: A Study of Two Private Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angom, Sangeeta

    2015-01-01

    The Private higher education sector is growing fast in many settings, including India, and there are variations at the national level. Privatization of higher education in India has been the result of changes in the economic policy towards liberalization and privatization by the Government of India. Till 1980, higher education sector was…

  18. Public/private cross-training programs to expedite clean-up and development of environmentally impaired property

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, B.

    1994-12-31

    There is a need to learn how to partner better. In this regard, it would be most useful to monitor a partnership from its inception and as it develops. Such a partnership to follow through its various development stages is the California Environmental Enterprise (CEE), a dynamic Statewide environmental technology services partnership linking private industry, the DOE National Laboratories, State and local governments, regulatory agencies community colleges and universities, public interest and environmental organizations, for the common purpose of facilitating the economic and rehabilitative reuse of environmentally impaired property. In cooperation with Federal agencies, CEE will work actively with the private sector and other major institutions to seek innovative technological solutions to environmental restoration and waste management problems. Through the development of public-private partnerships CEE will broker and facilitate private sector solutions that will leverage collective resources as well as demonstrating and commercializing environmental technologies and systems to the economic benefit of the State and the Nation.

  19. Private Schooling and Productivity in Educational Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espindola, Juan

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the debate between equity theorists (Adam Swift and Harry Brighouse) and adequacy theorists (Elizabeth Anderson and Debra Satz) over elite private schooling and productivity. It challenges the view, presupposed but never defended by adequacy theorists, that private schools can be justified on social productivity grounds, that…

  20. Private Sector Contracting and Democratic Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiMartino, Catherine; Scott, Janelle

    2013-01-01

    Public officials are increasingly contracting with the private sector for a range of educational services. With much of the focus on private sector accountability on cost-effectiveness and student performance, less attention has been given to shifts in democratic accountability. Drawing on data from the state of New York, one of the most active…

  1. Private Schools, Choice and The Ethical Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exley, Sonia; Suissa, Judith

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the relationship between the existence of private schools and public attitudes towards questions about educational provision. Data from the 2010 British Social Attitudes survey suggest that parents who choose to send children to private schools may become more entrenched in their support for more extensive forms of…

  2. Private Schooling and Labour Market Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Francis; Henseke, Golo; Vignoles, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Though a relative small part of the school sector, private schools have an important role in British society, and there are policy concerns about their negative effect on social mobility. Other studies show that individuals who have attended a private school go on to have higher levels of educational achievement, are more likely to secure a…

  3. Private Schools Opt for Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2012-01-01

    The common standards are not just for public schools. With all but four states having adopted them since 2010, districts have little choice but to implement the Common Core State Standards. But many private schools are also making the transition. Many Roman Catholic, Lutheran, and other private schools have adopted at least portions of the…

  4. Competition for Private and State School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Francis; Machin, Stephen; Murphy, Richard; Zhu, Yu

    2008-01-01

    We analyse the role of private schools in the teachers' labour market. Private schools employ an increasingly-disproportionate share of teachers in Britain, relative to the number of their pupils. Their teachers are more likely than state school teachers to possess post-graduate qualifications, and to be specialists in shortage subjects.…

  5. Privatization in a public leadership mixed duopoly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Fernanda A.; Ferreira, Flávio

    2016-06-01

    We consider domestic and international competitions with one public leader firm and one follower private firm, producing complementary goods and competing on prices. We compare the results obtained in both models. Furthermore, we examine the impacts of privatization on consumer surplus and on social welfare.

  6. Private Room as a Test Accommodation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowski, Lawrence; Wood, Whitney; Lambert, Tonya

    2015-01-01

    The effects of a private vs. group test setting were examined on a reading comprehension test for a sample of typical college students. Participants took Forms G and H of the Nelson Denny Reading Comprehension Test in both private and group (classroom) settings. Contrary to expectations, performance was slightly better in the group setting.…

  7. 50 CFR 27.92 - Private structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private structures. 27.92 Section 27.92... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations § 27.92 Private structures. No..., pier, dock, fence, wall, pile, anchorage, or other structure or obstruction in any national...

  8. Private Supplementary Tutoring in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Štastný, Vít

    2016-01-01

    The study contributes to the literature on private supplementary tutoring by shedding light on this phenomenon in the Czech Republic. The aim of the paper is to identify the reasons for seeking out private supplementary tutoring and to assess the factors underlying its demand. In the representative sample of 1,265 senior upper-secondary school…

  9. The Economics of the Major Private Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, William G.

    Major public and private universities need substantial amounts of additional income to meet rapidly rising operating costs. After World War II, total educational and general expenditures in all universities went up from less than $1 billion in 1945-46 to more than $7 billion in 1963-64. Some private university operating deficits indicate that…

  10. Privatizing Higher Education: A New Australian Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, David R., Ed.; Anwyl, John, Ed.

    The papers in this collection deal with the concept of "privatization" in higher education in both the traditional sense of student finance and in relation to recent usage involving non-government funding of research, provision of full-fee places alongside free places in public institutions, the founding of a private sector in addition…

  11. Athletic Offerings in Private Junior Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Adam; Modica, Jonathon; Miller, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Little has been done to profile or describe private junior colleges, their role in the higher education landscape, their practices, and in particular, how these institutions use and offer athletic programming. The current study was designed to profile the athletic program offerings of private junior colleges and to describe the extent of their…

  12. Estimating the Demand for Private School Enrollment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gemello, John M.; Osman, Jack W.

    1984-01-01

    Identifies key factors that influence decisions to attend private school through an investigation of variation in private elementary and secondary school enrollment at two levels of aggregation: among unified school districts in California and among census tracts within the San Francisco Bay Area. (Author/RH)

  13. Private Placement Debt Financing for Public Entities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Lance S.

    2010-01-01

    Private placement financing is a debt or capital lease obligation arranged between a municipality or a 501(c) (3) not-for-profit organization and a single sophisticated institutional investor. The investor can be a bank, insurance company, finance company, hedge fund, or high-net worth individual. Private placement financing is similar to…

  14. Public-private partnerships. Going into labour.

    PubMed

    Lissauer, R

    2001-06-28

    Public-private partnerships are one of the government's key policy tools. There is little conclusive evidence of the ability of partnerships to manage hospitals. The government should launch small pilot projects. Managers and the public need to be convinced of the viability and equity of public-private partnerships.

  15. Private Supplementary Tutoring in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Štastný, Vít

    2016-01-01

    The study contributes to the literature on private supplementary tutoring by shedding light on this phenomenon in the Czech Republic. The aim of the paper is to identify the reasons for seeking out private supplementary tutoring and to assess the factors underlying its demand. In the representative sample of 1,265 senior upper-secondary school…

  16. Eyes on Ecuador: Pains of privatization

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-25

    International firms are bidding to explore petroliferous land under new more favorable terms by an Administration determined to boost private oil investment. Private sector partnership is also sought in downstream operations, formerly reserved for the state oil company. There is powerful resistance, however, to a too rapid scenario for change.

  17. Prospects of Private Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hua, Wu

    2009-01-01

    Private education contributes a great deal to education in China, but people are confused about the prospects of teacher development, tax problems, property rights problems, remunerations, and so forth. Legal provisions stipulate that private education and public education have the same legal status and rights, but there is still a long way to go…

  18. Prospects of Private Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hua, Wu

    2009-01-01

    Private education contributes a great deal to education in China, but people are confused about the prospects of teacher development, tax problems, property rights problems, remunerations, and so forth. Legal provisions stipulate that private education and public education have the same legal status and rights, but there is still a long way to go…

  19. Preschool Children's Awareness of Private Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manfra, Louis; Winsler, Adam

    2006-01-01

    The present study explored: (a) preschool children's awareness of their own talking and private speech (speech directed to the self); (b) differences in age, speech use, language ability, and mentalizing abilities between children with awareness and those without; and (c) children's beliefs and attitudes about private speech. Fifty-one children…

  20. The Economics of the Major Private Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, William G.

    Major public and private universities need substantial amounts of additional income to meet rapidly rising operating costs. After World War II, total educational and general expenditures in all universities went up from less than $1 billion in 1945-46 to more than $7 billion in 1963-64. Some private university operating deficits indicate that…

  1. Public-Private Partnerships in Flanders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leemans, Geert

    2006-01-01

    Belgium's Flemish government recently approved a EUR 1 billion investment in school infrastructure through public-private partnerships, its first major initiative of this kind. The Flemish Community's variant of public-private partnerships in school building allows the government to meet urgent needs in the short run, but also to spread the costs…

  2. Private Sector Contracting and Democratic Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiMartino, Catherine; Scott, Janelle

    2013-01-01

    Public officials are increasingly contracting with the private sector for a range of educational services. With much of the focus on private sector accountability on cost-effectiveness and student performance, less attention has been given to shifts in democratic accountability. Drawing on data from the state of New York, one of the most active…

  3. The Privatization of Schooling: Problems and Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph

    Views about privatization's advantages and disadvantages vary widely in the educational research literature. These disparate views are shaped by reviewers' frames of reference and the evaluation criteria that they use. This book was written to help readers develop more refined lenses for viewing the privatization movement. Chapter 1 asserts that…

  4. Private Higher Education and Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisz, Robert D.; Stock, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    In Western Europe, especially in Germany, private higher education is generally perceived as an alternative to public higher education for students from relatively affluent families; more broadly, there is a general perception that attending a private higher education institution is correlated to wealth. This perception is influenced by private…

  5. Capital Financing for Independent Private Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Kevin G.; Doherty, Robert F.; Wienk, Christopher O.

    This document contains summary materials from a presentation by Wye River Capital, Inc. of Annapolis, Maryland, on capital financing for independent private schools. The main sections of the presentation address: (1) overview of the capital financing process; (2) tax law considerations for tax-exempt financings by private schools; and (3) key…

  6. Public-Private Partnerships in Flanders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leemans, Geert

    2006-01-01

    Belgium's Flemish government recently approved a EUR 1 billion investment in school infrastructure through public-private partnerships, its first major initiative of this kind. The Flemish Community's variant of public-private partnerships in school building allows the government to meet urgent needs in the short run, but also to spread the costs…

  7. Private health insurance: implications for developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Sekhri, Neelam; Savedoff, William

    2005-01-01

    Private health insurance is playing an increasing role in both high- and low-income countries, yet is poorly understood by researchers and policy-makers. This paper shows that the distinction between private and public health insurance is often exaggerated since well regulated private insurance markets share many features with public insurance systems. It notes that private health insurance preceded many modern social insurance systems in western Europe, allowing these countries to develop the mechanisms, institutions and capacities that subsequently made it possible to provide universal access to health care. We also review international experiences with private insurance, demonstrating that its role is not restricted to any particular region or level of national income. The seven countries that finance more than 20% of their health care via private health insurance are Brazil, Chile, Namibia, South Africa, the United States, Uruguay and Zimbabwe. In each case, private health insurance provides primary financial protection for workers and their families while public health-care funds are targeted to programmes covering poor and vulnerable populations. We make recommendations for policy in developing countries, arguing that private health insurance cannot be ignored. Instead, it can be harnessed to serve the public interest if governments implement effective regulations and focus public funds on programmes for those who are poor and vulnerable. It can also be used as a transitional form of health insurance to develop experience with insurance institutions while the public sector increases its own capacity to manage and finance health-care coverage. PMID:15744405

  8. 50 CFR 27.92 - Private structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Private structures. 27.92 Section 27.92... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations § 27.92 Private structures. No..., pier, dock, fence, wall, pile, anchorage, or other structure or obstruction in any national wildlife...

  9. 50 CFR 27.92 - Private structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Private structures. 27.92 Section 27.92... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations § 27.92 Private structures. No..., pier, dock, fence, wall, pile, anchorage, or other structure or obstruction in any national wildlife...

  10. 50 CFR 27.92 - Private structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Private structures. 27.92 Section 27.92... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations § 27.92 Private structures. No..., pier, dock, fence, wall, pile, anchorage, or other structure or obstruction in any national wildlife...

  11. 50 CFR 27.92 - Private structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Private structures. 27.92 Section 27.92... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations § 27.92 Private structures. No..., pier, dock, fence, wall, pile, anchorage, or other structure or obstruction in any national wildlife...

  12. Strange Bedfellows? Reaffirming Rehabilitation and Prison Privatization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Kevin A.

    2010-01-01

    Private prisons are here to stay irrespective of empirical findings for or against their existence in the corrections industry. It is necessary, therefore, to step back and consider them on a broader level to assess how they can benefit current penological practice. It will be argued that prison privatization creates an opportunity to reassess the…

  13. 50 CFR 27.97 - Private operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private operations. 27.97 Section 27.97 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations § 27.97 Private...

  14. Private Room as a Test Accommodation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowski, Lawrence; Wood, Whitney; Lambert, Tonya

    2015-01-01

    The effects of a private vs. group test setting were examined on a reading comprehension test for a sample of typical college students. Participants took Forms G and H of the Nelson Denny Reading Comprehension Test in both private and group (classroom) settings. Contrary to expectations, performance was slightly better in the group setting.…

  15. The Privatization of Public University Research Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Brinley

    2007-01-01

    Are we witnessing the privatization of public university research libraries? There is convincing evidence that, in an era of decreasing state support for public higher education, public universities have begun to resemble private universities, particularly in their sources of revenue. A number of indicators demonstrate that public universities,…

  16. Private health insurance: implications for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Sekhri, Neelam; Savedoff, William

    2005-02-01

    Private health insurance is playing an increasing role in both high- and low-income countries, yet is poorly understood by researchers and policy-makers. This paper shows that the distinction between private and public health insurance is often exaggerated since well regulated private insurance markets share many features with public insurance systems. It notes that private health insurance preceded many modern social insurance systems in western Europe, allowing these countries to develop the mechanisms, institutions and capacities that subsequently made it possible to provide universal access to health care. We also review international experiences with private insurance, demonstrating that its role is not restricted to any particular region or level of national income. The seven countries that finance more than 20% of their health care via private health insurance are Brazil, Chile, Namibia, South Africa, the United States, Uruguay and Zimbabwe. In each case, private health insurance provides primary financial protection for workers and their families while public health-care funds are targeted to programmes covering poor and vulnerable populations. We make recommendations for policy in developing countries, arguing that private health insurance cannot be ignored. Instead, it can be harnessed to serve the public interest if governments implement effective regulations and focus public funds on programmes for those who are poor and vulnerable. It can also be used as a transitional form of health insurance to develop experience with insurance institutions while the public sector increases its own capacity to manage and finance health-care coverage.

  17. 77 FR 15566 - Private Transfer Fees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... AGENCY 12 CFR Part 1228 RIN 2590-AA41 Private Transfer Fees AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency... fee covenants and in certain related securities. This final rule is intended to protect the regulated... participate in any market for mortgages on property encumbered by certain private transfer fees. To allow...

  18. Employment Issues in Private and Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.

    1989-01-01

    Although certain constitutional rights do not apply to private institutions, striking similarities in employment problems exist between public and private colleges. Summarizes court litigation involving constitutional standards, established public policy, contractual problems, and financial exigency. Offers procedures for faculty dismissal that…

  19. Prisons for Profit: Public Justice, Private Interests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, John D.

    This paper examines several aspects of the private prison debate: (1) How much scope is there for improving the technical and economic efficiency of incarceration through contracting-out to private prison entrepreneurs? (2) Will a fully developed corrections industry be sufficiently competitive to ensure that any efficiency gains are passed on to…

  20. Private Schools Put Spotlight on Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2005-01-01

    Administrators and students at private schools tend to see their schools as safer than public schools. Spurred in part by the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, many private schools have joined the national push to revamp campus safety plans. Kenneth S. Trump, the president of the Cleveland-based National School Safety and Security Services,…

  1. Using Pesticides: Private Applicator Manual, Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Texas Agricultural Extension Service.

    This manual is designed by the Texas Department of Agriculture as a training program for private pesticide applicators to certify them on a voluntary basis, and to apply restricted-use pesticides in compliance with federal law. An introduction with federal and state laws and regulations regarding pesticide use and private applicators is presented.…

  2. Philanthropy and Private Foundations: Expanding Revenue Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummer, Carlee; Marshburn, Roxann

    2014-01-01

    As community colleges seek new revenue streams, philanthropic organizations, including college foundations and private funders, have already begun to influence both revenues and college programming. This chapter discusses the current role of philanthropy, especially private foundations such as the Lumina Foundation for Education and the Bill and…

  3. Obstacles to Private Sector Activities in Africa,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    87 E. Effectiveness of US Government Agencies ... ............ .... 89 APPENDIX A : METHODOLOGY...source of negativism toward MNCs emanates from the LDCs. It stems from recent historical experience and, in some instances, ideological perspectives. Due...agricultural sector will obviously have a buoyant effect on private sector development generally. Nor will this analysis focus on other private sector

  4. Private Higher Education and Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisz, Robert D.; Stock, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    In Western Europe, especially in Germany, private higher education is generally perceived as an alternative to public higher education for students from relatively affluent families; more broadly, there is a general perception that attending a private higher education institution is correlated to wealth. This perception is influenced by private…

  5. Preschool Children's Awareness of Private Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manfra, Louis; Winsler, Adam

    2006-01-01

    The present study explored: (a) preschool children's awareness of their own talking and private speech (speech directed to the self); (b) differences in age, speech use, language ability, and mentalizing abilities between children with awareness and those without; and (c) children's beliefs and attitudes about private speech. Fifty-one children…

  6. Philanthropy and Private Foundations: Expanding Revenue Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummer, Carlee; Marshburn, Roxann

    2014-01-01

    As community colleges seek new revenue streams, philanthropic organizations, including college foundations and private funders, have already begun to influence both revenues and college programming. This chapter discusses the current role of philanthropy, especially private foundations such as the Lumina Foundation for Education and the Bill and…

  7. Private Schools Put Spotlight on Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2005-01-01

    Administrators and students at private schools tend to see their schools as safer than public schools. Spurred in part by the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, many private schools have joined the national push to revamp campus safety plans. Kenneth S. Trump, the president of the Cleveland-based National School Safety and Security Services,…

  8. Competition for Private and State School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Francis; Machin, Stephen; Murphy, Richard; Zhu, Yu

    2008-01-01

    We analyse the role of private schools in the teachers' labour market. Private schools employ an increasingly-disproportionate share of teachers in Britain, relative to the number of their pupils. Their teachers are more likely than state school teachers to possess post-graduate qualifications, and to be specialists in shortage subjects.…

  9. Strange Bedfellows? Reaffirming Rehabilitation and Prison Privatization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Kevin A.

    2010-01-01

    Private prisons are here to stay irrespective of empirical findings for or against their existence in the corrections industry. It is necessary, therefore, to step back and consider them on a broader level to assess how they can benefit current penological practice. It will be argued that prison privatization creates an opportunity to reassess the…

  10. Estimating the Demand for Private School Enrollment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gemello, John M.; Osman, Jack W.

    1984-01-01

    Identifies key factors that influence decisions to attend private school through an investigation of variation in private elementary and secondary school enrollment at two levels of aggregation: among unified school districts in California and among census tracts within the San Francisco Bay Area. (Author/RH)

  11. Using Pesticides: Private Applicator Manual, Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Texas Agricultural Extension Service.

    This manual is designed by the Texas Department of Agriculture as a training program for private pesticide applicators to certify them on a voluntary basis, and to apply restricted-use pesticides in compliance with federal law. An introduction with federal and state laws and regulations regarding pesticide use and private applicators is presented.…

  12. The Privatization of Schooling: Problems and Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph

    Views about privatization's advantages and disadvantages vary widely in the educational research literature. These disparate views are shaped by reviewers' frames of reference and the evaluation criteria that they use. This book was written to help readers develop more refined lenses for viewing the privatization movement. Chapter 1 asserts that…

  13. Private Schools, Choice and The Ethical Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exley, Sonia; Suissa, Judith

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the relationship between the existence of private schools and public attitudes towards questions about educational provision. Data from the 2010 British Social Attitudes survey suggest that parents who choose to send children to private schools may become more entrenched in their support for more extensive forms of…

  14. Multicriteria approaches for a private equity fund

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tammer, Christiane; Tannert, Johannes

    2012-09-01

    We develop a new model for a Private Equity Fund based on stochastic differential equations. In order to find efficient strategies for the fund manager we formulate a multicriteria optimization problem for a Private Equity Fund. Using the e-constraint method we solve this multicriteria optimization problem. Furthermore, a genetic algorithm is applied in order to get an approximation of the efficient frontier.

  15. 34 CFR 104.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Private education. 104.39 Section 104.39 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Preschool, Elementary, and Secondary Education § 104.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides...

  16. 34 CFR 104.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Private education. 104.39 Section 104.39 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Preschool, Elementary, and Secondary Education § 104.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides...

  17. 34 CFR 104.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Private education. 104.39 Section 104.39 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Preschool, Elementary, and Secondary Education § 104.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides...

  18. 47 CFR 1.9080 - Private commons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Spectrum Leasing General Policies and Procedures § 1.9080 Private commons. (a) Overview. A “private commons” arrangement is an arrangement, distinct from a spectrum leasing arrangement but permitted in the same services for which spectrum leasing arrangements are allowed, in which a licensee or spectrum lessee...

  19. 47 CFR 1.9080 - Private commons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Spectrum Leasing General Policies and Procedures § 1.9080 Private commons. (a) Overview. A “private commons” arrangement is an arrangement, distinct from a spectrum leasing arrangement but permitted in the same services for which spectrum leasing arrangements are allowed, in which a licensee or spectrum lessee...

  20. 47 CFR 1.9080 - Private commons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Spectrum Leasing General Policies and Procedures § 1.9080 Private commons. (a) Overview. A “private commons” arrangement is an arrangement, distinct from a spectrum leasing arrangement but permitted in the same services for which spectrum leasing arrangements are allowed, in which a licensee or spectrum lessee...

  1. Private Schools Hail Changes to IDEA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2005-01-01

    Private school students with special needs are among the intended beneficiaries of the federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Parents and private school advocates hope changes in the newest version of the law will make it easier for them to get school district services without having to enroll in public schools. Under the…

  2. 22 CFR 216.4 - Private applicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., projects or activities for which financing from A.I.D. is sought by private applicants, such as PVOs and... projects approved in A.I.D. Missions with total life of project costs less than $500,000. Thereafter, the... Environmental Impact Statements, shall be applicable to programs, projects or activities submitted by private...

  3. 22 CFR 216.4 - Private applicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., projects or activities for which financing from A.I.D. is sought by private applicants, such as PVOs and... projects approved in A.I.D. Missions with total life of project costs less than $500,000. Thereafter, the... Environmental Impact Statements, shall be applicable to programs, projects or activities submitted by private...

  4. Private Schooling and Labour Market Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Francis; Henseke, Golo; Vignoles, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Though a relative small part of the school sector, private schools have an important role in British society, and there are policy concerns about their negative effect on social mobility. Other studies show that individuals who have attended a private school go on to have higher levels of educational achievement, are more likely to secure a…

  5. Athletic Offerings in Private Junior Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Adam; Modica, Jonathon; Miller, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Little has been done to profile or describe private junior colleges, their role in the higher education landscape, their practices, and in particular, how these institutions use and offer athletic programming. The current study was designed to profile the athletic program offerings of private junior colleges and to describe the extent of their…

  6. Private timberland owners of Michigan, 1994.

    Treesearch

    Earl C. Leatherberry; Neal P. Kingsley; Thomas W. Birch

    1998-01-01

    Identifies and profiles Michigan's private timberland owners. Estimates the number and distribution of private timberland owners by owner attitudes and objectives concerning forest ownership, management, and use. Provides 45 tables relating to owner and property characteristics for the state and its four survey units.

  7. 34 CFR 104.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Private education. 104.39 Section 104.39 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Preschool, Elementary, and Secondary Education § 104.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that...

  8. 34 CFR 104.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Private education. 104.39 Section 104.39 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Preschool, Elementary, and Secondary Education § 104.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that...

  9. Private practice outcomes: validated outcomes data collection in private practice.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Jack

    2010-10-01

    Improved patient care is related to validated outcome measures requiring the collection of three distinct data types: (1) demographics; (2) patient outcome measures; and (3) physician treatment. Previous impediments to widespread data collection have been: cost, office disruption, personnel requirements, physician motivation, data integration, and security. There are currently few means to collect data to be used for collaborative analysis. We therefore developed an inexpensive, patient-centric mechanism to reduce redundant data entry, limiting cost and personnel requirements. Using an intuitive touch-screen kiosk interface program, all data elements have been captured in a private practice setting since 2000. Developed for small to medium sized offices, this is scalable to larger organizations. Questionnaire navigation is patient driven, with demographics shared with EMR and billing systems. Integration of billing and EMR with outcomes minimizes cost and personnel time. Data are deidentified locally and may be centrally shared. Since data are entered by the patients, minimal personnel costs are incurred. Physician disincentives are minimized with cost reduction, time savings and ease of use. To date, we have collected high level data on most total joint patients, with excellent patient compliance. By addressing impediments to broad application, we may enable widespread local data collection in all practice settings. Data may be shared centrally, allowing comparative effectiveness research to become a reality. Future success will require broad physician participation, uniformity of data collected, and designation of a central site for receipt of data and its collaborative comparative analysis.

  10. Reputation Effects in Public and Private Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Iwasa, Yoh; Nowak, Martin A.

    2015-01-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in a model of indirect reciprocity where people interact in public and private situations. Public interactions have a high chance to be observed by others and always affect reputation. Private interactions have a lower chance to be observed and only occasionally affect reputation. We explore all second order social norms and study conditions for evolutionary stability of action rules. We observe the competition between “honest” and “hypocritical” strategies. The former cooperate both in public and in private. The later cooperate in public, where many others are watching, but try to get away with defection in private situations. The hypocritical idea is that in private situations it does not pay-off to cooperate, because there is a good chance that nobody will notice it. We find simple and intuitive conditions for the evolution of honest strategies. PMID:26606239

  11. Reputation Effects in Public and Private Interactions.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Iwasa, Yoh; Nowak, Martin A

    2015-11-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in a model of indirect reciprocity where people interact in public and private situations. Public interactions have a high chance to be observed by others and always affect reputation. Private interactions have a lower chance to be observed and only occasionally affect reputation. We explore all second order social norms and study conditions for evolutionary stability of action rules. We observe the competition between "honest" and "hypocritical" strategies. The former cooperate both in public and in private. The later cooperate in public, where many others are watching, but try to get away with defection in private situations. The hypocritical idea is that in private situations it does not pay-off to cooperate, because there is a good chance that nobody will notice it. We find simple and intuitive conditions for the evolution of honest strategies.

  12. Cybersecurity Information Sharing Between Public Private Sector Agencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    inhibit public - private cooperation, and to evaluate the effectiveness of public - private partnerships (PPPs) to advance cyber infonnation sharing, this... private cooperation, and to evaluate the effectiveness of public - private partnerships (PPPs) to advance cyber information sharing, this thesis examines...26  D.  DHS RESPONSE TO EO REQUIREMENT 8 ...........................................26  III.  PUBLIC - PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS IN

  13. The privately owned timber resources of western Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Donald R. Gedney

    1983-01-01

    Timber resource statistics from a 1973-76 inventory are presented for private timberland in western Oregon. Inventories usually classify private owners as either forest industry or nonindustrial private. For this report, however, the nonindustrial private classification has been further disaggregated into farmer, individual, and corporate owners. For all private owner...

  14. Organic Coasts? Regulatory Challenges of Certifying Integrated Shrimp-Mangrove Production Systems in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Tran Thi Thu; Bush, Simon R.; Mol, Arthur P. J.; van Dijk, Han

    2012-01-01

    The Vietnamese government aims to expand the scale of Naturland certified organic production in integrated shrimp-mangrove farming systems across the coast of Ca Mau province by 2015. In doing so the division between public and private regulation has become blurred. We analyze the government's goal by examining the regulatory challenges of using…

  15. Organic Coasts? Regulatory Challenges of Certifying Integrated Shrimp-Mangrove Production Systems in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Tran Thi Thu; Bush, Simon R.; Mol, Arthur P. J.; van Dijk, Han

    2012-01-01

    The Vietnamese government aims to expand the scale of Naturland certified organic production in integrated shrimp-mangrove farming systems across the coast of Ca Mau province by 2015. In doing so the division between public and private regulation has become blurred. We analyze the government's goal by examining the regulatory challenges of using…

  16. 47 CFR 1.1151 - Authority to prescribe and collect regulatory fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... costs of certain of its regulatory activities in the private radio, mass media, common carrier, and... fees. 1.1151 Section 1.1151 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND... Stat. 397), enacting section 9 of the Communications Act, 47 U.S.C. 159, which directs the...

  17. 47 CFR 1.1151 - Authority to prescribe and collect regulatory fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... costs of certain of its regulatory activities in the private radio, mass media, common carrier, and... fees. 1.1151 Section 1.1151 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND... Stat. 397), enacting section 9 of the Communications Act, 47 U.S.C. 159, which directs the...

  18. 47 CFR 1.1151 - Authority to prescribe and collect regulatory fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... regulatory activities in the private radio, mass media, common carrier, and cable television services. ... fees. 1.1151 Section 1.1151 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND... section 9 of the Communications Act, 47 U.S.C. 159, which directs the Commission to prescribe and...

  19. 47 CFR 1.1151 - Authority to prescribe and collect regulatory fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... costs of certain of its regulatory activities in the private radio, mass media, common carrier, and... fees. 1.1151 Section 1.1151 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND... Stat. 397), enacting section 9 of the Communications Act, 47 U.S.C. 159, which directs the...

  20. Non-private power aggregation: New markets for public-private partnerships

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, R.D.

    1998-07-01

    Motivated by needs to survive the twin thrusts of deregulation and privatization, the non-private sector is beginning to take the initiative in the energy aggregation field. Success in establishing public-private partnerships with it requires appreciation of the legal and also the institutional survival issues with which they are dealing. The results can be creative uses of municipal franchises, a renaissance of non profit power firms, and the continuing financial vitality of the seriously threatened and socially valuable not-for-profit public sector. From the perspective of private firms, aggregation by non-private firms can be a portal to response to the electric power deregulation revolution.

  1. PRIVATE SECTOR IN HEALTH CARE DELIVERY: A REALITY AND A CHALLENGE IN PAKISTAN.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Babar Tasneem

    2015-01-01

    Under performance of the public sector health care system in Pakistan has created a room for private sector to grow and become popular in health service delivery, despite its questionable quality, high cost and dubious ethics of medical practice. Private sector is no doubt a reality; and is functioning to plug many weaknesses and gaps in health care delivery to the poor people of Pakistan. Yet, it is largely unregulated and unchecked due to the absence of writ of the state. In spite of its inherent trait of profit making, the private sector has played a significant and innovative role both in preventive and curative service provision. Private sector has demonstrated great deal of responsiveness, hence creating a relation of trust with the consumers of health in Pakistan, majority of who spend out of their pocket to buy 'health'. There is definitely a potential to engage and involve private and non-state entities in the health care system building their capacities and instituting regulatory frameworks, to protect the poor's access to health care system.

  2. [Politics and strategy of privatization in health care system of Bosnia & Herzegovina. Private practice or private property?].

    PubMed

    Hrabac, Boris; Huseinagić, Senad

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present a professionally sound option to conduct privatization process within the health care system of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The purpose of this text is to represent a milestone for launching a wider public debate and preparation of privatization in-depth plan. Due to complexity of such action, it is not allowed to let it be spontaneous. It is recommended to the Federal Ministry of Health to take over the leadership in order to prepare a comprehensive document entitled "Policy and Strategy of Privatization of Health Care System in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina". After preparation of the privatization concept, the wide public debate would be launched, as well as an appropriate support of the Government and Parliament. Hereinbefore mentioned document should provide answers to important issues, such as: privatization aims; subsectors eligible for privatization; ways of market regulations for providers of care and health insurance; payment mechanisms within public and private sector; issues of competition and solidarity, as well as equality and equity in health.

  3. Understanding stewardship behaviour: factors facilitating and constraining private water well stewardship.

    PubMed

    Kreutzwiser, Reid; de Loë, Rob; Imgrund, Krystian; Conboy, Mary Jane; Simpson, Hugh; Plummer, Ryan

    2011-04-01

    Regulatory frameworks to ensure municipal drinking water safety exist in most North American jurisdictions. However, similar protection is rarely provided to people reliant on water provided from private wells. In Canada, approximately 4 million people depend on privately owned, domestic wells for their drinking water. Numerous studies have shown that people who rely on private wells for their water supplies are at risk from nitrate and bacterial contamination. Given the fact that regulations relating to private wells tend to be weak or poorly enforced, actions taken by well owners to protect their own drinking water safety are extremely important. Drawing on one of the largest and most comprehensive surveys of private well owners ever conducted in Canada or elsewhere, this paper explores factors that influence well owner stewardship behaviour. Key behaviours examined included annual testing of well water and inspection of wells, measures to protect water quality, and proper decommissioning of unused wells. A geographically-stratified survey, sent to 4950 well owners in Ontario, Canada, resulted in an effective response rate of 34% (n = 1567). Logistic regression analyses revealed that motivations for well stewardship behaviours included reassurance, the perception of problems, and knowledge of the environment. Knowing how to perform stewardship behaviours was an important antecedent to action. Barriers to stewardship included complacency, inconvenience, ignorance, cost, and privacy concerns. To promote stewardship, local initiatives, better educational materials, and enforcement through real estate laws are all required. Ultimately, drinking water safety for people reliant on private wells is shown to be a responsibility shared by governments and private well owners. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Regulating the for-profit private health sector: lessons from East and Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Jane E

    2015-03-01

    International evidence shows that, if poorly regulated, the private health sector may lead to distortions in the type, quantity, distribution, quality and price of health services, as well as anti-competitive behaviour. This article provides an overview of legislation governing the for-profit private health sector in East and Southern Africa. It identifies major implementation problems and suggests strategies Ministries of Health could adopt to regulate the private sector more effectively and in line with key public health objectives. This qualitative study was based on a document review of existing legislation in the region, and seven semi-structured interviews with individuals selected purposively on the basis of their experience in policymaking and legislation. Legislation was categorized according to its objectives and the level at which it operates. A thematic content analysis was conducted on interview transcripts. Most legislation focuses on controlling the entry of health professionals and organizations into the market. Most countries have not developed adequate legislation around behaviour following entry. Generally the type and quality of services provided by private practitioners and facilities are not well-regulated or monitored. Even where there is specific health insurance regulation, provisions seldom address open enrolment, community rating and comprehensive benefit packages (except in South Africa). There is minimal control of prices. Several countries are updating and improving legislation although, in most cases, this is without the benefit of an overarching policy on the private sector, or reference to wider public health objectives. Policymakers in the East and Southern African region need to embark on a programme of action to strengthen regulatory frameworks and instruments in relation to private health care provision and insurance. They should not underestimate the power of the private health sector to undermine efforts for increased

  5. EPAct Transportation Regulatory Activities

    SciTech Connect

    2011-11-21

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Program manages several transportation regulatory activities established by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), as amended by the Energy Conservation Reauthorization Act of 1998, EPAct 2005, and the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA).

  6. OAR Regulatory Reform

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Office of Air and Radiation is hosting a public teleconference to solicit input on specific air and radiation actions that should be considered for “repeal, replacement, or modification” to reduce regulatory burden consistent with EO 13777.

  7. The regulatory horizon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, ED

    1987-01-01

    The author briefly discusses the FAA's position as it relates to cockpit resource management. For example, if Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) is a positive concept, why isn't everyone required to implement it? The regulatory practice of the FAA is discussed and questions and answers are presented.

  8. Toxicogenomics in Regulatory Ecotoxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential utility of toxicogenomics in toxicological research and regulatory activities has been the subject of scientific discussions, and as with any new technology, there is a wide range of opinion. The purpose of this feature article is to consider roles of toxicogenomic...

  9. Regulatory Monitoring of Fortified Foods: Identifying Barriers and Good Practices.

    PubMed

    Luthringer, Corey L; Rowe, Laura A; Vossenaar, Marieke; Garrett, Greg S

    2015-09-02

    While fortification of staple foods and condiments has gained enormous global traction, poor performance persists throughout many aspects of implementation, most notably around the critical element of regulatory monitoring, which is essential for ensuring foods meet national fortification standards. Where coverage of fortified foods is high, limited nutritional impact of fortification programs largely exists due to regulatory monitoring that insufficiently identifies and holds producers accountable for underfortified products. Based on quality assurance data from 20 national fortification programs in 12 countries, we estimate that less than half of the samples are adequately fortified against relevant national standards. In this paper, we outline key findings from a literature review, key informant interviews with 11 fortification experts, and semi-quantitative surveys with 39 individuals from regulatory agencies and the food fortification industry in 17 countries on the perceived effectiveness of regulatory monitoring systems and barriers to compliance against national fortification standards. Findings highlight that regulatory agencies and industry disagree on the value that enforcement mechanisms have in ensuring compliance against standards. Perceived political risk of enforcement and poorly resourced inspectorate capacity appear to adversely reinforce each other within an environment of unclear legislation to create a major hurdle for improving overall compliance of fortification programs against national standards. Budget constraints affect the ability of regulatory agencies to create a well-trained inspector cadre and improve the detection and enforcement of non-compliant and underfortified products. Recommendations to improve fortification compliance include improving technical capacity; ensuring sustained leadership, accountability, and funding in both the private and the public sectors; and removing political barriers to ensure consistent detection of

  10. Regulatory Monitoring of Fortified Foods: Identifying Barriers and Good Practices

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Laura A; Vossenaar, Marieke; Garrett, Greg S

    2015-01-01

    While fortification of staple foods and condiments has gained enormous global traction, poor performance persists throughout many aspects of implementation, most notably around the critical element of regulatory monitoring, which is essential for ensuring foods meet national fortification standards. Where coverage of fortified foods is high, limited nutritional impact of fortification programs largely exists due to regulatory monitoring that insufficiently identifies and holds producers accountable for underfortified products. Based on quality assurance data from 20 national fortification programs in 12 countries, we estimate that less than half of the samples are adequately fortified against relevant national standards. In this paper, we outline key findings from a literature review, key informant interviews with 11 fortification experts, and semi-quantitative surveys with 39 individuals from regulatory agencies and the food fortification industry in 17 countries on the perceived effectiveness of regulatory monitoring systems and barriers to compliance against national fortification standards. Findings highlight that regulatory agencies and industry disagree on the value that enforcement mechanisms have in ensuring compliance against standards. Perceived political risk of enforcement and poorly resourced inspectorate capacity appear to adversely reinforce each other within an environment of unclear legislation to create a major hurdle for improving overall compliance of fortification programs against national standards. Budget constraints affect the ability of regulatory agencies to create a well-trained inspector cadre and improve the detection and enforcement of non-compliant and underfortified products. Recommendations to improve fortification compliance include improving technical capacity; ensuring sustained leadership, accountability, and funding in both the private and the public sectors; and removing political barriers to ensure consistent detection of

  11. Pathways to privatization: Issues and concerns on the road to privatization of facilities on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Yard, C.R.

    1997-02-01

    Through the cooperative efforts of the State of Tennessee and the Department of Energy, privatization of the first federal facility on the Oak Ridge Reservation has become a reality. One section of the facility has been transferred to private industry while the other portion of the facility remains in control of the government`s prime contractor. Due to this unusual arrangement, there are significant issues to be dealt with. This paper will describe the issues and concerns expressed by the participants in the process. The State of Tennessee`s efforts are primarily conducted by two Divisions of the Department of Environment and Conservation. These two Divisions (Radiological Health and DOE-Oversight) share the responsibility of assuring that the privatization effort is properly implemented. This shared responsibility is divided along distinct lines by the Divisions respective regulatory and nonregulatory functions. DOE responsibilities during transfer are delineated in the Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA) section XLIII. Property Transfer. The FFA states (in part) that {open_quotes}the DOE shall include notice of this agreement in any document transferring ownership or operation of the site to any subsequent owner and/or operator of any portion of the site and shall notify EPA and TDEC of any such sale or Transfer.{close_quotes} The FFA continues by stating that {open_quotes}No change in ownership of the site or any portionthereof or notice pursuant to Section 120 (h) (3) (B) of CERCLA, 42 U.S.C. {delta} 9620 (h) (3) (B), shall relieve the DOE of its obligation to perform pursuant to this agreement. No change of ownership of the site or any portion thereof shall be consummated by the DOE without provision for continued maintenance of any containment system, treatment system, or other response action(s) installed or implemented pursuant to this Agreement. This provision does not relieve the DOE of its obligation under 40 C.F.R. Part 270.{close_quotes}

  12. Bounds on the sample complexity for private learning and private data release

    SciTech Connect

    Kasiviswanathan, Shiva; Beime, Amos; Nissim, Kobbi

    2009-01-01

    Learning is a task that generalizes many of the analyses that are applied to collections of data, and in particular, collections of sensitive individual information. Hence, it is natural to ask what can be learned while preserving individual privacy. [Kasiviswanathan, Lee, Nissim, Raskhodnikova, and Smith; FOCS 2008] initiated such a discussion. They formalized the notion of private learning, as a combination of PAC learning and differential privacy, and investigated what concept classes can be learned privately. Somewhat surprisingly, they showed that, ignoring time complexity, every PAC learning task could be performed privately with polynomially many samples, and in many natural cases this could even be done in polynomial time. While these results seem to equate non-private and private learning, there is still a significant gap: the sample complexity of (non-private) PAC learning is crisply characterized in terms of the VC-dimension of the concept class, whereas this relationship is lost in the constructions of private learners, which exhibit, generally, a higher sample complexity. Looking into this gap, we examine several private learning tasks and give tight bounds on their sample complexity. In particular, we show strong separations between sample complexities of proper and improper private learners (such separation does not exist for non-private learners), and between sample complexities of efficient and inefficient proper private learners. Our results show that VC-dimension is not the right measure for characterizing the sample complexity of proper private learning. We also examine the task of private data release (as initiated by [Blum, Ligett, and Roth; STOC 2008]), and give new lower bounds on the sample complexity. Our results show that the logarithmic dependence on size of the instance space is essential for private data release.

  13. Decisions, Science, and Values: Crafting Regulatory Alternatives Analysis.

    PubMed

    Malloy, Timothy; Blake, Ann; Linkov, Igor; Sinsheimer, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Emerging "prevention-based" approaches to chemical regulation seek to minimize the use of toxic chemicals by mandating or directly incentivizing the adoption of viable safer alternative chemicals or processes. California and Maine are beginning to implement such programs, requiring manufacturers of consumer products containing certain chemicals of concern to identify and evaluate potential safer alternatives. In the European Union, the REACH program imposes similar obligations on manufacturers of certain substances of very high concern. Effective prevention-based regulation requires regulatory alternatives analysis (RAA), a methodology for comparing and evaluating the regulated chemical or process and its alternatives across a range of relevant criteria. RAA has both public and private dimensions. To a significant degree, alternatives analysis is an aspect of product design; that is, the process by which private industry designs the goods it sells. Accordingly, an RAA method should reflect the attributes of well-crafted product design tools used by businesses. But RAA adds health and environmental objectives to the mix of concerns taken into account by the product designer. Moreover, as part of a prevention-based regulatory regime, it implicates important public values such as legitimacy, equity, public engagement, and accountability. Thus, an RAA should reflect both private standards and public values, and be evaluated against them. This article adopts that perspective, identifying an integrated set of design principles for RAA, and illustrating the application of those principles.

  14. Differentially Private Empirical Risk Minimization

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Kamalika; Monteleoni, Claire; Sarwate, Anand D.

    2011-01-01

    Privacy-preserving machine learning algorithms are crucial for the increasingly common setting in which personal data, such as medical or financial records, are analyzed. We provide general techniques to produce privacy-preserving approximations of classifiers learned via (regularized) empirical risk minimization (ERM). These algorithms are private under the ε-differential privacy definition due to Dwork et al. (2006). First we apply the output perturbation ideas of Dwork et al. (2006), to ERM classification. Then we propose a new method, objective perturbation, for privacy-preserving machine learning algorithm design. This method entails perturbing the objective function before optimizing over classifiers. If the loss and regularizer satisfy certain convexity and differentiability criteria, we prove theoretical results showing that our algorithms preserve privacy, and provide generalization bounds for linear and nonlinear kernels. We further present a privacy-preserving technique for tuning the parameters in general machine learning algorithms, thereby providing end-to-end privacy guarantees for the training process. We apply these results to produce privacy-preserving analogues of regularized logistic regression and support vector machines. We obtain encouraging results from evaluating their performance on real demographic and benchmark data sets. Our results show that both theoretically and empirically, objective perturbation is superior to the previous state-of-the-art, output perturbation, in managing the inherent tradeoff between privacy and learning performance. PMID:21892342

  15. Differentially Private Empirical Risk Minimization.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Kamalika; Monteleoni, Claire; Sarwate, Anand D

    2011-03-01

    Privacy-preserving machine learning algorithms are crucial for the increasingly common setting in which personal data, such as medical or financial records, are analyzed. We provide general techniques to produce privacy-preserving approximations of classifiers learned via (regularized) empirical risk minimization (ERM). These algorithms are private under the ε-differential privacy definition due to Dwork et al. (2006). First we apply the output perturbation ideas of Dwork et al. (2006), to ERM classification. Then we propose a new method, objective perturbation, for privacy-preserving machine learning algorithm design. This method entails perturbing the objective function before optimizing over classifiers. If the loss and regularizer satisfy certain convexity and differentiability criteria, we prove theoretical results showing that our algorithms preserve privacy, and provide generalization bounds for linear and nonlinear kernels. We further present a privacy-preserving technique for tuning the parameters in general machine learning algorithms, thereby providing end-to-end privacy guarantees for the training process. We apply these results to produce privacy-preserving analogues of regularized logistic regression and support vector machines. We obtain encouraging results from evaluating their performance on real demographic and benchmark data sets. Our results show that both theoretically and empirically, objective perturbation is superior to the previous state-of-the-art, output perturbation, in managing the inherent tradeoff between privacy and learning performance.

  16. Privatization of data communication services by domestic satellite in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reowilaisuk, Rianchai

    A summary of privatization of satellite communication services in Thailand is presented. A background of satellite communication in Thailand is given. Satellite communication providers, both government and private, are listed. Steps toward privatization and laws governing telecommunications are addressed.

  17. 77 FR 22786 - Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... ADMINISTRATION Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy (OGP...) 2012 Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates. SUMMARY: The General Services Administration's (GSA) special review of privately owned vehicle (POV) mileage reimbursement rates has resulted...

  18. 75 FR 82029 - Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ...; Sequence 6] Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy...) 2011 Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates. SUMMARY: The General Services Administration's (GSA) annual privately owned vehicle (POV) mileage reimbursement rate reviews have resulted in...

  19. 77 FR 76487 - Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ...; Sequence 6] Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy...) 2013 Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates. SUMMARY: The General Services Administration's annual privately owned vehicle (POV) mileage reimbursement rate reviews have resulted in new...

  20. Changes in hospital efficiency after privatization.

    PubMed

    Tiemann, Oliver; Schreyögg, Jonas

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the effects of privatization on hospital efficiency in Germany. To do so, we obtained boot-strapped data envelopment analysis (DEA) efficiency scores in the first stage of our analysis and subsequently employed a difference-in-difference matching approach within a panel regression framework. Our findings show that conversions from public to private for-profit status were associated with an increase in efficiency of between 2.9 and 4.9%. We defined four alternative post-privatization periods and found that the increase in efficiency after a conversion to private for-profit status appeared to be permanent. We also observed an increase in efficiency for the first three years after hospitals were converted to private non-profit status, but our estimations suggest that this effect was rather transitory. Our findings also show that the efficiency gains after a conversion to private for-profit status were achieved through substantial decreases in staffing ratios in all analyzed staff categories with the exception of physicians and administrative staff. It was also striking that the efficiency gains of hospitals converted to for-profit status were significantly lower in the diagnosis-related groups (DRG) era than in the pre-DRG era. Altogether, our results suggest that converting hospitals to private for-profit status may be an effective way to ensure the scarce resources in the hospital sector are used more efficiently.

  1. Acid deposition research in the private sector

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsman, J.D.; Wisniewski, J.; Nelson, J.

    1984-02-01

    Acid deposition research funded by the private sector since 1980 is reviewed. Types of studies (e.g., atmospheric processes, emissions and monitoring, environmental effects) supported by the private sector during this period are overviewed. The specific industries/organizations (e.g., electric utility industry, environmental interest groups) funding reserach during 1980-1982 are discussed, with relation to the number of studies supported and funds (by year) provided by each. Finally, 13 research projects supported by the private sector and initiated by December 1983, each at greater than $1 million, are described.

  2. Argentina's YPF hones in on privatization

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-30

    This paper reports on Argentina's push to privatize and attract more foreign investment to its petroleum sector which continues to gather momentum. The Argentine government plans by year end 1992 to sell unprofitable assets of Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales, then sell as much as 50% of the state oil company through an international stock offering. If privatization proceeds as expected, YPF Pres. Jose Estenssoro the, the company's stock will be offered to private investors early in 1993. The company was founded in 1922. By March 1992, Argentina also will begin selling all assets of state owned Gas del Estado (GDE) through an international bidding process expected to take about 18 months.

  3. [The national union for private hospital oncology].

    PubMed

    Parmentier, Gérard

    2013-06-01

    In the French health system, social security is the same for both public and private hospitals regardless of their status. In terms of number of patients screened, diagnosed, or treated, independant medicine is the most important sector in the French oncology. The multitude of organizations representing private hospitals or independant oncologists, physicians, radiologists or pathologists have a common organization, the National Union for Private Hospital Oncology (UNHPC). It bases its action on two founding postulates to ensure the quality of the oncology practice : the medical and managerial cultures are complementary and should be articulated ; the quality of organizations is as important as professional competence.

  4. Quantum Private Comparison Protocol with Linear Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qing-bin; Yang, Guo-wu; She, Kun; Li, Xiaoyu

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we propose an innovative quantum private comparison(QPC) protocol based on partial Bell-state measurement from the view of linear optics, which enabling two parties to compare the equality of their private information with the help of a semi-honest third party. Partial Bell-state measurement has been realized by using only linear optical elements in experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution(MDI-QKD) schemes, which makes us believe that our protocol can be realized in the near future. The security analysis shows that the participants will not leak their private information.

  5. Toxicogenomics and the Regulatory Framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicogenomics presents regulatory agencies with the opportunity to revolutionize their analyses by enabling the collection of information on a broader range of responses than currently considered in traditional regulatory decision making. Analyses of genomic responses are expec...

  6. Toxicogenomics and the Regulatory Framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicogenomics presents regulatory agencies with the opportunity to revolutionize their analyses by enabling the collection of information on a broader range of responses than currently considered in traditional regulatory decision making. Analyses of genomic responses are expec...

  7. Functional footprinting of regulatory DNA

    PubMed Central

    Vierstra, Jeff; Reik, Andreas; Chang, Kai-Hsin; Stehling-Sun, Sandra; Zhou, Yuan-Yue; Hinkley, Sarah J.; Paschon, David E.; Zhang, L.; Psatha, Nikoletta; Bendana, Yuri R.; O'Neill, Colleen M.; Song, Alex H.; Mich, Andrea; Liu, Pei-Qi; Lee, Gary; Bauer, Daniel E.; Holmes, Michael C.; Orkin, Stuart H.; Papayannopoulou, Thalia; Stamatoyannopoulos, George; Rebar, Edward J.; Gregory, Philip D.; Urnov, Fyodor D.; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A.

    2017-01-01

    Regulatory regions harbor multiple transcription factor recognition sites; however, the contribution of individual sites to regulatory function remains challenging to define. We describe a facile approach that exploits the error-prone nature of genome editing-induced double-strand break repair to map functional elements within regulatory DNA at nucleotide resolution. We demonstrate the approach on a human erythroid enhancer, revealing single TF recognition sites that gate the majority of downstream regulatory function. PMID:26322838

  8. Nuclear Regulatory Commission information digest

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1990-03-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission information digest provides summary information regarding the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, its regulatory responsibilities, and areas licensed by the commission. This is an annual publication for the general use of the NRC Staff and is available to the public. The digest is divided into two parts: the first presents an overview of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the second provides data on NRC commercial nuclear reactor licensees and commercial nuclear power reactors worldwide.

  9. Cognitive regulatory control therapies.

    PubMed

    Bowins, Brad

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive regulatory control processes play an essential but typically unappreciated role in maintaining mental health. The purpose of the current paper is to identify this role and demonstrate how cognitive-behavioral and related techniques can compensate for impairments. Impaired cognitive regulation contributes to the overly intense emotional states present in anxiety disorders, depression, and personality disorders; progression of adaptive hypomania to mania; expression of psychosis in the conscious and awake state; dominance of immature defense mechanisms in borderline and other personality disorders. A wide variety of standard (monitoring, reappraisal, response inhibition, relaxation training) and more novel (suppression therapy, willful detachment, cost-benefit analysis, normalization, mature defense mechanism training) cognitive-behavioral and related techniques can be applied to compensate for cognitive regulatory control impairments, and their success probably aligns with this capacity.

  10. Private financing and operation of a space station: Investment requirements, risk, government support and other primary business management considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M.

    1982-01-01

    Private investment in a manned space station is considered as an alternative to complete government sponsorship of such a program. The implications of manned space operations are discussed from a business perspective. The most significant problems and risks which would be faced by a private company involved in a space station enterprise are outlined and possible government roles in helping to overcome these difficulties suggested. Economic factors such as inflation and the rate of interest are of primary concern, but less obvious conditions such as antitrust and appropriate regulatory laws, government appropriations for space activities, and national security are also considered.

  11. Private-Sector Interest in Entrepreneurship Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, H. Naylor

    1981-01-01

    Describes private-sector institutions' stake in the success of small business and discusses the value of entrepreneurship training in achieving business success. Also presents an overview of some of the major content areas that entrepreneurship training should address. (CT)

  12. Private security's challenge to police chiefs.

    PubMed

    Connolly, C P

    1992-01-01

    The author discusses why police chiefs who have not yet given thought to developing a security partnership agenda should begin now. Partnerships, he says, should be cultivated between public police and private security.

  13. Mental health services at selected private schools.

    PubMed

    Van Hoof, Thomas J; Sherwin, Tierney E; Baggish, Rosemary C; Tacy, Peter B; Meehan, Thomas P

    2004-04-01

    Private schools educate a significant percentage of US children and adolescents. Private schools, particularly where students reside during the academic year, assume responsibility for the health and well-being of their students. Children and adolescents experience mental health problems at a predictable rate, and private schools need a mechanism for addressing their students' mental health needs. Understanding that need requires data to guide the services and programs a school may put in place. Having data helps inform those services, and comparative data from other schools provides feedback and perspective. This project surveyed type and frequency of mental health problems experienced by students who received a formal evaluation at 11 private schools in Connecticut during academic year 2001-2002.

  14. The Facts about Private Career Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, John

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to improve understanding of private career schools and the role they play in the economy. It includes statistics about enrollment, graduation, and job placement rates and student characteristics. (JOW)

  15. Report Analysis: Public and Private Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenson, Marya R.; Terkla, Dawn Geronimo, Eds.

    1981-01-01

    This colloquium presents seven analyses by social scientists of the controversial report, "Public and Private Schools," together with a response by the report's authors, James Coleman, Thomas Hoffer, and Sally Kilgore. (SK)

  16. Radon in private drinking water wells.

    PubMed

    Otahal, P; Merta, J; Burian, I

    2014-07-01

    At least 10% of inhabitants in the Czech Republic are supplied with water from private sources (private wells, boreholes). With the increasing cost of water, the number of people using their own sources of drinking water will be likely to increase. According to the Decree of the State Office for Nuclear Safety about the Radiation Protection 307/2002 as amended by Decree 499/2005, the guideline limit for the supplied drinking water ('drinking water for public supply') for radon concentration is 50 Bq·l(-1). This guideline does not apply to private sources of drinking water. Radon in water influences human health by ingestion and also by inhalation when radon is released from water during showering and cooking. This paper presents results of measurements of radon concentrations in water from private wells in more than 300 cases. The gross concentration of alpha-emitting radionuclides and the concentrations of radium and uranium were also determined.

  17. Private healthcare quality: applying a SERVQUAL model.

    PubMed

    Butt, Mohsin Muhammad; de Run, Ernest Cyril

    2010-01-01

    This paper seeks to develop and test the SERVQUAL model scale for measuring Malaysian private health service quality. The study consists of 340 randomly selected participants visiting a private healthcare facility during a three-month data collection period. Data were analyzed using means, correlations, principal component and confirmatory factor analysis to establish the modified SERVQUAL scale's reliability, underlying dimensionality and convergent, discriminant validity. Results indicate a moderate negative quality gap for overall Malaysian private healthcare service quality. Results also indicate a moderate negative quality gap on each service quality scale dimension. However, scale development analysis yielded excellent results, which can be used in wider healthcare policy and practice. Respondents were skewed towards a younger population, causing concern that the results might not represent all Malaysian age groups. The study's major contribution is that it offers a way to assess private healthcare service quality. Second, it successfully develops a scale that can be used to measure health service quality in Malaysian contexts.

  18. Giardia and Drinking Water from Private Wells

    MedlinePlus

    ... Water Treatment Drinking Water FAQ Fast Facts Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ... Submit" /> Healthy Water Home Giardia and Drinking Water from Private Wells Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ...

  19. Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells

    MedlinePlus

    ... Water Treatment Drinking Water FAQ Fast Facts Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ... Submit" /> Healthy Water Home Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ...

  20. Privatized Military Operations. Industry Study, Spring 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Jean S. Renouf , “Do Private Security Companies Have a Role in Ensuring the Security of Local Populations and Aid Workers,” Autumn’s Humanitarian...reference. 79 Analysis derived from a combination of the Cockayne, Renouf , and Stoddard articles. 80 Stoddard, 27. 81 Coker, 135. 82 Ibid, 133...3. Renouf , Jean S. “Do Private Security Companies Have a Role in Ensuring the Security of Local Populations and Aid Workers?” Paper

  1. Private sector joins family planning effort.

    PubMed

    1989-12-01

    Projects supported by the Directorate for Population (S&T/POP) of the U.S. Agency for International Development and aimed at increasing for-profit private sector involvement in providing family planning services and products are described. Making products commercially available through social-marketing partnerships with the commercial sector, USAID has saved $1.1 million in commodity costs from Brazil, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Indonesia, and Peru. Active private sector involvement benefits companies, consumers, and donors through increased corporate profits, healthier employees, improved consumer access at lower cost, and the possibility of sustained family planning programs. Moreover, private, for-profit companies will be able to meet service demands over the next 20 years where traditional government and donor agency sources would fail. Using employee surveys and cost-benefit analyses to demonstrate expected financial and health benefits for businesses and work forces, S&T/POP's Technical Information on Population for the Private Sector (TIPPS) project encourages private companies in developing countries to invest in family planning and maternal/child health care for their employees. 36 companies in 9 countries have responded thus far, which examples provided from Peru and Zimbabwe. The Enterprise program's objectives are also to increase the involvement of for-profit companies in delivering family planning services, and to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of private volunteer organizations in providing services. Projects have been started with mines, factories, banks, insurance companies, and parastatals in 27 countries, with examples cited from Ghana and Indonesia. Finally, the Social Marketing for Change project (SOMARC) builds demand and distributes low-cost contraceptives through commercial channels especially to low-income audiences. Partnerships have been initiated with the private sector in 17 developing countries, with examples provided from

  2. Hungary petroleum privatization limited by economic concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-04

    Once the leading economic hope of eastern Europe, a newly doubt-filled, postelection Hungary is deciding on limited oil privatization amid strategic worries and falling production. Those worries contrast with the bright promise seen in Hungary after the collapse of communism. The paper discusses energy supplies; profile of the former petroleum monopoly, Magyar Olaj es Gaz (MOL); the state owned Mineralimpex; strategic supplies; MOL privatization; post-election politics; and MOL's subsidiaries.

  3. Medical tourism private hospitals: focus India.

    PubMed

    Brotman, Billie Ann

    2010-01-01

    This article examines demand factors for sophisticated medical treatments offered by private hospitals operating in India. Three types of medical tourism exist: Outbound, Inbound, and Intrabound. Increased profitability and positive growth trends by private hospital chains can be attributed to rising domestic income levels within India. Not all of the chains examined were financially solvent. Some of the hospital groups in this sample that advertised directly to potential Inbound medical tourists appear to be experiencing negative cash flows.

  4. Criteria for Developing a Successful Privatization Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    perception and adequate profit . :" iii BIOGRAPHICAL SKSI wEf; Thoas C. McSwain, Jr. Colonel (Sel) Thomas C. McSwain, Jr is a career Services Officer. He...the private sector in lieu of traditional governrmental financing and operation. In return, private sector entrepreneurs realize profits through long...military and DOD civilian con unity. The banks and credit unions derive normal profit through services they provide. More recently, Congressional and

  5. Solvent use in private research laboratories in Japan: comparison with the use in public research laboratories and on production floors in industries.

    PubMed

    Hanada, Takaaki; Zaitsu, Ai; Kojima, Satoshi; Ukai, Hirohiko; Nagasawa, Yasuhiro; Takada, Shiro; Kawakami, Takuya; Ohashi, Fumiko; Ikeda, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Solvents used in production facility-affiliated private laboratories have been seldomly reported. This study was initiated to specify solvent use characteristics in private laboratories in comparison with the use in public research laboratories and on production floors. Elucidation of the applicability of conclusions from a public laboratory survey to private institutions is not only of scientific interest but also of practical importance. A survey on use of 47 legally stipulated organic solvents was conducted. The results were compiled for April 2011 to March 2013. Through sorting, data were available for 479 unit workplaces in private laboratories. Similar sorting for April 2012 to March 2013 was conducted for public research laboratories (e.g., national universities) and production floors (in private enterprises) to obtain 621 and 937 cases, respectively. Sampling of workroom air followed by capillary gas-chromatographic analyses for solvents was conducted in accordance with regulatory requirements. More than one solvent was usually detected in the air of private laboratories. With regard to solvent types, acetone, methyl alcohol, chloroform and hexane were prevalently used in private laboratories, and this was similar to the case of public laboratories. Prevalent use of ethyl acetate was unique to private laboratories. Toluene use was less common both in private and public laboratories. The prevalence of administrative control class 1 (i.e., an adequately controlled environment) was higher in laboratories (both private and public) than production floors. Solvent use patterns are similar in private and public laboratories, except that the use of mixtures of solvents is substantially more popular in private laboratories than in public laboratories.

  6. Timing in private digital telecommunication networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abate, J. E.; Near, C. D.; Russo, M. S.

    1993-06-01

    For proper operation of today's large digital private networks, high quality synchronization must be achieved. A general telecommunication performance objective is to maintain long-term frequency accuracy of ten parts per trillion at all synchronous digital equipment in the network. Many times, however, this is not achieved in private networks. Low quality clocks, errored transmission facilities, and incorrectly designed synchronization plans are often cause for poor performance. It is shown that properly-designed private networks can operate with long term frequency averages between ten parts per trillion to ten parts per million. These performance levels can adversely impact customer applications. The most demanding applications are digital and voice band data, encrypted voice, facsimile, and video. In a typical private network operating at 0.01 parts per million, the user would experience reduced data throughput, dropped encrypted calls, unreadable facsimile pages, or interrupted video transmission dozens of times per day. The major contribution to poor private network synchronization performance is the interaction of Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) clocks and the network facilities used to distribute timing. The performance of typical CPE clocks and facilities, and their impact on customer applications, are discussed. CPE clock performance issues, along with private network architectural constraints, make synchronization planning extremely difficult. Planning is usually costly and requires specialized expertise.

  7. Timing in private digital telecommunication networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abate, J. E.; Near, C. D.; Russo, M. S.

    1993-01-01

    For proper operation of today's large digital private networks, high quality synchronization must be achieved. A general telecommunication performance objective is to maintain long-term frequency accuracy of ten parts per trillion at all synchronous digital equipment in the network. Many times, however, this is not achieved in private networks. Low quality clocks, errored transmission facilities, and incorrectly designed synchronization plans are often cause for poor performance. It is shown that properly-designed private networks can operate with long term frequency averages between ten parts per trillion to ten parts per million. These performance levels can adversely impact customer applications. The most demanding applications are digital and voice band data, encrypted voice, facsimile, and video. In a typical private network operating at 0.01 parts per million, the user would experience reduced data throughput, dropped encrypted calls, unreadable facsimile pages, or interrupted video transmission dozens of times per day. The major contribution to poor private network synchronization performance is the interaction of Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) clocks and the network facilities used to distribute timing. The performance of typical CPE clocks and facilities, and their impact on customer applications, are discussed. CPE clock performance issues, along with private network architectural constraints, make synchronization planning extremely difficult. Planning is usually costly and requires specialized expertise.

  8. "The Google of Healthcare": enabling the privatization of genetic bio/databanking.

    PubMed

    Spector-Bagdady, Kayte

    2016-07-01

    23andMe is back on the market as the first direct-to-consumer genetic testing company that "includes reports that meet Food and Drug Administration (FDA) standards…." But, whereas its front-end product is selling individual genetic tests online, its back-end business model is amassing one of the largest privately owned genetic databases in the world. What is the effect, however, of the private control of bio/databases on genetic epidemiology and public health research? The recent federal government notices of proposed rulemaking for: (1) revisions to regulations governing human subjects research and (2) whether certain direct-to-consumer genetic tests should require premarket FDA review, were reviewed and related to the 23andMe product, business model, and consumer agreements. FDA regulatory action so far has focused on the return of consumer test reports but it should also consider the broader misuse of data and information not otherwise protected by human subjects research regulations. As the federal government revises its decades-old human subjects research structure, the Executive Office of the President (EOP) should consider a cohesive approach to regulating private genetic bio/databanks. This strategy should allow the FDA and other agencies to play a role in expanding current regulatory coverage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 75 FR 61531 - Issuance of Regulatory Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... E. Norris, Component Integrity Branch, Division of Engineering, Office of Nuclear Regulatory... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Issuance of Regulatory Guide AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  10. [The regulatory regime and the health insurance industry in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Costa, Nilson do Rosário

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the regulatory regime for health insurance and prepayment schemes in Brazil. It describes the ideas that have influenced the creation of the Agência Nacional de Saúde Suplementar-ANS (National Agency of Supplementary Health) in 2000, showing that the independent agency model was a direct result of the privatization process and of the induction of new competition mechanisms in a natural state monopoly. The paper concludes that the prepayment firms in Brazil are facing a new institutional environment as refers to their market entry or exit conditions.

  11. Detection and Impact of Rare Regulatory Variants in Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Montgomery, Stephen B.

    2013-01-01

    Advances in genome sequencing are providing unprecedented resolution of rare and private variants. However, methods which assess the effect of these variants have relied predominantly on information within coding sequences. Assessing their impact in non-coding sequences remains a significant contemporary challenge. In this review, we highlight the role of regulatory variation as causative agents and modifiers of monogenic disorders. We further discuss how advances in functional genomics are now providing new opportunity to assess the impact of rare non-coding variants and their role in disease. PMID:23755067

  12. "Affordable" Private Schools in South Africa. Affordable for Whom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Languille, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    The paper sets out to challenge the notions of "affordable" private schools in the context of South Africa. It is guided by one main question: "affordable private schools for whom?" It argues that, contrary to claims by its public and private proponents, affordable private schools in South Africa do not cater for poor children.…

  13. "Affordable" Private Schools in South Africa. Affordable for Whom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Languille, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    The paper sets out to challenge the notions of "affordable" private schools in the context of South Africa. It is guided by one main question: "affordable private schools for whom?" It argues that, contrary to claims by its public and private proponents, affordable private schools in South Africa do not cater for poor children.…

  14. 12 CFR 1026.48 - Limitations on private education loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Limitations on private education loans. 1026.48...) Special Rules for Private Education Loans § 1026.48 Limitations on private education loans. (a) Co... institution, in the marketing of private education loans in a way that implies that the covered education...

  15. The Legal Framework for Educational Privatization and Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemerer, Frank R.; Maloney, Catherine

    This article explores how the law currently influences accountability in three different privatization contexts: (1) private schools operated independently of the state; (2) public schools operated by private organizations under charter or subcontract with government entities; and (3) private schools participating in publicly-funded voucher…

  16. Privatization of Public Information: Its Impact on Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shill, Harold B.

    1991-01-01

    Explores the ideas and policies behind the movement toward privatization, and traces the history of information privatization during the Reagan administration. A discussion of privatization of government information focuses on attempts to privatize NTIS (National Technical Information Service), and differences between print and electronic…

  17. 77 FR 30351 - Sec. 221 Public Private Partnerships Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Sec. 221 Public Private Partnerships Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal... such a program be based on public- private partnership (PPP) principles and maximize the use of private... effective public-private partnership equipage incentive program. This notice is for the initial meeting....

  18. The Public-Private Nexus in Education. Occasional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Henry M.

    Although explicit public-private partnerships are rare in education, there is a close connection between the public and private goals of education. Education inherently serves both public and private interests. Unfortunately, educational policy may find itself in conflict while simultaneously serving both public and private mandates. This article…

  19. Privatization of Public Information: Its Impact on Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shill, Harold B.

    1991-01-01

    Explores the ideas and policies behind the movement toward privatization, and traces the history of information privatization during the Reagan administration. A discussion of privatization of government information focuses on attempts to privatize NTIS (National Technical Information Service), and differences between print and electronic…

  20. Privatization: The Challenge Ahead for Public Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeAngelo, Linda

    This paper discusses privatization of public higher education, noting that some form of it exists on almost every college campus and that it is part of the wider movement toward less government. Four models of privatization are defined: public production with public finance; public production with private finance; private production with public…

  1. The Public-Private Nexus in Education. Occasional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Henry M.

    Although explicit public-private partnerships are rare in education, there is a close connection between the public and private goals of education. Education inherently serves both public and private interests. Unfortunately, educational policy may find itself in conflict while simultaneously serving both public and private mandates. This article…

  2. School Vouchers and Privatization: A Reference Handbook. Contemporary Education Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Danny

    This book looks at the privatization of education as an ideological construct. In exploring and assessing the concept of privatized education, it focuses on the debate over private choice and school vouchers. It also looks at the development of private curriculums and educational materials created by corporations, various scholarship-funding…

  3. Privatized biomedical research, public fears, and the hazards of government regulation: lessons from stem cell research.

    PubMed

    Resnik, D B

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the hazards of regulating controversial biomedical research in light of the emergence of powerful, multi-national biotechnology corporations. Prohibitions on the use of government funds can simply force controversial research into the private sphere, and unilateral or multilateral research bans can simply encourage multi-national companies to conduct research in countries that lack restrictive laws. Thus, a net effect of government regulation is that research migrates from the public to the private sphere. Because private research receives less oversight and external scrutiny than public research, it can threaten the welfare and rights of human subjects, scientific progress and openness, and the quality of the approval process for new biomedical technologies. In order to avoid the harmful effects of government regulation of biotechnology, society should promote meaningful discussion and dialogue among scientists, industry leaders, and the public before resorting to regulatory solutions. Legislative or executive initiatives should be applied with great discretion and care, and should be crafted in such a way that they protect public health and safety, promote scientific progress, and avoid the hazards of privatized research and polarized debates.

  4. An Exploration of Teaching Practices of Private, Public, and Public-Private EFL Teachers in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gholami, Javad; Sarkhosh, Mehdi; Abdi, Heidar

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the practices of public (high) school, private language institute, and public-private teachers. In particular, it aims at addressing the role of contextual factors, the variations teachers introduce to cope with them, and the degree of sustainable behaviour among these three groups of teachers. High school teachers…

  5. Does Private Tutoring Work? The Effectiveness of Private Tutoring: A Nonparametric Bounds Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hof, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Private tutoring has become popular throughout the world. However, evidence for the effect of private tutoring on students' academic outcome is inconclusive; therefore, this paper presents an alternative framework: a nonparametric bounds method. The present examination uses, for the first time, a large representative data-set in a European setting…

  6. Development of Private Higher Education in Macau: Exploring the Relationship between Government and Private Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Cheng Man Diana; Yuen, Pong Kau

    2010-01-01

    The development of private higher education in Macau has experienced rapid growth in the past two decades. The purpose of this paper is to understand this trend by investigating the facts and figures supplied by official sources and to analyze the role between the Government and the private sector. This paper shows that the attitude of the Macau…

  7. Development of Private Higher Education in Macau: Exploring the Relationship between Government and Private Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Cheng Man Diana; Yuen, Pong Kau

    2010-01-01

    The development of private higher education in Macau has experienced rapid growth in the past two decades. The purpose of this paper is to understand this trend by investigating the facts and figures supplied by official sources and to analyze the role between the Government and the private sector. This paper shows that the attitude of the Macau…

  8. More "Private" than Private Institutions: Public Institutions of Higher Education and Financial Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Olin L., III; Robichaux, Rebecca R.; Guarino, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    This research compares the status of managerial accounting practices in public four-year colleges and universities and in private four-year colleges and universities. The investigators surveyed a national sample of chief financial officers (CFOs) at two points in time, 1998-99 and 2003-04. In 1998-99 CFOs representing private institutions reported…

  9. Does Private Tutoring Work? The Effectiveness of Private Tutoring: A Nonparametric Bounds Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hof, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Private tutoring has become popular throughout the world. However, evidence for the effect of private tutoring on students' academic outcome is inconclusive; therefore, this paper presents an alternative framework: a nonparametric bounds method. The present examination uses, for the first time, a large representative data-set in a European setting…

  10. Reconsidering Privatization in Cross-Border Engagements: The Sometimes Public Nature of Private Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Jason E.; Kinser, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Privatization trends in higher education have typically been analyzed from the perspective of the institution and its relationship with the sponsoring state. The recent phenomenon of international cross-border higher education, however, represents a more complicated picture of privatization. Geographic separation from the sponsoring state is an…

  11. Public-Private Partnerships: The Private Sector and Innovation in Education. Policy Insight Number 142.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Anna

    1992-01-01

    Partnerships between schools and the private sector as an alternative to increased taxes and service cuts are examined in this document. The introduction provides an overview of business involvement in U.S. education. The second section describes the private provision of infrastructure and types of school-business arrangements. Examples include…

  12. Policies to Spur Energy Access. Executive Summary; Volume 1, Engaging the Private Sector in Expanding Access to Electricity; Volume 2, Case Studies to Public-Private Models to Finance Decentralized Electricity Access

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, Terri; Rai, Neha; Esterly, Sean; Cox, Sadie; Reber, Tim; Muzammil, Maliha; Mahmood, Tasfiq; Kaur, Nanki; Tesfaye, Lidya; Mamuye, Simret; Knuckles, James; Morris, Ellen; de Been, Merijn; Steinbach, Dave; Acharya, Sunil; Chhetri, Raju Pandit; Bhushal, Ramesh

    2015-09-01

    Government policy is one of the most important factors in engaging the private sector in providing universal access to electricity. In particular, the private sector is well positioned to provide decentralized electricity products and services. While policy uncertainty and regulatory barriers can keep enterprises and investors from engaging in the market, targeted policies can create opportunities to leverage private investment and skills to expand electricity access. However, creating a sustainable market requires policies beyond traditional electricity regulation. The report reviews the range of policy issues that impact the development and expansion of a market for decentralized electricity services from establishing an enabling policy environment to catalyzing finance, building human capacity, and integrating energy access with development programs. The case studies in this report show that robust policy frameworks--addressing a wide range of market issues--can lead to rapid transformation in energy access. The report highlights examples of these policies in action Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Mali, Mexico, and Nepal.

  13. How Are Private School Enrolment Patterns Changing across Indian Districts with a Growth in Private School Availability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudgar, Amita; Creed, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The private school sector in India has grown significantly but the equity implications of this growth are not well understood. Traditionally private schools have been patronised by more educated and better-off families. Evidence also suggests a preference for enrolling male children in private schools. With the growth in the private school sector…

  14. Public private partnership in vascular surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Cynthia de Almeida; Martins, Alexandre de Arruda; Teivelis, Marcelo Passos; Kuzniec, Sérgio; Wolosker, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe and analyze the results of a public-private partnership between the Ministry of Health and a private hospital in a project of assistance and scientific research in the field of endovascular surgery. Methods: The flows, costs and clinical outcomes of patients treated in a the public-private partnership between April 2012 and July 2013 were analyzed. All patients underwent surgery and stayed at least one day at the intensive care unit of the private hospital. They also participated in a research protocol to compare two intravenous contrast media used in endovascular surgery (iodinated contrast and carbon dioxide). Results A total of 62 endovascular procedures were performed in 57 patients from the public healthcare system. Hospital and endovascular supplies expenses were significantly higher as compared to the amount paid by the Unified Health System (SUS - Sistema Único de Saúde) in two out of three disease groups studied. Among outpatients, the average interval between appointment and surgery was 15 days and, in hospitalized patients 7 days. All procedures were successful with no conversion to open surgery. The new contrast medium studied - carbon dioxide – was effective and cheaper. Conclusion The waiting time for patients between indication and accomplishment of surgery was significantly reduced. Public-private partnerships can speed up care of patients from public health services, and generate and improve scientific knowledge. PMID:25295457

  15. Privatization of hospitals: meeting divergent interests.

    PubMed

    Weil, Thomas P

    2011-01-01

    The United States, Germany, and the United Kingdom are experiencing a trend toward the privatization of hospitals--most frequently involving poorly positioned facilities that need: additional capital for replacement of plant and equipment; improved management systems to reduce the number of their nondirect patient care employees; and an aggressive physician recruitment effort. A number of these institutions might have been otherwise shut down, resulting in the loss of good paying jobs; however, these closures would have reduced the nation's total health care expenditures. The acquisition in the United States and Germany by investor-owned hospital corporations of major teaching institutions suggests that the for-profits have become an integral part of their country's health care delivery system. Privatization now even occurs within the egalitarian British National Health Service with the availability of private medical insurance, private hospitals, and private beds in public hospitals being managed by investor-owned groups. Being acquired by a for-profit is often a means to secure needed capital and is politically less fractious than closing down a marginally needed government-sponsored or a not-for-profit facility.

  16. Water quality and management of private drinking water wells in Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Swistock, Bryan R; Clemens, Stephanie; Sharpe, William E; Rummel, Shawn

    2013-01-01

    Pennsylvania has over three million rural residents using private water wells for drinking water supplies but is one of the few states that lack statewide water well construction or management standards. The study described in this article aimed to determine the prevalence and causes of common health-based pollutants in water wells and evaluate the need for regulatory management along with voluntary educational programs. Water samples were collected throughout Pennsylvania by Master Well Owner Network volunteers trained by Penn State Extension. Approximately 40% of the 701 water wells sampled failed at least one health-based drinking water standard. The prevalence of most water quality problems was similar to past studies although both lead and nitrate-N were reduced over the last 20 years. The authors' study suggests that statewide water well construction standards along with routine water testing and educational programs to assist water well owners would result in improved drinking water quality for private well owners in Pennsylvania.

  17. Lay agency and the generation of public-private mix health care maps.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Consuelo Sampaio; Cecilio, Luiz Carlos de Oliveira; Andreazza, Rosemarie; Carapinheiro, Graça; Andrade, Maria da Graça Garcia; Santiago, Sílvia Maria; Araújo, Eliane Cardoso; Souza, Ana Lúcia Medeiros; Reis, Denizi Oliveira; Pinto, Nicanor Rodrigues da Silva; Spedo, Sandra Maria

    2017-06-01

    This paper discusses part of the results obtained from a study carried out in two cities of the so-called ABCD Paulista Region in the period 2010-2012, in an attempt to spot the existence of non-state regulatory rationale towards access and consumption of health care services. The first stage includes interviews carried out with strategic stakeholders (managers and politicians) and key workers players. The second stage collected the stories of 18 very frequent users of health care services. This study revealed the leading role played by users to produce "health care maps", with emphasis on the frequent use of public and private resources in their itineraries, circumventing or merging with government regulation to obtain the care they need. The different formats of public-private mix transcend the still prevailing "official" concepts about the clear distinction between the two systems, which reveals the importance of this theme to public health management.

  18. A practical guideline for identifying research intent with projects that collect private, identifiable health information.

    PubMed

    Amdur, Robert J; Speers, Marjorie A

    2003-06-01

    Radiation oncologists frequently engage in activities that involve the collection and analysis of data from medical records. Access to health information is an ethical issue because, if not done according to appropriate guidelines, it constitutes an invasion of privacy or breach in confidentiality. To protect patients for the social harm that may result from medical record review, our society has established laws and regulations that apply to projects that require medical record review. A major branch point in the guidelines for such projects is whether private information will be collected for research or nonresearch purposes. However, a problem with discussing privacy protection in terms of a research versus nonresearch model is that it is difficult to make this distinction for many kinds of projects. The purpose of this paper is to establish a practical guideline that can be used to decide if a project that involves analysis of private, identifiable medical information should be considered research from the regulatory standpoint.

  19. What can be done about the private health sector in low-income countries?

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Anne; Brugha, Ruairi; Hanson, Kara; McPake, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    A very large private health sector exists in low-income countries. It consists of a great variety of providers and is used by a wide cross-section of the population. There are substantial concerns about the quality of care given, especially at the more informal end of the range of providers. This is particularly true for diseases of public health importance such as tuberculosis, malaria, and sexually transmitted infections. How can the activities of the private sector in these countries be influenced so that they help to meet national health objectives? Although the evidence base is not good, there is a fair amount of information on the types of intervention that are most successful in directly influencing the behaviour of providers and on what might be the necessary conditions for success. There is much less evidence, however, of effective approaches to interventions on the demand side and policies that involve strengthening the purchasing and regulatory roles of governments. PMID:12075370

  20. Toxicogenomics in regulatory ecotoxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Ankley, Gerald; Daston, George; Degitz, Sigmund J.; Denslow, Nancy; Hoke, Robert; Kennedy, Sean; Miracle, Ann L.; Perkins, Edward; Snape, Jason; Tillitt, Donald; Tyler, Charles R.; Versteeg, Donald

    2006-07-01

    Recent years have witnessed an explosion of different genomic approaches which, through a combination of advanced biological, instrumental and bioinformatic techniques, can yield a previously unparalleled amount of data concerning the molecular and biochemical status of organisms. Fueled partially by large, well-publicized efforts such as the human genome project, genomic research has become a rapidly growing topical area in multiple biological disciplines. Since 1999 when the term toxicogenomics was coined to describe the application of genomics to toxicology, a citation analysis reveals a rapid increase in publications dealing with the topic. The potential utility of toxicogenomics in toxicological research and regulatory activities has been the subject of scientific discussions and, as with any new technology, there is a wide range of opinion. The purpose of this feature article is to consider roles of toxicogenomics in the field of regulatory ecotoxicology, explore current limitations in the science and practice of genomics, and propose possible avenues to approach and resolve some of the major challenges. A significant amount of input to our analysis came from a workshop sponsored by the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry in Pellston, MI in September, 2005.

  1. Clinical research: regulatory issues.

    PubMed

    Wermeling, D P

    1999-02-01

    The regulatory issues faced by institutions performing clinical research are described. Many institutions do not have on staff an expert who understands the regulatory issues involved in managing investigational new drug research and who knows the institution's obligations under the federal rules. Because pharmacists understand the FDA regulations that apply to the management of drugs in clinical research, institutions are asking pharmacists to expand their role and manage clinical research offices. Many authorities govern various aspects of investigational drug research. FDA has published regulations for good clinical practice (GCP), and the International Conference on Harmonisation is developing an international standard for the proper management of clinical trials. The guidelines published by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations aim to protect patients who are in the institution to receive health care and also participate in clinical trials. The Social Security Administration Acts specifically state that only items and services that are reasonable and necessary for the diagnosis and treatment of injury or disease can be billed to the government; research-related billings are excluded from coverage. Proper management of drug research is crucial to the success of a research program that is integrated with patient care.

  2. Regulatory considerations for biosimilars.

    PubMed

    Nellore, Ranjani

    2010-01-01

    Currently there is considerable interest in the legislative debate around generic biological drugs or "biosimilars" in the EU and US due to the large, lucrative market that it offers to the industry. While some countries have issued a few regulatory guidelines as well as product specific requirements, there is no general consensus as to a single, simple mechanism similar to the bioequivalence determination that leads to approval of generic small molecules all over the world. The inherent complex nature of the molecules, along with complicated manufacturing and analytical techniques to characterize them make it difficult to rely on a single human pharmacokinetic study for assurance of safety and efficacy. In general, the concept of comparability has been used for evaluation of the currently approved "similar" biological where a step by step assessment on the quality, preclinical and clinical aspects is made. In India, the focus is primarily on the availability and affordability of life-saving drugs. In this context every product needs to be evaluated on its own merit irrespective of the innovator brand. The formation of the National Biotechnology Regulatory Authority may provide a step in the right direction for regulation of these complex molecules. However, in order to have an efficient machinery for initial approval and ongoing oversight with a country-specific focus, cooperation with international authorities for granting approvals and continuous risk-benefit review is essential. Several steps are still needed for India to be perceived as a country that leads the world in providing quality biological products.

  3. Inner behavior: Empirical investigations of private events

    PubMed Central

    Calkin, Abigail B.

    2002-01-01

    The special section on private events in the Spring 2000 issue of The Behavior Analyst discussed the exploration of private events. The four articles focused on conceptualizations of issues related to private events and on behavior analysts' neglect of the area. This response cites 19 data-based articles and two doctoral dissertations involving measurement of what precision teachers term inner behavior—thoughts, feelings, and urges. Of the estimated 1.2 million standard celeration charts, at least 1,600 are inner behavior charts. These extensive data indicate that people can and do count and chart their inner behavior. This response discusses findings on inner behavior and its frequency, celeration (growth), variability, and improvement using antecedent and consequent events. PMID:22478390

  4. The evolving private psychiatric inpatient market.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, Erica C; Frank, Richard G; Glied, Sherry A

    2011-01-01

    The private psychiatric hospital market has exhibited great volatility over time. From 1976 to 1992, the number of hospitals more than doubled, while in the decade following, the number of facilities dropped by half. Recently, however, the industry has begun to grow again. The evolution of this market reflects the response of a private industry with access to capital markets to changes in both the supply of substitutes and the demand for services. Most recently, the limited supply of facilities and expanded demand for psychiatric services have spurred renewed growth. The two leading firms today, Universal Health Services, Inc., which rode the market crest and downturn since the 1980s, and Psychiatric Solutions, Inc., a newer entrant, have employed different strategies to take advantage of these opportunities. The rapid responsiveness of the private psychiatric hospital market, as exemplified by these two firms, presents significant potential for shaping future mental health policy.

  5. Bariatric surgery revisions and private health insurance.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Samantha B; Thompson, Campbell; Hakendorf, Paul; Horwood, Chris; McNaughton, Darlene; Gray, John; Ward, Paul R; Mwanri, Lillian; Booth, Sue; Kow, Lilian; Chisholm, Jacob

    2017-05-12

    To identify: 1. The percentage of bariatric procedures that are revisions; 2. What proportion of bariatric revision procedures in public hospitals are for patients whose primary weight loss procedure occurred in a private hospital; 3. The age, sex and level of socioeconomic disadvantage of patients needing revisions. An analysis of patient level admission data from the Integrated South Australian Activity Collection (ISAAC) was performed. Data were collected on all revisions for weight loss related procedures at all South Australian public and private hospitals, between 2000-2015 using the ISAAC codes for revision procedures. 12,606 bariatric procedures occurred in hospitals; ∼27% of which represent a revision (n=3366). Of these revisions, ∼82% occurred in a private hospital (n=2771), and ∼18% occurred in a public hospital (n=595). Of the 595 revisions in a public hospital, 51% of patients had their original bariatric procedure performed in a private hospital. The majority of patients who had a revision procedure are female (≥82%) with a mean age of ∼45. Individuals from the lowest 2 IRSD quintiles were over-represented for public hospital revisions and primary bariatric procedures. Further investigation is needed to identify: 1. Why 27% of bariatric procedures are revisions; 2. Why at least 51% of revisions in public hospitals are on patients whose original primary bariatric procedure was done in a private hospital; 3. The impact that revision procedures in public hospitals, particularly for originally private weight loss procedures, is having on public hospital wait times; 4. The impact of socioeconomic disadvantage on weight loss procedure outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. All rights reserved.

  6. Perchlorate Regulatory Determination Fact Sheets

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fact sheets have been developed for the perchlorate regulatory determination corresponding to the following stages published in the Federal Register: Final, Supplemental request for comments, and Preliminary.

  7. Experimental quantum private queries with linear optics

    SciTech Connect

    De Martini, Francesco; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Lloyd, Seth; Maccone, Lorenzo; Nagali, Eleonora; Sansoni, Linda; Sciarrino, Fabio

    2009-07-15

    The quantum private query is a quantum cryptographic protocol to recover information from a database, preserving both user and data privacy: the user can test whether someone has retained information on which query was asked and the database provider can test the amount of information released. Here we discuss a variant of the quantum private query algorithm that admits a simple linear optical implementation: it employs the photon's momentum (or time slot) as address qubits and its polarization as bus qubit. A proof-of-principle experimental realization is implemented.

  8. Public/private partnerships in managed care.

    PubMed

    Bredesen, P

    1994-01-01

    Although public/private partnerships are often viewed as mechanisms for using private monies to finance public needs, partnerships among health care providers, the business and legal communities, and the public sector offer promise as a way to realign the provision of health care to special-needs communities in the present era of managed care. In Nashville, Tennessee, such a partnership promises to provide efficient, state-of-the-art medical care through a centralized city-wide clinic for HIV-positive individuals.

  9. TWRS privatization: Phase I monitoring well engineering study and decommissioning plan

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, B.A.

    1996-09-11

    This engineering study evaluates all well owners and users, the status or intended use of each well, regulatory programs, and any future well needs or special purpose use for wells within the TWRS Privatization Phase I demonstration area. Based on the evaluation, the study recommends retaining 11 of the 21 total wells within the demonstration area and decommissioning four wells prior to construction activities per the Well Decommissioning Plan (WHC-SD-EN-AP-161, Rev. 0, Appendix I). Six wells were previously decommissioned.

  10. Regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Claire; Powrie, Fiona

    2004-08-01

    Regulatory T (TR) cells are a subset of T cells that function to control immune responses. Different populations of TR cells have been described, including thymically derived CD4(+)CD25+ TR cells and Tr1 cells induced in the periphery through exposure to antigen. A transcription factor, Foxp3, has been identified that is essential for CD4(+)CD25+ TR cell development and function. There is now evidence that transforming growth factor-beta might play a role in this pathway. CD4(+)CD25+ TR cells proliferate extensively in vivo in an antigen-specific manner, and can respond to both self and foreign peptides. By suppressing excessive immune responses, TR cells play a key role in the maintenance of self-tolerance, thus preventing autoimmune disease, as well as inhibiting harmful inflammatory diseases such as asthma and inflammatory bowel disease.

  11. Targeting regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Ménétrier-Caux, Christine; Curiel, Tyler; Faget, Julien; Manuel, Manuarii; Caux, Christophe; Zou, Weiping

    2012-03-01

    Cancers express tumor-associated antigens that should elicit immune response to antagonize the tumor growth, but spontaneous immune rejection of established cancer is rare, suggesting an immunosuppressive environment hindering host antitumor immunity. Among the specific and active tumor-mediated mechanisms, CD4(+)CD25(high) T regulatory cells (Treg) are important mediators of active immune evasion in cancer. In this review, we will discuss Treg subpopulations and the mechanisms of their suppressive functions. Treg depletion improves endogenous antitumor immunity and the efficacy of active immunotherapy in animal models for cancer, suggesting that inhibiting Treg function could also improve the limited successes of human cancer immunotherapy. We will also discuss specific strategies for devising effective cancer immunotherapy targeting Treg.

  12. Toxicogenomics in regulatory ecotoxicology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ankley, Gerald T.; Daston, George P.; Degitz, Sigmund J.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Hoke, Robert A.; Kennedy, Sean W.; Miracle, Ann L.; Perkins, Edward J.; Snape, Jason; Tillitt, Donald E.; Tyler, Charles R.; Versteeg, Donald

    2006-01-01

    Recently, we have witnessed an explosion of different genomic approaches that, through a combination of advanced biological, instrumental, and bioinformatic techniques, can yield a previously unparalleled amount of data concerning the molecular and biochemical status of organisms. Fueled partially by large, well-publicized efforts such as the Human Genome Project, genomic research has become a rapidly growing topical area in multiple biological disciplines. Since 1999, when the term “toxicogenomics” was coined to describe the application of genomics to toxicology (1), a rapid increase in publications on the topic has occurred (Figure 1). The potential utility of toxicogenomics in toxicological research and regulatory activities has been the subject of scientific discussions and, as with any new technology, has evoked a wide range of opinion (2–6).

  13. Regulatory Streamlining and Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Mark A. Carl

    2006-07-11

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) engaged in numerous projects outlined under the scope of work discussed in the United States Department of Energy (DOE) grant number DE-FC26-04NT15456 awarded to the IOGCC. Numerous projects were completed that were extremely valuable to state oil and gas agencies as a result of work performed utilizing resources provided by the grant. There are numerous areas in which state agencies still need assistance. This additional assistance will need to be addressed under future scopes of work submitted annually to DOE's Project Officer for this grant. This report discusses the progress of the projects outlined under the grant scope of work for the 2005-2006 areas of interest, which are as follows: Area of Interest No. 1--Regulatory Streamlining and Improvement: This area of interest continues to support IOGCC's regulatory streamlining efforts that include the identification and elimination of unnecessary duplications of efforts between and among state and federal programs dealing with exploration and production on public lands. Area of Interest No. 2--Technology: This area of interest seeks to improve efficiency in states through the identification of technologies that can reduce costs. Area of Interest No. 3--Training and Education: This area of interest is vital to upgrading the skills of regulators and industry alike. Within the National Energy Policy, there are many appropriate training and education opportunities. Education was strongly endorsed by the President's National Energy Policy Development group. Acting through the governors offices, states are very effective conduits for the dissemination of energy education information. While the IOGCC favors the development of a comprehensive, long-term energy education plan, states are also supportive of immediate action on important concerns, such as energy prices, availability and conservation. Area of Interest No. 4--Resource Assessment and Development: This area

  14. Regulatory Considerations for Biosimilars

    PubMed Central

    Nellore, Ranjani

    2010-01-01

    Currently there is considerable interest in the legislative debate around generic biological drugs or “biosimilars” in the EU and US due to the large, lucrative market that it offers to the industry. While some countries have issued a few regulatory guidelines as well as product specific requirements, there is no general consensus as to a single, simple mechanism similar to the bioequivalence determination that leads to approval of generic small molecules all over the world. The inherent complex nature of the molecules, along with complicated manufacturing and analytical techniques to characterize them make it difficult to rely on a single human pharmacokinetic study for assurance of safety and efficacy. In general, the concept of comparability has been used for evaluation of the currently approved “similar” biological where a step by step assessment on the quality, preclinical and clinical aspects is made. In India, the focus is primarily on the availability and affordability of life-saving drugs. In this context every product needs to be evaluated on its own merit irrespective of the innovator brand. The formation of the National Biotechnology Regulatory Authority may provide a step in the right direction for regulation of these complex molecules. However, in order to have an efficient machinery for initial approval and ongoing oversight with a country-specific focus, cooperation with international authorities for granting approvals and continuous risk-benefit review is essential. Several steps are still needed for India to be perceived as a country that leads the world in providing quality biological products. PMID:21829775

  15. 75 FR 54210 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ...-2010-032] Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of... Transactions August 30, 2010. On June 17, 2010, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc....

  16. Reverse Osmosis Filter Use and High Arsenic Levels in Private Well Water

    PubMed Central

    George, Christine M.; Smith, Allan H.; Kalman, David A.; Steinmaus, Craig M.

    2013-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic causes cancer, and millions of people worldwide are exposed to arsenic-contaminated water. Regulatory standards for arsenic levels in drinking water generally do not apply to private domestic wells. Reverse osmosis (RO) units commonly are used by well owners to reduce arsenic concentrations, but may not always be effective. In a survey of 102 homes in Nevada, 19 used RO devices. Pre- and post-RO filtration arsenic concentrations averaged 443 μg/l and 87 μg/l, respectively. The average absolute and percent reductions in arsenic concentrations after filtration were 356 μg/l and 79%, respectively. Postfiltration concentrations were higher than 10 μg/l in 10 homes and higher than 100 μg/l in 4 homes. These findings provide evidence that RO filters do not guarantee safe drinking water and, despite regulatory standards, some people continue to be exposed to very high arsenic concentrations. PMID:17867571

  17. Mechanisms behind privatization: a case study of private growth in Swedish elderly care.

    PubMed

    Stolt, Ragnar; Winblad, Ulrika

    2009-03-01

    For many years the Swedish Welfare State has been associated with a welfare model in which the public sector dominates both the provision and financing of the elderly care system. However, influenced by the ongoing trend of New Public Management, the past 15 years have been characterized by governmental regimes encouraging competition and as a result there has been a substantial increase in private providers. This case study on elderly care in Sweden provides new insights into the mechanisms behind the spread and growth of privatization. Our results show that in 1990 only 1% of the labour force in the elderly care sector was employed by private organizations, in comparison to 2003 when the private share had increased to 13%. The accompanying organizational changes have been controversial and are often criticized. In general, left-wing politicians have frequently defended the traditional welfare model dominated by public providers, whereas right-wing politicians have urged for a larger share of alternative providers. In this study, statistics between the years 1990 and 2003 were used to model the relationship between privatization and a number of economic, political and social/demographic variables. The results from regression and diffusion analysis imply that privately managed elderly care has established itself mainly in metropolitan areas dominated by right-wing regimes. Surprisingly, neighbouring municipalities tend to follow these pioneers irrespective of their political colour or economic situation. In fact, after shifting political power many of those neighbouring municipalities dominated by left-wing regimes not only maintain an abundance of private contractors but also encourage a continued process of contracting out publicly managed elderly care units. As a result, clusters of municipalities with an increasing degree of privatization arise despite political and economic differences. In conclusion, geographical proximity seems to be an important variable in

  18. Fundraising Basics for Private School Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Arthur H.

    This report examines the process behind setting up and implementing a "capital campaign," a program for raising money for new or renovated facilities at private K-12 schools. The report briefly covers tax information regarding gifts to institutions, then offers advice for setting up a comprehensive development program, including…

  19. Case study of virtual private network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Harold; Chung, Ping-Tsai

    2001-07-01

    In this study, business benefits for this Virtual Private Network (VPN) and protocols, techniques, equipments used in this VPN are reported. In addition, our design experience for fault tolerance, security and network management and administration on this VPN are showed. Finally, the issues for future planning of this VPN is addressed.

  20. Capital Financing For Private & Independent Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This paper is a primer for school boards and management. It provides a basic overview of the key issues, considerations and options associated with the use of debt by private schools to address facility financing needs. In addition, for a school which has decided to pursue debt financing, it provides basic guidelines for the choice of debt…

  1. A Partnership Experience in Private Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacino, Maria A.; Watkins, Alice; Warren, Susan R.; Yee-Sakamoto, Ivy; Lawson, Dan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to document the planning, process, and outcomes resulting from a partnership between two private, faith-based institutions a kindergarten through fifth grade (K-5) school and a university. A team of five university professors formed a partnership with the K-5 school in February 2003. The university faculty continues to…

  2. Survey Implications For Nonindustrial Private Lands

    Treesearch

    James W. Foster

    2001-01-01

    The 1995 forest survey data generally indicates that the physical conditions found in the nonindustrial private forests of Arkansas have improved since the 1988 survey. There is nothing in the data to suggest the need for public policy initiatives to correct current trends in the slowly changing conditions in the forests of the State.

  3. International Determinants of Private School Attendance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutkowski, Leslie; Rutkowski, David; Plucker, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The current study uses Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2006 data to investigate international determinants of private school attendance. In particular, we seek to understand whether student achievement and home background factors such as socioeconomic status (SES) or motivational and goal-oriented factors are more predictive…

  4. Neoliberal Ideology in a Private Sudbury School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Marguerite Anne Fillion

    2017-01-01

    Educational researchers have called attention to how neoliberal ideology has profoundly and detrimentally influenced public education systems, but less attention has been paid to how neoliberalism influences "private" educational institutions. This article examines the influence of neoliberal ideology on education in the USA through an…

  5. Parentally Placed Private School Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sopko, Kimberly M.

    2013-01-01

    This document focuses on state education agency (SEA) support for child find, consultation and provision of equitable service provisions for parentally placed private school students with disabilities. Project Forum at the National Association of State Directors of Special Education (NASDSE) completed this activity as part of its cooperative…

  6. A Survey of Idaho's Private Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catt, Andrew D.

    2014-01-01

    In this memo, we synthesize information collected recently in two private school surveys, one conducted by the U.S. Department of Education and another by the Friedman Foundation and the Idaho Federation of Independent Schools (IDFIS). After a brief description of the data sources, we present the key survey findings in two sections.

  7. Institutionalisation in a Newly Created Private University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodson, Peter; Connolly, Michael; Younes, Said

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the introduction of a quality assurance system in a new, private university in Syria, and considers the extent to which the theoretical model based on institutional theory and isomorphism is reflected in practice. Design/methodology/approach: A five year longitudinal study which reviews the design,…

  8. Privatization: A Drain on Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, James

    2012-01-01

    According to James Harvey, the scale of the 2011 effort to privatize public education through vouchers and charters is "staggering," representing the culmination of a 30-year assault on public service in general and public education in particular. At a time when states are staring into the abyss of bankruptcy, he notes, public funds intended for…

  9. Fundraising Basics for Private School Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Arthur H.

    2009-01-01

    This report examines the process behind setting up and implementing a "capital campaign": a program for raising money for new or renovated facilities at private K-12 schools. The report covers tax information regarding gifts to institutions then offers advice for setting up a comprehensive development program, including fundraising software and…

  10. Private Urban Renewal: A Neglected Urban Phenomenon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitz, Eileen

    This is a report on the process of private urban renewal of three areas in Washington, D.C. The areas are Georgetown, Capitol Hill and Adams-Morgan. The paper presents an analysis of general population trends and of the change in composition of the population in these three areas. Two general questions are raised: To what extent does the process…

  11. Private Black Colleges at the Crossroads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Daniel C.

    When the first black colleges were founded more than a century ago they filled an important need for youth who were denied access to all but a few white institutions. Today these same private colleges must compete with more affluent, prestigious white colleges and universities for funding and for black students and teachers. They are losing in…

  12. Commodity Administrative Manual. Public and Private Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This manual was developed for agencies receiving food commodities distributed to eligible schools and noneducational organizations by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) through the California State Department of Education's Office of Surplus Property. It covers rules, regulations, and forms for recipients who are public or private schools…

  13. Are Selective Private and Public Colleges Affordable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karikari, John A.; Dezhbakhsh, Hashem

    2013-01-01

    We examine college affordability under the existing pricing and financial aid system that awards both non need-based and need-based aid. Using data of freshmen attending a large number of selective private and public colleges in the USA, we find that the prices students actually pay for college have increased over time. Need-based grant aid has…

  14. Private Firms Run Two Mich. Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ash, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Educators and policy observers are keeping a close eye on two controversial experiments in private management of public schools now unfolding in the western Michigan city of Muskegon Heights and in the Detroit-area community of Highland Park. Citing chronic budget woes in the communities' low-performing school districts, Gov. Rick Snyder of…

  15. How Private Colleges Navigate Tough Economic Waters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiens, Janet

    2002-01-01

    Three presidents of private colleges and universities (Mercy College in New York, Ripon College in Wisconsin, and Pacific Lutheran University in Washington) tell how they are weathering the recent economic storm. At the heart of the lessons shared is having a plan and focusing on the services that are provided to students. (EV)

  16. 43 CFR 4750.1 - Private maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Private maintenance. 4750.1 Section 4750.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD...

  17. 43 CFR 4750.1 - Private maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Private maintenance. 4750.1 Section 4750.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD...

  18. 43 CFR 4750.1 - Private maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Private maintenance. 4750.1 Section 4750.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD...

  19. 43 CFR 4750.1 - Private maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Private maintenance. 4750.1 Section 4750.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD...

  20. Deprivatizing Private Education: The British Columbia Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barman, Jean

    1991-01-01

    The experience of British Columbia in deprivatizing private schools by requiring their registration and providing financial support is reviewed. It is argued that family choice and state control have grown dialectically. Government funding has created higher enrollments and new schools, but resultant public oversight ultimately constrains choice.…

  1. Are Selective Private and Public Colleges Affordable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karikari, John A.; Dezhbakhsh, Hashem

    2013-01-01

    We examine college affordability under the existing pricing and financial aid system that awards both non need-based and need-based aid. Using data of freshmen attending a large number of selective private and public colleges in the USA, we find that the prices students actually pay for college have increased over time. Need-based grant aid has…

  2. How Private Colleges Navigate Tough Economic Waters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiens, Janet

    2002-01-01

    Three presidents of private colleges and universities (Mercy College in New York, Ripon College in Wisconsin, and Pacific Lutheran University in Washington) tell how they are weathering the recent economic storm. At the heart of the lessons shared is having a plan and focusing on the services that are provided to students. (EV)

  3. Privatization of Early Childhood Education in Iceland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dýrfjörð, Kristín; Magnúsdóttir, Berglind Rós

    2016-01-01

    The overall aim of this paper is to give a comprehensive picture of the marketization of early childhood education in Iceland. Our theoretical framework is based on Hursh's (2007) analysis of how the governance of schools is reshaped to serve a neoliberal agenda with the help of internal and external privatization (Ball and Youdell, 2007). In this…

  4. Private Industry and the Disadvantaged Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelly (E.F.) and Co., New York, NY.

    Although publicized figures indicate that private industry has hired over 100,000 "hard-core" nationally, this study identified less than 10,000 persons who were receiving special training. Data on the successes, failures and problems of training programs were obtained by questionnaire from 224 companies with a total work force of over…

  5. Private Cloud Communities for Faculty and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomal, Daniel R.; Grant, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Massive open online courses (MOOCs) and public and private cloud communities continue to flourish in the field of higher education. However, MOOCs have received criticism in recent years and offer little benefit to students already enrolled at an institution. This article advocates for the collaborative creation and use of institutional, program…

  6. 75 FR 39091 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... Mu oz Mar n International Airport (SJU), San Juan, Puerto Rico. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has completed its review of the Luis Mu oz Mar n International Airport International Airport... submitted a preliminary application to the Airport Privatization Pilot Program for Luis Mu oz Mar n...

  7. The Educational Attitudes of Private School Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cookson, Peter W., Jr.

    Values about education held by private school educators tend to be those best suited to preparing their mostly middle- and upper-middle-class students for managerial and professional careers. Social scientists have hypothesized that schools readying students for social leadership will stress internalized student behavior norms instead of obedience…

  8. Australia's First Public Private Partnership School Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The design and construction of nine schools has commenced in Australia using a Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) methodology. This is the first project in Australia where social infrastructure has been acquired in this way. The Australian project is being managed by the New South Wales (NSW) State Government through its Department of Education…

  9. Private Actors and the Right to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsera, Maria Ron; Dorsi, Delphine; Termes, Andreu; Bonal, Xavier; Verger, Antoni; Gonzalez Diaz, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Privatisation of education is on the rise, being offered as the best alternative to achieve universal education and improve its quality and cost-efficiency. However, the benefits of the entry of private providers in education are highly controversial and tend to be judged in terms of market criteria such as choice and efficiency, neglecting the…

  10. Public/Private Partnerships for New Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Matthew C.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how colleges can finance new construction projects during lean financial times by employing public/private partnerships in an off-balance sheet financing format. Construction planning of a new school parking deck is used to illustrate the process. Benefits of savings in operating costs, management fees, and other line-item expenses are…

  11. Private finance initiative. Well-laid plans.

    PubMed

    Player, S; Godden, S; Pollock, A

    1999-11-04

    Private finance schemes in primary care will not be subject to the controls required in hospital programmes. Insurance companies are interested in partnerships with primary care in order to influence NHS spending as services are increasingly contracted out. This state of affairs could lead to the introduction of US-style managed care with a loss of equity for patients.

  12. Privatization of Education: An Ongoing Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IIEP Newsletter, 2001

    2001-01-01

    This newsletter focuses on matters related to the privatization of education in different contexts around the world. Over the past few years, the International Institute for Educational Planning has carried out a number of studies in a wide range of contexts to identify what the real-life experiments in school organization are, why they have…

  13. Fall 1983 Freshmen at Private Black Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Kathleen

    1984-01-01

    Results of a 1983 study of freshmen at private black four-year colleges and a comparison to freshmen at all four-year colleges are presented. Attention is directed to the educational, financial, and family backgrounds of the students, as well as their aspirations and interests. Data were obtained from "The American Freshman: National Norms for…

  14. The Future of Private Practice in Audiology.

    PubMed

    Fabry, David A

    2016-11-01

    Although private practice in audiology has evolved during the past 40 years, hearing aids have remained as a central component to success. This article will discuss present and future trends for the next 40 years, including parallels to other professions and the need to innovate beyond technology.

  15. Parentally Placed Private School Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sopko, Kimberly M.

    2013-01-01

    This document focuses on state education agency (SEA) support for child find, consultation and provision of equitable service provisions for parentally placed private school students with disabilities. Project Forum at the National Association of State Directors of Special Education (NASDSE) completed this activity as part of its cooperative…

  16. Commentary: Is Teaching Privately Academic Freedom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Harold B.

    2009-01-01

    In this commentary, the author contends that, if teaching became less private and faculty interacted with each other about teaching more in the way they discuss research, the quality of education would improve. He discusses some ways to facilitate that interaction. In the author's own experience, actually sitting in on a course taught by a…

  17. Private School Practices Can Help Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Neal C.

    1985-01-01

    If public schools would emulate private schools in the following four inexpensive ways, they would enhance their chance of survival: (1) involve parents better, (2) increase expectations for students, (3) seek financial support to enhance school operation, and (4) advertise better. (DCS)

  18. Trends in Private Higher Education in Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilak, Jandhyala B. G.

    2009-01-01

    There has been rapid growth in private higher education in most countries, including in Asia, during the last two-three decades. This growth, mostly motivated by profit, has had an effect on education and development in general and caused loss of equity--both social and economic, an increase in regional disparities, an erosion in quality, a change…

  19. Flight Instruction and the Private Pilot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Louis T.

    1975-01-01

    Reports the results of a questionnaire designed to assess the quality of flight instruction given to the private pilot. Areas covered included preparedness of the flight instructor, attitude of the instructor, teaching methods employed, cost of obtaining a license, and condition of the aircraft used. (GS)

  20. Private Pilot Ground School Course. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual consists of 10 lesson plans for use by instructors teaching a private pilot ground school course. Addressed in the individual lesson plans are the following topics: aerodynamics and principles of flight, flight instruments and systems, operational publications, regulations, airplane operations, engine operations, radio communications,…

  1. Private Actors and the Right to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsera, Maria Ron; Dorsi, Delphine; Termes, Andreu; Bonal, Xavier; Verger, Antoni; Gonzalez Diaz, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Privatisation of education is on the rise, being offered as the best alternative to achieve universal education and improve its quality and cost-efficiency. However, the benefits of the entry of private providers in education are highly controversial and tend to be judged in terms of market criteria such as choice and efficiency, neglecting the…

  2. Australia's First Public Private Partnership School Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The design and construction of nine schools has commenced in Australia using a Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) methodology. This is the first project in Australia where social infrastructure has been acquired in this way. The Australian project is being managed by the New South Wales (NSW) State Government through its Department of Education…

  3. Public/Private Partnerships for New Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Matthew C.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how colleges can finance new construction projects during lean financial times by employing public/private partnerships in an off-balance sheet financing format. Construction planning of a new school parking deck is used to illustrate the process. Benefits of savings in operating costs, management fees, and other line-item expenses are…

  4. Private versus Public? Where the Twain Meet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Patricia M.

    1979-01-01

    The careers of George N. Rainsford, president of Kalamazoo College, and John T. Bernhard, president of Western Michigan University, and their commitment to institutional cooperation are described. Government control over institutions, the Kalamazoo Consortium, and private-public cooperation at the local, state, and national levels are discussed.…

  5. Ohio Schools and Privatization: Opportunity or Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, William

    Food service, transportation and building cleaning and maintenance are big business and are seen as candidates for privatization. In Ohio, a 30-item questionnaire was developed for the state's school district superintendents. Results were generated from the 143 questionnaires that were returned (70 percent response rate). Findings show that Ohio's…

  6. Legal Problems of Religious and Private Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.

    The range of nonpublic schools in the United States is considerable, from home instruction by parents to prestigious private schools, with or without religious affiliation. The continuing growth in nonpublic education can hardly be blamed on a disenchantment with or an apathy toward public schools; the central common denominator is a basic concern…

  7. The private sector invades medicare's home town

    PubMed Central

    Gray, C

    1998-01-01

    If Canada's medicare system has a home town it is probably Ottawa, where the system was first welded together 30 years ago. Charlotte Gray reports that there is a certain irony now that examples of private health care are sprouting up in the nations's capital. PMID:9700332

  8. Brazil's Mixed Public and Private Hospital System.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Maureen; Penteado, Evandro; Malik, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    Brazil's hospital sector is vibrant and growing. Under the 1988 Brazilian constitution all citizens have the right to health care, anticipating the global commitment to Universal Health Care. Brazil's public sector prides itself on having one of the world's largest single payer health care systems, but complementing that is a significant and larger private sector that is seeing big increase in investment, utilization and prices. This article outlines the structure of the hospital system and analyzes the nature and direction of private health sector expansion. Twenty-six percent of Brazilians have private health insurance and although coverage is concentrated in the urban areas of the Southeastern part of the country, it is growing across the nation. The disease burden shift to chronic diseases affects the nature of demand and the directly affects overall health care costs, which are rising rapidly outstripping national inflation by a factor of 3. Increasingly costs will have to be brought under control to maintain the viability of the private sector. Adaption of integrated care networks and strengthening of the public reimbursement system represent important areas for improvement.

  9. 28 CFR 36.501 - Private suits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Enforcement § 36.501 Private suits. (a) General. Any person who is....402, 36.403, and 36.405 of this part, injunctive relief shall include an order to alter facilities to make such facilities readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities to the...

  10. Privacy and the Private Eye in Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, William E.

    Land remote-sensing satellites are developing as a commercial communications technology after years under a government monopoly. The shift to the private sector and improving quality of the pictures produced have given rise to increased concerns about the potential for violations of privacy rights. Although satellites can currently photograph only…

  11. Private School Universe Survey, 1997-98.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broughman, Stephen P.; Colaciello, Lenore A.

    This report on the private school universe presents data on K-12 schools broken down by school size, school level, religious orientation, geographical region, community type, and program emphasis. The number of students and teachers is reported in the same categories. The number of students is also reported by race-ethnicity, gender, and grade…

  12. The Educational Attitudes of Private School Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cookson, Peter W., Jr.

    Values about education held by private school educators tend to be those best suited to preparing their mostly middle- and upper-middle-class students for managerial and professional careers. Social scientists have hypothesized that schools readying students for social leadership will stress internalized student behavior norms instead of obedience…

  13. Reinforcing Consent as a "Private Facts" Defense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberman, David A.

    To delineate the ideas of newsworthiness and consent as they apply to journalism and private facts lawsuits (those in which plaintiffs seek to stop publication of facts about themselves), this paper covers key areas of dispute. Various sections of the paper discuss (1) the definition of newsworthiness, (2) consent as a legal defense, (3) the…

  14. Fall 1983 Freshmen at Private Black Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Kathleen

    1984-01-01

    Results of a 1983 study of freshmen at private black four-year colleges and a comparison to freshmen at all four-year colleges are presented. Attention is directed to the educational, financial, and family backgrounds of the students, as well as their aspirations and interests. Data were obtained from "The American Freshman: National Norms for…

  15. The Bologna Process and Private Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dima, Ana-Maria

    2009-01-01

    Privatisation in higher education is not a new phenomenon for Western European countries. Authors like Geiger (1986), Levy (2008) and Altbach (1999) made challenging predictions in the 1970s and early 1980s that the private sector would inexorably diminish in size and significance. These predictions were triggered by globalisation and the…

  16. International Determinants of Private School Attendance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutkowski, Leslie; Rutkowski, David; Plucker, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The current study uses Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2006 data to investigate international determinants of private school attendance. In particular, we seek to understand whether student achievement and home background factors such as socioeconomic status (SES) or motivational and goal-oriented factors are more predictive…

  17. Private Urban Renewal: A Neglected Urban Phenomenon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitz, Eileen

    This is a report on the process of private urban renewal of three areas in Washington, D.C. The areas are Georgetown, Capitol Hill and Adams-Morgan. The paper presents an analysis of general population trends and of the change in composition of the population in these three areas. Two general questions are raised: To what extent does the process…

  18. Legal Problems of Religious and Private Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.

    The range of nonpublic schools in the United States is considerable, from home instruction by parents to prestigious private schools, with or without religious affiliation. The continuing growth in nonpublic education can hardly be blamed on a disenchantment with or an apathy toward public schools; the central common denominator is a basic concern…

  19. Risky Business: Private Management of Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Craig E.; And Others

    Contracting in public education is not a new development. This book examines projects that transfer the management of entire schools or school systems to private firms. Chapter 1, by Rima Shore, is a comprehensive survey of the practice of contracting out in public education. It provides a broad historical background for the U.S. education system…

  20. The private forest landowners of Minnesota--1982.

    Treesearch

    Eugene M. Carpenter; Mark H. Hansen; Dennis M. St. John

    1986-01-01

    Presents the results of a mail canvass of nonindustrial private forest landowners in Minnesota to relate owner attitudes and intentions concerning ownership, management, harvest and recreational use of their forest property. Provides 55 tables contrasting owner characteristics, management actions, and attitudes for the state and its four survey units.