Science.gov

Sample records for regulatory processes final

  1. Regulatory process for decommissioning nuclear power reactors. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    This report provides regulatory guidance for utilities consistent with the changes in the decommissioning rule, 10 CFR50.82 as revised in July 1996. The purpose of this report is to explain the new rule in the context of related industry experience and to provide practical guidance to licensees contemplating or implementing a shutdown. Because the regulatory process is still rapidly evolving, this report reflects only a current status of the acceptable methods and practices derived from a review of the current regulations, guidance documents and industry experience for decommissioning a nuclear power reactor. EPRI anticipates periodic updates of this document to incorporate various utility experiences with decommissioning, and also to reflect any regulatory changes. The report provides a summary of ongoing federal agency and industry activities and the regulatory requirements that are currently applicable, or no longer applicable, to nuclear power plants at the time of permanent shutdown through the early decommissioning stage. The report describes the major components of a typical decommissioning action plan, providing industry experience and guidance for licensees considering or implementing permanent shutdown.

  2. Final Regulatory Determination for Special Wastes From Mineral Processing (Mining Waste Exclusion) - Federal Register Notice, June 13, 1991

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This action presents the Agency's final regulatory determination required by section 3001(b)(3)(C) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) for 20 special wastes from the processing of ores and minerals.

  3. 76 FR 19817 - Final Regulatory Guide: Issuance, Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ... Branch, Division of Engineering, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Final Regulatory Guide: Issuance, Availability AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission....

  4. 75 FR 36715 - Final Regulatory Guide: Issuance, Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ..., Division of Engineering, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Final Regulatory Guide: Issuance, Availability AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission....

  5. Select Biosolids Regulatory Processes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Historical Regulatory Development and activities EPA has undertaken to respond to statutory obligations, respond to the National Academy of Sciences, understand pollutants that may occur in sewage sludge, and address dioxins in sewage sludge.

  6. Final Report - Regulatory Considerations for Adaptive Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, Chris; Lynch, Jonathan; Bharadwaj, Raj

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the findings of a preliminary research study into new approaches to the software design assurance of adaptive systems. We suggest a methodology to overcome the software validation and verification difficulties posed by the underlying assumption of non-adaptive software in the requirementsbased- testing verification methods in RTCA/DO-178B and C. An analysis of the relevant RTCA/DO-178B and C objectives is presented showing the reasons for the difficulties that arise in showing satisfaction of the objectives and suggested additional means by which they could be satisfied. We suggest that the software design assurance problem for adaptive systems is principally one of developing correct and complete high level requirements and system level constraints that define the necessary system functional and safety properties to assure the safe use of adaptive systems. We show how analytical techniques such as model based design, mathematical modeling and formal or formal-like methods can be used to both validate the high level functional and safety requirements, establish necessary constraints and provide the verification evidence for the satisfaction of requirements and constraints that supplements conventional testing. Finally the report identifies the follow-on research topics needed to implement this methodology.

  7. Gravimelt Process development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-06-01

    This final report contains the results of a bench-scale program to continue the development of the TRW proprietary Gravimelt Process for chemically cleaning coal. This project consisted of two major efforts, a laboratory study aimed at identifying parameters which would influence the operation of a bench unit for desulfurization and demineralization of coal and the design, construction and operation of two types of continuous plug-flow type bench-scale fused caustic leachers. This present bench scale project has demonstrated modes for the continuous operation of fused caustic leaching of coal at coal throughputs of 1 to 5 pounds per hour. The remaining process unit operations of leach solutions regeneration and coal washing and filtration should be tested at bench scale together with fused caustic leaching of coal to demonstrate the complete Gravimelt Process. 22 figures, 11 tables.

  8. Bioattractors: dynamical systems theory and the evolution of regulatory processes

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, Johannes; Monk, Nick

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we illustrate how dynamical systems theory can provide a unifying conceptual framework for evolution of biological regulatory systems. Our argument is that the genotype–phenotype map can be characterized by the phase portrait of the underlying regulatory process. The features of this portrait – such as attractors with associated basins and their bifurcations – define the regulatory and evolutionary potential of a system. We show how the geometric analysis of phase space connects Waddington's epigenetic landscape to recent computational approaches for the study of robustness and evolvability in network evolution. We discuss how the geometry of phase space determines the probability of possible phenotypic transitions. Finally, we demonstrate how the active, self-organizing role of the environment in phenotypic evolution can be understood in terms of dynamical systems concepts. This approach yields mechanistic explanations that go beyond insights based on the simulation of evolving regulatory networks alone. Its predictions can now be tested by studying specific, experimentally tractable regulatory systems using the tools of modern systems biology. A systematic exploration of such systems will enable us to understand better the nature and origin of the phenotypic variability, which provides the substrate for evolution by natural selection. PMID:24882812

  9. 33 CFR 1.05-10 - Regulatory process overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Regulatory process overview. 1.05... GENERAL GENERAL PROVISIONS Rulemaking § 1.05-10 Regulatory process overview. (a) Most rules of local... (defined by Executive Order 12866, Regulatory Planning and Review) and non-significant rulemaking,...

  10. Technical support for the Ohio Clean Coal Technology Program. Volume 2, Baseline of knowledge concerning process modification opportunities, research needs, by-product market potential, and regulatory requirements: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Olfenbuttel, R.; Clark, S.; Helper, E.; Hinchee, R.; Kuntz, C.; Means, J.; Oxley, J.; Paisley, M.; Rogers, C.; Sheppard, W.; Smolak, L.

    1989-08-28

    This report was prepared for the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) under Grant Agreement No. CDO/R-88-LR1 and comprises two volumes. Volume 1 presents data on the chemical, physical, and leaching characteristics of by-products from a wide variety of clean coal combustion processes. Volume 2 consists of a discussion of (a) process modification waste minimization opportunities and stabilization considerations; (b) research and development needs and issues relating to clean coal combustion technologies and by-products; (c) the market potential for reusing or recycling by-product materials; and (d) regulatory considerations relating to by-product disposal or reuse.

  11. Modeling Dynamic Regulatory Processes in Stroke.

    SciTech Connect

    McDermott, Jason E.; Jarman, Kenneth D.; Taylor, Ronald C.; Lancaster, Mary J.; Shankaran, Harish; Vartanian, Keri B.; Stevens, S.L.; Stenzel-Poore, Mary; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.

    2012-10-11

    The ability to examine in silico the behavior of biological systems can greatly accelerate the pace of discovery in disease pathologies, such as stroke, where in vivo experimentation is lengthy and costly. In this paper we describe an approach to in silico examination of blood genomic responses to neuroprotective agents and subsequent stroke through the development of dynamic models of the regulatory processes observed in the experimental gene expression data. First, we identified functional gene clusters from these data. Next, we derived ordinary differential equations (ODEs) relating regulators and functional clusters from the data. These ODEs were used to develop dynamic models that simulate the expression of regulated functional clusters using system dynamics as the modeling paradigm. The dynamic model has the considerable advantage of only requiring an initial starting state, and does not require measurement of regulatory influences at each time point in order to make accurate predictions. The manipulation of input model parameters, such as changing the magnitude of gene expression, made it possible to assess the behavior of the networks through time under varying conditions. We report that an optimized dynamic model can provide accurate predictions of overall system behavior under several different preconditioning paradigms.

  12. 75 FR 79049 - Final Regulatory Guide: Issuance, Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ...: Notice of Issuance and Availability of Regulatory Guide (RG) 5.80, ``Pressure-Sensitive and Tamper..., ``Pressure-Sensitive and Tamper-Indicating Device Seals for Material Control and Accounting of Special... regulatory guide replaces the existing RG 5.10, ``Selection and Use of Pressure-Sensitive Seals on...

  13. Regulatory gene networks and the properties of the developmental process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Eric H.; McClay, David R.; Hood, Leroy

    2003-01-01

    Genomic instructions for development are encoded in arrays of regulatory DNA. These specify large networks of interactions among genes producing transcription factors and signaling components. The architecture of such networks both explains and predicts developmental phenomenology. Although network analysis is yet in its early stages, some fundamental commonalities are already emerging. Two such are the use of multigenic feedback loops to ensure the progressivity of developmental regulatory states and the prevalence of repressive regulatory interactions in spatial control processes. Gene regulatory networks make it possible to explain the process of development in causal terms and eventually will enable the redesign of developmental regulatory circuitry to achieve different outcomes.

  14. 76 FR 24539 - Final Regulatory Guide: Issuance, Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ...: Notice of Issuance and Availability of Regulatory Guide (RG) 3.67, ``Standard Format and Content for... and Content for Emergency Plans for Fuel Cycle and Materials Facilities'' was issued for...

  15. Two regional regulatory meetings on distributed resources. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    2001-02-01

    An overview and discussion of Eastern Regional and Western Regional State Utility Regulators Workshops on Distributed Resources (DR) is given. The purpose of the workshops was for state regulators to learn about DR and the regulatory issues surrounding their greater use. The following issues were addressed: introduction to DR technologies and their potential benefits, interconnection and market barriers, regulatory incentives, rate design issues, and environmental issues.

  16. 76 FR 189 - Final Regulatory Guide: Issuance, Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ...: Notice of Issuance and Availability of Regulatory Guide 3.71, Revision 2, ``Nuclear Criticality Safety... endorses specific nuclear criticality safety standards developed by the American Nuclear Society's... Criticality Safety Standards for Fuels and Material Facilities,'' was issued with a temporary...

  17. The Michigan regulatory incentives study for electric utilities. Phase 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, M.W.; Weaver, E.M.

    1991-06-17

    This is the final report of Phase I of the Michigan Regulatory Incentives Study for Electric Utilities, a three-phase review of Michigan`s regulatory system and its effects on resource selection by electric utilities. The goal of Phase I is to identify and analyze financial incentive mechanisms that encourage selection of resources in accord with the principles of integrated resource planning (IRP) or least-cost planning (LCP). Subsequent study phases will involve further analysis of options and possibly a collaborative formal effort to propose regulatory changes. The Phase I analysis proceeded in three steps: (1) identification and review of existing regulatory practices that affect utilities; selection of resources, particularly DSM; (2) preliminary analysis of ten financial mechanisms, and selection of three for further study; (3) detailed analysis of the three mechanisms, including consideration of how they could be implemented in Michigan and financial modeling of their likely impacts on utilities and ratepayers.

  18. Intergenerational Transmission of Aggression: Physiological Regulatory Processes

    PubMed Central

    Margolin, Gayla; Ramos, Michelle C.; Timmons, Adela C.; Miller, Kelly F.; Han, Sohyun C.

    2015-01-01

    Children who grow up in aggressive households are at risk of having problems with physiological regulation, but researchers have not investigated physiology as a mechanism in the intergenerational transmission of aggression. In this article, we posit that physiological regulation, particularly during stressful interpersonal interactions, may shed light on sensitivity to conflict, It can also inform our understanding of associations between childhood exposure to aggression in families of origin and aggression against partners in adolescence or adulthood. In support of this model, we highlight findings showing that childhood exposure to family aggression relates to physiological regulation across the life span, and that reactions to physiological stress concurrently relate to aggression against intimate partners. Emerging evidence from research on biological processes during stressful interpersonal interactions raises questions about what is adaptive for individuals from aggressive families, particularly as past family experiences intersect with the challenges of new relationships. PMID:26929773

  19. Regulatory process for nuclear power reactors: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Ahearne, J.F.

    1999-08-01

    This report examines Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) operational practices and its regulation of nuclear plants. The report focuses on 13 issues that affect interactions among NRC, industry, and the public: Issues of implementation include safety philosophy, the assessment process, the inspection process, and the enforcement process; Emerging issues include decommissioning of nuclear plants, license transfer, license renewal, and the move toward risk-informed regulation; NRC processes include the license amendment process, the hearing process, petitions under 10 CFR 2.206, the rule-making process, and the backfit rule.

  20. ATAC Process Proof of Concept Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bri Rolston; Sarah Freeman

    2014-03-01

    Researchers at INL with funding from the Department of Energy’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE-OE) evaluated a novel approach for near real-time consumption of threat intelligence. Demonstration testing in an industry environment supported the development of this new process to assist the electric sector in securing their critical networks. This report provides the reader with an understanding of the methods used during this proof of concept project. The processes and templates were further advanced with an industry partner during an onsite assessment. This report concludes with lessons learned and a roadmap for final development of these materials for use by industry.

  1. CROW{trademark} process modeling. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The Western Research Institute (WRI) has patented a technology (CROW{trademark}) for the recovery of oily contaminants from water-saturated formations. The CROW process uses either hot water or low-pressure steam to flush contaminants to the surface by means of production wells. CROW is typically applied to highly permeable aquifers that have been invaded by organics such as coal tars or chemical solvents. In conceptualizing a model of the CROW process, we draw an analogy between flushing organics from an organic-contaminated aquifer and producing oil from a petroleum reservoir. The organic-contaminated aquifer can be represented as a petroleum reservoir. The injection of water or steam and production of water/organic admixtures can be described by standard reservoir well equations. Finally, the movement of organic and water within the aquifer can be represented by Darcy flow of the individual phases. Thus, in modeling the CROW process, it is reasonable to assume that a petroleum reservoir simulator would accurately portray the recovery of organics from a contaminated aquifer. Of course, the reservoir simulator would need to incorporate thermal aspects of Darcy flow to accurately represent recovery during CROW processing.

  2. FINAL REPORT: Transformational electrode drying process

    SciTech Connect

    Claus Daniel, C.; Wixom, M.

    2013-12-19

    This report includes major findings and outlook from the transformational electrode drying project performance period from January 6, 2012 to August 1, 2012. Electrode drying before cell assembly is an operational bottleneck in battery manufacturing due to long drying times and batch processing. Water taken up during shipment and other manufacturing steps needs to be removed before final battery assembly. Conventional vacuum ovens are limited in drying speed due to a temperature threshold needed to avoid damaging polymer components in the composite electrode. Roll to roll operation and alternative treatments can increase the water desorption and removal rate without overheating and damaging other components in the composite electrode, thus considerably reducing drying time and energy use. The objective of this project was the development of an electrode drying procedure, and the demonstration of processes with no decrease in battery performance. The benchmark for all drying data was an 80°C vacuum furnace treatment with a residence time of 18 – 22 hours. This report demonstrates an alternative roll to roll drying process with a 500-fold improvement in drying time down to 2 minutes and consumption of only 30% of the energy compared to vacuum furnace treatment.

  3. Fundamental Processes in Plasmas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neil, Thomas M.; Driscoll, C. Fred

    2009-11-30

    This research focuses on fundamental processes in plasmas, and emphasizes problems for which precise experimental tests of theory can be obtained. Experiments are performed on non-neutral plasmas, utilizing three electron traps and one ion trap with a broad range of operating regimes and diagnostics. Theory is focused on fundamental plasma and fluid processes underlying collisional transport and fluid turbulence, using both analytic techniques and medium-scale numerical simulations. The simplicity of these systems allows a depth of understanding and a precision of comparison between theory and experiment which is rarely possible for neutral plasmas in complex geometry. The recent work has focused on three areas in basic plasma physics. First, experiments and theory have probed fundamental characteristics of plasma waves: from the low-amplitude thermal regime, to inviscid damping and fluid echoes, to cold fluid waves in cryogenic ion plasmas. Second, the wide-ranging effects of dissipative separatrices have been studied experimentally and theoretically, finding novel wave damping and coupling effects and important plasma transport effects. Finally, correlated systems have been investigated experimentally and theoretically: UCSD experients have now measured the Salpeter correlation enhancement, and theory work has characterized the 'guiding center atoms of antihydrogen created at CERN.

  4. Regulatory hurdles for genome editing: process- vs. product-based approaches in different regulatory contexts.

    PubMed

    Sprink, Thorben; Eriksson, Dennis; Schiemann, Joachim; Hartung, Frank

    2016-07-01

    Novel plant genome editing techniques call for an updated legislation regulating the use of plants produced by genetic engineering or genome editing, especially in the European Union. Established more than 25 years ago and based on a clear distinction between transgenic and conventionally bred plants, the current EU Directives fail to accommodate the new continuum between genetic engineering and conventional breeding. Despite the fact that the Directive 2001/18/EC contains both process- and product-related terms, it is commonly interpreted as a strictly process-based legislation. In view of several new emerging techniques which are closer to the conventional breeding than common genetic engineering, we argue that it should be actually interpreted more in relation to the resulting product. A legal guidance on how to define plants produced by exploring novel genome editing techniques in relation to the decade-old legislation is urgently needed, as private companies and public researchers are waiting impatiently with products and projects in the pipeline. We here outline the process in the EU to develop a legislation that properly matches the scientific progress. As the process is facing several hurdles, we also compare with existing frameworks in other countries and discuss ideas for an alternative regulatory system.

  5. 40 CFR 61.134 - Standard: Naphthalene processing, final coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene Emissions from Coke By-Product Recovery Plants § 61.134... are allowed from naphthalene processing, final coolers and final-cooler cooling towers at coke...

  6. 40 CFR 61.134 - Standard: Naphthalene processing, final coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene Emissions from Coke By-Product Recovery Plants § 61.134... are allowed from naphthalene processing, final coolers and final-cooler cooling towers at coke...

  7. 40 CFR 61.134 - Standard: Naphthalene processing, final coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene Emissions from Coke By-Product Recovery Plants § 61.134... are allowed from naphthalene processing, final coolers and final-cooler cooling towers at coke...

  8. 40 CFR 61.134 - Standard: Naphthalene processing, final coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene Emissions from Coke By-Product Recovery Plants § 61.134... are allowed from naphthalene processing, final coolers and final-cooler cooling towers at coke...

  9. 40 CFR 61.134 - Standard: Naphthalene processing, final coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene Emissions from Coke By-Product Recovery Plants § 61.134... are allowed from naphthalene processing, final coolers and final-cooler cooling towers at coke...

  10. Process improvement for regulatory analyses of custom-blend fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Wegner, Keith A

    2014-01-01

    Chemical testing of custom-blend fertilizers is essential to ensure that the products meet the formulation requirements. For purposes of proper crop nutrition and consumer protection, regulatory oversight promotes compliance and particular attention to blending and formulation specifications. Analyses of custom-blend fertilizer products must be performed and reported within a very narrow window in order to be effective. The Colorado Department of Agriculture's Biochemistry Laboratory is an ISO 17025 accredited facility and conducts analyses of custom-blend fertilizer products primarily during the spring planting season. Using the Lean Six Sigma (LSS) process, the Biochemistry Laboratory has reduced turnaround times from as much as 45 days to as little as 3 days. The LSS methodology focuses on waste reduction through identifying: non-value-added steps, unneeded process reviews, optimization of screening and confirmatory analyses, equipment utilization, nonessential reporting requirements, and inefficient personnel deployment. Eliminating these non-value-added activities helped the laboratory significantly shorten turnaround time and reduce costs. Key improvement elements discovered during the LSS process included: focused sample tracking, equipment redundancy, strategic supply stocking, batch size optimization, critical sample paths, elimination of nonessential QC reviews, and more efficient personnel deployment.

  11. FY-2010 Process Monitoring Technology Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Orton, Christopher R.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Casella, Amanda J.; Hines, Wes; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; henkell, J.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Jordan, Elizabeth A.; Lines, Amanda M.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Peterson, James M.; Verdugo, Dawn E.; Christensen, Ronald N.; Peper, Shane M.

    2011-01-01

    During FY 2010, work under the Spectroscopy-Based Process Monitoring task included ordering and receiving four fluid flow meters and four flow visible-near infrared spectrometer cells to be instrumented within the centrifugal contactor system at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Initial demonstrations of real-time spectroscopic measurements on cold-stream simulants were conducted using plutonium (Pu)/uranium (U) (PUREX) solvent extraction process conditions. The specific test case examined the extraction of neodymium nitrate (Nd(NO3)3) from an aqueous nitric acid (HNO3) feed into a tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)/ n-dodecane solvent. Demonstration testing of this system included diverting a sample from the aqueous feed meanwhile monitoring the process in every phase using the on-line spectroscopic process monitoring system. The purpose of this demonstration was to test whether spectroscopic monitoring is capable of determining the mass balance of metal nitrate species involved in a cross-current solvent extraction scheme while also diverting a sample from the system. The diversion scenario involved diverting a portion of the feed from a counter-current extraction system while a continuous extraction experiment was underway. A successful test would demonstrate the ability of the process monitoring system to detect and quantify the diversion of material from the system during a real-time continuous solvent extraction experiment. The system was designed to mimic a PUREX-type extraction process with a bank of four centrifugal contactors. The aqueous feed contained Nd(NO3)3 in HNO3, and the organic phase was composed of TBP/n-dodecane. The amount of sample observed to be diverted by on-line spectroscopic process monitoring was measured to be 3 mmol (3 x 10-3 mol) Nd3+. This value was in excellent agreement with the 2.9 mmol Nd3+ value based on the known mass of sample taken (i.e., diverted) directly from the system feed solution.

  12. 33 CFR 1.05-10 - Regulatory process overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-10 Section 1.05-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... begins when an office chief with program responsibilities identifies a possible need for a new regulation... significant regulatory approach is developed, a significant regulatory project proposal is submitted to...

  13. A multilevel examination of the relationships among training outcomes, mediating regulatory processes, and adaptive performance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gilad; Thomas, Brian; Wallace, J Craig

    2005-09-01

    This study examined whether cognitive, affective-motivational, and behavioral training outcomes relate to posttraining regulatory processes and adaptive performance similarly at the individual and team levels of analysis. Longitudinal data were collected from 156 individuals composing 78 teams who were trained on and then performed a simulated flight task. Results showed that posttraining regulation processes related similarly to adaptive performance across levels. Also, regulation processes fully mediated the influences of self- and collective efficacy beliefs on individual and team adaptive performance. Finally, knowledge and skill more strongly and directly related to adaptive performance at the individual than the team level of analysis. Implications to theory and practice, limitations, and future directions are discussed.

  14. Hydrocyclones for radwaste processing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Galbraith, G.T.; Asay, R.H.

    1982-04-01

    Two types of hydrocyclone separators were evaluated to ascertain their applicability for processing liquid radwaste streams. The pilot-scale evaluation was conducted at the Nine Mile Point-1 BWR. Bypass streams of floor drain and filter sludge wastes were processed with the separators. Suspended solids concentration, slurry density, and particle size distribution were determined for the inlet, overhead, and underdrain streams. Typical suspended solids removal efficiencies were 82 to 89% (wt) for separator A. Removal efficiencies for separator B were significantly lower and highly variable. The results of this study indicate that separator A could be beneficially applied to a number of radwaste processing applications. Significant radwaste volume reduction can result when waste streams of high suspended solids concentration are pretreated to remove the bulk of the solids prior to filtration through a precoat filter.

  15. Antenna dielectric sealing process characterization. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Busby, M.L.; Yerganian, S.S.

    1994-04-01

    An antenna assembly experienced leak test failures during TMS testing. The leaks were occurring between the dielectric and housing. The antenna assembly dielectric is sealed into a nickel-plated aluminum housing using a tin catalyzed condensation cure silicone (RTV). In preparation for sealing, the dielectric and housing are chemically cleaned and then plasma cleaned. The surfaces to be sealed are primed, RTV is applied, and the RTV is cured in a humidity chamber. This report is an evaluation of the production process and includes FEM analysis and process characterization and control (PC&C) data.

  16. Development of superplastic steel processing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, A.

    1995-04-01

    Objective was to provide basis for producing, processing, and forming UHCS (ultrahigh carbon steel) on a commercial scale. Business plans were developed for potential commercialization. Effort was directed at improving the combination of flow stress and forming rates in UHCS alloys in order to make near net shape superplastic forming competitive; the result was the development of a series of UHCS alloys and processing, the selection of which depends on the specific requirements of the commercial application. Useful ancillary properties of these materials include: improved mechanical properties, wear resistance, and oxidation resistance at elevated temperatures.

  17. DATA PROCESSING CURRICULUM FOR EDUCATORS. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROBERTS, ELLIS W.; AND OTHERS

    THIS CURRICULUM DESIGN COULD BE USED (QUITE POSSIBLY WITH INSERVICE TRAINING SESSIONS) BY AN INSTRUCTOR EXPERIENCED IN DATA PROCESSING TO FAMILIARIZE EDUCATORS WITH THE COMPUTER AND TO TEACH THEM A SYSTEMS APPROACH TO ITS USE IN THE FIELD OF EDUCATION. THE CURRICULUM CONSISTS OF AN OUTLINE OF THE POINTS TO BE COVERED IN EACH LESSON, SUPPLEMENTED…

  18. Tubeless evaporation process development: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    A tubeless evaporation process which has the potential to combine the advantage of both evaporation and freezing processes, without their disadvantages is being developed. The TEP is capable of concentrating process solutions of such things as sugar, caustic soda, salt, sodium sulfate, black liquor from the pulp and paper industry, cooling tower blowdown, ''spent'' pickling liquor (sulfuric acid) from the steel industry, and nitric acid with potential energy savings of half to three-quarters of the energy required by conventional evaporators, with about half of the capital and maintenance cost. It has similar potential for the production of fresh water from seawater. The process uses working fluids (WF's) at their freezing point to effect direct contact heat exchange. The purpose of this project was to find additional and lower cost WF's in the laboratory, to obtain sizing information for the major equipment for an economic evaluation and a pilot plant design in a bench scale plant, and to perform the economic evaluation, and the pilot plant design and cost estimate. 6 refs., 37 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Urethane foam process improvements. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, D.R.

    1995-03-01

    A study was completed to evaluate the foam molding process for environmental and technical improvements. The investigation led to a replacement for chlorinated solvent usage, a potential permanent mold release coating, improved tooling design, and shrinkage characterization of foams filled with varying levels of aluminum oxide.

  20. Agricultural Processing and Marketing. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James Madison Univ., Harrisonburg, VA.

    A vocational guidance project was conducted in Virginia to identify a valid list of tasks/competencies for three levels of agricultural processing and marketing (AG-PAM) courses for secondary students. These competencies were then to be presented in a competency-based instructional resource guide for such courses. The project developers followed…

  1. Microwave processing of materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, A.D.; Lauf, R.J.; Garard, R.S.

    1997-11-01

    A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (LMES) and Lambda Technologies, Inc. (Lambda) of Raleigh, N.C., was initiated in May 1995. [Lockheed Martin Energy Research, Corp. (LMER) has replaced LMES]. The completion data for the Agreement was December 31, 1996. The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace (VFMF); and (2) microwave curing of polymer composites. The VFMF, whose initial conception and design was funded by the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, will allow us, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies.

  2. Non-transcriptional regulatory processes shape transcriptional network dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ray, J Christian J; Tabor, Jeffrey J; Igoshin, Oleg A

    2011-10-11

    Information about the extra- or intracellular environment is often captured as biochemical signals that propagate through regulatory networks. These signals eventually drive phenotypic changes, typically by altering gene expression programmes in the cell. Reconstruction of transcriptional regulatory networks has given a compelling picture of bacterial physiology, but transcriptional network maps alone often fail to describe phenotypes. Cellular response dynamics are ultimately determined by interactions between transcriptional and non-transcriptional networks, with dramatic implications for physiology and evolution. Here, we provide an overview of non-transcriptional interactions that can affect the performance of natural and synthetic bacterial regulatory networks.

  3. Pattern and process during sea urchin gut morphogenesis: the regulatory landscape.

    PubMed

    Annunziata, Rossella; Perillo, Margherita; Andrikou, Carmen; Cole, Alison G; Martinez, Pedro; Arnone, Maria I

    2014-03-01

    The development of the endoderm is a multistage process. From the initial specification of the endodermal domain in the embryo to the final regionalization of the gut, there are multiple stages that require the involvement of complex gene regulatory networks. In one concrete case, the sea urchin embryo, some of these stages and their genetic control are (relatively) well understood. Several studies have underscored the relevance of individual transcription factor activities in the process, but very few have focused the attention on gene interactions within specific gene regulatory networks (GRNs). Sea urchins offer an ideal system to study the different factors involved in the morphogenesis of the gut. Here we review the knowledge gained over the last 10 years on the process and its regulation, from the early specification of endodermal lineages to the late events linked to the patterning of functional domains in the gut. A lesson of remarkable importance has been learnt from comparison of the mechanisms involved in gut formation in different bilaterian animals; some of these genetic mechanisms are particularly well conserved. Patterning the gut seems to involve common molecular players and shared interactions, whether we look at mammals or echinoderms. This astounding degree of conservation reveals some key aspects of deep homology that are most probably shared by all bilaterian guts.

  4. Incidental experiences of regulatory fit and the processing of persuasive appeals.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Anne M; Cesario, Joseph; Molden, Daniel C; Kosloff, Spee; Higgins, E Tory

    2009-10-01

    This article examines how the subjective experiences of "feeling right" from regulatory fit and of "feeling wrong" from regulatory non-fit influence the way people process persuasive messages. Across three studies, incidental experiences of regulatory fit increased reliance on source expertise and decreased resistance to counterpersuasion, whereas incidental experiences of regulatory non-fit increased reliance on argument strength and increased resistance to counterpersuasion. These results suggest that incidental fit and non-fit experiences can produce, respectively, more superficial or more thorough processing of persuasive messages. The mechanisms underlying these effects, and the conditions under which they should and should not be expected, are discussed.

  5. Final Rule for Industrial Process Cooling Towers: Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fact sheet concerning a final rule to reduce air toxics emissions from industrial process cooling towers. Air toxics are those pollutants known or suspected of causing cancer or other serious health effects.

  6. Practical-Moral Knowledge: The Social Organization of Regulatory Processes in Academic Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Lynda D.; Kerrick, Madeleine R.; Stoeckl, Rita F.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we developed a theoretical frame to analyze how practical-moral knowledge structures the regulatory processes of learning to control and direct behavior during literacy lessons in two elementary classrooms. We describe how regulatory behaviors were congruent with the local social and moral order, constituents of practical-moral…

  7. Regulatory Actions - Final Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS) for Power Plants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS) for power plants to limit mercury, acid gases and other toxic pollution from power plants. This page describes Federal regulatory actions.

  8. Complex Unsaturated Zone Flow and Thermohydrologic Processes in a Regulatory Environment: A Perspective on Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedors, R. W.; Manepally, C.; Justus, P. S.; Basagaoglu, H.; Pensado, O.; Dubreuilh, P.

    2007-12-01

    An important part of a risk-informed, performance-based regulatory review of a potential license application for disposal of high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is the consideration of alternative interpretations and models of risk significant physical processes. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) expects that simplified models will be abstracted from complex process-level models to conduct total-system performance assessments. There are several phases or steps to developing an abstracted model and its supporting basis from more detailed and complicated models for each area of the total system. For complex ambient and thermally perturbed flow in fractured tuffs of the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, these steps c,an be summarized as (i) site characterization and observation, (ii) field and laboratory tests, (iii) conceptual model development, (iv) process-level numerical modeling, and (v) abstraction development. Each step is affected by uncertainty in (i) assessing parameters for models and (ii) conceptualization and understanding of governing processes. Because of the complexity and uncertainty, alternative interpretations and models become important aspects in the regulatory environment. NRC staff gain confidence in performance assessment model results through understanding the uncertainty in the various models. An example of a complex process in the unsaturated zone is seepage into drifts, which leads to liquid water potentially contacting waste packages. Seepage is a risk-important process for the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain because of its potential effect on waste package integrity and trainsport of potentially released radionuclides. Complexities for seepage include (i) characterization of fractures that carry flow, (ii) effect of small to intermediate scale structural features on flow, (iii) consideration of the diverse flow regimes (rivulets, film flow, capillarity) in fractures, (iv) effect of vapor transport associated

  9. Regulatory mechanism of protein metabolic pathway during the differentiation process of chicken male germ cell.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Zuo, Qisheng; Lian, Chao; Zhang, Lei; Shi, Qingqing; Zhang, Zhentao; Wang, Yingjie; Ahmed, Mahmoud F; Tang, Beibei; Xiao, Tianrong; Zhang, Yani; Li, Bichun

    2015-08-01

    We explored the regulatory mechanism of protein metabolism during the differentiation process of chicken male germ cells and provide a basis for improving the induction system of embryonic stem cell differentiation to male germ cells in vitro. We sequenced the transcriptome of embryonic stem cells, primordial germ cells, and spermatogonial stem cells with RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq), bioinformatics analysis methods, and detection of the key genes by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Finally, we found 16 amino acid metabolic pathways enriched in the biological metabolism during the differentiation process of embryonic stem cells to primordial germ cells and 15 amino acid metabolic pathways enriched in the differentiation stage of primordial germ cells to spermatogonial stem cells. We found three pathways, arginine-proline metabolic pathway, tyrosine metabolic pathway, and tryptophan metabolic pathway, significantly enriched in the whole differentiation process of embryonic stem cells to spermatogonial stem cells. Moreover, for these three pathways, we screened key genes such as NOS2, ADC, FAH, and IDO. qRT-PCR results showed that the expression trend of these genes were the same to RNA-Seq. Our findings showed that the three pathways and these key genes play an important role in the differentiation process of embryonic stem cells to male germ cells. These results provide basic information for improving the induction system of embryonic stem cell differentiation to male germ cells in vitro.

  10. 10 CFR 710.29 - Final appeal process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... investigation of a matter that could reasonably be expected to affect the individual's DOE access authorization... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED MATTER OR... Classified Matter or Special Nuclear Material Administrative Review § 710.29 Final appeal process. (a)...

  11. Digital-Computer Processing of Graphical Data. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Herbert

    The final report of a two-year study concerned with the digital-computer processing of graphical data. Five separate investigations carried out under this study are described briefly, and a detailed bibliography, complete with abstracts, is included in which are listed the technical papers and reports published during the period of this program.…

  12. Legislation — quality improvement — the regulatory process

    PubMed Central

    Burge, Edward R

    1991-01-01

    Legislation governing the health professions has traditionally been drafted with differing regulations and provisions in statute for each profession. This legislation has often been the consequence of seniority or political lobbying, resulting in a disjointed regulatory system, where many professions performed similar procedures. Growing health care awareness by consumers has prompted a greater accountability by the professions. In Ontario, the government addressed this concern by formulating a Health Professions Legislation Review. The review, based upon a new structure to legislate the health professions, required submissions and input from over 200 different groups, including health professions and consumers. The goal was to establish guidelines for the delivery of health care that considered the interests of the public rather than the professions. This impacted directly upon authorized acts, professional self-regulation, shared authority and standards of practice. The ultimate goal being quality assurance. This required attention not only to the methods of delivering health care, but more importantly to measuring its outcome. Chiropractors must recognize that other stakeholders are demanding that their standards be explicitly formulated and be open to public criticism and debate. Standards based upon the “usual and customary practice” are inadequate.

  13. Cryogenic methane separation/catalytic hydrogasification process analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cassano, A.A.; Hilton, M.F.; Li, T.C.; Tsao, T.R.

    1980-02-14

    The objective of this program was to recommend the most attractive combinations of acid gas removal methane separation systems for the Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) and the Rockwell Hydrogasification process currently undergoing development supported by DOE. The program was comprised of the following tasks. Screening to define the most promising integration scheme for each gasification process; development of a process flowsheet, heat and material balance, P and ID, equipment specification, utility summary, and plot plan for the process combination selected; and preparation of detailed economic and final report. The results of the study are documented in this report. The evaluations were performed using data supplied by the prime coal gasification contractors and the vendors of proprietary acid gas removal processes. This information, combined with Air Products' in-house capabilities in acid gas and cryogenic separation processses, was used to develop process designs and cost estimates for each integrated system. The design based and economic criteria employed in the study are described.

  14. Financial constraints in capacity planning: a national utility regulatory model (NUREG). Volume I of III: methodology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-29

    This report develops and demonstrates the methodology for the National Utility Regulatory (NUREG) Model developed under contract number DEAC-01-79EI-10579. It is accompanied by two supporting volumes. Volume II is a user's guide for operation of the NUREG software. This includes description of the flow of software and data, as well as the formats of all user data files. Finally, Volume III is a software description guide. It briefly describes, and gives a listing of, each program used in NUREG.

  15. A 3D bioprinting exemplar of the consequences of the regulatory requirements on customized processes.

    PubMed

    Hourd, Paul; Medcalf, Nicholas; Segal, Joel; Williams, David J

    2015-01-01

    Computer-aided 3D printing approaches to the industrial production of customized 3D functional living constructs for restoration of tissue and organ function face significant regulatory challenges. Using the manufacture of a customized, 3D-bioprinted nasal implant as a well-informed but hypothetical exemplar, we examine how these products might be regulated. Existing EU and USA regulatory frameworks do not account for the differences between 3D printing and conventional manufacturing methods or the ability to create individual customized products using mechanized rather than craft approaches. Already subject to extensive regulatory control, issues related to control of the computer-aided design to manufacture process and the associated software system chain present additional scientific and regulatory challenges for manufacturers of these complex 3D-bioprinted advanced combination products.

  16. Depressive Symptoms and Parenting Competence: An Analysis of 13 Regulatory Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dix, Theodore; Meunier, Leah N.

    2009-01-01

    Mechanisms that lead depressive symptoms to undermine parenting are poorly understood. This review examines cognitive, affective, and motivational processes thought to be responsible for the impact of depressive symptoms on parenting. We present a five-step, action-control model and review 152 studies relevant to 13 regulatory processes. Evidence…

  17. One hub-one process: a tool based view on regulatory network topology

    PubMed Central

    Axelsen, Jacob Bock; Bernhardsson, Sebastian; Sneppen, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Background The relationship between the regulatory design and the functionality of molecular networks is a key issue in biology. Modules and motifs have been associated to various cellular processes, thereby providing anecdotal evidence for performance based localization on molecular networks. Results To quantify structure-function relationship we investigate similarities of proteins which are close in the regulatory network of the yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae. We find that the topology of the regulatory network only show weak remnants of its history of network reorganizations, but strong features of co-regulated proteins associated to similar tasks. These functional correlations decreases strongly when one consider proteins separated by more than two steps in the regulatory network. The network topology primarily reflects the processes that is orchestrated by each individual hub, whereas there is nearly no remnants of the history of protein duplications. Conclusion Our results suggests that local topological features of regulatory networks, including broad degree distributions, emerge as an implicit result of matching a number of needed processes to a finite toolbox of proteins. PMID:18318890

  18. MicroRNAs: Processing, Maturation, Target Recognition and Regulatory Functions

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Girish C.; Singh, Jagjit; Barik, Sailen

    2012-01-01

    The remarkable discovery of small noncoding microRNAs (miRNAs) and their role in posttranscriptional gene regulation have revealed another fine-tuning step in the expression of genetic information. A large number of cellular pathways, which act in organismal development and are important in health and disease, appear to be modulated by miRNAs. At the molecular level, miRNAs restrain the production of proteins by affecting the stability of their target mRNA and/or by down-regulating their translation. This review attempts to offer a snapshot of aspects of miRNA coding, processing, target recognition and function in animals. Our goal here is to provide the readers with a thought-provoking and mechanistic introduction to the miRNA world rather than with a detailed encyclopedia. PMID:22468167

  19. Bringing the frame into focus: the influence of regulatory fit on processing fluency and persuasion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Angela Y; Aaker, Jennifer L

    2004-02-01

    This research demonstrates that people's goals associated with regulatory focus moderate the effect of message framing on persuasion. The results of 6 experiments show that appeals presented in gain frames are more persuasive when the message is promotion focused, whereas loss-framed appeals are more persuasive when the message is prevention focused. These regulatory focus effects suggesting heightened vigilance against negative outcomes and heightened eagerness toward positive outcomes are replicated when perceived risk is manipulated. Enhanced processing fluency leading to more favorable evaluations in conditions of compatibility appears to underlie these effects. The findings underscore the regulatory fit principle that accounts for the persuasiveness of message framing effects and highlight how processing fluency may contribute to the "feeling right" experience when the strategy of goal pursuit matches one's goal.

  20. Coordinated activities of human dicer domains in regulatory RNA processing.

    PubMed

    Ma, Enbo; Zhou, Kaihong; Kidwell, Mary Anne; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2012-09-28

    The conserved ribonuclease Dicer generates microRNAs and short-interfering RNAs that guide gene silencing in eukaryotes. The specific contributions of human Dicer's structural domains to RNA product length and substrate preference are incompletely understood, due in part to the difficulties of Dicer purification. Here, we show that active forms of human Dicer can be assembled from recombinant polypeptides expressed in bacteria. Using this system, we find that three distinct modes of RNA recognition give rise to Dicer's fidelity and product length specificity. The first involves anchoring one end of a double-stranded RNA helix within the PAZ domain, which can assemble in trans with Dicer's catalytic domains to reconstitute an accurate but non-substrate-selective dicing activity. The second entails nonspecific RNA binding by the double-stranded RNA binding domain, an interaction that is essential for substrate recruitment in the absence of the PAZ domain. The third mode of recognition involves hairpin RNA loop recognition by the helicase domain, which ensures efficient processing of specific substrates. These results reveal distinct interactions of each Dicer domain with different RNA structural features and provide a facile system for investigating the molecular mechanisms of human microRNA biogenesis.

  1. Final audit report of remedial action construction at the UMTRA Project, Grand Junction, Colorado, processing site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This final audit report (FAR) for remedial action at the Grand Junction, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project processing site consists of a summary of the radiological surveillances/ audits, the quality assurance (QA) in-process surveillances, and the QA final close-out inspection performed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC). The FAR also summarizes other surveillances performed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). To summarize, a total of one finding and 127 observations were noted during DOE/TAC audit and surveillance activities. The NRC noted general site-related observations during the OSCRs. Follow-up to responses required from MK-Ferguson for the DOE/TAC finding and observations indicated that all issues related to the Grand Junction processing site were resolved and closed out to the DOE`s satisfaction. The NRC OSCRs resulted in no issues related to the Grand Junction processing site requiring a response from MK-Ferguson.

  2. Final regulatory impact analysis and summary and analysis of comments: Control of vehicular evaporative emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The document summarizes the results of all analyses conducted in support of the final rule for evaporative emission regulations for gasoline and methanol fueled light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and heavy duty vehicles. The document also includes the test procedures, the technological feasibility, economic impact, environmental effects, cost-effectiveness of the standards and appendixes describing evaporative modeling with in-use driving patterns including MOBILE5 input and output computer files.

  3. A regulatory analysis on emergency preparedness for fuel cycle and other radioactive material licensees: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    The question this Regulatory Analysis sought to answer is: should the NRC impose additional emergency preparedness requirements on certain fuel cycle and other radioactive material licensees for dealing with accidents that might have offsite releases of radioactive material. To answer the question, we analyzed potential accidents for 15 types of fuel cycle and other radioactive material licensees. An appropriate plan would: (1) identify accidents for which protective actions should be taken by people offsite; (2) list the licensee's responsibilities for each type of accident, including notification of local authorities (fire and police generally); and (3) give sample messages for local authorities including protective action recommendations. This approach more closely follows the approach used for research reactors than for power reactors. The low potential offsite doses (acute fatalities and injuries not possible except possibly for UF/sub 6/ releases), the small areas where actions would be warranted, the small number of people involved, and the fact that the local police and fire departments would be doing essentially the same things they normally do, are all factors that tend to make a simple plan adequate. This report discusses the potentially hazardous accidents, and the likely effects of these accidents in terms of personnel danger.

  4. Regulatory analysis on criteria for the release of patients administered radioactive material. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, S.; McGuire, S.A.

    1997-02-01

    This regulatory analysis was developed to respond to three petitions for rulemaking to amend 10 CFR parts 20 and 35 regarding release of patients administered radioactive material. The petitions requested revision of these regulations to remove the ambiguity that existed between the 1-millisievert (0.1-rem) total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) public dose limit in Part 20, adopted in 1991, and the activity-based release limit in 10 CFR 35.75 that, in some instances, would permit release of individuals in excess of the current public dose limit. Three alternatives for resolution of the petitions were evaluated. Under Alternative 1, NRC would amend its patient release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 to match the annual public dose limit in Part 20 of 1 millisievert (0.1 rem) TEDE. Alternative 2 would maintain the status quo of using the activity-based release criteria currently found in 10 CFR 35.75. Under Alternative 3, the NRC would revise the release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 to specify a dose limit of 5 millisieverts (0.5 rem) TEDE.

  5. Exploring the Fluctuation of Motivation and Use of Self-Regulatory Processes during Learning with Hypermedia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moos, Daniel C.; Azevedo, Roger

    2008-01-01

    We collected think-aloud, pre-test, post-test, and motivation data from 43 undergraduates to examine the impact of conceptual scaffolds on the fluctuation of certain motivation constructs and use of self-regulatory processes during learning with hypermedia. Participants were randomly assigned to either the No Scaffolding (NS) or Conceptual…

  6. A critical assessment of regulatory triggers for products of biotechnology: Product vs. process.

    PubMed

    McHughen, Alan

    2016-10-01

    Regulatory policies governing the safety of genetic engineering (rDNA) and the resulting products (GMOs) have been contentious and divisive, especially in agricultural applications of the technologies. These tensions led to vastly different approaches to safety regulation in different jurisdictions, even though the intent of regulations-to assure public and environmental safety-are common worldwide, and even though the international scientific communities agree on the basic principles of risk assessment and risk management. So great are the political divisions that jurisdictions cannot even agree on the appropriate triggers for regulatory capture, whether product or process. This paper reviews the historical policy and scientific implications of agricultural biotechnology regulatory approaches taken by the European Union, USA and Canada, using their respective statutes and regulations, and then critically assesses the scientific underpinnings of each.

  7. Harmonization of reimbursement and regulatory approval processes: a systematic review of international experiences.

    PubMed

    Tsoi, Bernice; Masucci, Lisa; Campbell, Kaitryn; Drummond, Michael; O'Reilly, Daria; Goeree, Ron

    2013-08-01

    A considerable degree of overlap exists between reimbursement and regulatory approval of health technologies, and harmonization of certain aspects is both possible and feasible. Various models to harmonization have been suggested in which a number of practical attempts have been drawn from. Based on a review of the literature, approaches can be categorized into those focused on reducing uncertainty and developing economies of scale in the evidentiary requirements; and/or aligning timeframes and logistical aspects of the review process. These strategies can further be classified based on the expected level of structural and organizational change required to implement them into the existing processes. Passive processes require less modification, whereas active processes are associated with greater restructuring. Attempts so far at harmonization have raised numerous legal and practical issues and these must be considered when introducing a more harmonized framework into the existing regulatory and reimbursement arrangements.

  8. Regulatory Impact Analysis: Amendments to the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) and New Source Perofrmance Standards (NSPS) for the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry Final Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    For the regulatory process, EPA is required to develop a regulatory impact analysis (RIA). This August 2010 RIA includes an economic impact analysis (EIA) and a small entity impacts analysis and documents the RIA methods and results for the 2010 rules

  9. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final reprot, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluations, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  10. Bridging research and environmental regulatory processes: the role of knowledge brokers.

    PubMed

    Pennell, Kelly G; Thompson, Marcella; Rice, James W; Senier, Laura; Brown, Phil; Suuberg, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Federal funding agencies increasingly require research investigators to ensure that federally sponsored research demonstrates broader societal impact. Specifically, the National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Superfund Research Program (SRP) requires research centers to include research translation and community engagement cores to achieve broader impacts, with special emphasis on improving environmental health policies through better scientific understanding. This paper draws on theoretical insights from the social sciences to show how incorporating knowledge brokers in research centers can facilitate translation of scientific expertise to influence regulatory processes and thus promote public health. Knowledge brokers connect academic researchers with decision-makers, to facilitate the translation of research findings into policies and programs. In this article, we describe the stages of the regulatory process and highlight the role of the knowledge broker and scientific expert at each stage. We illustrate the cooperation of knowledge brokers, scientific experts and policymakers using a case from the Brown University (Brown) SRP. We show how the Brown SRP incorporated knowledge brokers to engage scientific experts with regulatory officials around the emerging public health problem of vapor intrusion (VI). In the Brown SRP, the knowledge broker brought regulatory officials into the research process, to help scientific experts understand the critical nature of this emerging public health threat, and helped scientific experts develop a research agenda that would inform the development of timely measures to protect public health. Our experience shows that knowledge brokers can enhance the impact of environmental research on public health by connecting policy decision-makers with scientific experts at critical points throughout the regulatory process.

  11. Bridging Research and Environmental Regulatory Processes: The Role of Knowledge Brokers

    PubMed Central

    Pennell, Kelly G.; Thompson, Marcella; Rice, James W.; Senier, Laura; Brown, Phil; Suuberg, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Federal funding agencies increasingly require research investigators to ensure that federally-sponsored research demonstrates broader societal impact. Specifically, the National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Superfund Research Program (SRP) requires research centers to include research translation and community engagement cores to achieve broader impacts, with special emphasis on improving environmental health policies through better scientific understanding. This paper draws on theoretical insights from the social sciences to show how incorporating knowledge brokers in research centers can facilitate translation of scientific expertise to influence regulatory processes and thus promote public health. Knowledge brokers connect academic researchers with decision-makers, to facilitate the translation of research findings into policies and programs. In this article, we describe the stages of the regulatory process and highlight the role of the knowledge broker and scientific expert at each stage. We illustrate the cooperation of knowledge brokers, scientific experts and policymakers using a case from the Brown University (Brown) SRP. We show how the Brown SRP incorporated knowledge brokers to engage scientific experts with regulatory officials around the emerging public health problem of vapor intrusion. In the Brown SRP, the knowledge broker brought regulatory officials into the research process, to help scientific experts understand the critical nature of this emerging public health threat, and helped scientific experts develop a research agenda that would inform the development of timely measures to protect public health. Our experience shows that knowledge brokers can enhance the impact of environmental research on public health by connecting policy decision-makers with scientific experts at critical points throughout the regulatory process. PMID:24083557

  12. Risk Informed Assessment of Regulatory and Design Requirements for Future Nuclear Power Plants - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ritterbusch, Stanley; Golay, Michael; Duran, Felicia; Galyean, William; Gupta, Abhinav; Dimitrijevic, Vesna; Malsch, Marty

    2003-01-29

    OAK B188 Summary of methods proposed for risk informing the design and regulation of future nuclear power plants. All elements of the historical design and regulation process are preserved, but the methods proposed for new plants use probabilistic risk assessment methods as the primary decision making tool.

  13. Overcoming language barriers in the informed consent process: regulatory and compliance issues with the use of the "short form".

    PubMed

    Lad, Pramod M; Dahl, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Language barriers in the informed consent process can be a significant impediment when recruiting non-English speaking subjects into clinical research studies. Regulatory guidelines indicate that the short form procedure be utilized in such circumstances. In this paper, we examine some of the ambiguities in the regulatory framework, the resulting need for institutional policy guidelines, and compliance issues with the short form process.

  14. The Independent Technical Analysis Process Final Report 2006-2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Duberstein, Corey; Ham, Kenneth; Dauble, Dennis; Johnson, Gary

    2007-03-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) contracted with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide technical analytical support for system-wide fish passage information (BPA Project No. 2006-010-00). The goal of this project was to produce rigorous technical analysis products using independent analysts and anonymous peer reviewers. This project provided an independent technical source for non-routine fish passage analyses while allowing routine support functions to be performed by other well-qualified entities. The Independent Technical Analysis Process (ITAP) was created to provide non-routine analysis for fish and wildlife agencies and tribes in particular and the public in general on matters related to juvenile and adult salmon and steelhead passage through the mainstem hydrosystem. The process was designed to maintain the independence of analysts and reviewers from parties requesting analyses, to avoid potential bias in technical products. The objectives identified for this project were to administer a rigorous, transparent process to deliver unbiased technical assistance necessary to coordinate recommendations for storage reservoir and river operations that avoid potential conflicts between anadromous and resident fish. Seven work elements, designated by numbered categories in the Pisces project tracking system, were created to define and accomplish project goals as follows: (1) 118 Coordination - Coordinate technical analysis and review process: (a) Retain expertise for analyst/reviewer roles. (b) Draft research directives. (c) Send directive to the analyst. (d) Coordinate two independent reviews of the draft report. (e) Ensure reviewer comments are addressed within the final report. (2) 162 Analyze/Interpret Data - Implement the independent aspects of the project. (3) 122 Provide Technical Review - Implement the review process for the analysts. (4) 132 Produce Annual Report - FY06 annual progress report with Pisces Disseminate (5) 161

  15. CO2 – Intrinsic Product, Essential Substrate, and Regulatory Trigger of Microbial and Mammalian Production Processes

    PubMed Central

    Blombach, Bastian; Takors, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Carbon dioxide formation mirrors the final carbon oxidation steps of aerobic metabolism in microbial and mammalian cells. As a consequence, CO2/HCO3− dissociation equilibria arise in fermenters by the growing culture. Anaplerotic reactions make use of the abundant CO2/HCO3− levels for refueling citric acid cycle demands and for enabling oxaloacetate-derived products. At the same time, CO2 is released manifold in metabolic reactions via decarboxylation activity. The levels of extracellular CO2/HCO3− depend on cellular activities and physical constraints such as hydrostatic pressures, aeration, and the efficiency of mixing in large-scale bioreactors. Besides, local CO2/HCO3− levels might also act as metabolic inhibitors or transcriptional effectors triggering regulatory events inside the cells. This review gives an overview about fundamental physicochemical properties of CO2/HCO3− in microbial and mammalian cultures effecting cellular physiology, production processes, metabolic activity, and transcriptional regulation. PMID:26284242

  16. 2014 Edition Release 2 Electronic Health Record (EHR) certification criteria and the ONC HIT Certification Program; regulatory flexibilities, improvements, and enhanced health information exchange. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-09-11

    This final rule introduces regulatory flexibilities and general improvements for certification to the 2014 Edition EHR certification criteria (2014 Edition). It also codifies a few revisions and updates to the ONC HIT Certification Program for certification to the 2014 Edition and future editions of certification criteria as well as makes administrative updates to the Code of Federal Regulations.

  17. Instream sand and gravel mining: Environmental issues and regulatory process in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meador, M.R.; Layher, A.O.

    1998-01-01

    Sand and gravel are widely used throughout the U.S. construction industry, but their extraction can significantly affect the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of mined streams. Fisheries biologists often find themselves involved in the complex environmental and regulatory issues related to instream sand and gravel mining. This paper provides an overview of information presented in a symposium held at the 1997 midyear meeting of the Southern Division of the American Fisheries Society in San Antonio, Texas, to discuss environmental issues and regulatory procedures related to instream mining. Conclusions from the symposium suggest that complex physicochemical and biotic responses to disturbance such as channel incision and alteration of riparian vegetation ultimately determine the effects of instream mining. An understanding of geomorphic processes can provide insight into the effects of mining operations on stream function, and multidisciplinary empirical studies are needed to determine the relative effects of mining versus other natural and human-induced stream alterations. Mining regulations often result in a confusing regulatory process complicated, for example, by the role of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, which has undergone numerous changes and remains unclear. Dialogue among scientists, miners, and regulators can provide an important first step toward developing a plan that integrates biology and politics to protect aquatic resources.

  18. Plate-Based Fuel Processing System Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos Faz; Helen Liu; Jacques Nicole; David Yee

    2005-12-22

    took the initial steam reforming plate-reactor concept and advanced it towards an integrated fuel processing system. A substantial amount of modeling was performed to guide the catalyst development and prototype hardware design and fabrication efforts. The plate-reactor mechanical design was studied in detail to establish design guidelines which would help the plate reactor survive the stresses of repeated thermal cycles (from start-ups and shut-downs). Integrated system performance modeling was performed to predict system efficiencies and determine the parameters with the most significant impact on efficiency. In conjunction with the modeling effort, a significant effort was directed towards catalyst development. CESI developed a highly active, sulfur tolerant, coke resistant, precious metal based reforming catalyst. CESI also developed its own non-precious metal based water-gas shift catalyst and demonstrated the catalysts durability over several thousands of hours of testing. CESI also developed a unique preferential oxidation catalyst capable of reducing 1% CO to < 10 ppm CO over a 35 C operating window through a single pass plate-based reactor. Finally, CESI combined the modeling results and steam reforming catalyst development efforts into prototype hardware. The first generation 3kW(e) prototype was fabricated from existing heat-exchanger plates to expedite the fabrication process. This prototype demonstrated steady state operation ranging from 5 to 100% load conditions. The prototype also demonstrated a 20:1 turndown ratio, 10:1 load transient operation and rapid start-up capability.

  19. Technical and regulatory review of the Rover nuclear fuel process for use on Fort St. Vrain fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzler, T.

    1993-02-01

    This report describes the results of an analysis for processing and final disposal of Fort St. Vrain (FSV) irradiated fuel in Rover-type equipment or technologies. This analysis includes an evaluation of the current Rover equipment status and the applicability of this technology in processing FSV fuel. The analyses are based on the physical characteristics of the FSV fuel and processing capabilities of the Rover equipment. Alternate FSV fuel disposal options are also considered including fuel-rod removal from the block, disposal of the empty block, or disposal of the entire fuel-containing block. The results of these analyses document that the current Rover hardware is not operable for any purpose, and any effort to restart this hardware will require extensive modifications and re-evaluation. However, various aspects of the Rover technology, such as the successful fluid-bed burner design, can be applied with modification to FSV fuel processing. The current regulatory climate and technical knowledge are not adequately defined to allow a complete analysis and conclusion with respect to the disposal of intact fuel blocks with or without the fuel rods removed. The primary unknowns include the various aspects of fuel-rod removal from the block, concentration of radionuclides remaining in the graphite block after rod removal, and acceptability of carbon in the form of graphite in a high level waste repository.

  20. The role of learning environment on high school chemistry students' motivation and self-regulatory processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judd, Jeffrey S.

    Changes to the global workforce and technological advancements require graduating high school students to be more autonomous, self-directed, and critical in their thinking. To reflect societal changes, current educational reform has focused on developing more problem-based, collaborative, and student-centered classrooms to promote effective self-regulatory learning strategies, with the goal of helping students adapt to future learning situations and become life-long learners. This study identifies key features that may characterize these "powerful learning environments", which I term "high self-regulating learning environments" for ease of discussion, and examine the environment's role on students' motivation and self-regulatory processes. Using direct observation, surveys, and formal and informal interviews, I identified perceptions, motivations, and self-regulatory strategies of 67 students in my high school chemistry classes as they completed academic tasks in both high and low self-regulating learning environments. With social cognitive theory as a theoretical framework, I then examined how students' beliefs and processes changed after they moved from low to a high self-regulating learning environment. Analyses revealed that key features such as task meaning, utility, complexity, and control appeared to play a role in promoting positive changes in students' motivation and self-regulation. As embedded cases, I also included four students identified as high self-regulating, and four students identified as low self-regulating to examine whether the key features of high and low self-regulating learning environments played a similar role in both groups. Analysis of findings indicates that key features did play a significant role in promoting positive changes in both groups, with high self-regulating students' motivation and self-regulatory strategies generally remaining higher than the low self-regulating students; this was the case in both environments. Findings

  1. Continuing disability review failure to cooperate process. Final rules.

    PubMed

    2006-10-17

    We are amending our regulations to provide that we will suspend your disability benefits before we make a determination during a continuing disability review (CDR) under title II and title XVI of the Social Security Act (the Act) when you fail to comply with our request for necessary information. Should you remain non-compliant for a period of one year following your suspension, we will then terminate your disability benefits. Although our current title XVI regulations generally provide for the termination of payments after 12 months of suspension, we are amending our regulations by adding this policy to our title II regulations and by restating it in the title XVI CDR regulatory provisions.

  2. Analysis of the premitting processes associated with exploration of Federal OCS leases. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    Under contract to the Office of Leasing Policy Development (LPDO), Jack Faucett Associates is currently undertaking the description and analysis of the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) regulatory process to determine the nature of time delays that affect OCS production of oil and gas. This report represents the results of the first phase of research under this contract, the description and analysis of regulatory activity associated with exploration activities on the Federal OCS. Volume 1 contains the following three sections: (1) study results; (2) Federal regulatory activities during exploration of Federal OCS leases which involved the US Geological Survey, Environmental Protection Agency, US Coast Guard, Corps of Engineers, and National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration; and (3) state regulatory activities during exploration of Federal OCS leases of Alaska, California, Louisiana, Massachusetts, New Jersey, North Carolina, and Texas. Volume II contains appendices of US Geological Survey, Environmental Protection Agency, Coast Guard, Corps of Engineers, the Coastal Zone Management Act, and Alaska. The major causes of delay in the regulatory process governing exploration was summarized in four broad categories: (1) the long and tedious process associated with the Environmental Protection Agency's implementation of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit; (2) the lack of mandated time periods for the completion of individual activities in the permitting process; (3) the lack of overall coordination of OCS exploratory regulation; and (4) the inexperience of states, the Federal government and industry relating to the appropriate level of regulation for first-time lease sale areas.

  3. Linking the Regulatory and Reimbursement Processes for Medical Devices: The Need for Integrated Assessments.

    PubMed

    Ciani, Oriana; Wilcher, Britni; van Giessen, Anoukh; Taylor, Rod S

    2017-02-01

    Much criticism has been directed at the licencing requirements for medical devices (MDs) as they often result in a lack of robust evidence to inform health technology assessment (HTA) decisions. To better understand the current international decisional framework on MD technologies, we undertook three linked research studies: a review of the device regulatory procedures, a survey of current HTA practices and an empirical comparison of HTA reports of drugs versus MDs. Our review confirms that current device regulatory processes across the globe are substantially less stringent than drugs. As a result, international HTA agencies report that they face a number of challenges when assessing MDs, including reliance on suboptimal data to make clinical and cost-effectiveness decisions. Whilst many HTA agencies have adapted their processes and procedures to handle MD technology submissions, in our comparison of HTA reports we found little evidence of the application of methodologies that take account of device-specific issues, such as incremental development. Overall, our research reinforces the need for better linkage between licencing and HTA and the development and application of innovative HTA methodologies with the objective of securing faster patient access for those technologies that can be shown to represent good value for money. © 2017 The Authors. Health Economics Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. 76 FR 31997 - Final Memorandum of Understanding Between the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    .... Department of Homeland Security on Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of availability. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: R. Clyde Ragland, Project Manager (Security), Fuel Cycle and Transportation Security Branch, Division of Security Policy, Office...

  5. Analysis of chemical coal cleaning processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Six chemical coal cleaning processes were examined. Conceptual designs and costs were prepared for these processes and coal preparation facilities, including physical cleaning and size reduction. Transportation of fine coal in agglomerated and unagglomerated forms was also discussed. Chemical cleaning processes were: Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, Ledgemont, Ames Laboratory, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (two versions), and Guth Process (KVB). Three of the chemical cleaning processes are similar in concept: PETC, Ledgemont, and Ames. Each of these is based on the reaction of sulfur with pressurized oxygen, with the controlling factor being the partial pressure of oxygen in the reactor. All of the processes appear technically feasible. Economic feasibility is less certain. The recovery of process chemicals is vital to the JPL and Guth processes. All of the processes consume significant amounts of energy in the form of electric power and coal. Energy recovery and increased efficiency are potential areas for study in future more detailed designs. The Guth process (formally designed KVB) appears to be the simplest of the systems evaluated. All of the processes require future engineering to better determine methods for scaling laboratory designs/results to commercial-scale operations. A major area for future engineering is to resolve problems related to handling, feeding, and flow control of the fine and often hot coal.

  6. The safety and regulatory process for low calorie sweeteners in the United States.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Ashley

    2016-10-01

    Low calorie sweeteners are some of the most thoroughly tested and evaluated of all food additives. Products including aspartame and saccharin, have undergone several rounds of risk assessment by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), in relation to a number of potential safety concerns, including carcinogenicity and more recently, effects on body weight gain, glycemic control and effects on the gut microbiome. The majority of the modern day sweeteners; acesulfame K, advantame, aspartame, neotame and sucralose have been approved in the United States through the food additive process, whereas the most recent sweetener approvals for steviol glycosides and lo han guo have occurred through the Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) system, based on scientific procedures. While the regulatory process and review time of these two types of sweetener evaluations by the FDA differ, the same level of scientific evidence is required to support safety, so as to ensure a reasonable certainty of no harm.

  7. A biphasic process of resistance among suspects: The mobilization and decline of self-regulatory resources.

    PubMed

    Madon, Stephanie; Guyll, Max; Yang, Yueran; Smalarz, Laura; Marschall, Justin; Lannin, Daniel G

    2017-04-01

    We conducted two experiments to test whether police interrogation elicits a biphasic process of resistance from suspects. According to this process, the initial threat of police interrogation mobilizes suspects to resist interrogative influence in a manner akin to a fight or flight response, but suspects' protracted self-regulation of their behavior during subsequent questioning increases their susceptibility to interrogative influence in the long-run. In Experiment 1 (N = 316), participants who were threatened by an accusation of misconduct exhibited responses indicative of mobilization and more strongly resisted social pressure to acquiesce to suggestive questioning than did participants who were not accused. In Experiment 2 (N = 160), self-regulatory decline that was induced during questioning about misconduct undermined participants' ability to resist suggestive questioning. These findings support a theoretical account of the dynamic and temporal nature of suspects' responses to police interrogation over the course of questioning. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Peer collaboration: The role of questions and regulatory processes in conceptual-knowledge learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winters, A. Fielding Ince

    Peer collaboration and questioning are two pedagogical methods currently used under the assumption that they facilitate conceptual understanding in science classrooms. However, the literature on peer collaboration reveals many contextual factors that influence the success of peer learning, particularly for ill-structured tasks, and little research has been conducted on whether or how questions help students learn about complex science topics. This study investigated the impact of peer collaboration and reasoning questions on high-school students' (N = 133) conceptual-knowledge learning, through analysis of their regulatory learning processes as they studied the circulatory system using a hypermedia encyclopedia. Outcome variables were a measure of students' conceptual knowledge learning (pretest to posttest) and peers' collaborative discourse, which was collected via audiotape during the learning session. Data analysis consisted of quantitative analyses of variance of students' conceptual knowledge learning in peer and questioning conditions, and qualitative analysis of students' collaborative regulatory discourse. Results revealed variable approaches to collaboration and the task and variable success at conceptual-knowledge learning across pairs. Successful peer learners employed a variety of regulatory behaviors such as taking notes and summarizing to a greater degree than unsuccessful collaborating students, who tended to spend a large proportion of their time off-task. Students who answered an inferential reasoning question spent much of their time looking for a verbatim answer from the environment, often to the detriment of their learning. The results of this study reveal a number of factors that may be related to the success of collaboration and question-answering, including an accurate perception of the task goal; enough relevant prior knowledge about the topic to use a non-linear hypermedia environment effectively; and enough time to collaborate and learn

  9. Air separation by the Moltox process. Interim final report

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, D.C.

    1981-04-01

    Results are described of a development program on a new and energy-saving process for air separation. The Moltox process involves reversibly reacting oxygen in air with a recirculating salt solution, such that oxygen is extracted without depressurizing the remaining nitrogen. Energy savings of approximately 50% are indicated for this process compared to conventional cryogenic air separation. The development program consisted of design, construction, and operation of a 6 liter/minute pilot plant; optimization of the process flowsheet through computer modelling; investigation of engineering aspects of the process including corrosion, safety, and NO/sub x/ generation; and an economic comparison to conventional cryogenic practice. All objectives were satisfactorily achieved except for continuous operation of the pilot plant, and the modifications necessary to achieve that have been identified. Economically the Moltox process shows a substantial advantage over large scale cryogenic plants which are powered by fuel vice electricity.

  10. The importance of self-regulatory and goal-conflicting processes in the avoidance of drunk driving among Greek young drivers.

    PubMed

    Liourta, Elissavet; van Empelen, Pepijn

    2008-05-01

    The present study examined self-regulatory and goal-conflicting processes in the avoidance of drunk driving among Greek young drivers. A total of 361 university students in Greece completed a questionnaire, using a retrospective cross-sectional survey design. One-third reported to have driven under the influence of alcohol. Although prior intentions were clearly related to actual avoidance of drunk driving, one out of five respondents had not complied with their intention. An examination of post-intentional correlates of avoidance of drunk driving among positive intenders showed that avoidance of drunk driving was positively related to alcohol limitation plans and alcohol limitation self-efficacy, whereas negative relations were found for goal conflict and behavioural willingness. The present study suggests that people should not only be motivated but also be equipped with self-regulatory strategies aiming at the avoidance of drinking. Finally, goal commitment should be enhanced by increasing the salience of the avoidance goal.

  11. Evaluation of processes for producing gasoline from wood. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-05-01

    Three processes for producing gasoline from wood by pyrolysis have been investigated. Technical and economic comparisons among the processes have been made, based on a hypothetical common plant size of 2000 tons per day green wood chip feedstock. In order to consider the entire fuel production process, the energy and cost inputs for producing and delivering the feedstock were included in the analysis. In addition, perspective has been provided by comparisons of the wood-to-gasoline technologies with other similar systems, including coal-to-methanol and various biomass-to-alcohol systems. Based on several assumptions that were required because of the candidate processes' information gaps, comparisons of energy efficiency were made. Several descriptors of energy efficiency were used, but all showed that methanol production from wood, with or without subsequent processing by the Mobil route to gasoline, appears most promising. It must be emphasized, however, that the critical wood-to-methanol system remains conceptual. Another observation was that the ethanol production systems appear inferior to the wood-to-gasoline processes. Each of the processes investigated requires further research and development to answer the questions about their potential contributions confidently. The processes each have so many unknowns that it appears unwise to pursue any one while abandoning the others.

  12. Research of Curriculum Content, Data Processing Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoehr, Keith; And Others

    A study was conducted to assess the relationship between data processing competencies taught in Wisconsin Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education District Data Processing programs and on-the-job demands, as a basis for curriculum review and revision. A sample of program graduates, their employers, and instructors were asked to rate 75…

  13. Covert Response Patterns in Processing Language Stimuli. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuigan, F. Joseph

    The purpose of this research project is to specify critical events within a person during linguistic processing. The experiments reported here cover such topics as the effects of increased reading rate on covert processes, covert behavior as a direct electro-myographic measure of mediating responses, enhancement of speech perception by…

  14. Integrated manufacturing and processing predoctoral fellowships. Final performance report

    SciTech Connect

    Rozzell, Thomas

    1999-10-01

    The first and fourth cohorts of U.S. Department of Energy Integrated Manufacturing and Processing Predoctoral Fellows were supported under this grant for up to three years of study leading to a PhD degree in a field related to integrated manufacturing and processing.

  15. Advanced ThioClear process testing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lani, B.

    1998-03-01

    Wet scrubbing is the leading proven commercial post-combustion FGD technology available to meet the sulfur dioxide reductions required by the Clean Air Act Amendments. To reduce costs associated with wet FGD, Dravo Lime Company has developed the ThioClear process. ThioClear is an ex-situ forced oxidation magnesium-enhanced lime FGD process. ThioClear process differs from the conventional magnesium-enhanced lime process in that the recycle liquor has minimal suspended solids and the by-products are wallboard quality gypsum and magnesium hydroxide, an excellent reagent for water treatment. The process has demonstrated sulfur dioxide removal efficiencies of +95% in both a vertical spray scrubber tower and a horizontal absorber operating at gas velocities of 16 fps, respectively. This report details the optimization studies and associated economics from testing conducted at Dravo Lime Company`s pilot plant located at the Miami Fort Station of the Cincinnati Gas and Electric Company.

  16. Energy conservation in citrus processing. Final project report

    SciTech Connect

    Leo, M.A.; Lari, R.I.; Moore, N.R.; Broussard, M.R.; Gyamfi, M.

    1981-11-01

    Alternative energy conserving systems for use in citrus processing plants were synthesized and evaluated in terms of energy savings and economic return. The energy intensive operations that are carried out in citrus processing plants include conveying and extraction, concentration, peel drying, refrigeration, and pasteurization. The alternative energy conserving systems are synthesized from components and subsystems that are arranged to make use of energy cascading and thermodynamic regeneration to reduce the overall energy usage. System requirements such as air pollution rules and plant processing load cycles, a characterization of major operations, description of alternative system concepts, and the evaluation of alternative systems in terms of economic parameters and energy usage are identified.

  17. Sonic temperature sensor for food processing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The lack of adequate temperature measurement is the major barrier to the development of more efficient and better quality food processing methods. The objective of the sonic temperature sensor for food processing project is to develop a prototype sensor system to noninvasively measure the interior temperature of particulate foods during processing. The development of the prototype sensor is a collaborative project with the National Food Processors Association. The project is based on the property of materials that involves a change in the temperature of a material having a corresponding change in the speed of sound. The approach for the sonic sensor system is to determine the speed of sound through particulate foods using a tomographic reconstruction process. This work has shown that the speed of sound accurately can be determined using tomographic reconstruction methods to an accuracy of {+-} 0.4%, which corresponds to a temperature uncertainty of {+-}2{degrees}C.

  18. Process applications for geothermal energy resources. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mikic, B.B.; Meal, H.C.; Packer, M.B.; Guillamon-Duch, H.

    1981-08-01

    The principal goal of the program was to demonstrate economical and technical suitability of geothermal energy as a source of industrial process heat through a cooperative program with industrial firms. To accomplish that: a critical literature survey in the field was performed; a workshop with the paper and pulp industry representatives was organized; and four parallel methods dealing with technical and economical details of geothermal energy use as a source of industrial process heat were developed.

  19. Retrofit FGD cost-estimating guidelines. Final report. [6 processes

    SciTech Connect

    Shattuck, D.M.; Ireland, P.A.; Keeth, R.J.; Mora, R.R.; Scheck, R.W.; Archambeault, J.A.; Rathbun, G.R.

    1984-10-01

    This report presents a method to estimate specific plant FGD retrofit costs. The basis of the estimate is a new plant's FGD system cost, as provided in EPRI's Economic Evaluation of FGD Systems CS-3342, or any other generalized cost estimate. The methodology adjusts the capital cost for the sulfur content of the coal, sulfur removal required, unit size, geographic location variables, and retrofit considerations. The methodology also allows the user to calculate first year operating and maintenance (O and M) costs based on site-specific variables. Finally, the report provides a means to adjust for remaining unit life in determining the levelized busbar cost. Levelized cost is presented in mills/kWh and $/t SO/sub 2/ removed.

  20. Financial constraints in capacity planning: a national utility regulatory model (NUREG). Volume II of III: user's guide. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-29

    This volume is a User's Guide to the National Utility Regulatory Model (NUREG) and its implementation of the National Coal Model. This is the second of three volumes provided by ICF under contract number DEAC-01-79EI-10579. These three volumes are: a manual describing the NUREG methodology; a users guide; and a description of the software. This manual provides a brief introduction to the National Utility Regulation Model, describes the various programs that comprise the National Utility Regulatory Model, gives sample input files, and provides information needed to run the model.

  1. Stabilization of Fast Pyrolysis Oil: Post Processing Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Lee, Suh-Jane; Hart, Todd R.

    2012-03-01

    UOP LLC, a Honeywell Company, assembled a comprehensive team for a two-year project to demonstrate innovative methods for the stabilization of pyrolysis oil in accordance with DOE Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) DE-PS36-08GO98018, Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil (Bio-oil) Stabilization. In collaboration with NREL, PNNL, the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Pall Fuels and Chemicals, and Ensyn Corporation, UOP developed solutions to the key technical challenges outlined in the FOA. The UOP team proposed a multi-track technical approach for pyrolysis oil stabilization. Conceptually, methods for pyrolysis oil stabilization can be employed during one or both of two stages: (1) during the pyrolysis process (In Process); or (2) after condensation of the resulting vapor (Post-Process). Stabilization methods fall into two distinct classes: those that modify the chemical composition of the pyrolysis oil, making it less reactive; and those that remove destabilizing components from the pyrolysis oil. During the project, the team investigated methods from both classes that were suitable for application in each stage of the pyrolysis process. The post processing stabilization effort performed at PNNL is described in this report. The effort reported here was performed under a CRADA between PNNL and UOP, which was effective on March 13, 2009, for 2 years and was subsequently modified March 8, 2011, to extend the term to December 31, 2011.

  2. A novel process for methanol synthesis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.

    1994-01-25

    The use of methanol (MeOH) as a fuel additive and in MTBE production has renewed interest in the search for improved MeOH processes. Commercial processes are characterized by high pressures and temperatures with low per pass conversion (10--12%). Efforts are underway to find improved MeOH synthesis processes. A slurry phase ``concurrent`` synthesis of MeOH/methyl formate (MeF) which operates under relatively mild conditions (100{degrees}C lower than present commercial processes) was the subject of investigation in this work. Evidence for a reaction scheme involving the carbonylation of MeOH to MeF followed by the hydrogenolysis of MeF to two molecules of MeOH -- the net result being the reaction of H{sub 2} with CO to give MeOH via MeF, is presented. Up to 90% per pass conversion and 98% selectivity to methanol at rates comparable to commercial processes have been obtained in spite of the presence of as much as 10,000 ppM CO{sub 2} and 3000 ppM H{sub 2}O in the gas and liquid respectively. The effect of process parameters such as temperature, pressure, H{sub 2}/CO ratio in the reactor, flow rate and catalyst loading were also investigated. The use of temperatures above 170{degrees}C at a pressure of 50 atm results in MeF being the limiting reactant. Small amounts of CH{sub 4} are also formed. Significant MeOH synthesis rates at a pressure in the range of 40--50 atm makes possible the elimination of an upstream shift reactor and the use of an air-blown syngas generator. The nature of the catalysts was studied and correlated with the behavior of the various species in the concurrent synthesis.

  3. Impact of biomedical imaging and data visualization technology on the clinical development and regulatory review process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conklin, James J.; Robbins, William L.

    1994-12-01

    The determination of whether a drug or medical device is safe and effective requires statistical proof of valid clinical trial information. Quantitative biostatistical measures from anatomic and functional medical images are now providing objective and reproducible measures of drug and device effects. These highly precise biostatistical measures can be used to quantitatively analyze the efficacy and occasionally the safety of these drugs and devices. Since medical imaging information is digital, or is readily digitized, it can be visualized and measured in a variety of ways to evaluate the validity of the data. Moreover, with advanced image processing and data visualization tools, this information can be electronically organized and submitted directly to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration reviewed. Biomedical imaging and computer-based data visualization technologies have the ability to substantially decrease the time required for clinical development and regulatory review while providing more valid data.

  4. Critical thinking as a self-regulatory process component in teaching and learning.

    PubMed

    Phan, Huy P

    2010-05-01

    This article presents a theoretically grounded model of critical thinking and self-regulation in the context of teaching and learning. Critical thinking, deriving from an educational psychology perspective is a complex process of reflection that helps individuals become more analytical in their thinking and professional development. My conceptualisation in this discussion paper argues that both theoretical orientations (critical thinking and self-regulation) operate in a dynamic interactive system of teaching and learning. My argument, based on existing research evidence, suggests two important points: (i) critical thinking acts as another cognitive strategy of self-regulation that learners use in their learning, and (ii) critical thinking may be a product of various antecedents such as different self-regulatory strategies.

  5. The Safety and Regulatory Process for Amino Acids in Europe and the United States.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Ashley

    2016-12-01

    The safety of long-term, high-dose amino acid consumption marketed as dietary supplements or functional or medical foods requires regulatory clearance in the European Union through the novel food process or through the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act or the GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) route in the United States. The safety assessment of high daily doses of amino acids for bodybuilding or other health benefits is expected to require human studies to support tolerability and safety. The need for human studies is based on the fact that there is little or no evidence of toxicity from the conduct of animal toxicity studies and because standard animal testing would be inappropriate because of the large dosages required to provide a suitable margin of safety when extrapolating from animals to humans. Furthermore, the large dosages in animals required to provide a substantial margin of safety could lead to nutritional and physiologic imbalances, potentially confounding an amino acid safety assessment.

  6. New Process for Grain Refinement of Aluminum. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Joseph A. Megy

    2000-09-22

    A new method of grain refining aluminum involving in-situ formation of boride nuclei in molten aluminum just prior to casting has been developed in the subject DOE program over the last thirty months by a team consisting of JDC, Inc., Alcoa Technical Center, GRAS, Inc., Touchstone Labs, and GKS Engineering Services. The Manufacturing process to make boron trichloride for grain refining is much simpler than preparing conventional grain refiners, with attendant environmental, capital, and energy savings. The manufacture of boride grain refining nuclei using the fy-Gem process avoids clusters, salt and oxide inclusions that cause quality problems in aluminum today.

  7. Word Processing for Item Banking and Test Production. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Joseph L.

    This report describes the sequence of activities that took place as the Examination Division of the New Jersey Department of Civil Service introduced a word processing system for a test item bank and for production of camera-ready test copy. The equipment selection, installation and orientation procedures are discussed. Keyboard and CRT terminals,…

  8. CRADA Final Report: Process development for hybrid solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ager, Joel W

    2011-02-14

    TCF funding of a CRADA between LBNL and RSLE leveraged RSLE's original $1M investment in LBNL research and led to development of a solar cell fabrication process that will bring the high efficiency, high voltage hybrid tandem solar cell closer to commercialization. RSLE has already built a pilot line at its Phoenix, Arizona site.

  9. Development of the selective coagulation process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1992-07-01

    The selective hydrophobic coagulation (SHC) process is based on the recent finding that hydrophobic particles can be selectively coagulated without using traditional agglomerating agents or flocculants. The driving force for the coagulation is the attractive energy between hydrophobic surfaces, an interaction that has been overlooked in classical colloid chemistry. In most cases, selective separations can be achieved using simple pH control to disperse the mineral matter, followed by recovery of the coal coagula using techniques that take advantage of the size enlargement. In the present work, studies have been carried out to further investigate the fundamental mechanisms of the SHC process and the parameters that affect the process of separating coal from the ash-forming minerals and pyritic sulfur. Studies have included direct force measurements of the attractive interaction between model hydrophobic surfaces, in-situ measurements of the size distributions of coagula formed under a variety of operating conditions, and development of a population balance model to describe the coagulation process. An extended DLVO colloid stability model which includes a hydrophobic interaction energy term has also been developed to explain the findings obtained from the experimental studies. In addition to the fundamental studies, bench-scale process development test work has been performed to establish the best possible method of separating the coagula from dispersed mineral matter. Two types of separators, i.e., a sedimentation tank and a rotating drum screen, were examined in this study. The sedimentation tank proved to be the more efficient unit, achieving ash reductions as high as 60% in a single pass while recovering more than 90% of the combustible material. This device, which minimizes turbulence and coagula breakage, was used in subsequent test work to optimize design and operating parameters.

  10. Bench-scale co-processing economic assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gala, H.B.; Marker, T.L.; Miller, E.N.

    1994-11-01

    The UOP Co-Processing scheme is a single-stage slurry catalyzed process in which petroleum vacuum resid and coal are simultaneously upgraded to a high-quality synthetic oil. A highly active dispersed catalyst has been developed which enables the operation of the co-processing unit at relatively moderate and high temperatures and relatively high pressure. Under the current contract, a multi-year research program was undertaken to study the technical and economic feasibility of this technology. All the contractual tasks were completed. Autoclave experiments were carried out to evaluate dispersed vanadium catalysts, molybdenum catalysts, and a less costly UOP-proprietary catalyst preparation technique. Autoclave experiments were also carried out in support of the continuous pilot plant unit operation and to study the effects of the process variables (pressure, temperature, and metal loading on the catalyst). A total of 24 continuous pilot plant runs were made. Research and development efforts during the pilot plant operations were concentrated on addressing the cost effectiveness of the UOP single-stage slurry catalyzed co-processing concept based on UOP experience gained in the previous DOE contract. To this end, effect of catalyst metal concentration was studied and a highly-active Mo-based catalyst was developed. This catalyst enabled successful long-term operation (924 hours) of the continuous bench-scale plant at highly severe operating conditions of 3,000 psig, 465{degree}C temperature, and 2:1 resid-to-MAF (moisture- and ash-free) coal ratio with 0.1 wt % active metal. The metal loading of the catalyst was low enough to consider the catalyst as a disposable slurry catalyst. Also, liquid recycle was incorporated in the pilot plant design to increase the, reactor back mixing and to increase the flow of liquid through the reactor (to introduce turbulence in the reactor) and to represent the design of a commercial-scale reactor.

  11. Environmental assessment of advanced thin film manufacturing process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, D.W.; Mopas, E.; Skinner, D.; McGuire, L.; Strehlow, M.

    1998-09-01

    This report describes work performed by BP Solar, Inc., to provide an extensive preproduction analysis of waste-stream abatement at its plant in Fairfield, California. During the study, numerous technologies were thoroughly evaluated, which allowed BP Solar to select systems that outperformed the stringent federal and state regulations. The main issues were originally perceived to be controlling cadmium compound releases to both air and wastewater to acceptable levels and adopting technologies for air and water waste streams in an efficient, cost-effective manner. BP Solar proposed high-efficiency, reliable control equipment that would reduce air-contaminant emission levels below levels of concern. Cadmium telluride dust is successfully controlled with high-efficiency (>99.9%) bag-in/bag-out filters. For air abatement, carbon canisters provide efficient VOC reduction, and wastewater pretreatment is required per federal pretreatment standards. BP Solar installed a cadmium-scavenging ion exchange system and electrowinning system capable of removing cadmium to <10 ppb (local publicly-owned-treatment-works limits for cadmium is 30 ppb). BP Solar plans to maximize potential reuse of rinse waters by phasing in additional wastewater treatment technologies. Finally, the work to date has identified the areas that need to be revisited as production scales up to ensure that all health, safety, and environmental goals are met.

  12. Electronic processes in thin-film PV materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.C.; Chen, D.; Chen, S.L.

    1998-07-01

    The electronic and optical processes in an important class of thin-film PV materials, hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and related alloys, have been investigated using several experimental techniques designed for thin-film geometries. The experimental techniques include various magnetic resonance and optical spectroscopies and combinations of these two spectroscopies. Two-step optical excitation processes through the manifold of silicon dangling bond states have been identifies as important at low excitation energies. Local hydrogen motion has been studied using nuclear magnetic resonance techniques and found to be much more rapid than long range diffusion as measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy. A new metastable effect has been found in a-Si:H films alloyed with sulfur. Spin-one optically excited states have been unambiguously identified using optically detected electron spin resonance. Local hydrogen bonding in microcrystalline silicon films has been studied using NMR.

  13. IMPROVING TACONITE PROCESSING PLANT EFFICIENCY BY COMPUTER SIMULATION, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    William M. Bond; Salih Ersayin

    2007-03-30

    This project involved industrial scale testing of a mineral processing simulator to improve the efficiency of a taconite processing plant, namely the Minorca mine. The Concentrator Modeling Center at the Coleraine Minerals Research Laboratory, University of Minnesota Duluth, enhanced the capabilities of available software, Usim Pac, by developing mathematical models needed for accurate simulation of taconite plants. This project provided funding for this technology to prove itself in the industrial environment. As the first step, data representing existing plant conditions were collected by sampling and sample analysis. Data were then balanced and provided a basis for assessing the efficiency of individual devices and the plant, and also for performing simulations aimed at improving plant efficiency. Performance evaluation served as a guide in developing alternative process strategies for more efficient production. A large number of computer simulations were then performed to quantify the benefits and effects of implementing these alternative schemes. Modification of makeup ball size was selected as the most feasible option for the target performance improvement. This was combined with replacement of existing hydrocyclones with more efficient ones. After plant implementation of these modifications, plant sampling surveys were carried out to validate findings of the simulation-based study. Plant data showed very good agreement with the simulated data, confirming results of simulation. After the implementation of modifications in the plant, several upstream bottlenecks became visible. Despite these bottlenecks limiting full capacity, concentrator energy improvement of 7% was obtained. Further improvements in energy efficiency are expected in the near future. The success of this project demonstrated the feasibility of a simulation-based approach. Currently, the Center provides simulation-based service to all the iron ore mining companies operating in northern

  14. UMTRA Surface Project management action process document: Final. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    Title 1 of the UMTRCA authorized the DOE to undertake remedial actions at these designed sites and associated vicinity properties (VP), which contain uranium mill tailings and other residual radioactive materials (RRM) derived from the processing sites. Title 2 of the UMTRCA addresses uranium mill sites that were licensed at the time the UMTRCA was enacted. Cleanup of these Title 2 sites is the responsibility of the licensees. The cleanup of the Title 1 sites has been split into two separate projects: the Surface Project, which deals with the mill buildings, tailings, and contaminated soils at the sites and VPs; and the Ground Water Project, which is limited to the contaminated ground water at the sites. This management action process (MAP) document discusses the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Surface Project. Since its inception through March 1996, the Surface Project (hereinafter called the Project) has cleaned up 16 of the 24 designated processing sites and approximately 5,000 VPs, reducing the risk to human health and the environment posed by the uranium mill tailings. Two of the 24 sites, Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota, will not be remediated at the request of the state, reducing the total number of sites to 22. By the start of FY1998, the remaining 6 processing sites and associated VPs will be cleaned up. The remedial action activities to be funded in FY1998 by the FY1998 budget request are remediation of the remaining Grand Junction, Colorado, VPs; closure of the Cheney disposal cell in Grand Junction, Colorado; and preparation of the completion reports for 4 completed sites.

  15. Mixing Processes in High-Level Waste Tanks - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, P.F.

    1999-05-24

    The mixing processes in large, complex enclosures using one-dimensional differential equations, with transport in free and wall jets is modeled using standard integral techniques. With this goal in mind, we have constructed a simple, computationally efficient numerical tool, the Berkeley Mechanistic Mixing Model, which can be used to predict the transient evolution of fuel and oxygen concentrations in DOE high-level waste tanks following loss of ventilation, and validate the model against a series of experiments.

  16. Fuel Quality/Processing Study. Volume I. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, J B; Bela, A; Jentz, N E; Syverson, H T; Klumpe, H W; Kessler, R E; Kotzot, H T; Loran, B I

    1981-04-01

    This report presents the results of the Fuel Quality/Processing Study project for production of gas turbine fuels. The objective was to provide a data base for establishing intelligent trade-off between advanced turbine technology and liquid fuel quality. Synthetic fuels to be emphasized include those derived from coal and shale. The intent is to use the data base produced to guide the development of specifications for future synthetic liquid fuels anticipated for use in the time period 1985-2000. It is also to be used as a basis for evaluating the value and benefits of federally sponsored R and D efforts in the field of advanced gas turbine technology. The project assessed relative fuel costs, quality and energy efficiency for a number of fuel sources and processing alternatives. An objective was to accelerate implementation of fuel-flexible combustors for industrial and utility stationary gas turbine systems. This is to be accomplished by generating and demonstrating the technology base for development of reliable gas turbine combustors capable of sustained environmentally acceptable operation when using minimally processed synthetic fuels. The key program results are summarized for the following subject areas: literature survey, on-site fuel pretreatment, existing refineries to upgrade fuels, new refineries to upgrade fuels, and environmental considerations. An inhouse linear programming model served as the basis for determining economic processing paths for the existing refineries and new refineries syncrude upgrading. This involved development of extensive input data comprised of fuel properties, yields, component blending characteristics, incremental capital and operating costs, feed and product costs. Economics are based on March 1980 price levels.

  17. Electrochemical processing of nitrate waste solutions. Phase 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Genders, D.; Weinberg, N.; Hartsough, D.

    1992-10-07

    The second phase of research performed at The Electrosynthesis Co., Inc. has demonstrated the successful removal of nitrite and nitrate from a synthetic effluent stream via a direct electrochemical reduction at a cathode. It was shown that direct reduction occurs at good current efficiencies in 1,000 hour studies. The membrane separation process is not readily achievable for the removal of nitrites and nitrates due to poor current efficiencies and membrane stability problems. A direct reduction process was studied at various cathode materials in a flow cell using the complete synthetic mix. Lead was found to be the cathode material of choice, displaying good current efficiencies and stability in short and long term tests under conditions of high temperature and high current density. Several anode materials were studied in both undivided and divided cell configurations. A divided cell configuration was preferable because it would prevent re-oxidation of nitrite by the anode. The technical objective of eliminating electrode fouling and solids formation was achieved although anode materials which had demonstrated good stability in short term divided cell tests corroded in 1,000 hour experiments. The cause for corrosion is thought to be F{sup {minus}} ions from the synthetic mix migrating across the cation exchange membrane and forming HF in the acid anolyte. Other possibilities for anode materials were explored. A membrane separation process was investigated which employs an anion and cation exchange membrane to remove nitrite and nitrate, recovering caustic and nitric acid. Present research has shown poor current efficiencies for nitrite and nitrate transport across the anion exchange membrane due to co-migration of hydroxide anions. Precipitates form within the anion exchange membranes which would eventually result in the failure of the membranes. Electrochemical processing offers a highly promising and viable method for the treatment of nitrate waste solutions.

  18. Cavitational Hydrothermal Oxidation: A New Remediation Process - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Suslick, K. S.

    2001-07-05

    During the past year, we have continued to make substantial scientific progress on our understanding of cavitation phenomena in aqueous media and applications of cavitation to remediation processes. Our efforts have focused on three separate areas: sonoluminescence as a probe of conditions created during cavitational collapse in aqueous media, the use of cavitation for remediation of contaminated water, and an addition of the use of ultrasound in the synthesis of novel heterogeneous catalysts for hydrodehalogenation of halocarbons under mild conditions.

  19. Microwave processing of Tantalum capacitors. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, A.D.; Lauf, R.J.; Vierow, W.F.

    1998-03-01

    A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (LMES) and AVX Tantalum Corporation (AVX) of Biddeford, Maine, was initiated in October 1991. [Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corp. (LMER) has replaced LMES]. The completion date for the Agreement was March 1996. The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of an advanced microwave processing concept to develop higher capacitance tantalum anodes. Tantalum capacitors are used where high reliability is needed (e.g., pacemakers, hearing aids, and military devices). Two types of tantalum powder are used: sodium-reduced powder and electron beam-refined powder. Sodium-reduced powder has higher surface area, but lower purity; electron beam-refined powder has higher purity for working voltages, but somewhat lower surface area. The powder is pressed into pellets using traditional methods and then placed in the microwave furnace for processing. It is of interest to determine if variable-frequency microwave sintering can increase quality while decreasing processing time and decreasing or eliminating surface contamination; these issues must be addressed while retaining the maximum surface area of the anode. Meeting each of these needs will result in a higher quality anodic film, which will thereby increase the dielectric strength. Additionally, microwave sintering might enable the authors to develop a strong sintered anode without excessive grain growth. The variable-frequency microwave furnace (VFMF), located at the Y-12 Plant, allows the authors to study the effects of sintering over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT), originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies.

  20. Social regulatory processes in later life: a web-based microlongitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Mejía, Shannon T; Hooker, Karen

    2013-09-01

    The goal for this study was to examine within-person processes driving individual development related to social goals. We examined how social regulatory processes travel together over time to understand whether daily social goal progress is sensitive to variation in experiences of support and hindrance and the extent to which maintenance or achievement goal orientation explains differences in sensitivity to social experiences. A sample of 105 adults over the age of 50 years chose an individually meaningful social goal to track over time, which they coded as achievement or maintenance oriented. Participants then reported their daily progress and experiences of support and hindrance toward that goal over a 100-day study period. We found social goal progress to positively covary with support and negatively covary with hindrance. These linkages, which we termed sensitivity, varied significantly across participants. This variation was partially explained by differences in goal orientation. Those with an achievement goal made lower goal progress and were more sensitive to support and less sensitive to hindrance than those with a maintenance-oriented goal. Our findings partially explain the processes by which older adults work toward their social goals. Daily goal progress is contingent on daily social experiences, but these sensitivities are in part shaped by goal orientation.

  1. New microorganisms and processes for MEOR. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sperl, P.L.; Sperl, G.T.

    1993-12-01

    Oil reservoirs naturally contain inorganic and organic materials which may be exploited through simple mineral supplementation to support the growth of denitrifying microorganisms. The growth and metabolic products from the presence of these microorganisms will aid in the release of oil from the rock matrix and improve crude oil quality and oil field operations. These studies have been successful in defining new microorganisms and processes for MEOR. The data show that development of a mixed denitrifying microbial population in an oil reservoir environment will competitively reduce SRB populations resulting in the removal and prevention of H{sub 2}S. At the same time the products resulting from the growth of this replacement population will cause an increase in oil mobilization and oil release by mechanisms involving gas, surfactant and polymer production, and in the case of Thiobacillus growth, could cause dissolution of carbonates in the rock matrix. The establishment of this denitrifying population requires only the addition of simple inorganic chemicals without the need for organic nutrients. This new MEOR technology offers industry the potential for a simple, low cost, and effective oil recovery process, while at the same time provides a solution to the microbially generated sulfide problem.

  2. Process evaluation: Weatherization Residential Assistance Partnership (WRAP Program). [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    The ``Weatherization Residential Assistance Partnership,`` or WRAP program, is a fuel-blind conservation program designed to assist Northeast Utilities` low-income customers to use energy safely and efficiently. Innovative with respect to its collaborative approach and its focus on utilizing and strengthening the existing low-income weatherization service delivery network, and WRAP program offers an interesting model to other utilities which traditionally have relied on for-profit energy service contractors and highly centralized program implementation structures. This report presents the findings of a process evaluation and WRAP customer survey conducted by the Technical Development Corporation (TDC). TDC`s work is one part of a multi-part evaluation project being conducted under the management of ICF Resources, Inc.

  3. Fuel property effects on engine combustion processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cernansky, N.P.; Miller, D.L.

    1995-04-27

    A major obstacle to improving spark ignition engine efficiency is the limitations on compression ratio imposed by tendency of hydrocarbon fuels to knock (autoignite). A research program investigated the knock problem in spark ignition engines. Objective was to understand low and intermediate temperature chemistry of combustion processes relevant to autoignition and knock and to determine fuel property effects. Experiments were conducted in an optically and physically accessible research engine, static reactor, and an atmospheric pressure flow reactor (APFR). Chemical kinetic models were developed for prediction of species evolution and autoignition behavior. The work provided insight into low and intermediate temperature chemistry prior to autoignition of n-butane, iso-butane, n-pentane, 1-pentene, n-heptane, iso-octane and some binary blends. Study of effects of ethers (MTBE, ETBE, TAME and DIPE ) and alcohols (methanol and ethanol) on the oxidation and autoignition of primary reference fuel (PRF) blends.

  4. Anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sheth, A C; Dharmapurikar, R; Strevel, S D

    1994-01-01

    The following investigations were performed: (1) batch mode screening of eleven(11) commercially available resins and selection of three candidate resins for further evaluation in a fixed-bed setup. (2) Process variables study using three candidate resins in the fixed-bed setup and selection of the ``best`` resin for process economics development. (3) Exhaustion efficiency and solution concentration were found to be inversely related necessitating a trade-off between the resin cost versus the cost of evaporation/concentration of ensuing effluents. (4) Higher concentration of the HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} form of active sites over less active CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}} form of sites in the resin was believed to be the main reason for the observed increase in the equilibrium capacity of the resin at an elevated static CO{sub 2}-pressure. This Increase in capacity was found to level off around 80--120 psig range. The increase in CO{sub 2}-pressure, however, did not appear to affect the overall ion-exchange kinetics. (5) In the fixed-bed mode, the solution concentration was found to affect the equilibrium capacity of candidate resins. Their relationship was well satisfied by the Langmuir type non-linear equilibrium isotherm. Alternatively, the effect of solution concentration on overall ion-exchange kinetics varied from resin to resin. (6) Product inhibition effect on the resin was observed as an initial increase followed by a significant decrease in the resin`s equilibrium capacity for SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} as the HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}/SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} molar ratio in the solution was increased from 0 to 1.0. This ratio, however, did not affect the overall ion-exchange kinetics.

  5. Summary of a workshop on interpreting bioaccumulation data collected during regulatory evaluations of dredged material. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, T.S.; Moore, D.W.; Landrum, P.; Neff, J.; Cura, J.

    1996-07-01

    Evaluating the environmental consequences of contaminant bioaccumulation resulting from dredged material disposal is a complex technical and regulatory problem. This problem is exacerbated by the high cost of bioaccumulation testing and the lack of explicit guidance on how bioaccumulation data should be interpreted and used within a regulatory program. Bioaccumulation is a measurable phenomenon, rather than an effect. Without specific information about biological effects (e.g., reduced survival, growth, reproduction in animals, cancer risk in humans) resulting from bioaccumulation, it is difficult if not impossible from a regulatory standpoint to objectively determine what level of bioaccumulation constitutes an `unacceptable adverse effect.` Existing regulatory guidance attempts to overcome this with two approaches, both of which use low aquatic trophic level organisms and a reference-based comparison. In the first approach, the level of bioaccumulation of a specific contaminant is compared with a numerical effect limit, such as a Food and Drug Administration action level or a fish advisory. If the level of the contaminant in the organism exceeds the numerical limit, it is equated to an unacceptable adverse effect. If it does not, or there is no numerical limit, the second approach involves a comparison with animals exposed to a reference sediment. If bioaccumulation in the animals exposed to the dredged material exceeds that of animals exposed to the reference, a number of subjective factors are then evaluated to determine whether or not dredged material disposal will result in an `unacceptable adverse effect` (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)/U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) 1991, 1994).

  6. Carpinteria Coastal Processes Study, 2005-2007; Final Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Revell, David L.; Eshleman, Jodi L.; Mustain, Neomi

    2008-01-01

    PROJECT SUMMARY The United States Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with the University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC), conducted a two-year study of the beach and nearshore coastal processes for the City of Carpinteria and adjacent beaches. The work was performed in response to and worked directly with the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Project Management Plan (PMP) for the City of Carpinteria: * Carpinteria Shoreline, Santa Barbara County, California PMP (June 2003) www.spl.usace.army.mil/cms/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=487&Itemid=31 The City of Carpinteria has experienced significant erosion and storm damage over the last decade (Figure 1.1). A USACE reconnaissance survey has shown shoreline retreat rates that approach 2 m/yr in some locations. The goals of this project are to analyze historical trends/changes in the beach and nearshore environment, document local wave and tidal currents, and assess current beach and nearshore conditions in terms of grain size, beach size and shape, seasonal changes, and nearshore bathymetry. In summary, this work serves to quantify sediment sources, transport and sinks throughout the study area to support USACE and the City of Carpinteria coastal management activities.

  7. Linear and Nonlinear MHD Wave Processes in Plasmas. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Tataronis, J. A.

    2004-06-01

    This program treats theoretically low frequency linear and nonlinear wave processes in magnetized plasmas. A primary objective has been to evaluate the effectiveness of MHD waves to heat plasma and drive current in toroidal configurations. The research covers the following topics: (1) the existence and properties of the MHD continua in plasma equilibria without spatial symmetry; (2) low frequency nonresonant current drive and nonlinear Alfven wave effects; and (3) nonlinear electron acceleration by rf and random plasma waves. Results have contributed to the fundamental knowledge base of MHD activity in symmetric and asymmetric toroidal plasmas. Among the accomplishments of this research effort, the following are highlighted: Identification of the MHD continuum mode singularities in toroidal geometry. Derivation of a third order ordinary differential equation that governs nonlinear current drive in the singular layers of the Alfvkn continuum modes in axisymmetric toroidal geometry. Bounded solutions of this ODE implies a net average current parallel to the toroidal equilibrium magnetic field. Discovery of a new unstable continuum of the linearized MHD equation in axially periodic circular plasma cylinders with shear and incompressibility. This continuum, which we named “accumulation continuum” and which is related to ballooning modes, arises as discrete unstable eigenfrequency accumulate on the imaginary frequency axis in the limit of large mode numbers. Development of techniques to control nonlinear electron acceleration through the action of multiple coherent and random plasmas waves. Two important elements of this program aye student participation and student training in plasma theory.

  8. Phase equilibrium in coal liquefaction processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, K.C.

    1984-08-01

    Gas-liquid equilibrium data have been determined in simulation of coal liquefaction process conditions in mixtures of light gases + heavy hydrocarbons to add to the accumulated data previously reported in EPRI AP-1593. The mixture systems newly investigated are: methane + 9,10 dihydrophenanthrene; hydrogen + methane + 1-methylnaphthalene; hydrogen + carbon dioxide + tetralin; hydrogen + carbon dioxide + 1-methynaphthalene; hydrogen + carbon dioxide + quinoline; nitrogen + tetralin, + n-hexadecane, + 1-methylnaphthalene, + quinoline, and + m-cresol. Correlations for the solubilities of methane and carbon dioxide have been developed from the data based on the use of solubility parameter. The solubility of hydrogen was correlated in EPRI AP-1593. Two equations of state are developed for the description of both the gas solubility and the vaporization of the heavy oil. The Chain-of-Rotators (COR) equation of state explicitly accounts for the rotational molecular motion contribution to the pressure of a fluid. The Cubic-Chain-of-Rotators (CCOR) equation is obtained upon simplifying the COR equation. Interaction constants in the CCOR equation have been determined for the light gases with the heavy hydrocarbons based on data from this project, and the constants are correlated. Equilibrium flash vaporization has been experimentally determined for three coal liquids and for their mixtures with hydrogen. The data are correlated with the CCOR equation of state. 74 figures, 46 tables.

  9. Development of a thin steel strip casting process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.S.

    1994-04-01

    This is a comprehensive effort to develop direct strip casting to the point where a pilot scale program for casting carbon steel strip could be initiated. All important aspects of the technology were being investigated, however the program was terminated early due to a change in the business strategy of the primary contractor, Armco Inc. (focus to be directed at specialty steels, not low carbon steel). At termination, the project was on target on all milestones and under budget. Major part was casting of strip at the experiment casting facility. A new caster, capable of producing direct cast strip of up to 12 in. wide in heats of 1000 and 3000 lb, was used. A total of 81 1000-1200 lb heats were cast as well as one test heat of 3000 lb. Most produced strip of from 0.016 to 0.085 in. thick. Process reliability was excellent for short casting times; quality was generally poor from modern hot strip mill standards, but the practices necessary for good surface quality were identified.

  10. Final Report, "Molecular Design of Hydrocarbon Oxidation Catalytic Processes"

    SciTech Connect

    Professor Francisco Zaera

    2007-08-09

    production of small amounts of ethylene and water, most likely via the concerted decomposition or disproportionation of the adsorbed molecular species. The bulk of the 2-iodoethanol decomposes at about 150 K via an initial carbon-iodine scission to form –O(H)CH2CH2– (~80%) and 2-hydroxyethyl (~20%) intermediates. Two competing reactions are involved with the subsequent conversion of the 2-hydroxyethyl species around 160 K, a reductive elimination with surface hydrogen to yield ethanol, and a β-H elimination to surface vinyl alcohol. The –O(H)CH2CH2–, on the other hand, dehydrogenates to a –OCH2CH2– oxametallacycle species about the same temperature. Both 2-hydroxyethyl and oxametallacycle species tautomerize to acetaldehyde, around 210 K and above 250 K, respectively, and some of that acetaldehyde desorbs while the rest decomposes to hydrogen and carbon monoxide. We contend that a better understanding of the surface chemistry of oxygen-containing surfaces can lead to better selectivities in catalysis. This is arguably the most important issue in the field of catalysis in the near future, and one that impacts several technologies of interest to DOE such as the manufacturing of speciality chemicals and the control and removal of pollutants. Additional work was performed on the characterization of the chemistry of methyl and methylene adsorbed species on oxygen-treated nickel surfaces. Complex chemistry was observed involving not only hydrogenation and dehydrogenation steps, but also C-C couplings and methylene insertions to produce heavier hydrocarbons, and oxygen insertion reactions that yield oxygenates. Finally, a dual titration technique employing xenon and a chemically sensitive probe was developed to identify minority catalytic sites on oxide surfaces. In the case of oxygen-treated Ni(110) single crystals, it was found that both hydrogen transfer with adsorbed water or ammonia and certain hydrocarbon hydrogenation reactions take place at the end of the

  11. Improvements to the DOE low-level waste regulatory structure and process under recommendation 94-2 - progress to date

    SciTech Connect

    Regnier, E.

    1995-12-31

    Among the concerns expressed by the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board (DNFSB) in its Recommendation 94-2 was the lack of a clearly defined and effective internal Department of Energy (DOE) regulatory oversight and enforcement process for ensuring that low-level radioactive waste management health, safety, and environmental requirements are met. Therefore, part of the response to the DNFSB concern is a task to clarify and strengthen the low-level waste management regulatory structure. This task is being conducted in two steps. First, consistent with the requirements of the current DOE waste management order and within the framework of the current organizational structure, interim clarification of a review process and the associated organizational responsibilities has been issued. Second, in coordination with the revision of the waste management order and consistent with the organizational responsibilities resulting from the strategic alignment of DOE, a rigorous, more independent regulatory oversight structure will be developed.

  12. Unique expression, processing regulation, and regulatory network of peach (Prunus persica) miRNAs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently emerged as important gene regulators in plants. MiRNAs and their targets have been extensively studied in Arabidopsis and rice. However, relatively little is known about the characterization of miRNAs and their target genes in peach (Prunus persica), which is a complex crop with unique developmental programs. Results We performed small RNA deep sequencing and identified 47 peach-specific and 47 known miRNAs or families with distinct expression patterns. Together, the identified miRNAs targeted 80 genes, many of which have not been reported previously. Like the model plant systems, peach has two of the three conserved trans-acting siRNA biogenesis pathways with similar mechanistic features and target specificity. Unique to peach, three of the miRNAs collectively target 49 MYBs, 19 of which are known to regulate phenylpropanoid metabolism, a key pathway associated with stone hardening and fruit color development, highlighting a critical role of miRNAs in the regulation of peach fruit development and ripening. We also found that the majority of the miRNAs were differentially regulated in different tissues, in part due to differential processing of miRNA precursors. Up to 16% of the peach-specific miRNAs were differentially processed from their precursors in a tissue specific fashion, which has been rarely observed in plant cells. The miRNA precursor processing activity appeared not to be coupled with its transcriptional activity but rather acted independently in peach. Conclusions Collectively, the data characterizes the unique expression pattern and processing regulation of peach miRNAs and demonstrates the presence of a complex, multi-level miRNA regulatory network capable of targeting a wide variety of biological functions, including phenylpropanoid pathways which play a multifaceted spatial-temporal role in peach fruit development. PMID:22909020

  13. Learning by Preparing to Teach: Fostering Self-Regulatory Processes and Achievement during Complex Mathematics Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muis, Krista R.; Psaradellis, Cynthia; Chevrier, Marianne; Di Leo, Ivana; Lajoie, Susanne P.

    2016-01-01

    We developed an intervention based on the learning by teaching paradigm to foster self-regulatory processes and better learning outcomes during complex mathematics problem solving in a technology-rich learning environment. Seventy-eight elementary students were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions: learning by preparing to teach, or learning for…

  14. Laboratory Exercise: Study of Digestive and Regulatory Processes through the Exploration of Fasted and Postprandial Blood Glucose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopper, Mari K.; Maurer, Luke W.

    2013-01-01

    Digestive physiology laboratory exercises often explore the regulation of enzyme action rather than systems physiology. This laboratory exercise provides a systems approach to digestive and regulatory processes through the exploration of postprandial blood glucose levels. In the present exercise, students enrolled in an undergraduate animal…

  15. The Temporal and Dynamic Nature of Self-Regulatory Processes during Independent and Externally Assisted Hypermedia Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Amy M.; Azevedo, Roger; D'Mello, Sidney K.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the temporal and dynamic nature of students' self-regulatory processes while learning about the circulatory system with hypermedia. A total of 74 undergraduate students were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions: independent learning or externally assisted learning. Participants in the independent learning condition used a…

  16. Risk Informed Assessment of Regulatory and Design Requirements for Future Nuclear Power Plants (Cooperative Agreement DE-FC03-99SF21902, Am. M004) Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley E. Ritterbusch, et. al.

    2003-01-29

    accidents would be an inherent part of the Probabilistic Safety Assessment for the plant and their evaluation would be probabilistic. Other first year accomplishments include (1) the conversion of an NRC database for cross-referencing NRC criteria and industry codes and standards to Microsoft 2000 software, (2) an assessment of the NRC's hearing process which concluded that the normal cross-examination during public hearings is not actually required by the U.S. Administrative Procedures Act, (3) the identification and listing of reliability data sources, and (4) interfacing with other industry groups (e.g., NEI and IAEA) and NRC at workshops for risk-informing regulations. The major accomplishments during the second year consisted of (1) issuance of the final report for Subtask 1.1, ''Identify Current Applicable Regulatory Requirements [and Industry Standards],'' (2) issuance of the final report for Subtask 1.2,'' Identify Structures, Systems, and Components and Their Associate d Costs for a Typical Plant,'' (3) extension of the new, highly risk-informed design and regulatory framework to non-light-water-reactor technology, (4) completion of more detailed thermal-hydraulic and probabilistic analyses of advanced conceptual reactor system/component designs, (6) initial evaluation and recommendations for improvement of the NRC design review process, and (7) initial development of the software format, procedures and statistical routines needed to store, analyze and retrieve the available reliability data. Final reports for Subtasks 1.1 (regulatory and design criteria) and 1.2 (costs for structures, systems, and components) were prepared and issued. A final report for Subtask 1.3 (Regulatory Framework) was drafted with the aim to issue it in Phase 3 (Year 3). One technical report was produced for Subtask 1.4 (methods development) and two technical reports were produced for Subtask 1.6 (sample problem analysis). An interim report on the NRC design review process (Subtask 1.7) was

  17. Regulatory assessment of supplemental notice of proposed rulemaking on structural measures for existing single-hull tankers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This Regulatory Assessment (RA) examines certain alternative pollution prevention measures on a selected range of existing single-hull tank vessel categories. First, a screening analysis was conducted to evaluate the impacts of certain structural measures on a selected number of baseline analytical tank vessel models. The screening analysis included an estimation of onetime expenses associated with refitting the vessel at a shipyard, the cost of losing cargo carrying capacity due to the implementation of a measure that would not allow cargo carriage in certain tanks or above certain levels, and other costs such as loss of revenue during the shipyard period. Second, a detailed analysis was conducted to estimate the costs and benifits of those measures which were deemed the most effective at reducing oil outflow on the affected existing single-hull tank vessel fleet. The detailed analysis included a breakdown of costs and benefits, and included a cost-benefit analysis over the potential 19-year period that this regulation would be in effect.

  18. Assessing new developments in the pre-market regulatory process of medical devices in the People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shixuan; Kriza, Christine; Kolominsky-Rabas, Peter L

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a systematic overview of the Chinese medical device registration processes, identify challenges and suggest how these can be addressed. In addition, the paper will outline the impact of new policies and regulations since the restructuring of the China FDA. A systematic review was performed for journal articles between the year of 2009 and 2013 in the following databases: PubMed, ScienceDirect and Zhongguozhiwang. The review has identified 184 papers which were potentially relevant. Seventeen articles were included in the review, which highlights the challenges and opportunities related to the medical device registration process. In order to understand the actual impact of the regulation environment and its policies including the lack of regulatory guidance regular assessment updates are crucial. The results of this paper are aimed at informing regulatory bodies, health policy decision makers, national and international Health Technology Assessment networks as well as medical devices manufacturers.

  19. Human-system interface design review guideline -- Process and guidelines: Final report. Revision 1, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    NUREG-0700, Revision 1, provides human factors engineering (HFE) guidance to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff for its: (1) review of the human system interface (HSI) design submittals prepared by licensees or applications for a license or design certification of commercial nuclear power plants, and (2) performance of HSI reviews that could be undertaken as part of an inspection or other type of regulatory review involving HSI design or incidents involving human performance. The guidance consists of a review process and HFE guidelines. The document describes those aspects of the HSI design review process that are important to the identification and resolution of human engineering discrepancies that could adversely affect plant safety. Guidance is provided that could be used by the staff to review an applicant`s HSI design review process or to guide the development of an HSI design review plan, e.g., as part of an inspection activity. The document also provides detailed HFE guidelines for the assessment of HSI design implementations. NUREG-0700, Revision 1, consists of three stand-alone volumes. Volume 1 consists of two major parts. Part 1 describes those aspects of the review process of the HSI design that are important to identifying and resolving human engineering discrepancies. Part 2 contains detailed guidelines for a human factors engineering review which identify criteria for assessing the implementation of an applicant`s or licensee`s HSI design.

  20. Process waste assessment: Black and white print/film processing and photomechanical transfer (PMT). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Albers, D.L.

    1993-08-01

    This process waste assessment was performed to determine quantitatively the chemicals and materials used in the black and white print/film process, to determine their ultimate destination, and to explore options for reduced usage. It was determined that the volume of materials and water used for this process can be reduced; however, there would be significant restrictions on the types of reproductions available to customers. The process cannot be eliminated because of the classified artwork requirements.

  1. Creating a Comprehensive, Efficient, and Sustainable Nuclear Regulatory Structure: A Process Report from the U.S. Department of Energy's Material Protection, Control and Accounting Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Troy L.; O'Brien, Patricia E.; Hazel, Michael J.; Tuttle, John D.; Cunningham, Mitchel E.; Schlegel, Steven C.

    2010-08-11

    With the congressionally mandated January 1, 2013 deadline for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) program to complete its transition of MPC&A responsibility to the Russian Federation, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) management directed its MPC&A program managers and team leaders to demonstrate that work in ongoing programs would lead to successful and timely achievement of these milestones. In the spirit of planning for successful project completion, the NNSA review of the Russian regulatory development process confirmed the critical importance of an effective regulatory system to a sustainable nuclear protection regime and called for an analysis of the existing Russian regulatory structure and the identification of a plan to ensure a complete MPC&A regulatory foundation. This paper describes the systematic process used by DOE’s MPC&A Regulatory Development Project (RDP) to develop an effective and sustainable MPC&A regulatory structure in the Russian Federation. This nuclear regulatory system will address all non-military Category I and II nuclear materials at State Corporation for Atomic Energy “Rosatom,” the Federal Service for Ecological, Technological, and Nuclear Oversight (Rostechnadzor), the Federal Agency for Marine and River Transport (FAMRT, within the Ministry of Transportation), and the Ministry of Industry and Trade (Minpromtorg). The approach to ensuring a complete and comprehensive nuclear regulatory structure includes five sequential steps. The approach was adopted from DOE’s project management guidelines and was adapted to the regulatory development task by the RDP. The five steps in the Regulatory Development Process are: 1) Define MPC&A Structural Elements; 2) Analyze the existing regulatory documents using the identified Structural Elements; 3) Validate the analysis with Russian colleagues and define the list of documents to be developed; 4) Prioritize and

  2. Converting printed wiring product processing to aqueous processable dry film photoresist. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Goldammer, S.E.

    1996-07-01

    Fully aqueous processable dry film photoresists were evaluated to determine which dry film in the Federal Manufacturing and Technologies printed wiring board facility performed the best. The photoresists were chosen for their compatibility in alkaline etching, copper electroplating, and tin-lead electroplating. The processing evaluation included both single layer and double layer dry film photoresist for pattern plating.

  3. Solar industrial process heat for Georgia's food processing and textile industries: a market evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Studstill, W.T.

    1980-10-08

    Georgia Tech's Engineering Experiment Station conducted a site-specific market evaluation study of solar industrial process heat for Georgia's food processing and textile industries. Twenty plants were surveyed and six case studies were conducted. The summary resualts of that study are presented with interpretation and conclusions by the Southern Solar Energy Center (SSEC).

  4. How to Avoid Stereotypes? Evaluation of a Strategy based on Self-Regulatory Processes.

    PubMed

    Aranda, María; Montes-Berges, Beatriz

    2016-06-10

    Based on research on the motivational processes involved in preventing and controlling stereotypes, we aimed to assess whether temporary activation of egalitarian goals - by means of a task that gives respondents exposure to a text on gender inequality - can prevent stereotyped answers on the task. The task asks participants to place women and men into a hierarchical organizational structure. Two specific objectives were established: first, to control the effect of prejudice and egalitarian commitment on the dependent variable; and second, to study gender differences in task responses. The study included 474 college students, 153 men and 321 women. Their mean age was 20.04 (SD = 4.43). ANCOVA indicated main effects of condition, F(1) = 4.15, p = .042, η2 = .081 (control condition without goal activation vs. experimental condition with goal activation) and sex, F(1) = 40.46, p < .001, η2 = .081, on the dependent variable (female candidates placed in the chart). Specifically, responses from participants in the experimental condition avoided stereotyped answers more than participants in the control condition. Furthermore, women's performance on the task was more egalitarian than men's. Finally, there was a significant interaction effect of condition and type of organization, F(2) = 3.97, p = .019, η2 = .017; participants assigning candidates to the feminized organization differed the most across conditions.

  5. US Department of Energy wind turbine candidate site program: the regulatory process

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, M.R.; York, K.R.

    1982-06-01

    Sites selected in 1979 as tentative sites for installation of a demonstration MOD-2 turbine are emphasized. Selection as a candidate site in this program meant that the US Department of Energy (DOE) designated the site as eligible for a DOE-purchased and installed meteorological tower. The regulatory procedures involved in the siting and installation of these meteorological towers at the majority of the candidate sites are examined. An attempt is also made, in a preliminary fashion, to identify the legal and regulatory procedures that would be required to put up a turbine at each of these candidate sites. The information provided on each of these sites comes primarily from utility representatives, supplemented by conversations with state and local officials. The major findings are summarized on the following: federal requirements, state requirements, local requirements, land ownership, wind rights, and public attitudes.

  6. 14 CFR 11.31 - How does FAA process direct final rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false How does FAA process direct final rules? 11.31 Section 11.31 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURAL RULES GENERAL RULEMAKING PROCEDURES Rulemaking Procedures General § 11.31 How does FAA...

  7. Application, review, and reporting process for Waivers for State Innovation. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-02-27

    This final rule sets forth a procedural framework for submission and review of initial applications for a Waiver for State Innovation described in section 1332 of the Patient Protection and the Affordable Care Act including processes to ensure opportunities for public input in the development of such applications by States and in the Federal review of the applications.

  8. Interactions of Science and Technology in the Innovative Process: Some Case Studies. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH. Columbus Labs.

    This is the final report of the latest effort in a series sponsored by the National Science Foundation on the innovation process. It adds to the store of retrospective case studies by documenting historically the significant events in several technological innovations of high social impact. These cases, drawn together by the Battelle Columbus…

  9. Interaction between Syntactic Structure and Information Structure in the Processing of a Head-Final Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koizumi, Masatoshi; Imamura, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    The effects of syntactic and information structures on sentence processing load were investigated using two reading comprehension experiments in Japanese, a head-final SOV language. In the first experiment, we discovered the main effects of syntactic and information structures, as well as their interaction, showing that interaction of these two…

  10. A Process of Students and Their Instructor Developing a Final Closed-Book Mathematics Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapke, Tina

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a study, from a Canadian technical institute's upgrading mathematics course, where students played a role in developing the final closed-book exam that they sat. The study involved a process where students developed practice exams and solutions keys, students sat each other's practice exams, students evaluated classmates'…

  11. Medicaid Program; Mechanized Claims Processing and Information Retrieval Systems (90/10). Final rule.

    PubMed

    2015-12-04

    This final rule will extend enhanced funding for Medicaid eligibility systems as part of a state's mechanized claims processing system, and will update conditions and standards for such systems, including adding to and updating current Medicaid Management Information Systems (MMIS) conditions and standards. These changes will allow states to improve customer service and support the dynamic nature of Medicaid eligibility, enrollment, and delivery systems.

  12. Trust, regulatory processes and NICE decision-making: Appraising cost-effectiveness models through appraising people and systems.

    PubMed

    Brown, Patrick; Hashem, Ferhana; Calnan, Michael

    2016-02-01

    This article presents an ethnographic study of regulatory decision-making regarding the cost-effectiveness of expensive medicines at the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in England. We explored trust as one important mechanism by which problems of complexity and uncertainty were resolved. Existing studies note the salience of trust for regulatory decisions, by which the appraisal of people becomes a proxy for appraising technologies themselves. Although such (dis)trust in manufacturers was one important influence, we describe a more intricate web of (dis)trust relations also involving various expert advisors, fellow committee members and committee Chairs. Within these complex chains of relations, we found examples of both more blind-acquiescent and more critical-Investigative forms of trust as well as, at times, pronounced distrust. Difficulties in overcoming uncertainty through other means obliged trust in some contexts, although not in others. (Dis)trust was constructed through inferences involving abstract systems alongside actors' oral and written presentations-of-self. Systemic features and 'forced options' to trust indicate potential insidious processes of regulatory capture.

  13. Effect of temper rolling on final shape defects in a V-section roll forming process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abvabi, Akbar; Rolfe, Bernard; Hodgson, Peter D.; Weiss, Matthias

    2013-12-01

    Roll forming is a continuous process in which a flat strip is shaped to the desired profile by sequential bending in a series of roll stands. Because of the large variety of applications of roll forming in the industry, Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is increasingly utilized for roll forming process design. Bending is the dominant deformation mode in roll forming. Sheet materials used in this process are generally temper rolled, roller- or tension- leveled. These processes introduce residual stresses into the material, and recent studies have shown that those affect the material behavior in bending. In this study a numerical model of the temper rolling (skin passing) process was used to determine a residual stress distribution in a dual phase, DP780, steel strip. A 5-stand roll forming process for the forming of a V-section was modeled, and the effect of various thickness reduction levels in the temper rolling process on the final shape defects was analyzed. The results show that a small thickness reduction in the temper rolling process decreases the maximum bow height but the final springback angle increases. It is also shown that reasonable model accuracy can be achieved by including the residual stress information due to temper rolling as initial condition in the numerical modeling of a roll forming process.

  14. Webinar Presentation: Exposures to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Childhood Growth Trajectories and Body Composition: Linkages to Disrupted Self-Regulatory Processes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation, Exposures to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Childhood Growth Trajectories and Body Composition: Linkages to Disrupted Self-Regulatory Processes, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2016 Webinar Series: Childhood Obesity

  15. Analysis of the permitting processes associated with exploration of Federal OCS leases. Final report. Volume II. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    Under contract to the Office of Leasing Policy Development (LPDO), Jack Faucett Associates is currently undertaking the description and analysis of the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) regulatory process to determine the nature of time delays that affect OCS production of oil and gas. This report represents the results of the first phase of research under this contract, the description and analysis of regulatory activity associated with exploration activities on the Federal OCS. Volume 1 contains the following three sections: (1) study results; (2) Federal regulatory activities during exploration of Federal OCS leases which involved the US Geological Survey, Environmental Protection Agency, US Coast Guard, Corps of Engineers, and National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration; and (3) state regulatory activities during exploration of Federal OCS leases of Alaska, California, Louisiana, Massachusetts, New Jersey, North Carolina and Texas. Volume II contains appendices of US Geological Survey, Environmental Protection Agency, Coast Guard, Corps of Engineers, the Coastal Zone Management Act, and Alaska. The major causes of delay in the regulatory process governing exploration was summarized in four broad categories: (1) the long and tedious process associated with the Environmental Protection Agency's implementation of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit; (2) thelack of mandated time periods for the completion of individual activities in the permitting process; (3) the lack of overall coordination of OCS exploratory regulation; and (4) the inexperience of states, the Federal government and industry relating to the appropriate level of regulation for first-time lease sale areas.

  16. Personality reflected in a coherent idiosyncratic interplay of intra- and interpersonal self-regulatory processes.

    PubMed

    Morf, Carolyn C

    2006-12-01

    This article discusses a framework that conceptualizes personality in terms of a unique pattern of interacting intra- and interpersonal self-regulatory mechanisms employed in the service of constructing and maintaining a desired self. These personal goals motivate the individuals' self-construction efforts and give direction, organization, and coherence to the self-regulatory dynamics--both within the person and in the social world in which they play out. The framework is illustrated through research on construct validation of the narcissistic personality type and extended by brief applications to dependency and rejection sensitivity to show how it may help us understand the complex signatures that are the expressions of a personality type. It offers a guide for where to look for and how to organize the unique features and idiosyncratic dynamics of different self-construction types and to make sense of their otherwise often seemingly paradoxical expressions. In so doing, the framework speaks to basic goals of personality psychology by providing an approach for capturing trait-like individual differences while simultaneously shedding light on the psychological mechanism that underlies them.

  17. Estimating the transmission potential of supercritical processes based on the final size distribution of minor outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Nishiura, Hiroshi; Yan, Ping; Sleeman, Candace K; Mode, Charles J

    2012-02-07

    Use of the final size distribution of minor outbreaks for the estimation of the reproduction numbers of supercritical epidemic processes has yet to be considered. We used a branching process model to derive the final size distribution of minor outbreaks, assuming a reproduction number above unity, and applying the method to final size data for pneumonic plague. Pneumonic plague is a rare disease with only one documented major epidemic in a spatially limited setting. Because the final size distribution of a minor outbreak needs to be normalized by the probability of extinction, we assume that the dispersion parameter (k) of the negative-binomial offspring distribution is known, and examine the sensitivity of the reproduction number to variation in dispersion. Assuming a geometric offspring distribution with k=1, the reproduction number was estimated at 1.16 (95% confidence interval: 0.97-1.38). When less dispersed with k=2, the maximum likelihood estimate of the reproduction number was 1.14. These estimates agreed with those published from transmission network analysis, indicating that the human-to-human transmission potential of the pneumonic plague is not very high. Given only minor outbreaks, transmission potential is not sufficiently assessed by directly counting the number of offspring. Since the absence of a major epidemic does not guarantee a subcritical process, the proposed method allows us to conservatively regard epidemic data from minor outbreaks as supercritical, and yield estimates of threshold values above unity.

  18. Awareness of the role of science in the FDA regulatory submission process: a survey of the TERMIS-Americas membership.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Peter C; Bertram, Tim A; Carty, Neal R; Hellman, Kiki B; Tawil, Bill J; Van Dyke, Mark

    2014-06-01

    The Industry Committee of the Tissue Engineering Regenerative Medicine International Society, Americas Chapter (TERMIS-AM) administered a survey to its membership in 2013 to assess the awareness of science requirements in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulatory process. One hundred forty-four members responded to the survey. Their occupational and geographical representation was representative of the TERMIS-AM membership as a whole. The survey elicited basic demographic information, the degree to which members were involved in tissue engineering technology development, and their plans for future involvement in such development. The survey then assessed the awareness of general FDA scientific practices as well as specific science requirements for regulatory submissions to the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER), the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER), the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH), and the Office of Combination Projects (OCP). The FDA-specific questions in the survey were culled from guidance documents posted on the FDA web site ( www.fda.gov ). One of the answer options was an opt-out clause that enabled survey respondents to claim a lack of sufficient awareness of the topic to answer the question. This enabled the stratification of respondents on the basis of confidence in the topic. Results indicate that across all occupational groups (academic, business, and government) that are represented in the TERMIS-AM membership, the awareness of FDA science requirements varies markedly. Those who performed best were for-profit company employees, consultants, and government employees; while students, professors, and respondents from outside the USA performed least well. Confidence in question topics was associated with increased correctness in responses across all groups, though the association between confidence and the ability to answer correctly was poorest among students and professors. Though 80% of

  19. 30 CFR 1206.363 - When is an ONRR audit, review, reconciliation, monitoring, or other like process considered final?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., monitoring, or other like process considered final? 1206.363 Section 1206.363 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF... other like process considered final? Notwithstanding any provision in these regulations to the contrary, no audit, review, reconciliation, monitoring, or other like process that results in a...

  20. Interactive Effects of Working Memory Self-Regulatory Ability and Relevance Instructions on Text Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Nancy Jo

    2012-01-01

    Reading is a process that requires the enactment of many cognitive processes. Each of these processes uses a certain amount of working memory resources, which are severely constrained by biology. More efficiency in the function of working memory may mediate the biological limits of same. Reading relevancy instructions may be one such method to…

  1. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Merriam, N.W.; Jha, M.C.

    1991-11-01

    This report is a final brief summary of development of a mild-gasification and char conversion process. Morgantown Energy Technology Center developed a concept called mild gasification. In this concept, devolatilization of coal under nonoxidizing and relatively mild temperature and pressure conditions can yield three marketable products: (1) a high-heating-value gas, (2) a high-aromatic coal liquid, and (3) a high-carbon char. The objective of this program is to develop an advanced, continuous, mild-gasification process to produce products that will make the concept economically and environmentally viable. (VC)

  2. 78 FR 62322 - Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013; Notice of Rescheduled Two-Year Licensing Process...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013; Notice of Rescheduled Two-Year... issuance of a license for hydropower development at non-powered dams and closed-loop pumped storage projects in compliance with section 6 of the Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013. The...

  3. 77 FR 33253 - Regulatory Guide 8.24, Revision 2, Health Physics Surveys During Enriched Uranium-235 Processing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY... and Fuel Fabrication AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of issuance; availability. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing a revision to an existing guide in...

  4. hARACNe: improving the accuracy of regulatory model reverse engineering via higher-order data processing inequality tests.

    PubMed

    Jang, In Sock; Margolin, Adam; Califano, Andrea

    2013-08-06

    A key goal of systems biology is to elucidate molecular mechanisms associated with physiologic and pathologic phenotypes based on the systematic and genome-wide understanding of cell context-specific molecular interaction models. To this end, reverse engineering approaches have been used to systematically dissect regulatory interactions in a specific tissue, based on the availability of large molecular profile datasets, thus improving our mechanistic understanding of complex diseases, such as cancer. In this paper, we introduce high-order Algorithm for the Reconstruction of Accurate Cellular Network (hARACNe), an extension of the ARACNe algorithm for the dissection of transcriptional regulatory networks. ARACNe uses the data processing inequality (DPI), from information theory, to detect and prune indirect interactions that are unlikely to be mediated by an actual physical interaction. Whereas ARACNe considers only first-order indirect interactions, i.e. those mediated by only one extra regulator, hARACNe considers a generalized form of indirect interactions via two, three or more other regulators. We show that use of higher-order DPI resulted in significantly improved performance, based on transcription factor (TF)-specific ChIP-chip data, as well as on gene expression profile following RNAi-mediated TF silencing.

  5. Surface and subsurface cleanup protocol for radionuclides, Gunnison, Colorado, UMTRA project processing site. Final [report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Surface and subsurface soil cleanup protocols for the Gunnison, Colorado, processing sits are summarized as follows: In accordance with EPA-promulgated land cleanup standards (40 CFR 192), in situ Ra-226 is to be cleaned up based on bulk concentrations not exceeding 5 and 15 pCi/g in 15-cm surface and subsurface depth increments, averaged over 100-m{sup 2} grid blocks, where the parent Ra-226 concentrations are greater than, or in secular equilibrium with, the Th-230 parent. A bulk interpretation of these EPA standards has been accepted by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and while the concentration of the finer-sized soil fraction less than a No. 4 mesh sieve contains the higher concentration of radioactivity, the bulk approach in effect integrates the total sample radioactivity over the entire sample mass. In locations where Th-230 has differentially migrated in subsoil relative to Ra-226, a Th-230 cleanup protocol has been developed in accordance with Supplemental Standard provisions of 40 CFR 192 for NRC/Colorado Department of Health (CDH) approval for timely implementation. Detailed elements of the protocol are contained in Appendix A, Generic Protocol from Thorium-230 Cleanup/Verification at UMTRA Project Processing Sites. The cleanup of other radionuclides or nonradiological hazards that pose a significant threat to the public and the environment will be determined and implemented in accordance with pathway analysis to assess impacts and the implications of ALARA specified in 40 CFR 192 relative to supplemental standards.

  6. Electrochemical Advanced Oxidation Process for Shipboard Final Purification of Filtered Black Water, Gray Water, and Bilge Water, Vol. 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-08-01

    Shipboard Final Purification of Filtered Black Water , Gray Water , and Bilge Water O. Weres, PhD and H.E. O’Donnell Sonoma Research Company Napa...Process for Shipboard Final Purification of Filtered Black Water , Gray Water , and Bilge Water 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...Shipboard Final Purification of Filtered Black Water , Gray Water , and Bilge Water Final Report Submitted to: SERDP Office 901 North Stuart Street, Suite

  7. Fate of starch in food processing: from raw materials to final food products.

    PubMed

    Delcour, Jan A; Bruneel, Charlotte; Derde, Liesbeth J; Gomand, Sara V; Pareyt, Bram; Putseys, Joke A; Wilderjans, Edith; Lamberts, Lieve

    2010-01-01

    Starch, an essential component of an equilibrated diet, is present in cereals such as common and durum wheat, maize, rice, and rye, in roots and tubers such as potato and cassava, and in legumes such as peas. During food processing, starch mainly undergoes nonchemical transformations. Here, we focus on the occurrence of starch in food raw materials, its composition and properties, and its transformations from raw material to final products. We therefore describe a number of predominant food processes and identify research needs. Nonchemical transformations that are dealt with include physical damage to starch, gelatinization, amylose-lipid complex formation, amylose crystallization, and amylopectin retrogradation. A main focus is on wheat-based processes. (Bio)chemical modifications of starch by amylolytic enzymes are dealt with only in the context of understanding the starch component in bread making.

  8. The Theory of High Energy Collision Processes - Final Report DOE/ER/40158-1

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Tai, T.

    2011-09-15

    In 1984, DOE awarded Harvard University a new Grant DE-FG02-84ER40158 to continue their support of Tai Tsun Wu as Principal Investigator of research on the theory of high energy collision processes. This Grant was renewed and remained active continuously from June 1, 1984 through November 30, 2007. Topics of interest during the 23-year duration of this Grant include: the theory and phenomenology of collision and production processes at ever higher energies; helicity methods of QED and QCD; neutrino oscillations and masses; Yang-Mills gauge theory; Beamstrahlung; Fermi pseudopotentials; magnetic monopoles and dyons; cosmology; classical confinement; mass relations; Bose-Einstein condensation; and large-momentum-transfer scattering processes. This Final Report describes the research carried out on Grant DE-FG02-84ER40158 for the period June 1, 1984 through November 30, 2007. Two books resulted from this project and a total of 125 publications.

  9. The pharmaceutical vial capping process: Container closure systems, capping equipment, regulatory framework, and seal quality tests.

    PubMed

    Mathaes, Roman; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Buettiker, Jean-Pierre; Roehl, Holger; Lam, Philippe; Brown, Helen; Luemkemann, Joerg; Adler, Michael; Huwyler, Joerg; Streubel, Alexander; Mohl, Silke

    2016-02-01

    Parenteral drug products are protected by appropriate primary packaging to protect against environmental factors, including potential microbial contamination during shelf life duration. The most commonly used CCS configuration for parenteral drug products is the glass vial, sealed with a rubber stopper and an aluminum crimp cap. In combination with an adequately designed and controlled aseptic fill/finish processes, a well-designed and characterized capping process is indispensable to ensure product quality and integrity and to minimize rejections during the manufacturing process. In this review, the health authority requirements and expectations related to container closure system quality and container closure integrity are summarized. The pharmaceutical vial, the rubber stopper, and the crimp cap are described. Different capping techniques are critically compared: The most common capping equipment with a rotating capping plate produces the lowest amount of particle. The strength and challenges of methods to control the capping process are discussed. The residual seal force method can characterize the capping process independent of the used capping equipment or CCS. We analyze the root causes of several cosmetic defects associated with the vial capping process.

  10. The regulatory benefits of high levels of affect perception accuracy: a process analysis of reactions to stressors in daily life.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Michael D; Moeller, Sara K; Buchholz, Maria M; Boyd, Ryan L; Troop-Gordon, Wendy

    2012-08-01

    Individuals attuned to affective signals from the environment may possess an advantage in the emotion-regulation realm. In two studies (total n = 151), individual differences in affective perception accuracy were assessed in an objective, performance-based manner. Subsequently, the same individuals completed daily diary protocols in which daily stressor levels were reported as well as problematic states shown to be stress-reactive in previous studies. In both studies, individual differences in affect perception accuracy interacted with daily stressor levels to predict the problematic outcomes. Daily stressors precipitated problematic reactions--whether depressive feelings (study 1) or somatic symptoms (study 2)--at low levels of affect perception accuracy, but did not do so at high levels of affect perception accuracy. The findings support a regulatory view of such perceptual abilities. Implications for understanding emotion regulation processes, emotional intelligence, and individual differences in reactivity are discussed.

  11. Perchlorate Regulatory Determination Fact Sheets

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fact sheets have been developed for the perchlorate regulatory determination corresponding to the following stages published in the Federal Register: Final, Supplemental request for comments, and Preliminary.

  12. Regulatory B cell is critical in bone union process through suppressing proinflammatory cytokines and stimulating Foxp3 in Treg cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guojing; Wang, Yicun; Ti, Yunfan; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Jianning; Qian, Hongbo

    2017-04-01

    Bone fractures may result in delayed union (DU) or non-union (NU) in some patients. Evidence suggests that the skewing of the immune system toward the proinflammatory type is a contributing factor. Because B cells were previously found to infiltrate the fracture healing site at abundant levels, we examined the regulatory B cells (Bregs) in DU/NU patients. In bone fracture patients with normal healing, the frequency of interleukin (IL)-10-expressing B cells was significantly upregulated in the early healing process (6 weeks post-surgery) and was downregulated later on (18 weeks post-surgery), whereas in DU/NU patients, the early upregulation of IL-10-expressing B cells was missing. The majority of IL-10-expressing B cells were concentrated in the IgM(+) CD27(+) fraction in both controls and patients. IgM(+) CD27(+) B cells effectively suppressed interferon gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and IL-2 expression from CD4(+) T cells, as well as IFN-γ and TNF-α expression from CD8(+) T cells. The IgM(+) CD27(+) B cell-mediated suppression was restricted to the sample from the early healing time point in controls, as the IgM(+) CD27(+) B cells from normal healing patients later on or from DU/NU patients did not present significant regulatory function. In addition, culturing of CD4(+) CD25(+) Tregs with IgM(+) CD27(+) B cells from controls at early healing time point resulted in higher Foxp3 expression, a function absent in controls at later time point, or in DU/NU patients. In conclusion, our results support a role of B cell-mediated regulation early during the bone healing process.

  13. Final Technical Report - Advanced Optical Sensors to Minimize Energy Consumption in Polymer Extrusion Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Susan J. Foulk

    2012-07-24

    Project Objective: The objectives of this study are to develop an accurate and stable on-line sensor system to monitor color and composition on-line in polymer melts, to develop a scheme for using the output to control extruders to eliminate the energy, material and operational costs of off-specification product, and to combine or eliminate some extrusion processes. Background: Polymer extrusion processes are difficult to control because the quality achieved in the final product is complexly affected by the properties of the extruder screw, speed of extrusion, temperature, polymer composition, strength and dispersion properties of additives, and feeder system properties. Extruder systems are engineered to be highly reproducible so that when the correct settings to produce a particular product are found, that product can be reliably produced time after time. However market conditions often require changes in the final product, different products or grades may be processed in the same equipment, and feed materials vary from lot to lot. All of these changes require empirical adjustment of extruder settings to produce a product meeting specifications. Optical sensor systems that can continuously monitor the composition and color of the extruded polymer could detect process upsets, drift, blending oscillations, and changes in dispersion of additives. Development of an effective control algorithm using the output of the monitor would enable rapid corrections for changes in materials and operating conditions, thereby eliminating most of the scrap and recycle of current processing. This information could be used to identify extruder systems issues, diagnose problem sources, and suggest corrective actions in real-time to help keep extruder system settings within the optimum control region. Using these advanced optical sensor systems would give extruder operators real-time feedback from their process. They could reduce the amount of off-spec product produced and

  14. Measuring Cognitive and Metacognitive Regulatory Processes during Hypermedia Learning: Issues and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azevedo, Roger; Moos, Daniel C.; Johnson, Amy M.; Chauncey, Amber D.

    2010-01-01

    Self-regulated learning (SRL) with hypermedia environments involves a complex cycle of temporally unfolding cognitive and metacognitive processes that impact students' learning. We present several methodological issues related to treating SRL as an event and strengths and challenges of using online trace methodologies to detect, trace, model, and…

  15. Solar production of intermediate temperature process heat. Phase I design. Final report. [For sugarcane processing plant in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    1980-08-01

    This report is the final effort in the Phase I design of a solar industrial process heat system for the Hilo Coast Processing Company (HCPC) in Pepeekeo, Hawaii. The facility is used to wash, grind and extract sugar from the locally grown sugarcane and it operates 24 hours a day, 305 days per year. The major steam requirements in the industrial process are for the prime movers (mill turbines) in the milling process and heat for evaporating water from the extracted juices. Bagasse (the fibrous residue of milled sugarcane) supplied 84% of the fuel requirement for steam generation in 1979, while 65,000 barrels of No. 6 industrial fuel oil made up the remaining 16%. These fuels are burned in the power plant complex which produces 825/sup 0/F, 1,250 psi superheated steam to power a turbogenerator set which, in addition to serving the factory, generates from 7 to 16 megawatts of electricity that is exported to the local utility company. Extracted steam from the turbo-generator set supplies the plant's process steam needs. The system consists of 42,420 ft./sup 2/ of parabolic trough, single axis tracking, concentrating solar collectors. The collectors will be oriented in a North-South configuration and will track East-West. A heat transfer fluid (Gulf Synfluid 4cs) will be circulated in a closed loop fashion through the solar collectors and a series of heat exchangers. The inlet and outlet fluid temperatures for the collectors are 370/sup 0/F and 450/sup 0/F respectively. It is estimated that the net useable energy delivered to the industrial process will be 7.2 x 10/sup 9/ Btu's per year. With an HCPC boiler efficiency of 78% and 6.2 x 10/sup 6/ Btu's per barrel of oil, the solar energy system will displace 1489 barrels of oil per year. (WHK)

  16. Automated processing of whole blood units: operational value and in vitro quality of final blood components

    PubMed Central

    Jurado, Marisa; Algora, Manuel; Garcia-Sanchez, Félix; Vico, Santiago; Rodriguez, Eva; Perez, Sonia; Barbolla, Luz

    2012-01-01

    Background The Community Transfusion Centre in Madrid currently processes whole blood using a conventional procedure (Compomat, Fresenius) followed by automated processing of buffy coats with the OrbiSac system (CaridianBCT). The Atreus 3C system (CaridianBCT) automates the production of red blood cells, plasma and an interim platelet unit from a whole blood unit. Interim platelet unit are pooled to produce a transfusable platelet unit. In this study the Atreus 3C system was evaluated and compared to the routine method with regards to product quality and operational value. Materials and methods Over a 5-week period 810 whole blood units were processed using the Atreus 3C system. The attributes of the automated process were compared to those of the routine method by assessing productivity, space, equipment and staffing requirements. The data obtained were evaluated in order to estimate the impact of implementing the Atreus 3C system in the routine setting of the blood centre. Yield and in vitro quality of the final blood components processed with the two systems were evaluated and compared. Results The Atreus 3C system enabled higher throughput while requiring less space and employee time by decreasing the amount of equipment and processing time per unit of whole blood processed. Whole blood units processed on the Atreus 3C system gave a higher platelet yield, a similar amount of red blood cells and a smaller volume of plasma. Discussion These results support the conclusion that the Atreus 3C system produces blood components meeting quality requirements while providing a high operational efficiency. Implementation of the Atreus 3C system could result in a large organisational improvement. PMID:22044958

  17. Active learning: effects of core training design elements on self-regulatory processes, learning, and adaptability.

    PubMed

    Bell, Bradford S; Kozlowski, Steve W J

    2008-03-01

    This article describes a comprehensive examination of the cognitive, motivational, and emotional processes underlying active learning approaches; their effects on learning and transfer; and the core training design elements (exploration, training frame, emotion control) and individual differences (cognitive ability, trait goal orientation, trait anxiety) that shape these processes. Participants (N = 350) were trained to operate a complex, computer-based simulation. Exploratory learning and error-encouragement framing had a positive effect on adaptive transfer performance and interacted with cognitive ability and dispositional goal orientation to influence trainees' metacognition and state goal orientation. Trainees who received the emotion-control strategy had lower levels of state anxiety. Implications for development of an integrated theory of active learning, learner-centered design, and research extensions are discussed.

  18. U.S. Department of Energy integrated manufacturing & processing predoctoral fellowships. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Petrochenkov, Margaret

    2003-03-31

    The objective of this program was threefold: to create a pool of PhDs trained in the integrated approach to manufacturing and processing, to promote academic interest in the field, and to attract talented professionals to this challenging area of engineering. It was anticipated that the program would result in the creation of new manufacturing methods that would contribute to improved energy efficiency, to better utilization of scarce resources, and to less degradation of the environment. Emphasis in the competition was on integrated systems of manufacturing and the integration of product design with manufacturing processes. Research addressed such related areas as aspects of unit operations, tooling and equipment, intelligent sensors, and manufacturing systems as they related to product design. This is the final report to close out the contract.

  19. Replacement of chemical intensive water treatment processes with energy saving membrane. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mickley, M.C.; Goering, S.W.

    1983-11-01

    The project investigated the use of charged ultrafiltration membranes to treat hard water. More specifically, the work was undertaken to (1) make charged ultrafiltration membranes to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the chemical grafting approach; (2) evaluate the market potential for charged ultrafiltration membranes; and (3) evaluate the cost and energy savings for using charged ultrafiltration as compared to lime-based clarification and other treatment methods. The results suggest that chemical grafting is a relatively simple, reproducible and low-cost way to modify existing substrate materials to give them enhanced transport performance. Process studies lead to the identification of good market potential for membrane processes using charged ultrafiltration membranes. Capital and operating costs relative to lime-based clarification are favorable for low- and medium-sized treatment plants. Finally, substantial energy savings are apparent as compared to lime-based precipitation systems which incur substantial energy consumption in the lime production and transportation steps.

  20. Regulatory forum opinion piece: Clarification and simplification of the pathology peer review documentation process.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Michael J; Leininger, Joel R

    2014-01-01

    The transparency and documentation of the peer review process have been discussed recently. Our position is that transparency is best achieved when peer review is a collaborative process, in which both parties are open-minded but both also realize that the study pathologist retains complete control over the findings (raw data) and over the content of the pathology report. For these reasons, we believe that histopathology raw data should be defined as the observations made by the study pathologist (printed and/or electronic formats) rather than as the tissue slides recommended by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Also, because the study pathologist retains control over the histopathology raw data, any notes or tabulations of findings by the study pathologist and peer review pathologist during the peer review are interim notes and should not be included as an appendix to the pathology report though they may be retained if desired, as currently recommended. Because the histopathology raw data have not been created until completion of the peer review, the performance of a peer review should be documented in the study report, as currently recommended, but that it not be a GLP-compliant process.

  1. Genetic Code Expansion as a Tool to Study Regulatory Processes of Transcription

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Moritz; Summerer, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    The expansion of the genetic code with noncanonical amino acids (ncAA) enables the chemical and biophysical properties of proteins to be tailored, inside cells, with a previously unattainable level of precision. A wide range of ncAA with functions not found in canonical amino acids have been genetically encoded in recent years and have delivered insights into biological processes that would be difficult to access with traditional approaches of molecular biology. A major field for the development and application of novel ncAA-functions has been transcription and its regulation. This is particularly attractive, since advanced DNA sequencing- and proteomics-techniques continue to deliver vast information on these processes on a global level, but complementing methodologies to study them on a detailed, molecular level and in living cells have been comparably scarce. In a growing number of studies, genetic code expansion has now been applied to precisely control the chemical properties of transcription factors, RNA polymerases and histones, and this has enabled new insights into their interactions, conformational changes, cellular localizations and the functional roles of posttranslational modifications.

  2. Regulatory Role of N(6) -Methyladenosine (m(6) A) Methylation in RNA Processing and Human Diseases.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wenqiang; Ji, Xinying; Guo, Xiangqian; Ji, Shaoping

    2017-03-03

    N(6) -methyladenosine (m(6) A) modification is an abundant and conservative RNA modification in bacterial and eukaryotic cells. m(6) A modification mainly occurs in the 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) and near the stop codons of mRNA. Diverse strategies have been developed for identifying m(6) A sites in single nucleotide resolution. Dynamic regulation of m(6) A is found in metabolism, embryogenesis and developmental processes, indicating a possible epigenetic regulation role along RNA processing and exerting biological functions. It has been known that m(6) A editing involves in nuclear RNA export, mRNA degradation, protein translation and RNA splicing. Deficiency of m(6) A modification will lead to kinds of diseases, such as obesity, cancer, type 2 diabetes mellitus, infertility, developmental arrest. Some specific inhibitors against methyltransferase and demethylase have been developed to selectively regulate m(6) A modification, which may be advantageous for treatment of m(6) A related diseases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Geothermal energy development in Washington State. A guide to the federal, state and local regulatory process

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomquist, R.G.; Simpson, S.J.

    1986-03-01

    Washington State's geothermal potential is wide spread. Hot springs and five strato volcanoes existing throughout the Cascade Range, limited hot spring activity on the Olympic Peninsula, and broad reaching, low temperature geothermal resources found in the Columbia Basin comprise the extent of Washington's known geothermal resources. Determination of resource ownership is the first step in proceeding with geothermal exploration and development activities. The federal and state processes are examined from pre-lease activity through leasing and post-lease development concerns. Plans, permits, licenses, and other requirements are addressed for the federal, state, and local level. Lease, permit, and other forms for a number of geothermal exploration and development activities are included. A map of public lands and another displaying the measured geothermal resources throughout the state are provided.

  4. Golden rice: scientific, regulatory and public information processes of a genetically modified organism.

    PubMed

    Moghissi, A Alan; Pei, Shiqian; Liu, Yinzuo

    2016-01-01

    Historically, agricultural development evolved in three phases. During the first phase the plants were selected on the basis of the availability of a plant with desirable properties at a specific location. The second phase provided the agricultural community with crossbreeding plants to achieve improvement in agricultural production. The evolution of biological knowledge has provided the ability to genetically engineer (GE) crops, one of the key processes within genetically modified organisms (GMO). This article uses golden rice, a species of transgenic Asian rice which contains a precursor of vitamin A in the edible part of the plant as an example of GE/GMO emphasizing Chinese experience in agricultural evolution. It includes a brief review of agricultural evolution to be followed by a description of golden rice development. Golden rice was created as a humanitarian project and has received positive comments by the scientific community and negative voices from certain environmental groups. In this article, we use the Best Available Science (BAS) Concept and Metrics for Evaluation of Scientific Claims (MESC) derived from it to evaluate claims and counter claims on scientific aspects of golden rice. This article concludes that opposition to golden rice is based on belief rather than any of its scientifically derived nutritional, safety or environmental properties.

  5. Themes from a NASA workshop on gene regulatory processes in development and evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, E. H.; Ruvkun, G.; Davidowicz, L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    A memorable workshop, focused on causal mechanisms in metazoan evolution and sponsored by NASA, was held in early June 1998, at MBL. The workshop was organized by Mike Levine and Eric H. Davidson, and it included the PI and associates from 12 different laboratories, a total of about 30 people. Each laboratory had about two and one half hours in which to represent its recent research and cast up its current ideas for an often intense discussion. In the following we have tried to enunciate some of the major themes that emerged, and to reflect on their implications. The opinions voiced are our own. We would like to tender apologies over those contributions we have not been able to include, but this is not, strictly speaking, a meeting review. Rather we have focused on those topics that bear more directly on evolutionary mechanisms, and have therefore slighted some presentations (including some of our own), that were oriented mainly toward developmental processes. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol. ) 285:104-115, 1999. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Data processing for fabrication of GMT primary segments: raw data to final surface maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuell, Michael T.; Hubler, William; Martin, Hubert M.; West, Steven C.; Zhou, Ping

    2014-07-01

    The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) primary mirror is a 25 meter f/0.7 surface composed of seven 8.4 meter circular segments, six of which are identical off-axis segments. The fabrication and testing challenges with these severely aspheric segments (about 14 mm of aspheric departure, mostly astigmatism) are well documented. Converting the raw phase data to useful surface maps involves many steps and compensations. They include large corrections for: image distortion from the off-axis null test; misalignment of the null test; departure from the ideal support forces; and temperature gradients in the mirror. The final correction simulates the active-optics correction that will be made at the telescope. Data are collected and phase maps are computed in 4D Technology's 4SightTM software. The data are saved to a .h5 (HDF5) file and imported into MATLAB® for further analysis. A semi-automated data pipeline has been developed to reduce the analysis time as well as reducing the potential for error. As each operation is performed, results and analysis parameters are appended to a data file, so in the end, the history of data processing is embedded in the file. A report and a spreadsheet are automatically generated to display the final statistics as well as how each compensation term varied during the data acquisition. This gives us valuable statistics and provides a quick starting point for investigating atypical results.

  7. Mesenchymal stem cells generate a CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cell population during the differentiation process of Th1 and Th17 cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult, multipotent, stem cells with immunomodulatory properties. The mechanisms involved in the capacity of MSCs to inhibit the proliferation of proinflammatory T lymphocytes, which appear responsible for causing autoimmune disease, have yet to be fully elucidated. One of the underlying mechanisms studied recently is the ability of MSCs to generate T regulatory (Treg) cells in vitro and in vivo from activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), T-CD4+ and also T-CD8+ cells. In the present work we investigated the capacity of MSCs to generate Treg cells using T-CD4+ cells induced to differentiate toward the proinflammatory Th1 and Th17 lineages. Methods MSCs were obtained from mouse bone marrow and characterized according to their surface antigen expression and their multilineage differentiation potential. CD4+ T cells isolated from mouse spleens were induced to differentiate into Th1 or Th17 cells and co-cultured with MSCs added at day 0, 2 or 4 of the differentiation processes. After six days, CD25, Foxp3, IL-17 and IFN-γ expression was assessed by flow cytometry and helios and neuropilin 1 mRNA levels were assessed by RT-qPCR. For the functional assays, the ‘conditioned’ subpopulation generated in the presence of MSCs was cultured with concanavalin A-activated CD4+ T cells labeled with carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester. Finally, we used the encephalomyelitis autoimmune diseases (EAE) mouse model, in which mice were injected with MSCs at day 18 and 30 after immunization. At day 50, the mice were euthanized and draining lymph nodes were extracted for Th1, Th17 and Treg detection by flow cytometry. Results MSCs were able to suppress the proliferation, activation and differentiation of CD4+ T cells induced to differentiate into Th1 and Th17 cells. This substantial suppressive effect was associated with an increase of the percentage of functional induced CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells and IL-10

  8. Final report on the public involvement process phase 1, Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, L.; Shanteau, C.

    1992-12-01

    This report summarizes the pubic involvement component of Phase 1 of the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (NM) Feasibility Study in San Juan County, Utah. Part of this summary includes background information on the federal effort to locate a voluntary site for temporary storage of nuclear waste, how San Juan County came to be involved, and a profile of the county. The heart of the report, however, summarizes the activities within the public involvement process, and the issues raised in those various forums. The authors have made every effort to reflect accurately and thoroughly all the concerns and suggestions expressed to us during the five month process. We hope that this report itself is a successful model of partnership with the citizens of the county -- the same kind of partnership the county is seeking to develop with its constituents. Finally, this report offers some suggestions to both county officials and residents alike. These suggestions concern how decision-making about the county's future can be done by a partnership of informed citizens and listening decision-makers. In the Appendix are materials relating to the public involvement process in San Juan County.

  9. Final report on the public involvement process phase 1, Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, L.; Shanteau, C.

    1992-12-01

    This report summarizes the pubic involvement component of Phase 1 of the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (NM) Feasibility Study in San Juan County, Utah. Part of this summary includes background information on the federal effort to locate a voluntary site for temporary storage of nuclear waste, how San Juan County came to be involved, and a profile of the county. The heart of the report, however, summarizes the activities within the public involvement process, and the issues raised in those various forums. The authors have made every effort to reflect accurately and thoroughly all the concerns and suggestions expressed to us during the five month process. We hope that this report itself is a successful model of partnership with the citizens of the county -- the same kind of partnership the county is seeking to develop with its constituents. Finally, this report offers some suggestions to both county officials and residents alike. These suggestions concern how decision-making about the county`s future can be done by a partnership of informed citizens and listening decision-makers. In the Appendix are materials relating to the public involvement process in San Juan County.

  10. Building more powerful less expensive supercomputers using Processing-In-Memory (PIM) LDRD final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Richard C.

    2009-09-01

    This report details the accomplishments of the 'Building More Powerful Less Expensive Supercomputers Using Processing-In-Memory (PIM)' LDRD ('PIM LDRD', number 105809) for FY07-FY09. Latency dominates all levels of supercomputer design. Within a node, increasing memory latency, relative to processor cycle time, limits CPU performance. Between nodes, the same increase in relative latency impacts scalability. Processing-In-Memory (PIM) is an architecture that directly addresses this problem using enhanced chip fabrication technology and machine organization. PIMs combine high-speed logic and dense, low-latency, high-bandwidth DRAM, and lightweight threads that tolerate latency by performing useful work during memory transactions. This work examines the potential of PIM-based architectures to support mission critical Sandia applications and an emerging class of more data intensive informatics applications. This work has resulted in a stronger architecture/implementation collaboration between 1400 and 1700. Additionally, key technology components have impacted vendor roadmaps, and we are in the process of pursuing these new collaborations. This work has the potential to impact future supercomputer design and construction, reducing power and increasing performance. This final report is organized as follow: this summary chapter discusses the impact of the project (Section 1), provides an enumeration of publications and other public discussion of the work (Section 1), and concludes with a discussion of future work and impact from the project (Section 1). The appendix contains reprints of the refereed publications resulting from this work.

  11. The production of fuels and chemicals from food processing wastes & cellulosics. Final research report

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, M.C.; Okos, M.; Burgos, N.

    1997-06-15

    High strength food wastes of about 15-20 billion pounds solids are produced annually by US food producers. Low strength food wastes of 5-10 billion pounds/yr. are produced. Estimates of the various components of these waste streams are shown in Table 1. Waste paper/lignocellulosic crops could produce 2 to 5 billion gallons of ethanol per year or other valuable chemicals. Current oil imports cost the US about $60 billion dollars/yr. in out-going balance of trade costs. Many organic chemicals that are currently derived from petroleum can be produced through fermentation processes. Petroleum based processes have been preferred over biotechnology processes because they were typically cheaper, easier, and more efficient. The technologies developed during the course of this project are designed to allow fermentation based chemicals and fuels to compete favorably with petroleum based chemicals. Our goals in this project have been to: (1) develop continuous fermentation processes as compared to batch operations; (2) combine separation of the product with the fermentation, thus accomplishing the twin goals of achieving a purified product from a fermentation broth and speeding the conversion of substrate to product in the fermentation broth; (3) utilize food or cellulosic waste streams which pose a current cost or disposal problem as compared to high cost grains or sugar substrates; (4) develop low energy recovery methods for fermentation products; and finally (5) demonstrate successful lab scale technologies on a pilot/production scale and try to commercialize the processes. The scale of the wastes force consideration of {open_quotes}bulk commodity{close_quotes} type products if a high fraction of the wastes are to be utilized.

  12. Assessing middle school students` understanding of science relationships and processes: Year 2 - instrument validation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schau, C.; Mattern, N.; Weber, R.; Minnick, K.

    1997-01-01

    Our overall purpose for this multi-year project was to develop an alternative assessment format measuring rural middle school students understanding of science concepts and processes and the interrelationships among them. This kind of understanding is called structural knowledge. We had 3 major interrelated goals: (1) Synthesize the existing literature and critically evaluate the actual and potential use of measures of structural knowledge in science education. (2) Develop a structural knowledge alternative assessment format. (3) Examine the validity of our structural knowledge format. We accomplished the first two goals during year 1. The structural knowledge assessment we identified and developed further was a select-and-fill-in concept map format. The goal for our year 2 work was to begin to validate this assessment approach. This final report summarizes our year 2 work.

  13. Effects of Goal Relations on Self-Regulated Learning in Multiple Goal Pursuits: Performance, the Self-Regulatory Process, and Task Enjoyment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyunjoo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of goal relations on self-regulation in the pursuit of multiple goals, focusing on self-regulated performance, the self-regulatory process, and task enjoyment. The effect of multiple goal relations on self-regulation was explored in a set of three studies. Goal relations were divided into…

  14. Report of the State-of-the-Science Workshop: Evaluation of Epidemiological Data Consistency for Application in Regulatory Risk Assessment (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the availability of the independent workshop proceedings, Report of the State-of-the-Science Workshop: Evaluation of Epidemiological Data Consistency for Application in Regulatory Risk Assessment. This report provides a summary of selected epidemiology meth...

  15. Regulatory RNAs in Planarians.

    PubMed

    Pawlicka, Kamila; Perrigue, Patrick M; Barciszewski, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The full scope of regulatory RNA evolution and function in epigenetic processes is still not well understood. The development of planarian flatworms to be used as a simple model organism for research has shown a great potential to address gaps in the knowledge in this field of study. The genomes of planarians encode a wide array of regulatory RNAs that function in gene regulation. Here, we review planarians as a suitable model organism for the identification and function of regulatory RNAs.

  16. Defining the Medical Library Association research agenda: methodology and final results from a consensus process

    PubMed Central

    Eldredge, Jonathan D.; Harris, Martha R.; Ascher, Marie T.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Using a group consensus methodology, the research sought to generate a list of the twelve to fifteen most important and answerable research questions in health sciences librarianship as part of a broader effort to implement the new Medical Library Association (MLA) research policy. Methods: The delphi method was used. The committee distributed a brief survey to all estimated 827 MLA leaders and 237 MLA Research Section members, requesting they submit what they considered to be the most important and answerable research questions facing the profession. The submitted questions were then subjected to 2 rounds of voting to produce a short list of top-ranked questions. Results: The survey produced 62 questions from 54 MLA leaders and MLA Research Section members, who responded from an estimated potential population of 1,064 targeted colleagues. These questions were considered by the process participants to be the most important and answerable research questions facing the profession. Through 2 rounds of voting, these 62 questions were reduced to the final 12 highest priority questions. Conclusion: The modified delphi method accomplished its desired survey and consensus goals. Future survey and consensus processes will be revised to generate more initial questions and to distill a larger number of ranked prioritized research questions. PMID:19626143

  17. Membrane/distillation hybrid process research and development. Final report, phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Mazanec, T.J.

    1997-07-01

    This report covers work conducted under the grant awarded to BP by DOE in late 1991 entitled {open_quotes}Membrane/Distillation Hybrid Process Research and Development.{close_quotes} The program was directed towards development and commercialization of the BP process for separation of vapor phase olefins from non-olefins via facilitated transport using an aqueous facilitator. The program has come to a very successful conclusion, with formation of a partnership between BP and Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation (SWEC) to market and commercialize the technology. The focus of this report is the final portion of the program, during which engineering re-design, facilitator optimization, economic analysis, and marketing have been the primary activities. At the end of Phase II BP was looking to partner with an engineering firm to advance the selective olefin recovery (SOR) technology from the lab/demo stage to full commercialization. In August 1995 BP and SWEC reached an agreement to advance the technology by completing additional Phase III work with DOE and beginning marketing activities.

  18. A Regulatory Network-Based Approach Dissects Late Maturation Processes Related to the Acquisition of Desiccation Tolerance and Longevity of Medicago truncatula Seeds1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Verdier, Jerome; Lalanne, David; Pelletier, Sandra; Torres-Jerez, Ivone; Righetti, Karima; Bandyopadhyay, Kaustav; Leprince, Olivier; Chatelain, Emilie; Vu, Benoit Ly; Gouzy, Jerome; Gamas, Pascal; Udvardi, Michael K.; Buitink, Julia

    2013-01-01

    In seeds, desiccation tolerance (DT) and the ability to survive the dry state for prolonged periods of time (longevity) are two essential traits for seed quality that are consecutively acquired during maturation. Using transcriptomic and metabolomic profiling together with a conditional-dependent network of global transcription interactions, we dissected the maturation events from the end of seed filling to final maturation drying during the last 3 weeks of seed development in Medicago truncatula. The network revealed distinct coexpression modules related to the acquisition of DT, longevity, and pod abscission. The acquisition of DT and dormancy module was associated with abiotic stress response genes, including late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) genes. The longevity module was enriched in genes involved in RNA processing and translation. Concomitantly, LEA polypeptides accumulated, displaying an 18-d delayed accumulation compared with transcripts. During maturation, gulose and stachyose levels increased and correlated with longevity. A seed-specific network identified known and putative transcriptional regulators of DT, including ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE3 (MtABI3), MtABI4, MtABI5, and APETALA2/ ETHYLENE RESPONSE ELEMENT BINDING PROTEIN (AtAP2/EREBP) transcription factor as major hubs. These transcriptional activators were highly connected to LEA genes. Longevity genes were highly connected to two MtAP2/EREBP and two basic leucine zipper transcription factors. A heat shock factor was found at the transition of DT and longevity modules, connecting to both gene sets. Gain- and loss-of-function approaches of MtABI3 confirmed 80% of its predicted targets, thereby experimentally validating the network. This study captures the coordinated regulation of seed maturation and identifies distinct regulatory networks underlying the preparation for the dry and quiescent states. PMID:23929721

  19. A regulatory network-based approach dissects late maturation processes related to the acquisition of desiccation tolerance and longevity of Medicago truncatula seeds.

    PubMed

    Verdier, Jerome; Lalanne, David; Pelletier, Sandra; Torres-Jerez, Ivone; Righetti, Karima; Bandyopadhyay, Kaustav; Leprince, Olivier; Chatelain, Emilie; Vu, Benoit Ly; Gouzy, Jerome; Gamas, Pascal; Udvardi, Michael K; Buitink, Julia

    2013-10-01

    In seeds, desiccation tolerance (DT) and the ability to survive the dry state for prolonged periods of time (longevity) are two essential traits for seed quality that are consecutively acquired during maturation. Using transcriptomic and metabolomic profiling together with a conditional-dependent network of global transcription interactions, we dissected the maturation events from the end of seed filling to final maturation drying during the last 3 weeks of seed development in Medicago truncatula. The network revealed distinct coexpression modules related to the acquisition of DT, longevity, and pod abscission. The acquisition of DT and dormancy module was associated with abiotic stress response genes, including late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) genes. The longevity module was enriched in genes involved in RNA processing and translation. Concomitantly, LEA polypeptides accumulated, displaying an 18-d delayed accumulation compared with transcripts. During maturation, gulose and stachyose levels increased and correlated with longevity. A seed-specific network identified known and putative transcriptional regulators of DT, including ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE3 (MtABI3), MtABI4, MtABI5, and APETALA2/ ETHYLENE RESPONSE ELEMENT BINDING PROTEIN (AtAP2/EREBP) transcription factor as major hubs. These transcriptional activators were highly connected to LEA genes. Longevity genes were highly connected to two MtAP2/EREBP and two basic leucine zipper transcription factors. A heat shock factor was found at the transition of DT and longevity modules, connecting to both gene sets. Gain- and loss-of-function approaches of MtABI3 confirmed 80% of its predicted targets, thereby experimentally validating the network. This study captures the coordinated regulation of seed maturation and identifies distinct regulatory networks underlying the preparation for the dry and quiescent states.

  20. Solid oxide fuel cell processing using plasma arc spray deposition techniques. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, E.R.; Spengler, C.J.; Herman, H.

    1991-07-01

    The Westinghouse Electric Corporation, in conjunction with the Thermal Spray Laboratory of the State University of New York, Stony Brook, investigated the fabrication of a gas-tight interconnect layer on a tubular solid oxide fuel cell with plasma arc spray deposition. The principal objective was to determine the process variables for the plasma spray deposition of an interconnect with adequate electrical conductivity and other desired properties. Plasma arc spray deposition is a process where the coating material in powder form is heated to or above its melting temperature, while being accelerated by a carrier gas stream through a high power electric arc. The molten powder particles are directed at the substrate, and on impact, form a coating consisting of many layers of overlapping, thin, lenticular particles or splats. The variables investigated were gun power, spray distance, powder feed rate, plasma gas flow rates, number of gun passes, powder size distribution, injection angle of powder into the plasma plume, vacuum or atmospheric plasma spraying, and substrate heating. Typically, coatings produced by both systems showed bands of lanthanum rich material and cracking with the coating. Preheating the substrate reduced but did not eliminate internal coating cracking. A uniformly thick, dense, adherent interconnect of the desired chemistry was finally achieved with sufficient gas- tightness to allow fabrication of cells and samples for measurement of physical and electrical properties. A cell was tested successfully at 1000{degree}C for over 1,000 hours demonstrating the mechanical, electrical, and chemical stability of a plasma-arc sprayed interconnect layer.

  1. Inhibition of retrogressive reactions in coal/petroleum co-processing. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Schobert, H.H.; Tomic, J.

    1993-05-25

    The objective of this study was to examine the processes in coal/petroleum coprocessing systems which led to coke formation. Specifically, the interactions between the petroleum residue and coal, leading to retrogressive products, were investigated. Five coals were reacted with five model compounds in order to investigate the coal conversions in a variety of solvents and to determine the role of the solvent in promoting or inhibiting coal conversion. The selected model compounds range from paraffinic to fully aromatic and were chosen as representative of types of compounds that are found in petroleum residua. Coprocessing experiments were conducted using the five coals and three petroleum residua. The effect of temperature on coal conversions was crucial. The coal conversions at 350 and 400{degree}C seem to be governed by the nature of the coal and to a lesser extent by the petroleum residua. Negative coal conversions were observed above 400{degree}C indicating that retrogressive processes had occurred. At temperatures higher than 400{degree}C, the petroleum residua undergo physical and chemical transformations and the influence of the petroleum residua on coal conversions is significant. The structural features of the residues indicated that the residues were predominately coal-derived. An overall increase in aromaticity was observed with increasing temperature which was also accompanied by loss of oxygen functional groups. The retrogressive reactions with non-caking coals involve carbonyl and carboxyl group leading to a final solid characterized by a cross-linked structure. In the case of caking coal, these reactions are governed by loss of aromatic oxygen groups and loss of alkyl groups.

  2. Perspectives on the Final Design Review process from the US ITER DRGA team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biewer, T. M.; Klepper, C. C.; Devan, W.; Graves, V.; Marcus, C.; Andrew, P.; Johnson, D. W.

    2014-10-01

    Among the ITER procurements awarded to the US ITER Domestic Agency, and subsequently to the ORNL Fusion & Materials for Nuclear Systems Division, is the design and fabrication of the Diagnostic Residual Gas Analyzer (DRGA) system. The DRGA system reached the Final Design Review (FDR) in July 2014, and is the first US-credited diagnostic system to achieve this milestone. The design effort has focused on the vacuum and mechanical interface of the DRGA gas sampling tube with the ITER vacuum vessel and cyrostat. In addition to technical issues needed to negotiate the mechanical interface, a significant number of procedural issues at US ITER and the ITER IO were encountered to navigate the DRGA project to this milestone. The process has been beneficial to both the DRGA project, and in-turn to US ITER, by illuminating the procedures in practice. This presentation will highlight some of the issues encountered and relay perspectives for designing hardware for ITER. This work was supported by the US. D.O.E. Contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  3. Effects of self-assembly process of latex spheres on the final topology of macroporous silica.

    PubMed

    Barros Filho, Djalma A; Hisano, Cíntia; Bertholdo, Roberto; Schiavetto, Matheus G; Santilli, Celso; Ribeiro, Sidney J L; Messaddeq, Younés

    2005-11-15

    This paper surveys the topology of macroporous silica prepared using latex templates covering the submicrometric range (0.1-0.7 mum). The behavior of latex spheres in aqueous dispersion has been analyzed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurement indicating the most appropriate conditions to form well-defined cubic arrays. The optical behavior of latex spheres has been analyzed by transmittance and reflectance measurements in order to determine their diameter and filling factor when they were assembled in bidimensional arrays. Macroscopic templates have been obtained by a centrifugation process and their crystalline ordering has been confirmed by porosimetry and scanning electron microscopy. These self-assembled structures have been used to produce macroporous silica, whose final topology depends on the pore size distribution of the original template. It has been seen that latex spheres are ordered in a predominant fcc arrangement with slipping of tetragonal pores due to the action of attractive electrostatic interactions. The main effect is to change the spherical shape of voids in macroporous silica into a hexagonal configuration with possible applications to fabricate photonic devices with novel optical properties.

  4. Thermal imaging during infrared final cooking of semi-processed cylindrical meat product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kor, Gamze; Icier, Filiz

    2016-11-01

    The temperature measurements during the infrared cooking of the semi-cooked cylindrical minced beef product (koefte) were taken by both contact (thermocouples) and non-contact (thermal imaging) techniques. The meat product was semi-cooked till its core temperature reached up to 75 °C by ohmic heating applied at 15.26 V/cm voltage gradient. Then, infrared cooking was applied as a final cooking method at different combinations of heat fluxes (3.7, 5.7 and 8.5 kW/m2), applied distances (10.5, 13.5 and 16.5 cm) and applied durations (4, 8 and 12 min). The average surface temperature increased as the heat flux and the applied duration increased but the applied distance decreased. The temperature distribution of the surface during infrared cooking was determined successfully by non-contact measurements. The temperature homogeneity varied between 0.77 and 0.86. The process condition of 8.5 kW/m2 for 8 min resulted in core temperature greater than 75 °C, which was essential for safe production of ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products. Thermal imaging was much more convenient method for minimizing the point measurement mistakes and determining temperature distribution images more clear and visual.

  5. Medical Examination of Aliens--Revisions to Medical Screening Process. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-01-26

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), is issuing this final rule (FR) to amend its regulations governing medical examinations that aliens must undergo before they may be admitted to the United States. Based on public comment received, HHS/CDC did not make changes from the NPRM published on June 23, 2015. Accordingly, this FR will: Revise the definition of communicable disease of public health significance by removing chancroid, granuloma inguinale, and lymphogranuloma venereum as inadmissible health-related conditions for aliens seeking admission to the United States; update the notification of the health-related grounds of inadmissibility to include proof of vaccinations to align with existing requirements established by the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA); revise the definitions and evaluation criteria for mental disorders, drug abuse and drug addiction; clarify and revise the evaluation requirements for tuberculosis; clarify and revise the process for the HHS/CDC-appointed medical review board that convenes to reexamine the determination of a Class A medical condition based on an appeal; and update the titles and designations of federal agencies within the text of the regulation.

  6. An Assessment of Decision-Making Processes: Evaluation of Where Land Protection Planning Can Incorporate Climate Change Information (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, An Assessment of Decision-Making Processes: Evaluation of Where Land Protection Planning Can Incorporate Climate Change Information. This report is a review of decision-making processes of selected land protection prog...

  7. Regulatory Forum.

    PubMed

    Peden, W Michael

    2016-12-01

    Revision of the International Council for Harmonization (ICH) S1 guidance for rat carcinogenicity studies to be more selective of compounds requiring a 2-year rat carcinogenicity study has been proposed following extensive evaluation of rat carcinogenicity and chronic toxicity studies by industry and drug regulatory authorities. To inform the ICH S1 expert working group in their potential revision of ICH S1, a prospective evaluation study was initiated in 2013, in which sponsors would assess the pharmacologic and toxicologic findings present in the chronic toxicity studies and predict a positive or negative carcinogenicity outcome using a weight of evidence argument (a carcinogenicity assessment document [CAD]). The Scientific and Regulatory Policy Committee was asked by the Society of Toxicology Pathology (STP) executive committee to track these changes with ICH S1 and inform the STP membership of status changes. This commentary is intended to provide a brief summary of recent changes to the CAD guidance and highlight the importance of STP membership participation in the process of CAD submissions.

  8. Applied research and evaluation of process concepts for liquefaction and gasification of western coals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, W. H.

    1980-09-01

    Fourteen sections, including five subsections, of the final report covering work done between June 1, 1975 to July 31, 1980 on research programs in coal gasification and liquefaction have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  9. FINAL DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE IN GERMANY: PLAN APPROVAL PROCESS OF KONRAD MINE AND ACCEPTANCE REQUIREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Bandt, Gabriele; Posnatzki, Britta; Beckers, Klaus-Arno

    2003-02-27

    Currently no final repository for any type of radioactive waste is operated in Germany. Preliminary Final Storage Acceptance Requirements for radioactive waste packages were published in 1995. Up to now these are the basis for treatment of radioactive waste in Germany. After licensing of the final repository these preliminary waste acceptance requirements are completed with licensing conditions. Some of these conditions affect the preliminary waste acceptance requirements, e. g. behavior of chemo-toxic substances in case of accidents in the final repository or the allowed maximum concentration of fissile material. The presented examples of radioactive waste conditioning campaigns demonstrate that no difficulties are expected in management, characterization and quality assurance of radioactive wastes due to the licensing conditions.

  10. The Integration of Cognition and Emotion during Infancy and Early Childhood: Regulatory Processes Associated with the Development of Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Christy D.; Bell, Martha Ann

    2007-01-01

    This study was an attempt to integrate cognitive development (i.e., cognitive control) and emotional development (i.e., emotion regulation) in the first years of life. The construct of temperament was used to unify cognition and emotion because of its focus on attentional and regulatory behaviors. Children were seen at 8 months and 4 1/2-years of…

  11. Exploring Differences between Gifted and Grade-Level Students' Use of Self-Regulatory Learning Processes with Hypermedia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jeffrey A.; Moos, Daniel C.; Azevedo, Roger; Winters, Fielding I.

    2008-01-01

    Research involving gifted and grade-level students has shown that they display differences in their knowledge of self-regulatory strategies. However, little research exists regarding whether these students differ in their actual use of these strategies. This study aimed to address this question by examining think-aloud data collected from 98…

  12. Self-Regulatory Processes Mediating between Career Calling and Perceived Employability and Life Satisfaction in Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Praskova, Anna; Creed, Peter A.; Hood, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    We tested a cross-sectional, mediation model of career calling, in which career calling was associated positively with life satisfaction and perceptions of future employability, and these relationships were explained by the self-regulatory mechanisms of work effort, career strategies, and emotional regulation. Using a sample of 664 emerging adults…

  13. Hypersorption process for separation of components of a medium -Btu gas. Final report. [Gas obtained from Lurgi process, Texaco gasification process, and Foster-Wheeler process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-17

    This study has been performed to determine the technical and economic feasibility of employing hypersorption process technology to separate and purify a medium - Btu gas, derived from oxygen-blown gasifiers, to obtain a H/sub 2//CO ratio of 2:1 as a feed to a Fischer-Tropsch type plant. Technical feasibility is a measure of the ability to design a hypersorption separation and purification process from available data. Economic feasibility can be made through comparisons with commercially available process technology. Three gasification processes have been used as a basis for this study. These processes are based upon EPRI Report AF-244 for the Lurgi moving bed, oxygen-blown, dry bottom gasifier, and EPRI Report AF-642 for the Texaco, slurry fed, oxygen-blown, entrained bed gasifier and for the Foster-Wheeler, oxygen-blown, entrained bed gasifier. Process designs for the hypersorption separation and purification for each case have been made using engineering judgments based on the available adsorption isotherms, which have been obtained from the Calgon Corporation. No attempt has been made to optimize these designs although some additional studies have been done where it has been deemed desirable. Cryogenic separation and acid gas purification for each case have been supplied by Lotepro as a packaged unit. Economic evaluations are ambiguous. All plant investments are within the +- 30% accuracy of this study. No clear cut choice between cryogenic separation - acid gas purification and hypersorptive separation - purification can be made based on plant investment. Operating costs are within the +- 30% accuracy. However, in the Foster-Wheeler case the operating costs are 28% greater for the hypersorption process. 12 figures, 42 tables.

  14. South Fork Tolt River Hydroelectric Project : Adopted Portions of a 1987 Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s Final Environmental Impact Statement.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-07-01

    The South Fork Tolt River Hydroelectric Project that world produce 6.55 average megawatts of firm energy per year and would be sited in the Snohomish River Basin, Washington, was evaluated by the Federal Energy Regulatory commission (FERC) along with six other proposed projects for environmental effects and economic feasibility Based on its economic analysis and environmental evaluation of the project, the FERC staff found that the South Fork Tolt River Project would be economically feasible and would result in insignificant Impacts if sedimentation issues could be resolved. Upon review, the BPA is adopting portions of the 1987 FERC FEIS that concern the South Fork Tolt River Hydroelectric Project and updating specific sections in an Attachment.

  15. Interactive simulation of the fate of hazardous chemicals during land treatment of oily wastes: RITZ (Regulatory and Investigative Treatment Zone) user's guide. Final report, May 1986-November 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Nofziger, D.L.; Williams, J.R.; Short, T.E.

    1988-01-01

    An interactive software system was developed to enable decision makers to simulate the movement and fate of hazardous chemicals during land treatment of oily wastes. The mathematical model known as the Regulatory and Investigative Treatment Zone Model, or RITZ, was developed and published earlier by Short(1985). The model incorporates the influence of oil in the sludge, water movement, volatilization, and degradation upon the transport and fate of a hazardous chemical. The manual describes the conceptual framework and assumptions used by Short (1985) in developing the model. It then explains the microcomputer hardware and software requirements, the input parameters for the model, and the graphical and tabular outputs which can be selected. Illustrations of the use of the software are also included. The computational equations developed by Short (1985) are presented for completeness but are not derived.

  16. Final Progress Report: Coupled Biogeochemical Process Evaluation for Conceptualizing Trichloroethylene Cometabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Ronald L; Paszczynski, Andrzej J

    2010-02-19

    Our goal within the overall project is to demonstrate the presence and abundance of methane monooxygenases (MMOs) enzymes and their genes within the microbial community of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Test Area North (TAN) site. MMOs are thought to be the primary catalysts of natural attenuation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in contaminated groundwater at this location. The actual presence of the proteins making up MMO complexes would provide direct evidence for its participation in TCE degradation. The quantitative estimation of MMO genes and their translation products (sMMO and pMMO proteins) and the knowledge about kinetics and substrate specificity of MMOs will be used to develop mathematical models of the natural attenuation process in the TAN aquifer. The model will be particularly useful in prediction of TCE degradation rate in TAN and possibly in the other DOE sites. Bacteria known as methanotrophs produce a set of proteins that assemble to form methane monooxygenase complexes (MMOs), enzymes that oxidize methane as their natural substrate, thereby providing a carbon and energy source for the organisms. MMOs are also capable of co-metabolically transforming chlorinated solvents like TCE into nontoxic end products such as carbon dioxide and chloride. There are two known forms of methane monooxygenase, a membrane-bound particulate form (pMMO) and a cytoplasmic soluble form (sMMO). pMMO consists of two components, pMMOH (a hydroxylase comprised of 47-, 27-, and 24-kDa subunits) and pMMOR (a reductase comprised of 63 and 8-kDa subunits). sMMO consists of three components: a hydroxylase (protein A-250 kDa), a dimer of three subunits (α2β2γ2), a regulatory protein (protein B-15.8 kDa), and a reductase (protein C-38.6 kDa). All methanotrophs will produce a methanol dehydrogenase to channel the product of methane oxidation (methanol) into the central metabolite formaldehyde. University of Idaho (UI) efforts focused on proteomic analyses using mass

  17. Assessment of energy requirements in proven and new copper processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pitt, C.H.; Wadsworth, M.E.

    1980-12-31

    Energy requirements are presented for thirteen pyrometallurgical and eight hydrometallurgical processes for the production of copper. Front end processing, mining, mineral processing, gas cleaning, and acid plant as well as mass balances are included. Conventional reverberatory smelting is used as a basis for comparison. Recommendations for needed process research in copper production are presented.

  18. 3.1.1.2 Feed Processing and Handling DL2 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Wend, Christopher F.

    2006-09-30

    This milestone report is the deliverable for our Feed Processing and Handling project. It includes results of wet biomass feedstock analysis, slurry pumping information, fungal processing to produce a lignin-rich biorefinery residue and two subcontracted efforts to quantify the amount of wet biomass feedstocks currently available within the corn processing and paper processing industries.

  19. 77 FR 1707 - National Toxicology Program (NTP) Final Process for Preparation of the Report on Carcinogens (RoC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... available on the NTP Web site ( http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/rocprocess ) or by contacting Dr. Ruth Lunn (see...) on December 15, 2011 ( http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/9741 ). The NTP now announces the final process....gov/go/rocprocess ) or by contacting Dr. Lunn (see ADDRESSES). Background Information on the RoC...

  20. 30 CFR 206.363 - When is an MMS audit, review, reconciliation, monitoring, or other like process considered final?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When is an MMS audit, review, reconciliation, monitoring, or other like process considered final? 206.363 Section 206.363 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION...

  1. Bicultural Socialization Project: A Group Process Approach to Bilingual Instruction - Title VII. Final Report, 1970-71.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Jean M.

    This final report relates to student socialization through a bilingual (Spanish/English), bicultural program involving 6 second grades in 3 schools of Phoenix, Arizona, for the 1970-71 school year. As reported, the major objective of the program was to develop and implement a group process approach to bilingual education; in addition, classroom…

  2. 30 CFR 1206.363 - When is an ONRR audit, review, reconciliation, monitoring, or other like process considered final?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When is an ONRR audit, review, reconciliation, monitoring, or other like process considered final? 1206.363 Section 1206.363 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT...

  3. 30 CFR 1206.363 - When is an ONRR audit, review, reconciliation, monitoring, or other like process considered final?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false When is an ONRR audit, review, reconciliation, monitoring, or other like process considered final? 1206.363 Section 1206.363 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT...

  4. 30 CFR 1206.363 - When is an ONRR audit, review, reconciliation, monitoring, or other like process considered final?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false When is an ONRR audit, review, reconciliation, monitoring, or other like process considered final? 1206.363 Section 1206.363 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT...

  5. Development of environmentally conscious cleaning process for leadless chip carrier assemblies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, B.E.

    1995-04-01

    A cross-functional team of process, product, quality, material, and design lab engineers was assembled to develop an environmentally friendly cleaning process for leadless chip carrier assemblies (LCCAs). Using flush and filter testing, Auger surface analysis, GC-Mass spectrophotometry, production yield results, and electrical testing results over an extended testing period, the team developed an aqueous cleaning process for LCCAs. The aqueous process replaced the Freon vapor degreasing/ultrasonic rinse process.

  6. The integration of cognition and emotion during infancy and early childhood: regulatory processes associated with the development of working memory.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Christy D; Bell, Martha Ann

    2007-10-01

    This study was an attempt to integrate cognitive development (i.e., cognitive control) and emotional development (i.e., emotion regulation) in the first years of life. The construct of temperament was used to unify cognition and emotion because of its focus on attentional and regulatory behaviors. Children were seen at 8 months and 412-years of age in a study designed to examine the correlates of working memory development. Frontal brain electrical activity and temperament predicted working memory performance at 8 months. Similarly, frontal brain electrical activity, temperament, and language predicted working memory at age 412-years. Temperament in early childhood mediated the relation between infant temperament and early childhood working memory performance. These associated temperament characteristics highlight the value of early-learned regulatory and attentional behaviors and the impact of these early skills on later development.

  7. [The potentials for therapy of the postresuscitation process using regulatory peptides after 10 and 15 minutes of heart arrest].

    PubMed

    Volkov, A V; Murav'ev, O V; Misharina, G V

    1996-01-01

    The therapeutic effect of a single systemic injection of regulatory peptides was assessed in experiments oil white rats exposed to 10- and 15-min heart arrest. The effect of regulatory peptides was found to depend on the initial body resistance to hypoxia and on the duration of heart arrest. Positive effects of thyrotropin-releasing factor, ACTH4-10 and substance P on the recovery of cerebral function grew weaker as the duration of heart arrest increased, whereas the effects of oxitocin and somatostatin were unchanged, and that of taftsin even increased. In animals nonresistant to hypoxia cardiopulmonary resuscitation and survival of 50% of animals after 15-min heart arrest was provided by injection of thyrotropin-releasing factor at the beginning of resuscitation and of somatostatin 30 min later.

  8. Modelling regulation of decomposition and related root/mycorrhizal processes in arctic tundra soils. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Linkins, A.E.

    1992-09-01

    Since this was the final year of this project principal activities were directed towards either collecting data needed to complete existing incomplete data sets or writing manuscripts. Data sets on Imnaviat Creek watershed basin are functionally complete and data finialized on the cellulose mineralizaiton and dust impact on soil organic carbon and phsophorus decomposition. Seven manuscripts were prepared, and are briefly outlined.

  9. Systematic Process Synthesis and Design Methods for Cost Effective Waste Minimization. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Biegler, L.T.; Grossmann, I.E.; Westerberg, A.W.

    1998-02-14

    This report focuses on research done over the past four years under the grant with the above title. In addition, the report also includes a brief summary of work done before 1994 under grant DOE-DE-FG02-85ER13396. Finally, a complete list of publications that acknowledge support from this grant is listed at the end.

  10. Medicare program; application of certain appeals provisions to the Medicare prescription drug appeals process. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2009-12-09

    This final rule will implement the procedures that the Department of Health and Human Services will follow at the Administrative Law Judge and Medicare Appeals Council levels in deciding appeals brought by individuals who have enrolled in the Medicare prescription drug benefit program. In addition, it will implement the reopening procedures that will be followed at all levels of appeal.

  11. The Integration of an Information Processing Center into a Modern Office/Word Processing Technology Course. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeVan, Jan; Arndt, Maridene

    A report and related materials are provided from an activity to set up an operating information processing center that would do the work initiated by personnel in the district and to incorporate the center into the Modern Office/Word Processing Technology course. The report details objectives, population and sample, and conclusions and…

  12. Current Regulations and Regulatory Actions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site will provide basic information on clean air permitting under the title V operating permits program, provide access to state and regional permitting programs, and maintain access to proposed and final regulatory requirements.

  13. A Novel Slurry-Based Biomass Reforming Process Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Emerson, Sean C.; Davis, Timothy D.; Peles, A.; She, Ying; Sheffel, Joshua; Willigan, Rhonda R.; Vanderspurt, Thomas H.; Zhu, Tianli

    2011-09-30

    This project was focused on developing a catalytic means of producing H2 from raw, ground biomass, such as fast growing poplar trees, willow trees, or switch grass. The use of a renewable, biomass feedstock with minimal processing can enable a carbon neutral means of producing H2 in that the carbon dioxide produced from the process can be used in the environment to produce additional biomass. For economically viable production of H2, the biomass is hydrolyzed and then reformed without any additional purification steps. Any unreacted biomass and other byproduct streams are burned to provide process energy. Thus, the development of a catalyst that can operate in the demanding corrosive environment and presence of potential poisons is vital to this approach. The concept for this project is shown in Figure 1. The initial feed is assumed to be a >5 wt% slurry of ground wood in dilute base, such as potassium carbonate (K2CO3). Base hydrolysis and reforming of the wood is carried out at high but sub-critical pressures and temperatures in the presence of a solid catalyst. A Pd alloy membrane allows the continuous removal of pure , while the retentate, including methane is used as fuel in the plant. The project showed that it is possible to economically produce H2 from woody biomass in a carbon neutral manner. Technoeconomic analyses using HYSYS and the DOE's H2A tool [1] were used to design a 2000 ton day-1 (dry basis) biomass to hydrogen plant with an efficiency of 46% to 56%, depending on the mode of operation and economic assumptions, exceeding the DOE 2012 target of 43%. The cost of producing the hydrogen from such a plant would be in the range of $1/kg H2 to $2/kg H2. By using raw biomass as a feedstock, the cost of producing hydrogen at large biomass consumption rates is more cost effective than steam reforming of hydrocarbons or biomass gasification and can achieve the overall cost goals of the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program. The complete conversion of wood to

  14. Long-life cable development. Cable-processing survey. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mangaraj, D.; Preston, J.R.

    1985-09-01

    A survey of cable manufacturers in North America, Europe, and Japan identified state-of-the-art techniques for processing extruded dielectric cables. The review highlights optimal approaches to such process operations as materials handling, extrusion, and vulcanization.

  15. CABPRO: An expert system for process planning multiwire cables. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, R.M.

    1994-04-01

    CABPRO (CABle PROcessor) is a set of computer programs using Artificial Intelligence programming to automatically generate process plans and work instructions in support of the manufacture of multiwire cables. Development of these programs required selecting appropriate hardware and software tools, defining engineering process planning activities, acquiring and representing process planning knowledge, and creating a prototype system. A successful prototype was developed and demonstrated.

  16. Development of an extraction process for removal of heteroatoms from coal liquids. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The main goal of this contract was to develop an extraction process for upgrading coal liquids; and in doing so, to reduce the hydrogen requirement in downstream upgrading processes and to yield valuable byproducts. This goal was to be achieved by developing a novel carbon dioxide extraction process for heteroatom removal from coal-derived naphtha, diesel, and jet fuel. The research plan called for the optimization of three critical process variables using a statistically-designed experimental matrix. The commercial potential of the new process was to be evaluated by demonstrating quantitatively the effectiveness of heteroatom removal from three different feedstocks and by conducting a comparative economic analysis of alternate heteroatom removal technologies. Accomplishments are described for the following tasks: food procurement and analysis process variable screening studies; and process assessment.

  17. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Volume 2, Participants program final summary evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Brandes, S.D.; Robbins, G.A.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1994-05-01

    This 4.5-year project consisted of routine analytical support to DOE`s direct liquefaction process development effort (the Base Program), and an extensive effort to develop, demonstate, and apply new analytical methods for the characterization of liquefaction process streams (the Participants Program). The objective of the Base Program was to support the on-going DOE direct coal liquefaction process development program. Feed, process, and product samples were used to assess process operations, product quality, and the effects of process variables, and to direct future testing. The primary objective of the Participants Program was to identify and demonstrate analytical methods for use in support of liquefaction process develpment, and in so doing, provide a bridge between process design, development, and operation and analytical chemistry. To achieve this direct coal liquefaction-derived materials. CONSOL made an evaluation of each analytical technique. During the performance of this project, we obtained analyses on samples from numerous process development and research programs and we evaluated a variety of analytical techniques for their usefulness in supporting liquefaction process development. Because of the diverse nature of this program, we provide here an annotated bibliography of the technical reports, publications, and formal presentations that resulted from this program to serve as a comprehensive summary of contract activities.

  18. Public mobile radio services; regulatory policies and procedures for the Domestic Public Land Mobile Radio Service--Federal Communications Commission. Final rule.

    PubMed

    1983-02-25

    Final policies and procedures concerning objective need showings are being adopted for applications requesting multiple new two-way channels and applications requesting additional channels for an existing system. The policies and procedures we had in the past were vague and did not provide applicants with sufficient information as to what was required in need showings before various types of applications could be granted. Thus, applicants requesting multiple new two-way frequencies or additional two-way channels for an existing system must show that the existing, projected or expected grade of service for the proposed facilities is .25 or greater, this will determine the number of new or additional channels granted.

  19. Internationalization of regulatory requirements.

    PubMed

    Juillet, Y

    2003-02-01

    The aim of harmonisation of medicines regulatory requirements is to allow the patient quicker access to new drugs and to avoid animal and human duplications. Harmonisation in the European Union (EU) is now completed, and has led to the submission of one dossier in one language study leading to European marketing authorizations, thanks in particular to efficacy guidelines published at the European level. With the benefit of the European experience since 1989, more than 40 guidelines have been harmonised amongst the EU, Japan and the USA through the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH). ICH is a unique process gathering regulators and industry experts from the three regions. Its activity is built on expertise and trust. The Common Technical Document (CTD), an agreed common format for application in the three regions, is a logical follow-up to the ICH first phase harmonising the content of the dossier. The CTD final implementation in July 2003 will have considerable influence on the review process and on the exchange of information in the three regions.

  20. An Activin/Furin Regulatory Loop Modulates the Processing and Secretion of Inhibin α- and βB-Subunit Dimers in Pituitary Gonadotrope Cells*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Antenos, Monica; Zhu, Jie; Jetly, Niti M.; Woodruff, Teresa K.

    2008-01-01

    Of all ligands of the transforming growth factor β superfamily, inhibins and activins are a physiologically relevant pair that are functional antagonists of each other. Activin stimulates whereas inhibin blocks follicle-stimulating hormone biosynthesis and secretion from pituitary gonadotrope cells, and together, inhibin and activin control the pituitary gonadal axis essential for normal reproductive function. Sharing a similar β-subunit, the secretion of inhibin heterodimers (α/β) or activin homodimers (β/β) as mature bioactive ligands depends, in part, on the proteolytic processing of precursor proteins. A short loop regulatory pathway controlling precursor processing and dimer secretion was discovered. Activin stimulates endogenous inhibin α- and βB-subunit mRNA, protein, and proteolytic processing. Simultaneously, activin stimulated the proconvertase furin through a Smad2/3-dependent process. The data provide a mechanism where the regulation of furin and inhibin subunits cooperates in an important positive short feedback loop. This regulatory loop augments the secretion of bioactive mature activin B, as well as inhibin B dimers, necessary for local follicle-stimulating hormone β regulation. PMID:18826955

  1. Predictability and Diagnosis of Low Frequency Climate Processes in the Pacific, Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Niklas Schneider

    2009-06-17

    The report summarized recent findings with respect to Predictability and Diagnosis of Low Frequency Climate Processes in the Pacific, with focus on the dynamics of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, oceanic adjustments and the coupled feedback in the western boundary current of the North and South Pacific, decadal dynamics of oceanic salinity, and tropical processes with emphasis on the Indonesian Throughflow.

  2. Process system evaluation: Consolidated letter reports. Volume 3: Formulation of final products

    SciTech Connect

    Josephson, G.B.; Chapman, C.C.; Albertsen, K.H.

    1996-04-01

    Glass discharged from the low-level waste (LLW) melter may be processed into a variety of different forms for storage and disposal. The purpose of the study reported here is to identify and evaluate processing options for forming the glass.

  3. Optimal Mixtures of Test Types in Paired-Associate Learning (Sensory Information Processing). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolford, George

    Seven experiments were run to determine the precise nature of some of the variables which affect the processing of short-term visual information. In particular, retinal location, report order, processing order, lateral masking, and redundancy were studied along with the nature of the confusion errors which are made in the full report procedure.…

  4. Word/Information Processing with Microcomputers in Business Education. Final Narrative Report for the Exemplary Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascension Parish School Board, Donaldsonville, LA.

    This demonstration introduced microcomputers into St. Amant High School in Louisiana by instituting a word/information processing program. Microcomputers, printers, and necessary software were purchased, and the manufacturer's educational representative instructed the word/information processing teacher on the operation of the equipment. The…

  5. Inputs and Processes in Education: A Background Paper. Final Report Deliverable #1-2.2b.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrag, Judy A.

    This background paper is a result of a literature review conducted under Project FORUM that identifies research-based inputs and processes related to student outcomes. It was intended to provide background information for the participants attending the Wingspread Conference on Inputs and Processes in October, 1998. In addition, the report is…

  6. The Amenability of a Cataloging Process to Simulation by Automatic Techniques. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Ann M.

    This study attempts to determine whether the human intellectual process of cataloging bibliographic materials, using the Anglo-American (AA-1967) and American Library Association (ALA-1949) cataloging codes, can be simulated by automatic techniques. The specific cataloging process is that which concerns selection of entry. Automatic techniques…

  7. "Attrition Processes Out of Mathematics for Undergraduate Students." Attrition from Mathematics as a Social Process. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maines, David R.; And Others

    Investigated were those long-term processes which contribute to high rates of attrition for women out of mathematics. It is based on the contention that university students drop out of mathematics as a consequence of prior socialization, educational career contingencies, and goal commitment and career aspirations, with the mix of these factors…

  8. Solvent-refined-coal (SRC) process. Volume II. Sections V-XIV. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    This report documents the completion of development work on the Solvent Refined Coal Process by The Pittsburgh and Midway Coal Mining Co. The work was initiated in 1966 under Office of Coal Research, US Department of Interior, Contract No. 14-01-0001-496 and completed under US Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC05-79ET10104. This report discusses work leading to the development of the SRC-I and SRC-II processes, construction of the Fort Lewis Pilot Plant for the successful development of these processes, and results from the operation of this pilot plant. Process design data generated on a 1 ton-per-day Process Development Unit, bench-scale units and through numerous research projects in support of the design of major demonstration plants are also discussed in summary form and fully referenced in this report.

  9. Glass fiber processing for the Moon/Mars program: Center director's discretionary fund final report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, D. S.; Ethridge, E.; Curreri, P.

    1992-01-01

    Glass fiber has been produced from two lunar soil simulants. These two materials simulate lunar mare soil and lunar highland soil compositions, respectively. Short fibers containing recrystallized areas were produced from the as-received simulants. Doping the highland simulant with 8 weight percent B2-O3 yielded a material which could be spun continuously. The effects of lunar gravity on glass fiber formation were studied utilizing NASA's KC-135 aircraft. Gravity was found to play a major role in final fiber diameter.

  10. Medicare Program; Prior Authorization Process for Certain Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics, Orthotics, and Supplies. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2015-12-30

    This final rule establishes a prior authorization program for certain durable medical equipment, prosthetics, orthotics, and supplies (DMEPOS) items that are frequently subject to unnecessary utilization. This rule defines unnecessary utilization and creates a new requirement that claims for certain DMEPOS items must have an associated provisional affirmed prior authorization decision as a condition of payment. This rule also adds the review contractor's decision regarding prior authorization of coverage of DMEPOS items to the list of actions that are not initial determinations and therefore not appealable.

  11. Regulatory Effect of Low-Intensity Optical Radiation on Oxygenation of Blood Irradiated In Vivo and Metabolic Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalesskaya, G. A.; Laskina, O. V.

    2016-03-01

    For three series of blood samples, we have studied the effect of therapeutic doses of low-intensity optical radiation (LOR) on oxygenation parameters of blood irradiated in vivo, and also on the levels of some metabolites: lactate, glucose, cholesterol. The quality of blood oxygenation was assessed using three parameters: the partial pressure of oxygen pVO2, the oxygen saturation of hemoglobin SVO2, and the oxygen level in arterial and venous blood, varying under the influence of low-intensity optical radiation due to photodissociation of hemoglobin/ligand complexes. We have established that during photohemotherapy (PHT), including extracorporeal, supravascular, and intravenous blood irradiation, positive changes occur in the oxygenation parameters and the metabolite levels, while after the courses of PHT have been completed, the individual changes in such parameters in individual patients were both positive and negative. The regulatory effect of PHT was apparent in the tendency toward a decrease in high initial values and an increase in low initial values both for the oxygenation parameters and for the metabolites; but at the doses recommended for use, PHT had a regulatory but still not a normalizing effect.

  12. Regulatory guidance document

    SciTech Connect

    1994-05-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program Management System Manual requires preparation of the OCRWM Regulatory Guidance Document (RGD) that addresses licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance. The document provides: regulatory compliance policy; guidance to OCRWM organizational elements to ensure a consistent approach when complying with regulatory requirements; strategies to achieve policy objectives; organizational responsibilities for regulatory compliance; guidance with regard to Program compliance oversight; and guidance on the contents of a project-level Regulatory Compliance Plan. The scope of the RGD includes site suitability evaluation, licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance, in accordance with the direction provided by Section 4.6.3 of the PMS Manual. Site suitability evaluation and regulatory compliance during site characterization are significant activities, particularly with regard to the YW MSA. OCRWM`s evaluation of whether the Yucca Mountain site is suitable for repository development must precede its submittal of a license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Accordingly, site suitability evaluation is discussed in Chapter 4, and the general statements of policy regarding site suitability evaluation are discussed in Section 2.1. Although much of the data and analyses may initially be similar, the licensing process is discussed separately in Chapter 5. Environmental compliance is discussed in Chapter 6. Safety and Health compliance is discussed in Chapter 7.

  13. Molten salt coal gasification process development unit. Phase 1. Volume 2. Commercial plant study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kohl, Arthur L.

    1980-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a test program conducted on the Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process, which included the design, construction, and operation of a Process Development Unit (PDU). This process, coal is gasified by contacting it with air in a turbulent pool of molten sodium carbonate. Sulfur and ash are retained in the melt, and a small stream is continuously removed from the gasifier for regeneration of the salt. The process can handle a wide variety of feed materials, including highly caking coals, and produces a gas relatively free from tars and other impurities. The gasification step is carried out at approximately 1800/sup 0/F. The PDU was designed to process 1 ton per hour of coal at pressures up to 20 atm. It is a completely integrated facility including systems for feeding solids to the gasifier, regenerating sodium carbonate for reuse, and removing sulfur and ash in forms suitable for disposal. Five extended test runs were made. The observed product gas composition was quite close to that predicted on the basis of earlier small-scale tests and thermodynamic considerations. All plant systems were operated in an integrated manner. Test data and discussions regarding plant equipment and process performance are presented. The program also included a commercial plant study which showed the process to be attractive for use in a combined cycle, electric power plant. The report is presented in two volumes, Volume 1, PDU Operations, and Volume 2, Commercial Plant Study.

  14. The cost of ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass -- A comparison of selected alternative processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Grethlein, H.E.; Dill, T.

    1993-04-30

    The purpose of this report is to compare the cost of selected alternative processes for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol. In turn, this information will be used by the ARS/USDA to guide the management of research and development programs in biomass conversion. The report will identify where the cost leverages are for the selected alternatives and what performance parameters need to be achieved to improve the economics. The process alternatives considered here are not exhaustive, but are selected on the basis of having a reasonable potential in improving the economics of producing ethanol from biomass. When other alternatives come under consideration, they should be evaluated by the same methodology used in this report to give fair comparisons of opportunities. A generic plant design is developed for an annual production of 25 million gallons of anhydrous ethanol using corn stover as the model substrate at $30/dry ton. Standard chemical engineering techniques are used to give first order estimates of the capital and operating costs. Following the format of the corn to ethanol plant, there are nine sections to the plant; feed preparation, pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation and dehydration, stillage evaporation, storage and denaturation, utilities, and enzyme production. There are three pretreatment alternatives considered: the AFEX process, the modified AFEX process (which is abbreviated as MAFEX), and the STAKETECH process. These all use enzymatic hydrolysis and so an enzyme production section is included in the plant. The STAKETECH is the only commercially available process among the alternative processes.

  15. TRW/ORE-IDA potato-processing project: construction phase. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cherne, J; Logan, J

    1981-07-23

    A solar process heat system has been installed at an existing potato processing plant in Oregon. After a brief description of the location, commercial hardware, predicted performance and contracting procedures, the system is described subsystem-by-subsystem, including the parabolic trough collector field, steam generator, freeze prevention, computerized control system, data acquisition system, and various ancillary equipment. The operating modes are discussed, including normal operation, freeze prevention, control, and data acquisition operation. The construction process and problems encountered during construction and start-up are discussed. A paper on the control scheme and the data acquisition system functional specification are appended. A set of 23 record drawings illustrates the system. (LEW)

  16. Water recovery and solid waste processing for aerospace and domestic applications. Volume 1: Final report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    A comprehensive study of advanced water recovery and solid waste processing techniques employed in both aerospace and domestic or commercial applications is reported. A systems approach was used to synthesize a prototype system design of an advanced water treatment/waste processing system. Household water use characteristics were studied and modified through the use of low water use devices and a limited amount of water reuse. This modified household system was then used as a baseline system for development of several water treatment waste processing systems employing advanced techniques. A hybrid of these systems was next developed and a preliminary design was generated to define system and hardware functions.

  17. Fact Sheet - Final Air Toxics Rule for Gold Mine Ore Processing and Production

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fact sheet summarizing main points of National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for gold ore processing and production facilities, the seventh largest source of mercury air emission in the United States.

  18. Electric utility engineer`s FGD manual -- Volume 1: FGD process design. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-04

    Part 1 of the Electric Utility Engineer`s Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Manual emphasizes the chemical and physical processes that form the basis for design and operation of lime- and limestone-based FGD systems applied to coal- or oil-fired steam electric generating stations. The objectives of Part 1 are: to provide a description of the chemical and physical design basis for lime- and limestone-based wet FGD systems; to identify and discuss the various process design parameters and process options that must be considered in developing a specification for a new FGD system; and to provide utility engineers with process knowledge useful for operating and optimizing a lime- or limestone-based wet FGD system.

  19. Evaluation of continuous oxydesulfurization processes. Final technical report, September 1979-July 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.F.; Wever, D.M.

    1981-07-01

    Three processes developed by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC), Ledgemont Laboratories, and Ames Laboratories for the oxydesulfurization of coal were evaluated in continuous processing equipment designed, built, and/or adapted for the purpose at the DOE-owned Multi-Use Fuels and Energy Processes Test Plant (MEP) located at TRW's Capistrano Test Site in California. The three processes differed primarily in the chemical additives (none, sodium carbonate, or ammonia), fed to the 20% to 40% coal/water slurries, and in the oxygen content of the feed gas stream. Temperature, pressure, residence time, flow rates, slurry concentration and stirrer speed were the other primary independent variables. The amount of organic sulfur removed, total sulfur removed and the Btu recovery were the primary dependent variables. Evaluation of the data presented was not part of the test effort.

  20. Compatibility of manufacturing process fluids with R-134a and polyolester lubricant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cavestri, R.C.; Schooley, D.L.

    1996-07-01

    This report includes a broad list of processing fluids that are known to be used to manufacture air conditioning and refrigeration products. Sixty-four process fluids from this list were selected for compatibility studies with R-134a and ICI EMKARATE RL32H (32 ISO) polyolester lubricant. Solutions or suspensions of the process fluid residues in polyolester lubricant were heated for 14 days at 175{degrees}C (347{degrees}F) in evacuated sealed glass tubes containing only valve steel coupons. Miscibility tests were performed at 90 wt.% R-134a, 10 wt.% polyolester lubricant with process fluid residue contaminate and were scanned in 10{degrees}C (18{degrees}F) increments over a temperature range of ambient to -40{degrees}C (-40{degrees}F). Any sign of turbidity, haze formation or oil separation was considered the immiscibility point.

  1. Anti-reflection coatings applied by acid-leaching process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pastirik, E.

    1980-09-01

    The Magicote C process developed by S.M. Thompsen was evaluated for use in applying an antireflective coating to the cover plates of solar cell panels. The process uses a fluosilicic acid solution supersaturated with silica at elevated temperature to selectively attack the surface of soda-lime glass cover plates and alter the physical and chemical composition of a thin layer of glass. The altered glass layer constitutes an antireflective coating. The process produces coatings of excellent optical quality which possess outstanding resistance to soiling and staining. The coatings produced are not resistant to mechanical abrasion and are attacked to some extent by glass cleansers. Control of the filming process was found to be difficult.

  2. Fine coal fractionation using a magnetohydrostatic separation process CRADA 91-003. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Heechan; Killmeyer, R. P.

    1992-10-31

    The magnetohydrostatic separation (MHS) process uses a magnetic fluid which has the ability to float a submerged particle in a magnetic field. The objective of this project was to develop a technique for laboratory gravity fractionation of coal using MHS.

  3. Final Report for the Center for Advanced Processing and Packaging Studies (CAPPS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-30

    assure food safety. The objectives of CAPPS are to enhance safety and quality of aseptic and extended shelf - life products, to characterize emerging ...aseptic and extended shelf - life processes, and to assure the integrity and functionality of aseptic and extended shelf - life packaging. Examples of new...and Nutritional Quality of Fresh-Cut Fruits and Vegetables : Desirable Levels, Instrumental and Sensory Measurement, and the Effects of Processing

  4. Final Report: "Collaborative Project. Understanding the Chemical Processes That Affect Growth Rates of Freshly Nucleated Particles"

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, James N.; McMurry, Peter H.

    2015-11-12

    This final technical report describes our research activities that have, as the ultimate goal, the development of a model that explains growth rates of freshly nucleated particles. The research activities, which combine field observations with laboratory experiments, explore the relationship between concentrations of gas-phase species that contribute to growth and the rates at which those species are taken up. We also describe measurements of the chemical composition of freshly nucleated particles in a variety of locales, as well as properties (especially hygroscopicity) that influence their effects on climate. Our measurements include a self-organized, DOE-ARM funded project at the Southern Great Plains site, the New Particle Formation Study (NPFS), which took place during spring 2013. NPFS data are available to the research community on the ARM data archive, providing a unique suite observations of trace gas and aerosols that are associated with the formation and growth of atmospheric aerosol particles.

  5. A novel carbon-based process for flue-gas cleanup. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gangwal, S.K.; Howe, G.B.; McMichael, W.J.; Spivey, J.J.

    1993-10-01

    A low-temperature process employing activated carbon-based catalysts and operating downstream of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) was evaluated jointly by Research Triangle Institute (RTI) and the University of Waterloo (Waterloo). The RTI-Waterloo process was projected to be capable of removing more than 95% SO{sub 2} and 75% NO{sub x }from coal combustion flue gas. In the process, the flue gas leaving the ESP is first cooled to approximately 100{degree}C. The SO{sub 2} is then catalytically oxidized to SO{sub 3} which is removed as medium-strength sulfuric acid in a series of periodically flushed trickle-bed reactors containing an activated carbon-based catalyst. The SO{sub 2}-free gas is then reheated to approximately 150{degree}C and NH{sub 3} is injected into the gas stream. It is then passed over a fixed bed of another activated carbon-based catalyst to reduce the NO{sub x} to N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. The clean flue gas is then vented to the stack. The feasibility of the process has been demonstrated in laboratory-scale experiments using simulated flue gas. Catalysts have been identified that gave the required performance for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal with <25 ppM NH{sub 3} slip. Potential for producing up to 10 N sulfuric acid by periodically flushing the SO{sub 2} removal reactor and further concentration to industrial strength 93.17% sulfuric acid was also demonstrated. Using the results of the experimental work, an engineering evaluation was conducted. Cost for the RTI-Waterloo process was competitive with conventional selective catalytic reduction (SCR) -- flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process and other emerging combined SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal processes.

  6. Molten salt coal gasification process development unit. Phase 1. Volume 1. PDU operations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kohl, A.L.

    1980-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a test program conducted on the Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process, which included the design, construction, and operation of a Process Development Unit. In this process, coal is gasified by contacting it with air in a turbulent pool of molten sodium carbonate. Sulfur and ash are retained in the melt, and a small stream is continuously removed from the gasifier for regeneration of sodium carbonate, removal of sulfur, and disposal of the ash. The process can handle a wide variety of feed materials, including highly caking coals, and produces a gas relatively free from tars and other impurities. The gasification step is carried out at approximately 1800/sup 0/F. The PDU was designed to process 1 ton per hour of coal at pressures up to 20 atm. It is a completely integrated facility including systems for feeding solids to the gasifier, regenerating sodium carbonate for reuse, and removing sulfur and ash in forms suitable for disposal. Five extended test runs were made. The observed product gas composition was quite close to that predicted on the basis of earlier small-scale tests and thermodynamic considerations. All plant systems were operated in an integrated manner during one of the runs. The principal problem encountered during the five test runs was maintaining a continuous flow of melt from the gasifier to the quench tank. Test data and discussions regarding plant equipment and process performance are presented. The program also included a commercial plant study which showed the process to be attractive for use in a combined-cycle, electric power plant. The report is presented in two volumes, Volume 1, PDU Operations, and Volume 2, Commercial Plant Study.

  7. Final Report - "Foaming and Antifoaming and Gas Entrainment in Radioactive Waste Pretreatment and Immobilization Processes"

    SciTech Connect

    Wasan, Darsh T.

    2007-10-09

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford site are in the process of stabilizing millions of gallons of radioactive waste slurries remaining from production of nuclear materials for the Department of Energy (DOE). The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at SRS is currently vitrifying the waste in borosilicate glass, while the facilities at the Hanford site are in the construction phase. Both processes utilize slurry-fed joule-heated melters to vitrify the waste slurries. The DWPF has experienced difficulty during operations. The cause of the operational problems has been attributed to foaming, gas entrainment and the rheological properties of the process slurries. The rheological properties of the waste slurries limit the total solids content that can be processed by the remote equipment during the pretreatment and meter feed processes. Highly viscous material can lead to air entrainment during agitation and difficulties with pump operations. Excessive foaming in waste evaporators can cause carryover of radionuclides and non-radioactive waste to the condensate system. Experimental and theoretical investigations of the surface phenomena, suspension rheology and bubble generation of interactions that lead to foaming and air entrainment problems in the DOE High Level and Low Activity Radioactive Waste separation and immobilization processes were pursued under this project. The first major task accomplished in the grant proposal involved development of a theoretical model of the phenomenon of foaming in a three-phase gas-liquid-solid slurry system. This work was presented in a recently completed Ph.D. thesis (9). The second major task involved the investigation of the inter-particle interaction and microstructure formation in a model slurry by the batch sedimentation method. Both experiments and modeling studies were carried out. The results were presented in a recently completed Ph.D. thesis. The third task involved the use of laser confocal microscopy to study

  8. Fundamental research on novel process alternatives for coal gasification: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, A H; Knight, R A; Anderson, G L; Feldkirchner, H L; Babu, S P

    1986-10-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology has conducted a fundamental research program to determine the technical feasibility of and to prepare preliminary process evaluations for two new approaches to coal gasification. These two concepts were assessed under two major project tasks: Task 1. CO/sub 2/-Coal Gasification Process Concept; Task 2. Internal Recirculation Catalysts Coal Gasification Process Concept. The first process concept involves CO/sub 2/-O/sub 2/ gasification of coal followed by CO/sub 2/ removal from the hot product gas by a solid MgO-containing sorbent. The sorbent is regenerated by either a thermal- or a pressure-swing step and the CO/sub 2/ released is recycled back to the gasifier. The product is a medium-Btu gas. The second process concept involves the use of novel ''semivolatile'' materials as internal recirculating catalysts for coal gasification. These materials remain in the gasifier because their vapor pressure-temperature behavior is such that they will be in the vapor state at the hotter, char exit part of the reactor and will condense in the colder, coal-inlet part of the reactor. 21 refs., 43 figs., 43 tabs.

  9. Final Technical Report - Autothermal Styrene Manufacturing Process with Net Export of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Trubac, Robert , E.; Lin, Feng; Ghosh, Ruma: Greene, Marvin

    2011-11-29

    The overall objectives of the project were to: (a) develop an economically competitive processing technology for styrene monomer (SM) that would reduce process energy requirements by a minimum 25% relative to those of conventional technology while achieving a minimum 10% ROI; and (b) advance the technology towards commercial readiness. This technology is referred to as OMT (Oxymethylation of Toluene). The unique energy savings feature of the OMT technology would be replacement of the conventional benzene and ethylene feedstocks with toluene, methane in natural gas and air or oxygen, the latter of which have much lower specific energy of production values. As an oxidative technology, OMT is a net energy exporter rather than a net energy consumer like the conventional ethylbenzene/styrene (EB/SM) process. OMT plants would ultimately reduce the cost of styrene monomer which in turn will decrease the costs of polystyrene making it perhaps more cost competitive with competing polymers such as polypropylene.

  10. Final Report - ADVANCED LASER-BASED SENSORS FOR INDUSTRIAL PROCESS CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Manish; Baer, Douglas

    2013-09-30

    The objective of this work is to capture the potential of real-time monitoring and overcome the challenges of harsh industrial environments, Los Gatos Research (LGR) is fabricating, deploying, and commercializing advanced laser-based gas sensors for process control monitoring in industrial furnaces (e.g. electric arc furnaces). These sensors can achieve improvements in process control, leading to enhanced productivity, improved product quality, and reduced energy consumption and emissions. The first sensor will utilize both mid-infrared and near-infrared lasers to make rapid in-situ measurements of industrial gases and associated temperatures in the furnace off-gas. The second sensor will make extractive measurements of process gases. During the course of this DOE project, Los Gatos Research (LGR) fabricated, tested, and deployed both in-situ tunable diode laser absorption spectrometry (TDLAS) analyzers and extractive Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (Off-Axis ICOS) analyzers.

  11. Development of a dry coating process for broadloom carpet. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-08

    The DASH dry-applied thermoplastic fusion coating process has demonstrated energy savings up to 80%, labor savings up to 50% and coating material cost savings up to 20%. The DASH process generates coatings with characteristics superior to those of latex coatings on most carpets including: better tuft bind, resistance to cleaning agents and moisture, lower applied weights to produce equal or better physical characteristics, and a definitely superior adhesion of the secondary backing. Materials have been obtained, tested and identified as to those which provide the mix formulation ingredients to provide acceptable physical properties. Another area of increasing concern is smoke emission. It is in this area the DASH coating process remains superior. With a mark of 450 and below considered passing and 200 considered to be excellent, the DASH coating has remained well under 100 and has reached as low as 14.

  12. Effect of thermal processing practices on the properties of superplastic Al-Li alloys. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, S.J.; Lippard, H.E.

    1993-09-01

    The effect of thermal processing on the mechanical properties of superplastically formed structural components fabricated from three aluminum-lithium alloys was evaluated. The starting materials consisted of 8090, 2090, and X2095 (Weldalite(TM) 049), in the form of commercial-grade superplastic sheet. The experimental test matrix was designed to assess the impact on mechanical properties of eliminating solution heat treatment and/or cold water quenching from post-forming thermal processing. The extensive hardness and tensile property data compiled are presented as a function of aging temperature, superplastic strain and temper/quench rate for each alloy. The tensile properties of the materials following superplastic forming in two T5-type tempers are compared with the baseline T6 temper. The implications for simplifying thermal processing without degradation in properties are discussed on the basis of the results.

  13. Final report of ''Fundamental Surface Reaction Mechanisms in Fluorocarbon Plasma-Based Processing''

    SciTech Connect

    Gottlieb S. Oehrlein; H. Anderson; J. Cecchi; D. Graves

    2004-09-21

    This report provides a summary of results obtained in research supported by contract ''Fundamental Surface Reaction Mechanisms in Fluorocarbon Plasma-Based Processing'' (Contract No. DE-FG0200ER54608). In this program we advanced significantly the scientific knowledge base on low pressure fluorocarbon plasmas used for patterning of dielectric films and for producing fluorocarbon coatings on substrates. We characterized important neutral and ionic gas phase species that are incident at the substrate, and the processes that occur at relevant surfaces in contact with the plasma. The work was performed through collaboration of research groups at three universities where significantly different, complementary tools for plasma and surface characterization, computer simulation of plasma and surface processes exist. Exchange of diagnostic tools and experimental verification of key results at collaborating institutions, both experimentally and by computer simulations, was an important component of the approach taken in this work.

  14. Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR)

    SciTech Connect

    TOMASZEWSKI, T.A.

    2000-04-25

    The Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP), 2336W Building, on the Hanford Site is designed to receive, confirm, repackage, certify, treat, store, and ship contact-handled transuranic and low-level radioactive waste from past and present U.S. Department of Energy activities. The WRAP facility is comprised of three buildings: 2336W, the main processing facility (also referred to generically as WRAP); 2740W, an administrative support building; and 2620W, a maintenance support building. The support buildings are subject to the normal hazards associated with industrial buildings (no radiological materials are handled) and are not part of this analysis except as they are impacted by operations in the processing building, 2336W. WRAP is designed to provide safer, more efficient methods of handling the waste than currently exist on the Hanford Site and contributes to the achievement of as low as reasonably achievable goals for Hanford Site waste management.

  15. Development of the electroacoustic dewatering (EAD) process for fine/ultrafine coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chauhan, S.P.; Kim, B.C.; Menton, R.; Senapati, N.; Criner, C.L.; Jirjis, B.; Muralidhara, H.S.; Chou, Y.L.; Wu, H.; Hsieh, P.; Johnson, H.R.; Eason, R.; Chiang, S.M.; Cheng, Y.S.; Kehoe, D.

    1991-10-31

    Battelle (Columbus, Ohio) undertook development of its electro-acoustic (EAD) process to demonstrate its commercial potential for continuous dewatering of fine and ultrafine coals. The pilot plant and laboratory results, provided in this report, show that a commercial-size EAD machine is expected to economically achieve the dewatering targets for {minus}100 mesh and {minus}325 mesh coals. The EAD process utilizes a synergistic combination of electric and acoustic (e.g., ultrasonic) fields in conjunction with conventional mechanical processes, such as belt presses, screw presses, plate and frame filter presses, and vacuum filters. The application of EAD is typically most beneficial after a filter cake is formed utilizing conventional mechanical filtration. (VC)

  16. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Final technical progress report, January 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal upgrading process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal Process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal upgrading, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. The SynCoal Process enhances low-rank, western coals, usually with a moisture content of 25 to 55 percent, sulfur content of 0.5 to 1.5 percent, and heating value of 5,5000 to 9,000 British thermal units per pound (Btu/lb), by producing a stable, upgraded, coal product with a moisture content as low as 1 percent, sulfur content as low as 0.3 percent, and heating value up to 12,000 Btu/lb. During this reporting period, the primary focus for the ACCP Demonstration Project team was to expand SynCoal market awareness and acceptability for both the products and the technology. The ACCP Project team continued to focus on improving the operation, developing commercial markets, and improving the SynCoal products as well as the product`s acceptance.

  17. NOx emission constraints on high-temperature processes. Final report, April 1988-November 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.A.; Mason, H.B.; Nicholson, J.A.; Okoh, C.I.

    1990-11-01

    Current and emerging NOx emission regulations were reviewed to identify possible constraints on high-performance burner application in industrial furnaces. Industrial furnace regulations were evaluated for new and existing sources in air quality attainment and nonattainment areas. Processes emphasized were ferrous and nonferrous metals heating and heat-treating furnaces, glass melting furnaces, and mineral kilns. Regulation of best available control technology (BACT) for new sources is projected to impact process furnaces the most. Metal reheating furnaces, glass melting furnaces, and kilns will be the most susceptible to BACT. Nonferrous melting forging furnace and soaking pits will not be seriously constrained by BACT.

  18. In-Situ Real Time Monitoring and Control of Mold Making and Filling Processes: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed Abdelrahman; Kenneth Currie

    2010-12-22

    This project presents a model for addressing several objectives envisioned by the metal casting industries through the integration of research and educational components. It provides an innovative approach to introduce technologies for real time characterization of sand molds, lost foam patterns and monitoring of the mold filling process. The technology developed will enable better control over the casting process. It is expected to reduce scrap and variance in the casting quality. A strong educational component is integrated into the research plan to utilize increased awareness of the industry professional, the potential benefits of the developed technology, and the potential benefits of cross cutting technologies.

  19. Experimental studies of ionospheric irregularities and related plasma processes. Final report, March 1982-December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, K.D.

    1992-01-01

    Utah State University (USU) continued its program of measuring and interpreting electron density and its variations in a variety of ionospheric conditions with the Experimental Studies of Ionospheric Irregularities and Related Plasma Processes program. The program represented a nearly ten year effort to provide key measurements of electron density and its fluctuations using sounding rockets. The program also involved the joint interpretation of the results in terms of ionospheric processes. A complete campaign summary and a brief description of the major rocket campaigns are also included.

  20. Process and analytical studies of enhanced low severity co-processing using selective coal pretreatment. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, R.M.; Miller, R.L.

    1991-12-01

    The findings in the first phase were as follows: 1. Both reductive (non-selective) alkylation and selective oxygen alkylation brought about an increase in liquefaction reactivity for both coals. 2. Selective oxygen alkylation is more effective in enhancing the reactivity of low rank coals. In the second phase of studies, the major findings were as follows: 1. Liquefaction reactivity increases with increasing level of alkylation for both hydroliquefaction and co-processing reaction conditions. 2. the increase in reactivity found for O-alkylated Wyodak subbituminous coal is caused by chemical changes at phenolic and carboxylic functional sites. 3. O-methylation of Wyodak subbituminous coal reduced the apparent activation energy for liquefaction of this coal.

  1. A Fifteen-Year Forecast of Information-Processing Technology. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, George B.

    This study developed a variation of the DELPHI approach, a polling technique for systematically soliciting opinions from experts, to produce a technological forecast of developments in the information-processing industry. SEER (System for Event Evaluation and Review) combines the more desirable elements of existing techniques: (1) intuitive…

  2. Students' Cognitive Processes While Learning from Teaching. Final Report: Appendices. (Volume Two).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winne, Philip H.; Marx, Ronald W.

    These appendices present the protocols used in research (reported in Volume 1) on the cognitive processes of students while learning from teaching. Curriculum outlines are given for the videotaped lessons used in the second and third studies: lessons in sleep and elementary psychology. Included in the appendices are: (1) the illustrative script…

  3. Sorption enhanced reaction process for production of hydrogen. Phase 1 final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mayorga, S.G.; Hufton, J.R.; Sircar, S.; Gaffney, T.R.

    1997-07-01

    Hydrogen is one of the most suitable energy sources from both technological and environmental perspectives for the next century, especially in the context of a sustainable global energy economy. The most common industrial process to produce high-purity (99.99+ mol%) hydrogen is to reform natural gas by a catalytic reaction with steam at a high temperature. Conventional steam-methane reforming (SMR) contributed to approximately 2.4 billion standard cubic feet per day (SCFD) of hydrogen production in the US. By 1998, the growth of SMR-produced hydrogen in the US is expected to reach 3.4 billion SCFD, with the increased demand attributed to hydrogen`s use in reformulated gasolines required by the Clean Air Act. The goal of this work is to develop an even more efficient process for reforming steam and methane to hydrogen product than the conventional SMR process. The application of Sorption Enhanced Reaction (SER) technology to SMR has the potential to markedly reduce the cost of hydrogen through lower capital and energy requirements. The development of a more cost-effective route to hydrogen production based on natural gas as the primary energy source will accelerate the transition to a more hydrogen-based economy in the future. The paper describes the process, which includes a sorbent for CO{sub 2} removal, and the various tasks involved in its development.

  4. Characterization of an oxygen plasma process for cleaning packaged semiconductor devices. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, B.E.

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to experimentally determine the operating {open_quotes}window{close_quotes} for an oxygen plasma cleaning process to be used on microelectronics components just prior to wire bonding. The process was being developed to replace one that used vapor degreasing with trichlorotrifluoroethane, an ozone-depleting substance. A Box-Behnken experimental design was used to generate data from which the oxygen plasma cleaning process could be characterized. Auger electron spectrophotometry was used to measure the contamination thickness on the dice after cleaning. An empirical equation correlating the contamination thickness on the die surface with the operating parameters of the plasma system was developed from the collected Auger data, and optimum settings for cleaning semiconductor devices were determined. Devices were also tested for undesirable changes in electrical parameters resulting from cleaning in the plasma system. An increase in leakage current occurred for bipolar transistors and diodes after exposure to the oxygen plasma. Although an increase in leakage current occurred, each device`s parameter remained well below the acceptable specification limit. Based upon the experimental results, the optimum settings for the plasma cleaning process were determined to be 200 watts of power applied for five minutes in an enclosure maintained at 0.7 torr. At these settings, all measurable contamination was removed without compromising the reliability of the devices.

  5. A Developmental Examination of Basic Perceptual Processes in Reading. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefton, Lester A.

    This report summarizes four groups of experiments examining the nature of basic perceptual processes in reading. The first group examined the relationship of English orthography to reading, specifically the transfer of information from the icon to short-term memory. The second group of experiments examined the use of peripheral information…

  6. Learning and Individual Differences: An Ability/Information-Processing Framework for Skill Acquisition. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Phillip L.

    A program of theoretical and empirical research focusing on the ability determinants of individual differences in skill acquisition is reviewed. An integrative framework for information-processing and cognitive ability determinants of skills is reviewed, along with principles for ability-skill relations. Experimental manipulations were used to…

  7. Texas Food Stamp Employment and Training/JOBS Conformance Demonstration: Process Evaluation Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shea, Daniel P.

    A process evaluation was conducted of the Better Opportunities for New Directions (BOND) demonstration that tested the conformance between the Texas Food Stamp Employment and Training (E&T) and Job Opportunities and Basic Skills (JOBS) programs. JOBS policies and procedures were applied to eligible Food Stamp recipients; staff serving the two…

  8. Utilization of geothermal energy in the mining and processing of tungsten ore. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, M.V.; Lacy, S.B.; Lowe, G.D.; Nussbaum, A.M.; Walter, K.M.; Willens, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    The engineering, economic, and environmental feasibility of the use of low and moderate temperature geothermal heat in the mining and processing of tungsten ore is explored. The following are covered: general engineering evaluation, design of a geothermal energy system, economics, the geothermal resource, the institutional barriers assessment, environmental factors, an alternate geothermal energy source, and alternates to geothermal development. (MHR)

  9. Cultural Tools and Learning Processes in a Changing World. Final Report to the Spencer Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Patricia M.

    This research study centers on the interrelations among culture, social change, informal education, and cognitive development. The study explored how changing cultural and social conditions influence processes of informal education and their cognitive consequences. The overall goal was to examine the relationship between important cultural tools,…

  10. California Food Processing Industry Wastewater Demonstration Project: Phase I Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Glen; Atkinson, Barbara; Rhyne, Ivin

    2009-09-09

    Wastewater treatment is an energy-intensive process and electricity demand is especially high during the utilities summer peak electricity demand periods. This makes wastewater treatment facilities prime candidates for demand response programs. However, wastewater treatment is often peripheral to food processing operations and its demand response opportunities have often been overlooked. Phase I of this wastewater demonstration project monitored wastewater energy and environmental data at Bell-Carter Foods, Inc., California's largest olive processing plant. For this monitoring activity the project team used Green Energy Management System (GEMS) automated enterprise energy management (EEM) technologies. This report presents results from data collected by GEMS from September 15, 2008 through November 30, 2008, during the olive harvest season. This project established and tested a methodology for (1) gathering baseline energy and environmental data at an industrial food-processing plant and (2) using the data to analyze energy efficiency, demand response, daily peak load management, and environmental management opportunities at the plant. The Phase I goals were to demonstrate the measurement and interrelationship of electricity demand, electricity usage, and water quality metrics and to estimate the associated CO{sub 2} emissions.

  11. Final Report Collaborative Project. Improving the Representation of Coastal and Estuarine Processes in Earth System Models

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Frank; Dennis, John; MacCready, Parker; Whitney, Michael

    2015-11-20

    This project aimed to improve long term global climate simulations by resolving and enhancing the representation of the processes involved in the cycling of freshwater through estuaries and coastal regions. This was a collaborative multi-institution project consisting of physical oceanographers, climate model developers, and computational scientists. It specifically targeted the DOE objectives of advancing simulation and predictive capability of climate models through improvements in resolution and physical process representation. The main computational objectives were: 1. To develop computationally efficient, but physically based, parameterizations of estuary and continental shelf mixing processes for use in an Earth System Model (CESM). 2. To develop a two-way nested regional modeling framework in order to dynamically downscale the climate response of particular coastal ocean regions and to upscale the impact of the regional coastal processes to the global climate in an Earth System Model (CESM). 3. To develop computational infrastructure to enhance the efficiency of data transfer between specific sources and destinations, i.e., a point-to-point communication capability, (used in objective 1) within POP, the ocean component of CESM.

  12. EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM IN ENGINEERING AND DESIGN DATA PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KOHR, RICHARD L.; WOLFE, GEORGE P.

    AN EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM IN ENGINEERING AND DESIGN DATA PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY WAS UNDERTAKEN TO DEVELOP A PROPOSED CURRICULUM OUTLINE AND ADMISSION STANDARDS FOR OTHER INSTITUTIONS IN THE PLANNING OF PROGRAMS TO TRAIN COMPUTER PROGRAMMERS. OF THE FIRST CLASS OF 26 STUDENTS, 17 COMPLETED THE PROGRAM AND 12 (INCLUDING ONE WHO DID NOT GRADUATE) WERE…

  13. Competency-Based Instruction for the Modern Office/Word Processing Technology Course. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeVan, Jan

    This report describes and provides materials developed by a project to set up competency-based instruction for designated competency levels in the Modern Office/Word Processing Technology Course in an area vocational school. Following an abstract and a report that details conclusions and recommendations, materials developed by the project are…

  14. The Cost of Special Education Due Process Fair Hearings and Appeals in California. Final Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Gerald P.; Ayer, Sue F.

    The California State Board of Education authorized the study to document the overall costs of special education due process fair hearings to all parties--the parents, local education agencies, and the state. The study also analyzed the factors that enter into the costs of hearings, and some conclusions were drawn and recommendations made for…

  15. Spatial Imagery and Linguistic Processes in Deductive Reasoning in the Mentally Retarded Child. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, J. Warren; And Others

    Data were obtained on the reasoning processes of 92 normal seventh graders (IQ range, 90-130), 14 adjusted seventh graders (IQ range, 70-90), and 54 educable mentally retarded (EMR) junior high students (IQ range, 55-80) to determine whether spatial imagery differentially influenced the solution of three-term series problems, to determine the…

  16. Solar feasibility study for site-specific industrial-process-heat applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, O.L.

    1980-03-18

    This study addresses the technical feasibility of solar energy in industrial process heat (IPH) applications in Mid-America. The study was one of two contracted efforts covering the MASEC 12-state region comprised of: Illinois, Michigan, North Dakota, Indiana, Minnesota, Ohio, Iowa, Missouri, South Dakota, Kansas, Nebraska, Wisconsin. The results of our study are encouraging to the potential future role of solar energy in supplying process heat to a varied range of industries and applications. We identified and developed Case Study documentation of twenty feasible solar IPH applications covering eight major SIC groups within the Mid-American region. The geographical distribution of these applications for the existing range of solar insolation levels are shown and the characteristics of the applications are summarized. The results of the study include process identification, analysis of process heat requirements, selection of preliminary solar system characteristics, and estimation of system performance and cost. These are included in each of the 20 Case Studies. The body of the report is divided into two primary discussion sections dealing with the Study Methodology employed in the effort and the Follow-On Potential of the identified applications with regard to possible demonstration projects. The 20 applications are rated with respect to their relative overall viability and procedures are discussed for possible demonstration project embarkment. Also, a possible extension of this present feasibility study for late-comer industrial firms expressing interest appears worthy of consideration.

  17. The U.S. Primary and Secondary Educational Process. Final Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armbruster, Frank; Bracken, Paul J.

    The U.S. educational system and student achievement are examined using a historical perspective. Academic achievement, school budgets, educational innovations, and educational philosophies are compared across different periods of U.S. history. Problems associated with various changes in the educational process are outlined. Parental attitudes on…

  18. The Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor Project: FY13 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, David E.; Coble, Jamie B.; Jordan, David V.; Mcdonald, Luther W.; Forrester, Joel B.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Unlu, Kenan; Landsberger, Sheldon; Bender, Sarah; Dayman, Kenneth J.; Reilly, Dallas D.

    2013-09-01

    The Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor provides an efficient approach to monitoring the process conditions in reprocessing facilities in support of the goal of “… (minimization of) the risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism.” The MIP Monitor measures the distribution of the radioactive isotopes in product and waste streams of a nuclear reprocessing facility. These isotopes are monitored online by gamma spectrometry and compared, in near-real-time, to spectral patterns representing “normal” process conditions using multivariate analysis and pattern recognition algorithms. The combination of multivariate analysis and gamma spectroscopy allows us to detect small changes in the gamma spectrum, which may indicate changes in process conditions. By targeting multiple gamma-emitting indicator isotopes, the MIP Monitor approach is compatible with the use of small, portable, relatively high-resolution gamma detectors that may be easily deployed throughout an existing facility. The automated multivariate analysis can provide a level of data obscurity, giving a built-in information barrier to protect sensitive or proprietary operational data. Proof-of-concept simulations and experiments have been performed in previous years to demonstrate the validity of this tool in a laboratory setting for systems representing aqueous reprocessing facilities. However, pyroprocessing is emerging as an alternative to aqueous reprocessing techniques.

  19. Application of foams to the processing of fabrics. Final report, October 1, 1977-September 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Namboodri, C.G.

    1981-10-01

    The primary objective of this project was to reduce the energy consumed in the wet processing of fabrics where wet processing encompasses those processes used to convert loomstate (greige) goods to finished textile products. This includes desizing, scouring, bleaching, dyeing, printing, and finishing of fabrics. The energy intensive step in most of these processes is drying the fabric. By having less water on the fabric as it enters a drying oven, proportionately less energy is consumed in drying the fabric. The specific route used in this project to accomplish this objective has been to use air to distribute the finish, dye or printing ink onto the fabric. Rather than saturating the fabric with a dilute finish formulation, a concentrated formulation is mechanically foamed, air serving as the diluting medium and the foam applied to the fabric. In this manner, the water content of the fabric as it enters the drying oven is reduced by as much as 80% thereby leading to a corresponding reduction in the energy required to dry the fabric. Details on the procedure are presented and experimental results are discussed. (MCW)

  20. Impact of the Diagnostic Process on Parents of Infants and Preschool Children. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tice, Terrence N.; Hanson, Janice L.

    In an investigation of the impact of the psychological/educational diagnostic process on the parents of young children at risk for developmental delay, 18 families completed questionnaires and were interviewed concerning their child's evaluation. Transcribed interviews conducted 1-2 weeks after the evaluation and 4 months after the evaluations…

  1. Automatic Processing of Metallurgical Abstracts for the Purpose of Information Retrieval. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, Jessica S.

    Objectives of this project were to develop and test a method for automatically processing the text of abstracts for a document retrieval system. The test corpus consisted of 768 abstracts from the metallurgical section of Chemical Abstracts (CA). The system, based on a subject indexing rational, had two components: (1) a stored dictionary of words…

  2. Developing the Geokinetics/Department of Energy horizontal in situ retorting process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lekas, M.A.

    1985-06-01

    This report summarizes work performed under a cooperative agreement between Geokinetics Inc., and the US Department of Energy, spanning on eight year period. A large body of experimental data was generated which has been previously reported in a series of published and unpublished reports, as indicated in Chapter VII. The report summarizes research work performed from April of 1975 to August 15, 1985, but emphasizes data generated during the final three years of the project, when five large retorts were tested. The report draws conclusions based upon the total program, including work performed by Geokinetics prior to entering into the Cooperative Agreement, and presents the initial parameters useful for scaleup and design of a commercial scale operation, including data useful for assessing the environmental impacts and criteria for mitigation of such impacts. Specific details concerning the various aspects of the program may be obtained from the many previous reports that have been generated from the date of project initiation. A list of these reports is presented in Chapter VII. 28 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  3. Solar process water heat for the Iris Images Custom Color Photo Lab. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    This is the final technical report of the solar facility locted at Iris Images Custom Photo Laboratory in Mill Valley, California. It was designed to provide 59 percent of the hot water requirements for developing photographic film and domestic hot water use. The design load is to provide 6 gallons of hot water per minute for 8 hours per working day at 100/sup 0/F. It has 640 square feet of flat plate collectors and 360 gallons of hot water storage. The auxiliary back up system is a conventional gas-fired water heater. Freeze protection in this mild climate was originally provided by closed-loop circulation of hot water from the storage tank. Later this was changed to a drain-down system due to a freeze when electrical power failed. This system has been relatively successful with little or no scheduled maintenance. The site and building description, subsystem description, as-built drawings, cost breakdown and analysis, performance analysis, lessons learned, and the operation and maintenance manual are included.

  4. Biological processes in the water column of the South Atlantic Bight: Zooplankton responses. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Paffenhofer, G.A.

    1992-09-25

    This study sought to determine and understand the major processes governing the abundance, distribution, composition and eventual fate of zooplankton on the southeastern shelf of the US in relation to water circulation. Over much of the shelf circulation is dominated by the Gulf Stream and/or atmospheric forcing. Most of our studies concentrated on processes on the middle and outer shelf. On the latter, pronounced biological production occurs year-round at frequent intervals and is due to Gulf Stream eddies which move by at an average frequency of one every week. These eddies are rich in nutrients which, when upwelled into the euphoric zone, lead to pronounced primary production which then triggers zooplankton production.

  5. Effects of ozone and sulfur dioxide on processing tomato yields and quality. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, R.F.

    1986-03-01

    The object of the experiment was to study the effects of SO/sub 2/ and/or ozone on tomato vegetative growth, fruit yields, and fruit quality. Two varieties of processing tomatoes, UC-204-B and E-6203, were exposed to four levels of ozone and two levels of SO/sub 2/. Exposure to ambient ozone caused a 20% reduction in vine weights and 27% reduction in weight of red fruit compared to filtered air. Exposure to 0.1 ppm SO/sub 2/ produced 7% fewer vines and approximately 8% less fruit as compared with no SO/sub 2/ exposure. Fruit quality tests indicated that increasing ozone levels reduce soluble solids (Brix), and they reduce viscosity, an important indicator of processing behavior. Exposure to SO/sub 2/ in the concentrations used increased total solids but had no measurable effect on viscosity or consistency.

  6. Feasibility Study for a Plasma Dynamo Facility to Investigate Fundamental Processes in Plasma Astrophysics. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Forest, Cary B.

    2013-09-19

    The scientific equipment purchased on this grant was used on the Plasma Dynamo Prototype Experiment as part of Professor Forest's feasibility study for determining if it would be worthwhile to propose building a larger plasma physics experiment to investigate various fundamental processes in plasma astrophysics. The initial research on the Plasma Dynamo Prototype Experiment was successful so Professor Forest and Professor Ellen Zweibel at UW-Madison submitted an NSF Major Research Instrumentation proposal titled "ARRA MRI: Development of a Plasma Dynamo Facility for Experimental Investigations of Fundamental Processes in Plasma Astrophysics." They received funding for this project and the Plasma Dynamo Facility also known as the "Madison Plasma Dynamo Experiment" was constructed. This experiment achieved its first plasma in the fall of 2012 and U.S. Dept. of Energy Grant No. DE-SC0008709 "Experimental Studies of Plasma Dynamos," now supports the research.

  7. Proof-of concept testing of the advanced NOXSO flue gas cleanup process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The NOXSO Process uses a regenerable sorbent that removes SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} simultaneously from flue gas. The sorbent is a stabilized {gamma}-alumina bed impregnated with sodium carbonate. The process was successfully tested at three different scales, equivalent to 0.017, 0.06 and 0.75 MW of flue gas generated from a coal-fired power plant. The Proof-of-Concept (POC) Test is the last test prior to a full-scale demonstration. A slip stream of flue gas equivalent to a 5 MW coal-fired power plant was used for the POC test. This paper summarizes the NOXSO POC plant and its test results.

  8. United States Department of Energy Integrated Manufacturing & Processing Predoctoral Fellowships. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Petrochenkov, M.

    2003-03-31

    The objective of the program was threefold: to create a pool of PhDs trained in the integrated approach to manufacturing and processing, to promote academic interest in the field, and to attract talented professionals to this challenging area of engineering. It was anticipated that the program would result in the creation of new manufacturing methods that would contribute to improved energy efficiency, to better utilization of scarce resources, and to less degradation of the environment. Emphasis in the competition was on integrated systems of manufacturing and the integration of product design with manufacturing processes. Research addressed such related areas as aspects of unit operations, tooling and equipment, intelligent sensors, and manufacturing systems as they related to product design.

  9. A comprehensive software system for image processing and programming. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rasure, J.; Hallett, S.; Jordan, R.

    1994-12-31

    XVision is an example of a comprehensive software system dedicated to the processing of multidimensional scientific data. Because it is comprehensive it is necessarily complex. This design complexity is dealt with by considering XVision as nine overlapping software systems, their components and the required standards. The complexity seen by a user of XVision is minimized by the different interfaces providing access to the image processing routines as well as an interface to ease the incorporation of new routines. The XVision project has stressed the importance of having: (1) interfaces to accommodate users with differing preferences and backgrounds and (2) tools to support the programmer and the scientist. The result is a system that provides a framework for building a powerful research, education and development tool.

  10. Solar production of industrial process steam at the Home Cleaning and Laundry Co. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    This report presents the results of the operation and performance evaluation period at the Home Laundry Solar Industrial Process Heat Project at Pasadena, California. The installation comprises 6496 ft/sup 2/ (603.5 m/sup 2/) of linear parabolic trough concentrating collectors supplying solar thermal energy for use in laundry and dry cleaning processes. The design phase began in September 1977, and an acceptance test was conducted during the week of April 12, 1982. The plant has been in operation since May 1982, with the 12-month Phase III (operational) period starting in October 1982. The objective of the operational evaluation experiment was to maximize energy delivery to the industrial participant while characterizing system performance. Data were acquired for monthly documentation of system performance, maintenance requirements, and operating costs.

  11. Summary of research on microbiological processes. International Energy Agency Subtask D, final report

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, A.L.

    1992-09-01

    Storage of thermal energy in aquifers has obvious benefits of saving energy and decreasing the consumption of fossil fuels. However, aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES), which involves groundwater aquifers as the storage medium for heat or chill, impinges on the environment. A literature review of pertinent microbiology publications (Hicks and Stewart, 1988) identified the potential for the interaction of ATES systems and microbiological processes to create a source of infectious diseases and the potential for damage to the environment. In addition, the review identified a potential for microbiological processes to develop conditions that would interfere with the operation of an ATES system. As a result of this research effort, investigators from Finland, Germany, Switzerland, and the United States have examined several ATES systems in operation and have observed that the ATES systems studied do not contribute to infectious disease transmission, do not adversely affect the environment, and do not contribute significantly to biofouling or biocorrosion.

  12. Stabilization of crab scrap and processing waste water. Final report, 1984-1986

    SciTech Connect

    Wolverton, B.C.; McCaleb, R.C.

    1986-12-01

    This report describes, in detail, the application of a National Space Technology Laboratories (NASA) developed technology involving anaerobic-digestion and microbial-filter processes as a possible solution to the blue crab waste-disposal problem. The project attempted to use this technology with crab waste and processing waste water to produce new products of organic fertilizer and methane (energy) while purifying the water to prevent nutrient enrichment of the Chesapeake Bay. Results of the project indicate that significant biogas production can be obtained with crab waste. However, digestion time is excessive, compared to that of cow manure. More work needs to be done on physical and/or chemical pretreatment to render the waste more amenable to digestion. The system was found costly and would not be practical except in periods of high energy prices.

  13. Final Report Appendices. Preliminary Process and Market Evaluation. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Jane S.

    2012-12-28

    This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, usefulness, or any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, re commendation, or favoring by the United States government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States government or any agency thereof.

  14. Investigation of the feasibility of a biphase turbine for industrial process energy recovery. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Helgeson, N.

    1985-06-28

    Tests were conducted to assess the technical applicability of the Biphase turbine to two process streams. A Biphase impulse turbine was tested on a flashing Selexol stream used for removal of CO/sub 2/ from process gases. The experimental results showed that the two-phase nozzle performance of the flashing Selexol stream was substantially below equilibrium calculation predictions. Consequently, the turbine power generated by this expanding two-phase flow was below predicted values, and was approximately equivalent to the liquid hydraulic power available. Additional gas-liquid phase separation occurred on the rotor such that overall separation efficiency reached 98% of that which occurred in the long residence time settling tank (equilibrium). The Biphase reaction turbine was tested on a flashing natural gas/crude oil stream. Nozzle, rotary and overall turbine performance were in good agreement with pre-test predictions for power generation and efficiency of operation. 141 figs., 35 tabs.

  15. Comparative economic analysis of three processes for mineral recovery from fly ash. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Doring, C.

    1983-12-30

    A review of the economic analyses of the lime-soda sinter, Hichlor, and direct acid leach processes to remove metals from flyash was conducted. Aluminum, iron, and possibly titanium recovery were emphasized. Data on the metals content of fly ash were collected and analyzed based on types of coal actually burned in coal-fired power plants in each state and DOE region. Results are presented. (PSB)

  16. FMC limestone double-alkali flue gas desulfurization process: Pilot plant testing: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Troupe, J.S.; Shepley, D.C.

    1987-07-01

    This report documents pilot plant testing of a 3 MW (9500 acfm equivalent flue gas flow) FMC limestone double alkali FGD process operating on a slipstream of a commercial 420 MW boiler burning 3.5% sulfur coal. The report discusses the rationale behind EPRI's decision to participate in the testing aspects of this project, the history of the development of limestone double alkali technology, and the chemistry involved in this technology's operation. The largest part of the report is devoted to the results obtained from tests conducted during 65 days of pilot plant operation. All of the major raw and reduced operating and analytical data taken during testing are reproduced in the appendices to the report, along with quality assurance information to support the validity of the data obtained. The report discusses the test results in detail and presents technical observations regarding their implications. The FMC limestone double alkali FGD process (1) can consistently remove 92 to 93% of SO/sub 2/ from high-sulfur coal flue gas, (2) can achieve high limestone utilization and low soda ash losses, (3) produces a manageable waste filter cake, (4) is highly tolerant of upsets in limestone feed, soda ash makeup, and regeneration residence time, and (5) presents no unusual safety or environmental problems. The process, like conventional limestone scrubbing, shows some adverse effects of increasing soluble magnesium concentration on solids quality and requires a finely ground limestone feed material to achieve high limestone utilization. However, neither limestone grind nor magnesium concentration appears to affect SO/sub 2/ removal efficiency. The report suggests specific lines of future developmental work and future demonstration testing to enhance the attractiveness of this process to the electric utility industry. A bibliography of limestone double alkali literature is included. 3 refs., 25 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Application of ultrasound in textile wet processing, Phase 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.B.

    1992-11-01

    The US textile industry urgently needs new technologies to keep the industry competitive. This study was designed to develop a pilot plant-scale ultrasonic continuous yarn-dyeing system and to establish a foundation for continuing research in the use of ultrasonic energy in textile processes. On the basis of their findings in the literature on ultrasound-enhanced textile wet processing, researchers designed laboratory- and pilot-scale equipment and conducted studies using various dye and fiber combinations. In laboratory studies they used small vessels of approximately 1-liter capacity and ultrasound probes of 400--1200 W output. Pilot studies were conducted in a 40-gallon dye tank using ultrasound power of approximately 5 kW. Investigations on dye diffusion showed that ultrasound increased diffusion coefficients by typically 30% and permeability coefficients by more than 300%, thereby enhancing dye penetration. The apparent activation energy of diffusion was decreased by approximately 24%. The decrease in activation energy shows a potential for reducing dyeing temperatures. Ultrasound also increased the reactivity of fiber-reactive dyes. Researchers obtained the most promising pilot plant results in the dyeing of nylon with acid dyes. Ultrasonic techniques may also benefit polyester dyed with disperse dyes. One hundred percent polyester dyed in the laboratory had approximately 150 percent increased depth. This knowledge of ultrasonic effects on fundamental processes leads to a better design for the dyeing process in pilot plant and commercial scale-up applications. The study shows that the use of ultrasound for dyeing will replace expensive thermal energy and chemicals, which have to be treated in waste water, with electricity. It also improves the quality of dyed fiber, thereby potentially enhancing the competitiveness of the US textile industry.

  18. Variable frequency microwave (VFM) curing, processing of thermoset prepreg laminates. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Paulauskas, F.L.

    1996-09-30

    The objective of this work was to investigate the beneficial effect of the variable frequency microwave (VFM) technology to cure thermosetting prepreg laminates. Further, it was to investigate the interrelationship and effect on the curing process of frequency, band width, and curing time with different types of laminates. Previous studies of microwave-assisted curing of neat resins (epoxy) and unidirectional glass and carbon fiber laminates with a fixed frequency of 2.45 GHz, have shown that a substantial reduction in the curing time was obtained. Results of this earlier work indicate that the microwave-assisted curing of multidirectional glass fiber laminates also show a substantial reduction of the required curing time. This may be explained by the penetration of microwave energy directly and throughout the laminate with enhancement of the kinetics of the chemical reaction. The fixed frequency microwave radiation of 2.45 GHz has been demonstrated to be a partially acceptable method to cure unidirectional carbon fiber laminates. Multidirectional carbon fiber/epoxy laminates demonstrate a lack of coupling during the curing process. A direct curing of these laminates was not possible by microwave radiation with the experimental approach used in agreement with previous work. In addition to this short coming, the unidirectional laminate samples cured with the fixed frequency are visually nonuniform. Localized areas of darker colors (burn, hot spots, overheating) are attributed to the formation of standing waves within the microwave cavity. For this reason, the laminates are subject to proper rotation while curing through fixed frequency. The present research indicates that variable frequency microwave technology is a sound and acceptable processing method to effectively cure uni-, bi- or multi-directional thermosetting glass fiber laminates. Also, this methodology will effectively cure unidirectional thermosetting carbon fiber laminates. For all these cases, this

  19. Development of the chemical and electrochemical coal cleaning (CECC) process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Roe-Hoan; Basilio, C.I.

    1992-05-01

    The Chemical and Electrochemical Coal Cleaning (CECC) process developed at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University was studied further in this project. This process offers a new method of physically cleaning both low- and high-rank coals without requiring fine grinding. The CECC process is based on liberating mineral matter from coal by osmotic pressure. The majority of the work was conducted on Middle Wyodak, Pittsburgh No. 8 and Elkhorn No. 3 coals. The coal samples were characterized for a variety of physical and chemical properties. Parametric studies were then conducted to identify the important operating parameters and to establish the optimum conditions. In addition, fundamental mechanisms of the process were studied, including mineral matter liberation, kinetics of mineral matter and pyrite dissolution, ferric ion regeneration schemes and alternative methods of separating the cleaned coal from the liberated mineral matter. The information gathered from the parametric and fundamental studies was used in the design, construction and testing of a bench-scale continuous CECC unit. Using this unit, the ash content of a Middle Wyodak coal was reduced from 6.96 to 1.61% at a 2 lbs/hr throughput. With an Elkhorn No. 3 sample, the ash content was reduced from 9.43 to 1.8%, while the sulfur content was reduced from 1.57 to 0.9%. The mass balance and liberation studies showed that liberation played a more dominant role than the chemical dissolution in removing mineral matter and inorganic sulfur from the different bituminous coals tested. However, the opposite was found to be the case for the Wyodak coal since this coal contained a significant amount of acid-soluble minerals.

  20. Development and application of a probabilistic evaluation method for advanced process technologies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, H.C.; Rubin, E.S.

    1991-04-01

    The objective of this work is to develop and apply a method for research planning for advanced process technologies. To satisfy requirements for research planning, it is necessary to: (1) identify robust solutions to process design questions in the face of uncertainty to eliminate inferior design options; (2) identify key problem areas in a technology that should be the focus of further research to reduce the risk of technology failure; (3) compare competing technologies on a consistent basis to determine the risks associated with adopting a new technology; and (4) evaluate the effects that additional research might have on comparisons with conventional technology. An important class of process technologies are electric power plants. In particular, advanced clean coal technologies are expected to play a key role in the energy and environmental future of the US, as well as in other countries. Research planning for advanced clean coal technology development is an important part of energy and environmental policy. Thus, the research planning method developed here is applied to case studies focusing on a specific clean coal technology. The purpose of the case studies is both to demonstrate the research planning method and to obtain technology-specific conclusions regarding research strategies.

  1. CIS Modules Process R&D: Final Technical Report, October 2005 - June 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Tarrant, D. E.; Gay, R. R.

    2006-07-01

    The primary objectives of this subcontract were to: address key near-term technical R&D issues for continued improvement in thin-film PV products; continue process development for increased production capacity; pursue long-term R&D contributing to progress toward the MYTP goals for 2020 to increase the conversion efficiency to 15% and reduce module manufacturing costs to less than $50/m2, thus enabling PV systems with a 30-year lifetime at an installed cost of under $2.00/W; and advance the understanding of the requirements needed to achieve better thin-film PV cell and module performance, greater reliability and market acceptance, and investigate materials systems and new devices that can improve the cost/performance ratio of future thin-film PV factories. The demonstrated and maintained high production yield is a major accomplishment supporting attractive cost projections for CIS. Process R&D at successive levels of CIS production has led to the continued demonstration of the prerequisites for commitment to large-scale commercialization. Process and packaging R&D during this and previous subcontracts has demonstrated the potential for further cost and performance improvements.

  2. Reaction/separation process for enhanced methane conversion. Final report, January 1990-December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Gokhale, Y.V.; Falconer, J.L.; Noble, R.D.

    1995-06-01

    The conventional process for methanol production from natural gas (CH4) is a two-step, energy intensive process. In constrat, direct partial oxidation is a single-step, energy efficient process, but methanol yield is limited due to its thermal instability. The authors proposed a membrane reactor system that could potentially increase the methanol yield. A non-isothermal membrane reactor with a tubular membrane, and a cooling tube located coaxially inside the membrane was built. A pre-heating and a post-membrane sections maintained a constant reactor-wall-temperature in the membrane section. The membrane did not selectively remove methanol from the reaction zone, but it effectively distributed the reaction mixture over the cooling tube which quenched the reaction mixture, and thereby increased the methanol yield. The maximum methanol yield of 3.3% was obtained at 3.5 MPa with 8% O2 in CH4 as feed; the reactor wall temperature was 800 K. Zeolite membranes of silicalite-1 were prepared, and used in a pervaporation apparatus. The membrane increased the methanol concentration from 46 vol% in the feed (as obtained in our membrane reactor study) to 92 vol% in the permeate. Temperature profiles in the reactor were computed by solving momentum and thermal energy balances. The profiles indicated that the postmembrane section could be detrimental to products that are unstable above 420 K.

  3. Flexibility and utility of pre-processing methods in converting STXM setups for ptychography - Final Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Fromm, Catherine

    2015-08-20

    Ptychography is an advanced diffraction based imaging technique that can achieve resolution of 5nm and below. It is done by scanning a sample through a beam of focused x-rays using discrete yet overlapping scan steps. Scattering data is collected on a CCD camera, and the phase of the scattered light is reconstructed with sophisticated iterative algorithms. Because the experimental setup is similar, ptychography setups can be created by retrofitting existing STXM beam lines with new hardware. The other challenge comes in the reconstruction of the collected scattering images. Scattering data must be adjusted and packaged with experimental parameters to calibrate the reconstruction software. The necessary pre-processing of data prior to reconstruction is unique to each beamline setup, and even the optical alignments used on that particular day. Pre-processing software must be developed to be flexible and efficient in order to allow experiments appropriate control and freedom in the analysis of their hard-won data. This paper will describe the implementation of pre-processing software which successfully connects data collection steps to reconstruction steps, letting the user accomplish accurate and reliable ptychography.

  4. Removal and recovery of carbon disulfide emitted by the viscose process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, M.J.

    1992-02-01

    Teepak, Inc., which manufactures cellulose food casings by means of the viscose process, has a plant in Danville, Illinois, that emits approximately 400,000 cubic feet per minute (cfm) of water-saturated air containing approximately 100 parts per million (ppm) of carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}). Both Teepak and the state of Illinois desire to reduce these emissions as soon as possible; however, the large air flow and very small CS{sub 2} concentration result in a difficult and costly separations problem without an obvious economically viable solution. One possibility is to incinerate the CS{sub 2}, but a more environmentally and economically acceptable alternative is to recover the CS{sub 2} for recycle to the process. The recovered CS{sub 2} would be worth about $700,000 annually to Teepak. Teepak has sponsored, with the Hazardous Waste Research and Information Center (HWRIC) of the Illinois Department of Natural Resources, a research project at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to evaluate current gas- purification and recovery technology and to suggest a route of development that will lead to a CS{sub 2} recovery process. The Illinois Department of Commerce and Community Affairs later provided on Illinois Challenge Grant to allow laboratory studies to supplement this effort. This report is a result of all those studies.

  5. Biological processes in the water column of the South Atlantic Bight: Phytoplankton response. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Verity, P.G.; Yoder, J.A.

    1992-03-10

    This study addressed shelf-wide processes and nearshore (coastal boundary zone) processes occurring in the southeastern. Coastal boundary zone (CBZ) US continental shelf dynamics involve studies of circulation and of biological and chemical transformations. Continental shelf processes affect the removal of material from the coastal boundary zone into areas where the material no longer interacts with or influences concentrations in the CBZ. The two arbitrarily separate components are, in fact, unified. The CBZ typically extends about 300 km along-shore and about 20 km offshore from its center off Savannah, Georgia, where most runoff occurs. The rates of biological and chemical transformations are controlled by proximity to the bottom and the amounts of fine suspended organic matter originating from rivers and salt marshes. Once material is removed from this zone, either by a long-shelf or cross-shelf advection to regions where the materials are no longer in contact with the bottom, the suite of factors governing the rates of chemical and biological transformations changes. The determination of contrasting rates in these two environments was one of the central focuses of the South Atlantic Bight program.

  6. Molecular-Level Processes Governing the Interaction of Contaminants with Iron and Manganese Oxides - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown Jr., G. E.; Chambers, S. A.

    1999-10-31

    Many of the inorganic and organic contaminants present in sediments at DOE sites can be altered or destroyed by reduction and oxidation (redox) reactions occurring at mineral surfaces. A fundamental understanding of such redox processes provided by molecular-level studies on structurally and compositionally well-defined mineral surfaces will lead to: (i) improved models of contaminant fate and transport in geochemical systems, and (ii) optimized manipulation of these processes for remediation purposes. To contribute to this understanding, we will study, both experimentally and theoretically, redox processes involving three important contaminants - chromate ion, carbon tetrachloride, and trichloroethene TCE, on the following iron and manganese oxides - hematite, magnetite, maghemite, and pyrolusite. These oxides and their hydroxylated analogs commonly occur as coatings on minerals or as interfaces in the subsurface environment. Single-crystal surfaces of these oxides will be synthesized in carefully controlled fashion by molecular beam epitaxy. These surfaces, as well as high surface are powdered samples of these oxides, will be used in spectroscopic and kinetic experiments in both aqueous and gas phases. Our goal is to identify products and to determine the kinetics and mechanisms of surface-catalyzed redox reaction of Cr(VI) and CR(III), and the reductive dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride and TCE. The combination of theory and experiment will provide the base information needed to scale from the molecular level to the microscopic grain level minerals.

  7. Solar thermal hydrogen production process: Final report, January 1978-December 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    Under sponsorship by the United States Department of Energy, Westinghouse Advanced Energy-Systems Division has investigated the potential for using solar thermal energy to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. A hybrid thermochemical/electrochemical process, known as the Sulfur Cycle, has been the focus of these investigations. Process studies have indicated that, with adequate and ongoing research and development, the Sulfur Cycle can be effectively driven with solar heat. Also, economic analyses have indicated that the cycle has the potential to produce hydrogen in economic competitiveness with conventional methods (e.g. methane/steam reforming) by the turn of the century. A first generation developmental system has been defined along with its critical components, i.e. those components that need substantial engineering development. Designs for those high temperature components that concentrate, vaporize and decompose the process circulating fluid, sulfuric acid, have been prepared. Extensive experimental investigations have been conducted with regard to the selection of construction materials for these components. From these experiments, which included materials endurance tests for corrosion resistance for periods up to 6000 hours, promising materials and catalysts have been identified.

  8. Final Technical Report on Development of an Economic and Efficient Biodiesel production Process (NC)

    SciTech Connect

    Tirla, Cornelia; Dooling, Thomas A.; Smith, Rachel B.; Shi, Xinyan; Shahbazi, Abolghasem

    2014-03-19

    The Biofuels Team at The University of North Carolina at Pembroke and North Carolina A&T State University carried out a joint research project aimed at developing an efficient process to produce biodiesel. In this project, the team developed and tested various types of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts which could replace the conventionally used soluble potassium hydroxide catalyst which, traditionally, must be separated and disposed of at the end of the process. As a result of this screening, the homogeneous catalyst choline hydroxide was identified as a potential replacement for the traditional catalyst used in this process, potassium hydroxide, due to its decreased corrosiveness and toxicity. A large number of heterogeneous catalysts were produced and tested in order to determine the scaffold, ion type and ion concentration which would produce optimum yield of biodiesel. The catalyst with 12% calcium on Zeolite β was identified as being highly effective and optimal reaction conditions were identified. Furthermore, a packed bed reactor utilizing this type of catalyst was designed, constructed and tested in order to further optimize the process. An economic analysis of the viability of the project showed that the cost of an independent farmer to produce the fuelstock required to produce biodiesel exceeds the cost of petroleum diesel under current conditions and that therefore without incentives, farmers would not be able to benefit economically from producing their own fuel. An educational website on biodiesel production and analysis was produced and a laboratory experiment demonstrating the production of biodiesel was developed and implemented into the Organic Chemistry II laboratory curriculum at UNCP. Five workshops for local farmers and agricultural agents were held in order to inform the broader community about the various fuelstock available, their cultivation and the process and advantages of biodiesel use and production. This project fits both

  9. Evidence for the role of German final devoicing in pre-attentive speech processing: a mismatch negativity study

    PubMed Central

    Truckenbrodt, Hubert; Steinberg, Johanna; Jacobsen, Thomas K.; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Results of a mismatch negativity experiment are reported in which the pre-attentive relevance of the German phonological alternation of final devoicing (FD) is shown in two ways. The experiment employs pseudowords. (1) A deviant [vus] paired with standard /vuzə/ did not show a mismatch effect for the voicing change in /z/ versus [s] because the two can be related by FD. When standard and deviant were reversed, the two could not be related by FD and a mismatch effect for the voicing difference occurred. (2) An ill-formed deviant that violates FD, *[vuz], triggered mismatch effects that were plausibly attributed to its ill-formedness. The results show that a syllable-related process like FD is already taken into account by the processing system in early pre-attentive processing. PMID:25505433

  10. Electrochemical Processes for In-Situ Treatment of Contaminated Soils - Final Report - 09/15/1996 - 01/31/2001

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Chin-Pao

    2001-05-31

    This project will study electrochemical processes for the in situ treatment of soils contaminated by mixed wastes, i.e., organic and inorganic. Soil samples collected form selected DOE waste sites will be characterized for specific organic and metal contaminants and hydraulic permeability. The soil samples are then subject to desorption experiments under various physical-chemical conditions such as pH and the presence of surfactants. Batch electro-osmosis experiments will be conducted to study the transport of contaminants in the soil-water systems. Organic contaminants that are released from the soil substrate will be treated by an advanced oxidation process, i.e., electron-Fantan. Finally, laboratory reactor integrating the elector-osmosis and elector-Fantan processes will be used to study the treatment of contaminated soil in situ.

  11. Final Technical Report EMSP 70045 Investigation of Pore Scale Processes That Affect Soil Vapor Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Valocchi, Albert J.; Werth, Charles W.; Webb, Andrew W.

    2004-12-10

    Dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) contamination in the vadose zone is a significant problem at Department of Energy sites. Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is commonly used to remediate DNAPLs from the vadose zone. In most cases, a period of high recovery has been followed by a sustained period of low recovery. This behavior has been attributed to multiple processes including slow interphase mass transfer, retarded vapor phase transport, and diffusion from unswept zones of low permeability. This research project used a combination of laboratory experimentation and mathematical modeling to determine how these various processes interact to limit the removal of DNAPL components in heterogeneous porous media during SVE. Our results were applied to scenarios typical of the carbon tetrachloride spill zone at the Hanford Site. Our results indicate that: (a) the initial distribution of the spilled DNAPL (i.e., the spill-zone architecture) has a major influence upon the performance of any subsequent SVE operations; (b) while the pattern of higher and lower conductivity soil zones has an important impact upon spill zone architecture, soil moisture distribution plays an even larger role when there are large quantities of co-disposed waste-water (as in the Hanford scenario); (c) depending upon soil moisture dynamics, liquid DNAPL that is trapped by surrounding water is extremely difficult to remove by SVE; (d) natural barometric pumping can remove a large amount of the initial DNAPL mass for spills occurring close to the land surface, and hence the initial spilled inventory will be over-estimated if this process is neglected.

  12. Optimizing the air flotation water treatment process. Final report, May 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, B.

    1998-09-01

    The injection water for the Nelson Project is a combination of produced and make-up water, typical of many Eastern Kansas operations. The make-up water is a low-salinity salt water from the Arbuckle Formation and contains dissolved minerals and sulfides. The produced water contains suspended oil, suspended clay and silt particles, along with a combination of other dissolved minerals. The combination of the two waters causes several undesirable reactions. The suspended solids load contained in the combined waters would plug a 75-micron plant bag filter within one day. Wellhead filters of 75-micron size were also being used on the injection wells. The poor water quality resulted in severe loss of injectivity and frequent wellbore cleaning of the injection wells. Various mechanical and graded-bed filtration methods were considered for cleaning the water. These methods were rejected due to the lack of field equipment and service availability. A number of vendors did not even respond to the author`s request. The air flotation process was selected as offering the best hope for a long-term solution. The objective of this work is to: increase the cost effectiveness of the process through optimizing process design factors and operational parameters. A vastly modified air flotation system is the principal tool for accomplishing the project objective. The air flotation unit, as received from manufacturer Separation Specialist, was primarily designed to remove oil from produced water. The additional requirement for solids removal necessitated major physical changes in the unit. Problems encountered with the air flotation unit and specific modifications are detailed in the body of the report.

  13. Scale-up of miscible flood processes for heterogeneous reservoirs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, F.M. Jr.

    1996-04-01

    Results of a wide-ranging investigation of the scaling of gas injection processes are reported. The research examines how the physical mechanisms at work during a gas injection project interact to determine process performance. In particular, the authors examine: the interactions of equilibrium phase behavior and two-phase flow that determine local displacement efficiency and minimum miscibility pressure, the combined effects of viscous fingering, gravity segregation and heterogeneity that control sweep efficiency in 2- and 3-dimensional porous media, the use of streamtube/streamline methods to create very efficient simulation technique for multiphase compositional displacements, the scaling of viscous, capillary and gravity forces for heterogeneous reservoirs, and the effects of the thin films and spreading behavior on three-phase flow. The following key results are documented: rigorous procedures for determination of minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) or minimum miscibility enrichment (MME) for miscibility have been developed for multicomponent systems; the complex dependence of MMP`s for nitrogen/methane floods on oil and injection gas composition observed experimentally is explained for the first time; the presence of layer-like heterogeneities strongly influences the interplay of gravity segregation and viscous fingering, as viscous fingers adapt to preferential flow paths and low permeability layers restrict vertical flow; streamtube/streamline simulation techniques are demonstrated for a variety of injection processes in 2 and 3 dimensions; quantitative scaling estimates for the transitions from capillary-dominated to gravity-dominated to viscous-dominated flows are reported; experimental results are given that demonstrate that high pressure CO{sub 2} can be used to generate low IFT gravity drainage in fractured reservoirs if fractures are suitably connected; and the effect of wetting and spreading behavior on three-phase flow is described. 209 refs.

  14. Application of Entry-Time Processes in Asset Management for Nuclear Power Plants (Final Report)

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Nelson

    2008-01-23

    A mathematical model of entry-time processes was developed, and a computational method for solving that model was verified. This methodology was demonstrated via application to a succession of increasingly more complex subsystems of nuclear power plants. The effort culminated in the application to main generators that constituted the PhD dissertation of Shuwen (“Eric”) Wang. Dr. Wang is now employed by ABS Consulting, in Anaheim, CA. ABS is a principal provider to the nuclear industry of technical services related to reliability and safety.

  15. Assessment of citrus-processing energy-efficiency improvement. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    The cirtus industry was surveyed in order to assess the impact of two programs toward the goal of implementing energy conserving options and the development of new technologies. Six technologies were identified that have recently been implemented in the citrus industry, and a case history is summarized for each. Advanced technologies have been identified that could be applied in citrus processing plants and that would result in significant energy and operating cost savings. The industry sources indicated a need to prove these concepts in a research and development project such as a pilot plant before they will be implemented. (LEW)

  16. The mathematical modeling of rapid solidification processing. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutierrez-Miravete, E.

    1986-01-01

    The detailed formulation of and the results obtained from a continuum mechanics-based mathematical model of the planar flow melt spinning (PFMS) rapid solidification system are presented and discussed. The numerical algorithm proposed is capable of computing the cooling and freezing rates as well as the fluid flow and capillary phenomena which take place inside the molten puddle formed in the PFMS process. The FORTRAN listings of some of the most useful computer programs and a collection of appendices describing the basic equations used for the modeling are included.

  17. Development of a process to produce alcohol at paper mills. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Walkinshaw, J.W.; Sladek, K.J.; Eberiel, D.T.; Wong, S.S.

    1983-02-01

    The objective of this project was to develop an enzymatic process for converting waste cellulose to ethanol at paper mills. Enzymes obtained fro Novo Laboratories Inc. were used to degrade cellulose and a temperature-tolerant strain of Saccharomyces uvarum was developed for fermentation. Vacuum distillation was used to recover ethanol and enzyme activity was retained after distillation, indicating that enzyme can be recycled. Runs continued as long as 55 days with no apparent buildup of toxic materials. Waste computer paper was used as a relatively clean simple feedstock, but high wet strengthed paper could be converted also. Ethanol yields as high as 83% of theoretical, based on cellulose fed, were achieved.

  18. Large area low cost processing for CIS photovoltaics. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    B. Basol; G. Norsworthy; C. Leidholm; A. Halani; R. Roe; V. Kapur

    1999-07-22

    An ink coating method was developed for CIS absorber deposition. The technique involves four processing steps: (1) preparation of a Cu-In alloy powder, (2) preparation of an ink using this powder, (3) deposition of the ink on a substrate in the form of a precursor layer, and (4) selenization to convert the Cu-In precursor into a fused CIS film. Absorbers grown by this low-cost, large-area method were used in the fabrication of 10.5% efficient solar cells.

  19. Necessary and Sufficient Process leading to Work Smart Standards. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The Necessary and Sufficient Process leading to Work Smart Standards is a Department of Energy initiative to assure adequate protection for workers, the public, and the environment. The Work Smart Standards initiative directs the Laboratory to develop a set of ES and H standards based on the work performed at the Laboratory and the hazards associated with the work. Berkeley Lab`s set of Work Smart Standards includes required Federal, State and local laws and, additionally, national and international standards which represent the highest operating standards of industrial and commercial institutions.

  20. Process for Converting Waste Glass Fiber into Value Added Products, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hemmings, Raymond T.

    2005-12-31

    Nature of the Event: Technology demonstration. The project successfully met all of its technical objectives. Albacem has signed an exclusive licensing agreement with Vitro Minerals Inc., a specialty minerals company, to commercialize the Albacem technology (website: www.vitrominerals.com). Location: The basic research for the project was conducted in Peoria, Illinois, and Atlanta, Georgia, with third-party laboratory verification carried out in Ontario, Canada. Pilot-scale trials (multi-ton) were conducted at a facility in South Carolina. Full-scale manufacturing facilities have been designed and are scheduled for construction by Vitro Minerals during 2006 at a location in the Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina tri-state area. The Technology: This technology consists of a process to eliminate solid wastes generated at glass fiber manufacturing facilities by converting them to value-added materials (VCAS Pozzolans) suitable for use in cement and concrete applications. This technology will help divert up to 250,000 tpy of discarded glass fiber manufacturing wastes into beneficial use applications in the concrete construction industry. This technology can also be used for processing glass fiber waste materials reclaimed from monofills at manufacturing facilities. The addition of take-back materials and reclamation from landfills can help supply over 500,000 tpy of glass fiber waste for processing into value added products. In the Albacem process, waste glass fiber is ground to a fine powder that effectively functions as a reactive pozzolanic admixture for use in portland ce¬ment-based building materials and products, such as concrete, mortars, terrazzo, tile, and grouts. Because the waste fiber from the glass manufacturing industry is vitreous, clean, and low in iron and alkalis, the resulting pozzolan is white in color and highly consistent in chemical composition. This white pozzolan, termed VCAS Pozzolan (for Vitreous Calcium-Alumino-Silicate). is

  1. Modeling for process control. Final report, February 15, 1991--February 14, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Morari, M.

    1997-12-31

    Explosive developments have taken place in the control field during the last decade. In the content of this work, the authors mention three of these milestones: first, the industrial development and application of model predictive control (MPC), a technique especially suitable for multivariable highly interactive processes involving constraints on manipulated as well as controlled variables. Second, on the theory side, robust control emerged as the eminent paradigm. Robust control aims at analyzing the effects of model uncertainty on closed loop performance and to incorporate insensitivity to model uncertainty into the control system design procedure in a systematic fashion. And third, substantial advances have been made in the mathematical theory of the dynamics of nonlinear systems. Various nonlinear control techniques have grown out of this work which have excellent potential to address some difficult and long-standing process control problems. Specifically, the authors have been pursuing (1) the development of linear regression techniques for problems with collinear data and (2) the development of tools for robust model predictive control system design for constrained and nonlinear systems; in particular, they are trying to establish what model uncertainty descriptions are suitable for design.

  2. Development of the LICADO coal cleaning process. Final report, October 1, 1987--April 2, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-31

    Development of the liquid carbon dioxide process for the cleaning of coal was performed in batch, variable volume (semi-continuous), and continuous tests. Continuous operation at feed rates up to 4.5 kg/hr (10-lb/hr) was achieved with the Continuous System. Coals tested included Upper Freeport, Pittsburgh, Illinois No. 6, and Middle Kittanning seams. Results showed that the ash and pyrite rejections agreed closely with washability data for each coal at the particle size tested (-200 mesh). A 0.91 metric ton (1-ton) per hour Proof-of-Concept Plant was conceptually designed. A 181 metric ton (200 ton) per hour and a 45 metric ton (50 ton) per hour plant were sized sufficiently to estimate costs for economic analyses. The processing costs for the 181 metric ton (200 ton) per hour and 45 metric ton (50 ton) per hour were estimated to be $18.96 per metric ton ($17.20 per ton) and $11.47 per metric ton ($10.40 per ton), respectively for these size plants. The costs for the 45 metric ton per hour plant are lower because it is assumed to be a fines recovery plant which does not require a grinding circuit of complex waste handling system.

  3. Development and process evaluation of improved Fischer-Tropsch slurry catalysts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bukur, D.B.; Mukesh, D.; Patel, S.A.; Zimmerman, W.H.; Rosynek, M.P.; Kellogg, L.J.

    1990-04-01

    This report describes results of a study aimed at developing and evaluating improved catalysts for a slurry Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process for converting synthesis gas to high quality transportation fuels (gasoline and distillate). The improvements in catalyst performance were sought by studying effects of pretreatment conditions, promoters and binders/supports. A total of 20 different, iron based, catalysts were evaluated in 58 fixed bed reactor tests and 10 slurry reactor tests. The major accomplishments and conclusions are summarized below. The pretreatment conditions (temperature, duration and the nature of reducing gas) have significant effect on catalyst performance (activity, selectivity and stability) during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. One of precipitated unsupported catalysts had hydrocarbon selectivity similar to Mobil`s I-B catalyst in high wax mode operation, and had not experienced any loss in activity during 460 hours of testing under variable process conditions in a slurry reactor. The effect of promoters (copper and potassium) on catalyst performance during FT synthesis has been studied in a systematic way. It was found that potassium promotion increases activities of the FT and water-gas-shift (WGS) reactions, the average molecular weight of hydrocarbon products, and suppresses the olefin hydrogenation and isomerization reactions. The addition of binders/supports (silica or alumina) to precipitated Fe/Cu/K catalysts, decreased their activity but improved their stability and hydrocarbon selectivity. The performance of catalysts of this type was very promising and additional studies are recommended to evaluate their potential for use in commercial slurry reactors.

  4. Application of the SULF-X process to coal conversion and utilization. Phase II final report

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, E.; Bramer, H.C.; New, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Pittsburgh Environmental and Energy Systems, Inc. contracted with the Department of Energy to demonstrate the efficacy of an iron sulfide flue gas treatment system (FGT) for removing sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) and nitrogen oxides (NO/sub x/) and to correlate process variables to system performance. Laboratory and bench-scale testing was conducted with the SULF-X process, using both synthesized gas and actual flue gas from a coal-fired furnace. Laboratory tests resulted in 95% SO/sub 2/ removal and up to 95% NO/sub x/ removal. The bench-scale system demonstrated similar SO/sub 2/ removal efficiencies, but achieved only 39% NO/sub x/ removal due to relatively high oxygen concentrations in the flue gas and insufficient liquid-gas interfacial area within the absorber. Elemental sulfur was recovered during the regeneration steps. Total capital investment for the SULF-X system was estimated to be $91 to $103 per kilowatt (electric), compared to $90/kw for sodium solution scrubbing, $78 to $83/kw for magnesia slurry scrubbing and $74/kw for limestone slurry scrubbing. Annual operating costs for the SULF-X system were estimated to be 5.44 to 6.90 mills per kilowatt-hour, compared to 4.96 to 5.22 for sodium, 3.68 to 3.99 for magnesia and 3.73 to 4.25 for limestone. 6 references, 6 figures, 9 tables.

  5. End-use matching for solar industrial process heat. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.C.; Hooker, D.W.; Rabl, A.; Stadjuhar, S.A.; West, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    Because of the large energy demand of industry (37% of US demand) and the wide spectrum of temperatures at which heat is required, the industrial sector appears to be very suitable for the matching of solar thermal technology with industrial process heat (IPH) requirements. A methodology for end-use matching has been devised, complete with required data bases and an evaluation program PROSYS/ECONMAT. Six cities in the United States were selected for an analysis of solar applications to IPH. Typical process heat requirements for 70% of the industrial plants in each city were identified and evaluated in conjunction with meteorological and economic data for each site to determine lowest-cost solar systems for each application. The flexibility and scope of PROSYS/ECONMAT is shown in a variety of sensitivity studies that expand the results of the six-city analysis. Case studies of two industrial plants were performed to evaluate the end-use matching procedure; these results are reported.

  6. Investigating the effect of capping layers on final thin film morphology after a dewetting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Benjamin C.

    Nanoparticles on a substrate have numerous applications in nanotechnology, from enhancements to solar cell efficiency to improvements in carbon nanotube growth. Producing nanoparticles in a cheap fashion with some control over size and spacing is difficult to do, but desired. This work presents a novel method for altering the radius and pitch distributions of nickel and gold nanoparticles in a scalable fashion. The introduction of alumina capping layers to thin nickel films during a pulsed laser-induced dewetting process has yielded reductions in the mean and standard deviation of radii and pitch for dewet nanoparticles. Carbon nanotube mats grown on these samples show a much thicker mat for the capped case. The same capping layers have produced an opposite effect of increased nanoparticle size and spacing during a solid state dewetting process of a gold film. These results also show a decrease in the magnitude of the effect as the capping layer thickness increases. Since the subject of research interest for using these nanoparticles has shifted towards producing ordered arrays with size and spacing control, the uncertainty in the values of these distributions needs to be quantified for any form of meaningful comparison to be made between fabrication methods. Presented here is a first step in the uncertainty analysis of such samples via synthetic images producing error distributions.

  7. Cesium removal demonstration utilizing crystalline silicotitanate sorbent for processing Melton Valley Storage Tank supernate: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.F. Jr.; Taylor, P.A.; Cummins, R.L.

    1998-03-01

    This report provides details of the Cesium Removal Demonstration (CsRD), which was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on radioactive waste from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks. The CsRD was the first large-scale use of state-of-the-art sorbents being developed by private industry for the selective removal of cesium and other radionuclides from liquid wastes stored across the DOE complex. The crystalline silicotitanate sorbent used in the demonstration was chosen because of its effectiveness in laboratory tests using bench-scale columns. The demonstration showed that the cesium could be removed from the supernate and concentrated on a small-volume, solid waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Nevada Test Site. During this project, the CsRD system processed > 115,000 L (30,000 gal) of radioactive supernate with minimal operational problems. Sluicing, drying, and remote transportation of the sorbent, which could not be done on a bench scale, were successfully demonstrated. The system was then decontaminated to the extent that it could be contact maintained with the use of localized shielding only. By utilizing a modular, transportable design and placement within existing facilities, the system can be transferred to different sites for reuse. The initial unit has now been removed from the process building and is presently being reinstalled for use in baseline operations at ORNL.

  8. UMTRA Surface Project management action process document. Final report: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    A critical mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the planning, implementation, and completion of environmental restoration (ER) programs at facilities that were operated by or in support of the former Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) from the late 1940s into the 1970s. Among these facilities are the 24 former uranium mill sites designed in the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978 (42 USC {section} 7901 et seq.) Title 1 of the UMTRCA authorized the DOE to undertake remedial actions at these designated sites and associated vicinity properties (VP), which contain uranium mill tailings and other residual radioactive materials (RRM) derived from the processing sites. Title 2 of the UMTRCA addresses uranium mill sites that were licensed at the time the UMTRCA was enacted. Cleanup of these Title 2 sites is the responsibility of the licensees. The cleanup of the Title 1 sites has been split into two separate projects: the Surface Project, which deals with the mill buildings, tailings, and contaminated soils at the sites and VPs; and the Ground Water Project, which is limited to the contaminated ground water at the sites. This management action process (MAP) document discusses the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Surface Project only; a separate MAP document has been prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project.

  9. DOE final report, phase one startup, Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Jasen, W.G.

    1998-01-07

    This document is to validate that the WRAP facility is physically ready to start up phase 1, and that the managers and operators are prepared to safely manage and operate the facility when all pre-start findings have been satisfactorily corrected. The DOE Readiness Assessment (RA) team spent a week on-site at Waste Receiving and Processing Module 1 (WRAP-1) to validate the readiness for phase 1 start up of facility. The Contractor and DOE staff were exceptionally cooperative and contributed significantly to the overall success of the RA. The procedures and Conduct of Operations areas had significant discrepancies, many of which should have been found by the contractor review team. In addition the findings of the contractor review team should have led the WRAP-1 management team to correcting the root causes of the findings prior to the DOE RA team review. The findings and observations include many issues that the team believes should have been found by the contractor review and corrective actions taken. A significantly improved Operational Readiness Review (ORR) process and corrective actions of root causes must be fully implemented by the contractor prior to the performance of the contractor ORR for phase 2 operations. The pre-start findings as a result of this independent DOE Readiness Assessment are presented.

  10. Processing and modeling issues for thin-film solar cell devices. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Birkmire, R.W.; Phillips, J.E.

    1997-11-01

    During the third phase of the subcontract, IEC researchers have continued to provide the thin film PV community with greater depth of understanding and insight into a wide variety of issues including: the deposition and characterization of CuIn{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2}, a-Si, CdTe, CdS, and TCO thin films; the relationships between film and device properties; and the processing and analysis of thin film PV devices. This has been achieved through the systematic investigation of all aspects of film and device production and through the analysis and quantification of the reaction chemistries involved in thin film deposition. This methodology has led to controlled fabrications of 15% efficient CuIn{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} solar cells over a wide range of Ga compositions, improved process control of the fabrication of 10% efficient a-Si solar cells, and reliable and generally applicable procedures for both contacting and doping films. Additional accomplishments are listed below.

  11. Advanced techniques for array processing. Final report, 1 Mar 89-30 Apr 91

    SciTech Connect

    Friedlander, B.

    1991-05-30

    Array processing technology is expected to be a key element in communication systems designed for the crowded and hostile environment of the future battlefield. While advanced array processing techniques have been under development for some time, their practical use has been very limited. This project addressed some of the issues which need to be resolved for a successful transition of these promising techniques from theory into practice. The main problem which was studied was that of finding the directions of multiple co-channel transmitters from measurements collected by an antenna array. Two key issues related to high-resolution direction finding were addressed: effects of system calibration errors, and effects of correlation between the received signals due to multipath propagation. A number of useful theoretical performance analysis results were derived, and computationally efficient direction estimation algorithms were developed. These results include: self-calibration techniques for antenna arrays, sensitivity analysis for high-resolution direction finding, extensions of the root-MUSIC algorithm to arbitrary arrays and to arrays with polarization diversity, and new techniques for direction finding in the presence of multipath based on array interpolation. (Author)

  12. A biological/chemical process for reduced waste and energy consumption: caprolactam production. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    A biological/chemical process for converting cyclohexane into caprolactam was investigated: microorganisms in a bioreactor would be used to convert cyclohexane into caprolactone followed by chemical synthesis of caprolactam using ammonia. Four microorganisms were isolated from natural soil and water, that can utilize cyclohexane as a sole source of C and energy for growth. They were shown to have the correct metabolic intermediates and enzymes to convert cyclohexane into cyclohexanol, cyclohexanone, and caprolactone. Genetic techniques to create and select for caprolactone hydrolase negative-mutants were developed; those are used to convert cyclohexane into caprolactone but, because of the block, are unable to metabolize the caprolactone further. Because of a new nylon carpet reycle process and the long time frame for a totally new bioprocess, a limited study was done to evaluate whether a simplified bioprocess to convert cyclohexanol into cyclohexanone or caprolactone was feasible; growth rates and key enzyme levels were measured in a collection of microorganisms that metabolize cyclohexanol to determine if the bioactivity is high enough to support an economical cyclohexanol bioprocess. Although these microorganisms had sufficient bioactivity, they could tolerate only low levels (<1%) of cyclohexanol and thus are not suitable for developing a cost effective bioprocess because of the high cost of dilute product recovery.

  13. EDS coal liquefaction process development: Phase V. Final technical progress report, Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    1984-02-01

    All objectives in the EDS Cooperative Agreement for Phases III-B through V have been achieved for the RCLU pilot plants. EDS operations have been successfully demonstrated in both the once-through and bottoms recycle modes for coals of rank ranging from bituminous to lignitic. An extensive data base detailing the effects of process variable changes on yields, conversions and product qualities for each coal has been established. Continuous bottoms recycle operations demonstrated increased overall conversion and improved product slate flexibility over once-through operations. The hydrodynamics of the liquefaction reactor in RCLU were characterized through tests using radioactive tracers in the gas and slurry phases. RCLU was shown to have longer liquid residence times than ECLP. Support work during ECLP operations contributed to resolving differences between ECLP conversions and product yields and those of the small pilot plants. Solvent hydrogenation studies during Phases IIIB-V of the EDS program focused on long term activity maintenance of the Ni-MO-10 catalyst. Process variable studies for solvents from various coals (bituminous, subbituminous, and lignitic), catalyst screening evaluations, and support of ECLP solvent hydrogenation operations. Product quality studies indicate that highly cyclic EDS naphthas represent unique and outstanding catalytic reforming feedstocks. High volumes of high octane motor gasoline blendstock are produced while liberating a considerable quantity of high purity hydrogen.

  14. Pinch technology/process optimization. Volume 1, Case studies---multiple plants: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Improved process efficiency is of great importance to electric utilities and their industrial customers. It enhances company profitability, thereby fostering load retention and strategic load growth. Moreover, the technical means of achieving improved efficiency can significantly impact utility load shapes. By understanding the energy use patterns and options in an industrial facility, the utility and industrial user can work together to define mutually beneficial investment and operating decisions and to clarify how the decisions might be impacted by existing or alternative energy prices. Efforts to achieve such understanding are facilitated by using pinch technology, an innovative and highly effective methodology for systematically analyzing total industrial sites. This report documents a series of twelve industrial process optimization case studies. The studies were carried out using ``pinch technology. `` Each study was cosponsored by the industrial site`s local electric utility. The twelve studies are follows: (1) pulp and paper, (2) refinery, (3) refinery, (4) yeast, (5) soups/sauces, (6) cellulose- acetate, (7) refinery, (8) chemicals, (9) gelatin-capsules, (10) refinery, (11) brewery, (12) cereal grains.

  15. Avoiding the Enumeration of Infeasible Elementary Flux Modes by Including Transcriptional Regulatory Rules in the Enumeration Process Saves Computational Costs.

    PubMed

    Jungreuthmayer, Christian; Ruckerbauer, David E; Gerstl, Matthias P; Hanscho, Michael; Zanghellini, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Despite the significant progress made in recent years, the computation of the complete set of elementary flux modes of large or even genome-scale metabolic networks is still impossible. We introduce a novel approach to speed up the calculation of elementary flux modes by including transcriptional regulatory information into the analysis of metabolic networks. Taking into account gene regulation dramatically reduces the solution space and allows the presented algorithm to constantly eliminate biologically infeasible modes at an early stage of the computation procedure. Thereby, computational costs, such as runtime, memory usage, and disk space, are extremely reduced. Moreover, we show that the application of transcriptional rules identifies non-trivial system-wide effects on metabolism. Using the presented algorithm pushes the size of metabolic networks that can be studied by elementary flux modes to new and much higher limits without the loss of predictive quality. This makes unbiased, system-wide predictions in large scale metabolic networks possible without resorting to any optimization principle.

  16. Avoiding the Enumeration of Infeasible Elementary Flux Modes by Including Transcriptional Regulatory Rules in the Enumeration Process Saves Computational Costs

    PubMed Central

    Jungreuthmayer, Christian; Ruckerbauer, David E.; Gerstl, Matthias P.; Hanscho, Michael; Zanghellini, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Despite the significant progress made in recent years, the computation of the complete set of elementary flux modes of large or even genome-scale metabolic networks is still impossible. We introduce a novel approach to speed up the calculation of elementary flux modes by including transcriptional regulatory information into the analysis of metabolic networks. Taking into account gene regulation dramatically reduces the solution space and allows the presented algorithm to constantly eliminate biologically infeasible modes at an early stage of the computation procedure. Thereby, computational costs, such as runtime, memory usage, and disk space, are extremely reduced. Moreover, we show that the application of transcriptional rules identifies non-trivial system-wide effects on metabolism. Using the presented algorithm pushes the size of metabolic networks that can be studied by elementary flux modes to new and much higher limits without the loss of predictive quality. This makes unbiased, system-wide predictions in large scale metabolic networks possible without resorting to any optimization principle. PMID:26091045

  17. Final Scientific Report, Integrated Seismic Event Detection and Location by Advanced Array Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kvaerna, T.; Gibbons. S.J.; Ringdal, F; Harris, D.B.

    2007-01-30

    In the field of nuclear explosion monitoring, it has become a priority to detect, locate, and identify seismic events down to increasingly small magnitudes. The consideration of smaller seismic events has implications for a reliable monitoring regime. Firstly, the number of events to be considered increases greatly; an exponential increase in naturally occurring seismicity is compounded by large numbers of seismic signals generated by human activity. Secondly, the signals from smaller events become more difficult to detect above the background noise and estimates of parameters required for locating the events may be subject to greater errors. Thirdly, events are likely to be observed by a far smaller number of seismic stations, and the reliability of event detection and location using a very limited set of observations needs to be quantified. For many key seismic stations, detection lists may be dominated by signals from routine industrial explosions which should be ascribed, automatically and with a high level of confidence, to known sources. This means that expensive analyst time is not spent locating routine events from repeating seismic sources and that events from unknown sources, which could be of concern in an explosion monitoring context, are more easily identified and can be examined with due care. We have obtained extensive lists of confirmed seismic events from mining and other artificial sources which have provided an excellent opportunity to assess the quality of existing fully-automatic event bulletins and to guide the development of new techniques for online seismic processing. Comparing the times and locations of confirmed events from sources in Fennoscandia and NW Russia with the corresponding time and location estimates reported in existing automatic bulletins has revealed substantial mislocation errors which preclude a confident association of detected signals with known industrial sources. The causes of the errors are well understood and are

  18. Supercritical fluid thermodynamics for coal processing. Final report, September 15, 1988--September 14, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    van Swol, F.; Eckert, C.A.

    1988-09-15

    The main objective of this research is to develop an equation of state that can be used to predict solubilities and tailor supercritical fluid solvents for the extraction and processing of coal. To meet this objective we have implemented a two-sided. approach. First, we expanded the database of model coal compound solubilities in higher temperature fluids, polar fluids, and fluid mixtures systems. Second, the unique solute/solute, solute/cosolvent and solute/solvent intermolecular interactions in supercritical fluid solutions were investigated using spectroscopic techniques. These results increased our understanding of the molecular phenomena that affect solubility in supercritical fluids and were significant in the development of an equation of state that accurately reflects the true molecular makeup of the solution. (VC)

  19. Energy efficiency and pollution prevention assessment protocol in the polymer processing industries. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nardone, John; Sansone, Leonard; Kenney, William; Christodoulatos, Christos; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon

    1998-03-31

    This report was developed from experiences with three New Jersey firms and is intended to be a guide for conducting analyses on resource (energy and raw materials) utilization and pollution (solid waste, air and water emissions) prevention in plastics processing plants. The protocol is written on the assumption that the analysis is to be done by an outside agency such as a consulting firm, but it also can be used for internal audits by plant teams. Key concepts in this analysis were adapted from life cycle analysis. Because of the small sample of companies studied, the results have to be considered high preliminary, but some of the conclusions will probably be confirmed by further work.

  20. Oil shale mining cost analysis. Volume I. Surface retorting process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Resnick, B.S.; English, L.M.; Metz, R.D.; Lewis, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    An Oil Shale Mining Economic Model (OSMEM) was developed and executed for mining scenarios representative of commercially feasible mining operations. Mining systems were evaluated for candidate sites in the Piceance Creek Basin. Mining methods selected included: (1) room-and-pillar; (2) chamber-and-pillar, with spent shale backfilling; (3) sublevel stopping; and (4) sublevel stopping, with spent shale backfilling. Mines were designed to extract oil shale resources to support a 50,000 barrels-per-day surface processing facility. Costs developed for each mining scenario included all capital and operating expenses associated with the underground mining methods. Parametric and sensitivity analyses were performed to determine the sensitivity of mining cost to changes in capital cost, operating cost, return on investment, and cost escalation.

  1. Assessing middle school students` understanding of science relationships and processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schau, C.; Mattern, N.; Weber, R.; Minnick, K.

    1994-09-01

    Our overall goal for this multi-year project is to develop and validate an alternative assessment format that effectively measures middle school students understanding of the relationships among selected science concepts and processes. In this project, we collaborate with the staff of the Los Alamos National Laboratory`s TOPS Program and the Programs participating teachers and their students. We also work with selected middle school science teachers from the TOPS program at Sandia National Laboratories. Our goal for this past year was to develop and field test informally a variety of potential measurement formats. This work has allowed us to identify formats to test during the validation phase of the project which will occur during the second year.

  2. Systems analysis of cis-regulatory motifs in C4 photosynthesis genes using maize and rice leaf transcriptomic data during a process of de-etiolation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiajia; Bräutigam, Andrea; Weber, Andreas P. M.; Zhu, Xin-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Identification of potential cis-regulatory motifs controlling the development of C4 photosynthesis is a major focus of current research. In this study, we used time-series RNA-seq data collected from etiolated maize and rice leaf tissues sampled during a de-etiolation process to systematically characterize the expression patterns of C4-related genes and to further identify potential cis elements in five different genomic regions (i.e. promoter, 5′UTR, 3′UTR, intron, and coding sequence) of C4 orthologous genes. The results demonstrate that although most of the C4 genes show similar expression patterns, a number of them, including chloroplast dicarboxylate transporter 1, aspartate aminotransferase, and triose phosphate transporter, show shifted expression patterns compared with their C3 counterparts. A number of conserved short DNA motifs between maize C4 genes and their rice orthologous genes were identified not only in the promoter, 5′UTR, 3′UTR, and coding sequences, but also in the introns of core C4 genes. We also identified cis-regulatory motifs that exist in maize C4 genes and also in genes showing similar expression patterns as maize C4 genes but that do not exist in rice C3 orthologs, suggesting a possible recruitment of pre-existing cis-elements from genes unrelated to C4 photosynthesis into C4 photosynthesis genes during C4 evolution. PMID:27436282

  3. Adolescents' Use of Self-Regulatory Processes and Their Relation to Qualitative Mental Model Shifts while Using Hypermedia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jeffrey Alan; Azevedo, Roger

    2007-01-01

    This study examined 148 adolescents' use of self-regulated learning (SRL) processes when learning about the circulatory system using hypermedia. We examined participants' verbal protocols to determine the relationship between SRL processes and qualitative shifts in students' mental models from pretest to posttest. Results indicated that…

  4. US Department of Energy final response to standards for remedial actions at inactive uranium processing sites; Proposed rule

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-14

    This document revisits and supplements information and recommendations presented in the January 1988 US Department of Energy (DOE) submission to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regarding the proposed standards for Title I uranium processing sites (DOE, 1988). The clarifications and comments in this report are based on further DOE investigation, contemplation, and interpretation of the proposed standards. Since the January response, the DOE has undertaken a number of special studies to -investigate, evaluate, focus, and clarify issues relating to the standards. In addition, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has issued a draft technical position outlining its interpretation of the proposed standards and clarifying how the standards will be implemented (NRC, 1988). Some issues presented are based on previous positions, and the original DOE position is restated for reference. Other issues or recommendations are more recent than the January DOE response; therefore, no former position was advanced. The order of presentation reflects the general order of significance to the DOE, specifically in regards to the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project.

  5. Center Segregation with Final Electromagnetic Stirring in Billet Continuous Casting Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Dongbin; Zhu, Miaoyong

    2017-02-01

    With a multiphase solidification model built, the effect of F-EMS parameters on center segregation was investigated in 160 mm × 160 mm billet continuous casting process. In the model, the initial growth of equiaxed grains which could move freely with liquid was treated as slurry, while the coherent equiaxed zone was regarded as porous media. The results show that the stirring velocity is not the main factor influencing center segregation improvement, which is more affected by current intensity and stirring pool width. Because solute transport is controlled by solidification rate as stirring pool width is 73 mm, center segregation declines continuously with current intensity increasing. As liquid pool width decreases to 61 mm and less latent heat needs to dissipate in the later solidification, the center segregation could be improved more obviously by F-EMS. Due to center liquid solute enrichment and liquid phase accumulation in the stirring zone, center segregation turns to rise reversely with higher current intensity and becomes more serious with stirring pool width further decreasing to 43 mm. As the stirring pool width is 25 mm, the positive segregation has already formed and solute could still concentrate with weak stirring, leading to center segregation deterioration. With the optimized current intensity (400 A) and stirring pool width (61 mm) set for continuous mode, center segregation improvement is better than that of alternative mode.

  6. Mission to Mars: food production and processing for the final frontier.

    PubMed

    Perchonok, Michele H; Cooper, Maya R; Catauro, Patricia M

    2012-01-01

    The food systems of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have evolved tremendously since the early manned spaceflights of the 1960s. To date, NASA's mission focus has been limited to exploration of low Earth orbit (LEO), and the agency's prepackaged food systems have been adequate to enable success of their parent programs. With NASA's mission focus increasing to achieve manned space exploration of the Martian surface, the agency is considering a significant departure from the prepackaged food systems of current and past space programs. NASA's Advanced Food Technology (AFT) project is presently investigating the introduction of a bioregenerative food system to support long duration habitat missions to the Martian surface. A bioregenerative food system is expected to impart less of a burden on critical mission resources, such as mass and volume, than a prepackaged, shelf-stable system. This review provides an introduction to past and present spaceflight food systems, and provides a broad examination of the research conducted to date to enable crop production and food processing on the Martian surface.

  7. Innovative processing to produce advanced intermetallic materials. Phase 1 final report

    SciTech Connect

    Loutfy, R.O.

    1989-09-01

    The program demonstrates the technical feasibility of synthesizing submicron titanium aluminide in a thermal rf plasma. Micron and submicron spherical titanium aluminide particles are produced in argon, hydrogen, and argon/hydrogen plasmas from the reaction of TiCl4(g), and Al(g). The ratio of Ti and Al is varied to produce the compounds Ti3Al, TiAl, and TiAl3. Microalloying with boron and macroalloying with niobium is demonstrated. Ti3Al whiskers can be produced, as well as other intermetallics of niobium aluminide, nickel aluminide, and molybdenum disilicide in the plasma synthesis process. Since submicron particles are produced, they have a high surface area and are sensitive to oxidation if not treated with a fugitive protective coating or utilized in a nonoxidizing atmosphere. Ti3Al particles are consolidated and utilized as a matrix for TiC and AlN composites. The submicron AlTi3 has significantly higher strength at room temperature than reported for commercial Ti3Al-11Nb alloy and useable strength is maintained up to 1000 C. The elongation is about the same as for commercial material because of possible oxide contamination in powder handling. However, dimpling and nacking is evident in the fracture surface, which suggests true room temperature ductility. Titanium aluminides have the potential to replace superalloys and become the dominant material for aerospace engines, air frames and skins for hypersonic vehicles.

  8. HANFORD CONTAINERIZED CAST STONE FACILITY TASK 1 PROCESS TESTING & DEVELOPMENT FINAL TEST REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    LOCKREM, L L

    2005-07-13

    Laboratory testing and technical evaluation activities on Containerized Cast Stone (CCS) were conducted under the Scope of Work (SOW) contained in CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) Contract No. 18548 (CHG 2003a). This report presents the results of testing and demonstration activities discussed in SOW Section 3.1, Task I--''Process Development Testing'', and described in greater detail in the ''Containerized Grout--Phase I Testing and Demonstration Plan'' (CHG, 2003b). CHG (2003b) divided the CCS testing and evaluation activities into six categories, as follows: (1) A short set of tests with simulant to select a preferred dry reagent formulation (DRF), determine allowable liquid addition levels, and confirm the Part 2 test matrix. (2) Waste form performance testing on cast stone made from the preferred DRF and a backup DRF, as selected in Part I, and using low activity waste (LAW) simulant. (3) Waste form performance testing on cast stone made from the preferred DRF using radioactive LAW. (4) Waste form validation testing on a selected nominal cast stone formulation using the preferred DRF and LAW simulant. (5) Engineering evaluations of explosive/toxic gas evolution, including hydrogen, from the cast stone product. (6) Technetium ''getter'' testing with cast stone made with LAW simulant and with radioactive LAW. In addition, nitrate leaching observations were drawn from nitrate leachability data obtained in the course of the Parts 2 and 3 waste form performance testing. The nitrate leachability index results are presented along with other data from the applicable activity categories.

  9. Kinetics and Mechanism of Metal Retention/Release in Geochemical Processes in Soil - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Robert W.

    2000-12-29

    Effective, remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals requires a better understanding of the mechanisms by which the metals are retained/released in soils over a long period of time. Studies on reaction of Cr(VI) with iron-rich clays indicated that structural iron (II) in these surfaces is capable of reducing chromate to chromium (III). We found that iron (II) either found naturally or produced by treatment of clay with sodium dithionite, effectively reduced Cr (VI) to Cr (III). Thus, in situ remediation of chromium combines reduction of Cr (VI) to Cr (III) and immobilization of chromium on mineral surfaces. During this study, lead sorption on a kaolin surface was found to be a rapid and a pH dependant process in which lead sorption significantly increased with the amount of phosphate on the clay surface. This study verifies that methylmercury cation remains intact when it binds to humic acids, forming a monodentate complex with some sub-population of humic thiol ligands .

  10. ParaText : scalable solutions for processing and searching very large document collections : final LDRD report.

    SciTech Connect

    Crossno, Patricia Joyce; Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

    2010-09-01

    This report is a summary of the accomplishments of the 'Scalable Solutions for Processing and Searching Very Large Document Collections' LDRD, which ran from FY08 through FY10. Our goal was to investigate scalable text analysis; specifically, methods for information retrieval and visualization that could scale to extremely large document collections. Towards that end, we designed, implemented, and demonstrated a scalable framework for text analysis - ParaText - as a major project deliverable. Further, we demonstrated the benefits of using visual analysis in text analysis algorithm development, improved performance of heterogeneous ensemble models in data classification problems, and the advantages of information theoretic methods in user analysis and interpretation in cross language information retrieval. The project involved 5 members of the technical staff and 3 summer interns (including one who worked two summers). It resulted in a total of 14 publications, 3 new software libraries (2 open source and 1 internal to Sandia), several new end-user software applications, and over 20 presentations. Several follow-on projects have already begun or will start in FY11, with additional projects currently in proposal.

  11. Development of on-farm oil recovery and processing methods: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrum, J.W.; Kilgo, M.B.

    1987-09-02

    Using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2), peanut oil was extracted from ground peanuts at pressures of 2000 to 10,000 psi and temperatures of 25-120/degree/ C. Above 6000 psi, increasing the temperature to the maximum possible without heavily charring the peanuts (120/degree/C) significantly increased the initial extraction rate. Increasing the pressure at constant temperature increased the rate. At higher temperatures (75/degree/ C and above) roasting began to occur, however, this was not detrimental to the extraction rate or overall oil recovery. Decreasing the particle size increases the overall yield per batch of peanuts as seen in both the half factorial and particle size experiments. Increasing the moisture increases the amount of volatiles lost. The flow rate does not affect the solubility, percent oil recovered or volatiles lost for flow rates of 40 to 60 liters CO2/minute at STP. Recovery of peanut and rapeseed oil with a combined process of partial recovery in a screw press plus extraction of the remaining oil with SC-CO2 is technically a viable alternative to other oil recovery methods. Oil recoveries of 95% (peanuts) and 75% (rapeseed) have been demonstrated. The initial extraction rate for rapeseed was consistently lower than the rate for peanuts at the same extraction temperature and pressure. No differences in SC-CO2 extraction rates or yields were found between Dwarf Essex and Cascade varieties of rapeseed. 8 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Chemistry of nitrogen compounds in combustion processes. Final report 1 Nov 80-31 Oct 83

    SciTech Connect

    Slanger, T.G.

    1984-03-02

    The major tasks under the current contract have in general involved the photochemistry and kinetics of nitrogenous molecules, using F2 and KrF excimer lasers as initiating sources. The results of this three-year program are summarized below. NO2 has been dissociated at 2485, revealing in its nascent NO vibrational distribution a very strong inversion, in which vibrational levels near the thermodynamic limit of v = 8 are strongly populated. Resonance excitation of NO by the 1576 F2 laser line has been observed and the spectroscopy clarified. The O2(A superscript 3 sigma u(+)) state by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) has been studied. Radiative lifetimes of the CN(A superscript 2 pi) state have been measured for v = 0-5. Quenching rate coefficients of CN(A superscript 2 pi) by C2N2 have been determined for v = 0-5. An evaluation of the heat of formation of NCO indicates that the most recent determination is inconsistent with kinetic requirements and must be re-interpreted. Photodissociation of C2N2 at 1576 populates CN(A superscript 2 pi) up to the one-photon limit of v = 5, with a strong maximum occuring at v = 2. Simultaneous photodissociation of C2N2 and O2 at 1576 results in greatly enhanced CN(A) and CN(B) emission intensities over those obtained in the absence of O2, due to slow secondary processes.

  13. Fluid diversion and sweep improvement with chemical gels in oil recovery processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Seright, R.S.; Martin, F.D.

    1992-09-01

    The objectives of this project were to identify the mechanisms by which gel treatments divert fluids in reservoirs and to establish where and how gel treatments are best applied. Several different types of gelants were examined, including polymer-based gelants, a monomer-based gelant, and a colloidal-silica gelant. This research was directed at gel applications in water injection wells, in production wells, and in high-pressure gas floods. The work examined how the flow properties of gels and gelling agents are influenced by permeability, lithology, and wettability. Other goals included determining the proper placement of gelants, the stability of in-place gels, and the types of gels required for the various oil recovery processes and for different scales of reservoir heterogeneity. During this three-year project, a number of theoretical analyses were performed to determine where gel treatments are expected to work best and where they are not expected to be effective. The most important, predictions from these analyses are presented. Undoubtedly, some of these predictions will be controversial. However, they do provide a starting point in establishing guidelines for the selection of field candidates for gel treatments. A logical next step is to seek field data that either confirm or contradict these predictions. The experimental work focused on four types of gels: (1) resorcinol-formaldehyde, (2) colloidal silica, (3) Cr{sup 3+}(chloride)-xanthan, and (4) Cr{sup 3+}(acetate)-polyacrylamide. All experiments were performed at 41{degrees}C.

  14. Industrial yogurt manufacture: monitoring of fermentation process and improvement of final product quality.

    PubMed

    Soukoulis, C; Panagiotidis, P; Koureli, R; Tzia, C

    2007-06-01

    Lactic acid fermentation during the production of skim milk and whole fat set-style yogurt was continuously monitored by measuring pH. The modified Gompertz model was successfully applied to describe the pH decline and viscosity development during the fermentation process. The viscosity and incubation time data were also fitted to linear models against ln(pH). The investigation of the yogurt quality improvement practices included 2 different heat treatments (80 degrees C for 30 min and 95 degrees C for 10 min), 3 milk protein fortifying agents (skim milk powder, whey powder, and milk protein concentrate) added at 2.0%, and 4 hydrocolloids (kappa-carrageenan, xanthan, guar gum, and pectin) added at 0.01% to whole fat and skim yogurts. Heat treatment significantly affected viscosity and acetaldehyde development without influencing incubation time and acidity. The addition of whey powder shortened the incubation time but had a detrimental effect on consistency, firmness, and overall acceptance of yogurts. On the other hand, addition of skim milk powder improved the textural quality and decreased the vulnerability of yogurts to syneresis. Anionic stabilizers (kappa-carrageenan and pectin) had a poor effect on the texture and palatability of yogurts. However, neutral gums (xanthan and guar gum) improved texture and prevented the wheying-off defect. Skim milk yogurts exhibited longer incubation times and higher viscosities, whereas they were rated higher during sensory evaluation than whole fat yogurts.

  15. Life Improvement of Pot Hardware in Continuous Hot Dipping Processes Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Xingbo Liu

    2006-01-18

    The process of continuous galvanizing of rolled sheet steel includes immersion into a bath of molten zinc/aluminum alloy. The steel strip is dipped in the molten bath through a series of driving motors and rollers which control the speed and tension of the strip, with the ability to modify both the amount of coating applied to the steel as well as the thickness and width of the sheet being galvanized. There are three rolls used to guide the steel strip through the molten metal bath. The rolls that operate in the molten Zn/Al are subject to a severely corrosive environment and require frequent changing. The performance of this equipment, the metallic hardware submerged in the molten Zn/Al bath, is the focus of this research. The primary objective of this research is to extend the performance life of the metallic hardware components of molten Zn/Al pot hardware by an order of magnitude. Typical galvanizing operations experience downtimes on the order of every two weeks to change the metallic hardware submerged in the molten metal bath. This is an expensive process for industry which takes upwards of 3 days for a complete turn around to resume normal operation. Each roll bridle consists of a sink, stabilizer, and corrector roll with accompanying bearing components. The cost of the bridle rig with all components is as much as $25,000 dollars just for materials. These inefficiencies are of concern to the steel coating companies and serve as a potential market for many materials suppliers. This research effort served as a bridge between the market potential and industry need to provide an objective analytical and mechanistic approach to the problem of wear and corrosion of molten metal bath hardware in a continuous sheet galvanizing line. The approach of the investigators was to provide a means of testing and analysis that was both expeditious and cost effective. The consortium of researchers from West Virginia University and Oak Ridge National Laboratory developed

  16. Potential for the increased efficiency in motors in the chemical and processing industries. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pillay, P.

    1996-08-01

    Refineries and chemical plants make up a large portion of the process industry in Louisiana. Detailed surveys of motors and motor loads were done for 2 refineries and 5 chemical plants. In addition, surveys of motor failures were done for 1 refinery and 4 chemical plants. Categories of < 20hp, 20hp--250hp, 250hp--500hp and > 500hp were used to reflect the horsepower ranges sued by utilities nationwide in DSM rebate programs. The 20hp--250hp range being a target for replacement or retrofit scenarios; this is also the horsepower range where users have a choice of energy efficient or standard efficient motors. The data are presented in different graphs to emphasize different characteristics. A raw motor count is given that is an actual count in every hp; this is then organized in the hp ranges listed above. The total horsepower in each category is also given to show the concentration of the plant`s installed hp. the loads are divided into pumps, fans, compressors and others in the case of refineries. in the case of chemical plants, additional categories had to be used, depending on the plant, like agitators, centrifuges etc. A realistic tariff structure is then used to determine the potential for efficiency improvements with the resultant energy, demand and cost savings. The results of metering of motors are then presented. Results of a 50hp motor driving a pump, a 200 hp motor driving a pump, a 100 hp motor driving a fan, and a 30hp motor driving an agitator are included. An examination of variable speed drive efficiency is included, using detailed models of the power electronic devices. 20 refs., 180 figs., 82 tabs.

  17. Thermodynamic and rheological properties of solid-liquid systems in coal processing. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Kabadi, V.N.

    1995-06-30

    The work on this project was initiated on September 1, 1991. The project consisted of two different tasks: (1) Development of a model to compute viscosities of coal derived liquids, and (2) Investigate new models for estimation of thermodynamic properties of solid and liquid compounds of the type that exist in coal, or are encountered during coal processing. As for task 1, a model for viscosity computation of coal model compound liquids and coal derived liquids has been developed. The detailed model is presented in this report. Two papers, the first describing the pure liquid model and the second one discussing the application to coal derived liquids, are expected to be published in Energy & Fuels shortly. Marginal progress is reported on task 2. Literature review for this work included compilation of a number of data sets, critical investigation of data measurement techniques available in the literature, investigation of models for liquid and solid phase thermodynamic computations. During the preliminary stages it was discovered that for development of a liquid or solid state equation of state, accurate predictive models for a number of saturation properties, such as, liquid and solid vapor pressures, saturated liquid and solid volumes, heat capacities of liquids and solids at saturation, etc. Most the remaining time on this task was spent in developing predictive correlations for vapor pressures and saturated liquid volumes of organic liquids in general and coal model liquids in particular. All these developments are discussed in this report. Some recommendations for future direction of research in this area are also listed.

  18. Process engineering and economic evaluations of diaphragm and membrane chlorine cell technologies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The chlor-alkali manufacturing technologies of (1), diaphragm cells (2), current technology membrane cells (3), catalytic cathode membrane cells (4), oxygen-cathode membrane cells and to a lesser extent several other related emerging processes are studied. Comparisons have been made on the two bases of (1) conventional industrial economics, and (2) energy consumption. The current diaphragm cell may have a small economic advantage over the other technologies at the plant size of 544 metric T/D (600 T/D). The three membrane cells all consume less energy, with the oxygen-cathode cell being the lowest. The oxygen-cathode cell appears promising as a low energy chlor-alkali cell where there is no chemical market for hydrogen. Federal funding of the oxygen-cathode cell has been beneficial to the development of the technology, to electrochemical cell research, and may help maintain the US's position in the international chlor-alkali technology marketplace. Tax law changes inducing the installation of additional cells in existing plants would produce the quickest reduction in power consumption by the chlor-alkali industry. Alternative technologies such as the solid polymer electrolyte cell, the coupling of diaphragm cells with fuel cells and the dynamic gel diaphragm have a strong potential for reducing chloralkali industry power consumption. Adding up all the recent and expected improvements that have become cost-effective, the electrical energy required to produce a unit of chlorine by 1990 should be only 50% to 60% of that used in 1970. In the United States the majority of the market does not demand salt-free caustic. About 75% of the electrolytic caustic is produced in diaphragm cells and only a small part of that is purified. This study indicates that unless membrane cell costs are greatly reduced or a stronger demand develops for salt-free caustic, the diaphragm cells will remain competitive. (WHK)

  19. Syngas to Synfuels Process Development Unit Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Robert C.

    2012-03-30

    The process described is for the gasification of 20 kg/h of biomass (switchgrass) to produce a syngas suitable for upgrading to Fischer-Tropsch (FT) liquid fuels (gas, diesel, waxes, etc.). The gas stream generated from gasification is primarily composed of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide (CO2), steam (H2O), and methane (CH4), but also includes tars, particulate matter, ammonia (NH3), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), hydrogen chloride (HCl), hydrogen sulfide ( H2S), carbonyl sulfide (COS), etc. as contaminants. The gas stream passes through an array of cleaning devices to remove the contaminants to levels suitable for FT synthesis of fuels/chemicals. These devices consist primarily of an oil scrubber (to remove tars and remaining particulates), sulfur scrubber (to remove sulfur compounds), and a wet scrubber (to remove NH3, HCl and remaining water soluble contaminants). The ammonia and oil scrubbers are absorption columns with a combination of random and structured packing materials, using water and oil as the adsorption liquids respectively. The ammonia scrubber performed very well, while operating the oil scrubber proved to be more difficult due to the nature of tar compounds. The sulfur scrubber is a packed bed absorption device with solid extrudates of adsorbent material, primarily composed of ZnO and CuO. It performed well, but over a limited amount of time due to fouling created by excess tar/particulate matter and oil aerosols. Overall gas contaminants were reduced to below 1 ppm NH3, and less than 1 ppm collective sulfur compounds.

  20. High density turbulent plasma processes from a shock tube. Final performance report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.A. III

    1997-01-01

    A broad-based set of measurements has begun on high density turbulent plasma processes. This includes determinations of new plasma physics and the initiation of work on new diagnostics for collisional plasmas as follows: (1) A transient increase is observed in both the spectral energy decay rate and the degree of chaotic complexity at the interface of a shock wave and a turbulent ionized gas. Even though the gas is apparently brought to rest by the shock wave, no evidence is found either of prompt relaminarization or of any systematic influence of end-wall material thermal conductivities on the turbulence parameters. (2) Point fluorescence emissions and averaged spectral line evolutions in turbulent plasmas produced in both the primary and the reflected shock wave flows exhibit ergodicity in the standard turbulence parameters. The data show first evidence of a reverse energy cascade in the collisional turbulent plasma. This suggests that the fully turbulent environment can be described using a stationary state formulation. In these same data, the author finds compelling evidence for a turbulent Stark effect on neutral emission lines in these data which is associated with evidence of large coherent structures and dominant modes in the Fourier analyses of the fluctuations in the optical spectra. (3) A neutral beam generator has been assembled by coupling a Colutron Ion Gun to a charge exchange chamber. Beam-target collisions where the target species is neutral and the beam is either singly charged or neutral have been performed using argon as the working gas. Spectral analysis of the emission shows specific radiative transitions characteristic of both Ar I and Ar II, indicating that some ionization of the target gas results. Gas and plasma parameters such as density, pressure, temperature and flow velocity and their fluctuations can now be followed in real time by spectroscopic analysis of carefully chosen radiative emissions.

  1. Develop apparatus and process for second-stage drying. Final technical report, September 26, 1994--September 27, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, F.

    1997-01-03

    The final technical report for this project contains detailed technical results for the various tasks performed in the projects. The project scope was to develop an apparatus and process for second-stage drying of softwoods, such as southern yellow pine, for construction lumber. The focus of the project was on increasing the efficiency of high-temperature drying. The project tasks were: (1) computer simulation refinement and extension of the theory to commercial-sized kilns, (2) detailed heat exchanger equipment design, (3) pilot-scale design and fabrication, (4) experimental evaluation of the pilot-scale system, and (5) preliminary design of a prototype system. The effort on this project has been continuous and productive in gaining a better understanding of the processes involved in the drying of softwoods. 19 refs., 41 figs., 13 tabs.

  2. Regulatory roles of phosphorylation in model and pathogenic fungi

    PubMed Central

    Albataineh, Mohammad T.; Kadosh, David

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, considerable advances have been made toward our understanding of how post-translational modifications affect a wide variety of biological processes, including morphology and virulence, in medically important fungi. Phosphorylation stands out as a key molecular switch and regulatory modification that plays a critical role in controlling these processes. In this article, we first provide a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the regulatory roles that both Ser/Thr and non-Ser/Thr kinases and phosphatases play in model and pathogenic fungi. Next, we discuss the impact of current global approaches that are being used to define the complete set of phosphorylation targets (phosphoproteome) in medically important fungi. Finally, we provide new insights and perspectives into the potential use of key regulatory kinases and phosphatases as targets for the development of novel and more effective antifungal strategies. PMID:26705834

  3. DNA Vaccines: Regulatory Considerations and Safety Aspects.

    PubMed

    Myhr, Anne Ingeborg

    2017-01-01

    DNA vaccines have great potential as preventive or therapeutic vaccines against viral, bacterial, or parasitic diseases as well as cancer, and may also be used as gene therapy products. Although many human and veterinary DNA vaccines have been investigated in laboratory trials, only four of these have been approved for commercial use. In this paper an overview of the regulatory requirements for the development of DNA vaccines is given. The regulatory process in EU and USA is described. A discussion concerning the relevance of national regulations on gene technology is included. In addition the main safety concerns associated with DNA vaccines, relating to unwanted side effects in the vaccinated mammal or fish, are presented. Finally, the need for greater openness regarding the assessment information is discussed.

  4. Revised analyses of decommissioning for the reference pressurized Water Reactor Power Station. Volume 2, Effects of current regulatory and other considerations on the financial assurance requirements of the decommissioning rule and on estimates of occupational radiation exposure: Appendices, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Konzek, G.J.; Smith, R.I.; Bierschbach, M.C.; McDuffie, P.N.

    1995-11-01

    With the issuance of the final Decommissioning Rule (July 27, 1998), owners and operators of licensed nuclear power plants are required to prepare, and submit to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for review, decommissioning plans and cost estimates. The NRC staff is in need of bases documentation that will assist them in assessing the adequacy of the licensee submittals, from the viewpoint of both the planned actions, including occupational radiation exposure, and the probable costs. The purpose of this reevaluation study is to provide some of the needed bases documentation. This report contains the results of a review and reevaluation of the 1978 PNL decommissioning study of the Trojan nuclear power plant (NUREG/CR-0130), including all identifiable factors and cost assumptions which contribute significantly to the total cost of decommissioning the nuclear power plant for the DECON, SAFSTOR, and ENTOMB decommissioning alternatives. These alternatives now include an initial 5--7 year period during which time the spent fuel is stored in the spent fuel pool, prior to beginning major disassembly or extended safe storage of the plant. Included for information (but not presently part of the license termination cost) is an estimate of the cost to demolish the decontaminated and clean structures on the site and to restore the site to a ``green field`` condition. This report also includes consideration of the NRC requirement that decontamination and decommissioning activities leading to termination of the nuclear license be completed within 60 years of final reactor shutdown, consideration of packaging and disposal requirements for materials whose radionuclide concentrations exceed the limits for Class C low-level waste (i.e., Greater-Than-Class C), and reflects 1993 costs for labor, materials, transport, and disposal activities.

  5. Rationales for regulatory activity

    SciTech Connect

    Perhac, R.M.

    1997-02-01

    The author provides an outline which touches on the types of concerns about risk evaluation which are addressed in the process of establishing regulatory guides. Broadly he says regulatory activity serves three broad constituents: (1) Paternalism (private risk); (2) Promotion of social welfare (public risks); (3) Protection of individual rights (public risks). He then discusses some of the major issues encountered in reaching a decision on what is an acceptable level of risk within each of these areas, and how one establishes such a level.

  6. Dopamine Modulation of Emotional Processing in Cortical and Subcortical Neural Circuits: Evidence for a Final Common Pathway in Schizophrenia?

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    The neural regulation of emotional perception, learning, and memory is essential for normal behavioral and cognitive functioning. Many of the symptoms displayed by individuals with schizophrenia may arise from fundamental disturbances in the ability to accurately process emotionally salient sensory information. The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) and its ability to modulate neural regions involved in emotional learning, perception, and memory formation has received considerable research attention as a potential final common pathway to account for the aberrant emotional regulation and psychosis present in the schizophrenic syndrome. Evidence from both human neuroimaging studies and animal-based research using neurodevelopmental, behavioral, and electrophysiological techniques have implicated the mesocorticolimbic DA circuit as a crucial system for the encoding and expression of emotionally salient learning and memory formation. While many theories have examined the cortical-subcortical interactions between prefrontal cortical regions and subcortical DA substrates, many questions remain as to how DA may control emotional perception and learning and how disturbances linked to DA abnormalities may underlie the disturbed emotional processing in schizophrenia. Beyond the mesolimbic DA system, increasing evidence points to the amygdala-prefrontal cortical circuit as an important processor of emotionally salient information and how neurodevelopmental perturbances within this circuitry may lead to dysregulation of DAergic modulation of emotional processing and learning along this cortical-subcortical emotional processing circuit. PMID:17519393

  7. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report. Volume 2. Appendices G, H, and I

    SciTech Connect

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final report, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluation, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as Appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  8. Constraints on the Regulatory Process: A Case Study of Regulation of Cable Television. Publication No. 75-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berner, Ricahrd Olin

    A case study approach is used to extensively examine the process by which the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has regulated cable television. A chronological accounting of cable regulation suggests the constraints under which regulation has taken place. An examination of extra-agency groups which constrain the commission's regulatory…

  9. Reappraising contemporary theories of subcortical participation in language: proposing an interhemispheric regulatory function for the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in the mediation of high-level linguistic processes.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Brooke-Mai; Murdoch, Bruce E; Theodoros, Deborah G; Silburn, Peter; Hall, Bruce

    2004-02-01

    Apropos the basal ganglia, the dominant striatum and globus pallidus internus (GPi) have been hypothesised to represent integral components of subcortical language circuitry. Working subcortical language theories, however, have failed thus far to consider a role for the STN in the mediation of linguistic processes, a structure recently defined as the driving force of basal ganglia output. The aim of this research was to investigate the impact of surgically induced functional inhibition of the STN upon linguistic abilities, within the context of established models of basal ganglia participation in language. Two males with surgically induced 'lesions' of the dominant and non-dominant dorsolateral STN, aimed at relieving Parkinsonian motor symptoms, served as experimental subjects. General and high-level language profiles were compiled for each subject up to 1 month prior to and 3 months following neurosurgery, within the drug-on state (i.e., when optimally medicated). Comparable post-operative alterations in linguistic performance were observed subsequent to surgically induced functional inhibition of the left and right STN. More specifically, higher proportions of reliable decline as opposed to improvement in post-operative performance were demonstrated by both subjects on complex language tasks, hypothesised to entail the interplay of cognitive-linguistic processes. The outcomes of the current research challenge unilateralised models of functional basal ganglia organisation with the proposal of a potential interhemispheric regulatory function for the STN in the mediation of high-level linguistic processes.

  10. Maintaining high-volume, low-pressure surface-coating regulatory compliance using the U.s. Environmental Protection Agency's data quality objectives process.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Michael J; Palmer, Glenn R; Peters, Scott; Olivas, Arthur C; Nelson, Tim M

    2005-03-01

    To effectively reduce the environmental compliance costs associated with meeting specific requirements under the Aerospace Manufacturing and Rework Facility's National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants rule, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Data Quality Objective (DQO) process has been proposed as a suitable framework for developing a scientifically defensible surface compliance monitoring program. By estimating the variability associated with the air cap pressure of high- volume, low-pressure (HVLP) surface-coating spray equipment, the number of monitoring samples necessary for an affected facility to claim compliance with a desired statistical confidence level was established. Using data taken from the pilot test facility, the DQO process indicated that the mean of at least 21 HVLP air cap pressure samples taken over the compliance period must be < or = 10 pounds per square inch (psig) gauge for the facility to claim regulatory compliance with 99.99% statistical confidence. Fewer compliance samples could be taken, but that decision would lead to a commensurate reduction in the compliance confidence level. Implementation of the DQO-based compliance sampling plan eliminates the need for an affected facility to sample all regulated HVLP surface-coating processes while still maintaining a high level of compliance assurance.

  11. Phage phi 29 regulatory protein p4 stabilizes the binding of the RNA polymerase to the late promoter in a process involving direct protein-protein contacts.

    PubMed

    Nuez, B; Rojo, F; Salas, M

    1992-12-01

    Transcription from the late promoter, PA3, of Bacillus subtilis phage phi 29 is activated by the viral regulatory protein p4. A kinetic analysis of the activation process has revealed that the role of protein p4 is to stabilize the binding of RNA polymerase to the promoter as a closed complex without significantly affecting further steps of the initiation process. Electrophoretic band-shift assays performed with a DNA fragment spanning only the protein p4 binding site showed that RNA polymerase could efficiently retard the complex formed by protein p4 bound to the DNA. Similarly, when a DNA fragment containing only the RNA polymerase-binding region of PA3 was used, p4 greatly stimulated the binding of RNA polymerase to the DNA. These results strongly suggest that p4 and RNA polymerase contact each other at the PA3 promoter. In the light of current knowledge of the p4 activation mechanism, we propose that direct contacts between the two proteins participate in the activation process.

  12. Optimization of processing and modeling issues for thin film solar cell devices: Final report, February 3, 1997--September 1, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Birkmire, R. W.; Phillips, J. E.; Shafarman, W. N.; Hegedus, S. S.; McCandless, B. E.

    2000-02-28

    This final report describes results achieved under a 20-month NREL subcontract to develop and understand thin-film solar cell technology associated to CuInSe{sub 2} and related alloys, a-Si and its alloys, and CdTe. Modules based on all these thin films are promising candidates to meet DOE's long-range efficiency, reliability and manufacturing cost goals. The critical issues being addressed under this program are intended to provide the science and engineering basis for the development of viable commercial processes and to improve module performance. The generic research issues addressed are: (1) quantitative analysis of processing steps to provide information for efficient commercial-scale equipment design and operation; (2) device characterization relating the device performance to materials properties and process conditions; (3) development of alloy materials with different bandgaps to allow improved device structures for stability and compatibility with module design; (4) development and improved window/heterojunction layers and contacts to improve device performance and reliability; and (5) evaluation of cell stability with respect to device structure and module encapsulation.

  13. The Final Step in 5.8S rRNA Processing Is Cytoplasmic in Saccharomyces cerevisiae▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Emma; Tollervey, David

    2010-01-01

    The 18S rRNA component of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) 40S ribosomes undergoes cytoplasmic 3′ cleavage following nuclear export, whereas exported pre-60S subunits were believed to contain only mature 5.8S and 25S rRNAs. However, in situ hybridization detected 3′-extended forms of 5.8S rRNA in the cytoplasm, which were lost when Crm1-dependent preribosome export was blocked by treatment with leptomycin B (LMB). LMB treatment rapidly blocked processing of 6S pre-rRNA to 5.8S rRNA, leading to TRAMP-dependent pre-rRNA degradation. The 6S pre-rRNA was coprecipitated with the 60S export adapter Nmd3 and cytoplasmic 60S synthesis factor Lsg1. The longer 5.8S+30 pre-rRNA (a form of 5.8S rRNA 3′ extended by ∼30 nucleotides) is processed to 6S by the nuclear exonuclease Rrp6, and nuclear pre-rRNA accumulated in the absence of Rrp6. In contrast, 6S to 5.8S processing requires the cytoplasmic exonuclease Ngl2, and cytoplasmic pre-rRNA accumulated in strains lacking Ngl2. We conclude that nuclear pre-60S particles containing the 6S pre-rRNA bind Nmd3 and Crm1 and are exported to the cytoplasm prior to final maturation by Ngl2. PMID:20008552

  14. Removal of organic and inorganic sulfur from Ohio coal by combined physical and chemical process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Attia, Y.A.; Zeky, M.El.; Lei, W.W.; Bavarian, F.; Yu, S.

    1989-04-28

    This project consisted of three sections. In the first part, the physical cleaning of Ohio coal by selective flocculation of ultrafine slurry was considered. In the second part, the mild oxidation process for removal of pyritic and organic sulfur.was investigated. Finally, in-the third part, the combined effects of these processes were studied. The physical cleaning and desulfurization of Ohio coal was achieved using selective flocculation of ultrafine coal slurry in conjunction with froth flotation as flocs separation method. The finely disseminated pyrite particles in Ohio coals, in particular Pittsburgh No.8 seam, make it necessary to use ultrafine ({minus}500 mesh) grinding to liberate the pyrite particles. Experiments were performed to identify the ``optimum`` operating conditions for selective flocculation process. The results indicated that the use of a totally hydrophobic flocculant (FR-7A) yielded the lowest levels of mineral matters and total sulfur contents. The use of a selective dispersant (PAAX) increased the rejection of pyritic sulfur further. In addition, different methods of floc separation techniques were tested. It was found that froth flotation system was the most efficient method for separation of small coal flocs.

  15. Development of an Innovative Laser-Assisted Coating Process for Extending Lifetime of Metal Casting Dies. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Madhav Rao Gonvindaraju

    1999-10-18

    Die casting dies used in the metal casting industry fail due to thermal fatigue cracking accompanied by the presence of residual tensile stresses, corrosion, erosion and wear of die surfaces. This phase 1 SBIR Final Report summarize Karta Technologies research involving the development of an innovative laser coating technology for metal casting dies. The process involves depositing complex protective coatings of nanocrystalline powders of TiC followed by a laser shot peening. The results indicate a significant improvement in corrosion and erosion resistance in molten aluminum for H13 die casting die steels. The laser-coated samples also showed improved surface finish, a homogeneous and uniform coating mircrostructure. The technology developed in this research can have a significant impact on the casting industry by saving the material costs involved in replacing dies, reducing downtime and improving the quality.

  16. Epithelial glycoprotein-2 expression is subject to regulatory processes in epithelial-mesenchymal transitions during metastases: an investigation of human cancers transplanted into severe combined immunodeficient mice.

    PubMed

    Jojović, M; Adam, E; Zangemeister-Wittke, U; Schumacher, U

    1998-10-01

    The human cell-surface antigen epithelial glycoprotein-2 recognized by the monoclonal antibody MOC-31 is an epithelial tumour-associated glycoprotein expressed in non-squamous carcinomas. MOC-31 immunoreactivity was investigated in human breast, colon, ovarian and lung cancer cell lines, grown either in vitro or in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice as solid tumours and/or metastases. Three of four small-cell lung cancer cell lines (NCI-H69, OH3 and SW2) and three of four ovarian cancer cell lines (SoTu 1, 3 and 4) expressed epithelial glycoprotein-2. In contrast, all three breast (MCF-7, BT20, T47D) and all three colon (HT29, CACO2, SW480) cancer cell lines strongly reacted with monoclonal antibody MOC-31. A notable difference in MOC-31 immunoreactivity was observed in spontaneously formed lung metastases of HT29 colon cancer cells. Whereas larger metastases (> 30 cells) reacted with a similar staining pattern to the primary tumour, smaller metastases did not. These findings indicate that differentiation processes during the epithelial-mesenchymal transition occur in metastases, which lead to a transient loss of epithelial glycoprotein-2 expression during the migratory and early post-migratory period. This loss of antigen expression indicates that the process of metastases formation is a regulatory event, and this transient loss of antigen expression might represent a potential obstacle to antibody-based therapy in the setting of minimal residual disease.

  17. Multiple feedback loop design in the tryptophan regulatory network of Escherichia coli suggests a paradigm for robust regulation of processes in series

    PubMed Central

    Bhartiya, Sharad; Chaudhary, Nikhil; Venkatesh, K.V; Doyle, Francis J

    2005-01-01

    Biological networks have evolved through adaptation in uncertain environments. Of the different possible design paradigms, some may offer functional advantages over others. These designs can be quantified by the structure of the network resulting from molecular interactions and the parameter values. One may, therefore, like to identify the design motif present in the evolved network that makes it preferable over other alternatives. In this work, we focus on the regulatory networks characterized by serially arranged processes, which are regulated by multiple feedback loops. Specifically, we consider the tryptophan system present in Escherichia coli, which may be conceptualized as three processes in series, namely transcription, translation and tryptophan synthesis. The multiple feedback loop motif results from three distinct negative feedback loops, namely genetic repression, mRNA attenuation and enzyme inhibition. A framework is introduced to identify the key design components of this network responsible for its physiological performance. We demonstrate that the multiple feedback loop motif, as seen in the tryptophan system, enables robust performance to variations in system parameters while maintaining a rapid response to achieve homeostasis. Superior performance, if arising from a design principle, is intrinsic and, therefore, inherent to any similarly designed system, either natural or engineered. An experimental engineering implementation of the multiple feedback loop design on a two-tank system supports the generality of the robust attributes offered by the design. PMID:16849267

  18. Cluster analysis of Plasmodium RNA-seq time-course data identifies stage-specific co-regulated biological processes and regulatory elements

    PubMed Central

    Oyelade, Jelili; Adebiyi, Ezekiel

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we interpreted RNA-seq time-course data of three developmental stages of Plasmodium species by clustering genes based on similarities in their expression profile without prior knowledge of the gene function. Functional enrichment of clusters of upregulated genes at specific time-points reveals potential targetable biological processes with information on their timings. We identified common consensus sequences that these clusters shared as potential points of coordinated transcriptional control. Five cluster groups showed upregulated profile patterns of biological interest. This included two clusters from the Intraerythrocytic Developmental Cycle (cluster 4 = 16 genes, and cluster 9 = 32 genes), one from the sexual development stage (cluster 2 = 851 genes), and two from the gamete-fertilization stage in the mosquito host (cluster 4 = 153 genes, and cluster 9 = 258 genes). The IDC expressed the least numbers of genes with only 1448 genes showing any significant activity of the 5020 genes (~29%) in the experiment. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis of these clusters revealed a total of 671 uncharacterized genes implicated in 14 biological processes and components associated with these stages, some of which are currently being investigated as drug targets in on-going research. Five putative transcription regulatory binding motifs shared by members of each cluster were also identified, one of which was also identified in a previous study by separate researchers. Our study shows stage-specific genes and biological processes that may be important in antimalarial drug research efforts. In addition, timed-coordinated control of separate processes may explain the paucity of factors in parasites. PMID:27990252

  19. Liquid-phase methanation/shift process development. Final technical report, September 1, 1980-November 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-12

    This final technical report covers the work performed between September 1, 1980 and November 30, 1981 relating to Chem Systems' Liquid Phase Methanation/Shift Process. A total of 44 runs were completed covering testing of five commercially available catalysts at 900/sup 0/F, 1000 psig and 10,000 h/sup -1/ VHSV. The shifted methanation feed gas consisted of 63% H/sub 2/, 19% CO, 2% CO/sub 2/ and 16% CH/sub 4/. To determine the effects of steam, twenty of the scans had 15% steam injected into the feed gas. Each test ran for 100, 300, 600 or 1200 hours with continuous effluent sampling and temperature profile monitoring. At each of the termination points, a catalyst sample was taken from the hot spot section of the bed for analysis. Carbon was deposited on the catalyst under the methanation conditions studied. The rate of carbon deposition was primarily a function of catalyst properties and not of the thermodynamics of the methanation reaction system. In spite of heavy carbon deposition, the catalytic behavior for these systems generally remains unaffected. Physical plugging of the catalyst bed is the limiting condition of the process and not catalyst deactivation. In this respect, a controlled oxidation of the carbon deposits is a viable method of extending catalyst life. The hydrodynamics and design of a cold-flow test unit for a three-phase, liquid-fluidized bed for Liquid Phase Methanation/Shift was evaluated. The cold-flow unit process design, equipment take-off lists, consruction cost and timing schedule are included. As a second potential application, the unit was designed for hydrodynamic studies of a liquid-entrained system for Liquid Phase Methanation/Shift.

  20. Microbial regulatory and metabolic networks.

    PubMed

    Cho, Byung-Kwan; Charusanti, Pep; Herrgård, Markus J; Palsson, Bernhard O

    2007-08-01

    Reconstruction of transcriptional regulatory and metabolic networks is the foundation of large-scale microbial systems and synthetic biology. An enormous amount of information including the annotated genomic sequences and the genomic locations of DNA-binding regulatory proteins can be used to define metabolic and regulatory networks in cells. In particular, advances in experimental methods to map regulatory networks in microbial cells have allowed reliable data-driven reconstruction of these networks. Recent work on metabolic engineering and experimental evolution of microbes highlights the key role of global regulatory networks in controlling specific metabolic processes and the need to consider the integrated function of multiple types of networks for both scientific and engineering purposes.

  1. 77 FR 40793 - West Virginia Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-11

    ... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 948 West Virginia Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM), Interior. ACTION: Interim final rule... Virginia regulatory program (the West Virginia program) under the Surface Mining Control and...

  2. 78 FR 10512 - Wyoming Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 950 Wyoming Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Interior. ACTION: Final rule; approval of amendment... regulatory program (the ``Wyoming program'') under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of...

  3. Regulatory Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes the term “safety logics” to understand attempts within the European Union (EU) to harmonize member state legislation to ensure a safe and stable supply of human biological material for transplants and transfusions. With safety logics, I refer to assemblages of discourses, legal documents, technological devices, organizational structures, and work practices aimed at minimizing risk. I use this term to reorient the analytical attention with respect to safety regulation. Instead of evaluating whether safety is achieved, the point is to explore the types of “safety” produced through these logics as well as to consider the sometimes unintended consequences of such safety work. In fact, the EU rules have been giving rise to complaints from practitioners finding the directives problematic and inadequate. In this article, I explore the problems practitioners face and why they arise. In short, I expose the regulatory anatomy of the policy landscape. PMID:26139952

  4. Regulatory Physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Putcha, Lakshmi; Baker, Ellen; Smith, Scott M.; Stewart, Karen; Gretebeck, Randall; Nimmagudda, R. R.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Davis-Street, Janis

    1999-01-01

    As noted elsewhere in this report, a central goal of the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was to ensure that cardiovascular and muscle function were adequate to perform an emergency egress after 16 days of spaceflight. The goals of the Regulatory Physiology component of the EDOMP were to identify and subsequently ameliorate those biochemical and nutritional factors that deplete physiological reserves or increase risk for disease, and to facilitate the development of effective muscle, exercise, and cardiovascular countermeasures. The component investigations designed to meet these goals focused on biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrition and metabolism, the risk of renal (kidney) stone formation, gastrointestinal function, and sleep in space. Investigations involved both ground-based protocols to validate proposed methods and flight studies to test those methods. Two hardware tests were also completed.

  5. 78 FR 4914 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... delisting process include significant Staff time and resources to prepare for and conduct hearings and... the costs of transcription of the proceedings and expenses for the Panelists and members of the NLHRC... the status of all companies in the deficiency process.\\4\\ Finally, NASDAQ expends regulatory...

  6. The initial and final states of electron and energy transfer processes: Diabatization as motivated by system-solvent interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Subotnik, Joseph E.; Cave, Robert J.; Steele, Ryan P.; Shenvi, Neil

    2009-06-21

    For a system which undergoes electron or energy transfer in a polar solvent, we define the diabatic states to be the initial and final states of the system, before and after the nonequilibrium transfer process. We consider two models for the system-solvent interactions: A solvent which is linearly polarized in space and a solvent which responds linearly to the system. From these models, we derive two new schemes for obtaining diabatic states from ab initio calculations of the isolated system in the absence of solvent. These algorithms resemble standard approaches for orbital localization, namely, the Boys and Edmiston-Ruedenberg (ER) formalisms. We show that Boys localization is appropriate for describing electron transfer [Subotnik et al., J. Chem. Phys. 129, 244101 (2008)] while ER describes both electron and energy transfer. Neither the Boys nor the ER methods require definitions of donor or acceptor fragments and both are computationally inexpensive. We investigate one chemical example, the case of oligomethylphenyl-3, and we provide attachment/detachment plots whereby the ER diabatic states are seen to have localized electron-hole pairs.

  7. Development of a new process for treatment of paint sludge wastes. Final report, May 1986-December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Balasco, A.A.; Bodek, I.; Goldman, M.E.; Mazrimas, M.J.; Rossetti, M.

    1987-12-31

    This report presents the results of laboratory tests performed on paint-waste samples obtained from the Letterkenny Army Depot (LEAD). The purpose of these tests was to determine if the ash residue from a thermal-treatment process such as combustion would be classified as hazardous according to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). In addition, the feasibility of generating a glassified product from the ash which would be classified as non-hazardous was also tested. Finally, tests were also performed to determine if recovery of selected metals from the ash is feasible. The results of the laboratory program suggest that thermal treatment of paint waste under some conditions may be feasible for generation of non-hazardous ash residue. Further experiments on a pilot-scale are recommended, however, to investigate this approach to determine the need for subsequent treatment (e.g., glassification and/or recovery) of the ash product and the actual destruction efficiency of organic components.

  8. Docosahexaenoic acid inhibits proteolytic processing of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) via activation of AMP-activated kinase.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiong; Dong, Qingming; Bridges, Dave; Raghow, Rajendra; Park, Edwards A; Elam, Marshall B

    2015-12-01

    In hyperinsulinemic states including obesity and T2DM, overproduction of fatty acid and triglyceride contributes to steatosis of the liver, hyperlipidemia and hepatic insulin resistance. This effect is mediated in part by the transcriptional regulator sterol responsive element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), which stimulates the expression of genes involved in hepatic fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis. SREBP-1c is up regulated by insulin both via increased transcription of nascent full-length SREBP-1c and by enhanced proteolytic processing of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-bound precursor to yield the transcriptionally active n-terminal form, nSREBP-1c. Polyunsaturated fatty acids of marine origin (n-3 PUFA) prevent induction of SREBP-1c by insulin thereby reducing plasma and hepatic triglycerides. Despite widespread use of n-3 PUFA supplements to reduce triglycerides in clinical practice, the exact mechanisms underlying their hypotriglyceridemic effect remain elusive. Here we demonstrate that the n-3 PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:5 n-3) reduces nSREBP-1c by inhibiting regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) of the nascent SREBP-1c. We further show that this effect of DHA is mediated both via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and by inhibition of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). The inhibitory effect of AMPK on SREBP-1c processing is linked to phosphorylation of serine 365 of SREBP-1c in the rat. We have defined a novel regulatory mechanism by which n-3 PUFA inhibit induction of SREBP-1c by insulin. These findings identify AMPK as an important negative regulator of hepatic lipid synthesis and as a potential therapeutic target for hyperlipidemia in obesity and T2DM.

  9. Vet Centers. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-03-02

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) adopts as final an interim final rule that amends its medical regulation that governs Vet Center services. The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013 (the 2013 Act) requires Vet Centers to provide readjustment counseling services to broader groups of veterans, members of the Armed Forces, including a member of a reserve component of the Armed Forces, and family members of such veterans and members. This final rule adopts as final the regulatory criteria to conform to the 2013 Act, to include new and revised definitions.

  10. Advanced Reactor Technology -- Regulatory Technology Development Plan (RTDP)

    SciTech Connect

    Moe, Wayne Leland

    2015-05-01

    This DOE-NE Advanced Small Modular Reactor (AdvSMR) regulatory technology development plan (RTDP) will link critical DOE nuclear reactor technology development programs to important regulatory and policy-related issues likely to impact a “critical path” for establishing a viable commercial AdvSMR presence in the domestic energy market. Accordingly, the regulatory considerations that are set forth in the AdvSMR RTDP will not be limited to any one particular type or subset of advanced reactor technology(s) but rather broadly consider potential regulatory approaches and the licensing implications that accompany all DOE-sponsored research and technology development activity that deal with commercial non-light water reactors. However, it is also important to remember that certain “minimum” levels of design and safety approach knowledge concerning these technology(s) must be defined and available to an extent that supports appropriate pre-licensing regulatory analysis within the RTDP. Final resolution to advanced reactor licensing issues is most often predicated on the detailed design information and specific safety approach as documented in a facility license application and submitted for licensing review. Because the AdvSMR RTDP is focused on identifying and assessing the potential regulatory implications of DOE-sponsored reactor technology research very early in the pre-license application development phase, the information necessary to support a comprehensive regulatory analysis of a new reactor technology, and the resolution of resulting issues, will generally not be available. As such, the regulatory considerations documented in the RTDP should be considered an initial “first step” in the licensing process which will continue until a license is issued to build and operate the said nuclear facility. Because a facility license application relies heavily on the data and information generated by technology development studies, the anticipated regulatory

  11. Exploring the fundamentals of radical assisted NO{sub x} reduction processes of coal combustors. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chess, K.; Yao, S.C.; Russell, A.G.

    1996-05-31

    This report describes experimental studies performed at Carnegie Mellon University to study the parameters that affect the performance of plasma-assisted ammonia radical injection for NO{sub x} control from stationary combustion sources. First, the NO{sub x} reduction potential of hot ammonia injection was studied to determine whether the use of the plasma for radical generation was key to the high NO{sub x} reduction potential of the plasma deNO{sub x} process. It was found that while some of the NO{sub x} reduction in the plasma deNO{sub x} demonstration experiments could be attributed to the enhanced thermal breakdown of NH{sub 3} into NO{sub x} reducing radicals, the effect of using the plasma accounted for 15--35% absolute additional NO{sub x} reduction beyond any thermal benefit. This benefit of using the plasma increases with increased excess air and decreased flue gas temperature. With the benefit of using the plasma verified on the larger scale of a demonstration experiment, two additional experiments were performed to study the parameters that affect plasma deNO{sub x} performance on the local level. The opposed flow experiment failed to produce significant NO{sub x} reduction, although it did highlight some key aspects of plasma performance with ammonia injection. The reverse injection experiment successfully demonstrated the effects of NO-stream temperature, plasma power, and ammonia flow rate on plasma deNO{sub x} performance. Finally, a preliminary study of the chemical kinetics of the plasma deNO{sub x} system was performed. This study highlighted the importance of effective plasma temperature and the residence time of the reagent at that temperature to efficient radical generation.

  12. Chemical kinetics and transport processes in supercritical fluid extraction of coal. Final report, August 10, 1990--December 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, B.J.; Smith, J.M.; Wang, M.; Zhang, C.J.

    1993-02-01

    The overall objective of this project was to study the supercritical fluid extraction of hydrocarbons from coal. Beyond the practical concern of deriving products from coal, the research has provided insights into the structure, properties, and reactivities of coal. Information on engineering fundamentals of coal thermolysis and extraction, including physical and chemical processes, is presented in this final report. To accomplish the goals of the project we developed continuous-flow experiments for fixed-bed samples of coal that allow two types of analysis of the extract: continuous spectrophotometric absorbance measurements of the lumped concentration of extract, and chromatographic determinations of molecular-weight distributions as a function of time. Thermolysis of coal yields a complex mixture of many extract products whose molecular-weight distribution (MWD) varies with time for continuous-flow, semibatch experiments. The flow reactor with a differential, fixed bed of coal particles contacted by supercritical t-butanol was employed to provide dynamic MWD data by means of HPLC gel permeation chromatography of the extract. The experimental results, time-dependent MWDs of extract molecules, were interpreted by a novel mathematical model based on continuous-mixture kinetics for thermal cleavage of chemical bonds in the coal network. The parameters for the MWDs of extractable groups in the coal and the rate constants for one- and two-fragment reaction are determined from the experimental data. The significant effect of temperature on the kinetics of the extraction was explained in terms of one- and two-fragment reactions in the coal.

  13. Cognitive regulatory control therapies.

    PubMed

    Bowins, Brad

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive regulatory control processes play an essential but typically unappreciated role in maintaining mental health. The purpose of the current paper is to identify this role and demonstrate how cognitive-behavioral and related techniques can compensate for impairments. Impaired cognitive regulation contributes to the overly intense emotional states present in anxiety disorders, depression, and personality disorders; progression of adaptive hypomania to mania; expression of psychosis in the conscious and awake state; dominance of immature defense mechanisms in borderline and other personality disorders. A wide variety of standard (monitoring, reappraisal, response inhibition, relaxation training) and more novel (suppression therapy, willful detachment, cost-benefit analysis, normalization, mature defense mechanism training) cognitive-behavioral and related techniques can be applied to compensate for cognitive regulatory control impairments, and their success probably aligns with this capacity.

  14. A global regulatory science agenda for vaccines.

    PubMed

    Elmgren, Lindsay; Li, Xuguang; Wilson, Carolyn; Ball, Robert; Wang, Junzhi; Cichutek, Klaus; Pfleiderer, Michael; Kato, Atsushi; Cavaleri, Marco; Southern, James; Jivapaisarnpong, Teeranart; Minor, Philip; Griffiths, Elwyn; Sohn, Yeowon; Wood, David

    2013-04-18

    The Decade of Vaccines Collaboration and development of the Global Vaccine Action Plan provides a catalyst and unique opportunity for regulators worldwide to develop and propose a global regulatory science agenda for vaccines. Regulatory oversight is critical to allow access to vaccines that are safe, effective, and of assured quality. Methods used by regulators need to constantly evolve so that scientific and technological advances are applied to address challenges such as new products and technologies, and also to provide an increased understanding of benefits and risks of existing products. Regulatory science builds on high-quality basic research, and encompasses at least two broad categories. First, there is laboratory-based regulatory science. Illustrative examples include development of correlates of immunity; or correlates of safety; or of improved product characterization and potency assays. Included in such science would be tools to standardize assays used for regulatory purposes. Second, there is science to develop regulatory processes. Illustrative examples include adaptive clinical trial designs; or tools to analyze the benefit-risk decision-making process of regulators; or novel pharmacovigilance methodologies. Included in such science would be initiatives to standardize regulatory processes (e.g., definitions of terms for adverse events [AEs] following immunization). The aim of a global regulatory science agenda is to transform current national efforts, mainly by well-resourced regulatory agencies, into a coordinated action plan to support global immunization goals. This article provides examples of how regulatory science has, in the past, contributed to improved access to vaccines, and identifies gaps that could be addressed through a global regulatory science agenda. The article also identifies challenges to implementing a regulatory science agenda and proposes strategies and actions to fill these gaps. A global regulatory science agenda will enable

  15. Heart Rate and Oxygen Uptake Kinetics in Type 2 Diabetes Patients - A Pilot Study on the Influence of Cardiovascular Medication on Regulatory Processes.

    PubMed

    Koschate, Jessica; Drescher, Uwe; Baum, Klaus; Brinkmann, Christian; Schiffer, Thorsten; Latsch, Joachim; Brixius, Klara; Hoffmann, Uwe

    2017-02-15

    The aim of this pilot study was to investigate whether there are differences in heart rate and oxygen uptake kinetics in type 2 diabetes patients, considering their cardiovascular medication. It was hypothesized that cardiovascular medication would affect heart rate and oxygen uptake kinetics and that this could be detected using a standardized exercise test. 18 subjects were tested for maximal oxygen uptake. Kinetics were measured in a single test session with standardized, randomized moderate-intensity work rate changes. Time series analysis was used to estimate kinetics. Greater maxima in cross-correlation functions indicate faster kinetics. 6 patients did not take any cardiovascular medication, 6 subjects took peripherally acting medication and 6 patients were treated with centrally acting medication. Maximum oxygen uptake was not significantly different between groups. Significant main effects were identified regarding differences in muscular oxygen uptake kinetics and heart rate kinetics. Muscular oxygen uptake kinetics were significantly faster than heart rate kinetics in the group with no cardiovascular medication (maximum in cross-correlation function of muscular oxygen uptake vs. heart rate; 0.32±0.08 vs. 0.25±0.06; p=0.001) and in the group taking peripherally acting medication (0.34±0.05 vs. 0.28±0.05; p=0.009) but not in the patients taking centrally acting medication (0.28±0.05 vs. 0.30±0.07; n.s.). It can be concluded that regulatory processes for the achievement of a similar maximal oxygen uptake are different between the groups. The used standardized test provided plausible results for heart rate and oxygen uptake kinetics in a single measurement session in this patient group.

  16. Regulatory ozone modeling: status, directions, and research needs.

    PubMed Central

    Georgopoulos, P G

    1995-01-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 have established selected comprehensive, three-dimensional, Photochemical Air Quality Simulation Models (PAQSMs) as the required regulatory tools for analyzing the urban and regional problem of high ambient ozone levels across the United States. These models are currently applied to study and establish strategies for meeting the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone in nonattainment areas; State Implementation Plans (SIPs) resulting from these efforts must be submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) in November 1994. The following presentation provides an overview and discussion of the regulatory ozone modeling process and its implications. First, the PAQSM-based ozone attainment demonstration process is summarized in the framework of the 1994 SIPs. Then, following a brief overview of the representation of physical and chemical processes in PAQSMs, the essential attributes of standard modeling systems currently in regulatory use are presented in a nonmathematical, self-contained format, intended to provide a basic understanding of both model capabilities and limitations. The types of air quality, emission, and meteorological data needed for applying and evaluating PAQSMs are discussed, as well as the sources, availability, and limitations of existing databases. The issue of evaluating a model's performance in order to accept it as a tool for policy making is discussed, and various methodologies for implementing this objective are summarized. Selected interim results from diagnostic analyses, which are performed as a component of the regulatory ozone modeling process for the Philadelphia-New Jersey region, are also presented to provide some specific examples related to the general issues discussed in this work. Finally, research needs related to a) the evaluation and refinement of regulatory ozone modeling, b) the characterization of uncertainty in photochemical modeling, and c

  17. 78 FR 15953 - Cooperative Agreement To Support Regulatory Research Related to Food and Drug Administration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... efforts to inform major initiatives for process improvement and regulatory science related to FDA... to help inform major initiatives for process improvement and regulatory ] science related to FDA... following: Enhancing regulatory science and expediting drug development; Advancing metaanalysis...

  18. SPIN CORRELATIONS OF THE FINAL LEPTONS IN THE TWO-PHOTON PROCESSES γγ → e+e-, μ+μ-, τ+τ-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyuboshitz, Valery V.; Lyuboshitz, Vladimir L.

    2014-12-01

    The spin structure of the process γγ → e+e- is theoretically investigated. It is shown that, if the primary photons are unpolarized, the final electron and positron are unpolarized as well but their spins are strongly correlated. For the final (e+e-) system, explicit expressions for the components of the correlation tensor are derived, and the relative fractions of singlet and triplet states are found. It is demonstrated that in the process γγ → e+e- one of the Bell-type incoherence inequalities for the correlation tensor components is always violated and, thus, spin correlations of the electron and positron in this process have the strongly pronounced quantum character. Analogous consideration can be wholly applied as well to the two-photon processes γγ → μ+μ- and γγ → τ+τ-, which become possible at considerably higher energies.

  19. 78 FR 76973 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ..., and 225 Regulations H, Q, and Y RIN 7100-AD 87 Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital... System. ACTION: Correction, final rule. SUMMARY: The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System..., 2013. Robert deV. Frierson, Secretary of the Board. BILLING CODE 6210-01-P...

  20. Levels of Possession of Science Process Skills by Final Year Students of Colleges of Education in South-Eastern States of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akani, Omiko

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the levels of possession of science process skills by final year Nigerian Certificate in Education (NCE) Students in colleges of Education in South-Eastern States of Nigeria. The skills that were assessed were observation, experimentation, measurement, communication, and inference. The research was guided by five research…

  1. The Regulatory Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... [The Regulatory Plan and Unified Agenda of Federal Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions] #7; #7; The Regulatory Plan #7; #7; ] OPEN GOVERNMENT AND EVIDENCE-BASED REGULATION There is a close connection, even an inextricable relationship, between open government and evidence- based regulation. If regulatory choices are based on careful analysis of...

  2. Regulatory Mechanisms of Hsp90

    PubMed Central

    Prodromou, Chrisostomos

    2017-01-01

    The ability of Hsp90 to activate a disparate clientele implicates this chaperone in diverse biological processes. To accommodate such varied roles, Hsp90 requires a variety of regulatory mechanisms that are coordinated in order to modulate its activity appropriately. Amongst these, the master-regulator heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) is critically important in upregulating Hsp90 during stress, but is also responsible, through interaction with specific transcription factors (such as STAT1 and Strap/p300) for the integration of a variety of biological signals that ultimately modulate Hsp90 expression. Additionally, transcription factors, such as STAT1, STAT3 (including STAT1-STAT3 oligomers), NF-IL6, and NF-kB, are known to influence Hsp90 expression directly. Co-chaperones offer another mechanism for Hsp90 regulation, and these can modulate the chaperone cycle appropriately for specific clientele. Co-chaperones include those that deliver specific clients to Hsp90, and others that regulate the chaperone cycle for specific Hsp90-client complexes by modulating Hsp90s ATPase activity. Finally, post-translational modification (PTM) of Hsp90 and its co-chaperones helps too further regulate the variety of different Hsp90 complexes found in cells. PMID:28289734

  3. Energy use patterns and environmental implications of direct-fired industrial processes. Final report 16 June-19 December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, J.R.; Blacksmith, J.R.; Spaite, P.W.

    1980-08-01

    Energy consumption patterns and environmental impacts of direct-fired processes in the industrial sector were identified. The potential effects of fuel switching in several of these processes were determined. An extensive bibliography lists the sources consulted in this study.

  4. Process feasibility study in support of silicon material Task I. Final report, October 1, 1975-February 6, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Yaws, C.L.; Li, K.Y.; Hopper, J.R.; Fang, C.S.; Hansen, K.C.

    1981-02-06

    The Low-Cost Solar Array (LSA) Project is directed toward effective cost reduction in the production of silicon for solar cells. Results are presented for process system properties, chemical engineering and economic analyses of the new technologies and processes being developed for the production of lower cost silicon for solar cells. Major physical, thermodynamic and transport property data are reported for the following silicon source and processing chemical materials: silane, silicon tetrachloride, trichlorosilane, dichlorosilane, silicon tetrafluoride, and silicon. The property data are reported for critical temperature, critical pressure, critical volume, vapor pressure, heat of vaporization, heat capacity, density, surface tension, viscosity, thermal conductivity, heat of formation and Gibb's free energy of formation. Chemical engineering analyses involving the preliminary process design of a plant (1000 MT/yr capacity) to produce silicon via the technology under consideration were accomplished for the following processes: UCC silane process for silicon, BCL process for silicon, conventional polysilicon process (Siemens technology), SiI/sub 4/ decomposition process, and DCS process (dichlorosilane).Major activities in chemical engineering analyses include base case conditions, reaction chemistry, process flowsheet, material balance, energy balance, property data, equipment design, major equipment list, production labor and forward for economic analysis. The process design package provides detailed data for raw materials, utilities, major process equipment and production labor requirements necessary for polysilicon production in each process. Using detailed data from the process design package, economic analyses for a 1000 MT/yr silicon plant were accomplished. Primary results from the economic analyses included plant capital investment and product cost. Results are presented and discussed. (WHK)

  5. Full-scale implementation of the sodium sulfide/ferrous sulfate treatment process. Final report, October 1987-March 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Beller, J.M.; Carpenter, G.S.; McAtee, R.E.; Pryfogle, P.A.; Suciu, D.F.

    1989-09-01

    In Phase I, jar and dynamic testing showed that the sodium sulfide/ferrous sulfate process was a viable method for reducing hexavalent chromium and removing heavy metals from the Tinker AFB industrial wastewater with a significant decrease in sludge production and treatment costs. In Phase II pilot-plant field verification studies were conducted to evaluate the chemical and physical parameters of the chromium reduction process, the precipitation and clarification process, and the activated sludge system. Sludge production was evaluated and compared to the sulfuric acid/sulfur dioxide/lime process. The impact of and procedure for change-over to the sodium sulfide/ferrous sulfate process were also investigated.

  6. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, October 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.

    1991-11-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  7. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, November 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.

    1991-12-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  8. Environmental regulatory update table, July 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.

    1991-08-01

    This Environmental Regulatory Update Table (July 1991) provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  9. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, August 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Houlberg, L.M., Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.

    1991-09-01

    This Environmental Regulatory Update Table (August 1991) provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  10. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.

    1991-10-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  11. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, January 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, G.T.; Houlberg, L.M.; Salk, M.S.

    1991-02-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  12. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, October 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Houlberg, L.M.; Noghrei-Nikbakht, P.A.; Salk, M.S.

    1990-11-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  13. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  14. Environmental regulatory update table, March 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Houlberg, L.; Langston, M.E.; Nikbakht, A.; Salk, M.S.

    1989-04-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  15. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Houlberg, L.M.; Nikbakht, A.; Salk, M.S.

    1990-09-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  16. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, September 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Houlberg, L.M.; Nikbakht, A.; Salk, M.S.

    1990-10-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  17. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Houlbert, L.M.; Langston, M.E. ); Nikbakht, A.; Salk, M.S. )

    1990-01-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  18. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, April 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Houlberg, L.; Langston, M.E.; Nikbakht, A.; Salk, M.S.

    1989-05-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  19. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Supersonic Flight Operations in the Reserve Military Operations Area, Holloman, New Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    bmdn~ntaT perspective, the Air Force does not believe a test periodSis needed. The Oceana model was designed to be conservative in overpressure and...Individual: Alton Chavis, HQ TAC/DEEV, Langley AFB, VA 23665, Telephone (804) 764-4430. (d) Designation : Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS). (e...local economics. The Air Force has conducted an intensive literature review, conducted special tests and developed a sonic boom model to assess the

  20. The core regulatory network in human cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Man-Sun; Kim, Dongsan; Kang, Nam Sook; Kim, Jeong-Rae

    2017-03-04

    In order to discover the common characteristics of various cell types in the human body, many researches have been conducted to find the set of genes commonly expressed in various cell types and tissues. However, the functional characteristics of a cell is determined by the complex regulatory relationships among the genes rather than by expressed genes themselves. Therefore, it is more important to identify and analyze a core regulatory network where all regulatory relationship between genes are active across all cell types to uncover the common features of various cell types. Here, based on hundreds of tissue-specific gene regulatory networks constructed by recent genome-wide experimental data, we constructed the core regulatory network. Interestingly, we found that the core regulatory network is organized by simple cascade and has few complex regulations such as feedback or feed-forward loops. Moreover, we discovered that the regulatory links from genes in the core regulatory network to genes in the peripheral regulatory network are much more abundant than the reverse direction links. These results suggest that the core regulatory network locates at the top of regulatory network and plays a role as a 'hub' in terms of information flow, and the information that is common to all cells can be modified to achieve the tissue-specific characteristics through various types of feedback and feed-forward loops in the peripheral regulatory networks. We also found that the genes in the core regulatory network are evolutionary conserved, essential and non-disease, non-druggable genes compared to the peripheral genes. Overall, our study provides an insight into how all human cells share a common function and generate tissue-specific functional traits by transmitting and processing information through regulatory network.

  1. Cryogenic methane separation/catalytic hydrogasification process analysis. Final technical report, 23 July 1980-23 September 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Klosek, J.; Gramse, C.J.; Tsao, T.R.

    1981-10-20

    In a continuing effort to further optimize the CS/R (Rockwell) Coal Hydrogasification process and the Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) process, DOE extended the contract study, Cryogenic Methane Separation/Catalytic Hydrogasification Process Analysis (ET-78-C-01-3044). Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. was authorized to perform additional trade-off studies which were of interest to DOE, Rockwell, and Exxon as potential capital and operating cost savings for the two, third generation coal gasification processes. The scope of this contract extension was comprised of two (2) subtasks for the CS/R (Rockwell) process and nine (9) subtasks for the Exxon CCG process. A Task I type screening study was performed for all subtasks. The results of the evaluations are summarized below.

  2. Final Rule to Reduce Toxic Air Emissions from Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing Facilities Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains a February 2003 fact sheet with information regarding the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing.

  3. Pilot field-verification studies of the sodium sulfide/ferrous sulfate treatment process. Final report, September 1987-May 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Wiloff, P.M.; Suciu, D.F.; Prescott, D.S.; Schober, R.K.; Loyd, F.S.

    1988-09-01

    In previous project, jar and dynamic testing showed that the sodium sulfide/ferrous sulfate process was a viable method for reducing hexavalent chromium and removing heavy metals from the Tinker AFB industrial wastewater with significant decrease in sludge production and treatment costs. In this phase, pilot-plant field verification studies were conducted to evaluate the chemical and physical parameters of the chromium reduction process, the precipitation and clarification process, and the activated-sludge system. Sludge production was evaluated and compared to the sulfuric acid/sulfur dioxide/lime process.

  4. Controlling Methane Emissions in the Natural Gas Sector. A Review of Federal and State Regulatory Frameworks Governing Production, Gathering, Processing, Transmission, and Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Paranhos, Elizabeth; Kozak, Tracy G.; Boyd, William; Bradbury, James; Steinberg, D. C.; Arent, D. J.

    2015-04-23

    This report provides an overview of the regulatory frameworks governing natural gas supply chain infrastructure siting, construction, operation, and maintenance. Information was drawn from a number of sources, including published analyses, government reports, in addition to relevant statutes, court decisions and regulatory language, as needed. The scope includes all onshore facilities that contribute to methane emissions from the natural gas sector, focusing on three areas of state and federal regulations: (1) natural gas pipeline infrastructure siting and transportation service (including gathering, transmission, and distribution pipelines), (2) natural gas pipeline safety, and (3) air emissions associated with the natural gas supply chain. In addition, the report identifies the incentives under current regulatory frameworks to invest in measures to reduce leakage, as well as the barriers facing investment in infrastructure improvement to reduce leakage. Policy recommendations regarding how federal or state authorities could regulate methane emissions are not provided; rather, existing frameworks are identified and some of the options for modifying existing regulations or adopting new regulations to reduce methane leakage are discussed.

  5. Integrating process safety with molecular modeling-based risk assessment of chemicals within the REACH regulatory framework: benefits and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Amanda; Kazantzis, Nikolaos; Fishtik, Ilie; Wilcox, Jennifer

    2007-04-11

    Registration, evaluation and authorization of chemicals (REACH) represents a recent regulatory initiative by the European union commission to protect human health and the environment from potentially hazardous chemicals. Under REACH, all stakeholders must submit (thermo)physical, thermochemical, and toxicological data for certain chemicals. The commission's impact assessment studies estimate that the costs of REACH will be approximately 3-5 billion Euros. The present study advocates the systematic incorporation of computational chemistry and computer-assisted chemical risk assessment methods into REACH to reduce regulatory compliance costs. Currently powerful computer-aided ab initio techniques can be used to generate predictions of key properties of broad classes of chemicals, without resorting to costly experimentation and potentially hazardous testing. These data could be integrated into a centralized IT decision and compliance support system, and stored in a retrievable, easily communicable manner should new regulatory and/or production requirements necessitate the introduction of different uses of chemicals under different conditions. For illustration purposes, ab initio calculations are performed on heterocyclic nitrogen-containing compounds which currently serve as high energy density materials in the chemical industry. Since investigations of these compounds are still in their infancy, stability studies are imperative regarding their safe handling and storage, as well as registration under REACH.

  6. FINAL REPORT REGULATORY OFF GAS EMISSIONS TESTING ON THE DM1200 MELTER SYSTEM USING HLW AND LAW SIMULANTS VSL-05R5830-1 REV 0 10/31/05

    SciTech Connect

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; GONG W; BARDAKCI T; D'ANGELO NA; BRANDYS M; KOT WK; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29

    The operational requirements for the River Protection Project - Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) and High Level Waste (HLW) melter systems, together with the feed constituents, impose a number of challenges to the off-gas treatment system. The system must be robust from the standpoints of operational reliability and minimization of maintenance. The system must effectively control and remove a wide range of solid particulate matter, acid mists and gases, and organic constituents (including those arising from products of incomplete combustion of sugar and organics in the feed) to concentration levels below those imposed by regulatory requirements. The baseline design for the RPP-WTP LAW primary off-gas system includes a submerged bed scrubber (SBS), a wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP), and a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. The secondary off-gas system includes a sulfur-impregnated activated carbon bed (AC-S), a thermal catalytic oxidizer (TCO), a single-stage selective catalytic reduction NOx treatment system (SCR), and a packed-bed caustic scrubber (PBS). The baseline design for the RPP-WTP HLW primary off-gas system includes an SBS, a WESP, a high efficiency mist eliminator (HEME), and a HEPA filter. The HLW secondary off-gas system includes a sulfur-impregnated activated carbon bed, a silver mordenite bed, a TCO, and a single-stage SCR. The one-third scale HLW DM1200 Pilot Melter installed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) was equipped with a prototypical off-gas train to meet the needs for testing and confirmation of the performance of the baseline off-gas system design. Various modifications have been made to the DM1200 system as the details of the WTP design have evolved, including the installation of a silver mordenite column and an AC-S column for testing on a slipstream of the off-gas flow; the installation of a full-flow AC-S bed for the present tests was completed prior to initiation of testing. The DM1200

  7. Process development of itaconic acid production by a natural wild type strain of Aspergillus terreus to reach industrially relevant final titers.

    PubMed

    Krull, Susan; Hevekerl, Antje; Kuenz, Anja; Prüße, Ulf

    2017-02-25

    Itaconic acid is a promising organic acid and is commercially produced by submerged fermentation of Aspergillus terreus. The cultivation process of the sensitive filamentous fungus has been studied intensively since 1932, with respect to fermentation media components, oxygen supply, shearing rate, pH value, or culture method. Whereas increased final titers were achieved over the years, the productivity has so far remained quite low. In this study, the impact of the pH on the itaconic acid production was investigated in detail. The pH during the growth and production phase had a significant influence on the final itaconic acid concentration and pellet diameter. The highest itaconic acid concentration of 160 g/L was achieved at a 1.5-L scale within 6.7 days by raising and controlling the pH value to pH 3.4 in the production phase. An ammonia solution and an increased phosphate concentration were used with an itaconic acid yield of 0.46 (w/w) and an overall productivity of 0.99 g/L/h in a fed-batch mode. A cultivation with a lower phosphate concentration resulted in an equal final concentration with an increased yield of 0.58 (w/w) after 11.8 days and an overall productivity of 0.57 g/L/h. This optimized process was successfully transferred from a 1.5-L scale to a 15-L scale. After 9.7 days, comparable pellet morphology and a final concentration of 150 g/L itaconic acid was reached. This paper provides a process strategy to yield a final titer of itaconic acid from a wild-type strain of A. terreus which is in the same range as the well-known citric acid production.

  8. Processes of Skill Performance: A Foundation for the Design and Use of Training Equipment. Final Report, June 1978-July 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spears, William D.

    To lay a foundation for the design and effective use of low-cost, part-task and low-fidelity training devices, this report identifies dimensions of skill performance in terms of modern learning and behavior theory, and analyzes cognitive and motor skills as they relate to information processing. Cognitive processes discussed include task…

  9. 77 FR 35431 - Final Alternative Soils Standards for the Uravan, CO, Uranium Mill

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... COMMISSION Final Alternative Soils Standards for the Uravan, CO, Uranium Mill AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... of Colorado's proposed alternative soils standards will achieve a level of stabilization and... public hearing process required in Section 274o of the Act for proposed State alternative soil...

  10. Interrelation of technologies for RW preparation and sites for final isolation of the wastes from pyrochemical processing of SNF

    SciTech Connect

    Gupalo, V.S.; Chistyakov, V.N.; Kormilitsyn, M.V.; Kormilitsyna, L.A.

    2013-07-01

    For the justification of engineering solutions and practical testing of the radiochemical component of the perspective nuclear power complex with on-site variant of nuclear fuel cycle (NFC), it is planned to establish a multi-functional research-development complex (MFCRC) for radiochemical processing of spent nuclear fuels (SNF) from fast reactors. MFCRC is being established at the NIIAR site, it comprises technological process lines, where innovation pyro-electrochemical and hydrometallurgical technologies are realized, with an option for closing the inter-chain material flows for testing the combined radiochemically converted materials. The technological flowchart for processing at the MFCRC is subdivided into 3 segments: -) complex of the lead operations for dismantling the fuel elements (FE) and fuel assemblies (FA), -) pyrochemical extraction flowchart for processing SNF, and -) hydrometallurgical flowchart for processing SNF. The engineered solutions for the management and disposition of the radioactive wastes from MFCRC are reviewed.

  11. Evaluation of the freeze-thaw/evaporation process for the treatment of produced waters. Final report, August 1992--August 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Boysen, J.E.; Walker, K.L.; Mefford, J.L.; Kirsch, J.R.; Harju, J.A.

    1996-06-01

    The use of freeze-crystallization is becoming increasingly acknowledged as a low-cost, energy-efficient method for purifying contaminated water. The natural freezing process can be coupled with natural evaporative processes to treat oil and gas produced waters year round in regions where subfreezing temperatures seasonally occur. The climates typical of Colorado`s San Juan Basin and eastern slope, as well as the oil and gas producing regions of Wyoming, are well suited for application of these processes in combination. Specifically, the objectives of this research are related to the development of a commercially-economic FTE (freeze-thaw/evaporation) process for the treatment and purification of water produced in conjunction with oil and natural gas. The research required for development of this process consists of three tasks: (1) a literature survey and process modeling and economic analysis; (2) laboratory-scale process evaluation; and (3) field demonstration of the process. Results of research conducted for the completion of these three tasks indicate that produced water treatment and disposal costs for commercial application of the process, would be in the range of $0.20 to $0.30/bbl in the Rocky Mountain region. FTE field demonstration results from northwestern New Mexico during the winter of 1995--96 indicate significant and simultaneous removal of salts, metals, and organics from produced water. Despite the unusually warm winter, process yields demonstrate disposal volume reductions on the order of 80% and confirm the potential for economic production of water suitable for various beneficial uses. The total dissolved solids concentrations of the FTE demonstration streams were 11,600 mg/L (feed), 56,900 mg/L (brine), and 940 mg/L (ice melt).

  12. Gene regulatory networks and the underlying biology of developmental toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Embryonic cells are specified by large-scale networks of functionally linked regulatory genes. Knowledge of the relevant gene regulatory networks is essential for understanding phenotypic heterogeneity that emerges from disruption of molecular functions, cellular processes or sig...

  13. A genomic regulatory network for development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Eric H.; Rast, Jonathan P.; Oliveri, Paola; Ransick, Andrew; Calestani, Cristina; Yuh, Chiou-Hwa; Minokawa, Takuya; Amore, Gabriele; Hinman, Veronica; Arenas-Mena, Cesar; Otim, Ochan; Brown, C. Titus; Livi, Carolina B.; Lee, Pei Yun; Revilla, Roger; Rust, Alistair G.; Pan, Zheng jun; Schilstra, Maria J.; Clarke, Peter J C.; Arnone, Maria I.; Rowen, Lee; Cameron, R. Andrew; McClay, David R.; Hood, Leroy; Bolouri, Hamid

    2002-01-01

    Development of the body plan is controlled by large networks of regulatory genes. A gene regulatory network that controls the specification of endoderm and mesoderm in the sea urchin embryo is summarized here. The network was derived from large-scale perturbation analyses, in combination with computational methodologies, genomic data, cis-regulatory analysis, and molecular embryology. The network contains over 40 genes at present, and each node can be directly verified at the DNA sequence level by cis-regulatory analysis. Its architecture reveals specific and general aspects of development, such as how given cells generate their ordained fates in the embryo and why the process moves inexorably forward in developmental time.

  14. Final Air Toxics Standards for Clay Ceramics Manufacturing, Glass Manufacturing, and Secondary Nonferrous Metals Processing Area Sources Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains a December 2007 fact sheet with information regarding the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Clay Ceramics Manufacturing, Glass Manufacturing, and Secondary Nonferrous Metals Processing Area Sources

  15. Energy efficient membrane processes for the separation of organic liquids: Part 2: Final report, September 28, 1982--December 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Cabasso, I.; Acharya, H.R.; Korngold, E.; Liu, Z.; Stern, S.A.; Li, W.; Makenzie, T.; Poda, E.

    1987-10-01

    The present report demonstrates the use of membrane technology for dehydration processes concentrating on two examples: azeotropic separation of isopropanol-water, and separation of ethanol-water mixtures (starting at 84.5 wt. % ethanol where separation by distillation begins to be progressively more energy intensive). The principles of the membrane separation processes employed in such separations were discussed in Part I of the report. The advantage of the membrane processes is that they do not require the addition of a third component and separation is a continuous process. Pervaporation, perstraction, and air-sweep pervaporation were thoroughly studied for these separations. An urgent need for the identification of the appropriate membrane was realized. This study has revealed that ion-exchange membranes are suited for these separations. Results are discussed. 9 refs., 68 figs., 33 tabs.

  16. Energy efficient membrane processes for the separation of organic liquids: Part 1: Final report, September 28, 1982--December 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Cabasso, I.; Acharya, H.R.; Korngold, E.; Liu, Z.; Stern, S.A.; Li, W.; Makenzie, T.; Poda, E.

    1987-10-01

    The potential usefulness of two membrane processes, namely, pervaporation and perstraction, for separating azeotropic mixtures of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons was studied theoretically and experimentally. A third membrane process, osmotic phase-separation, was investigated experimentally. The separation of an azeotropic mixture of benzene and cyclohexane was used as an example. Part II of this report will discuss membrane processes for the separation of alcohol/water mixtures. Mathematical models of pervaporation and perstraction were developed for computer simulations of the processes. The perstraction model presented herein is the first of its kind. Additionally, the energy requirements and capital investments costs for the separation of an azeotropic benzene/cyclohexane mixture were determined and compared with those for extractive distillation. 31 refs., 64 figs., 19 tabs.

  17. Process for efficient fermentation and distillation for alcohol. Final report, 12 August 1981-15 June 1982

    SciTech Connect

    DeLair, C.M.

    1981-06-01

    The feasibility of a vapor-compression distillation column in conjunction with continuous fermentation is studied. The distillation process was studied and a small scale distillation model was constructed and tested. (MHR)

  18. Evaluation, engineering and development of advanced cyclone processes. Final separating media evaluation and test report (FSMER). Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This report consists of appendices pertaining to the separating media evaluation (calcium nitrate solution) and testing for an advanced cyclone process. Appendices include: materials safety data, aqueous medium regeneration, pH control strategy, and other notes and data.

  19. Fact Sheet - Final Air Toxics Rule for Steel Pickling and HCI Process Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fact Sheet summarizing the main points of the national emssions standard for hazaradous air pollutants (NESHAP) for Steel Pickling— HCl Process Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants as promulgated on June 22, 1999.

  20. 77 FR 52258 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; DoD Voucher Processing (DFARS Case 2011-D054)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... are subject to a later audit of actual costs incurred. II. Discussion and Analysis One respondent... used to process vouchers. However, a final regulatory flexibility analysis has been performed... response to the initial regulatory flexibility analysis and no comments were filed by the Chief Counsel...

  1. Alternatives to animal experimentation: The regulatory background

    SciTech Connect

    Garthoff, Bernward . E-mail: bernward.garthoff@bayercropscience.com

    2005-09-01

    The framework, in which alternatives to animal experiments can be developed, standardized, respectively formally validated, has to be seen in a global context. The ever increasing demand of testing for hazard and risk assessment in health and environment, exemplified by the EU REACH program, subsequently triggers laboratory animal testing. This holds especially true, if no valid alternative methods agreed to by the regulatory authorities and the scientific community are available. At least for regulatory toxicity testing, the global frame and network are given by institutions such as OECD, ICH, and alike. However, due to the necessity of global consent of states, organizations, and stakeholders, the time gap between availability of a novel alternative test method and its final acceptance by authorities and implementation thereafter is widening. The lack of new technologies or opportunities for alternative method application such as, for example, the broad use of transgenic animals for refinement of existing tests, adds to the problem. The bare existence of certain in vivo tests increases also the gap between public demands for testing versus availability of alternative tests. Industries operating on a worldwide basis support the alternative test development in their respective area of research and operational business. However, a more coordinating approach such as that of the ecopa-organization (European Consensus Platform on Alternatives) is needed to exploit the existing possibilities within the current regulatory framework. This will speed up the process of acceptance and challenge the political worldto feel responsible for the sequels of their demanding more testing, that is, by funding alternative method development in academia and industry.

  2. Alternatives to animal experimentation: the regulatory background.

    PubMed

    Garthoff, Bernward

    2005-09-01

    The framework, in which alternatives to animal experiments can be developed, standardized, respectively formally validated, has to be seen in a global context. The ever increasing demand of testing for hazard and risk assessment in health and environment, exemplified by the EU REACH program, subsequently triggers laboratory animal testing. This holds especially true, if no valid alternative methods agreed to by the regulatory authorities and the scientific community are available. At least for regulatory toxicity testing, the global frame and network are given by institutions such as OECD, ICH, and alike. However, due to the necessity of global consent of states, organizations, and stakeholders, the time gap between availability of a novel alternative test method and its final acceptance by authorities and implementation thereafter is widening. The lack of new technologies or opportunities for alternative method application such as, for example, the broad use of transgenic animals for refinement of existing tests, adds to the problem. The bare existence of certain in vivo tests increases also the gap between public demands for testing versus availability of alternative tests. Industries operating on a worldwide basis support the alternative test development in their respective area of research and operational business. However, a more coordinating approach such as that of the ecopa-organization (European Consensus Platform on Alternatives) is needed to exploit the existing possibilities within the current regulatory framework. This will speed up the process of acceptance and challenge the political world to feel responsible for the sequels of their demanding more testing, that is, by funding alternative method development in academia and industry.

  3. Integrated mild gasification processing at the Homer City Electric Power Generating Station site. Final report, July 1989--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Battista, J.J.; Zawadzki, E.A.

    1993-07-01

    A new process for the production of commercial grade coke, char, and carbon products has been evaluated by Penelec/NYSEG. The process, developed by Coal Technology Corporation, CTC, utilizes a unique screw reactor to produce a devolatilized char from a wide variety of coals for the production of commercial grade coke for use in blast furnaces, foundries, and other processes requiring high quality coke. This process is called the CTC Mild Gasification Process (MGP). The process economics are significantly enhanced by integrating the new technology into an existing power generating complex. Cost savings are realized by the coke producer, the coke user, and the electric utility company. Site specific economic studies involving the Homer City Generating Station site in Western Pennsylvania, confirmed that an integrated MGP at the Homer City site, using coal fines produced at the Homer City Coal Preparation Plant, would reduce capital and operating costs significantly and would enable the HC Owners to eliminate thermal dryers, obtain low cost fuel in the form of combustible gases and liquids, and obtain lower cost replacement coal on the spot market. A previous report, identified as the Interim Report on the Project, details the technical and economic studies.

  4. Development of a quality pedigree process and application to the Duane Arnold Energy Center probabilistic safety assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, V.M.; Burns, E.T.; Hughes, E.A.; Stewart, M.A.; Lanc, T.L.

    1996-08-01

    The probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) has become increasingly recognized by the USNRC and the industry as a useful complement to the more traditional deterministic analyses to support plant decision making. The benefits of a living PSA include its use in supporting licensing actions, license renewals, risk management, and integrated safety assessments. EPRI developed and implemented a quality pedigree process for the Duane Arnold Energy Center (DAEC) PSA that can be beneficially and cost-effectively applied at other utilities. The PSA pedigree process described in this report is comprised of a governing administrative PSA control procedure and PSA group internally administered guidelines. Controls are provided for the following PSA areas: personnel responsibilities, group training requirements, review processes, documentation, and maintenance. A number of lessons learned regarding the development and implementation of a pedigree process are also presented. These lessons address the structure of the pedigree process, PSA applications, the PSA review process, effects of the pedigree on PSA inputs, and DAEC plant-specific results. 32 refs.

  5. Computer-based tutors for explaining and managing the process of diagnostic reasoning. Final report, March 1985-December 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Clancey, W.J.

    1988-12-01

    AI(Artificial intelligence)-based instructional programs, often called intelligent tutoring systems (ITS), use qualitative modeling techniques to represent: (1) processes in the subject domain (e.g., a steam propulsion plant, an electronic circuit), (2) problem-solving processes (e.g., diagnostic strategy, programming methods), and (3) communication processes (e.g., the Socratic method, case-method discourse, and rhetorical principles in explanation) ('Qualitative student models'). Typically, instructional programs may represent only one or two kinds of these processes. When a simulation model of problem-solving processes is incorporated in the program, a basis is provided for evaluating and assisting the student in a very general way. Such programs, which can solve the same problems given to a student, are called knowledge-based tutors (Knowledge-based Tutoring). Early in this research, the author identified the importance of representing problem-solving processes in a well-structured procedural language. In a sequence of programs, we demonstrated basic AL techniques for achieving the separation of domain facts from a diagnostic procedure (NEOMYCIN), and the advantages of this separation for explanation and student modeling (IMAGE, ODYSSEUS). The generalization of the work has had a significant impact on expert systems and tutoring research.

  6. Structure-property characterization of rheocast and VADER processed IN-100 superalloy. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, J. J. A.; Apelian, D.

    1985-01-01

    Two recent solidification processes have been applied in the production of IN-100 nickel-base superalloy: rheocasting and vacuum arc double electrode remelting (VADER). A detailed microstructural examination has been made of the products of these two processes; associated tensile strength and fatigue crack propagation (FCP) rate at an elevated temperature were evaluated. In rheocasting, processing variables that have been evaluated include stirring speed, isothermal stirring time and volume fraction solid during isothermal stirring. VADER processed IN-100 was purchased from Special Metals Corp., New Hartford, NY. As-cast ingots were subjected to hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and heat treatment. Both rheocasting and VADER processed materials yield fine and equiaxed spherical structures, with reduced macrosegregation in comparison to ingot materials. The rheocast structures are discussed on the basis of the Vogel-Doherty-Cantor model of dendrite arm fragmentation. The rheocast ingots evaluated were superior in yield strength to both VADER and commercially cast IN-100 alloy. Rheocast and VADER ingots may have higher crack propagation resistance than P/M processed material.

  7. Regulatory Network Structure as a Dominant Determinant of Transcription Factor Evolutionary Rate

    PubMed Central

    Coulombe-Huntington, Jasmin; Xia, Yu

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of transcriptional regulatory networks has thus far mostly been studied at the level of cis-regulatory elements. To gain a complete understanding of regulatory network evolution we must also study the evolutionary role of trans-factors, such as transcription factors (TFs). Here, we systematically assess genomic and network-level determinants of TF evolutionary rate in yeast, and how they compare to those of generic proteins, while carefully controlling for differences of the TF protein set, such as expression level. We found significantly distinct trends relating TF evolutionary rate to mRNA expression level, codon adaptation index, the evolutionary rate of physical interaction partners, and, confirming previous reports, to protein-protein interaction degree and regulatory in-degree. We discovered that for TFs, the dominant determinants of evolutionary rate lie in the structure of the regulatory network, such as the median evolutionary rate of target genes and the fraction of species-specific target genes. Decomposing the regulatory network by edge sign, we found that this modular evolution of TFs and their targets is limited to activating regulatory relationships. We show that fast evolving TFs tend to regulate other TFs and niche-specific processes and that their targets show larger evolutionary expression changes than targets of other TFs. We also show that the positive trend relating TF regulatory in-degree and evolutionary rate is likely related to the species-specificity of the transcriptional regulation modules. Finally, we discuss likely causes for TFs' different evolutionary relationship to the physical interaction network, such as the prevalence of transient interactions in the TF subnetwork. This work suggests that positive and negative regulatory networks follow very different evolutionary rules, and that transcription factor evolution is best understood at a network- or systems-level. PMID:23093926

  8. Recovery of valuable chlorosilane intermediates by a novel waste conversion process. Technical report for phase IIIA (final) and phase IIIB (progress)

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, K.E.

    1998-10-01

    From July 1994 through May 1998, direct process residue (DPR) hydrogenolysis has been studied in the laboratory, at a small Pilot Plant, and finally at a larger Pilot Plant within Dow Corning`s Carrollton, Kentucky plant. The system reacts filtered DPR with monomer at high temperature and pressure. The process demonstrates DPR conversion up to 86%. The reaction product contains high concentrations of valuable monomers such as dimethyldichlorosilane and methyldichlorosilane. A larger DPR hydrogenolysis reactor based on these results is being designed for operation in Europe at Dow Corning`s Barry, Wales site.

  9. The rise of regulatory RNA

    PubMed Central

    Morris, K.V.; Mattick, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    Discoveries over the last decade portend a paradigm shift in molecular biology. Evidence suggests that RNA is not only functional as a messenger between DNA and protein but also in the regulation of genome organization and gene expression, which is increasingly elaborated in complex organisms. Regulatory RNAs appear to operate at many levels, but in particular to play an important role in the epigenetic processes that control differentiation and development. These discoveries suggest a central role for RNA in human evolution and ontogeny. Here we survey the emergence of the previously unsuspected world of regulatory RNAs from an historical perspective. PMID:24776770

  10. Lessons Learned in the Specification, Purchase, Validation and Final Installation Process of a Replacement PCM Bit Synchronizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Richard N.

    2007-01-01

    This paper intends to describe the lessons learned while specifying validating and installing a bit sync to replace the 30 year old Aydin Model 335a PCM bit sync used in the Space Shuttle Launch Control Center. The engineer had to analyze the original requirements and specifications and then create new requirements documentation that more correctly described our needs. One issue to consider was the removal of unnecessary requirements such as various data formats when only one format is used. The conversion to a system that no longer has an assortment of analog rotary switches required retraining of the operators. Finally, post-procurement corrections for undisclosed user requirements and missed design requirements required close contact with a manufacturer who was willing to accommodate the changes.

  11. Demand Side Bidding. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Spahn, Andrew

    2003-12-31

    This document sets forth the final report for a financial assistance award for the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) to enhance coordination between the building operators and power system operators in terms of demand-side responses to Location Based Marginal Pricing (LBMP). Potential benefits of this project include improved power system reliability, enhanced environmental quality, mitigation of high locational prices within congested areas, and the reduction of market barriers for demand-side market participants. NARUC, led by its Committee on Energy Resources and the Environment (ERE), actively works to promote the development and use of energy efficiency and clean distributive energy policies within the framework of a dynamic regulatory environment. Electric industry restructuring, energy shortages in California, and energy market transformation intensifies the need for reliable information and strategies regarding electric reliability policy and practice. NARUC promotes clean distributive generation and increased energy efficiency in the context of the energy sector restructuring process. NARUC, through ERE's Subcommittee on Energy Efficiency, strives to improve energy efficiency by creating working markets. Market transformation seeks opportunities where small amounts of investment can create sustainable markets for more efficient products, services, and design practices.

  12. "An Economic Process for Coal Liquefaction to Liquid Fuels" SBIR Phase II -- Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ganguli, Partha Sarathi

    2009-02-19

    The current commercial processes for direct coal liquefaction utilize expensive backmix-flow reactor system and conventional catalysts resulting in incomplete and retrogressive reactions that produce low distillate liquid yield and high gas yield, with high hydrogen consumption. The new process we have developed, which uses a less expensive reactor system and highly active special catalysts, resulted in high distillate liquid yield, low gas yield and low hydrogen consumption. The new reactor system using the special catalyst can be operated smoothly for direct catalytic coal liquefaction. Due to high hydrogenation and hydrocracking activities of the special catalysts, moderate temperatures and high residence time in each stage of the reactor system resulted in high distillate yield in the C4-650°F range with no 650°F+ product formed except for the remaining unconverted coal residue. The C4-650°F distillate is more valuable than the light petroleum crude. Since there is no 650°F+ liquid product, simple reforming and hydrotreating of the C4-650°F product will produce the commercial grade light liquid fuels. There is no need for further refinement using catalytic cracking process that is currently used in petroleum refining. The special catalysts prepared and used in the experimental runs had surface area between 40-155 m2/gm. The liquid distillate yield in the new process is >20 w% higher than that in the current commercial process. Coal conversion in the experimental runs was moderate, in the range of 88 - 94 w% maf-coal. Though coal conversion can be increased by adjustment in operating conditions, the purpose of limiting coal conversion to moderate amounts in the process was to use the remaining unconverted coal for hydrogen production by steam reforming. Hydrogen consumption was in the range of 4.0 - 6.0 w% maf-coal. A preliminary economic analysis of the new coal liquefaction process was

  13. Fluidized-bed copper oxide process. Phase IV. Conceptual design and economic evaluation, Volume I. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-30

    Universal Oil Products, Inc. (UOP) of Des Plaines, Illinois has contracted A.E. Roberts & Associates, Inc. (AERA) of Atlanta, Georgia to prepare a sensitivity analysis for the development of the Fluidized-bed Copper Oxide (FBCO) process. As proposed by AERA in September 1991, development of the FBCO process design for a 500 mega-watt (MW) unit was divided into three tasks: (1) Establishment of a Conceptual Design, (2) Conceptual Design, (3) Cost Analysis Task 1 determined the basis for a conceptual design for the 500 megawatt (MW) FBCO process. It was completed by AERA in September of 1992, and a report was submitted at that time {open_quotes}Establishment of the Design Basis for Application to a 500 MW Coal-fired Facility.{close_quotes} Task 2 gathered all pertinent data available to date and reviewed its applicability to the 500 MW FBCO process. Work on this task was carried out on a joint basis by the AERA team members: Roberts & Schaefers worked on the dense phase transport aspect of the design; Cornell and Carnegie Mellon Universities worked on the design kinetics and modeling; and AERA contributed commercial power and combustion experience. Task 3 provides budgetary cost estimates for the FBCO process and competing alternative technologies for sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide removal.

  14. Injury and destruction of Moraxella-Acinetobacter in the radappertization process. Final Report Apr 78-1 May 80

    SciTech Connect

    Maxcy, R.B.; Rowley, D.B.

    1981-02-01

    Some highly radiation-resistant Moraxella-Acinetobacter (M-A) may survive the radappertization process for meat preservation, because these vegetative bacteria are more resistant than spores to radiation. They are, however, more susceptible than spores to other destructive factors. This work was to determine the effect of some environmental factors that influence the radappertization process. M-A, M. radiodurans, and B. cereus spores varied greatly in their response to changes in temperature of radiation and menstruum in which they were suspended. Available water was critical in response of vegetative cells to radiation. Salts at the level incorporated into meat for the radappertization process suppressed growth of both injured and uninjured M-A. This effect was attributed to reduction in water activity of the menstruum. Freezing and thawing of M-A indicated some destruction and some injury. The injured cells recovered during subsequent incubation. Thus, specific food products and conditions of radappertization must be considered for setting processing parameters. When all the factors of injury, destruction, and suppression of microbial growth are considered in the radappertization process, it is apparent there is little likelihood any of the low number of naturally occurring M-A cells would survive.

  15. Energy transfer processes between Tm(3+) and Ho(3+) in LiYF4. Ph.D. Thesis Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oezen, Goenuel

    1991-01-01

    The spectroscopic properties of the crystal LiYF4 doped with Thulium (Tm) and Holmium (Ho) ions are studied. The basic processes are discussed that regulate the transfer of energy between these two ions in this crystal. In this system Tm is considered the donor ion and the Ho the acceptor ion. Spectral data were obtained on three samples available: LiYF4:Tm(3+) (0.5 percent), LiYF4:Ho(3+) (1 percent), and LiYF4:Tm(3+) (5 percent), Ho(3+) (0.2 percent). Spectral data, which include absorption, luminescence, excitation, and the response to pulsed excitation in a wide range of temperatures, allowed to look at the energy transfer processes by considering the kinetic evolution of the emission of the two ions (donor and acceptor) involved in the process and the basic spectroscopic properties related to them. This inclusive approach has led to the validation of the physical model.

  16. Research & Development of Materials/Processing Methods for Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites (CFCC) Phase 2 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Szweda, A.

    2001-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites (CFCC) Initiative that begun in 1992 has led the way for Industry, Academia, and Government to carry out a 10 year R&D plan to develop CFCCs for these industrial applications. In Phase II of this program, Dow Corning has led a team of OEM's, composite fabricators, and Government Laboratories to develop polymer derived CFCC materials and processes for selected industrial applications. During this phase, Dow Corning carried extensive process development and representative component demonstration activities on gas turbine components, chemical pump components and heat treatment furnace components.

  17. Low Cost Chemical Feedstocks Using an Improved and Energy Efficient Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) Removal Process, Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Howard, S.; Lu, Yingzhong

    2012-08-10

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a new low-cost and energy efficient Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) recovery process - through a combination of theoretical, bench-scale and pilot-scale testing - so that it could be offered to the natural gas industry for commercialization. The new process, known as the IROA process, is based on U.S. patent No. 6,553,784, which if commercialized, has the potential of achieving substantial energy savings compared to currently used cryogenic technology. When successfully developed, this technology will benefit the petrochemical industry, which uses NGL as feedstocks, and will also benefit other chemical industries that utilize gas-liquid separation and distillation under similar operating conditions. Specific goals and objectives of the overall program include: (i) collecting relevant physical property and Vapor Liquid Equilibrium (VLE) data for the design and evaluation of the new technology, (ii) solving critical R&D issues including the identification of suitable dehydration and NGL absorbing solvents, inhibiting corrosion, and specifying proper packing structure and materials, (iii) designing, construction and operation of bench and pilot-scale units to verify design performance, (iv) computer simulation of the process using commercial software simulation platforms such as Aspen-Plus and HYSYS, and (v) preparation of a commercialization plan and identification of industrial partners that are interested in utilizing the new technology. NGL is a collective term for C2+ hydrocarbons present in the natural gas. Historically, the commercial value of the separated NGL components has been greater than the thermal value of these liquids in the gas. The revenue derived from extracting NGLs is crucial to ensuring the overall profitability of the domestic natural gas production industry and therefore of ensuring a secure and reliable supply in the 48 contiguous states. However, rising natural gas prices have dramatically reduced

  18. Reconstruction of the Regulatory Network for Bacillus subtilis and Reconciliation with Gene Expression Data.

    PubMed

    Faria, José P; Overbeek, Ross; Taylor, Ronald C; Conrad, Neal; Vonstein, Veronika; Goelzer, Anne; Fromion, Vincent; Rocha, Miguel; Rocha, Isabel; Henry, Christopher S

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a manually constructed and curated regulatory network model that describes the current state of knowledge of transcriptional regulation of Bacillus subtilis. The model corresponds to an updated and enlarged version of the regulatory model of central metabolism originally proposed in 2008. We extended the original network to the whole genome by integration of information from DBTBS, a compendium of regulatory data that includes promoters, transcription factors (TFs), binding sites, motifs, and regulated operons. Additionally, we consolidated our network with all the information on regulation included in the SporeWeb and Subtiwiki community-curated resources on B. subtilis. Finally, we reconciled our network with data from RegPrecise, which recently released their own less comprehensive reconstruction of the regulatory network for B. subtilis. Our model describes 275 regulators and their target genes, representing 30 different mechanisms of regulation such as TFs, RNA switches, Riboswitches, and small regulatory RNAs. Overall, regulatory information is included in the model for ∼2500 of the ∼4200 genes in B. subtilis 168. In an effort to further expand our knowledge of B. subtilis regulation, we reconciled our model with expression data. For this process, we reconstructed the Atomic Regulons (ARs) for B. subtilis, which are the sets of genes that share the same "ON" and "OFF" gene expression profiles across multiple samples of experimental data. We show how ARs for B. subtilis are able to capture many sets of genes corresponding to regulated operons in our manually curated network. Additionally, we demonstrate how ARs can be used to help expand or validate the knowledge of the regulatory networks by looking at highly correlated genes in the ARs for which regulatory information is lacking. During this process, we were also able to infer novel stimuli for hypothetical genes by exploring the genome expression metadata relating to experimental conditions

  19. Reconstruction of the regulatory network for Bacillus subtilis and reconciliation with gene expression data

    DOE PAGES

    Faria, Jose P.; Overbeek, Ross; Taylor, Ronald C.; ...

    2016-03-18

    Here, we introduce a manually constructed and curated regulatory network model that describes the current state of knowledge of transcriptional regulation of B. subtilis. The model corresponds to an updated and enlarged version of the regulatory model of central metabolism originally proposed in 2008. We extended the original network to the whole genome by integration of information from DBTBS, a compendium of regulatory data that includes promoters, transcription factors (TFs), binding sites, motifs and regulated operons. Additionally, we consolidated our network with all the information on regulation included in the SporeWeb and Subtiwiki community-curated resources on B. subtilis. Finally, wemore » reconciled our network with data from RegPrecise, which recently released their own less comprehensive reconstruction of the regulatory network for B. subtilis. Our model describes 275 regulators and their target genes, representing 30 different mechanisms of regulation such as TFs, RNA switches, Riboswitches and small regulatory RNAs. Overall, regulatory information is included in the model for approximately 2500 of the ~4200 genes in B. subtilis 168. In an effort to further expand our knowledge of B. subtilis regulation, we reconciled our model with expression data. For this process, we reconstructed the Atomic Regulons (ARs) for B. subtilis, which are the sets of genes that share the same “ON” and “OFF” gene expression profiles across multiple samples of experimental data. We show how atomic regulons for B. subtilis are able to capture many sets of genes corresponding to regulated operons in our manually curated network. Additionally, we demonstrate how atomic regulons can be used to help expand or validate the knowledge of the regulatory networks by looking at highly correlated genes in the ARs for which regulatory information is lacking. During this process, we were also able to infer novel stimuli for hypothetical genes by exploring the genome

  20. Reconstruction of the Regulatory Network for Bacillus subtilis and Reconciliation with Gene Expression Data

    PubMed Central

    Faria, José P.; Overbeek, Ross; Taylor, Ronald C.; Conrad, Neal; Vonstein, Veronika; Goelzer, Anne; Fromion, Vincent; Rocha, Miguel; Rocha, Isabel; Henry, Christopher S.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a manually constructed and curated regulatory network model that describes the current state of knowledge of transcriptional regulation of Bacillus subtilis. The model corresponds to an updated and enlarged version of the regulatory model of central metabolism originally proposed in 2008. We extended the original network to the whole genome by integration of information from DBTBS, a compendium of regulatory data that includes promoters, transcription factors (TFs), binding sites, motifs, and regulated operons. Additionally, we consolidated our network with all the information on regulation included in the SporeWeb and Subtiwiki community-curated resources on B. subtilis. Finally, we reconciled our network with data from RegPrecise, which recently released their own less comprehensive reconstruction of the regulatory network for B. subtilis. Our model describes 275 regulators and their target genes, representing 30 different mechanisms of regulation such as TFs, RNA switches, Riboswitches, and small regulatory RNAs. Overall, regulatory information is included in the model for ∼2500 of the ∼4200 genes in B. subtilis 168. In an effort to further expand our knowledge of B. subtilis regulation, we reconciled our model with expression data. For this process, we reconstructed the Atomic Regulons (ARs) for B. subtilis, which are the sets of genes that share the same “ON” and “OFF” gene expression profiles across multiple samples of experimental data. We show how ARs for B. subtilis are able to capture many sets of genes corresponding to regulated operons in our manually curated network. Additionally, we demonstrate how ARs can be used to help expand or validate the knowledge of the regulatory networks by looking at highly correlated genes in the ARs for which regulatory information is lacking. During this process, we were also able to infer novel stimuli for hypothetical genes by exploring the genome expression metadata relating to experimental

  1. Research on Process Models of Basic Arithmetic Skills, Technical Report No. 303. Psychology and Education Series - Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick; And Others

    This report presents a theory of eye movement that accounts for main features of the stochastic behavior of eye-fixation durations and direction of movement of saccades in the process of solving arithmetic exercises of addition and subtraction. The best-fitting distribution of fixation durations with a relatively simple theoretical justification…

  2. Differential processing to separate radionuclide and VOC from soil and ground water by air-sparged hydrocyclone technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Yi

    1996-03-29

    There are a wide variety of radioactive, toxic, and heavy metal contaminants in the ground waters and soils at DOE facilities. Some of the most common are uranium, technetium, trichloroethylene, and polychlorinated biphenyls. The project is a challenging task based on several key factors. For the removal of radio nuclide or heavy metal particles, first, on a mass fraction basis there is only a small amount of radionuclide particles in either writer or soil. In this way, a successful separation process must be capable of removing small amount of radio nuclide particles or other heavy metals from a very large quantities of soil or water. This feature poses a significant difficulty for most separation technologies which have a low specific processing capacity. Second, in addition to the need to have a high specific processing capacity, the separation technology must be able to selectively separate fine particles. For example, it is expected that most of radionuclide particles as well as 10-30% of the soil particles (depending on the site) are in the size range of less than 100 microns. Thus, a successful separation process must also be capable of efficiently removing minute quantities of small-sized particles from large quantities of soil of the same fine particle size. These two key factors are of critical importance and pose tremendous difficulties for any conventional technology available today.

  3. Evaluation of Sierra Nevada seeding effects on snowfall processes and distribution. Final report, 1 July 1988-30 June 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Warburton, J.A.

    1990-10-01

    Studies were conducted in regions of the central Sierra Nevada to determine the distribution of seeding aerosols in seeded target areas. These studies involved field operations of seeding and snow sampling equipment and cloud chamber investigations of ice crystal morphology. Secondary ice formation and chemical reactions including aerosol removal processes.

  4. The development of an integrated multistaged fluid-bed retorting process. Final report, September 1990--August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, S.D.; Taulbee, D.N.; Stehn, J.L.; Vego, A.; Robl, T.L.

    1995-02-01

    This summarizes the development of the KENTORT II retorting process, which includes integral fluidized bed zones for pyrolysis, gasification, and combustion of oil shale. Purpose was to design and test the process at the 50-lb/hr scale. The program included bench- scale studies of coking and cracking reactions of shale oil vapors over processed shale particles to address issues of scaleup associated with solid-recycle retorting. The bench-scale studies showed that higher amounts of carbon coverage reduce the rate of subsequent carbon deposition by shale oil vapors onto processed shale particles; however carbon-covered materials were also active in terms of cracking and coking. Main focus was the 50-lb/hr KENTORT II PDU. Cold-flow modeling and shakedown were done before the PDU was made ready for operation. Seven mass-balanced, steady-state runs were completed within the window of design operating conditions. Goals were achieved: shale feedrate, run duration (10 hr), shale recirculation rates (4:1 to pyrolyzer and 10:1 to combustor), bed temperatures (pyrolyzer 530{degree}C, gasifier 750{degree}C, combustor 830{degree}C), and general operating stability. Highest oil yields (up to 109% of Fischer assay) were achieved for runs lasting {ge} 10 hours. High C content of the solids used for heat transfer to the pyrolysis zone contributed to the enhanced oil yield achieved.

  5. Technology and Public Policy. The Process of Technology Assessment in the Federal Government. Volume 1. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coates, Vary T.

    A descriptive and analytical study was made of the process of planning, programming, and evaluation of technological projects and programs as carried out by 86 offices within federal executive agencies. The focus is on the extent to which techniques of technology assessment are used, based on interviews with 115 officials. Ninety-seven…

  6. A Study to Develop a Model Process for a Displaced Homemaker Center within a VTAE District. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerland, Mildred; Sullivan, Mary

    Two surveys were developed in an effort to evolve a model process for setting up a displaced homemaker center, for determining how displaced homemakers are presently being served within a VTAE (Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education) district, and for identifying and then assessing the needs of a sample of displaced homemakers. The surveys…

  7. Metallurgical characterization of thermomechanically processed U-0.75 wt.% Ti. (Reannouncement with new availability information). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zabielski, C.V.

    1992-12-31

    The objective of this study was to develop higher strength U-0.75 wt.% Ti by thermomechanical procedures. The approach was to replace the conventional solution treated, quenched, and aged (STA) process for U-0.75 wt.% Ti with warm rolling and warm or cold swaging. The effect of working on structure, hardness, tensile properties, compressive strength, and fracture toughness was determined. Deformation strengthening of previously hot-extruded and slow-cooled U-0.75 wt.% Ti was found to significantly increase the hardness, the tensile and compressive yield strengths, the ultimate tensile strength, and the reduction in area. There was no appreciable change in fracture toughness. The combinations of strength, ductility, and toughness obtained by deformation strengthening of this as-extruded material were generally inferior to those characteristic of STA processing. U-0.75 wt.% Ti, which was solution treated, water quenched, and warm rolled to a large reduction and then cold swaged, achieved the highest values in hardness, tensile and compressive yield strength, and ultimate tensile strength. Fracture toughness values were comparable to the conventionally processed alloy and reduction in area values were significantly greater. Deformation strengthening of solution treated and quenched material resulted in substantially better combinations of strength, ductility, and toughness than those characteristic of STA processing.

  8. Ensuring Program Uniformity at the Hearing and Appeals Council Levels of the Administrative Review Process. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-12-16

    We are revising our rules so that more of our procedures at the hearing and Appeals Council levels of our administrative review process are consistent nationwide. We anticipate that these nationally consistent procedures will enable us to administer our disability programs more efficiently and better serve the public.

  9. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes, Volume I, Part 2. Final report, September 1986--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes work pertaining to the development of models for coal gasification and combustion processes. This volume, volume 1, part 2, contains research progress in the areas of large particle oxidation at high temperatures, large particle, thick-bed submodels, sulfur oxide/nitrogen oxides submodels, and comprehensive model development and evaluation.

  10. Plasma-chemical treatment of hydrogen sulfide in natural gas processing. Final report, May 1991--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D.

    1993-05-01

    A new process for the treatment of hydrogen sulfide waste that uses microwave plasma-chemical technology has been under development in Russia and the United States. Whereas the present waste-treatment technology, at best, only recovers sulfur, this novel process recovers both hydrogen and sulfur by dissociating hydrogen sulfide in a plasma by means of a microwave or radio-frequency reactor. A research project has been undertaken to determine the suitability of the plasma process in natural gas processing applications. The experiments tested acid-gas compositions with 30--65% carbon dioxide, 0--7% water, and 0--0.2% of a standard mixture of pipeline gas. The balance gas in all cases was hydrogen sulfide. The reactor pressure for the experiments was 50 torr, and the microwave power was 1.0 kW. Conversions of hydrogen sulfide ranged from 80 to 100%, while 35--50% of the carbon dioxide was converted to carbon monoxide. This conversion of carbon dioxide resulted in a loss of hydrogen production and an energy loss from a hydrogen sulfide waste-treatment perspective. Tests of a direct natural gas treatment concept showed that hydrocarbon losses were unacceptably high; consequently, the concept would not be economically viable.

  11. A Comparative Study of Problem Solving Processes Relative to the Models Developed by Jean Piaget and Loyola University. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdmann, James B.; Buchi, Dorothea M.

    The basic problem under investigation was the determination of empirical relationships between two models, developed by Piaget and Loyola University and employed in the assessment of cognitive processes in a problem solving context. Among objectives explored were: (1) investigation of the sensitivity of the intelligence test in distinguishing…

  12. EVALUATION OF POLLUTION PREVENTION TECHNIQUES TO REDUCE STYRENE EMISIONS FROM OPEN CONTACT MOLDING PROCESSES - VOLUME 1. FINAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to evaluate several pollution prevention techniques that could be used to reduce styrene emissions from open molding processes in the fiberglass-reinforced
    plastics/composites (FRP/C) and fiberglass boat building industries. Styrene emission...

  13. The Negro and the American Political Process. EPDA Civics Institute (June 15-August 2, 1969). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, William P., Sr.

    A 7-week summer institute for 22 high school social studies teachers of varying racial, religious, and geographical background is believed to have achieved its objectives of providing basic instruction in the role of the Negro in the American political process and translating this content into usable forms for the civics classroom.…

  14. Modeling and simulation of CVD processes for manufacturing ceramic composites. Final report, 30 September 1994-25 June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Adjerid, S.; Flaherty, J.E.; Hudson, J.B.; Shephard, M.S.; Webster, B.E.

    1995-06-29

    A chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process used to coat crystal sapphire fibers with B-Al2O3 has been mathematically modelled and numerically simulated using adaptive finite element software. This software system is applicable for solving transient and steady partial differential equations and is capable of automatic mesh generation, mesh-order variation, and/or mesh refinement.

  15. Final Report of NATO/SPS Pilot Study on Clean Products and Processes (Phase I and II)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early in 1998 the NATO Committee for Challenges to Modern Society (SPS) (Science for Peace and Security) approved the Pilot Study on Clean Products and Processes for an initial period of five years. The pilot was to provide a forum for member country representatives to discuss t...

  16. New catalysts for coal processing: Metal carbides and nitrides. Final report, September 11, 1991--September 10, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Oyama, S.T.

    1994-06-08

    The main objective of this project was to study transition metal carbides and nitrides as catalysts for hydroprocessing. In particular, the goals were to study the solid-state transformations that occur during synthesis of the compounds using a temperature-programmed method, and to investigate the catalytic properties of the materials for the upgrading of model coal liquids at realistic process conditions.

  17. On-line testing of calibration of process instrumentation channels in nuclear power plants. Phase 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hashemian, H.M.

    1995-11-01

    The nuclear industry is interested in automating the calibration of process instrumentation channels; this report provides key results of one of the sponsored projects to determine the validity of automated calibrations. Conclusion is that the normal outputs of instrument channels in nuclear plants can be monitored over a fuel cycle while the plant is operating to determine calibration drift in the field sensors and associated signal conversion and signal conditioning equipment. The procedure for on-line calibration tests involving calculating the deviation of each instrument channel from the best estimate of the process parameter that the instrument is measuring. Methods were evaluated for determining the best estimate. Deviation of each signal from the best estimate is updated frequently while the plant is operating and plotted vs time for entire fuel cycle, thereby providing time history plots that can reveal channel drift and other anomalies. Any instrument channel that exceeds allowable drift or channel accuracy band is then scheduled for calibration during a refueling outage or sooner. This provides calibration test results at the process operating point, one of the most critical points of the channel operation. This should suffice for most narrow-range instruments, although the calibration of some instruments can be verified at other points throughout their range. It should be pointed out that the calibration of some process signals such as the high pressure coolant injection flow in BWRs, which are normally off- scale during plant operation, can not be tested on-line.

  18. An Analysis of the Admission Process to U.S. Medical Schools, 1973 and 1976. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuca, Janet Melei

    The medical school admission process is a major determinant of various attributes and characteristics of the American physician manpower pool. This analysis investigated the criteria of national and institutional consequence in selecting students for medical school, the changes in the relative importance of these criteria from 1973 to 1976, the…

  19. An Assessment of Decision-Making Processes: Evaluation of Where Land Protection Planning Can Incorporate Climate Change Information (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report, prepared by the Global Change Research Program (GCRP) in the National Center for Environmental Assessment (NCEA) of the Office of Research and Development (ORD) at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), is a review of decision-making processes of selected la...

  20. Industrial fuel gas plant project. Phase II. Memphis industrial fuel gas plant. Final report. [U-GAS process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The Industrial Fuel Gas Plant produces a nominal 50 billion Btu/day of product gas. The entire IFG production will be sold to MLGW. Under normal conditions, 20% of the output of the plant will be sold by MLGW to the local MAPCO refinery and exchanged for pipeline quality refinery gas. The MAPCO refinery gas will be inserted into the Memphis Natural Gas Distribution System. A portion (normally 10%) of the IFG output of the plant will be diverted to a Credit Generation Unit, owned by MLGW, where the IFG will be upgraded to pipeline quality (950 Btu/SCF). This gas will be inserted into MLGW's Natural Gas Distribution System. The remaining output of the IFG plant (gas with a gross heating value of 300 Btu/SCF) will be sold by MLGW as Industrial Fuel Gas. During periods when the IFG plant is partially or totally off-stream, natural gas from the Memphis Natural Gas Distribution System will be sent to an air mixing unit where the gas will be diluted to a medium Btu content and distributed to the IFG customers. Drawing 2200-1-50-00104 is the plant block flow diagram showing the process sequence and process related support facilities of this industrial plant. Each process unit as well as each process-related support facility is described briefly.