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Sample records for reheater outlet header

  1. Survey of Header Compression Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishac, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    This report provides a summary of several different header compression techniques. The different techniques included are: (1) Van Jacobson's header compression (RFC 1144); (2) SCPS (Space Communications Protocol Standards) header compression (SCPS-TP, SCPS-NP); (3) Robust header compression (ROHC); and (4) The header compression techniques in RFC2507 and RFC2508. The methodology for compression and error correction for these schemes are described in the remainder of this document. All of the header compression schemes support compression over simplex links, provided that the end receiver has some means of sending data back to the sender. However, if that return path does not exist, then neither Van Jacobson's nor SCPS can be used, since both rely on TCP (Transmission Control Protocol). In addition, under link conditions of low delay and low error, all of the schemes perform as expected. However, based on the methodology of the schemes, each scheme is likely to behave differently as conditions degrade. Van Jacobson's header compression relies heavily on the TCP retransmission timer and would suffer an increase in loss propagation should the link possess a high delay and/or bit error rate (BER). The SCPS header compression scheme protects against high delay environments by avoiding delta encoding between packets. Thus, loss propagation is avoided. However, SCPS is still affected by an increased BER (bit-error-rate) since the lack of delta encoding results in larger header sizes. Next, the schemes found in RFC2507 and RFC2508 perform well for non-TCP connections in poor conditions. RFC2507 performance with TCP connections is improved by various techniques over Van Jacobson's, but still suffers a performance hit with poor link properties. Also, RFC2507 offers the ability to send TCP data without delta encoding, similar to what SCPS offers. ROHC is similar to the previous two schemes, but adds additional CRCs (cyclic redundancy check) into headers and improves

  2. Reheating Brane Worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Piljin

    2005-12-01

    We consider reheating processes at the end of string theory inflation involving unstable D-brane systems. Nucleosynthesis restricts how much of reheating energy may be present in the nonstandard matter sector, such as gravitons and gravitinos, introducing some constraints on reheating process. In string theory setting, these may not be avoided ad hoc by fine-tuning and provide a useful tool in weeding out unrealistic scenarios. In this talk, we how the energy gets deposited into various light degrees of freedom in open and closed strings sectors. We show that a viable reheating is possible in a single throat case of KKLMMT type inflation model. Depending on details of the geometry, however, a potential problem with long-lived KK relic is present. For multi-throat case, this problem of KK relic is typically more severe and generic.

  3. Constraining curvatonic reheating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardwick, Robert J.; Vennin, Vincent; Koyama, Kazuya; Wands, David

    2016-08-01

    We derive the first systematic observational constraints on reheating in models of inflation where an additional light scalar field contributes to primordial density perturbations and affects the expansion history during reheating. This encompasses the original curvaton model but also covers a larger class of scenarios. We find that, compared to the single-field case, lower values of the energy density at the end of inflation and of the reheating temperature are preferred when an additional scalar field is introduced. For instance, if inflation is driven by a quartic potential, which is one of the most favoured models when a light scalar field is added, the upper bound Treh < 5 × 104 GeV on the reheating temperature Treh is derived, and the implications of this value on post-inflationary physics are discussed. The information gained about reheating is also quantified and it is found that it remains modest in plateau inflation (though still larger than in the single-field version of the model) but can become substantial in quartic inflation. The role played by the vev of the additional scalar field at the end of inflation is highlighted, and opens interesting possibilities for exploring stochastic inflation effects that could determine its distribution.

  4. Header design evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Stubenhofer, R.L.

    1993-08-01

    An evaluation was conducted of two new six-pin header designs. This evaluation consisted of designing, evaluating, procuring, and building contact module subassemblies with each of the two designs. The study was initiated as a result of the high scrap costs associated with the current product design. Two new designs were found to be feasible alternative to the current design.

  5. Reheating-era leptogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Yuta; Kawana, Kiyoharu

    2016-12-01

    We propose a novel leptogenesis scenario at the reheating era. Our setup is minimal in the sense that, in addition to the standard model Lagrangian, we only consider an inflaton and higher dimensional operators. The lepton number asymmetry is produced not by the decay of a heavy particle, but by the scattering between the standard model particles. After the decay of an inflaton, the model is described within the standard model with higher dimensional operators. The Sakharov's three conditions are satisfied by the following way. The violation of the lepton number is realized by the dimension-5 operator. The complex phase comes from the dimension-6 four lepton operator. The universe is out of equilibrium before the reheating is completed. It is found that the successful baryogenesis is realized for the wide range of parameters, the inflaton mass and reheating temperature, depending on the cutoff scale. Since we only rely on the effective Lagrangian, our scenario can be applicable to all mechanisms to generate neutrino Majorana masses.

  6. Optimizing header strength utilizing finite element analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchett, S. N.

    Finite element techniques have been successfully applied as a design tool in the optimization of high strength headers for pyrotechnic-driven actuators. These techniques have been applied to three aspects of the design process of a high strength header. The design process was a joint effort of experts from several disciplines including design engineers, material scientists, test engineers, manufacturing engineers, and structural analysts. Following material selection, finite element techniques were applied to evaluate the residual stresses due to manufacturing which were developed in the high strength glass ceramic-to-metal seal headers. Results from these finite element analyses were used to identify header designs which were manufacturable and had a minimum residual stress state. Finite element techniques were than applied to obtain the response of the header due to pyrotechnic burn. The results provided realistic upper bounds on the pressure containment ability of various preliminary header designs and provided a quick and inexpensive method of strengthening and refining the designs. Since testing of the headers was difficult and sometimes destructive, results of the analyses were also used to interpret test results and identify failure modes. In this paper, details of the finite element element techniques including the models used, material properties, material failure models, and loading will be presented. Results from the analyses showing the header failure process will also be presented. This paper will show that significant gains in capability and understanding can result when finite element techniques are included as an integral part of the design process of complicated high strength headers.

  7. Roll-forming tubes to header plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, K.

    1976-01-01

    Technique has been developed for attaching and sealing tubes to header plates using a unique roll-forming tool. Technique is useful for attaching small tubes which are difficult to roll into conventional grooves in header plate tube holes, and for attaching when welding, brazing, or soldering is not desirable.

  8. Standardizing Documentation of FITS Headers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hourcle, Joseph

    2014-06-01

    Although the FITS file format[1] can be self-documenting, human intervention is often needed to read the headers to write the necessary transformations to make a given instrument team's data compatible with our preferred analysis package. External documentation may be needed to determine what the values are of coded values or unfamiliar acronyms.Different communities have interpreted keywords slightly differently. This has resulted in ambiguous fields such as DATE-OBS, which could be either the start or mid-point of an observation.[2]Conventions for placing units and additional information within the comments of a FITS card exist, but they require re-writing the FITS file. This operation can be quite costly for large archives, and should not be taken lightly when dealing with issues of digital preservation.We present what we believe is needed for a machine-actionable external file describing a given collection of FITS files. We seek comments from data producers, archives, and those writing software to help develop a single, useful, implementable standard.References:[1] Pence, et.al. 2010, http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201015362[2] Rots, et.al, (in preparation), http://hea-www.cfa.harvard.edu arots/TimeWCS/

  9. Clustering header categories extracted from web tables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, George; Embley, David W.; Krishnamoorthy, Mukkai; Seth, Sharad

    2015-01-01

    Revealing related content among heterogeneous web tables is part of our long term objective of formulating queries over multiple sources of information. Two hundred HTML tables from institutional web sites are segmented and each table cell is classified according to the fundamental indexing property of row and column headers. The categories that correspond to the multi-dimensional data cube view of a table are extracted by factoring the (often multi-row/column) headers. To reveal commonalities between tables from diverse sources, the Jaccard distances between pairs of category headers (and also table titles) are computed. We show how about one third of our heterogeneous collection can be clustered into a dozen groups that exhibit table-title and header similarities that can be exploited for queries.

  10. Yields in stripper header vs conventional header in dryland cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differences in crop residue quality can impact the amount of soil water storage in semi-arid no-till systems of the West Central Great Plains. Using a stripper header as opposed to a conventional-reel type header to harvest small grains impacts the quality of the crop residue left in the field. Pr...

  11. Large variable conductance heat pipe. Transverse header

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelstein, F.

    1975-01-01

    The characteristics of gas-loaded, variable conductance heat pipes (VCHP) are discussed. The difficulties involved in developing a large VCHP header are analyzed. The construction of the large capacity VCHP is described. A research project to eliminate some of the problems involved in large capacity VCHP operation is explained.

  12. Reheating for closed string inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Cicoli, Michele; Mazumdar, Anupam E-mail: a.mazumdar@lancaster.ac.uk

    2010-09-01

    We point out some of the outstanding challenges for embedding inflationary cosmology within string theory studying the process of reheating for models where the inflaton is a closed string mode parameterising the size of an internal cycle of the compactification manifold. A realistic model of inflation must explain the tiny perturbations in the cosmic microwave background radiation and also how to excite the ordinary matter degrees of freedom after inflation, required for the success of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. We study these issues focusing on two promising inflationary models embedded in LARGE volume type IIB flux compactifications. We show that phenomenological requirements and consistency of the effective field theory treatment imply the presence at low energies of a hidden sector together with a visible sector, where the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model fields are residing. A detailed calculation of the inflaton coupling to the fields of the hidden sector, visible sector, and moduli sector, reveals that the inflaton fails to excite primarily the visible sector fields, instead hidden sector fields are excited copiously after the end of inflation. This sets severe constraints on hidden sector model building where the most promising scenario emerges as a pure N = 1 SYM theory, forbidding the kinematical decay of the inflaton to the hidden sector. In this case it is possible to reheat the Universe with the visible degrees of freedom even though in some cases we discover a new tension between TeV scale SUSY and reheating on top of the well-known tension between TeV scale SUSY and inflation.

  13. Reheating Metastable O'Raifeartaigh Models

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, Nathaniel J.; Fox, Patrick J.; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC /Stanford U., ITP

    2006-12-13

    In theories with multiple vacua, reheating to a temperature greater than the height of a barrier can stimulate transitions from a desirable metastable vacuum to a lower energy state. We discuss the constraints this places on various theories and demonstrate that in a class of supersymmetric models this transition does not occur even for arbitrarily high reheating temperature.

  14. Testing of heat exchanger systems for reheating flue gases from wet scrubbing desulfurization plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Than, K.

    1982-09-01

    Two heat exchanger systems: the cyclic process of GEA and, the plate heat exchanger of Kablitz/Thyssen, for reheating flue gases, which have been cooled to about 50 to 55 C due to wet scrubbing, to the required temperature at the outlet of the stack by extracting the sensible heat of the hot flue gases were tested. The problem of building materials and on keeping clean the heat exchanger surface are emphasized.

  15. Flavour-dependent leptogenesis with reheating

    SciTech Connect

    Antusch, Stefan

    2007-11-20

    Upper bounds on the reheat temperature of the early universe, as they appear for example in classes of supergravity models, impose severe constraints on the thermal leptogenesis mechanism. To analyse these constraints, we extend the flavour-dependent treatment of leptogenesis to include reheating. We solve the flavour-dependent Boltzmann equations to obtain the leptogenesis efficiency as a function of the flavour dependent washout parameter m-tilde{sub 1,{alpha}} and of m{sub N{sub 1}}/T{sub RH}, the ratio of the mass of the lightest right-handed neutrino over the reheat temperature, and calculate the minimal values of the reheat temperature compatible with thermal leptogenesis in type I and type II seesaw scenarios.

  16. Reheating of the Universe as holographic thermalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Shinsuke; Nakayama, Yu

    2016-08-01

    Assuming gauge/gravity correspondence we study reheating of the Universe using its holographic dual. Inflaton decay and thermalisation of the decay products correspond to collapse of a spherical shell and formation of a blackhole in the dual anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. The reheating temperature is computed as the Hawking temperature of the developed blackhole probed by a dynamical boundary, and is determined by the inflaton energy density and the AdS radius, with corrections from the dynamics of the shell collapse. For given initial energy density of the inflaton field the holographic model typically gives lower reheating temperature than the instant reheating scenario, while it is shown to be safely within phenomenological bounds.

  17. Distribution of air-water mixtures in parallel vertical channels as an effect of the header geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Marchitto, Annalisa; Fossa, Marco; Guglielmini, Giovanni

    2009-07-15

    Uneven phase distribution in heat exchangers is a cause of severe reductions in thermal performances of refrigeration equipment. To date, no general design rules are available to avoid phase separation in manifolds with several outlet channels, and even predicting the phase and mass distribution in parallel channels is a demanding task. In the present paper, measurements of two-phase air-water distributions are reported with reference to a horizontal header supplying 16 vertical upward channels. The effects of the operating conditions, the header geometry and the inlet port nozzle were investigated in the ranges of liquid and gas superficial velocities of 0.2-1.2 and 1.5-16.5 m/s, respectively. Among the fitting devices used, the insertion of a co-axial, multi-hole distributor inside the header confirmed the possibility of greatly improving the liquid and gas flow distribution by the proper selection of position, diameter and number of the flow openings between the supplying distributor and the system of parallel channels connected to the header. (author)

  18. ONE MILLION GALLON WATER TANK, PUMP HEADER PIPE (AT LEFT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ONE MILLION GALLON WATER TANK, PUMP HEADER PIPE (AT LEFT), HEADER BYPASS PIPE (AT RIGHT), AND PUMPHOUSE FOUNDATIONS. Looking northeast - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Flame Deflector Water System, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  19. GAS TURBINE REHEAT USING IN SITU COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect

    D.M. Bachovchin; T.E. Lippert; R.A. Newby P.G.A. Cizmas

    2004-05-17

    In situ reheat is an alternative to traditional gas turbine reheat design in which fuel is fed through airfoils rather than in a bulky discrete combustor separating HP and LP turbines. The goals are to achieve increased power output and/or efficiency without higher emissions. In this program the scientific basis for achieving burnout with low emissions has been explored. In Task 1, Blade Path Aerodynamics, design options were evaluated using CFD in terms of burnout, increase of power output, and possible hot streaking. It was concluded that Vane 1 injection in a conventional 4-stage turbine was preferred. Vane 2 injection after vane 1 injection was possible, but of marginal benefit. In Task 2, Combustion and Emissions, detailed chemical kinetics modeling, validated by Task 3, Sub-Scale Testing, experiments, resulted in the same conclusions, with the added conclusion that some increase in emissions was expected. In Task 4, Conceptual Design and Development Plan, Siemens Westinghouse power cycle analysis software was used to evaluate alternative in situ reheat design options. Only single stage reheat, via vane 1, was found to have merit, consistent with prior Tasks. Unifying the results of all the tasks, a conceptual design for single stage reheat utilizing 24 holes, 1.8 mm diameter, at the trailing edge of vane 1 is presented. A development plan is presented.

  20. Reheating predictions in single field inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Jessica L.; Dimastrogiovanni, Emanuela; Easson, Damien A.; Krauss, Lawrence M. E-mail: emad@asu.edu E-mail: krauss@asu.edu

    2015-04-01

    Reheating is a transition era after the end of inflation, during which the inflaton is converted into the particles that populate the Universe at later times. No direct cosmological observables are normally traceable to this period of reheating. Indirect bounds can however be derived. One possibility is to consider cosmological evolution for observable CMB scales from the time of Hubble crossing to the present time. Depending upon the model, the duration and final temperature after reheating, as well as its equation of state, may be directly linked to inflationary observables. For single-field inflationary models, if we approximate reheating by a constant equation of state, one can derive relations between the reheating duration (or final temperature), its equation of state parameter, and the scalar power spectrum amplitude and spectral index. While this is a simple approximation, by restricting the equation of state to lie within a broad physically allowed range, one can in turn bracket an allowed range of n{sub s} and r for these models. The added constraints can help break degeneracies between inflation models that otherwise overlap in their predictions for n{sub s} and r.

  1. Reheating the Universe after string theory inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Kofman, Lev; Yi, Piljin

    2005-11-15

    In string theory realizations of inflation, the endpoint of inflation is often brane-antibrane annihilation. We consider the processes of reheating of the standard model universe after brane inflation. We identify the channels of inflaton energy decay, cascading from tachyon annihilation through massive closed string loops, KK modes, and brane displacement moduli to the lighter standard model particles. Cosmological data constrains scenarios by putting stringent limits on the fraction of reheating energy deposited in gravitons and nonstandard sector massive relics. We estimate the energy deposited into various light degrees of freedom in the open and closed string sectors, the timing of reheating, and the reheating temperature. Production of gravitons is significantly suppressed in warped inflation. However, we predict a residual gravitational radiation background at the level {omega}{sub GW}{approx}10{sup -8} of the present cosmological energy density. We also extend our analysis to multiple throat scenarios. A viable reheating would be possible in a single throat or in a certain subclass of multiple throat scenarios of the KKLMMT type inflation model, but overproduction of massive Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes poses a serious problem. The problem is quite severe if some inner manifold comes with approximate isometries (angular KK modes) or if there exists a throat of modest length other than the standard model throat, possibly associated with some hidden sector (low-lying KK modes)

  2. Lessons learned from reheater replacements TVA Gallatin Fossil Plant units 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, P.S.; Stangarone, R.J.

    1996-07-01

    Gallatin Units 1 and 2 have experienced a long history of problems in the reheat front inlet platens and front outlet pendants. Cracks were discovered at lug welds on the reheat inlet platen assemblies after six years of operation. During the next ten years cracking at lugs continued to be a problem in both the inlet platen and front outlet assemblies. Solutions included changing tube material and spacing, and redesigning lugs. None of the solutions were successful. In 1980, a fuel switch to washed coal was made to reduce boiler slagging. Within two years of the fuel change, liquid phase corrosion began to attack the tubes. The corrosion became severe and elements were replaced at seven year intervals. During this time, EPRI sought utilities with boilers experiencing liquid phase corrosion to test new corrosion resistant materials. Gallatin Unit 2 was selected as one of the test units. Probes containing a number of different alloys were inserted into the furnace and subjected to the corrosion attacks. After a five year study, HR3C was selected as the alloy from which to build a complete set of elements for further testing. Reheat assemblies were manufactured from HR3C and installed in Unit 2 and Unit 1 Shortly after Unit 1 returned to service, swages between the front pendant and inlet platen elements failed by brittle fracture due to the cold swaging operation used in fabrication. Cracks were discovered after two years of operation at the tube to lug welds and the new elements were experiencing the same liquid phase corrosion as in the past. The attempt to resolve the liquid phase corrosion problem in Gallatin Units 1 and 2 pendant reheater revealed that past replacements did not address the root cause of the problems. HR3C is a relatively brittle material and manufacturers used traditional methods to design and fabricate the elements. Inadequate fabrication and erection procedures have led to several in-service problems not associated with liquid phase corrosion.

  3. 111. AIR CONDENSATE PUMP. NOTE MAIN DISCHARGE HEADER ABOVE STEAMEND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    111. AIR CONDENSATE PUMP. NOTE MAIN DISCHARGE HEADER ABOVE STEAM-END CYLINDER. NOTE ALSO, THE 30' DISCHARGE VALVE AND ACTUATER TO THE LEFT OF THE PUMP. - Lakeview Pumping Station, Clarendon & Montrose Avenues, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  4. Detail of second floor window with splayed brick header, east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of second floor window with splayed brick header, east elevation; camera facing west. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Rubber Shop, California Avenue, west side across from Dry Dock 1 near Ninth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  5. No-reheat air-conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obler, H. D.

    1980-01-01

    Air conditioning system, for environmentally controlled areas containing sensitive equipment, regulates temperature and humidity without wasteful and costly reheating. System blends outside air with return air as dictated by various sensors to ensure required humidity in cooled spaces (such as computer room).

  6. Curvaton reheating in a logamediate inflationary model

    SciTech Connect

    Campo, Sergio del; Herrera, Ramon; Saavedra, Joel; Campuzano, Cuauhtemoc; Rojas, Efrain

    2009-12-15

    In a logamediate inflationary universe model we introduce the curvaton field in order to bring this inflationary model to an end. In this approach we determine the reheating temperature. We also outline some interesting constraints on the parameters that describe our models. Thus, we give the parameter space in this scenario.

  7. Reheating in Gauss-Bonnet-coupled inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Bruck, Carsten; Longden, Chris; Dimopoulos, Konstantinos

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the feasibility of models of inflation with a large Gauss-Bonnet coupling at late times, which have been shown to modify and prevent the end of inflation. Despite the potential of Gauss-Bonnet models in predicting favorable power spectra, capable of greatly lowering the tensor-to-scalar ratio compared to now-disfavored models of standard chaotic inflation, it is important to also understand in what context it is possible for postinflationary (p)reheating to proceed and hence recover an acceptable late-time cosmology. We argue that in the previously studied inverse power law coupling case, reheating cannot happen due to a lack of oscillatory solutions for the inflaton, and that neither instant preheating nor gravitational particle production would avoid this problem due to the persistence of the inflaton's energy density, even if it were to partially decay. Hence we proceed to define a minimal generalization of the model which can permit perturbative reheating and study the consequences of this, including heavily modified dynamics during reheating and predictions of the power spectra.

  8. Material and cleaning options for cyclic reheat systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, H.S.; Koch, G.H.; Krause, H.H.; Brockway, M.C. ); Keeth, R.J.; Ireland, P.A. . Stearns-Roger Div.)

    1990-03-01

    A cyclic reheat system employing tube-type heat exchangers can be used to transfer heat from the inlet flue gas to the outlet flue gas of a wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. Because of the particularly aggressive environment in the heat extraction zone for plants burning high-sulfur coal, corrosion of the tubes can present a serious problem. An inlet gas heat exchanger (heat extractor) test apparatus was built and installed on a slipstream taken after the precipitator of a high-sulfur coal-fired power plant in order to test various tube materials and cleaning methods. The performance of metal and nonmetallic tubes was evaluated during six separate exposure periods that included two temperatures (175 and 205{degree}F, 79 and 96{degree}C) and two cleaning methods (water washing and steam soot blowing). Water washing was performed at two frequencies (1 min/24 hr and 1 min/ 4 hr) and, during one period, the tubes were not cleaned at all. Steam soot blowing was performed at a frequency of 15 sec/3 hr. The present report summarizes the results obtained from the last three exposure periods. Alloys selected for testing were of the following types: (1) austenitic, ferritic, and duplex stainless steels, and (2) nickel-base alloys. Teflon, graphite, silicon carbide, and Crystar were also tested. 12 refs., 36 figs., 9 tabs.

  9. Gas Turbine Reheat Using In-Situ Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Newby, R. A.; Bachovchin, D. M.; Lippert, T. E.

    2004-04-29

    Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (SWPC) is developing in-situ reheat (fuel injection via airfoil injection) as a means for increasing cycle efficiency and power output, with possibly reduced emissions. This report discusses engineering cycle evaluations on various reheat approaches, using GateCycle and ChemCad software simulations of typical F-class and G-class engines, modified for alternative reheat cycles. The conclusion that vane 1 reheat offers the most advantageous design agrees with the conclusions of the detailed chemical kinetics (Task 2) as verified by high temperature testing (Task 3) and Blade path CFD (Task 1) tasks. The second choice design option (vane 2 reheat after vane 1 reheat) is also validated in all tasks. A conceptual design and next recommended development tasks are presented.

  10. Bounds on very low reheating scenarios after Planck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Salas, P. F.; Lattanzi, M.; Mangano, G.; Miele, G.; Pastor, S.; Pisanti, O.

    2015-12-01

    We consider the case of very low reheating scenarios [TRH˜O (MeV ) ] with a better calculation of the production of the relic neutrino background (with three-flavor oscillations). At 95% confidence level, a lower bound on the reheating temperature TRH>4.1 MeV is obtained from big bang nucleosynthesis, while TRH>4.7 MeV from Planck data (allowing neutrino masses to vary), the most stringent bound on the reheating temperature to date. Neutrino masses as large as 1 eV are possible for very low reheating temperatures.

  11. Leptogenesis and reheating in complex hybrid inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Prieto, Carlos; Delepine, David; Urena-Lopez, L. Arturo

    2010-02-01

    We study the transformation into a baryon asymmetry of a charge initially stored in a complex (waterfall) scalar field at the end of a hybrid inflation phase as described by Delepine, Martinez, and Urena-Lopez [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 161302 (2007)]. The waterfall field is coupled to right-handed neutrinos, and is also responsible for their Majorana masses. The charge is finally transferred to the leptons of the standard model through the decay of the right-handed neutrinos without introducing new CP violating interactions. Other needed processes, like the decay of the inflaton field and the reheating of the Universe, are also discussed in detail.

  12. XTRN - Automatic Code Generator For C Header Files

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieniazek, Lester A.

    1990-01-01

    Computer program XTRN, Automatic Code Generator for C Header Files, generates "extern" declarations for all globally visible identifiers contained in input C-language code. Generates external declarations by parsing input text according to syntax derived from C. Automatically provides consistent and up-to-date "extern" declarations and alleviates tedium and errors involved in manual approach. Written in C and Unix Shell.

  13. 46 CFR 52.05-45 - Circumferential joints in pipes, tubes and headers (modifies PW-41).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Circumferential joints in pipes, tubes and headers... Circumferential joints in pipes, tubes and headers (modifies PW-41). (a) Circumferential welded joints of pipes, tubes and headers shall be as required by PW-41 of section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel...

  14. 46 CFR 52.05-45 - Circumferential joints in pipes, tubes and headers (modifies PW-41).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Circumferential joints in pipes, tubes and headers... Circumferential joints in pipes, tubes and headers (modifies PW-41). (a) Circumferential welded joints of pipes, tubes and headers shall be as required by PW-41 of section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel...

  15. 46 CFR 52.05-45 - Circumferential joints in pipes, tubes and headers (modifies PW-41).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circumferential joints in pipes, tubes and headers... Circumferential joints in pipes, tubes and headers (modifies PW-41). (a) Circumferential welded joints of pipes, tubes and headers shall be as required by PW-41 of section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel...

  16. 46 CFR 52.05-45 - Circumferential joints in pipes, tubes and headers (modifies PW-41).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Circumferential joints in pipes, tubes and headers... Circumferential joints in pipes, tubes and headers (modifies PW-41). (a) Circumferential welded joints of pipes, tubes and headers shall be as required by PW-41 of section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel...

  17. 46 CFR 52.05-45 - Circumferential joints in pipes, tubes and headers (modifies PW-41).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Circumferential joints in pipes, tubes and headers... Circumferential joints in pipes, tubes and headers (modifies PW-41). (a) Circumferential welded joints of pipes, tubes and headers shall be as required by PW-41 of section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel...

  18. Low reheating temperatures in monomial and binomial inflationary models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehagen, Thomas; Gelmini, Graciela B.

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the allowed range of reheating temperature values in light of the Planck 2015 results and the recent joint analysis of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data from the BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck experiments, using monomial and binomial inflationary potentials. While the well studied phi2 inflationary potential is no longer favored by current CMB data, as well as phip with p>2, a phi1 potential and canonical reheating (0wre=) provide a good fit to the CMB measurements. In this last case, we find that the Planck 2015 68% confidence limit upper bound on the spectral index, ns, implies an upper bound on the reheating temperature of Trelesssim 6× 1010 GeV, and excludes instantaneous reheating. The low reheating temperatures allowed by this model open the possibility that dark matter could be produced during the reheating period instead of when the Universe is radiation dominated, which could lead to very different predictions for the relic density and momentum distribution of WIMPs, sterile neutrinos, and axions. We also study binomial inflationary potentials and show the effects of a small departure from a phi1 potential. We find that as a subdominant phi2 term in the potential increases, first instantaneous reheating becomes allowed, and then the lowest possible reheating temperature of Tre=4 MeV is excluded by the Planck 2015 68% confidence limit.

  19. Reheating in non-minimal derivative coupling model

    SciTech Connect

    Sadjadi, H. Mohseni; Goodarzi, Parviz E-mail: p_goodarzi@ut.ac.ir

    2013-02-01

    We consider a model with non-minimal derivative coupling of inflaton to gravity. The reheating process during rapid oscillation of the inflaton is studied and the reheating temperature is obtained. Behaviors of the inflaton and produced radiation in this era are discussed.

  20. Reheating the D-brane universe via instant preheating

    SciTech Connect

    Panda, Sudhakar; Sami, M.; Thongkool, I.

    2010-05-15

    We investigate a possibility of reheating in a scenario of D-brane inflation in a warped deformed conifold background which includes perturbative corrections to throat geometry sourced by a chiral operator of dimension 3/2 in the conformal field theory. The effective D-brane potential, in this case, belongs to the class of nonoscillatory models of inflation for which the conventional reheating mechanism does not work. We find that gravitational particle production is inefficient and leads to reheating temperature of the order of 10{sup 8} GeV. We show that instant preheating is quite suitable to the present scenario and can easily reheat the universe to a temperature which is higher by about 3 orders of magnitude than its counterpart associated with gravitational particle production. The reheating temperature is shown to be insensitive to a particular choice of inflationary parameters suitable to observations.

  1. AGU hydrology publication outlets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeze, R. Allan

    In recent months I have been approached on several occasions by members of the hydrology community who asked me which of the various AGU journals and publishing outlets would be most suitable for a particular paper or article that they have prepared.Water Resources Research (WRR) is the primary AGU outlet for research papers in hydrology. It is an interdisciplinary journal that integrates research in the social and natural sciences of water. The editors of WRR invite original contributions in the physical, chemical and biological sciences and also in the social and policy sciences, including economics, systems analysis, sociology, and law. The editor for the physical sciences side of the journal is Donald R. Nielson, LAWR Veihmeyer Hall, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616. The editor for the policy sciences side of the journal is Ronald G. Cummings, Department of Economics, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131

  2. Low reheating temperatures in monomial and binomial inflationary models

    SciTech Connect

    Rehagen, Thomas; Gelmini, Graciela B. E-mail: gelmini@physics.ucla.edu

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the allowed range of reheating temperature values in light of the Planck 2015 results and the recent joint analysis of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data from the BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck experiments, using monomial and binomial inflationary potentials. While the well studied φ{sup 2} inflationary potential is no longer favored by current CMB data, as well as φ{sup p} with p>2, a φ{sup 1} potential and canonical reheating (0w{sub re}=) provide a good fit to the CMB measurements. In this last case, we find that the Planck 2015 68% confidence limit upper bound on the spectral index, n{sub s}, implies an upper bound on the reheating temperature of T{sub re}∼< 6× 10{sup 10} GeV, and excludes instantaneous reheating. The low reheating temperatures allowed by this model open the possibility that dark matter could be produced during the reheating period instead of when the Universe is radiation dominated, which could lead to very different predictions for the relic density and momentum distribution of WIMPs, sterile neutrinos, and axions. We also study binomial inflationary potentials and show the effects of a small departure from a φ{sup 1} potential. We find that as a subdominant φ{sup 2} term in the potential increases, first instantaneous reheating becomes allowed, and then the lowest possible reheating temperature of T{sub re}=4 MeV is excluded by the Planck 2015 68% confidence limit.

  3. Low reheating temperatures in monomial and binomial inflationary models

    SciTech Connect

    Rehagen, Thomas; Gelmini, Graciela B.

    2015-06-23

    We investigate the allowed range of reheating temperature values in light of the Planck 2015 results and the recent joint analysis of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data from the BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck experiments, using monomial and binomial inflationary potentials. While the well studied ϕ{sup 2} inflationary potential is no longer favored by current CMB data, as well as ϕ{sup p} with p>2, a ϕ{sup 1} potential and canonical reheating (w{sub re}=0) provide a good fit to the CMB measurements. In this last case, we find that the Planck 2015 68% confidence limit upper bound on the spectral index, n{sub s}, implies an upper bound on the reheating temperature of T{sub re}≲6×10{sup 10} GeV, and excludes instantaneous reheating. The low reheating temperatures allowed by this model open the possibility that dark matter could be produced during the reheating period instead of when the Universe is radiation dominated, which could lead to very different predictions for the relic density and momentum distribution of WIMPs, sterile neutrinos, and axions. We also study binomial inflationary potentials and show the effects of a small departure from a ϕ{sup 1} potential. We find that as a subdominant ϕ{sup 2} term in the potential increases, first instantaneous reheating becomes allowed, and then the lowest possible reheating temperature of T{sub re}=4 MeV is excluded by the Planck 2015 68% confidence limit.

  4. Use of Multiple Reheat Helium Brayton Cycles to Eliminate the Intermediate Heat Transfer Loop for Advanced Loop Type SFRs

    SciTech Connect

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Samuel E. Bays

    2009-05-01

    The sodium intermediate heat transfer loop is used in existing sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) plant design as a necessary safety measure to separate the radioactive primary loop sodium from the water of the steam Rankine power cycle. However, the intermediate heat transfer loop significantly increases the SFR plant cost and decreases the plant reliability due to the relatively high possibility of sodium leakage. A previous study shows that helium Brayton cycles with multiple reheat and intercooling for SFRs with reactor outlet temperature in the range of 510°C to 650°C can achieve thermal efficiencies comparable to or higher than steam cycles or recently proposed supercritical CO2 cycles. Use of inert helium as the power conversion working fluid provides major advantages over steam or CO2 by removing the requirement for safety systems to prevent and mitigate the sodium-water or sodium-CO2 reactions. A helium Brayton cycle power conversion system therefore makes the elimination of the intermediate heat transfer loop possible. This paper presents a pre-conceptual design of multiple reheat helium Brayton cycle for an advanced loop type SFR. This design widely refers the new horizontal shaft distributed PBMR helium power conversion design features. For a loop type SFR with reactor outlet temperature 550°C, the design achieves 42.4% thermal efficiency with favorable power density comparing with high temperature gas cooled reactors.

  5. Optomechanical design of the grating laser beam combiner (GLBC) laser diode header

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rall, Jonathan A. R.; Spadin, Paul L.

    1989-01-01

    A laser diode header has been fabricated for a grating laser beam combiner (GLBC). The laser diode header provides the thermal control, the drive electronics, and the optical system necessary for proper operation of the beam combiner. The diode header is required to provide diffraction limited optical performance while providing correction for worst case defocus aberration, 0.6 mrad excess divergence, and worst case decenter aberration, 1.0 mrad pointing error. The design of the header considered the mechanical design and the optical design together resulting in a small, self-contained header with 0.7 mrad range for focus correction and +/- 2.5 mrad of beam steering. The complete diode header is currently undergoing optical and mechanical performance testing.

  6. Core Outlet Temperature Study

    SciTech Connect

    Moisseytsev, A.; Hoffman, E.; Majumdar, S.

    2008-07-28

    It is a known fact that the power conversion plant efficiency increases with elevation of the heat addition temperature. The higher efficiency means better utilization of the available resources such that higher output in terms of electricity production can be achieved for the same size and power of the reactor core or, alternatively, a lower power core could be used to produce the same electrical output. Since any nuclear power plant, such as the Advanced Burner Reactor, is ultimately built to produce electricity, a higher electrical output is always desirable. However, the benefits of the higher efficiency and electricity production usually come at a price. Both the benefits and the disadvantages of higher reactor outlet temperatures are analyzed in this work.

  7. Device and Container for Reheating and Sterilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sastry, Sudhir K.; Heskitt, Brian F.; Jun, Soojin; Marcy, Joseph E.; Mahna, Ritesh

    2012-01-01

    Long-duration space missions require the development of improved foods and novel packages that do not represent a significant disposal issue. In addition, it would also be desirable if rapid heating technologies could be used on Earth as well, to improve food quality during a sterilization process. For this purpose, a package equipped with electrodes was developed that will enable rapid reheating of contents via ohmic heating to serving temperature during space vehicle transit. Further, the package is designed with a resealing feature, which enables the package, once used, to contain and sterilize waste, including human waste for storage prior to jettison during a long-duration mission. Ohmic heating is a technology that has been investigated on and off for over a century. Literature indicates that foods processed by ohmic heating are of superior quality to their conventionally processed counterparts. This is due to the speed and uniformity of ohmic heating, which minimizes exposure of sensitive materials to high temperatures. In principle, the material may be heated rapidly to sterilization conditions, cooled rapidly, and stored. The ohmic heating device herein is incorporated within a package. While this by itself is not novel, a reusable feature also was developed with the intent that waste may be stored and re-sterilized within the packages. These would then serve a useful function after their use in food processing and storage. The enclosure should be designed to minimize mass (and for NASA's purposes, Equivalent System Mass, or ESM), while enabling the sterilization function. It should also be electrically insulating. For this reason, Ultem high-strength, machinable electrical insulator was used.

  8. 16. VIEW OF HIGHLINE CANAL PIPELINE OUTLET, SHOWING THE OUTLET, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW OF HIGHLINE CANAL PIPELINE OUTLET, SHOWING THE OUTLET, A GROUNDWATER PUMP (LEFT), AND THE SOUTH BRANCH OF THE CANAL (FOREGROUND), August 1989 - Highline Canal & Pumping Station, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  9. 6. VIEW OF OUTLET GATE WHEEL AND STEM, WITH OUTLET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF OUTLET GATE WHEEL AND STEM, WITH OUTLET CHANNEL IN BACKGROUND, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Island Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.8 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  10. Advanced steel reheat furnaces: Research and development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Q.; Koppang, R.; Maly, P.; Moyeda, D.; Li, X.

    1999-01-14

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of two phases of a three-phase project to develop and evaluate an Advanced Steel Reheat Furnace (SSRF) concept which incorporates two proven and commercialized technologies, oxy-fuel enriched air (OEA) combustion and gas reburning (GR). The combined technologies aim to improve furnace productivity with higher flame radiant heat transfer in the heating zones of a steel reheat furnace while controlling potentially higher NOx emissions from these zones. The project was conducted under a contract sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). Specifically, this report summarizes the results of a modeling study and an experimental study to define and evaluate the issues which affect the integration and performance of the combined technologies. Section 2.0 of the report describes the technical approach uses in the development and evaluation of the advanced steel reheat furnace. Section 3.0 presents results of the modeling study applied to a model steel furnace. Experimental validation of the modeling results obtained from EER`s Fuel Evaluation Facility (FEF) pilot-scale furnace discussed in Section 4.0. Section 5.0 provides an economic evaluation on the cost effectiveness of the advanced reheat furnace concept. Section 6.0 concludes the report with recommendations on the applicability of the combined technologies of steel reheat furnaces.

  11. Phishtest: Measuring the Impact of Email Headers on the Predictive Accuracy of Machine Learning Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tout, Hicham

    2013-01-01

    The majority of documented phishing attacks have been carried by email, yet few studies have measured the impact of email headers on the predictive accuracy of machine learning techniques in detecting email phishing attacks. Research has shown that the inclusion of a limited subset of email headers as features in training machine learning…

  12. Proso Millet Harvest: A Comparison of Conventional Harvest and Direct Harvest with a Stripper Header

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research was conducted to determine if proso millet can be harvested with a stripper header. Stripper headers use extremely fast rotating metal teeth to rip the seed off the plant and leave the majority of residue standing in the field as opposed to cutting off the entire plant and running tha...

  13. Nonperturbative dynamics of reheating after inflation: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Mustafa A.; Hertzberg, Mark P.; Kaiser, David I.; Karouby, Johanna

    2015-12-01

    Our understanding of the state of the universe between the end of inflation and big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) is incomplete. The dynamics at the end of inflation are rich and a potential source of observational signatures. Reheating, the energy transfer between the inflaton and Standard Model fields (possibly through intermediaries) and their subsequent thermalization, can provide clues to how inflation fits in with known high-energy physics. We provide an overview of our current understanding of the nonperturbative, nonlinear dynamics at the end of inflation, some salient features of realistic particle physics models of reheating, and how the universe reaches a thermal state before BBN. In addition, we review the analytical and numerical tools available in the literature to study preheating and reheating and discuss potential observational signatures from this fascinating era.

  14. Shape optimized headers and methods of manufacture thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Perrin, Ian James

    2013-11-05

    Disclosed herein is a shape optimized header comprising a shell that is operative for collecting a fluid; wherein an internal diameter and/or a wall thickness of the shell vary with a change in pressure and/or a change in a fluid flow rate in the shell; and tubes; wherein the tubes are in communication with the shell and are operative to transfer fluid into the shell. Disclosed herein is a method comprising fixedly attaching tubes to a shell; wherein the shell is operative for collecting a fluid; wherein an internal diameter and/or a wall thickness of the shell vary with a change in pressure and/or a change in a fluid flow rate in the shell; and wherein the tubes are in communication with the shell and are operative to transfer fluid into the shell.

  15. Automatic computed tomography patient dose calculation using DICOM header metadata.

    PubMed

    Jahnen, A; Kohler, S; Hermen, J; Tack, D; Back, C

    2011-09-01

    The present work describes a method that calculates the patient dose values in computed tomography (CT) based on metadata contained in DICOM images in support of patient dose studies. The DICOM metadata is preprocessed to extract necessary calculation parameters. Vendor-specific DICOM header information is harmonized using vendor translation tables and unavailable DICOM tags can be completed with a graphical user interface. CT-Expo, an MS Excel application for calculating the radiation dose, is used to calculate the patient doses. All relevant data and calculation results are stored for further analysis in a relational database. Final results are compiled by utilizing data mining tools. This solution was successfully used for the 2009 CT dose study in Luxembourg. National diagnostic reference levels for standard examinations were calculated based on each of the countries' hospitals. The benefits using this new automatic system saved time as well as resources during the data acquisition and the evaluation when compared with earlier questionnaire-based surveys.

  16. Pyrolysis of epoxies used for thermal-battery headers

    SciTech Connect

    Guidotti, R.A.; Thornberg, S.M.; Campbell-Domme, B.

    1995-08-01

    Thermally activated batteries use an epoxy for encapsulation of the electrical feedthroughs in the header of the battery. When the thermal battery is thermally abused, the encapsulant can pyrolyze and generate large internal pressures. This causes the battery to vent in extreme cases. The nature of these gases has never been adequately documented. Therefore, a study was undertaken to address this deficiency. The pyrolysis of various encapsulants that have been used, or are being considered for use, in thermally activated batteries was studied over a temperature range of 155 to 455 C. The composition of the pyrolysis decomposition products was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GS/MS). This determination is helpful in assessing the potential environmental and health effect for personnel exposed to such gases. In addition, the thermal stability of the various epoxies was measured by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

  17. Evaluating two process scale chromatography column header designs using CFD.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Chris; Natarajan, Venkatesh; Antoniou, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Chromatography is an indispensable unit operation in the downstream processing of biomolecules. Scaling of chromatographic operations typically involves a significant increase in the column diameter. At this scale, the flow distribution within a packed bed could be severely affected by the distributor design in process scale columns. Different vendors offer process scale columns with varying design features. The effect of these design features on the flow distribution in packed beds and the resultant effect on column efficiency and cleanability needs to be properly understood in order to prevent unpleasant surprises on scale-up. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) provides a cost-effective means to explore the effect of various distributor designs on process scale performance. In this work, we present a CFD tool that was developed and validated against experimental dye traces and tracer injections. Subsequently, the tool was employed to compare and contrast two commercially available header designs.

  18. Determining the Cause of a Header Failure in a Natural Gas Production Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Matthes, S.A.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Holcomb, G.R.

    2007-03-01

    An investigation was made into the premature failure of a gas-header at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) natural gas production facility. A wide variety of possible failure mechanisms were considered: design of the header, deviation from normal pipe alloy composition, physical orientation of the header, gas composition and flow rate, type of corrosion, protectiveness of the interior oxide film, time of wetness, and erosion-corrosion. The failed header was examined using metallographic techniques, scanning electron microscopy, and microanalysis. A comparison of the failure site and an analogous site that had not failed, but exhibited similar metal thinning was also performed. From these studies it was concluded that failure resulted from erosion-corrosion, and that design elements of the header and orientation with respect to gas flow contributed to the mass loss at the failure point.

  19. Dark matter from gravitational particle production at reheating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markkanen, Tommi; Nurmi, Sami

    2017-02-01

    We show that curvature induced particle production at reheating generates adiabatic dark matter if there are non-minimally coupled spectator scalars weakly coupled to visible matter. The observed dark matter abundance implies an upper bound on spectator masses m and non-minimal coupling values ξ. For example, assuming quadratic inflation, instant reheating and a single spectator scalar with only gravitational couplings, the observed dark matter abundance is obtained for m~ 0.1 GeV and ξ ~ 1. Larger mass and coupling values of the spectator are excluded as they would lead to overproduction of dark matter.

  20. Modelling Greenland Outlet Glaciers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanderVeen, Cornelis; Abdalati, Waleed (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop simple yet realistic models of Greenland outlet glaciers to better understand ongoing changes and to identify possible causes for these changes. Several approaches can be taken to evaluate the interaction between climate forcing and ice dynamics, and the consequent ice-sheet response, which may involve changes in flow style. To evaluate the icesheet response to mass-balance forcing, Van der Veen (Journal of Geophysical Research, in press) makes the assumption that this response can be considered a perturbation on the reference state and may be evaluated separately from how this reference state evolves over time. Mass-balance forcing has an immediate effect on the ice sheet. Initially, the rate of thickness change as compared to the reference state equals the perturbation in snowfall or ablation. If the forcing persists, the ice sheet responds dynamically, adjusting the rate at which ice is evacuated from the interior to the margins, to achieve a new equilibrium. For large ice sheets, this dynamic adjustment may last for thousands of years, with the magnitude of change decreasing steadily over time as a new equilibrium is approached. This response can be described using kinematic wave theory. This theory, modified to pertain to Greenland drainage basins, was used to evaluate possible ice-sheet responses to perturbations in surface mass balance. The reference state is defined based on measurements along the central flowline of Petermann Glacier in north-west Greenland, and perturbations on this state considered. The advantage of this approach is that the particulars of the dynamical flow regime need not be explicitly known but are incorporated through the parameterization of the reference ice flux or longitudinal velocity profile. The results of the kinematic wave model indicate that significant rates of thickness change can occur immediately after the prescribed change in surface mass balance but adjustments in flow

  1. 6. NO. 2 CONTINUOUS SLAB REHEATING FURNACE OF THE 160' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. NO. 2 CONTINUOUS SLAB REHEATING FURNACE OF THE 160' PLATE MILL. FURNACE SHOWING DURING DEMOLITION. C HOOK USED TO CHANGE ROLLS IS VISIBLE IN FRONT OF FURNACE. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, 160" Plate Mill, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  2. Interior of shop, showing the reheat furnaces; the vehicle in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of shop, showing the reheat furnaces; the vehicle in the center is a charging machine the operator of which manipulates steel ingots in the furnace, as well as in the adjacent forging hammers - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Tool Steel-Electric Furnace Shop, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

  3. All-optical packet header and payload separation for un-slotted optical packet switched networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Wei; Zhang, Min; Ye, Peida

    2005-11-01

    A novel all-optical header and payload separation technique that can be utilized in un-slotted optical packet switched networks is presented. The technique uses a modified TOAD for packet header extraction with differential modulation scheme and two SOAs that perform a simple XOR operation between the packet and its self-derived header to get the separated payload. The main virtue of this system is simple structure and need not any additional continuous pulses. Through numerical simulations, the operating characteristics of the scheme are illustrated. In addition, the parameters of the system are discussed and designed to optimize the operation performance.

  4. Analysis of KMnO/sub 4//NaOH battery header cleaning procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, S.C.; Bunker, B.C.; Proctor-Puissant, P.M.; Hallett, S.G.; Yelton, W.G.

    1988-12-01

    KMnO/sub 4//NaOH solutions are used to remove the oxides that form on the stainless steel conductor of battery headers during high-temperature glass sealing operations. The cleaning procedure has been evaluated to determine if these corrosive solutions damage TA-23 glass insulators to a degree that would make the headers unacceptable. Battery headers and solid pieces of TA-23 glass were tested, and a colorimetric method was developed to analyze reaction products in the solutions. The analyses showed that the solutions contained 1--10 ..mu..g SiO/sub 2/per mL, indicating minimal deterioration of the glass. The procedure is an acceptable method for cleaning battery headers containing TA-23 glass insulators. 11 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Enabling IP Header Compression in COTS Routers via Frame Relay on a Simplex Link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Sam P.; Pang, Jackson; Clare, Loren P.; Cheng, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    NASA is moving toward a networkcentric communications architecture and, in particular, is building toward use of Internet Protocol (IP) in space. The use of IP is motivated by its ubiquitous application in many communications networks and in available commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) technology. The Constellation Program intends to fit two or more voice (over IP) channels on both the forward link to, and the return link from, the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) during all mission phases. Efficient bandwidth utilization of the links is key for voice applications. In Voice over IP (VoIP), the IP packets are limited to small sizes to keep voice latency at a minimum. The common voice codec used in VoIP is G.729. This new algorithm produces voice audio at 8 kbps and in packets of 10-milliseconds duration. Constellation has designed the VoIP communications stack to use the combination of IP/UDP/RTP protocols where IP carries a 20-byte header, UDP (User Datagram Protocol) carries an 8-byte header, and RTP (Real Time Transport Protocol) carries a 12-byte header. The protocol headers total 40 bytes and are equal in length to a 40-byte G.729 payload, doubling the VoIP latency. Since much of the IP/UDP/RTP header information does not change from IP packet to IP packet, IP/UDP/RTP header compression can avoid transmission of much redundant data as well as reduce VoIP latency. The benefits of IP header compression are more pronounced at low data rate links such as the forward and return links during CEV launch. IP/UDP/RTP header compression codecs are well supported by many COTS routers. A common interface to the COTS routers is through frame relay. However, enabling IP header compression over frame relay, according to industry standard (Frame Relay IP Header Compression Agreement FRF.20), requires a duplex link and negotiations between the compressor router and the decompressor router. In Constellation, each forward to and return link from the CEV in space is treated

  6. Inflation, baryogenesis, and gravitino dark matter at ultralow reheat temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Kohri, Kazunori; Sahu, Narendra; Mazumdar, Anupam

    2009-11-15

    It is quite possible that the reheat temperature of the Universe is extremely low close to the scale of big bang nucleosynthesis, i.e. T{sub R}{approx}1-10 MeV. At such low reheat temperatures generating matter, antimatter asymmetry and synthesizing dark matter particles are challenging issues which need to be addressed within a framework of beyond the standard model physics. In this paper we point out that a successful cosmology can emerge naturally provided the R-parity violating interactions are responsible for the excess in baryons over antibaryons and at the same time they can explain the longevity of dark matter with the right abundance.

  7. Reheating predictions in gravity theories with derivative coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalianis, Ioannis; Koutsoumbas, George; Ntrekis, Konstantinos; Papantonopoulos, Eleftherios

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the inflationary predictions of a simple Horndeski theory where the inflaton scalar field has a non-minimal derivative coupling (NMDC) to the Einstein tensor. The NMDC is very motivated for the construction of successful models for inflation, nevertheless its inflationary predictions are not observationally distinct. We show that it is possible to probe the effects of the NMDC on the CMB observables by taking into account both the dynamics of the inflationary slow-roll phase and the subsequent reheating. We perform a comparative study between representative inflationary models with canonical fields minimally coupled to gravity and models with NMDC. We find that the inflation models with dominant NMDC generically predict a higher reheating temperature and a different range for the tilt of the scalar perturbation spectrum ns and scalar-to-tensor ratio r, potentially testable by current and future CMB experiments.

  8. Inflaton decay and reheating in nonminimal derivative coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myung, Yun Soo; Moon, Taeyoon

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the inflaton decay and reheating period after the end of inflation in the non-minimal derivative coupling (NDC) model with chaotic potential. In general, this model is known to provide an enhanced slow-roll inflation caused by gravitationally enhanced friction. We find violent oscillations of Hubble parameter which induces oscillations of the sound speed squared, implying the Lagrangian instability of curvature perturbation ζ under the comoving gauge varphi = 0. Also, it is shown that the curvature perturbation blows up at dot phi = 0, leading to the breakdown of the comoving gauge at dot phi = 0. Therefore, we use the Newtonian gauge to perform the perturbation analysis where the Newtonian potential is employed as a physical variable. The curvature perturbation is not considered as a physical variable which describes a relevant perturbation during reheating.

  9. Reheating temperature in non-minimal derivative coupling model

    SciTech Connect

    Sadjadi, H. Mohseni; Goodarzi, Parviz E-mail: p_goodarzi@ut.ac.ir

    2013-07-01

    We consider the inflaton as a scalar field described by a non-minimal derivative coupling model with a power law potential. We study the slow roll inflation, the rapid oscillation phase, the radiation dominated and the recombination eras respectively, and estimate e-folds numbers during these epochs. Using these results and recent astrophysical data we determine the reheating temperature in terms of the spectral index and the amplitude of the power spectrum of scalar perturbations.

  10. Gravitational wave background from reheating after hybrid inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Bellido, Juan; Figueroa, Daniel G.; Sastre, Alfonso

    2008-02-15

    The reheating of the Universe after hybrid inflation proceeds through the nucleation and subsequent collision of large concentrations of energy density in the form of bubblelike structures moving at relativistic speeds. This generates a significant fraction of energy in the form of a stochastic background of gravitational waves, whose time evolution is determined by the successive stages of reheating: First, tachyonic preheating makes the amplitude of gravity waves grow exponentially fast. Second, bubble collisions add a new burst of gravitational radiation. Third, turbulent motions finally sets the end of gravitational waves production. From then on, these waves propagate unimpeded to us. We find that the fraction of energy density today in these primordial gravitational waves could be significant for grand unified theory (GUT)-scale models of inflation, although well beyond the frequency range sensitivity of gravitational wave observatories like LIGO, LISA, or BBO. However, low-scale models could still produce a detectable signal at frequencies accessible to BBO or DECIGO. For comparison, we have also computed the analogous gravitational wave background from some chaotic inflation models and obtained results similar to those found by other groups. The discovery of such a background would open a new observational window into the very early universe, where the details of the process of reheating, i.e. the big bang, could be explored. Moreover, it could also serve in the future as a new experimental tool for testing the inflationary paradigm.

  11. The dark matter annihilation boost from low-temperature reheating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickcek, Adrienne L.

    2015-11-01

    The evolution of the Universe between inflation and the onset of big bang nucleosynthesis is difficult to probe and largely unconstrained. This ignorance profoundly limits our understanding of dark matter: we cannot calculate its thermal relic abundance without knowing when the Universe became radiation dominated. Fortunately, small-scale density perturbations provide a probe of the early Universe that could break this degeneracy. If dark matter is a thermal relic, density perturbations that enter the horizon during an early matter-dominated era grow linearly with the scale factor prior to reheating. The resulting abundance of substructure boosts the annihilation rate by several orders of magnitude, which can compensate for the smaller annihilation cross sections that are required to generate the observed dark matter density in these scenarios. In particular, thermal relics with masses less than a TeV that thermally and kinetically decouple prior to reheating may already be ruled out by Fermi-LAT observations of dwarf spheroidal galaxies. Although these constraints are subject to uncertainties regarding the internal structure of the microhalos that form from the enhanced perturbations, they open up the possibility of using gamma-ray observations to learn about the reheating of the Universe.

  12. Fate of supersymmetric flat directions and their role in reheating

    SciTech Connect

    Olive, Keith A.; Peloso, Marco

    2006-11-15

    We consider the role of supersymmetric flat directions in reheating the Universe after inflation. One or more flat directions can develop large vevs during inflation, which can potentially affect reheating by slowing down scattering processes among inflaton decay products or by coming to dominate the energy density of the Universe. Both effects occur only if flat directions are sufficiently long-lived. The computation of their perturbative decay rate, and a simple estimate of their nonperturbative decay have led to the conclusion that this is indeed the case. In contrast, we show that flat directions can decay quickly through nonperturbative channels in realistic models. The mass matrix for minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) excitations around flat directions has nondiagonal entries, which vary with the phase of the (complex) flat directions. The quasiperiodic motion of the flat directions results in a strong parametric resonance, leading to the rapid depletion of the flat direction within its first few rotations. This may preclude any significant role for the flat directions in reheating the Universe after inflation in models in which the inflaton decays perturbatively.

  13. Development of Next Generation Heating System for Scale Free Steel Reheating

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Arvind C. Thekdi

    2011-01-27

    The work carried out under this project includes development and design of components, controls, and economic modeling tools that would enable the steel industry to reduce energy intensity through reduction of scale formation during the steel reheating process. Application of scale free reheating offers savings in energy used for production of steel that is lost as scale, and increase in product yield for the global steel industry. The technology can be applied to a new furnace application as well as retrofit design for conversion of existing steel reheating furnaces. The development work has resulted in the knowledge base that will enable the steel industry and steel forging industry us to reheat steel with 75% to 95% reduction in scale formation and associated energy savings during the reheating process. Scale reduction also results in additional energy savings associated with higher yield from reheat furnaces. Energy used for steel production ranges from 9 MM Btu/ton to 16.6 MM Btu/ton or the industry average of approximately 13 MM Btu/ton. Hence, reduction in scale at reheating stage would represent a substantial energy reduction for the steel industry. Potential energy savings for the US steel industry could be in excess of 25 Trillion Btu/year when the technology is applied to all reheating processes. The development work has resulted in new design of reheating process and the required burners and control systems that would allow use of this technology for steel reheating in steel as well as steel forging industries.

  14. Method for producing a heat exchanger having a flat tube and header pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Koisuka, M.; Aoki, H.

    1987-07-07

    This patent describes a method for producing a heat exchanger comprising a flat metal tube of an aluminum alloy for conveying fluid, and two header pipes joined respectively onto opposite ends of the flat tube, which comprises the steps of preparing the flat tube and the header pipes of an aluminum alloy other than a brazing filler metal, and preparing two brazing filler members of an aluminum alloy brazing filler metal. Each of the header pipes has an axial slot in a side wall for receiving an end of the flat tube. Each brazing filler member comprises an elongated plate portion arcuately curved transversely with a lengthwise elongated opening and with a flat sleeve portion projecting from an outer surface of the elongated plate portion overlying the elongated opening in registration. The sleeve portion has an inner surface congruent with the perimeter of the elongated opening, the sleeve portion inner surface and the elongated opening having an inner contour slightly larger than the outer contour of the flat tube; inserting each of opposite ends of the flat tube through both the sleeve portion and the elongated opening of a respective brazing filler member. It inserts each of the flat tube ends into a respective one of the header pipes through the axial slot while bringing the arcuately curved plate portions in contact with the outer surface of the corresponding header pipe. Brazing filler members are heated together with the header pipes and end portions of the flat tube to melt the brazing filler members. Header pipes are joined and brazed to the corresponding ends of the flat tube.

  15. 49 CFR 178.346-4 - Outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.346-4 Outlets. (a) All outlets on each...

  16. 49 CFR 178.346-4 - Outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Outlets. 178.346-4 Section 178.346-4 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.346-4 Outlets. (a) All outlets on each tank must conform...

  17. 49 CFR 178.346-4 - Outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Outlets. 178.346-4 Section 178.346-4 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.346-4 Outlets. (a) All outlets on each tank must conform...

  18. 49 CFR 178.346-4 - Outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Outlets. 178.346-4 Section 178.346-4 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.346-4 Outlets. (a) All outlets on each tank must conform...

  19. 49 CFR 178.346-4 - Outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Outlets. 178.346-4 Section 178.346-4 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.346-4 Outlets. (a) All outlets on each tank must conform...

  20. Dynamics of cosmological perturbations and reheating in the anamorphic universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graef, L. L.; Hipólito-Ricaldi, W. S.; Ferreira, Elisa G. M.; Brandenberger, Robert

    2017-04-01

    We discuss scalar-tensor realizations of the Anamorphic cosmological scenario recently proposed by Ijjas and Steinhardt [1]. Through an analysis of the dynamics of cosmological perturbations we obtain constraints on the parameters of the model. We also study gravitational Parker particle production in the contracting Anamorphic phase and we compute the fraction between the energy density of created particles at the end of the phase and the background energy density. We find that, as in the case of inflation, a new mechanism is required to reheat the universe.

  1. The metallic microstructures and thermal histories of severely reheated chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, B. A.; Goldstein, J. I.

    1977-01-01

    The metallographic structures of eight severely reheated chondrites - Farmington, Ramsdorf, Orvinio, Wickenburg, Lubbock, Rose City, Arapahoe, and Tadjera - were studied using optical, SEM and electron microprobe techniques. The following metallographic criteria were used to estimate the post-shock residual temperature of the chondrites: melted metal-troilite appearance, presence of martensite, phosphorus enrichment of metal and averaging of central metal grain compositions. The presence of phosphides and secondary kamacite are due to slow post-shock cooling rates. Ni rim gradients indicate both extensive remelting of metal grains and relatively fast cooling.

  2. CHARGING SIDE OF #130 ELECTRIC FURNACE CO. REHEAT FURNACE IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CHARGING SIDE OF #130 ELECTRIC FURNACE CO. REHEAT FURNACE IN REROLL BAY. CAKES FROM THE CASTING SHOP ARE BROUGHT UP TO ROLLING TEMPERATURE IN ONE OF TWO (#130 AND 146) GAS-FIRED FURNACES. A RADIO-CONTROLLED OVERHEAD CRANE TRANSFERS CAKES FROM FLATCARS TO THE ROLLER LINE LEADING INTO THE FURNACE. CAKES ARE HEATED AT 900-1000 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT FOR THREE TO FOUR HOURS. RATED FURNACE CAPACITY IS 100,000 LBS.\\HOUR. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  3. Non-conformal evolution of magnetic fields during reheating

    SciTech Connect

    Calzetta, Esteban; Kandus, Alejandra E-mail: kandus@uesc.br

    2015-03-01

    We consider the evolution of electromagnetic fields coupled to conduction currents during the reheating era after inflation, and prior to the establishing of the proton-electron plasma. We assume that the currents may be described by second order causal hydrodynamics. The resulting theory is not conformally invariant. The expansion of the Universe produces temperature gradients which couple to the current and generally oppose Ohmic dissipation. Although the effect is not strong, it suggests that the unfolding of hydrodynamic instabilities in these models may follow a different pattern than in first order theories, and even than in second order theories on non expanding backgrounds.

  4. Implementation and Evaluation of the Enhanced Header Compression (IPHC) for 6LoWPAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludovici, Alessandro; Calveras, Anna; Catalan, Marisa; Gómez, Carles; Paradells, Josep

    6LoWPAN defines how to carry IPv6 packets over IEEE 802.15.4 low power wireless or sensor networks. Limited bandwidth, memory and energy resources require a careful application of IPv6 in a LoWPAN. The IEEE 802.15.4 standard defines a maximum frame size of 127 bytes that decreases to 102 bytes considering the header overhead. A further reduction is due to the security, network and transport protocols header overhead that, in case of IPv6 and UDP, leave only 33 bytes for application data. A compression algorithm is necessary in order to reduce the overhead and save space in data payload. This paper describes and compares the proposed IPv6 header compression mechanisms for 6LoWPAN environments.

  5. Optimization of creep properties of welded header-stub tube connection for lif extension

    SciTech Connect

    Ram, R.; Cunningham, G.; Roberts, B.

    1996-12-31

    The failure of boiler tubes is the predominant cause of boiler outages. From a life-extension point of view, the critical components are large diameter thick-wall high-temperature headers. The primary aim of this research is to numerically analyze the stresses in the boiler tube-header weld connection and study the behavior of the material as it creeps. The focus is on the initial thermoelastic stresses at the beginning of operation and the distribution of stresses after approximately twenty years of operation when the stresses have relaxed. The study calculates creep life fractions of the assembly after twenty years of service.

  6. Aspects of reheating in first-order inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, Richard; Widrow, Lawrence M.

    1991-01-01

    Studied here is reheating in theories where inflation is completed by a first-order phase transition. In the scenarios, the Universe decays from its false vacuum state by bubble nucleation. In the first stage of reheating, vacuum energy is converted into kinetic energy for the bubble walls. To help understand this phase, researchers derive a simple expression for the equation of state of a universe filled with expanding bubbles. Eventually, the bubble walls collide. Researchers present numerical simulations of two-bubble collisions clarifying and extending previous work by Hawking, Moss, and Stewart. The researchers' results indicate that wall energy is efficiently converted into coherent scalar waves. Also discussed is particle production due to quantum effects. These effects lead to the decay of the coherent scalar waves. They also lead to direct particle production during bubble-wall collisions. Researchers calculate particle production for colliding walls in both sine-Gordon and theta (4) theories and show that it is far more efficient in the theta (4) case. The relevance of this work for recently proposed models of first order inflation is discussed.

  7. Reheating and primordial gravitational waves in generalized Galilean genesis

    SciTech Connect

    Nishi, Sakine; Kobayashi, Tsutomu E-mail: tsutomu@rikkyo.ac.jp

    2016-04-01

    Galilean genesis is an alternative to inflation, in which the universe starts expanding from Minkowski with the stable violation of the null energy condition. In this paper, we discuss how the early universe is reheated through the gravitational particle production at the transition from the genesis phase to the subsequent phase where the kinetic energy of the scalar field is dominant. We then study the consequences of gravitational reheating after Galilean genesis on the spectrum of primordial gravitational waves. The resultant spectrum is strongly blue, and at high frequencies Ω{sub gw}∝ f{sup 3} in terms of the energy density per unit logarithmic frequency. Though this cannot be detected in existing detectors, the amplitude can be as large as Ω{sub gw}∼ 10{sup −12} at f∼ 100 MHz, providing a future test of the genesis scenario. The analysis is performed within the framework of generalized Galilean genesis based on the Horndeski theory, which enables us to derive generic formulas.

  8. Modeling fuzzy state space of reheater system for simulation and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munirah, W. M. Wan; Ahmad, T.; Ashaari, A.; Abdullah, M. Adib

    2014-07-01

    Reheater is one of the important heat exchange components in a high capacity power plant of a boiler system. The aim of this study is to improve heat transfer of a reheater system. The method is to maximize steam production and at the same time, keeping variables within constraints. Fuzzy arithmetic is a powerful tool used to solve engineering problems with uncertain parameters. Therefore, in order to determine heat transfer efficiency, the state space of reheater is simulated using fuzzy arithmetic by taking into account the uncertainties in the reheater system. The uncertain model parameters and the model inputs are represented by fuzzy numbers with their shape derived from quasi-Gaussian function. Finally, this paper discusses how the mathematical model can be manipulated in order to produce maximum heat transfer with least loss of energy. Furthermore, the improvement of the reheater efficiency and the quantification of the heat supplied parameters are presented in this paper.

  9. Qualifying the use of RIS data for patient dose by comparison with DICOM header data.

    PubMed

    Wilde, R; Charnock, P; McDonald, S; Moores, B M

    2011-09-01

    A system was developed in 2008 to calculate patient doses using Radiology Information System (RIS) data and presents these data as a patient dose audit. One of the issues with this system was the quality of user-entered data. It has been shown that Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) header data can be used to perform dose audits with a high level of data accuracy. This study aims to show that using RIS data for dose audits is not only a viable alternative to using DICOM header data, but that it has advantages. A new system was developed to pull header data from DICOM images easily and was installed on a workstation within a hospital department. Data were recovered for a common set of examinations using both RIS and DICOM header data. The data were compared on a result-by-result basis to check for consistency of common fields between RIS and DICOM, as well as assessing the value of data fields uncommon to both systems. The study shows that whilst RIS is not as accurate as DICOM, it does provide enough accurate data and that it has other advantages over using a DICOM approach. These results suggest that a 'best of both worlds' may be achievable using Modality Performed Procedure Step (MPPS).

  10. Providing integrity, authenticity, and confidentiality for header and pixel data of DICOM images.

    PubMed

    Al-Haj, Ali

    2015-04-01

    Exchange of medical images over public networks is subjected to different types of security threats. This has triggered persisting demands for secured telemedicine implementations that will provide confidentiality, authenticity, and integrity for the transmitted images. The medical image exchange standard (DICOM) offers mechanisms to provide confidentiality for the header data of the image but not for the pixel data. On the other hand, it offers mechanisms to achieve authenticity and integrity for the pixel data but not for the header data. In this paper, we propose a crypto-based algorithm that provides confidentially, authenticity, and integrity for the pixel data, as well as for the header data. This is achieved by applying strong cryptographic primitives utilizing internally generated security data, such as encryption keys, hashing codes, and digital signatures. The security data are generated internally from the header and the pixel data, thus a strong bond is established between the DICOM data and the corresponding security data. The proposed algorithm has been evaluated extensively using DICOM images of different modalities. Simulation experiments show that confidentiality, authenticity, and integrity have been achieved as reflected by the results we obtained for normalized correlation, entropy, PSNR, histogram analysis, and robustness.

  11. Natural outlet of flue gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adámek, Karel; Kolář, Jan; Peukert, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    Many incidents of poisoning all the time became due to bad natural exhaust of burnt product from heating devices. The aim of this article is to simulate some reasons of it, therefore the content is focused on some influences, only - the vertical and horizontal shape of the outlet channel, the design of the chimney cap, situation of the surrounding walls, combined with the wind influence etc. It does not solve the possible bad maintaining of both chimney and device, bad supply of the combustion air etc. As main results of simulation there is presented an optimum cap shape of the chimney and an unsuitable influence of the unsteady starting of the flow just after the burner ignition.

  12. Partial oxidation power plant with reheating and method thereof

    DOEpatents

    Newby, Richard A.; Yang, Wen-Ching; Bannister, Ronald L.

    1999-01-01

    A system and method for generating power having an air compression/partial oxidation system, a turbine, and a primary combustion system. The air compression/partial oxidation system receives a first air stream and a fuel stream and produces a first partially oxidized fuel stream and a first compressed air stream therefrom. The turbine expands the first partially oxidized fuel stream while being cooled by the first compressed air stream to produce a heated air stream. The heated air stream is injected into the expanding first partially oxidized fuel stream, thereby reheating it in the turbine. A second partially oxidized fuel stream is emitted from the turbine. The primary combustion system receives said second partially oxidized fuel stream and a second air stream, combusts said second partially oxidized fuel stream, and produces rotating shaft power and an emission stream therefrom.

  13. Partial oxidation power plant with reheating and method thereof

    DOEpatents

    Newby, R.A.; Yang, W.C.; Bannister, R.L.

    1999-08-10

    A system and method are disclosed for generating power having an air compression/partial oxidation system, a turbine, and a primary combustion system. The air compression/partial oxidation system receives a first air stream and a fuel stream and produces a first partially oxidized fuel stream and a first compressed air stream therefrom. The turbine expands the first partially oxidized fuel stream while being cooled by the first compressed air stream to produce a heated air stream. The heated air stream is injected into the expanding first partially oxidized fuel stream, thereby reheating it in the turbine. A second partially oxidized fuel stream is emitted from the turbine. The primary combustion system receives said second partially oxidized fuel stream and a second air stream, combusts said second partially oxidized fuel stream, and produces rotating shaft power and an emission stream therefrom. 2 figs.

  14. Intelligent electrical outlet for collective load control

    DOEpatents

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Ford, Justin R.; Spires, Shannon V.; Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    2015-10-27

    Various technologies described herein pertain to an electrical outlet that autonomously manages loads in a microgrid. The electrical outlet can provide autonomous load control in response to variations in electrical power generation supply in the microgrid. The electrical outlet includes a receptacle, a sensor operably coupled to the receptacle, and an actuator configured to selectively actuate the receptacle. The sensor measures electrical parameters at the receptacle. Further, a processor autonomously controls the actuator based at least in part on the electrical parameters measured at the receptacle, electrical parameters from one or more disparate electrical outlets in the microgrid, and a supply of generated electric power in the microgrid at a given time.

  15. Bladder Outlet Obstruction: Causes in Men?

    MedlinePlus

    ... is the most common cause of bladder outlet obstruction in men Scarring of the urinary channel (urethra) or bladder neck, as a result of injury or surgery Use of certain medications, including antihistamines, decongestants ... of bladder outlet obstruction is important to prevent serious problems caused by ...

  16. All-optical packet header and payload separation based on two TOADs for optical packet switched networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Wei; Zhang, Min; Ye, Peida

    2006-09-01

    We present a novel all-optical header and payload separation technique that can be utilized in Un-Slotted optical packet switched networks. The technique uses two modified TOADs, one is for packet header extraction with differential modulation scheme and the other performs a simple XOR operation between the packet and its self-derived header to get the separated payload. The main virtue of this system is simple structure and low power consumption. Through numerical simulations, the operating characteristics of the scheme are illustrated. In addition, the system parameters are discussed and designed to optimize the performance of the proposed scheme.

  17. Thoracic outlet syndrome in whiplash injury.

    PubMed Central

    Capistrant, T D

    1977-01-01

    Thirty-five cases of thoracic outlet syndrome complicating whiplash or cervical strain injury were studied. Thirty cases had confirmation by the demonstration of slowed ulnar nerve conduction velocity (UNCV) through the thoracic outlet. Two distinct groups of patients were found. An acute group, seen an average of 3 1/2 months post injury, had severe neck pain with often mild or incidental thoracic outlet syndrome. A chronic group, with symptoms persisting more than 2 years after cervical injury, often had thoracic outlet symptoms as the predominant complaint. This study suggests that the arm aches and parethesias seen in association with both acute and chronic cervical strain injury are most often secondary to thoracic outlet syndrome. PMID:836089

  18. Complex Greenland outlet glacier flow captured

    PubMed Central

    Aschwanden, Andy; Fahnestock, Mark A.; Truffer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet is losing mass at an accelerating rate due to increased surface melt and flow acceleration in outlet glaciers. Quantifying future dynamic contributions to sea level requires accurate portrayal of outlet glaciers in ice sheet simulations, but to date poor knowledge of subglacial topography and limited model resolution have prevented reproduction of complex spatial patterns of outlet flow. Here we combine a high-resolution ice-sheet model coupled to uniformly applied models of subglacial hydrology and basal sliding, and a new subglacial topography data set to simulate the flow of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Flow patterns of many outlet glaciers are well captured, illustrating fundamental commonalities in outlet glacier flow and highlighting the importance of efforts to map subglacial topography. Success in reproducing present day flow patterns shows the potential for prognostic modelling of ice sheets without the need for spatially varying parameters with uncertain time evolution. PMID:26830316

  19. Race, Ethnicity, and Exposure to Alcohol Outlets

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Christopher; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Ponicki, William R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Prior studies suggest that Black and Hispanic minority populations are exposed to greater concentrations of alcohol outlets, potentially contributing to health disparities between these populations and the White majority. We tested the alternative hypothesis that urban economic systems cause outlets to concentrate in low-income areas and, controlling for these effects, lower demand among minority populations leads to fewer outlets. Method: Market potential for alcohol sales, a surrogate for demand, was estimated from survey and census data across census block groups for 50 California cities. Hierarchical Bayesian conditional autoregressive Poisson models then estimated relationships between observed geographic distributions of outlets and the market potential for alcohol, income, population size, and racial and ethnic composition. Results: Market potentials were significantly smaller among lower income Black, Hispanic, and Asian populations. Block groups with greater market potential and lower income had greater concentrations of outlets. When we controlled for these effects, the racial and ethnic group composition of block groups was mostly unrelated to outlet concentrations. Conclusions: Health disparities related to exposure to alcohol outlets are primarily driven by distributions of income and population density across neighborhoods. PMID:26751356

  20. On the breakdown of the curvature perturbation ζ during reheating

    SciTech Connect

    Algan, Merve Tarman; Kaya, Ali; Kutluk, Emine Seyma E-mail: ali.kaya@boun.edu.tr

    2015-04-01

    It is known that in single scalar field inflationary models the standard curvature perturbation ζ, which is supposedly conserved at superhorizon scales, diverges during reheating at times 0φ-dot =, i.e. when the time derivative of the background inflaton field vanishes. This happens because the comoving gauge 0φ=, where φ denotes the inflaton perturbation, breaks down when 0φ-dot =. The issue is usually bypassed by averaging out the inflaton oscillations but strictly speaking the evolution of ζ is ill posed mathematically. We solve this problem in the free theory by introducing a family of smooth gauges that still eliminates the inflaton fluctuation φ in the Hamiltonian formalism and gives a well behaved curvature perturbation ζ, which is now rigorously conserved at superhorizon scales. At the linearized level, this conserved variable can be used to unambiguously propagate the inflationary perturbations from the end of inflation to subsequent epochs. We discuss the implications of our results for the inflationary predictions.

  1. Reheating-volume measure in the string theory landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Winitzki, Sergei

    2008-12-15

    I recently proposed the ''reheating-volume'' (RV) prescription as a possible solution to the measure problem in ''multiverse'' cosmology. The goal of this work is to extend the RV measure to scenarios involving bubble nucleation, such as the string theory landscape. In the spirit of the RV prescription, I propose to calculate the distribution of observable quantities in a landscape that is conditioned in probability to nucleate a finite total number of bubbles to the future of an initial bubble. A general formula for the relative number of bubbles of different types can be derived. I show that the RV measure is well defined and independent of the choice of the initial bubble type, as long as that type supports further bubble nucleation. Applying the RV measure to a generic landscape, I find that the abundance of Boltzmann brains is always negligibly small compared with the abundance of ordinary observers in the bubbles of the same type. As an illustration, I present explicit results for a toy landscape containing four vacuum states, and for landscapes with a single high-energy vacuum and a large number of low-energy vacua.

  2. Thermoelastic stress in oceanic lithosphere due to hotspot reheating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Anning; Wiens, Douglas A.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of hotspot reheating on the intraplate stress field is investigated by modeling the three-dimensional thermal stress field produced by nonuniform temperature changes in an elastic plate. Temperature perturbations are calculated assuming that the lithosphere is heated by a source in the lower part of the thermal lithosphere. A thermal stress model for the elastic lithosphere is calculated by superposing the stress fields resulting from temperature changes in small individual elements. The stress in an elastic plate resulting from a temperature change in each small element is expressed as an infinite series, wherein each term is a source or an image modified from a closed-from half-space solution. The thermal stress solution is applied to midplate swells in oceanic lithosphere with various thermal structures and plate velocities. The results predict a stress field with a maximum deviatoric stress on the order of 100 MPa covering a broad area around the hotspot plume. The predicted principal stress orientations show a complicated geographical pattern, with horizontal extension perpendicular to the hotspot track at shallow depths and compression along the track near the bottom of the elastic lithosphere.

  3. Reheating the universe after multi-field inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Braden, Jonathan; Kofman, Lev; Barnaby, Neil E-mail: barnaby@cita.utoronto.ca

    2010-07-01

    We study in detail (p)reheating after multi-field inflation models with a particular focus on N-flation. We consider a variety of different couplings between the inflatons and the matter sector, including both quartic and trilinear interactions with a light scalar field. We show that the presence of multiple oscillating inflatons makes parametric resonance inefficient in the case of the quartic interactions. Moreover, perturbative processes do not permit a complete decay of the inflaton for this coupling. In order to recover the hot big bang, we must instead consider trilinear couplings. In this case we show that strong nonperturbative preheating is possible via multi-field tachyonic resonance. In addition, late-time perturbative effects do permit a complete decay of the condensate. We also study the production of gauge fields for several prototype couplings, finding similar results to the trilinear scalar coupling. During the course of our analysis we develop the mathematical theory of the quasi-periodic Mathieu equation, the multi-field generalization of the Floquet theory familiar from preheating after single field inflation. We also elaborate on the theory of perturbative decays of a classical inflaton condensate, which is applicable in single-field models also.

  4. Determination of allowable fluid temperature during start-up operation of outlet header under the assumption of constant and temperature-dependent material properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rząsa, Dariusz; Duda, Piotr

    2013-09-01

    Modern supercritical power plants operate at very high temperatures and pressures. Thus the construction elements are subjected to both high thermal and mechanical loads. As a result high stresses in those components are created. In order to operate safely, it is important to monitor stresses, especially during start-up and shut-down processes. The maximum stresses in the construction elements should not exceed the allowable stresses that are defined according to boiler regulations. It is important to find optimum operating parameters, that can assure safe heating and cooling processes. The optimum parameters define temperature and pressure histories that can keep the highest stresses within allowable limit and reduce operation time as much as possible. In this paper a new numerical method for determining optimum working fluid parameters is presented. In this method, properties of steel can be assumed as constant or temperature dependent. The constant value is taken usually at the average temperature of the operation cycle. For both cases optimal parameters are determined. Based on these parameters start-up operations for both cases are conducted. During entire processes stresses in the heated element are monitored. The results obtained are compared with German boiler regulations - Technische Regeln fur Dampfkessel 301.

  5. Plug into a Great Outlet for Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skophammer, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Is there beauty in the wall socket that people plug their appliances into daily? Can one find beauty in the grate covering the heat vent in his classroom? The author posed these very questions to her third-grade students. She had the students take a good look at the outlet cover (or plate) on the wall. After thinking and discussing the outlets,…

  6. Alcohol outlets, social disorganization, and robberies: accounting for neighborhood characteristics and alcohol outlet types.

    PubMed

    Snowden, Aleksandra J; Freiburger, Tina L

    2015-05-01

    We estimated spatially lagged regression and spatial regime models to determine if the variation in total, on-premise, and off-premise alcohol outlet(1) density is related to robbery density, while controlling for direct and moderating effects of social disorganization.(2) Results suggest that the relationship between alcohol outlet density and robbery density is sensitive to the measurement of social disorganization levels. Total alcohol outlet density and off-premise alcohol outlet density were significantly associated with robbery density when social disorganization variables were included separately in the models. However, when social disorganization levels were captured as a four item index, only the association between off-premise alcohol outlets and robbery density remained significant. More work is warranted in identifying the role of off-premise alcohol outlets and their characteristics in robbery incidents.

  7. Modulated reheating and large non-gaussianity in string cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Cicoli, M.; Quevedo, F.; Tasinato, G.; Zavala, I.; Burgess, C.P. E-mail: gianmassimo.tasinato@port.ac.uk E-mail: cburgess@perimeterinstitute.ca

    2012-05-01

    A generic feature of the known string inflationary models is that the same physics that makes the inflaton lighter than the Hubble scale during inflation often also makes other scalars this light. These scalars can acquire isocurvature fluctuations during inflation, and given that their VEVs determine the mass spectrum and the coupling constants of the effective low-energy field theory, these fluctuations give rise to couplings and masses that are modulated from one Hubble patch to another. These seem just what is required to obtain primordial adiabatic fluctuations through conversion into density perturbations through the 'modulation mechanism', wherein reheating takes place with different efficiency in different regions of our Universe. Fluctuations generated in this way can generically produce non-gaussianity larger than obtained in single-field slow-roll inflation; potentially observable in the near future. We provide here the first explicit example of the modulation mechanism at work in string cosmology, within the framework of LARGE Volume Type-IIB string flux compactifications. The inflationary dynamics involves two light Kähler moduli: a fibre divisor plays the rôle of the inflaton whose decay rate to visible sector degrees of freedom is modulated by the primordial fluctuations of a blow-up mode (which is made light by the use of poly-instanton corrections). We find the challenges of embedding the mechanism into a concrete UV completion constrains the properties of the non-gaussianity that is found, since for generic values of the underlying parameters, the model predicts a local bi-spectrum with f{sub NL} of order 'a few'. However, a moderate tuning of the parameters gives also rise to explicit examples with f{sub NL} ∼ O(20) potentially observable by the Planck satellite.

  8. What can the CMB tell about the microphysics of cosmic reheating?

    SciTech Connect

    Drewes, Marco

    2016-03-01

    In inflationary cosmology, cosmic reheating after inflation sets the initial conditions for the hot big bang. We investigate how CMB data can be used to study the effective potential and couplings of the inflaton during reheating to constrain the underlying microphysics. If there is a phase of preheating that is driven by a parametric resonance or other instability, then the thermal history and expansion history during the reheating era depend on a large number of microphysical parameters in a complicated way. In this case the connection between CMB observables and microphysical parameters can only established with intense numerical studies. Such studies can help to improve CMB constraints on the effective inflaton potential in specific models, but parameter degeneracies usually make it impossible to extract meaningful best-fit values for individual microphysical parameters. If, on the other hand, reheating is driven by perturbative processes, then it can be possible to constrain the inflaton couplings and the reheating temperature from CMB data. This provides an indirect probe of fundamental microphysical parameters that most likely can never be measured directly in the laboratory, but have an immense impact on the evolution of the cosmos by setting the stage for the hot big bang.

  9. Fiber Lasers and all Optical Logic Gates for Header Processing in High-Bit Optical Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Brandon Craig

    As information technologies push network capacities toward higher bit rates, fiber-optic communication networks will eventually be capable of transmitting data at a rate at which electronic switches cannot respond. A solution to this problem is to replace the electronics at the front and back ends of the transmission system where data enters and exists in optical format with all-optical header processors. In this thesis, I will describe how the header processor has been divided into all-optical switching modules, which will act as the basic building block for the header processing unit. Each module arises from the integration of an erbium -doped fiber laser and an all-optical logic gate. The erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) acts as a local power supply for the module. It restores the pulse shape, pulse amplitude, and timing of an incoming optical bit stream. The development of a short-pulse EDFL and a high-power EDFL for this application is described. The high-power EDFL employs a unique cavity design that eliminates multiple pulses when pumped with high powers. Data processing is performed within the module by all-optical logic gates, which switch due to the nonlinear interaction of one pulse of light with another in optical fiber. Therefore, these gates can work at the bit rate of the transmission system and avoid the bottlenecks inherent in electronic processors. The design and demonstration of a low-latency soliton-dragging gate and a low-birefringent nonlinear optical loop mirror (low-bi NOLM) logic gate are described. The two logic gates are optimized for energy contrast, switching energy, timing sensitivity, and cascadability. Logic functionality is also demonstrated. The thesis culminates in an experiment that integrates the laser and logic gate work by driving two cascaded low -bi NOLM's with an EDFL. It is shown that this experiment utilizes all the components necessary to read the header of a high-bit-rate data packet, bringing closure to the switching

  10. Integrated 10 Gb/s AWG-based correlator for multi-wavelength optical header recognition.

    PubMed

    Aljada, Muhsen; Alameh, Kamal E

    2008-03-31

    In this paper we experimentally demonstrate a novel optical correlator employing dual integrated Arrayed Waveguide Grating (AWG) in conjunction with variable delay lines. The variable delay lines provide wavelength-dependent time delays and generate a wavelength profile that matches arbitrary bit patterns, whereas the AWGs are used to demultiplex and multiplex the wavelength components of the multi-wavelength header bit pattern. The recognition of 4-bit optical patterns at different wavelengths is experimentally demonstrated at 10 Gb/s by showing that the correlator produces an autocorrelation waveform of high peak whenever the input bit pattern matches the wavelengths profile, and a low-amplitude cross-correlation function otherwise.

  11. Development of mesoscale burner arrays for gas turbine reheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sunyoup

    Mesoscale burner arrays allow combustion to be conducted in a distributed fashion at a millimeter (meso) scale. At this scale, diffusive processes are fast, but not yet dominant, such that numerous advantages over conventional gas turbine combustion can be achieved without giving up the possibility to use fluid inertia to advantage. Since the scale of the reaction zone follows from the scale at which the reactants are mixed, very compact flames result. This compact, distributed form of combustion can provide the opportunity of inter-turbine reheat as well as the potential for lean premixed or highly vitiated combustion to suppress NOx emissions. As a proof-of-concept, a 4x4 array with burner elements on 5-mm centers was fabricated in silicon nitride via assembly mold SDM. Each burner element was designed in a single monolithic unit with its own combination of reactant inlets, fuel plenum and injection nozzles, and swirler to induce flame stabilization. Results using methane, including pressure drop, flame stability, temperature distribution in the burnt gas, and NO emissions are reported for both fully premixed (mixing prior to injection) and nonpremixed (mixing in the array) configurations. These results demonstrate the degree to which premixed performance can be achieved with this design and pointed to ways in which the array design could be improved over this first-generation unit. Given what was learned from the 4x4 array, a next-generation 6x6 array was developed. Major design changes include addition of a bluff-body stabilizer to each burner element to improve stability and use of a multilayer architecture to enhance the degree of reactant mixing. Tests using methane in both operating conditions were performed for two stabilization configurations---with and without the bluff bodies. The results for nonpremixed operation show that nearly complete air/fuel mixing was achieved using the 6x6 design, leading to NO emission levels obtainable under fully premixed

  12. On finite density effects on cosmic reheating and moduli decay and implications for Dark Matter production

    SciTech Connect

    Drewes, Marco

    2014-11-01

    We study the damping of an oscillating scalar field in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime by perturbative processes, taking into account the back-reaction of the plasma of decay products on the damping rate. The scalar field may be identified with the inflaton, in which case this process resembles the reheating of the universe after inflation. It can also model a modulus that dominates the energy density of the universe at later times. We find that the finite density corrections to the damping rate can have a drastic effect on the thermal history and considerably increase both, the maximal temperature in the early universe and the reheating temperature at the onset of the radiation dominated era. As a result the abundance of some Dark Matter candidates may be considerably larger than previously estimated. We give improved analytic estimates for the maximal and the reheating temperatures and confirm them numerically in a simple model.

  13. Inflation and reheating in the Starobinsky model with conformal HiggsField

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbunov, D. S.; Tokareva, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    This is a talk presented by A.A. Tokareva at Baikal summer school on physics of elementary particles and astrophysics 2012. We studied the reheating after the Starobinsky inflation and have found that the main process is the inflaton decay to SM gauge fields due to the conformal anomaly. The reheating temperature is low leading to the possibility to detect the gravity wave signal from inflation and evaporation of structures formed after inflation in DECIGO and BBO experiments. Also we give predictions for the parameters of scalar perturbation spectrum at the next-to-leading order of slow roll and obtain a bound on the Higgs mass.

  14. Asynchronous broadcast for ordered delivery between compute nodes in a parallel computing system where packet header space is limited

    DOEpatents

    Kumar, Sameer

    2010-06-15

    Disclosed is a mechanism on receiving processors in a parallel computing system for providing order to data packets received from a broadcast call and to distinguish data packets received at nodes from several incoming asynchronous broadcast messages where header space is limited. In the present invention, processors at lower leafs of a tree do not need to obtain a broadcast message by directly accessing the data in a root processor's buffer. Instead, each subsequent intermediate node's rank id information is squeezed into the software header of packet headers. In turn, the entire broadcast message is not transferred from the root processor to each processor in a communicator but instead is replicated on several intermediate nodes which then replicated the message to nodes in lower leafs. Hence, the intermediate compute nodes become "virtual root compute nodes" for the purpose of replicating the broadcast message to lower levels of a tree.

  15. Austenite Grain Structures in Ti- and Nb-Containing High-Strength Low-Alloy Steel During Slab Reheating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, S.; Chakrabarti, D.; Dey, G. K.

    2013-02-01

    Austenite-grain growth was investigated in a couple of microalloyed steels, one containing Ti and the other containing Nb, Ti, and V, using different reheating temperatures between 1273 K and 1523 K (1000 °C and 1250 °C). Nature and distribution of microalloy precipitates were quantitatively analyzed before and after reheating. Interdendritic segregation (or microsegregation) during casting can result in an inhomogeneous distribution of microalloy precipitates in the as-cast slabs, which can create austenite grain size variation (even grain size bimodality) after reheating. Ti addition reduced the grain size variation; however, it could not eliminate the grain size bimodality in Nb-containing steel, due to the differential pinning effect of Nb precipitates. A model was proposed for the prediction of austenite grain size variation in reheated steel by combining different models on microsegregation during solidification, thermodynamic stability, and dissolution of microalloy precipitates and austenite grain growth during reheating.

  16. 46 CFR 108.453 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 108.453 Section 108.453 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.453...

  17. 46 CFR 108.453 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 108.453 Section 108.453 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.453...

  18. 24 CFR 3280.806 - Receptacle outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... compartments accessible from the outdoors, in bathrooms, and within 6 feet of a kitchen sink to serve counter... receptacle outlet shall be installed: (1) Over or adjacent to counter tops in the kitchen (at least one on... occupied by built-in kitchen or wardrobe cabinets, (ii) Wall space behind doors which may be opened...

  19. 49 CFR 192.157 - Extruded outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Extruded outlets. 192.157 Section 192.157 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... equal to the design strength of the pipe and other fittings in the pipeline to which it is attached....

  20. Thoracic outlet syndromes and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Panegyres, P K; Moore, N; Gibson, R; Rushworth, G; Donaghy, M

    1993-08-01

    The thoracic outlet syndromes encompass the diverse clinical entities affecting the branchial plexus or subclavian artery including cervical ribs or bands. Thoracic outlet syndrome are often difficult to diagnose on existing clinical and electrophysiological criteria and new diagnostic methods are necessary. This study reports our experience with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brachial plexus in 20 patients with suspected thoracic outlet syndrome. The distribution of pain and sensory disturbance varied widely, weakness and wasting usually affected C8/T1 innervated muscles, and electrophysiology showed combinations of reduced sensory nerve action potentials from the fourth and fifth digits, and prolonged F-responses or tendon reflex latencies. The MRI study was interpreted blind. Deviation of the brachial plexus was recorded in 19 out of the 24 symptomatic sides (sensitivity 79%). Absence of distortion was correctly identified in 14 out of 16 asymptomatic sides (specificity 87.5%). The false positive rate was 9.5%. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated all seven cervical ribs visible on plain cervical spine radiographs. Magnetic resonance imaging also showed a band-like structure extending from the C7 transverse process in 25 out of 33 sides; similar structures were detected in three out of 18 sides in control subjects. These MRI bands often underlay the brachial plexus distortion observed in our patients. We also observed instances of plexus distortion by post-traumatic callus of the first rib, and by a hypertrophied serratus anterior muscle. If they did not demonstrate a cervical rib, plain cervical spine radiographs had no value in predicting brachial plexus distortion. We believe MRI to be of potential value in the diagnosis of thoracic outlet syndrome by: (i) demonstrating deviation or distortion of nerves or blood vessels; (ii) suggesting the presence of radiographically invisible bands; (iii) disclosing other causes of thoracic outlet syndrome

  1. Predicting the fidelity of JPEG2000 compressed CT images using DICOM header information

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kil Joong; Kim, Bohyoung; Lee, Hyunna; Choi, Hosik; Jeon, Jong-June; Ahn, Jeong-Hwan; Lee, Kyoung Ho

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: To propose multiple logistic regression (MLR) and artificial neural network (ANN) models constructed using digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) header information in predicting the fidelity of Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) 2000 compressed abdomen computed tomography (CT) images. Methods: Our institutional review board approved this study and waived informed patient consent. Using a JPEG2000 algorithm, 360 abdomen CT images were compressed reversibly (n = 48, as negative control) or irreversibly (n = 312) to one of different compression ratios (CRs) ranging from 4:1 to 10:1. Five radiologists independently determined whether the original and compressed images were distinguishable or indistinguishable. The 312 irreversibly compressed images were divided randomly into training (n = 156) and testing (n = 156) sets. The MLR and ANN models were constructed regarding the DICOM header information as independent variables and the pooled radiologists' responses as dependent variable. As independent variables, we selected the CR (DICOM tag number: 0028, 2112), effective tube current-time product (0018, 9332), section thickness (0018, 0050), and field of view (0018, 0090) among the DICOM tags. Using the training set, an optimal subset of independent variables was determined by backward stepwise selection in a four-fold cross-validation scheme. The MLR and ANN models were constructed with the determined independent variables using the training set. The models were then evaluated on the testing set by using receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analysis regarding the radiologists' pooled responses as the reference standard and by measuring Spearman rank correlation between the model prediction and the number of radiologists who rated the two images as distinguishable. Results: The CR and section thickness were determined as the optimal independent variables. The areas under the ROC curve for the MLR and ANN predictions were 0.91 (95% CI; 0

  2. Reheating signature in the gravitational wave spectrum from self-ordering scalar fields

    SciTech Connect

    Kuroyanagi, Sachiko; Hiramatsu, Takashi; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi E-mail: hiramatz@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the imprint of reheating on the gravitational wave spectrum produced by self-ordering of multi-component scalar fields after a global phase transition. The equation of state of the Universe during reheating, which usually has different behaviour from that of a radiation-dominated Universe, affects the evolution of gravitational waves through the Hubble expansion term in the equations of motion. This gives rise to a different power-law behavior of frequency in the gravitational wave spectrum. The reheating history is therefore imprinted in the shape of the spectrum. We perform 512{sup 3} lattice simulations to investigate how the ordering scalar field reacts to the change of the Hubble expansion and how the reheating effect arises in the spectrum. We also compare the result with inflation-produced gravitational waves, which has a similar spectral shape, and discuss whether it is possible to distinguish the origin between inflation and global phase transition by detecting the shape with future direct detection gravitational wave experiments such as DECIGO.

  3. Reheating effects in the matter power spectrum and implications for substructure

    SciTech Connect

    Erickcek, Adrienne L.; Sigurdson, Kris

    2011-10-15

    The thermal and expansion history of the Universe before big bang nucleosynthesis is unknown. We investigate the evolution of cosmological perturbations through the transition from an early matter era to radiation domination. We treat reheating as the perturbative decay of an oscillating scalar field into relativistic plasma and cold dark matter. After reheating, we find that subhorizon perturbations in the decay-produced dark matter density are significantly enhanced, while subhorizon radiation perturbations are instead suppressed. If dark matter originates in the radiation bath after reheating, this suppression may be the primary cutoff in the matter power spectrum. Conversely, for dark matter produced nonthermally from scalar decay, enhanced perturbations can drive structure formation during the cosmic dark ages and dramatically increase the abundance of compact substructures. For low reheat temperatures, we find that as much as 50% of all dark matter is in microhalos with M > or approx. 0.1M{sub +} at z{approx_equal}100, compared to a fraction of {approx}10{sup -10} in the standard case. In this scenario, ultradense substructures may constitute a large fraction of dark matter in galaxies today.

  4. High-R Walls for New Construction Structural Performance: Integrated Rim Header Testing

    SciTech Connect

    DeRenzis, A.; Kochkin, V.; Wiehagen, J.

    2013-01-01

    Two prominent approaches within the Building America Program to construct higher R-value walls have included use of larger dimension framing and exterior rigid foam insulation. These approaches have been met with some success; however for many production builders, where the cost of changing framing systems is expensive, the changes have been slow to be realized. In addition, recent building code changes have raised some performance issues for exterior sheathing and raised heel trusses, for example, that indicates a need for continued performance testing for wall systems. The testing methods presented in this report evaluate structural rim header designs over openings up to 6 ft wide and applicable to one- and two-story homes.

  5. Writing user selectable data on the extended header of seismic recordings made on the Texas Instruments DFS-V

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, W.C.

    1996-01-01

    A circuit has been developed to allow the writing of up to 192 digits of user-selectable data on a portion of tape called extended header, which is always available for use before each DFS-V seismic record is written. Such data could include navigation information, air gun and streamer depth and shot times.

  6. 49. OUTLET WORKS: THREE TON CRANE, ELECTRICAL SYSTEM NO 4. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. OUTLET WORKS: THREE TON CRANE, ELECTRICAL SYSTEM NO 4. Sheet H-4, December 12, 1939. File no. SA 342/60. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  7. 14 CFR 23.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... tank outlet. (a) There must be a fuel strainer for the fuel tank outlet or for the booster pump. This... turbine engine powered airplanes, prevent the passage of any object that could restrict fuel flow...

  8. 14 CFR 23.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... tank outlet. (a) There must be a fuel strainer for the fuel tank outlet or for the booster pump. This... turbine engine powered airplanes, prevent the passage of any object that could restrict fuel flow...

  9. 14 CFR 23.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... tank outlet. (a) There must be a fuel strainer for the fuel tank outlet or for the booster pump. This... turbine engine powered airplanes, prevent the passage of any object that could restrict fuel flow...

  10. 14 CFR 23.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... tank outlet. (a) There must be a fuel strainer for the fuel tank outlet or for the booster pump. This... turbine engine powered airplanes, prevent the passage of any object that could restrict fuel flow...

  11. Completion of Embankment, Spillway and Outlet Works

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    principal features of the project include (1) a rolled earthfill embankment approximately 14,980 feet long; (2) a limited service spillway consisting...approach channel, intake structure and service bridge, a 708-foot long by 13-foot diameter cut and cover conduit, stilling basin and excavated discharge...FOUNDATION. a. General. The limited service spillway is founded in weathered clay shale of the Pawpaw Formation of Lower Cretaceous age. The outlet works

  12. 46 CFR 76.15-25 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 76.15-25 Section 76.15-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-25 Discharge outlets. (a) Discharge outlets...

  13. 46 CFR 76.15-25 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 76.15-25 Section 76.15-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-25 Discharge outlets. (a) Discharge outlets...

  14. 46 CFR 76.15-25 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 76.15-25 Section 76.15-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-25 Discharge outlets. (a) Discharge outlets...

  15. 46 CFR 76.15-25 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 76.15-25 Section 76.15-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-25 Discharge outlets. (a) Discharge outlets...

  16. 46 CFR 76.15-25 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 76.15-25 Section 76.15-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-25 Discharge outlets. (a) Discharge outlets...

  17. 49 CFR 178.337-8 - Openings, inlets, and outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... used to transport chlorine. The requirements for inlets and outlets on chlorine cargo tanks are in... equalization of pressure. (b) Inlets and discharge outlets on chlorine tanks. The inlet and discharge outlets on a cargo tank used to transport chlorine must meet the requirements of § 178.337-1(c)(2) and...

  18. 49 CFR 178.337-8 - Openings, inlets, and outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... used to transport chlorine. The requirements for inlets and outlets on chlorine cargo tanks are in... equalization of pressure. (b) Inlets and discharge outlets on chlorine tanks. The inlet and discharge outlets on a cargo tank used to transport chlorine must meet the requirements of § 178.337-1(c)(2) and...

  19. 49 CFR 178.337-8 - Openings, inlets, and outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... used to transport chlorine. The requirements for inlets and outlets on chlorine cargo tanks are in... equalization of pressure. (b) Inlets and discharge outlets on chlorine tanks. The inlet and discharge outlets on a cargo tank used to transport chlorine must meet the requirements of § 178.337-1(c)(2) and...

  20. 49 CFR 178.337-8 - Openings, inlets, and outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... used to transport chlorine. The requirements for inlets and outlets on chlorine cargo tanks are in... equalization of pressure. (b) Inlets and discharge outlets on chlorine tanks. The inlet and discharge outlets on a cargo tank used to transport chlorine must meet the requirements of § 178.337-1(c)(2) and...

  1. 49 CFR 178.337-8 - Openings, inlets, and outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... used to transport chlorine. The requirements for inlets and outlets on chlorine cargo tanks are in... equalization of pressure. (b) Inlets and discharge outlets on chlorine tanks. The inlet and discharge outlets on a cargo tank used to transport chlorine must meet the requirements of § 178.337-1(c)(2) and...

  2. 14 CFR 23.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 23.977 Section 23.977... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 23.977 Fuel tank outlet. (a) There must be a fuel strainer for the fuel tank outlet or for the booster pump....

  3. 14 CFR 25.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 25.977 Section 25.977... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.977 Fuel tank outlet. (a) There must be a fuel strainer for the fuel tank outlet or for the booster pump. This strainer must— (1)...

  4. 14 CFR 27.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 27.977 Section 27.977... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 27.977 Fuel tank outlet. (a) There must be a fuel stainer for the fuel tank outlet or for the booster pump. This strainer must— (1)...

  5. 46 CFR 95.17-20 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 95.17-20 Section 95.17-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.17-20 Discharge outlets. (a) Discharge outlets shall...

  6. 46 CFR 76.17-20 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 76.17-20 Section 76.17-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.17-20 Discharge outlets. (a) Discharge outlets shall be of...

  7. Youth activity spaces and daily exposure to tobacco outlets.

    PubMed

    Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Morrison, Christopher; Grube, Joel W; Gaidus, Andrew

    2015-07-01

    We explored whether exposure to tobacco outlets in youths' broader activity spaces differs from that obtained using traditional geographic measures of exposure to tobacco outlet within buffers around homes and schools. Youths completed an initial survey, daily text-prompted surveys, and carried GPS-enabled phones for one week. GPS locations were geocoded and activity spaces were constructed by joining sequential points. We calculated the number of tobacco outlets around these polylines and around homes and schools. Results suggest that activity spaces provide a more accurate measure of tobacco outlet exposures than traditional measures. Assessing tobacco outlet exposure within activity spaces may yield significant information to advance the field.

  8. Higgs inflation, reheating and gravitino production in no-scale Supersymmetric GUTs

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, John; He, Hong-Jian; Xianyu, Zhong-Zhi

    2016-08-30

    We extend our previous study of supersymmetric Higgs inflation in the context of no-scale supergravity and grand unification, to include models based on the flipped SU(5) and the Pati-Salam group. Like the previous SU(5) GUT model, these yield a class of inflation models whose inflation predictions interpolate between those of the quadratic chaotic inflation and Starobinsky-like inflation, while avoiding tension with proton decay limits. We further analyse the reheating process in these models, and derive the number of e-folds, which is independent of the reheating temperature. We derive the corresponding predictions for the scalar tilt and the tensor-to-scalar ratio in cosmic microwave background perturbations, as well as discussing the gravitino production following inflation.

  9. THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF OPEN-CYCLE MULTISHAFT POWER SYSTEM WITH MULTIPLE REHEAT AND INTERCOOL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassman, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    This program computes the specific power output, specific fuel consumption, and cycle efficiency functions of turbine-inlet temperature, compressor pressure ratio, and component performance factors for power systems having any number of shafts up to a maximum of five. On each shaft there can be any number of compressors and turbines up to a maximum of five each, along with any specified number of intervening intercoolers and reheaters. A recuperator can be included in the system and turbine coolant flow can be accounted for. The combustion-gas thermodynamic properties are valid for any fuel consisting of hydrogen and/or carbon only. The program should be used with maximum temperatures no higher than about 2000 K (3140 degrees Fahrenheit) because molecular dissociation is not included in the stoichiometry. Improvements in cycle performance resulting from the use of intercooling, reheating, and recuperation can also be determined. This program has been implemented on the IBM 7094.

  10. Calculations of inflaton decays and reheating: with applications to no-scale inflation models

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, John; Garcia, Marcos A.G.; Olive, Keith A.; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V. E-mail: garciagarcia@physics.umn.edu E-mail: olive@physics.umn.edu

    2015-07-01

    We discuss inflaton decays and reheating in no-scale Starobinsky-like models of inflation, calculating the effective equation-of-state parameter, w, during the epoch of inflaton decay, the reheating temperature, T{sub reh}, and the number of inflationary e-folds, N{sub *}, comparing analytical approximations with numerical calculations. We then illustrate these results with applications to models based on no-scale supergravity and motivated by generic string compactifications, including scenarios where the inflaton is identified as an untwisted-sector matter field with direct Yukawa couplings to MSSM fields, and where the inflaton decays via gravitational-strength interactions. Finally, we use our results to discuss the constraints on these models imposed by present measurements of the scalar spectral index n{sub s} and the tensor-to-scalar perturbation ratio r, converting them into constraints on N{sub *}, the inflaton decay rate and other parameters of specific no-scale inflationary models.

  11. Inflation and reheating in scale-invariant scalar-tensor gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tambalo, Giovanni; Rinaldi, Massimiliano

    2017-04-01

    We consider the scale-invariant inflationary model studied in Rinaldi and Vanzo (Phys Rev D 94: 024009, 2016). The Lagrangian includes all the scale-invariant operators that can be built with combinations of R, R2 and one scalar field. The equations of motion show that the symmetry is spontaneously broken after an arbitrarily long inflationary period and a fundamental mass scale is generated. Upon symmetry breaking, and in the Jordan frame, both Hubble function and the scalar field undergo damped oscillations that can eventually amplify Standard Model fields and reheat the Universe. In the present work, we study in detail inflation and the reheating mechanism of this model in the Einstein frame and we compare some of the results with the latest observational data.

  12. An investigation of reheat cracking in the weld heat affected zone of type 347 stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phung-On, Isaratat

    2007-12-01

    Reheat cracking has been a persistent problem for welding of many alloys such as the stabilized stainless steels: Types 321 and 347 as well as Cr-Mo-V steels. Similar problem occurs in Ni-base superalloys termed "strain-age cracking". Cracking occurs during the post weld heat treatment. The HAZ is the most susceptible area due to metallurgical reactions in solid state during both heating and cooling thermal cycle. Many investigations have been conducted to understand the RHC mechanism. There is still no comprehensive mechanism to explain its underlying mechanism. In this study, there were two proposed cracking mechanisms. The first is the formation of a PFZ resulting in local weakening and strain localization. The second is the creep-like grain boundary sliding that causes microvoid formation at the grain boundaries and the triple point junctions. Cracking occurs due to the coalescence of the microvoids that form. In this study, stabilized grade stainless steel, Type 347, was selected for investigation of reheat cracking mechanism due to the simplicity of its microstructure and understanding of its metallurgical behavior. The Gleeble(TM) 3800 system was employed due to its capability for precise control of both thermal and mechanical simulation. Cylindrical samples were subjected to thermal cycles for the HAZ simulation followed by PWHT as the reheat cracking test. "Susceptibility C-curves" were plotted as a function of PWHT temperatures and time to failure at applied stress levels of 70% and 80% yield strength. These C-curves show the possible relationship of the reheat cracking susceptibility and carbide precipitation behavior. To identify the mechanism, the sample shape was modified containing two flat surfaces at the center section. These flat surfaces were electro-polished and subjected to the HAZ simulation followed by the placement of the micro-indentation arrays. Then, the reheat cracking test was performed. The cracking mechanism was identified by tracing

  13. Fast-flowing outlet glaciers on Svalbard ice caps

    SciTech Connect

    Dowdeswell, J.A. ); Collin, R.L. )

    1990-08-01

    Four well-defined outlet glaciers are present on the 2510 km{sup 2} cap of Vestfonna in Nordaustlandet, Svalbard. Airborne radio echo sounding and aerial-photograph and satellite-image analysis methods are used to analyze the morphology and dynamics of the ice cap and its component outlet glaciers. The heavily crevassed outlets form linear depressions in the ice-cap surface and flow an order of magnitude faster than the ridges of uncrevassed ice between them. Ice flow on the ridges is accounted for by internal deformation alone, whereas rates of outlet glacier flow require basal motion. One outlet has recently switched into and out of a faster mode of flow. Rapid terminal advance, a change from longitudinal compression to tension, and thinning in the upper basin indicate surge behavior. Observed outlet glacier discharge is significantly greater than current inputs of mass of the ice cap, indicating that present rates of flow cannot be sustained under the contemporary climate.

  14. 11. Photographic copy of copy of Twin Lakes Outlet Works ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photographic copy of copy of Twin Lakes Outlet Works construction drawing dated January 15, 1951. Drawn by W.A. Doe for the Twin Lakes Reservoir and Canal Co. (copy in possession of Bureau of Reclamation, location of original unknown) 'AS CONSTRUCTED' PLANS OF 1949-1950, REHABILITATION OF TWIN LAKES RESERVOIR OUTLET WORKS, DETAILS OF UPSTREAM WING WALLS. - Twin Lakes Dam & Outlet Works, Beneath Twin Lakes Reservoir, T11S, R80W, S22, Twin Lakes, Lake County, CO

  15. 12. Photographic copy of copy of Twin Lakes Outlet Works ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photographic copy of copy of Twin Lakes Outlet Works construction drawing dated January 15, 1951. Drawn by W.A. Doe for the Twin Lakes Reservoir and Canal Co. (copy in possession of Bureau of Reclamation, location of original unknown) 'AS CONSTRUCTED' PLANS OF 1949-50, REHABILITATION OF TWIN LAKES RESERVOIR OUTLET WORKS, DETAILS OF DISCHARGE BASIN. - Twin Lakes Dam & Outlet Works, Beneath Twin Lakes Reservoir, T11S, R80W, S22, Twin Lakes, Lake County, CO

  16. Antivortex Device for Multi-Outlet Liquid Reservoir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grayson, Gary David (Inventor); Addison, Stephen Michael (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A liquid reservoir with a sump includes at least two outlet ports in fluid communication with a fluid conduit. An anti-vortex device includes a first plate extending across the at least two outlet ports and a second plate coupled to the first plate and extending substantially perpendicular to the first plate. The anti-vortex device is configured to disrupt formation of a vortex formed by liquid passing from the reservoir through said outlet ports.

  17. Impact of Cooking, Storage, and Reheating Conditions on the Formation of Cholesterol Oxidation Products in Pork Loin

    PubMed Central

    Min, Joong-Seok; Khan, Muhammad I.; Lee, Sang-Ok; Yim, Dong Gyun; Seol, Kuk Hwan; Lee, Mooha; Jo, Cheorun

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of cooking, storage, and reheating conditions on the formation of cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) in pork loin. Samples of pork loin procured 24 h postmortem were initially processed and assessed for total fat and cholesterol content. The cooking methods evaluated were pan roasting, steaming, oven grilling, and microwaving. Cooked pork loin samples were stored at 4℃ and reheated after 3 and 6 d of storage using the original method of preparation or alternately, microwaving. Fat content increased significantly with cooking as a result of the loss in moisture but cholesterol content remained unchanged. Pan roasting and microwave cooking caused a significantly higher production of COPs, as with the process of reheating using microwave, pan roasting, and oven grilling methods. The major COPs found in pork loin were cholestanetriol, 20-hydroxycholesterol, and 25-hydroxycholesterol, whose concentrations varied according to the different cooking and reheating methods used. Moreover, the aerobic storage of cooked pork loin under a refrigerated condition also increased the formation of cholesterol oxides on reheating. PMID:27499660

  18. Inflation and reheating in theories with spontaneous scale invariance symmetry breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Vanzo, Luciano

    2016-07-01

    We study a scale-invariant model of quadratic gravity with a nonminimally coupled scalar field. We focus on cosmological solutions and find that scale invariance is spontaneously broken and a mass scale naturally emerges. Before the symmetry breaking, the Universe undergoes an inflationary expansion with nearly the same observational predictions of Starobinsky's model. At the end of inflation, the Hubble parameter and the scalar field converge to a stable fixed point through damped oscillations and the usual Einstein-Hilbert action is recovered. The oscillations around the fixed point can reheat the Universe in various ways, and we study in detail some of these possibilities.

  19. Computer program for thermodynamic analysis of open cycle multishaft power system with multiple reheat and intercool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassman, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    A computer program to analyze power systems having any number of shafts up to a maximum of five is presented. On each shaft there can be as many as five compressors and five turbines, along with any specified number of intervening intercoolers and reheaters. A recuperator can be included. Turbine coolant flow can be accounted for. Any fuel consisting entirely of hydrogen and/or carbon can be used. The program is valid for maximum temperatures up to about 2000 K (3600 R). The system description, the analysis method, a detailed explanation of program input and output including an illustrative example, a dictionary of program variables, and the program listing are explained.

  20. Solving the Hierarchy Problem at Reheating with a Large Number of Degrees of Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Cohen, Timothy; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Hook, Anson; Kim, Hyung Do; Pinner, David

    2016-12-01

    We present a new solution to the electroweak hierarchy problem. We introduce N copies of the standard model with varying values of the Higgs mass parameter. This generically yields a sector whose weak scale is parametrically removed from the cutoff by a factor of 1 /√{N }. Ensuring that reheating deposits a majority of the total energy density into this lightest sector requires a modification of the standard cosmological history, providing a powerful probe of the mechanism. Current and near-future experiments can explore much of the natural parameter space. Furthermore, supersymmetric completions that preserve grand unification predict superpartners with mass below mWMpl/MGUT˜10 TeV .

  1. 6. VIEW OF DAM 83, SHOWING OUTLET CHANNEL FLOWING INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF DAM 83, SHOWING OUTLET CHANNEL FLOWING INTO POND A WITH DIVERSION GATES LONG EAST (LEFT) SIDE OF OUTLET CHANNEL, LOOKING SOUTH FROM DOWNSTREAM FACE OF THE DAM - Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 83, Souris River Basin, Foxholm, Surrey (England), ND

  2. 7 CFR 929.61 - Outlets for excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Outlets for excess cranberries. 929.61 Section 929.61... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... excess cranberries. (a) Noncommercial outlets. Excess cranberries may be disposed of in...

  3. 7 CFR 929.57 - Outlets for restricted cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Outlets for restricted cranberries. 929.57 Section 929... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES....57 Outlets for restricted cranberries. (a) Except as provided in this section and in §...

  4. 7 CFR 929.61 - Outlets for excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Outlets for excess cranberries. 929.61 Section 929.61... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... excess cranberries. (a) Noncommercial outlets. Excess cranberries may be disposed of in...

  5. 7 CFR 929.57 - Outlets for restricted cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Outlets for restricted cranberries. 929.57 Section 929... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES....57 Outlets for restricted cranberries. (a) Except as provided in this section and in §...

  6. 7 CFR 929.57 - Outlets for restricted cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Outlets for restricted cranberries. 929.57 Section 929... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES....57 Outlets for restricted cranberries. (a) Except as provided in this section and in §...

  7. 7 CFR 929.61 - Outlets for excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Outlets for excess cranberries. 929.61 Section 929.61... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... excess cranberries. (a) Noncommercial outlets. Excess cranberries may be disposed of in...

  8. 7 CFR 929.57 - Outlets for restricted cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Outlets for restricted cranberries. 929.57 Section 929... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES....57 Outlets for restricted cranberries. (a) Except as provided in this section and in §...

  9. 7 CFR 929.57 - Outlets for restricted cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Outlets for restricted cranberries. 929.57 Section 929... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES....57 Outlets for restricted cranberries. (a) Except as provided in this section and in §...

  10. 7 CFR 929.61 - Outlets for excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Outlets for excess cranberries. 929.61 Section 929.61... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... excess cranberries. (a) Noncommercial outlets. Excess cranberries may be disposed of in...

  11. 7 CFR 929.61 - Outlets for excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Outlets for excess cranberries. 929.61 Section 929.61... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... excess cranberries. (a) Noncommercial outlets. Excess cranberries may be disposed of in...

  12. 46 CFR 193.15-25 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 193.15-25 Section 193.15-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-25 Discharge outlets. (a) Discharge...

  13. 46 CFR 95.15-25 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 95.15-25 Section 95.15-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-25 Discharge outlets. (a) Discharge...

  14. 25. UPSTREAM VIEW OF LOWER END OF OUTLET STRUCTURE SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. UPSTREAM VIEW OF LOWER END OF OUTLET STRUCTURE SHOWING FORMS IN PLACE FOR GRAVITY WALL SECTIONS.... Volume XVI, No. 16, August 16, 1939. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  15. 49 CFR 178.345-11 - Tank outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.345-11 Tank outlets. (a) General. As used in this section... outlet where vehicle length allows, or on the end of the cargo tank farthest away from the...

  16. 49 CFR 178.345-11 - Tank outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.345-11 Tank outlets. (a) General. As used in this section... outlet where vehicle length allows, or on the end of the cargo tank farthest away from the...

  17. 49 CFR 178.345-11 - Tank outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.345-11 Tank outlets. (a) General. As used in this section... outlet where vehicle length allows, or on the end of the cargo tank farthest away from the...

  18. 49 CFR 178.345-11 - Tank outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.345-11 Tank outlets. (a) General. As used in this section... outlet where vehicle length allows, or on the end of the cargo tank farthest away from the...

  19. 49 CFR 179.103-5 - Bottom outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.103-5 Bottom outlets..., bottom outlet valves must meet the following requirements: (1) On cars with center sills, a ball...

  20. 8. CLOSEUP OF THE GATES ON THE TOBY CREEK OUTLET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. CLOSEUP OF THE GATES ON THE TOBY CREEK OUTLET AND THE OUTLET OF THE PUMP DISCHARGE CHANNEL, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Wyoming Valley Flood Control System, Woodward Pumping Station, East of Toby Creek crossing by Erie-Lackawanna Railroad, Edwardsville, Luzerne County, PA

  1. 46 CFR 193.15-25 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 193.15-25 Section 193.15-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-25 Discharge outlets. (a) Discharge...

  2. 46 CFR 95.15-25 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 95.15-25 Section 95.15-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-25 Discharge outlets. (a) Discharge...

  3. 46 CFR 193.15-25 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 193.15-25 Section 193.15-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide and Clean Agent Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-25 Discharge outlets....

  4. 46 CFR 193.15-25 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 193.15-25 Section 193.15-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide and Clean Agent Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-25 Discharge outlets....

  5. 46 CFR 95.15-25 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 95.15-25 Section 95.15-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-25 Discharge outlets. (a) Discharge...

  6. 7 CFR 993.108 - Non-human consumption outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Non-human consumption outlet. 993.108 Section 993.108... CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions § 993.108 Non-human consumption outlet. Non-human... feed, or other product for non-human use, who has established, to the satisfaction of the...

  7. 7 CFR 993.108 - Non-human consumption outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Non-human consumption outlet. 993.108 Section 993.108... CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions § 993.108 Non-human consumption outlet. Non-human... feed, or other product for non-human use, who has established, to the satisfaction of the...

  8. 7 CFR 993.108 - Non-human consumption outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Non-human consumption outlet. 993.108 Section 993.108... CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions § 993.108 Non-human consumption outlet. Non-human... feed, or other product for non-human use, who has established, to the satisfaction of the...

  9. 46 CFR 108.459 - Number and location of outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.459 Number and location of outlets. (a) A foam extinguishing system in a space must have enough outlets to spread a layer of foam of uniform thickness over the deck or bilge areas of the space. (b) A foam extinguishing system in a...

  10. 14 CFR 25.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 25.977 Section 25.977 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.977 Fuel tank outlet. (a) There must...

  11. 14 CFR 29.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 29.977 Section 29.977 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.977 Fuel tank outlet. (a) There must...

  12. 14 CFR 25.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 25.977 Section 25.977 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.977 Fuel tank outlet. (a) There must...

  13. 14 CFR 29.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 29.977 Section 29.977 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.977 Fuel tank outlet. (a) There must...

  14. 14 CFR 25.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 25.977 Section 25.977 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.977 Fuel tank outlet. (a) There must...

  15. 14 CFR 25.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 25.977 Section 25.977 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.977 Fuel tank outlet. (a) There must...

  16. 14 CFR 29.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 29.977 Section 29.977 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.977 Fuel tank outlet. (a) There must...

  17. 14 CFR 29.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 29.977 Section 29.977 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.977 Fuel tank outlet. (a) There must...

  18. 14 CFR 29.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 29.977 Section 29.977 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.977 Fuel tank outlet. (a) There must...

  19. 46 CFR 111.79-1 - Receptacle outlets; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Receptacle outlets; general. 111.79-1 Section 111.79-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Receptacles § 111.79-1 Receptacle outlets; general. (a) There must be a...

  20. 46 CFR 111.79-1 - Receptacle outlets; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Receptacle outlets; general. 111.79-1 Section 111.79-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Receptacles § 111.79-1 Receptacle outlets; general. (a) There must be a...

  1. 46 CFR 111.79-1 - Receptacle outlets; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Receptacle outlets; general. 111.79-1 Section 111.79-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Receptacles § 111.79-1 Receptacle outlets; general. (a) There must be a...

  2. 46 CFR 111.79-1 - Receptacle outlets; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Receptacle outlets; general. 111.79-1 Section 111.79-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Receptacles § 111.79-1 Receptacle outlets; general. (a) There must be a...

  3. 46 CFR 111.79-1 - Receptacle outlets; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Receptacle outlets; general. 111.79-1 Section 111.79-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Receptacles § 111.79-1 Receptacle outlets; general. (a) There must be a...

  4. 7 CFR 993.108 - Non-human consumption outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Non-human consumption outlet. 993.108 Section 993.108... CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions § 993.108 Non-human consumption outlet. Non-human... feed, or other product for non-human use, who has established, to the satisfaction of the...

  5. 7 CFR 993.108 - Non-human consumption outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Non-human consumption outlet. 993.108 Section 993.108... CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions § 993.108 Non-human consumption outlet. Non-human... feed, or other product for non-human use, who has established, to the satisfaction of the...

  6. 49 CFR 178.345-11 - Tank outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank outlets. 178.345-11 Section 178.345-11... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.345-11 Tank outlets. (a) General. As used in this section, “loading/unloading outlet” means any opening in the cargo tank wall used for loading...

  7. 49 CFR 179.200-17 - Bottom outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the valve shall be closed by a plug, cap, or approved quick coupling device. The bottom outlet...) or including an auxiliary valve with a threaded closure. (iii) A quick-coupling device using a... the outlet nozzle above the closure (see Fig. E17.7). (iv) A two-piece quick-coupling device using...

  8. DESCHUTES. WICKIUP DAM OUTLET WORKS. LOOKING DOWNSTREAM; AFTER COMPLETION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DESCHUTES. WICKIUP DAM OUTLET WORKS. LOOKING DOWNSTREAM; AFTER COMPLETION OF MONTAG & SONS CONTRACT. Photocopy of historic photograph (original photograph on file at National Archives, Rocky Mountain Region, Denver, CO). Unknown USBR photographer, November 24, 1940 - Wickiup Dam, Outlet Works, Deschutes River, La Pine, Deschutes County, OR

  9. The geography of Fast Food outlets: a review.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Lorna K; Edwards, Kimberly L; Cade, Janet; Clarke, Graham P

    2010-05-01

    The availability of food high in fat, salt and sugar through Fast Food (FF) or takeaway outlets, is implicated in the causal pathway for the obesity epidemic. This review aims to summarise this body of research and highlight areas for future work. Thirty three studies were found that had assessed the geography of these outlets. Fourteen studies showed a positive association between availability of FF outlets and increasing deprivation. Another 13 studies also included overweight or obesity data and showed conflicting results between obesity/overweight and FF outlet availability. There is some evidence that FF availability is associated with lower fruit and vegetable intake. There is potential for land use policies to have an influence on the location of new FF outlets. Further research should incorporate good quality data on FF consumption, weight and physical activity.

  10. Third ventriculostomy and fourth ventricle outlets obstruction.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Enrique; de Notaris, Matteo

    2013-02-01

    A dilated fourth ventricle due to outlet obstruction is a clinical-radiologic entity with symptoms similar to those of a posterior fossa space-occupying lesion. Indeed, blockage of the foramina of Luschka and Magendie and of the aqueduct results in a "trapped" fourth ventricle. Continued cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production within the fourth ventricle leads to cystic dilatation of the fourth ventricle. We could not, until now, understand the phenomenon, mainly on exploring endoscopically the permeability of the whole aqueduct. In adults, we call this condition the functional trapped fourth ventricle because in none of our cases have we found physical obstruction of CSF flow. Third ventricle-fourth ventriculostomy is by far the most frequently used technique for cannulation of the aqueduct in a trapped fourth ventricle. In our reported cases, we have introduced a silicone tube stent from below after accessing the fourth ventricle through a small suboccipital craniectomy, ascending it on the aqueduct in order to reach the third ventricle. Management of this infrequently isolated fourth ventricle, but communicated with the rest of ventricular system, remains a challenge for neurosurgeons. Lack of knowledge of the pathophysiology makes it difficult to treat a problem that we do not understand.

  11. Local cooling, plasma reheating and thermal pinching induced by single aerosol droplets injected into an inductively coupled plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, George C.-Y.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2016-07-01

    The injection of a single micrometer-sized droplet into an analytical inductively coupled plasma (ICP) perturbs the plasma and involves three sequential effects: local cooling, thermal pinching and plasma reheating. Time-resolved two-dimensional monochromatic imaging of the load-coil region of an ICP was used to monitor this sequence of plasma perturbations. When a microdroplet enters the plasma, it acts as a local heat sink and cools the nearby plasma region. The cooling effect is considered local, although the cooling volume can be large and extends 6 mm from the physical location of the vaporizing droplet. The liberated hydrogen, from decomposition of water, causes a thermal pinch effect by increasing the thermal conductivity of the bulk plasma and accelerating heat loss at the plasma periphery. As a response to the heat loss, the plasma shrinks in size, which increases its power density. Plasma shrinkage starts around the same time when the microdroplet enters the plasma and lasts at least 2 ms after the droplet leaves the load-coil region. Once the vaporizing droplet passes through a particular plasma volume, that volume is reheated to an even higher temperature than under steady-state conditions. Because of the opposing effects of plasma cooling and reheating, the plasma conditions are different upstream (downward) and downstream (upward) from a vaporizing droplet - cooling dominates the downstream region whereas reheating controls in the upstream domain. The boundary between the local cooling and reheating zones is sharp and is only ~ 1 mm thick. The reheating effect persists a relatively long time in the plasma, at least up to 4 ms after the droplet moves out of the load-coil region. The restoration of plasma equilibrium after the perturbation induced by microdroplet injection is slow. Microdroplet injection also induces a momentary change in plasma impedance, and the impedance change was found to correlate qualitatively with the different stages of plasma

  12. Constraining scalar-Gauss-Bonnet inflation by reheating, unitarity, and Planck data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Srijit; Maity, Debaprasad; Mukherjee, Rupak

    2017-01-01

    We revisit the inflationary dynamics in detail for theories with Gauss-Bonnet gravity coupled to scalar functions, in light of the Planck data. Considering the chaotic inflationary scenario, we constrain the parameters of two models involving inflaton-Gauss-Bonnet coupling by current Planck data. For nonzero inflaton-Gauss-Bonnet coupling β , an inflationary analysis provides us a big cosmologically viable region in the space of (m , β ), where m is the mass of the inflaton. However, we study further on constraining β arising from reheating considerations and unitarity of tree-level amplitude involving 2-graviton →2 -graviton (h h →h h ) scattering. Our analysis, particularly on reheating significantly reduces the parameter space of (m , β ) for all models. The quadratic Gauss-Bonnet coupling parameter turns out to be more strongly constrained than that of the linear coupling. For the linear Gauss-Bonnet coupling function, we obtain β ≲1 03, with the condition β (m /MP)2≃10-4. However, the study of the Higgs inflation scenario in the presence of a Gauss-Bonnet term turns out to be completely disfavored.

  13. Effect of Reheat Treatment on Microstructural Refurbishment and Hardness of the As-cast Inconel 738

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wongbunyakul, Piyanut; Visuttipitukkul, Patama; Wangyao, Panyawat; Lothongkum, Gobboon; Sricharoenchai, Prasonk

    2014-09-01

    This work investigates the effect of rejuvenation heat treatment conditions for refurbishment of the long-term serviced gas turbine blades, which were made of as-cast nickel base superalloy grade, Inconel 738. The reheat treatment conditions consist of solutionizing treatments at temperatures of 1,438, 1,458 and 1,478 K for 14.4 ks and aging treatments at temperatures of 1,133, 1,148 and 1,163 K for 43.2, 86.4, 129.6 and 172.8 ks. The results show that increase in aging times results in continuous increase of size and area fraction of gamma prime (γ') particles. The higher solutionizing temperature leads to the lower area fraction and smaller size of gamma prime particles. Regarding the microstructure characteristics, the most proper reheat treatment condition should be solutionizing at temperature of 1,438 K for 14.4 ks and aging at temperature of 1,133 K for 172.8 ks, which provides the highest area fraction of gamma prime particles in proper size.

  14. Calculations of inflaton decays and reheating: with applications to no-scale inflation models

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, John; Garcia, Marcos A.G.; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.; Olive, Keith A.

    2015-07-30

    We discuss inflaton decays and reheating in no-scale Starobinsky-like models of inflation, calculating the effective equation-of-state parameter, w, during the epoch of inflaton decay, the reheating temperature, T{sub reh}, and the number of inflationary e-folds, N{sub ∗}, comparing analytical approximations with numerical calculations. We then illustrate these results with applications to models based on no-scale supergravity and motivated by generic string compactifications, including scenarios where the inflaton is identified as an untwisted-sector matter field with direct Yukawa couplings to MSSM fields, and where the inflaton decays via gravitational-strength interactions. Finally, we use our results to discuss the constraints on these models imposed by present measurements of the scalar spectral index n{sub s} and the tensor-to-scalar perturbation ratio r, converting them into constraints on N{sub ∗}, the inflaton decay rate and other parameters of specific no-scale inflationary models.

  15. More on loops in reheating: non-gaussianities and tensor power spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Katırcı, Nihan; Kaya, Ali; Tarman, Merve

    2014-06-11

    We consider the single field chaotic m{sup 2}ϕ{sup 2} inflationary model with a period of preheating, where the inflaton decays to another scalar field χ in the parametric resonance regime. In a recent work, one of us has shown that the χ modes circulating in the loops during preheating notably modify the <ζζ> correlation function. We first rederive this result using a different gauge condition hence reconfirm that superhorizon ζ modes are affected by the loops in preheating. Further, we examine how χ loops give rise to non-gaussianity and affect the tensor perturbations. For that, all cubic and some higher order interactions involving two χ fields are determined and their contribution to the non-gaussianity parameter f{sub NL} and the tensor power spectrum are calculated at one loop. Our estimates for these corrections show that while a large amount of non-gaussianity can be produced during reheating, the tensor power spectrum receive moderate corrections. We observe that the loop quantum effects increase with more χ fields circulating in the loops indicating that the perturbation theory might be broken down. These findings demonstrate that the loop corrections during reheating are significant and they must be taken into account for precision inflationary cosmology.

  16. Authorship outlets of academic health sciences librarians.

    PubMed Central

    Bradigan, P S; Mularski, C A

    1992-01-01

    Journal articles are the most common publication format for U.S. academic health sciences librarians. This is consistent with the findings of other researchers. Of the total publications in this study, 68% were in journals. Watson found that 69% of the academic librarians' publications were published in some type of journal [8]. Similarly, Yerkey and Glogowski found that 67% of the publications in their study were journal articles, although their population consisted of all types of authors of library/information science materials [9]. Both the present study and Watson found that monographs were the second most common publication outlet. Watson found that 16% of the total publications were monographs; the current study identified 14.8% of the total publications as monographs [10]. Although Watson's findings are similar to the newer results, it is important to note that Watson's study was conducted in a different manner and included book reviews, which were not counted in the present study. The health sciences librarians in the present study published more than two thirds of their articles in library/information science journals and 27% in health sciences journals. Similarly, in Yerkey and Glogowski's study, the second-largest number of library/information science articles appeared in medical and health sciences journals [11]. Fang also found that 22.57% of the journal articles on health sciences librarianship or by health sciences librarians were in medical journals [12. This seems to demonstrate the desire of health sciences librarians to communicate with the health professionals. Yerkey and Glogowski that library and information science is an interdisciplinary field, "borrowing and supplying information to and from other disciplines"[13]. PMID:1600429

  17. 1. View east at west facade of culvert outlet headwall, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View east at west facade of culvert outlet headwall, above which part of the canal bank has been removed. Foreground to background: streambed and coffer dam (mound in center) that was used in dewatering the culvert; intake pipes (extreme left and right) for dewatering pumps; deteriorated culvert outlet headwall with upper portion of wall fallen away; horizontal masonry cutoff wall extending above the culvert outlet partially up the canal bank (cutoff wall was exposed by removal of part of canal bank); towpath at top of canal bank. - Delaware & Raritan Canal, Six Mile Run Culvert, .2 mile South of Blackwells Mills Road, East Millstone, Somerset County, NJ

  18. Venous Thoracic Outlet Syndrome as a Cause of Intractable Migraines.

    PubMed

    Chahwala, Veer; Tashiro, Jun; Li, Xiaoyi; Baqai, Atif; Rey, Jorge; Robinson, Handel R

    2017-02-01

    Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) refers to the compression of the neurovascular bundle within the thoracic outlet. Cases are classified by primary etiology-arterial, neurogenic, or venous. In addition to the typical symptoms of arm swelling and paresthesias, headaches have been reported as a potential symptom of TOS. In this report, we describe a patient with debilitating migraines, which were consistently preceded by unilateral arm swelling. Resolution of symptoms occurred only after thoracic outlet decompression. Patients with migraines and concomitant swelling and/or paresthesias, especially related to provocative arm maneuvers, should be considered a possible atypical presentation of TOS and evaluated in more detail.

  19. Field Validation of Secondary Data Sources for Enumerating Retail Tobacco Outlets in a State without Tobacco Outlet Licensing

    PubMed Central

    D’Angelo, Heather; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Rose, Shyanika W.; Ribisl, Kurt M.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying tobacco retail outlets for U.S. FDA compliance checks or calculating tobacco outlet is difficult in the 13 states without tobacco retail licensing or where licensing lists are unavailable for research. This study uses primary data collection to identify tobacco outlets in three counties in a non-licensing state and validate two commercial secondary data sources. We calculated sensitivity and positive predictive values (PPV) to validate the secondary data sources, and conducted a geospatial analysis to determine correct allocation to census tract. ReferenceUSA had almost perfect sensitivity (0.82) while Dun & Bradstreet (D&B) had substantial sensitivity (0.69) for identifying tobacco outlets; combined, sensitivity improved to 0.89. D&B identified fewer “false positives” with a PPV of 0.82 compared to 0.71 for ReferenceUSA. ReferenceUSA geocoded over 90% of outlets to the correct census tract. Combining two commercial data sources resulted in enumeration of nearly 90% of tobacco outlets in a three county area. Commercial databases appear to provide a reasonably accurate way to identify tobacco outlets for enforcement operations and density estimation. PMID:24742811

  20. Field validation of secondary data sources for enumerating retail tobacco outlets in a state without tobacco outlet licensing.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Heather; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Rose, Shyanika W; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2014-07-01

    Identifying tobacco retail outlets for U.S. FDA compliance checks or calculating tobacco outlet density is difficult in the 13 States without tobacco retail licensing or where licensing lists are unavailable for research. This study uses primary data collection to identify tobacco outlets in three counties in a non-licensing state and validate two commercial secondary data sources. We calculated sensitivity and positive predictive values (PPV) to examine the evidence of validity for two secondary data sources, and conducted a geospatial analysis to determine correct allocation to census tract. ReferenceUSA had almost perfect sensitivity (0.82) while Dun & Bradstreet (D&B) had substantial sensitivity (0.69) for identifying tobacco outlets; combined, sensitivity improved to 0.89. D&B identified fewer "false positives" with a PPV of 0.82 compared to 0.71 for ReferenceUSA. More than 90% of the outlets identified by ReferenceUSA were geocoded to the correct census tract. Combining two commercial data sources resulted in enumeration of nearly 90% of tobacco outlets in a three county area. Commercial databases appear to provide a reasonably accurate way to identify tobacco outlets for enforcement operations and density estimation.

  1. 49 CFR 179.103-5 - Bottom outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... include an in-line auxiliary valve, either integral with the quick-coupling device or located between the... integral auxiliary test valve, a minimum 1-inch NPT pipe plug shall be installed in the outlet nozzle...

  2. 3. VIEW OF UPSTREAM FACE OF DAM, SHOWING OUTLET GATE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF UPSTREAM FACE OF DAM, SHOWING OUTLET GATE, LOOKING NORTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Island Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.8 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  3. 3. VIEW SHOWING CRIBBED LOG HOUSING FOR OUTLET GATE WHEEL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW SHOWING CRIBBED LOG HOUSING FOR OUTLET GATE WHEEL, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Upaco Unit, Superior Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 12.4 miles Northwest of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  4. 3. AERIAL VIEW OF THREE BEARS LAKE, SHOWING OUTLET STREAM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AERIAL VIEW OF THREE BEARS LAKE, SHOWING OUTLET STREAM, BURLINGTON NORTHERN TRACKS, AND U.S. HIGHWAY 2, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Three Bears Lake & Dams, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  5. 8. DETAIL VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, LOOKING EAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Kidney Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.7 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  6. 7. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL AND STEM, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL AND STEM, LOOKING NORTH - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Kidney Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.7 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  7. 64. Penstock housing with outlet needle valve at lower left. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. Penstock housing with outlet needle valve at lower left. Roadway support work is visible at top. Photographer Mark Durben. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  8. Materials for outlet ducts in wet FGD systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, H.S.; Koch, G.H.; Kistler, C.W.; Beavers, J.A.; Meadows, M.L.; Stewart, D.A.; Dene, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    It was found that the major materials problems are occurring with outlet ducts and stack linings. Outlet ducts and stacks are critical components in that failures may require complete boiler shutdown and loss of generating capacity for lengthy periods due to the lack of standby components or bypass capability. Accordingly, EPRI funded a study by Battelle on the performance of candidate materials in the outlet ducts of FGD systems at two utility plants. Because of the impact of materials failures on FGD system reliability, EPRI is currently funding a study by Battelle on the causes of these failures. This study involves site visits for field evaluations of the failures, laboratory analyses of samples collected in the field, and analysis of the data to establish the causes of the failures. Information on outlet ducts is presented in this paper.

  9. 3. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING EAST. DISCHARGE OUTLET IS VISIBLE AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING EAST. DISCHARGE OUTLET IS VISIBLE AT CENTER. WASTE WEIR BUILDING IS AT RIGHT. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Mill River Waste Weir, U.S. Route 9 at Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, Tarrytown, Westchester County, NY

  10. 5. VIEW OF TUNNEL OUTLET AND CHANNEL, LOOKING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF TUNNEL OUTLET AND CHANNEL, LOOKING SOUTH - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Farmers Lake Tunnel, Ashley National Forest, 5.7 miles North of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  11. 28. Main water inlet and outlet pipes under central corridor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Main water inlet and outlet pipes under central corridor of filtration bed building. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  12. 20. OUTLET (FOREGROUND) AND WEIR (BACKGROUND) OF DEER FLAT CALDWELL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. OUTLET (FOREGROUND) AND WEIR (BACKGROUND) OF DEER FLAT CALDWELL CANAL ON DOWNSTREAM FACE OF UPPER EMBANKMENT. VIEW TO NORTH. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  13. 16. DETAIL OF OUTLET OF DEER FLAT NAMPA CANAL ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. DETAIL OF OUTLET OF DEER FLAT NAMPA CANAL ON DOWNSTREAM FACE OF UPPER EMBANKMENT (NOTE TWO FILLED-IN PORTALS). VIEW TO EAST. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  14. 4. View of dam front and sluiceway outlets Mississippi ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View of dam front and sluiceway outlets - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 1, In Mississippi River at Mississippi Boulevard, below Ford Parkway Bridge, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  15. 7. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE, WHEEL STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE, WHEEL STEM AND STEM GUIDE (14' DIAMETER CIRCULAR CALCO CAST IRON SLIDE GATE), LOOKING SOUTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Fire Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  16. 5. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE, (12' DIAMETER HARDESTY MODEL 112 CIRCULAR GATE), LOOKING NORTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Island Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  17. 4. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL AND STEM, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL AND STEM, LOOKING NORTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Brown Duck Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.4 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  18. 5. VIEW SHOWING INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW SHOWING INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE (28' WIDE HARDESTY CAST IRON SLIDE HEADGATE), LOOKING NORTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Duck Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  19. 5. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Drift Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 11.4 miles Northwest of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  20. 4. VIEW SHOWING OUTLET GATE WHEEL AND STEM, LOOKING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW SHOWING OUTLET GATE WHEEL AND STEM, LOOKING NORTH - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Clements Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 6.5 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  1. 6. VIEW SHOWING INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW SHOWING INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE (18' HARDESTY GATE), LOOKING SOUTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Long Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  2. 5. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE, STEM, STEM GUIDE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE, STEM, STEM GUIDE AND WHEEL (10' HARDESTY CAST IRON VERTICAL LIFT GATE), LOOKING WEST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Weir Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  3. 6. VIEW OF OUTLET GATE WHEEL AND STEM, LOOKING NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF OUTLET GATE WHEEL AND STEM, LOOKING NORTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Twin Pots Dam, Ashley National Forest, 10.1 miles North of Mountain Home, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  4. 5. VIEW OF OUTLET GATE WHEEL AND STEM, LOOKING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF OUTLET GATE WHEEL AND STEM, LOOKING NORTH - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Island Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.8 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  5. 7. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE (15' HARDESTY MODEL 115 GATE), LOOKING NORTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Marjorie Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  6. 4. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE, STEM, STEM GUIDE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE, STEM, STEM GUIDE AND WHEEL (10' HARDESTY VERTICAL LIFT GATE), LOOKING NORTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Pot Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  7. 5. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE (HARDESTY CAST IRON RECTANGULAR SLIDE GATE), LOOKING SOUTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Lost Lake Dam, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  8. Hypercharged dark matter and direct detection as a probe of reheating.

    PubMed

    Feldstein, Brian; Ibe, Masahiro; Yanagida, Tsutomu T

    2014-03-14

    The lack of new physics at the LHC so far weakens the argument for TeV scale thermal dark matter. On the other hand, heavier, nonthermal dark matter is generally difficult to test experimentally. Here we consider the interesting and generic case of hypercharged dark matter, which can allow for heavy dark matter masses without spoiling testability. Planned direct detection experiments will be able to see a signal for masses up to an incredible 1010  GeV, and this can further serve to probe the reheating temperature up to about 109  GeV, as determined by the nonthermal dark matter relic abundance. The Z-mediated nature of the dark matter scattering may be determined in principle by comparing scattering rates on different detector nuclei, which in turn can reveal the dark matter mass. We will discuss the extent to which future experiments may be able to make such a determination.

  9. Application of Advanced Process Control techniques to a pusher type reheating furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanoli, S. M.; Pepe, C.; Barboni, L.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper an Advanced Process Control system aimed at controlling and optimizing a pusher type reheating furnace located in an Italian steel plant is proposed. The designed controller replaced the previous control system, based on PID controllers manually conducted by process operators. A two-layer Model Predictive Control architecture has been adopted that, exploiting a chemical, physical and economic modelling of the process, overcomes the limitations of plant operators’ mental model and knowledge. In addition, an ad hoc decoupling strategy has been implemented, allowing the selection of the manipulated variables to be used for the control of each single process variable. Finally, in order to improve the system flexibility and resilience, the controller has been equipped with a supervision module. A profitable trade-off between conflicting specifications, e.g. safety, quality and production constraints, energy saving and pollution impact, has been guaranteed. Simulation tests and real plant results demonstrated the soundness and the reliability of the proposed system.

  10. Antilisterial properties of marinades during refrigerated storage and microwave oven reheating against post-cooking inoculated chicken breast meat.

    PubMed

    Fouladkhah, Aliyar; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Nychas, George-John; Sofos, John N

    2013-02-01

    This study evaluated growth of Listeria monocytogenes inoculated on cooked chicken meat with different marinades and survival of the pathogen as affected by microwave oven reheating. During aerobic storage at 7 °C, on days 0, 1, 2, 4, and 7, samples were reheated by microwave oven (1100 W) for 45 or 90 s and analyzed microbiologically. L. monocytogenes counts on nonmarinated (control) samples increased (P < 0.05) from 2.7 ± 0.1 (day-0) to 6.9 ± 0.1 (day-7) log CFU/g during storage. Initial (day-0) pathogen counts of marinated samples were <0.5 log CFU/g lower than those of the control, irrespective of marinating treatment. At 7 d of storage, pathogen levels on samples marinated with tomato juice were not different (P ≥ 0.05; 6.9 ± 0.1 log CFU/g) from those of the control, whereas for samples treated with the remaining marinades, pathogen counts were 0.7 (soy sauce) to 2.0 (lemon juice) log CFU/g lower (P < 0.05) than those of the control. Microwave oven reheating reduced L. monocytogenes counts by 1.9 to 4.1 (45 s) and >2.4 to 5.0 (90 s) log CFU/g. With similar trends across different marinates, the high levels of L. monocytogenes survivors found after microwave reheating, especially after storage for more than 2 d, indicate that length of storage and reheating time need to be considered for safe consumption of leftover cooked chicken.

  11. Galileogenesis: A new cosmophenomenological zip code for reheating through R-parity violating coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Sayantan; Dasgupta, Arnab

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we introduce an idea of leptogenesis scenario in higher derivative gravity induced DBI Galileon framework aka Galileogenesis in presence of one-loop R-parity violating couplings in the background of a low energy effective supergravity setup derived from higher dimensional string theory framework. We have studied extensively the detailed feature of reheating constraints and the cosmophenomenological consequences of thermal gravitino dark matter in light of PLANCK and PDG data. Finally, we have also established a direct cosmophenomenological connection among dark matter relic abundance, reheating temperature and tensor-to-scalar ratio in the context of DBI Galileon inflation. Higher order correction terms in the gravity sector are introduced in the effective action as a perturbative correction to the Einstein-Hilbert counterpart coming from the computation of Conformal Field Theory disk amplitude at the two loop level [34-36]. The matter sector encounters the effect of N=1, D=4 supergravity motivated DBI Galileon interaction which is embedded in the D3 brane. Additionally, we have considered the effect of R-parity violating interactions [37-40] in the matter sector which provide a convenient framework for quantifying quark and lepton-flavor violating effects. The low energy UV protective effective action for the proposed cosmophenomenological model is described by [31,32]: S=∫d4x √{-g}[K(Φ,X)-G(Φ,X)□Φ+B1R+(B2RRαβγδ-4B3RRαβ+B4R2)+B5] where the model dependent characteristic functions K(Φ,X) and G(Φ,X) are the implicit functions of Galileon and its kinetic counterpart is X=-1/2 >g∂μΦ∂νΦ. Additionally, Bi∀i are the self-coupling constants of graviton degrees of freedom appearing via dimensional reduction from higher dimensional string theory. Specifically B5 be the effective four dimensional cosmological constant. In general, B2≠B3≠B4 which implies that the quadratic curvature terms originated from two loop correction to the

  12. Development of a technique to evaluate the performance of cooling headers and its applications in POSCO plate mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Pil-Jong

    2016-03-01

    Hundreds of thousands of liquid jet nozzles are widely used in controling cooling equipment to accelerate the cooling of hot plates. The holes of these nozzles become clogged or the hole size becomes smaller as foreign substances like grease, scrap, and mud containing cooling water are flushed through. In this case, cooling water sprays abnormally through the partially clogged or restricted nozzle. This causes inhomogeneous cooling of hot plates. The objective of this study is to develop an evaluation system of cooling headers including nozzles. This paper presents the method to evaluate the conditions of spraying nozzles. The sensor developed in this research measures the liquid column of spraying nozzles using differential pressure between the inside sensor block and ambient air. In addition, the results of a field test in a real, large factory are introduced in this paper.

  13. Improving data accuracy of commercial food outlet databases.

    PubMed

    Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Martinez, Diane; Yedidia, Michael J; Petlick, Nirvana

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. Assessing food environments often requires using commercially available data. Disparate methods used for classifying food outlets in these databases call for creating a classification approach using common definitions. A systematic strategy for reclassifying food stores and restaurants, as they appear in commercial databases, into categories that differentiate the availability of healthy options is described here. DESIGN AND SETTING. Commercially available data on food outlets including names, addresses, North American Industry Classification System codes, and associated characteristics was obtained for five New Jersey communities. ANALYSIS. A reclassification methodology was developed using criteria and definitions from the literature to categorize food outlets based on availability of healthy options. Information in the database was supplemented by systematic Internet and key word searches, and from phone calls to food outlets. RESULTS. The methodology resulted in 622 supermarket/grocery stores, 183 convenience stores, and 148 specialty stores in the original data to be reclassified into 58 supermarkets, 30 grocery stores, 692 convenience stores, and 115 specialty stores. Outlets from the original list of 1485 full-service restaurants and 506 limited-service restaurants were reclassified as 563 full-service restaurants and 1247 limited-service restaurants. Reclassification resulted in less than one-seventh the number of supermarkets and grocery stores, more than three times the number of convenience stores, and twice as many limited-service restaurants-a much less healthy profile than the one generated by using exclusively the commercial databases. CONCLUSION. An explicit and replicable strategy is proposed for reclassifying food outlets in commercial databases into categories that differentiate on the basis of healthy food availability. The intent is to contribute towards building a consensus among researchers on definitions used in public health

  14. Thermal and impact histories of reheated group IVA, IVB, and ungrouped iron meteorites and their parent asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Goldstein, J. I.; Scott, E. R. D.; Michael, J. R.; Kotula, P. G.; Pham, T.; McCoy, T. J.

    2011-09-01

    Abstract- The microstructures of six reheated iron meteorites—two IVA irons, Maria Elena (1935), Fuzzy Creek; one IVB iron, Ternera; and three ungrouped irons, Hammond, Babb’s Mill (Blake’s Iron), and Babb’s Mill (Troost’s Iron)—were characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, electron-probe microanalysis, and electron backscatter diffraction techniques to determine their thermal and shock history and that of their parent asteroids. Maria Elena and Hammond were heated below approximately 700-750 °C, so that kamacite was recrystallized and taenite was exsolved in kamacite and was spheroidized in plessite. Both meteorites retained a record of the original Widmanstätten pattern. The other four, which show no trace of their original microstructure, were heated above 600-700 °C and recrystallized to form 10-20 μm wide homogeneous taenite grains. On cooling, kamacite formed on taenite grain boundaries with their close-packed planes aligned. Formation of homogeneous 20 μm wide taenite grains with diverse orientations would have required as long as approximately 800 yr at 600 °C or approximately 1 h at 1300 °C. All six irons contain approximately 5-10 μm wide taenite grains with internal microprecipitates of kamacite and nanometer-scale M-shaped Ni profiles that reach approximately 40% Ni indicating cooling over 100-10,000 yr. Un-decomposed high-Ni martensite (α2) in taenite—the first occurrence in irons—appears to be a characteristic of strongly reheated irons. From our studies and published work, we identified four progressive stages of shock and reheating in IVA irons using these criteria: cloudy taenite, M-shaped Ni profiles in taenite, Neumann twin lamellae, martensite, shock-hatched kamacite, recrystallization, microprecipitates of taenite, and shock-melted troilite. Maria Elena and Fuzzy Creek represent stages 3 and 4, respectively. Although not all reheated irons contain evidence for shock, it was probably the main

  15. 46 CFR 111.81-1 - Outlet boxes and junction boxes; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outlet boxes and junction boxes; general. 111.81-1... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Outlet Boxes and Junction Boxes § 111.81-1 Outlet boxes and junction boxes; general. (a) The requirements of this subpart apply to each outlet box used with a...

  16. Hydrological Modeling of the Jezero Crater Outlet-Forming Flood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fassett, Caleb I.; Goudge, Timothy A.

    2017-01-01

    Jezero crater is a site of prime scientific interest because it was a lake early in Mars history. Preserved clay- and carbonate-bearing sedimentary fans on Jezero's western and northwestern margin (Fig. 2) are accessible to future exploration. Geologic context [1] and stratigraphic analysis of the western fan strongly support the interpretation that these fans were deposited as deltas into the lake. This has helped establish Jezero as one of the final candidate landing sites for Mars 2020. The high level of certainty that Jezero was a lake results from the existence of its outlet valley, which required filling of the crater to form [e.g., 1,4]. Here, we specifically focus on how this outlet valley was carved by the dam breach flood that eroded the eastern crater rim. We have completed preliminary modeling in both 1D and 2D of the outlet's formation.

  17. Melting beneath Greenland outlet glaciers and ice streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, David; Perrette, Mahé; Beckmann, Johanna

    2015-04-01

    Basal melting of fast-flowing Greenland outlet glaciers and ice streams due to frictional heating at the ice-bed interface contributes significantly to total glacier mass balance and subglacial meltwater flux, yet modelling this basal melt process in Greenland has received minimal research attention. A one-dimensional dynamic ice-flow model is calibrated to the present day longitudinal profiles of 10 major Greenland outlet glaciers and ice streams (including the Jakobshavn Isbrae, Petermann Glacier and Helheim Glacier) and is validated against published ice flow and surface elevation measurements. Along each longitudinal profile, basal melt is calculated as a function of ice flow velocity and basal shear stress. The basal shear stress is dependent on the effective pressure (difference between ice overburden pressure and water pressure), basal roughness and a sliding parametrization. Model output indicates that where outlet glaciers and ice streams terminate into the ocean with either a small floating ice tongue or no floating tongue whatsoever, the proportion of basal melt to total melt (surface, basal and submarine melt) is 5-10% (e.g. Jakobshavn Isbrae; Daugaard-Jensen Glacier). This proportion is, however, negligible where larger ice tongues lose mass mostly by submarine melt (~1%; e.g. Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden Glacier). Modelled basal melt is highest immediately upvalley of the grounding line, with contributions typically up to 20-40% of the total melt for slippery beds and up to 30-70% for resistant beds. Additionally, modelled grounding line and calving front migration inland for all outlet glaciers and ice streams of hundreds of metres to several kilometres occurs. Including basal melt due to frictional heating in outlet glacier and ice stream models is important for more accurately modelling mass balance and subglacial meltwater flux, and therefore, more accurately modelling outlet glacier and ice stream dynamics and responses to future climate change.

  18. Long thoracic nerve paralysis associated with thoracic outlet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nakatsuchi, Y; Saitoh, S; Hosaka, M; Uchiyama, S

    1994-01-01

    Two cases of long thoracic nerve palsy associated with thoracic outlet syndrome are reported. Both patients had abnormal posture, with low-set shoulders and winged scapulae. Clinically there was weakness of the serratus anterior muscle with partial denervotion on electromyography. The diagnosis of thoracic outlet syndrome was based on positive vascular tests and brachial plexus nerve compression symptoms induced by the vascular testing positions. An orthosis that held the shoulder in an elevated position was used in both cases. Complete recovery of shoulder function and relief of the symptoms was achieved in both cases at 8 and 13 months, respectively, after application of the orthosis.

  19. Osteoid osteoma of the rib presenting as thoracic outlet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kargar, Saeed; Arefanian, Saeed; Ghasemi, Afsaneh; Binesh, Fariba; Heiranizadeh, Naeimeh

    2013-12-01

    Osteoid osteoma of the rib is a rare condition mostly mentioned in case report studies as lesions involving posterior region of the rib causing scoliosis. This report presents a 22-year-old man who complained of neurologic thoracic outlet syndrome symptoms. The pathologic study of the resected mass of the first rib confirmed the diagnosis of osteoid osteoma. This unique presentation of the osteoid osteoma as thoracic outlet syndrome suggests that this pathologic involvement of the ribs is not confined to the symptoms of pain and scoliosis.

  20. Reheated Palm Oil Consumption and Risk of Atherosclerosis: Evidence at Ultrastructural Level

    PubMed Central

    Xian, Tan Kai; Omar, Noor Azzizah; Ying, Low Wen; Hamzah, Aniza; Raj, Santhana; Jaarin, Kamsiah; Othman, Faizah; Hussan, Farida

    2012-01-01

    Background. Palm oil is commonly consumed in Asia. Repeatedly heating the oil is very common during food processing. Aim. This study is aimed to report on the risk of atherosclerosis due to the reheated oil consumption. Material and Methods. Twenty four male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into control, fresh-oil, 5 times heated-oil and 10 times heated-oil feeding groups. Heated palm oil was prepared by frying sweet potato at 180°C for 10 minutes. The ground standard rat chows were fortified with the heated oils and fed it to the rats for six months. Results. Tunica intima thickness in aorta was significantly increased in 10 times heated-oil feeding group (P < 0.05), revealing a huge atherosclerotic plaque with central necrosis projecting into the vessel lumen. Repeatedly heated oil feeding groups also revealed atherosclerotic changes including mononuclear cells infiltration, thickened subendothelial layer, disrupted internal elastic lamina and smooth muscle cells fragmentation in tunica media of the aorta. Conclusion. The usage of repeated heated oil is the predisposing factor of atherosclerosis leading to cardiovascular diseases. It is advisable to avoid the consumption of repeatedly heated palm oil. PMID:23320039

  1. The charged inflaton and its gauge fields: preheating and initial conditions for reheating

    SciTech Connect

    Lozanov, Kaloian D.; Amin, Mustafa A.

    2016-06-14

    We calculate particle production during inflation and in the early stages of reheating after inflation in models with a charged scalar field coupled to Abelian and non-Abelian gauge fields. A detailed analysis of the power spectra of primordial electric fields, magnetic fields and charge fluctuations at the end of inflation and preheating is provided. We carefully account for the Gauss constraints during inflation and preheating, and clarify the role of the longitudinal components of the electric field. We calculate the timescale for the back-reaction of the produced gauge fields on the inflaton condensate, marking the onset of non-linear evolution of the fields. We provide a prescription for initial conditions for lattice simulations necessary to capture the subsequent nonlinear dynamics. On the observational side, we find that the primordial magnetic fields generated are too small to explain the origin of magnetic fields on galactic scales and the charge fluctuations are well within observational bounds for the models considered in this paper.

  2. Dark radiation and dark matter in supersymmetric axion models with high reheating temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, Peter; Steffen, Frank Daniel E-mail: steffen@mpp.mpg.de

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies of the cosmic microwave background, large scale structure, and big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) show trends towards extra radiation. Within the framework of supersymmetric hadronic axion models, we explore two high-reheating-temperature scenarios that can explain consistently extra radiation and cold dark matter (CDM), with the latter residing either in gravitinos or in axions. In the gravitino CDM case, axions from decays of thermal saxions provide extra radiation already prior to BBN and decays of axinos with a cosmologically required TeV-scale mass can produce extra entropy. In the axion CDM case, cosmological constraints are respected with light eV-scale axinos and weak-scale gravitinos that decay into axions and axinos. These decays lead to late extra radiation which can coexist with the early contributions from saxion decays. Recent results of the Planck satellite probe extra radiation at late times and thereby both scenarios. Further tests are the searches for axions at ADMX and for supersymmetric particles at the LHC.

  3. 7 CFR 929.104 - Outlets for excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Outlets for excess cranberries. 929.104 Section 929... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES... excess cranberries. (a) In accordance with § 929.61, excess cranberries may be disposed of only in...

  4. 7 CFR 929.104 - Outlets for excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Outlets for excess cranberries. 929.104 Section 929... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES... excess cranberries. (a) In accordance with § 929.61, excess cranberries may be disposed of only in...

  5. 7 CFR 929.104 - Outlets for excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Outlets for excess cranberries. 929.104 Section 929... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES... excess cranberries. (a) In accordance with § 929.61, excess cranberries may be disposed of only in...

  6. Triple outlet right ventricle: a previously unknown cardiac malformation.

    PubMed

    Tingo, Jennifer E; Carroll, Sheila J; Crystal, Matthew A

    2015-03-01

    We present the case of an infant with three distinct outflow tracts from the right ventricle. Three outlets from the heart have been previously named the "Tritruncal Heart". We review the two previously reported cases of tritruncal hearts and describe the anatomy, diagnosis, surgical management, and outcome of our case. Embryologic implications are also discussed.

  7. 6. DAM AFTERBAY, WITH OWYEE RIVER IN FOREGROUND, SHOWING OUTLET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DAM AFTERBAY, WITH OWYEE RIVER IN FOREGROUND, SHOWING OUTLET TUNNEL PORTAL (LEFT) AND POWERHOUSE AND ENTRANCE PORTAL TO DAM INTERIOR (RIGHT). NOTE RELEASE OF WATER FROM NEEDLE VALVE NUMBER 2 IN VALVEHOUSE ON DAM. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Owyhee Dam, Across Owyhee River, Nyssa, Malheur County, OR

  8. 7 CFR 929.104 - Outlets for excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... GROWN IN STATES OF MASSACHUSETTS, RHODE ISLAND, CONNECTICUT, NEW JERSEY, WISCONSIN, MICHIGAN, MINNESOTA, OREGON, WASHINGTON, AND LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Rules and Regulations § 929.104 Outlets for... nonhuman food use. (4) Research and development projects approved by the committee dealing with...

  9. 7 CFR 929.104 - Outlets for excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... GROWN IN STATES OF MASSACHUSETTS, RHODE ISLAND, CONNECTICUT, NEW JERSEY, WISCONSIN, MICHIGAN, MINNESOTA, OREGON, WASHINGTON, AND LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Rules and Regulations § 929.104 Outlets for... nonhuman food use. (4) Research and development projects approved by the committee dealing with...

  10. Remote determinations on fumarole outlet temperatures in an eruptive volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunogai, Urumu; Cheng, Lin; Ito, Masanori; Komatsu, Daisuke D.; Nakagawa, Fumiko; Shinohara, Hiroshi

    2016-11-01

    Direct measurement of the fumarole outlet temperature in active volcanoes is impractical. Therefore, we used an aircraft to sample H2 in the volcanic plume ejected from Sakurajima volcano to remotely estimate the highest fumarolic temperatures of the volcano based on hydrogen isotopic fractionation between H2 and magmatic H2O. We successfully estimated that the δD of the fumarolic H2 in September and December 2014 was -135 ± 13‰ and -113 ± 11‰, respectively, and that the corresponding highest outlet temperatures were 1050 ± 120°C and 1199 ± 139°C. Although the temperatures were higher than those determined by using infrared remote sensing, we concluded that they are more reliable estimates of the highest fumarole outlet temperatures. Combined with plume sampling by using aircraft, remote temperature sensing based on the δD of H2 in volcanic plumes can be widely applied to active volcanoes to determine the highest fumarole outlet temperatures.

  11. Early prenatal detection of double outlet right ventricle by echocardiography.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, P A; Wladimiroff, J W; Becker, A E

    1985-01-01

    A double outlet right ventricle with subpulmonary ventricular septal defect and right sided hypoplastic aorta was diagnosed in a 22 week fetus of a mother with diabetes mellitus. Elective termination of pregnancy was carried out and the echocardiographic findings were confirmed. Early prenatal detection of congenital heart disease may allow elective termination of pregnancy when the fetus has severe defects. Images PMID:4041305

  12. Thoracic outlet syndrome in musicians - an approach to treatment.

    PubMed

    Campbell, R M

    1996-01-01

    Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) can affect the skill of instrumental musicians. This paper details the way in which symptomatic TOS affects the musician and describes two cases of symptomatic TOS in a drummer and a violinist. Evaluation tools and treatment techniques are described.

  13. 49 CFR 179.200-17 - Bottom outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... least 3/8-inch chain, or its equivalent, except that the bottom outlet closure plugs may be attached by... attachment. In no case shall the breakage groove or equivalent extend below the bottom flange of the center... exterior valves may be steam jacketed, in which case the breakage groove or its equivalent must be...

  14. Outlet side of gate, showing the afterbay and knifeedged, cipoletti ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Outlet side of gate, showing the afterbay and knife-edged, cipoletti weir, and drop to canal. View to the southwest - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Radial Gate Check with Drop, Wellton Canal 9.9, West of Avenue 34 East & north of County Ninth Street, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  15. Food prices, access to food outlets and child weight.

    PubMed

    Powell, Lisa M; Bao, Yanjun

    2009-03-01

    This study examines the importance of food prices and restaurant and food store outlet availability for child body mass index (BMI). We use the 1998, 2000 and 2002 waves of the child-mother merged files from the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth combined with fruit and vegetable and fast food price data obtained from the American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association and outlet density data on fast food and full-service restaurants and supermarkets, grocery stores and convenience stores obtained from Dun & Bradstreet. Using a random effects estimation model, we found that a 10% increase in the price of fruits and vegetables was associated with a 0.7% increase in child BMI. Fast food prices were not found to be statistically significant in the full sample but were weakly negatively associated with BMI among adolescents with an estimated price elasticity of -0.12. The price estimates were robust to whether we controlled for outlet availability based on a per capita or per land area basis; however, the association between food outlets and child BMI differed depending on the definition. The associations of fruit and vegetable and fast food prices with BMI were significantly stronger both economically and statistically among low- versus high-socioeconomic status children. The estimated fruit and vegetable and fast food price elasticities were 0.14 and -0.26, respectively, among low-income children and 0.09 and -0.13, respectively, among children with less educated mothers.

  16. School Characteristics, Student Mobility Rates and Outlets in Hong Kong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Yee Lay Jack

    This survey compares mobility and outlets of secondary students in Hong Kong by the type of schools within the educational system. Student mobility is defined as transfer to other local schools, transfer to overseas schools, and dropping out. The six types of schools within the system include three Anglo-Chinese instructed schools -- government,…

  17. Working with Media Outlets To Communicate with the Public.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Mark L.

    2000-01-01

    Offers suggestions from a veteran public relations practitioner on how colleges can effectively use media resources to advertise academic programs, workforce training, and continuing education opportunities. Focuses on maximizing the benefits of using these five media outlets: newspapers, radio and TV, direct mail, the Internet, and cable…

  18. 7 CFR 989.24a - Non-normal outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Non-normal outlets. 989.24a Section 989.24a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM...

  19. 7 CFR 989.24a - Non-normal outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Non-normal outlets. 989.24a Section 989.24a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM...

  20. 49 CFR 179.100-14 - Bottom outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.100-14 Bottom outlets... Tank Cars (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter). (2) Bottom washout shall be of cast, forged...

  1. 49 CFR 179.220-18 - Bottom outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.220-18 Bottom outlets. (a) The... of the AAR Specifications for Tank Cars (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter). All bottom...

  2. 10. INTERIOR OF OUTLET TOWER LOOKING DOWN TO TIER #1 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. INTERIOR OF OUTLET TOWER LOOKING DOWN TO TIER #1 OF SLIDE GATES. STRUCTURE HAS LEVELS ENABLING OPERATORS TO CHOOSE LEVEL WITH BEST QUALITY WATER. OVERHANGING DEVICE THAT LOOKS LIKE A LIGHT STANDARD IS ACTUALLY A METER FOR MEASURING WATER LEVELS. - Lake Mathews, East of Route 15, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

  3. 29. DETAIL OF OUTLET DUCTS FOR MST AIRCONDITIONING SYSTEM IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. DETAIL OF OUTLET DUCTS FOR MST AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM IN NORTHWEST CORNER OF SLC-3W MST STATION 70.5 (LOWEST PAYLOAD SERVICE STATION). NOTE RING ATTACHMENT FOR PERSONNEL SAFETY HARNESS IN LEFT FOREGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  4. 7 CFR 989.24a - Non-normal outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Non-normal outlets. 989.24a Section 989.24a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM...

  5. 7 CFR 989.24a - Non-normal outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Non-normal outlets. 989.24a Section 989.24a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM...

  6. 49 CFR 179.220-18 - Bottom outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... may be equipped with a bottom outlet of approved design and an opening provided in the outer shell of... at or below the “V” groove, or its equivalent. (8) The valve must have no wings or stem projection... repairs, including grinding. (b) Inner container may be equipped with bottom washout of approved...

  7. Update on endoscopic management of gastric outlet obstruction in children

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Hsun-Chin

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic balloon dilatation (EBD) and surgical intervention are two most common and effective treatments for gastric outlet obstruction. Correction of gastric outlet obstruction without the need for surgery is an issue that has been tried to be resolved in these decades; this management has developed with EBD, advanced treatments like local steroid injection, electrocauterization, and stent have been added recently. The most common causes of pediatric gastric outlet obstruction are idiopathic hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, peptic ulcer disease followed by the ingestion of caustic substances, stenosis secondary to surgical anastomosis; antral web, duplication cyst, ectopic pancreas, and other rare conditions. A complete clinical, radiological and endoscopic evaluation of the patient is required to make the diagnosis, with complimentary histopathologic studies. EBD are used in exceptional cases, some with advantages over surgical intervention depending on each patient in particular and on the characteristics and etiology of the gastric outlet obstruction. Local steroid injection and electrocauterization can augment the effect of EBD. The future of endoscopic treatment seems to be aimed at the use of endoscopic electrocauterization and balloon dilatations. PMID:27803770

  8. 49 CFR 179.100-14 - Bottom outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bottom outlets. 179.100-14 Section 179.100-14 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for...

  9. 49 CFR 179.100-14 - Bottom outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bottom outlets. 179.100-14 Section 179.100-14 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for...

  10. 49 CFR 179.220-18 - Bottom outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bottom outlets. 179.220-18 Section 179.220-18 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for...

  11. 49 CFR 179.200-17 - Bottom outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bottom outlets. 179.200-17 Section 179.200-17 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for...

  12. 49 CFR 179.100-14 - Bottom outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bottom outlets. 179.100-14 Section 179.100-14 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for...

  13. 49 CFR 179.100-14 - Bottom outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bottom outlets. 179.100-14 Section 179.100-14 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for...

  14. 36. MACHINERY CHAMBER FOR SLUICE GATE OUTLET WORKS ON GALLERY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. MACHINERY CHAMBER FOR SLUICE GATE OUTLET WORKS ON GALLERY 1 (LOCATED AT A ON SITE PLAN), SHOWING HYDRAULIC GATE HOIST (SIX, TOTAL, MANUFACTURED BY JOSHUA HENDRY IRON WORKS, SAN FRANCISCO) ON LEFT AND INSPECTION GALLERY ON RIGHT. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Owyhee Dam, Across Owyhee River, Nyssa, Malheur County, OR

  15. 3. OVERALL VIEW OF DEER LAKE AND UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. OVERALL VIEW OF DEER LAKE AND UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE, LOOKING NORTH - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Deer Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 5.8 miles North of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  16. 6. VIEW SHOWING UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW SHOWING UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE, WITH LOG ACCESS STRUCTURE, LOOKING WEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Bluebell Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 11.2 miles Northwest of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  17. 6. VIEW SHOWING CREST OF DAM AND OUTLET GATE WHEEL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW SHOWING CREST OF DAM AND OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Milk Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 9.4 miles Northwest of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  18. 5. VIEW SHOWING UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW SHOWING UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE, WITH LOG ACCESS STRUCTURE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Bluebell Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 11.2 miles Northwest of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  19. Upgrading the SPP-500-1 moisture separators-steam reheaters used in the Leningrad NPP turbine units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legkostupova, V. V.; Sudakov, A. V.

    2015-03-01

    The specific features of existing designs of moisture separators-steam reheaters (MSRs) and experience gained with using them at nuclear power plants are considered. Main factors causing damage to and failures of MSRs are described: nonuniform distribution of wet steam flow among the separation modules, breakthrough of moisture through the separator (and sometimes also through the steam reheater), which may lead to the occurrence of additional thermal stresses and, hence, to thermal-fatigue damage to or stress corrosion cracking of metal. MSR failure results in a less efficient operation of the turbine unit as a whole and have an adverse effect on the reliability of the low-pressure cylinder's last-stage blades. By the time the design service life of the SPP-500-1 MSRs had been exhausted in power units equipped with RBMK-1000 reactors, the number of damages inflicted to both the separation part and to the pipework and heating surface tubes was so large, that a considerable drop of MSR effectiveness and turbine unit efficiency as a whole occurred. The design of the upgraded separation part used in the SPP-500-1 MSR at the Leningrad NPP is described and its effectiveness is shown, which was confirmed by tests. First, efforts taken to achieve more uniform distribution of moisture content over the perimeter and height of steam space downstream of the separation modules and to bring it to values close to the design ones were met with success. Second, no noticeable effect of the individual specific features of separation modules on the moisture content was revealed. Recommendations on elaborating advanced designs of moisture separators-steam reheaters are given: an MSR arrangement in which the separator is placed under or on the side from the steam reheater; axial admission of wet steam for ensuring its uniform distribution among the separation modules; inlet chambers with an extended preliminary separation system and devices for uniformly distributing steam flows in the

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Cooling-Reheating Protocol Indicates Decreased Fat Fraction via Lipid Consumption in Suspected Brown Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Lundström, Elin; Strand, Robin; Johansson, Lars; Bergsten, Peter; Ahlström, Håkan; Kullberg, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate whether a water-fat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cooling-reheating protocol could be used to detect changes in lipid content and perfusion in the main human brown adipose tissue (BAT) depot after a three-hour long mild cold exposure. Materials and Methods Nine volunteers were investigated with chemical-shift-encoded water-fat MRI at baseline, after a three-hour long cold exposure and after subsequent short reheating. Changes in fat fraction (FF) and R2*, related to ambient temperature, were quantified within cervical-supraclavicular adipose tissue (considered as suspected BAT, denoted sBAT) after semi-automatic segmentation. In addition, FF and R2* were quantified fully automatically in subcutaneous adipose tissue (not considered as suspected BAT, denoted SAT) for comparison. By assuming different time scales for the regulation of lipid turnover and perfusion in BAT, the changes were determined as resulting from either altered absolute fat content (lipid-related) or altered absolute water content (perfusion-related). Results sBAT-FF decreased after cold exposure (mean change in percentage points = -1.94 pp, P = 0.021) whereas no change was observed in SAT-FF (mean = 0.23 pp, P = 0.314). sBAT-R2* tended to increase (mean = 0.65 s-1, P = 0.051) and SAT-R2* increased (mean = 0.40 s-1, P = 0.038) after cold exposure. sBAT-FF remained decreased after reheating (mean = -1.92 pp, P = 0.008, compared to baseline) whereas SAT-FF decreased (mean = -0.79 pp, P = 0.008, compared to after cold exposure). Conclusions The sustained low sBAT-FF after reheating suggests lipid consumption, rather than altered perfusion, as the main cause to the decreased sBAT-FF. The results obtained demonstrate the use of the cooling-reheating protocol for detecting changes in the cervical-supraclavicular fat depot, being the main human brown adipose tissue depot, in terms of lipid content and perfusion. PMID:25928226

  1. Gravitino or axino dark matter with reheat temperature as high as 1016 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Co, Raymond T.; D'Eramo, Francesco; Hall, Lawrence J.

    2017-03-01

    A new scheme for lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) dark matter is introduced and studied in theories of TeV supersymmetry with a QCD axion, a, and a high reheat temperature after inflation, T R . A large overproduction of axinos ( ã) and gravitinos (\\tilde{G}) from scattering at T R , and from freeze-in at the TeV scale, is diluted by the late decay of a saxion condensate that arises from inflation. The two lightest superpartners are ã, with mass of order the TeV scale, and \\tilde{G} with mass m 3/2 anywhere between the keV and TeV scales, depending on the mediation scale of supersymmetry breaking. Dark matter contains both warm and cold components: for \\tilde{G} LSP the warm component arises from \\tilde{a}\\to \\tilde{G}a , while for ã LSP the warm component arises from \\tilde{G}\\to \\tilde{a}a . The free-streaming scale for the warm component is predicted to be of order 1 Mpc (and independent of m 3/2 in the case of \\tilde{G} LSP). T R can be as high as 1016 GeV, for any value of m 3/2, solving the gravitino problem. The PQ symmetry breaking scale V PQ depends on T R and m 3/2 and can be anywhere in the range (1010 - 1016) GeV. Detailed predictions are made for the lifetime of the neutralino LOSP decaying to ã+ h/Z and \\tilde{G}+h/Z/γ , which is in the range of (10-1 -106)m over much of parameter space. For an axion misalignment angle of order unity, the axion contribution to dark matter is sub-dominant, except when V PQ approaches 1016 GeV.

  2. Mechanisms of objectionable textural changes by microwave reheating of foods: a review.

    PubMed

    Mizrahi, Shimon

    2012-01-01

    Microwave reheating, compared to a conventional method, is notorious for lack of crust formation and severe toughening of flour and starch-based products. This review discusses how the typical thermal characteristics of microwave heating are involved in affecting the texture as well as the possible role of non-thermal effects. While low surface temperature is the well known mechanism why microwave heating is incapable of crust formation, the most severe toughening problems are caused by internal boiling. Beside moisture loss, the internally generated steam causes 2 main textural effects when it is vented out. The first is the replacing of non-condensable gases (air) in the product voids with a condensable one (steam). When the latter is condensed by cooling, a vacuum may be created in the voids causing their collapse and a formation of a more compact and tougher structure. The second textural effect involves amylose extraction from starch granules and its redistribution to eventually form a rich layer on the walls of the structural foam cells of the baked goods. Relatively fast crystallization of the amylose seems to be the main cause of toughening a short while after microwave heating. This mechanism is relevant mainly to products where starch is an important structural element. Structural disruptions by localize excessive steam pressure at hot-spots are also discussed in this review as well as methods of preventing or alleviating the most objectionable textural changes. The most effective ways of preventing these undesirable changes are by avoiding internal boiling and/or by manipulating the starch content and properties.

  3. 40. OUTLET WORKS: VIBRATION ABSORBER FOR STANDBY UNIT, Sheet H7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. OUTLET WORKS: VIBRATION ABSORBER FOR STANDBY UNIT, Sheet H-7, September, 1940. File no. SA 342/79. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  4. 46. OUTLET WORKS: ELECTRICAL SYSTEM NO. 1. Sheet H1, date ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. OUTLET WORKS: ELECTRICAL SYSTEM NO. 1. Sheet H-1, date stamped May, 1939. File no. SA 342/9. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  5. 48. OUTLET WORKS: ELECTRICAL SYSTEM NO. 3. Sheet H3, October, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. OUTLET WORKS: ELECTRICAL SYSTEM NO. 3. Sheet H-3, October, 1939. File no. SA 342/59. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  6. 47. OUTLET WORKS: ELECTRICAL SYSTEM NO. 2. Sheet H2, date ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. OUTLET WORKS: ELECTRICAL SYSTEM NO. 2. Sheet H-2, date stamped May, 1939. File no. SA 342/10. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  7. Hydrological Modeling of the Jezero Crater Outlet-Forming Flood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fassett, C. I.; Goudge, T. A.

    2017-01-01

    Abundant evidence exists for lakes on Mars both from orbital observations [e.g., 1-3] and in situ exploration [e.g., 4-5]. These lakes can be divided into two classes: those that were hydrologically closed, so their source valley(s) terminated at the basin [3], and those that were hydrologically open, where there was sufficient flow from inlet valley(s) to cause the lake to breach and form an outlet valley [2]. It is easier to be confident from orbital data alone that a standing body of water must have existed in open basins, because there is no other way for their perched outlet valleys to form. The majority of basins fed by valley networks, rather than by isolated inlet valleys, are open [6], with some important exceptions (e.g., Gale Crater). Jezero crater (Fig. 1) is one of the most well-studied open basin paleolakes on Mars, with a breach that re-mains well above the lowest part of the crater floor, and two sedimentary fans at its northwestern margin that are likely deltaic in origin [7-9]. CRISM observations of these sediments indicate they host a variety of alteration minerals [9-11], including smectite and carbonate, and both the mineralogy of the sediments and their settings suggest they have a strong potential for preserving organic materials [10]. As a result, Jezero is a strong candidate landing site for the Mars 2020 rover. Approximate formative discharges have been estimated for its well-preserved western fan (Q approximately 500m3/s) [7], but to our knowledge, no estimates for the dis-charges associated with formation and incision of its outlet valley have been presented. Indeed, only a few studies [e.g., 12-14] have attempted to reconstruct the formation of outlet breaches broadly similar to Jezero anywhere on Mars, despite the apparent commonality of basins with large outlets [e.g., 2]. The outlet valley formed as a dam breach when the lake overflowed. In such an event, the growth and incision of the breach is directly coupled to flood discharge

  8. Turbofan gas turbine engine with variable fan outlet guide vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Peter John (Inventor); Zenon, Ruby Lasandra (Inventor); LaChapelle, Donald George (Inventor); Mielke, Mark Joseph (Inventor); Grant, Carl (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A turbofan gas turbine engine includes a forward fan section with a row of fan rotor blades, a core engine, and a fan bypass duct downstream of the forward fan section and radially outwardly of the core engine. The forward fan section has only a single stage of variable fan guide vanes which are variable fan outlet guide vanes downstream of the forward fan rotor blades. An exemplary embodiment of the engine includes an afterburner downstream of the fan bypass duct between the core engine and an exhaust nozzle. The variable fan outlet guide vanes are operable to pivot from a nominal OGV position at take-off to an open OGV position at a high flight Mach Number which may be in a range of between about 2.5-4+. Struts extend radially across a radially inwardly curved portion of a flowpath of the engine between the forward fan section and the core engine.

  9. Airshuffler implementation at freezer air outlets for heat transfer enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćerezci, Gökhan; Darka, Murat; Şenman, Ozan

    2016-06-01

    A study which is composed of computational simulation and experimental validation has been conducted for implementation of small, vane type geometries at freezer air outlets, similar to microvortex generators used in aircraft wings, in order to improve the heat transfer efficiency inside the freezer compartment by decreasing airside thermal resistance and improving the air distribution. Both simulation and experimental validation were performed in a loaded condition which was prepared according to `Household refrigerating appliances - characteristics and test methods - IEC 62552 [1]. Solutions for the incompressible K-epsilon (k-ɛ) turbulence model obtained for Bosch KDN 49 refrigerator freezer both with and without airshufflers at air outlets, which are similar to vane type microvortex generators with different geometric dimensions. The airshuffler dimensions were chosen with design of experiment (DOE) principles for finding the optimum geometry. The best combinations were tested according to cooling rate inside freezer compartment. Results were evaluated for feasibility of implementing of vortex generating surfaces (airshufflers) for cooling appliances.

  10. Spinal accessory neuropathy, droopy shoulder, and thoracic outlet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Al-Shekhlee, Amer; Katirji, Bashar

    2003-09-01

    Droopy shoulder has been proposed as a cause of thoracic outlet syndrome. Two patients developed manifestations of neurovascular compression upon arm abduction, associated with unilateral droopy shoulder and trapezius muscle weakness caused by iatrogenic spinal accessory neuropathies following cervical lymph node biopsies. The first patient developed a cold, numb hand with complete axillary artery occlusion when his arm was abducted to 90 degrees. The second patient complained of paresthesias in digits 4 and 5 of the right hand, worsened by elevation of the arm, with nerve conduction findings of right lower trunk plexopathy (low ulnar and medial antebrachial cutaneous sensory nerve action potentials). Spinal accessory nerve grafting (in the first patient) coupled with shoulder strengthening physical exercises in both patients resulted in gradual improvement of symptoms in 2 years. These two cases demonstrate that unilateral droopy shoulder secondary to trapezius muscle weakness may cause compression of the thoracic outlet structures.

  11. 23. OUTLET PIPE EMBEDDED IN CONCRETE FOR THE HEAD GATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. OUTLET PIPE EMBEDDED IN CONCRETE FOR THE HEAD GATE SHOWN IN CO-43-A-22. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  12. 21. OUTLET PIPE AND CONCRETE CHANNEL FOR THE HEAD GATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. OUTLET PIPE AND CONCRETE CHANNEL FOR THE HEAD GATE PICTURED IN CO-43-A-20. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  13. Gastric outlet obstruction caused by total band erosion.

    PubMed

    Pinsk, Ilya; Dukhno, Oleg; Levy, Itzchak; Ovnat, Amnon

    2004-10-01

    Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding for the treatment of morbid obesity has gained widespread popularity because of its simplicity both for the surgeon and more so for the patient. On the other hand, with this procedure there are complications such as band slippage, erosion, balloon problems and tubing problems, which have required reoperations for remedy. Herein we describe a case of band erosion into the stomach causing gastric outlet obstruction. Of particular interest are the clinical appearance and the operative management of this complication.

  14. Wandering spleen causing gastric outlet obstruction and pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Ramon; Lobert, Philip; Herman, Richard; O'Malley, Ryan; Mychaliska, George

    2010-12-01

    Excessive splenic mobility (i.e. wandering spleen) is a rare condition caused by laxity or deficiency of all the spleen's normal ligamentous attachments in the left hypochondrium. In the pediatric population, a wandering spleen may present as an incidental finding, an abdominal mass or torsion of the vascular pedicle causing venous congestion and acute abdominal pain, and eventually infarction. We present an unusual case of wandering spleen causing pancreatitis and gastric outlet obstruction via direct external compression.

  15. Emerging technology monitors ice-sea interface at outlet glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Timothy H.; Voytenko, Denis; Lembke, Chad; de la Peña, Santiago; Howat, Ian; Gourmelen, Noel; Werner, Charles; Oddsson, Björn

    2012-11-01

    Recent melting in Greenland and Antarctica has led to concerns about the long-term stability of these ice sheets and their potential contributions to future sea level rise. Marine-terminating outlet glaciers play a key role in the dynamics of these ice sheets; recent mass losses are likely related to increased influx of warmer water to the base of outlet glaciers, as evidenced by the fact that changes in ocean currents, calving front retreats, glacial thinning, mass redistribution based on satellite gravity data, and accelerating coastal uplift are roughly concurrent [e.g., Holland et al., 2008; Wouters et al., 2008; Jiang et al., 2010; Straneo et al., 2012; Bevis et al., 2012]. However, collecting quantitative measurements within the dynamic environment of marine outlet glaciers is challenging. Oceanographic measurements are limited in iceberg-laden fjords. Measuring ice flow speeds near the calving front is similarly challenging; satellite methods lack temporal resolution (satellite revisit times are several days or longer), while GPS gives limited spatial resolution, a problem for assessing changes near the highly variable calving front.

  16. Alcohol Outlets and Substance Use among High Schoolers

    PubMed Central

    Milam, Adam J.; Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom; Furr-Holden, C. Debra M.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have considered the potential role of the built environment in increasing adolescent substance use. The current study explored the relationship between alcohol outlets, a potential malleable component of the neighborhood environment, and adolescent behavioral outcomes. Specifically, we investigated the relationship between alcohol outlet density, perceived alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana availability (ATOD), perception of substance use as a problem at the school, and self-reported ATOD use. Data come from Maryland Safe and Supportive Schools (MDS3) Initiative, a statewide project focused on measuring and improving school climate. The sample includes 25,308 adolescents from 58 high schools (9th–12th grade) across 12 counties. Multi-level path models indicated a positive relationship between the count of alcohol outlets and perceived availability of ATOD among girls but not boys. Perceived availability was associated with increased ATOD use at both the individual- and school-level, as well as other students’ ATOD use. Findings provide support for the potential role of the built environment in adolescent risk for substance use, particularly among girls. PMID:27574339

  17. Metal halogen battery system with multiple outlet nozzle for hydrate

    DOEpatents

    Bjorkman, Jr., Harry K.

    1983-06-21

    A metal halogen battery system, including at least one cell having a positive electrode and a negative electrode contacted by aqueous electrolyte containing the material of said metal and halogen, store means whereby halogen hydrate is formed and stored as part of an aqueous material, means for circulating electrolyte through the cell and to the store means, and conduit means for transmitting halogen gas formed in the cell to a hydrate former whereby the hydrate is formed in association with the store means, said store means being constructed in the form of a container which includes a filter means, said filter means being inoperative to separate the hydrate formed from the electrolyte, said system having, a hydrate former pump means associated with the store means and being operative to intermix halogen gas with aqueous electrolyte to form halogen hydrate, said hydrate former means including, multiple outlet nozzle means connected with the outlet side of said pump means and being operative to minimize plugging, said nozzle means being comprised of at least one divider means which is generally perpendicular to the rotational axes of gears within the pump means, said divider means acting to divide the flow from the pump means into multiple outlet flow paths.

  18. A preliminary study of the use of intercooling and reheat in conjunction with regeneration for aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenberg, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    The effect on fuel consumption of turbofans with intercooled, regenerative cycles and with intercooled, regenerative, reheat cycles was studied. The technology level for both engine and aircraft was that projected for 1985. The simulated mission was a 5556 km flight carrying 200 passengers at Mach 0.8 at 11582 min. Results indicate that these relatively complex cycles offer little, if any, fuel savings potential relative to a conventional turbofan cycle of comparable advanced technology. The intercooled, regenerative cycle yields about the same fuel economy as a conventional cycle at close to the same overall pressure ratio.

  19. Sterile neutrino dark matter with gauged U(1){sub B-L} and a low reheating temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, Shaaban; Seto, Osamu

    2009-04-17

    Sterile right-handed neutrinos can be naturally embedded in a low scale gauged U(1){sub B-L} extension of the standard model. We show that, within a low reheating scenario, such a neutrino can be produced via a novel manner, namely scattering through Z' gauge boson, and becomes an interesting dark matter candidate. In addition, we show that if the neutrino mass is of the order of MeV, then it accounts for the measured dark matter relic density and also accommodates the observed flux of 511 keV photons from the galactic bulge.

  20. 12 CFR 7.1014 - Sale of money orders at nonbanking outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sale of money orders at nonbanking outlets. 7... ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Bank Powers § 7.1014 Sale of money orders at nonbanking outlets. A national bank may designate bonded agents to sell the bank's money orders at nonbanking outlets. The...

  1. 12 CFR 7.1014 - Sale of money orders at nonbanking outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sale of money orders at nonbanking outlets. 7... ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Bank Powers § 7.1014 Sale of money orders at nonbanking outlets. A national bank may designate bonded agents to sell the bank's money orders at nonbanking outlets. The...

  2. 12 CFR 7.1014 - Sale of money orders at nonbanking outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sale of money orders at nonbanking outlets. 7... ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Bank Powers § 7.1014 Sale of money orders at nonbanking outlets. A national bank may designate bonded agents to sell the bank's money orders at nonbanking outlets. The...

  3. 12 CFR 7.1014 - Sale of money orders at nonbanking outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sale of money orders at nonbanking outlets. 7... ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Bank Powers § 7.1014 Sale of money orders at nonbanking outlets. A national bank may designate bonded agents to sell the bank's money orders at nonbanking outlets. The...

  4. 12 CFR 7.1014 - Sale of money orders at nonbanking outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sale of money orders at nonbanking outlets. 7... ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Bank Powers § 7.1014 Sale of money orders at nonbanking outlets. A national bank may designate bonded agents to sell the bank's money orders at nonbanking outlets. The...

  5. A Geospatial Statistical Analysis of the Density of Lottery Outlets within Ethnically Concentrated Neighborhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Lyna; Nower, Lia; Mayers, Raymond Sanchez; Peterson, N. Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the density of lottery outlets within ethnically concentrated neighborhoods in Middlesex County, New Jersey, using geospatial statistical analyses. No prior studies have empirically examined the relationship between lottery outlet density and population demographics. Results indicate that lottery outlets were not randomly…

  6. 16 CFR Appendix E to Part 436 - Sample Item 20(4) Table-Status of Company-Owned Outlets

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... RULES DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS CONCERNING FRANCHISING Pt. 436, App. E Appendix E to Part... 5Outlets Reacquired From Franchisees Column 6Outlets Closed Column 7Outlets Sold to Franchisees...

  7. Apparatus and methods of reheating gas turbine cooling steam and high pressure steam turbine exhaust in a combined cycle power generating system

    DOEpatents

    Tomlinson, Leroy Omar; Smith, Raub Warfield

    2002-01-01

    In a combined cycle system having a multi-pressure heat recovery steam generator, a gas turbine and steam turbine, steam for cooling gas turbine components is supplied from the intermediate pressure section of the heat recovery steam generator supplemented by a portion of the steam exhausting from the HP section of the steam turbine, steam from the gas turbine cooling cycle and the exhaust from the HP section of the steam turbine are combined for flow through a reheat section of the HRSG. The reheated steam is supplied to the IP section inlet of the steam turbine. Thus, where gas turbine cooling steam temperature is lower than optimum, a net improvement in performance is achieved by flowing the cooling steam exhausting from the gas turbine and the exhaust steam from the high pressure section of the steam turbine in series through the reheater of the HRSG for applying steam at optimum temperature to the IP section of the steam turbine.

  8. The prevention of alcoholism: an empirical report on the effects of outlet availability.

    PubMed

    Parker, D A; Wolz, M W; Harford, T C

    1978-10-01

    Recent studies suggest that alcohol availability as measured by outlet rates is unrelated to per capita consumption or rates of alcoholism in the United States. Drawing from the same data bases, this article assesses the effects of outlet rates while controlling for the effects of per capita income, urbanism, and limitations by population on the number of sales outlets. The analysis discloses strong effects of outlet availability on per capita consumption and alcoholism rates in states that do not have restrictions on the number of outlets per unit of population.

  9. 3-D Transient Heat Transfer Analysis of Slab Heating Characteristics in a Reheating Furnace in Hot Strip Mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, J. Y.; Lee, Y. W.; Lin, C. N.; Wang, C. H.

    2016-05-01

    A three-dimensional mathematical transient heat transfer model for the prediction of temperature distribution within the slab has been developed by considering the thermal radiation in the walking-beam-type reheating furnace chamber. The steel slabs are heated up through the non-firing, preheating, 1st-heating, 2nd-heating, and soaking zones in the furnace, respectively, where the furnace wall temperature is function of time. Comparison with the in-situ experimental data from Steel Company in Taiwan shows that the present heat transfer model works well for the prediction of thermal behavior of the slab in the reheating furnace. The effects of different skid button height (H=60mm, 90mm, and 120mm) and different gap distance between two slabs (S=50mm, 75mm, and 100mm) on the slab skid mark formation and temperature profiles are investigated. It is found that the skid mark severity decreases with an increase in the skid button height. The effect of gap distance is important only for the slab edge planes, while it is insignificant for the slab central planes.

  10. 19. OUTLET OF PIPE WITH A CONCRETE CHANNEL SERVING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. OUTLET OF PIPE WITH A CONCRETE CHANNEL SERVING THE HEAD GATE SHOWN IN CO-43-A-18. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  11. Shoaling Problems on the Mississippi River - Gulf Outlet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-02-01

    project, "Mississippi River, Baton Rouge to the Gulf of Mexico ," was authorized by the River and Harbor Act of 29 March 1956 (Public Law 455, 84th...dedicated 25 July 1963, at which time the first ship traveled from New Orleans to the Gulf of Mexico via the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet. The narrow...19.9 BEP predicted minimum shoaling rate, Cu. Yds/Yr/Mi 300,000 220,000 Avg. minimum shoaling rate, Cu.Yds/Yr/Mi 260,000 Avg. maximum shoaling rate

  12. Congenital pseudarthrosis of the clavicle causing thoracic outlet syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Hannah Isabella; Hopper, Graeme Philip; Kovacs, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A 7-year-old girl presented with an asymptomatic right supraclavicular swelling. Radiographs were interpreted as showing a non-union of her clavicle. No treatment was given at this time. However, she represented 12 years later with right upper limb pain and altered sensation. Examination revealed a positive Allen's test on the right. Repeat radiographs demonstrated a pseudarthrosis of the clavicle, associated with a secondary complication of thoracic outlet syndrome with vascular and neurological complications present. Non-operative management failed to relieve her symptoms. Operative intervention successfully treated her symptoms. PMID:23975919

  13. Types and analysis of defects in welding junctions of the header to steam generator shells on power-generating units with VVER-1000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozhigov, L. S.; Voevodin, V. N.; Mitrofanov, A. S.; Vasilenko, R. L.

    2016-10-01

    Investigation objects were metal templates, which were cut during the repair of welding junction no. 111 (header to the steam generator shell) on a power-generating unit with VVER-1000 of the South-Ukraine NPP, and substances of mud depositions collected from walls of this junction. Investigations were carried out using metallography, optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersion microanalysis by an MMO-1600-AT metallurgical microscope and a JEOL JSM-7001F scanning electron microscope with the Shottky cathode. As a result of investigations in corrosion pits and mud depositions in the area of welding junction no. 111, iron and copper-enriched particles were revealed. It is shown that, when contacting with the steel header surface, these particles can form microgalvanic cells causing reactions of iron dissolution and the pit corrosion of metal. Nearby corrosion pits in metal are microcracks, which can be effect of the stress state of metal under corrosion pits along with revealed effects of twinning. The hypothesis is expressed that pitting corrosion of metal occurred during the first operation period of the power-generating unit in the ammonia water chemistry conditions (WCC). The formation of corrosion pits and nucleating cracks from them was stopped with the further operation under morpholine WCC. The absence of macrocracks in metal of templates verifies that, during operation, welding junction no. 111 operated under load conditions not exceeding the permissible ones by design requirements. The durability of the welding junction of the header to the steam generator shell significantly depends on the technological schedule of chemical cleaning and steam generator shut-down cooling.

  14. Chemistry of glass-ceramic to metal bonding for header applications. I. Effect of treatments on Inconel 718 and Hastelloy C-276 metallic surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, D P; Craven, S M; Schneider, R E; Moddeman, W E; Brohard, D W

    1984-02-02

    Auger electron spectroscopy and depth Auger profiling were used to study the surfaces of Inconel 718 and Hastelloy C-276. The metal surfaces were processed in the same manner as is presently being used in the manufacturing of glass-ceramic headers. At each step in the process, samples were studied with Auger spectroscopy to determine their resultant elemental surface composition and film thickness. In addition, the effect of a final plasma cleaning operation on the metal surface was examined. The results show that the type and concentration of surface species and the thickness of the surface oxides are dependent on the processing technique.

  15. Technologies for Upgrading Light Water Reactor Outlet Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel S. Wendt; Piyush Sabharwall; Vivek Utgikar

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear energy could potentially be utilized in hybrid energy systems to produce synthetic fuels and feedstocks from indigenous carbon sources such as coal and biomass. First generation nuclear hybrid energy system (NHES) technology will most likely be based on conventional light water reactors (LWRs). However, these LWRs provide thermal energy at temperatures of approximately 300°C, while the desired temperatures for many chemical processes are much higher. In order to realize the benefits of nuclear hybrid energy systems with the current LWR reactor fleets, selection and development of a complimentary temperature upgrading technology is necessary. This paper provides an initial assessment of technologies that may be well suited toward LWR outlet temperature upgrading for powering elevated temperature industrial and chemical processes during periods of off-peak power demand. Chemical heat transformers (CHTs) are a technology with the potential to meet LWR temperature upgrading requirements for NHESs. CHTs utilize chemical heat of reaction to change the temperature at which selected heat sources supply or consume thermal energy. CHTs could directly utilize LWR heat output without intermediate mechanical or electrical power conversion operations and the associated thermodynamic losses. CHT thermal characteristics are determined by selection of the chemical working pair and operating conditions. This paper discusses the chemical working pairs applicable to LWR outlet temperature upgrading and the CHT operating conditions required for providing process heat in NHES applications.

  16. Mount assembly for porous transition panel at annular combustor outlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweeney, Ralph B. (Inventor); Verdouw, Albert J. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A gas turbine engine combustor assembly of annular configuration has outer and inner walls made up of a plurality of axially extending multi-layered porous metal panels joined together at butt joints therebetween and each outer and inner wall including a transition panel of porous metal defining a combustor assembly outlet supported by a combustor mount assembly including a stiffener ring having a side undercut thereon fit over a transition panel end face; and wherein an annular weld joins the ring to the end face to transmit exhaust heat from the end face to the stiffener ring for dissipation from the combustor; a combustor pilot member is located in axially spaced, surrounding relationship to the end face and connector means support the stiffener ring in free floating relationship with the pilot member to compensate for both radial and axial thermal expansion of the transition panel; and said connector means includes a radial gap for maintaining a controlled flow of coolant from outside of the transition panel into cooling relationship with the stiffener ring and said weld to further cool the end face against excessive heat build-up therein during flow of hot gas exhaust through said outlet.

  17. A Longitudinal Analysis of Cigarette Prices in Military Retail Outlets

    PubMed Central

    Haddock, Christopher Keith; Hyder, Melissa L.; Poston, Walker S. C.; Jahnke, Sara A.; Williams, Larry N.; Lando, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We conducted a longitudinal assessment of tobacco pricing in military retail outlets, including trends within each service branch. Methods. We determined the price of a single pack of Marlboro Red cigarettes at military retail stores located in the continental United States, Alaska, and Hawaii and at their nearest Walmarts in spring 2011 and 2013 (n = 128 for pairs available at both assessments). Results. The average difference between cigarettes sold in military retail outlets and Walmarts decreased from 24.5% in 2011 to 12.5% in 2013. The decrease was partially attributable to significant price decreases at Walmarts. The largest increases in cigarette prices occurred on naval installations. Potential savings at stores on several installations remained substantial in 2013; the largest approached $6 per pack. Stores on 17 military installations decreased cigarette prices during the study period. Conclusions. Tobacco can be purchased in military retail stores at substantial savings over civilian stores. If tobacco pricing is to cease to be an incentive for use among personnel, a revised military tobacco pricing policy is needed. PMID:24524503

  18. Re-Heating Effect on the Enhancement of Plasma Emission Generated from Fe Under Femtosecond Double-Pulse Laser Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Chen, Anmin; Li, Suyu; Sui, Laizhi; Liu, Dunli; Li, Shuchang; Li, He; Jiang, Yuanfei; Jin, Mingxing

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we present a study on the effect of inter-pulse delay using femtosecond double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in a collinear geometry. The temporal evolution of spectral intensity is performed for the lines of Fe I 423.60 nm, Fe I 425.08 nm and Fe I 427.18 nm. It is found that, by selecting appropriate inter-pulse delay, the signal enhancement can be significantly increased compared with the single-pulse case. A three-fold enhancement in the current experiment is obtained. The plasma temperature and electron density are also investigated based on the theory of Boltzmann plot and Stark broadening. We attribute the main mechanism for emission enhancement to the plasma re-heating effect. supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2013CB922200), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No. 2014M551169), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11674128, 11474129 and 11504129)

  19. Is local alcohol outlet density related to alcohol-related morbidity and mortality in Scottish cities?

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, E.A.; Hill, S.E.; Mitchell, R.; Pearce, J.; Shortt, N.K.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption may be influenced by the local alcohol retailing environment. This study is the first to examine neighbourhood alcohol outlet availability (on- and off-sales outlets) and alcohol-related health outcomes in Scotland. Alcohol-related hospitalisations and deaths were significantly higher in neighbourhoods with higher outlet densities, and off-sales outlets were more important than on-sales outlets. The relationships held for most age groups, including those under the legal minimum drinking age, although were not significant for the youngest legal drinkers (18–25 years). Alcohol-related deaths and hospitalisations were higher in more income-deprived neighbourhoods, and the gradient in deaths (but not hospitalisations) was marginally larger in neighbourhoods with higher off-sales outlet densities. Efforts to reduce alcohol-related harm should consider the potentially important role of the alcohol retail environment. PMID:25840352

  20. Integrating Tobacco Control and Obesity Prevention Initiatives at Retail Outlets

    PubMed Central

    D’Angelo, Heather; Evenson, Kelly R.; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Myers, Allison E.; Rose, Shyanika W.

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco products are sold in approximately 375,000 US retail outlets, including convenience stores and pharmacies, which often sell energy-dense, low-nutrient foods and beverages. The Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) increased authority over tobacco product sales and marketing, combined with declining smoking rates, provides an opportunity to transition tobacco retailers toward healthier retail environments. Unfortunately, research into improving consumer retail environments is often conducted in isolation by researchers working in tobacco control, nutrition, and physical activity. Interdisciplinary efforts are needed to transform tobacco retailers from stores that are dependent on a declining product category, to the sale and promotion of healthful foods and creating environments conducive to active living. The objective of this article is to describe the potential for interdisciplinary efforts to transition retailers away from selling and promoting tobacco products and toward creating retail environments that promote healthful eating and active living. PMID:26963859

  1. North Atlantic warming and the retreat of Greenland's outlet glaciers.

    PubMed

    Straneo, Fiammetta; Heimbach, Patrick

    2013-12-05

    Mass loss from the Greenland ice sheet quadrupled over the past two decades, contributing a quarter of the observed global sea-level rise. Increased submarine melting is thought to have triggered the retreat of Greenland's outlet glaciers, which is partly responsible for the ice loss. However, the chain of events and physical processes remain elusive. Recent evidence suggests that an anomalous inflow of subtropical waters driven by atmospheric changes, multidecadal natural ocean variability and a long-term increase in the North Atlantic's upper ocean heat content since the 1950s all contributed to a warming of the subpolar North Atlantic. This led, in conjunction with increased runoff, to enhanced submarine glacier melting. Future climate projections raise the potential for continued increases in warming and ice-mass loss, with implications for sea level and climate.

  2. Primary gastric tuberculosis presenting as pyloric outlet obstruction.

    PubMed

    Tromba, J L; Inglese, R; Rieders, B; Todaro, R

    1991-12-01

    A 38-yr-old Haitian male with a longstanding history of peptic ulcer disease presented with persistent vomiting and weight loss. Barium studies and upper endoscopy revealed gastric outlet obstruction with prepyloric ulcerations. Endoscopic biopsies were consistent with chronic gastritis. The patient did not respond to intensive medical management, including total parenteral nutrition, intravenous cimetidine, and nasogastric suctioning. At the time of surgery, large celiac lymph nodes were noted surrounding the pylorus and the first portion of the duodenum. Biopsies of the wall of the stomach and lymph nodes demonstrated necrotizing granulomas. Cultures for acid-fast bacilli subsequently grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A search for foci outside the gastrointestinal tract was negative. Primary gastric tuberculosis remains an extremely uncommon clinical entity; the definitive diagnosis is made by biopsy and positive culture for the organism.

  3. Double outlet from chambers of left ventricular morphology.

    PubMed Central

    Coto, E O; Jimenez, M Q; Castaneda, A R; Rufilanchas, J J; Deverall, P B

    1979-01-01

    This series of 5 cases with double outlet of morphologically left ventricular chamber includes 4 found during a review of 1700 heart specimens (incidence 0.23%) and 1 found at operation and successfully corrected. Abnormal atrioventricular connection precluding total correction was present in the 4 anatomical cases. Clinical diagnosis may be difficult and it is suggested that axial cineangiography may make anatomical diagnosis easier. Absence of the infundibular septum and aortic laevoposition are frequent. As some cases can be surgically corrected, accurate information is required on the size of the right ventricle, the morphology and function of the atrioventricular valves, the presence, size, and position of the ventricular septal defect, and the degree and type of outflow tract obstruction. Images PMID:475930

  4. Investigating Long-term Behavior of Outlet Glaciers in Greenland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csatho, Beata; vanderVeen, Kees; Schenk, Toni

    2005-01-01

    Repeat surveys by airborne laser altimetry in the 1990s have revealed significant thinning of outlet glaciers draining the interior of the Greenland Ice Sheet, with thinning rates up to several meters per year. To fully appreciate the significance of these recent glacier changes, the magnitude of retreat and surface lowering must be placed within the broader context of the retreat since the Last Glacial Maximum and, more significantly, of the retreat following the temporary glacier advance during the Little Ice Age (LIA). The LIA maximum stand is marked by trimlines, sharp boundaries between recently deglacifated unvegetated rocks, and vegetated surfaces at higher elevations. The objective of this project was to demonstrate the use of remote sensing data to map these trimlines and other glacial geomorphologic features.

  5. Double outlet right ventricle. Study of 27 cases.

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, A H; Acerete, F; Quero, M; Castro, M C

    1976-01-01

    Out of 1610 children's hearts with congenital malformations there were 27 specimens showing double outlet right ventricle. Cases with dextrocardia, situs inversus, or l-venticular loop were excluded. Anatomical examination was performed with particular reference to the infundibular region, the great vessels, and the ventricular septum. The commonest associated malformations were ventricular septal defect and pulmonary stenosis. Aortic stenosis was the predominant finding in those cases dying in the neonatal period. An aortic conus was associated with pulmonary stenosis, ventricular septal defect, and d-transposition, a pulmonary conus with ventricular septal defect and a double conus with stenosis of either great vessel. The anterior vessel always had a muscular conus and the posterior vessel was commonly stenotic. Images PMID:1008954

  6. Radially leaned outlet guide vanes for fan source noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazin, S. B.

    1973-01-01

    Two quiet engine program half scale fans one with a subsonic and the other with a supersonic fan tip speed at takeoff were run with 30 degree leaned and radial outlet guide vanes. Acoustic data at takeoff fan speed on the subsonic tip speed fan showed decreases in 200-foot sideline noise of from 1 to 2 PNdb. The supersonic tip speed fan a takeoff fan speed, however, showed noise increases of up 3 PNdb and a decrease in fan efficiency. At approach fan speed, the subsonic tip speed fan showed a noise decrease of 2.3 PNdb at the 200-foot sideline maximum angle and an increase in efficiency. The supersonic tip speed fan showed noise increase of 3.5 PNdb and no change in efficiency. The decrease in fan efficiency and the nature of the noise increase largely high frequency broadband noise lead to the speculation that an aerodynamic problem occurred.

  7. Bladder outlet obstruction treated with transurethral ultrasonic aspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malloy, Terrence R.

    1991-07-01

    Fifty-nine males with bladder outlet obstruction were treated with transurethral ultrasonic aspiration of the prostate. Utilizing a 26.5 French urethral sheath, surgery was accomplished with a 10 French, 0-700 micron vibration level ultrasonic tip with an excursion rate of 39 kHz. Complete removal of the adenoma was accomplished, followed by transurethral electrocautery biopsies of both lateral lobes to compare pathologic specimens. One-year follow-up revealed satisfactory voiding patterns in 57 of 59 men (96%). Two men developed bladder neck contractures. Pathologic comparisons showed 100% correlation between aspirated and TUR specimens (56 BPH, 3 adeno-carcinoma). Forty-sevel men were active sexually preoperatively (6 with inflatable penile prostheses). Post ultrasonic aspiration, 46 men had erectile function similar to preoperative levels with one patient suffering erectile dysfunction. Forty men (85%) had antegrade ejaculation while 7 (15%) experienced retrograde or retarded ejaculation. No patients were incontinent.

  8. Integrating Tobacco Control and Obesity Prevention Initiatives at Retail Outlets.

    PubMed

    Ribisl, Kurt M; D'Angelo, Heather; Evenson, Kelly R; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Myers, Allison E; Rose, Shyanika W

    2016-03-10

    Tobacco products are sold in approximately 375,000 US retail outlets, including convenience stores and pharmacies, which often sell energy-dense, low-nutrient foods and beverages. The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) increased authority over tobacco product sales and marketing, combined with declining smoking rates, provides an opportunity to transition tobacco retailers toward healthier retail environments. Unfortunately, research into improving consumer retail environments is often conducted in isolation by researchers working in tobacco control, nutrition, and physical activity. Interdisciplinary efforts are needed to transform tobacco retailers from stores that are dependent on a declining product category, to the sale and promotion of healthful foods and creating environments conducive to active living. The objective of this article is to describe the potential for interdisciplinary efforts to transition retailers away from selling and promoting tobacco products and toward creating retail environments that promote healthful eating and active living.

  9. Complete vaginal outlet stenosis in a patient with Sheehan's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Choo, Minji; Park, Hana; Yi, Kyong Wook

    2016-11-01

    We present a case of complete vaginal stenosis in a woman diagnosed with Sheehan's syndrome. The patient delivered at full-term 5 months prior, and experienced massive postpartum bleeding at that time. During evaluation of persistent amenorrhea, we found that her vaginal orifice was completely adhesive and obstructed. Prior to corrective surgery, we managed the patient with an oral contraceptive to induce uterine bleeding into the vaginal outflow tract. After three cycles of an oral contraceptive, we could confirm that there was no stenotic lesion in the vaginal cavity as a hematocolpos was created. Adhesiolysis with scar revision for the vaginal stenosis was successfully performed; it was found that the lesion was limited to only the distal part of the vaginal outlet. Complete vaginal stenosis in reproductive age women with hypopituitarism has not been reported. The artificial induction of hematometrocolpos before surgery was useful in determining the extent of the stenotic lesion, and assured safety.

  10. Rare causes of gastric outlet obstruction in children.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jiexiong; Gu, Weizhong; Li, Minju; Yuan, Jiyan; Weng, Yizhen; Wei, Minfa; Zhou, Xuefeng

    2005-08-01

    Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) presenting beyond the newborn period is a relatively rare condition, when infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) is excluded. This report describes the clinical features, evaluation and management of 18 patients with GOO which was not caused by IHPS. The sex, age, and main presenting features were recorded on admission. Hemoglobin estimation, serum chemistry and blood gas analysis were also assessed in these patients. The diagnosis was confirmed with gastrointestinal barium, B ultrasound, gastroscopy, or at surgery. Some of them underwent gastroscopy with biopsy sampling for rapid urease test or histologic examination with Giemsa stains for Helicobacter pylori. Thirteen patients had peptic ulcer disease, of which six were successfully treated with medications. While the other seven needed operative management which included Heineke-Mikulicz pyloroplasty, gastroduodenostomy or gastrojejunostomy, respectively. All the patients who had Heineke-Mikulicz pyloroplasty or gastrojejunostomy developed bile reflux gastritis that could be alleviated with omeprazol. None of the patients developed dumping syndrome, failing to thrive, or anemia. Three children with antral diaphragm recovered without any complications by diaphragm excision with Heineke-Mikulicz pyloroplasty. The pylorus was compressed by fibrotic band in one 30-month boy, and he recovered uneventfully with Heineke-Mikulicz pyloroplasty during 10-year follow-up. Gastric outlet obstruction secondary to ingestion of sulfuric acid was noted in one patient, and he was successfully treated with gastroduodenostomy. Our data suggests that the satisfactory results could be expected in children with GOO with different therapeutic modalities based on the specific cause and degree of obstruction.

  11. Effects of Outlets on Cracking Risk and Integral Stability of Super-High Arch Dams

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, case study on outlet cracking is first conducted for the Goupitan and Xiaowan arch dams. A nonlinear FEM method is then implemented to study effects of the outlets on integral stability of the Xiluodu arch dam under two loading conditions, i.e., normal loading and overloading conditions. On the basis of the case study and the numerical modelling, the outlet cracking mechanism, risk, and corresponding reinforcement measures are discussed. Furthermore, the numerical simulation reveals that (1) under the normal loading conditions, the optimal distribution of the outlets will contribute to the tensile stress release in the local zone of the dam stream surface and decrease the outlet cracking risk during the operation period. (2) Under the overloading conditions, the cracks initiate around the outlets, then propagate along the horizontal direction, and finally coalesce with those in adjacent outlets, where the yield zone of the dam has a shape of butterfly. Throughout this study, a dam outlet cracking risk control and reinforcement principle is proposed to optimize the outlet design, select the appropriate concrete material, strengthen the temperature control during construction period, design reasonable impounding scheme, and repair the cracks according to their classification. PMID:25152907

  12. Community organization moderates the effect of alcohol outlet density on violence.

    PubMed

    Pridemore, William Alex; Grubesic, Tony H

    2012-12-01

    There is growing evidence from multiple disciplines that alcohol outlet density is associated with community levels of assault. Based on the theoretical and empirical literatures on social organization and crime, we tested the hypothesis that the association between alcohol outlet density and neighbourhood violence rates is moderated by social organization. Using geocoded police data on assaults, geocoded data on the location of alcohol outlets, and controlling for several structural factors thought to be associated with violence rates, we tested this hypothesis employing negative binomial regression with our sample of 298 block groups in Cincinnati. Our results revealed direct effects of alcohol outlet density and social organization on assault density, and these effects held for different outlet types (i.e., off-premise, bars, restaurants) and levels of harm (i.e., simple and aggravated assaults). More importantly, we found that the strength of the outlet-assault association was significantly weaker in more socially organized communities. Subsequent analyses by level of organization revealed no effects of alcohol outlet density on aggravated assaults in organized block groups, but significant effects in disorganized block groups. We found no association between social (dis)organization and outlet density. These results clarify the community-level relationship between alcohol outlets and violence and have important implications for municipal-level alcohol policies.

  13. Examining tobacco outlet concentration in New Jersey: does income and ethnicity matter?

    PubMed

    Reid, Robert J; Morton, Cory M; Garcia-Reid, Pauline; Peterson, N Andrew; Yu, Danlin

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the geographic association between tobacco outlet density and the demographic indicators of median household income and percentage of Hispanic residents in New Jersey. Tobacco outlet density was assessed by examining all tobacco retailers licensed in 2004 in New Jersey, and demographic variables were based on the 2000 United States Census. Results indicated that the percentage of Hispanic residents and median household income were both salient predictors of tobacco outlet density. We also observed that income level moderated the relationship between the percentage of Hispanics residents and tobacco outlet density. Implications for environmentally based tobacco prevention and control initiatives are discussed.

  14. Fan noise reduction of an aircraft engine by inclining the outlet guide vanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaletskiy, Yu. D.; Pochkin, Ya. S.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an experimental study of the acoustic characteristics of an aircraft engine fan in the design of which the outlet guide vanes are leaned in the circumferential direction. It was found that the configuration of the outlet guide with the vanes leaned along the rotation of the rotor leads to fan noise reduction with respect to the configuration with outlet guide vanes, and a configuration of the outlet guide with an lean of the vane counterrotation of the rotor wheel leads to its increase.

  15. 46 CFR 34.15-25 - Discharge outlets-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discharge outlets-T/ALL. 34.15-25 Section 34.15-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.15-25 Discharge outlets—T/ALL. (a) Discharge outlets shall be of an...

  16. 46 CFR 34.15-25 - Discharge outlets-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discharge outlets-T/ALL. 34.15-25 Section 34.15-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.15-25 Discharge outlets—T/ALL. (a) Discharge outlets shall be of an...

  17. 46 CFR 34.15-25 - Discharge outlets-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discharge outlets-T/ALL. 34.15-25 Section 34.15-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.15-25 Discharge outlets—T/ALL. (a) Discharge outlets shall be of an...

  18. 46 CFR 34.15-25 - Discharge outlets-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discharge outlets-T/ALL. 34.15-25 Section 34.15-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.15-25 Discharge outlets—T/ALL. (a) Discharge outlets shall be of an...

  19. 46 CFR 34.15-25 - Discharge outlets-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discharge outlets-T/ALL. 34.15-25 Section 34.15-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.15-25 Discharge outlets—T/ALL. (a) Discharge outlets shall be of an...

  20. 46 CFR 153.352 - B/3 and 4 m venting system outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false B/3 and 4 m venting system outlets. 153.352 Section 153.352 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES... Cargo Venting Systems § 153.352 B/3 and 4 m venting system outlets. A B/3 or 4 m venting system...

  1. 46 CFR 153.352 - B/3 and 4 m venting system outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false B/3 and 4 m venting system outlets. 153.352 Section 153.352 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES... Cargo Venting Systems § 153.352 B/3 and 4 m venting system outlets. A B/3 or 4 m venting system...

  2. Survey of Publication Outlets in Early Childhood Education: Descriptive Data, Review Processes, and Advice to Authors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amodei, Michelle L.; Jalongo, Mary Renck; Myers, Jacqueline; Onchwari, Jacqueline; Gargiulo, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    Publishing outlets in the field of early childhood vary widely in terms of emphasis on theory, practice, and research as they relate to the care and education of the very young; these outlets also have different readerships (i.e., primarily for teachers, the teachers of their teachers, or the fellow scholars/researchers). Included in the mixture…

  3. Alcohol outlet density and alcohol consumption in Los Angeles county and southern Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Schonlau, Matthias; Scribner, Richard; Farley, Thomas A; Theall, Katherine; Bluthenthal, Ricky N; Scott, Molly; Cohen, Deborah A

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between alcohol availability, as measured by the density of off-premise alcohol outlets, and alcohol consumption in Los Angeles county and southern Louisiana, USA. Consumption information was collected through a telephone survey of 2,881 households in Los Angeles county and pre-Katrina southern Louisiana, nested within 220 census tracts. Respondents' addresses were geo-coded and both neighbourhood (census tracts and buffers of varying sizes) and individual (network distance to the closest alcohol outlet) estimates of off-sale alcohol outlet density were computed. Alcohol outlet density was not associated with the percentage of people who were drinkers in either site. Alcohol outlet density was associated with the quantity of consumption among drinkers in Louisiana but not in Los Angeles. Outlet density within a one-mile buffer of the respondent's home was more strongly associated with alcohol consumption than outlet density in the respondent's census tract. The conclusion is that the relationship between neighbourhood alcohol outlet density and alcohol consumption is complex and may vary due to differences in neighbourhood design and travel patterns.

  4. Secondhand Effects of Student Alcohol Use Reported by Neighbors of Colleges: The Role of Alcohol Outlets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Henry; Lee, Jae Eun; Hall, John; Wagenaar, Alexander C.; Lee, Hang

    2002-01-01

    Examined the relationship of a college's level of binge drinking and the number of alcohol outlets to lowered quality of neighborhood life through secondhand effects. Analysis indicated that the number of nearby alcohol outlets was an important factor mediating the relationship between colleges, especially those with high rates of binge drinking,…

  5. Review of recent developments and applications in low-pressure (vacuum outlet) gas chromatography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The concept of low pressure (LP) vacuum outlet gas chromatography (GC) was introduced more than 50 years ago, but it was not until the 2000s that its theoretical applicability to fast analysis of GC-amenable chemicals was realized. In practice, LPGC is implemented by placing the outlet of a short, ...

  6. Co-Construction, Infrastructure, and Purpose: Influences on Implementation of Hub-Outlet School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenhoff, Sarah Winchell

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is a collection of three interrelated chapters that explore unique dimensions of hub-outlet school reform. This type of school reform, in which a central hub organization designs a model for instructional improvement meant to be implemented with fidelity across unique outlet school sites, has gained credibility in the crowded…

  7. 46 CFR 34.20-20 - Discharge outlets-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discharge outlets-T/ALL. 34.20-20 Section 34.20-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Deck Foam System, Details § 34.20-20 Discharge outlets—T/ALL. (a) Discharge outlets shall be of an approved type. (b)...

  8. 46 CFR 34.17-20 - Discharge outlets-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discharge outlets-T/ALL. 34.17-20 Section 34.17-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Fixed Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.17-20 Discharge outlets—T/ALL. (a) Discharge outlets shall be of an...

  9. Relating Off-Premises Alcohol Outlet Density to Intentional and Unintentional Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Christopher; Smith, Karen; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Ponicki, William R.; Lee, Juliet P.; Cameron, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Aims This study investigated the hypotheses that (i) intentional and unintentional injuries occur more frequently in areas with greater density of off-premises alcohol outlets; and (ii) larger and chain outlets selling cheaper alcohol contribute more substantially to injury risk than smaller and independent outlets. Design Ecological cross-sectional. Setting From the 256 Statistical Area level 2 (SA2) Census units in Melbourne, Australia, we selected a random sample of 62 units. There were 2,119 Statistical Area level 1 (SA1) units nested within the selected SA2 units. Participants The selected units contained 295 off-premises outlets. Measurements Two independent observers conducted premises assessments in all off-premises outlets, assessing the volume of alcohol available for sale (paces of shelf space), price (least wine price), and other operating characteristics (chain vs. independent, drive-through). Outlet counts, assessed outlet characteristics, and other area characteristics (population density, median age, median income, retail zoning) were aggregated within SA1 units. Dependent variables were counts of ambulance attended intentional injuries (assaults, stabbings, shootings) and unintentional injuries (falls, crush injuries, and object strikes). Findings In univariable analyses, chain outlets were larger (r = 0.383; p < 0.001) and sold cheaper alcohol (r = −0.484; p < 0.001) compared with independent outlets. In Bayesian spatial Poisson models, off-premises outlet density was positively related to both intentional (Incidence Rate Ratio = 1.38; 95% Credible Interval: 1.19, 1.60) and unintentional injuries (IRR = 1.18; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.30). After disaggregation by outlet characteristics, chain outlet density was also related to both intentional (IRR = 1.35; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.64) and unintentional injuries (IRR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.38). Conclusions Greater off-premises outlet density is related to greater incidence of traumatic injury, and chain outlets

  10. Alcohol beverage control, privatization and the geographic distribution of alcohol outlets

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background With Pennsylvania currently considering a move away from an Alcohol Beverage Control state to a privatized alcohol distribution system, this study uses a spatial analytical approach to examine potential impacts of privatization on the number and spatial distribution of alcohol outlets in the city of Philadelphia over a long time horizon. Methods A suite of geospatial data were acquired for Philadelphia, including 1,964 alcohol outlet locations, 569,928 land parcels, and school, church, hospital, park and playground locations. These data were used as inputs for exploratory spatial analysis to estimate the expected number of outlets that would eventually operate in Philadelphia. Constraints included proximity restrictions (based on current ordinances regulating outlet distribution) of at least 200 feet between alcohol outlets and at least 300 feet between outlets and schools, churches, hospitals, parks and playgrounds. Results Findings suggest that current state policies on alcohol outlet distributions in Philadelphia are loosely enforced, with many areas exhibiting extremely high spatial densities of outlets that violate existing proximity restrictions. The spatial model indicates that an additional 1,115 outlets could open in Philadelphia if privatization was to occur and current proximity ordinances were maintained. Conclusions The study reveals that spatial analytical approaches can function as an excellent tool for contingency-based “what-if” analysis, providing an objective snapshot of potential policy outcomes prior to implementation. In this case, the likely outcome is a tremendous increase in alcohol outlets in Philadelphia, with concomitant negative health, crime and quality of life outcomes that accompany such an increase. PMID:23170899

  11. [Neurological Signs and Symptoms of True Neurogenic Thoracic Outlet Syndrome].

    PubMed

    Higashihara, Mana; Konoeda, Fumie; Sonoo, Masahiro

    2016-05-01

    Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is a well-known disorder, but many aspects of its pathology, including its definition, has been disputed. True neurogenic TOS (TN-TOS) is a rare but well-defined clinical condition. TN-TOS results from the compression of the C8/T1 roots (dominant for the T1 root) or the proximal lower trunk of the brachial plexus by a fibrous band. The band extends from the first rib to either the tip of an elongated C7 transverse process or a rudimentary cervical rib. The most common presenting symptoms of TN-TOS are insidious-onset atrophy and weakness of the intrinsic hand muscles, predominantly in the thenar eminence and radial digit flexors. Nerve conduction studies demonstrate pathognomonic findings: severely attenuated compound muscle action potential of the abductor pollicis brevis muscle, and usually, loss of the sensory nerve action potential of the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve. Numbness and sensory loss are typically observed, mainly in the medial forearm, although they are usually mild, and may be absent in some patients. Severe pain or paresthesia proximal to the elbow is not observed. The classical concept of TOS underlie nonspecific neurogenic TOS. It has been primarily diagnosed using provocative maneuvers. However, there is controversy regarding its pathological conceptualization and existence, as objective evidence of the disease is still lacking.

  12. Focal hand dystonia in a patient with thoracic outlet syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Quartarone, A; Girlanda, P; Risitano, G; Picciolo, G; Sinicropi, S; Nicolosi, C; Macaione, V; Messina, C

    1998-01-01

    A patient affected by thoracic outlet syndrome, with an involvement of the left lower primary trunk due to a rudimentary cervical rib, developed a severe hand dystonia on the same side. The dystonic posture was characterised by a flexion of the wrist with the fingers curled into the palm. Polygraphic recordings performed on the left flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS4) and extensor digitorum superficialis (EDC4) muscles, during a repetitive tapping task of the fourth digit, showed a loss of well formed bursts without a clear silent period along with long duration bursts of cocontraction in antagonistic muscles. The study of reciprocal inhibition between forearm flexor and extensor muscles showed a reduced amount of inhibition in both the disynaptic and the later presynaptic phase of inhibition. The patient underwent an operation with resection of the cervical rib. Twelve hours after the operation the patient experienced a significant improvement of the hand dystonia; the distonia had disappeared completely by two months with a progressive normalisation of reciprocal inhibition.

 PMID:9703190

  13. Focal hand dystonia in a patient with thoracic outlet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Quartarone, A; Girlanda, P; Risitano, G; Picciolo, G; Sinicropi, S; Nicolosi, C; Macaione, V; Messina, C

    1998-08-01

    A patient affected by thoracic outlet syndrome, with an involvement of the left lower primary trunk due to a rudimentary cervical rib, developed a severe hand dystonia on the same side. The dystonic posture was characterised by a flexion of the wrist with the fingers curled into the palm. Polygraphic recordings performed on the left flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS4) and extensor digitorum superficialis (EDC4) muscles, during a repetitive tapping task of the fourth digit, showed a loss of well formed bursts without a clear silent period along with long duration bursts of cocontraction in antagonistic muscles. The study of reciprocal inhibition between forearm flexor and extensor muscles showed a reduced amount of inhibition in both the disynaptic and the later presynaptic phase of inhibition. The patient underwent an operation with resection of the cervical rib. Twelve hours after the operation the patient experienced a significant improvement of the hand dystonia; the distonia had disappeared completely by two months with a progressive normalisation of reciprocal inhibition.

  14. Combustor cap having non-round outlets for mixing tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Michael John; Boardman, Gregory Allen; McConnaughhay, Johnie Franklin; Arguinzoni, Carlo Antonio

    2016-12-27

    A system includes a a combustor cap configured to be coupled to a plurality of mixing tubes of a multi-tube fuel nozzle, wherein each mixing tube of the plurality of mixing tubes is configured to mix air and fuel to form an air-fuel mixture. The combustor cap includes multiple nozzles integrated within the combustor cap. Each nozzle of the multiple nozzles is coupled to a respective mixing tube of the multiple mixing tubes. In addition, each nozzle of the multiple nozzles includes a first end and a second end. The first end is coupled to the respective mixing tube of the multiple mixing tubes. The second end defines a non-round outlet for the air-fuel mixture. Each nozzle of the multiple nozzles includes an inner surface having first and second portions, the first portion radially diverges along an axial direction from the first end to the second end, and the second portion radially converges along the axial direction from the first end to the second end.

  15. Surgical palliation of gastric outlet obstruction in advanced malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Potz, Brittany A; Miner, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) is a common problem associated with advanced malignancies of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Palliative treatment of patients’ symptoms who present with GOO is an important aspect of their care. Surgical palliation of malignancy is defined as a procedure performed with the intention of relieving symptoms caused by an advanced malignancy or improving quality of life. Palliative treatment for GOO includes operative (open and laparoscopic gastrojejunostomy) and non-operative (endoscopic stenting) options. The performance status and medical condition of the patient, the extent of the cancer, the patients prognosis, the availability of a curative procedure, the natural history of symptoms of the disease (primary and secondary), the durability of the procedure, and the quality of life and life expectancy of the patient should always be considered when choosing treatment for any patient with advanced malignancy. Gastrojejunostomy appears to be associated with better long term symptom relief while stenting appears to be associated with lower immediate procedure related morbidity. PMID:27648158

  16. Endoscopic management of combined malignant biliary and gastric outlet obstruction.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Yousuke; Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Itoi, Takao; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Patients with periampullary cancer or gastric cancer often develop malignant biliary obstruction (MBO) and gastric outlet obstruction (GOO), and combined MBO and GOO is not rare in these patients. Combined MBO and GOO is classified by its location and sequence, and treatment strategy can be affected by this classification. Historically, palliative surgery, hepaticojejunostomy and gastrojejunostomy were carried out, but the current standard treatment is combined transpapillary stent and duodenal stent placement. Although a high technical success rate is reported, the procedure can be technically difficult and duodenobiliary reflux with subsequent cholangitis is common after double stenting. Recent development of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided procedures enables the management of MBO as well as GOO under EUS guidance. EUS-guided biliary drainage is now increasingly reported as an alternative to percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage in failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), and GOO is one of the major reasons for failed ERCP. In addition to EUS-guided biliary drainage, the feasibility of EUS-guided double-balloon-occluded gastrojejunostomy bypass for MBO was recently reported, and EUS-guided double stenting can potentially become the treatment of choice in the future. However, as each procedure has its advantages and disadvantages, treatment strategy should be selected based on the type of obstruction and the prognosis and performance status of the patient.

  17. Microstructural characteristics and gastro-small intestinal digestion in vitro of potato starch: Effects of refrigerated storage and reheating in microwave.

    PubMed

    Colussi, Rosana; Singh, Jaspreet; Kaur, Lovedeep; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Stewart, Robert B; Singh, Harjinder

    2017-07-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate paste clarity, retrogradation (syneresis %), thermal characteristics and kinetics of glucose release during in vitro gastro-small intestinal digestion of freshly cooked and refrigerated potato starch. Freshly cooked starch pastes had a paste clarity of 71%, which decreased to 35.4% whereas syneresis (%) increased after 7days of refrigerated storage. The X-ray and thermal characteristics of native, retrograded and microwave reheated starch samples differed significantly from each other. For the freshly cooked starch pastes, ∼88% starch hydrolysis was observed at the end (150min) of digestion under simulated gastro-small intestinal conditions that decreased to ∼70% for the 7day stored pastes. The hydrolysis (%) of refrigerated pastes increased to 86% and 92% after one and two cycles of microwave reheating, respectively. These results contribute to the understanding of starch retrogradation in relation to starch digestion.

  18. Reheating the universe once more: the dissipation of acoustic waves as a novel probe of primordial inhomogeneities on even smaller scales.

    PubMed

    Nakama, Tomohiro; Suyama, Teruaki; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    2014-08-08

    We provide a simple but robust bound on the primordial curvature perturbation in the range 10(4)  Mpc(-1)reheat the photon bath without invoking cosmic microwave background distortions. This acoustic reheating results in the decrease of the baryon-photon ratio. By combining independent measurements probing the nucleosynthesis era and around the recombination epoch, we find an upper bound on the amplitude of the curvature perturbation over the above wave number range as P(ζ)<0.06. Implications for supermassive black holes are also discussed.

  19. Effect of pre-strain on creep of three AISI 316 austenitic stainless steels in relation to reheat cracking of weld-affected zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auzoux, Q.; Allais, L.; Caës, C.; Monnet, I.; Gourgues, A. F.; Pineau, A.

    2010-05-01

    Microstructural modifications induced by welding of 316 stainless steels and their effect on creep properties and relaxation crack propagation were examined. Cumulative strain due to multi-pass welding hardens the materials by increasing the dislocation density. Creep tests were conducted on three plates from different grades of 316 steel at 600 °C, with various carbon and nitrogen contents. These plates were tested both in the annealed condition and after warm rolling, which introduced pre-strain. It was found that the creep strain rate and ductility after warm rolling was reduced compared with the annealed condition. Moreover, all steels exhibited intergranular crack propagation during relaxation tests on Compact Tension specimens in the pre-strained state, but not in the annealed state. These results confirmed that the reheat cracking risk increases with both residual stress triaxiality and pre-strain. On the contrary, high solute content and strain-induced carbide precipitation, which are thought to increase reheat cracking risk of stabilised austenitic stainless steels did not appear as key parameters in reheat cracking of 316 stainless steels.

  20. Effects of reheating time on microstructure and tensile properties of SiCp/2024 Al-based composites fabricated using powder thixoforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pu Bo; Chen, Ti Jun; Zhang, Su Qing

    2017-01-01

    The present investigation addresses a new technology, named powder thixoforming, used to fabricate SiCp/2024 Al-based composites. The effects of reheating time on microstructure and mechanical properties have been studied. The results indicated that the quantity of liquid, the coarsening behavior of the primary particles, the subsequent plastic deformation occurring during thixoforging, and thus the resulting microstructural compactness and mechanical properties changed as a function of reheating time. The best comprehensive tensile properties of the composite, that is an ultimate tensile strength of 370 MPa and an elongation of 4.4%, were obtained after reheating for 80 min at 625 °C, which was an increase of 23.3% and a decrease of 57.7%, respectively, compared to the 2024 alloy thixoforged under the same conditions as the composite. The fracturing in the composites occurred through interconnecting cracked SiCp and debonded SiC/Al interfaces caused by a higher concentration of stress and a coalescence of microvoids.

  1. Effects of Re-heating Tissue Samples to Core Body Temperature on High-Velocity Ballistic Projectile-tissue Interactions.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, Caitlin; Henneberg, Maciej; Wachsberger, Christian; Maiden, Nicholas; Kumaratilake, Jaliya

    2017-02-23

    Damage produced by high-speed projectiles on organic tissue will depend on the physical properties of the tissues. Conditioning organic tissue samples to human core body temperature (37°C) prior to conducting ballistic experiments enables their behavior to closely mimic that of living tissues. To minimize autolytic changes after death, the tissues are refrigerated soon after their removal from the body and re-heated to 37°C prior to testing. This research investigates whether heating 50-mm-cube samples of porcine liver, kidney, and heart to 37°C for varying durations (maximum 7 h) can affect the penetration response of a high-speed, steel sphere projectile. Longer conditioning times for heart and liver resulted in a slight loss of velocity/energy of the projectile, but the reverse effect occurred for the kidney. Possible reasons for these trends include autolytic changes causing softening (heart and liver) and dehydration causing an increase in density (kidney).

  2. Effect of heating/reheating of fats/oils, as used by Asian Indians, on trans fatty acid formation.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Swati; Passi, Santosh Jain; Misra, Anoop; Pant, Kamal K; Anwar, Khalid; Pandey, R M; Kardam, Vikas

    2016-12-01

    Heating/frying and reuse of edible fats/oils induces chemical changes such as formation of trans fatty acids (TFAs). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of heating/frying on formation of TFAs in fats/oils. Using gas chromatography with flame ionisation detector, TFA was estimated in six commonly used fat/oils in India (refined soybean oil, groundnut oil, olive oil, rapeseed oil, clarified butter, partially hydrogenated vegetable oil), before and after subjecting them to heating/frying at 180°C and 220°C. All six fats/oils subjected to heating/frying demonstrated an increase in TFAs (p<0.001), saturated fatty acids (p<0.001) and decrease in cis-unsaturated fatty acids (p<0.001). The absolute increase in TFA content of edible oils (after subjecting to heating/reheating) ranged between 2.30±0.89g/100g and 4.5±1.43g/100g; amongst edible fats it ranged between 2.60±0.38g/100g and 5.96±1.94g/100g. There were no significant differences between the two treatment groups (heating and frying; p=0.892). Considering the undesirable health effects of TFA, appropriate guidelines for heating/re-frying of edible fats/oils by Asian Indians should be devised.

  3. A 15kWe (nominal) solar thermal electric power conversion concept definition study: Steam Rankine reheat reciprocator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, H.; Demler, R.; Poulin, E.; Dantowitz, P.

    1979-01-01

    An evaluation was made of the potential of a steam Rankine reheat reciprocator engine to operate at high efficiency in a point-focusing distributed receiver solar thermal-electric power system. The scope of the study included the engine system and electric generator; not included was the solar collector/mirror or the steam generator/receiver. A parametric analysis of steam conditions was completed leading to the selection of 973 K 12.1 MPa as the steam temperature/pressure for a conceptual design. A conceptual design was completed for a two cylinder/ opposed engine operating at 1800 rpm directly coupled to a commercially available induction generator. A unique part of the expander design is the use of carbon/graphite piston rings to eliminate the need for using oil as an upper cylinder lubricant. The evaluation included a system weight estimate of 230 kg at the mirror focal point with the condenser mounted separately on the ground. The estimated cost of the overall system is $1932 or $90/kW for the maximum 26 kW output.

  4. Assessing the relationship between alcohol outlets and domestic violence: routine activities and the neighborhood environment.

    PubMed

    Roman, Caterina G; Reid, Shannon E

    2012-01-01

    Studies have consistently found a positive relationship between alcohol outlet density and assault, but only a handful of studies have examined whether outlet density has an influence on domestic violence. Using a framework based in crime opportunity theories, this study estimates spatial econometric regression models to test whether the density of alcohol outlets across neighborhoods is positively associated with police calls for service for domestic violence. Models also were developed to test whether the relationships found were consistent across time periods associated with the use of alcohol outlets (weeknights and weekends). The findings indicate that off-premise outlets were associated with a significant increase in domestic violence, but on-premise outlets (specifically restaurants and nightclubs) were associated with a decrease in domestic violence. The risk for domestic violence in areas of high densities of off-premise outlets was found to be high during the weekend but not during the weeknight, suggesting different routine activities for domestic violence offenders during the week.

  5. Neighborhood Characteristics Associated with the Availability of Alcohol Outlets in Quebec, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Ngamini Ngui, André; Apparicio, Philippe; Philibert, Mathieu; Fleury, Marie-Josée

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The objectives of this study were to examine the spatial accessibility to alcohol outlets in Quebec and to assess the association between neighborhood level characteristics and availability of alcohol outlets. Methods. The Tobit Model was used to assess the association between neighborhood level characteristics and the availability of alcohol outlets within 500, 1000, 2000, and 3000 metres, respectively. Results. Alcohol outlets were found to be most available in the two largest metropolitan areas of the province of Quebec (Montréal and Québec City). Within 1000 metres, alcohol outlets are more available in neighbourhoods with the following characteristics: highest concentration of men, least materially deprived highest concentration of persons aged 20 years or more, and location either in a metropolitan area or in a small town. Finally, the number of bars with video lottery terminals increases with the level of social and material deprivation. Conclusion. In Québec, there is no rule governing the location of alcohol outlets. Thus, there is an abundant literature indicating that the regulation of alcohol outlet density could be an effective means of controlling risk attributable to alcohol consumption. PMID:25810946

  6. Tobacco advertising and sales practices in licensed retail outlets after the Food and Drug Administration regulations.

    PubMed

    Frick, Ryan G; Klein, Elizabeth G; Ferketich, Amy K; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2012-10-01

    To assess retailer compliance with Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations on tobacco sales and advertising practices, including point-of-sale advertisements, in two distinct Columbus, Ohio neighborhood groups by income. Data were gathered from a random sample of 129 licensed tobacco retailers, which included data on both exterior and interior advertisements as well as sales practices. Descriptive analyses compared retail outlets by high and low income neighborhood locations. Compliance with FDA regulations was high in the random sample of urban tobacco retail outlets. None of the retail outlets sold loose cigarettes or offered free items with purchase. Less than 10% of the outlets surveyed offered self-service access to cigarettes or smokeless tobacco products. From all surveyed retail outlets 95% had cigarette, 57% had smokeless, and 57% had cigar advertisements at the point-of-sale. There were no significant differences in compliance by income, but the mean number of advertisements on the building and self-service access to cigars was significantly different by neighborhood income. There was a high degree of compliance with the new FDA regulation on tobacco marketing and sales practices in urban retail tobacco outlets in Columbus, Ohio. Tobacco advertising and marketing remain highly prevalent in retail outlets, with some significant differences between high and low income neighborhoods.

  7. Evaluation of Complications after Surgical Treatment of Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinian, Mohammad Ali; Loron, Ali Gharibi; Soleimanifard, Yalda

    2017-01-01

    Background Surgical treatment of thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is necessary when non-surgical treatments fail. Complications of surgical procedures vary from short-term post-surgical pain to permanent disability. The outcome of TOS surgery is affected by the visibility during the operation. In this study, we have compared the complications arising during the supraclavicular and the transaxillary approaches to determine the appropriate approach for TOS surgery. Methods In this study, 448 patients with symptoms of TOS were assessed. The male-to-female ratio was approximately 1:4, and the mean age was 34.5 years. Overall, 102 operations were performed, including unilateral, bilateral, and reoperations, and the patients were retrospectively evaluated. Of the 102 patients, 63 underwent the supraclavicular approach, 32 underwent the transaxillary approach, and 7 underwent the transaxillary approach followed by the supraclavicular approach. Complications were evaluated over 24 months. Results The prevalence of pneumothorax, hemothorax, and vessel injuries in the transaxillary and the supraclavicular approaches was equal. We found more permanent and transient brachial plexus injuries in the case of the transaxillary approach than in the case of the supraclavicular approach, but the difference was not statistically significant. Persistent pain and symptoms were significantly more common in patients who underwent the transaxillary approach (p<0.05). Conclusion The supraclavicular approach seems to be the more effective technique of the two because it offers the surgeon better access to the brachial plexus and a direct view. This approach for a TOS operation offers a better surgical outcome and lower reoperation rates than the transaxillary method. Our results showed the supraclavicular approach to be the preferred method for TOS operations. PMID:28180101

  8. The parallel flow assumption in Greenland outlet glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourmelen, N.; Shepherd, A.; Park, J. W.

    2012-04-01

    Climate warming over the 20th century has forced dramatic changes in the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS). These changes have led to a reduction in the mass of the GrIS and a consequent rise in global sea level. Satellite observations have revealed an increased flow of the glaciers to the sea [Rignot et al., 2008], increased surface melting [Steffen et al., 2004], lowering of the Ice Sheet surface [Zwally and Giovinetto, 2001], retreat of the glaciers' fronts [Box et al., 2006], and gravity anomaly related to ice mass loss [Velicogna and Wahr, 2006]. When measuring the flow of ice from spaceborne sensors, it is often assumed that the direction and dip of flow follow the direction and dip of the ice surface [Rignot et al., 2011]; this is known as the surface parallel flow assumption [Joughin et al., 1996]. This assumption is often the only way to constrain glaciers' flow, as observation by spaceborne sensors in Polar Regions is limited. Departure from the parallel flow assumption means that the magnitude of ice flow and its changes will be misestimated. Departure from the ice parallel flow assumption also provides clues on the mechanisms leading to the flow pattern and to the change in flow magnitude. Here we exploit 20 years of Synthetic Aperture Radar spaceborn missions to constrain the three-dimensional flow of marine terminating glaciers in the GrIS. We use datasets from past and present ERS1, ERS2, ENVISAT, ALOS and TerraSAR-X missions to construct 3-dimensional flow maps of selected outlet glaciers of the GrIS. This dataset is used to explore the relationship between flow patterns, its temporal evolution, and processes at play at the margins of the GrIS.

  9. Availability of healthier options in traditional and nontraditional rural fast-food outlets

    PubMed Central

    Creel, Jennifer S; Sharkey, Joseph R; McIntosh, Alex; Anding, Jenna; Huber, J Charles

    2008-01-01

    Background Food prepared away from home has become increasingly popular to U.S. families, and may contribute to obesity. Sales have been dominated by fast food outlets, where meals are purchased for dining away from home or in the home. Although national chain affiliated fast-food outlets are considered the main source for fast food, fast foods are increasingly available in convenience stores and supermarkets/grocery stores. In rural areas, these nontraditional fast-food outlets may provide most of the opportunities for procurement of fast foods. Methods Using all traditional and nontraditio nal fast-food outlets identified in six counties in rural Texas, the type and number of regular and healthiermenu options were surveyed using on-site observation in all food venues that were primarily fast food, supermarket/grocery store, and convenience store and compared with 2005 Dietary Guidelines. Results Traditional fast-food outlets represented 84 (41%) of the 205 opportunities for procurement of fast food; 109 (53.2%) were convenience stores and 12 (5.8%) supermarkets/grocery stores. Although a s imilar variety of regular breakfast and lunch/dinner entrées were available in traditional fast-food outlets and convenience stores, the variety of healthier breakfast and lunch/dinner entrées was significantly greater in fast food outlets. Compared with convenience stores, supermarkets/grocery stores provided a greater variety of regular and healthier entrées and lunch/dinner side dishes. Conclusion Convenience stores and supermarkets/grocery stores more than double the potential access to fast foods in this rural area than traditional fast-food outlets alone; however, traditional fast food outlets offer greater opportunity for healthier fast food options than convenience stores. A complete picture of fast food environment and the availability of healthier fast food options are essential to understand environmental influences on diet and health outcomes, and identify

  10. Experimental study of flow distribution and pressure loss with circumferential inlet and outlet manifolds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittrich, R. T.

    1972-01-01

    Water flow tests with circumferential inlet and outlet manifolds were conducted to determine factors affecting fluid distribution and pressure losses. Various orifice sizes and manifold geometries were tested over a range of flow velocities. With inlet manifolds, flow distribution was related directly to orifice discharge coefficients. A correlation indicated that nonuniform distribution resulted when the velocity head ratio at the orifice was not in the range of constant discharge coefficient. With outlet manifolds, nonuniform flow was related to static pressure variations along the manifold. Outlet manifolds had appreciably greater pressure losses than comparable inlet manifolds.

  11. Influence of outlet geometry on strongly swirling turbulent flow through a circular tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escudier, M. P.; Nickson, A. K.; Poole, R. J.

    2006-12-01

    The results are reported for an extensive series of measurements (using laser Doppler anemometry) of the mean and fluctuating flow fields for swirling turbulent flow downstream of an orifice in a tube. The influence of a concentric outlet contraction is found to be negligible for low "supercritical" swirl. For high "subcritical" swirl, the outlet geometry is found to have a significant influence throughout the flow field and, in the case of an eccentric (i.e., offset) outlet, to lead to an asymmetric flow with a distorted core. In no case was the core found to precess or the flow to be periodic.

  12. The Moderating Role of Gender in the Relationship Between Tobacco Outlet Exposure and Tobacco Use Among African American Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Brown, Qiana; Milam, Adam J; Bowie, Janice V; Ialongo, Nicholas S; Gaskin, Darrell J; Furr-Holden, Debra

    2016-04-01

    Tobacco outlet exposure is a correlate of tobacco use with potential differences by gender that warrant attention. The aim of this study is to explore the moderating role of gender in the relationship between tobacco outlet exposure and past month tobacco use among African American young adults 21 to 24 years old. This cross-sectional study (n = 283) used geospatial methods to determine the number of tobacco outlets within walking distance (i.e., a quarter mile) of participants' homes and distance to the nearest outlet. Logistic regression models were used to test interactions between gender and tobacco outlet exposure (i.e., density and proximity). Tobacco outlets were classified based on whether or not they were licensed to sell tobacco only (TO outlets) or tobacco and alcohol (TA outlets). Neither density nor proximity was associated with past month tobacco use in the pooled models. However, gender modified the relationship between TO outlet density and tobacco use, and this relationship was significant only among women (OR = 1.02; p < 0.01; adjusted OR = 1.01; p < 0.05). This study underscores the importance of reducing tobacco outlet density in residential neighborhoods, especially TO outlets, as well as highlights potential gender differences in the relationship between tobacco outlet density and tobacco use.

  13. 16 CFR Appendix D to Part 436 - Sample Item 20(3) Table-Status of Franchise Outlets

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sample Item 20(3) Table-Status of Franchise Outlets D Appendix D to Part 436 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES... Item 20(3) Table—Status of Franchise Outlets Status of Franchise Outlets For years 2004 to 2006...

  14. Enhanced separation performance using a new column technology: parallel segmented outlet flow.

    PubMed

    Camenzuli, Michelle; Ritchie, Harald J; Ladine, James R; Shalliker, R Andrew

    2012-04-06

    A new column technology - termed parallel segmented outlet flow was employed here to illustrate gains in separation performance that are achievable by the active management of flow as it exits from the outlet of the chromatography column. Parallel segmented outlet flow requires a column be fitted with an outlet fitting that separates flow from the central region of the column from that of wall region. Each region of flow is able to be processed independently, such that post column detection emulates end column localised detection. As a result of this flow segmentation and the subsequent more efficient means of detection, column efficiency was observed to increase by more than 20%, with gains in sensitivity by as much as 22%, and a decrease in peak volume by up to 85%.

  15. Coolant mixing in LMFBR rod bundles and outlet plenum mixing transients. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Todreas, N.E.; Golay, M.W.; Wold, L.

    1981-02-01

    Four tasks are reported on: bundle geometry (wrapped and bare rods), subchannel geometry (bare rods), LMFBR outlet plenum flow mixing, and theoretical determination of local temperature fields in LMFBR fuel rod bundles. (DLC)

  16. Double-outlet right ventricle with intact ventricular septum in a foetus with trisomy-18.

    PubMed

    Patel, C R; Muise, K L; Redline, R W

    1999-07-01

    A rare case of double-outlet right ventricle with intact ventricular septum diagnosed by foetal echocardiography at 21 weeks of gestation is described. Amniocentesis revealed trisomy-18. The cardiac diagnosis was confirmed at autopsy.

  17. MO-E-17A-01: BEST IN PHYSICS (IMAGING) - Calculating SSDE From CT Exams Using Size Data Available in the DICOM Header of CT Localizer Radiographs

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, K; Bostani, M; McNitt-Gray, M; McCollough, C

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of using existing data stored within the DICOM header of certain CT localizer radiographs as a patient size metric for calculating CT size-specific dose estimates (SSDE). Methods: For most Siemens CT scanners, the CT localizer radiograph (topogram) contains a private DICOM field that stores an array of numbers describing AP and LAT attenuation-based measures of patient dimension. The square root of the product of the AP and LAT size data, which provides an estimate of water-equivalent-diameter (WED), was calculated retrospectively from topogram data of 20 patients who received clinically-indicated abdomen/pelvis (n=10) and chest (n=10) scans (WED-topo). In addition, slice-by-slice water-equivalent-diameter (WED-image) and effective diameter (ED-image) values were calculated from the respective image data. Using TG-204 lookup tables, size-dependent conversion factors were determined based upon WED-topo, WED-image and ED-image values. These conversion factors were used with the reported CTDIvol to calculate slice-by-slice SSDE for each method. Averaging over all slices, a single SSDE value was determined for each patient and size metric. Patientspecific SSDE and CTDIvol values were then compared with patientspecific organ doses derived from detailed Monte Carlo simulations of fixed tube current scans. Results: For abdomen/pelvis scans, the average difference between liver dose and CTDIvol, SSDE(WED-topo), SSDE(WED-image), and SSDE(ED-image) was 18.70%, 8.17%, 6.84%, and 7.58%, respectively. For chest scans, the average difference between lung dose and CTDIvol, SSDE(WED-topo), SSDE(WED-image), and SSDE(ED-image) was 25.80%, 3.33%, 4.11%, and 7.66%, respectively. Conclusion: SSDE calculated using WED derived from data in the DICOM header of the topogram was comparable to SSDE calculated using WED and ED derived from axial images; each of these estimated organ dose to within 10% for both abdomen/pelvis and chest CT examinations

  18. Spatial panel analyses of alcohol outlets and motor vehicle crashes in California: 1999–2008

    PubMed Central

    Ponicki, William R.; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Remer, Lillian G.

    2014-01-01

    Although past research has linked alcohol outlet density to higher rates of drinking and many related social problems, there is conflicting evidence of density’s association with traffic crashes. An abundance of local alcohol outlets simultaneously encourages drinking and reduces driving distances required to obtain alcohol, leading to an indeterminate expected impact on alcohol-involved crash risk. This study separately investigates the effects of outlet density on (1) the risk of injury crashes relative to population and (2) the likelihood that any given crash is alcohol-involved, as indicated by police reports and single-vehicle nighttime status of crashes. Alcohol outlet density effects are estimated using Bayesian misalignment Poisson analyses of all California ZIP codes over the years 1999–2008. These misalignment models allow panel analysis of ZIP-code data despite frequent redefinition of postal-code boundaries, while also controlling for overdispersion and the effects of spatial autocorrelation. Because models control for overall retail density, estimated alcohol-outlet associations represent the extra effect of retail establishments selling alcohol. The results indicate a number of statistically well-supported associations between retail density and crash behavior, but the implied effects on crash risks are relatively small. Alcohol-serving restaurants have a greater impact on overall crash risks than on the likelihood that those crashes involve alcohol, whereas bars primarily affect the odds that crashes are alcohol-involved. Off-premise outlet density is negatively associated with risks of both crashes and alcohol involvement, while the presence of a tribal casino in a ZIP code is linked to higher odds of police-reported drinking involvement. Alcohol outlets in a given area are found to influence crash risks both locally and in adjacent ZIP codes, and significant spatial autocorrelation also suggests important relationships across geographical units

  19. Alcohol outlets, neighborhood characteristics, and intimate partner violence: ecological analysis of a California city.

    PubMed

    Cunradi, Carol B; Mair, Christina; Ponicki, William; Remer, Lillian

    2011-04-01

    Neighborhood indicators of social disadvantage, such as poverty and unemployment, are associated with intimate partner violence (IPV). Despite the well-established link between heavy drinking and IPV, few studies have analyzed the contribution of alcohol outlet density to the occurrence of IPV. Greater numbers of alcohol outlets in a community may be a sign of loosened normative constraints against violence, promote problem drinking among at-risk couples, and provide environments where groups of persons at risk for IPV may form and mutually reinforce IPV-related attitudes, norms, and problem behaviors. This study used ecological data to determine if alcohol outlet density (number of bars, restaurants serving alcohol, and off-premise outlets per unit area) is related to rates of IPV-related police calls and IPV-related crime reports in Sacramento, California. Separate analyses for IPV calls and crime reports were conducted using Bayesian space-time models adjusted for area characteristics (poverty rate, unemployment rate, racial/ethnic composition). The results showed that each additional off-premise alcohol outlet is associated with an approximate 4% increase in IPV-related police calls and an approximate 3% increase in IPV-related crime reports. Bars and restaurants were not associated with either outcome. The findings suggest that alcohol outlet density, especially off-premise outlets, appear to be related to IPV events. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms by which neighborhood factors, such as alcohol outlet density, affect IPV behaviors. Understanding these mechanisms is of public health importance for developing environmental IPV prevention strategies, such as changes in zoning, community action, education, and enforcement activities.

  20. Spatial panel analyses of alcohol outlets and motor vehicle crashes in California: 1999-2008.

    PubMed

    Ponicki, William R; Gruenewald, Paul J; Remer, Lillian G

    2013-06-01

    Although past research has linked alcohol outlet density to higher rates of drinking and many related social problems, there is conflicting evidence of density's association with traffic crashes. An abundance of local alcohol outlets simultaneously encourages drinking and reduces driving distances required to obtain alcohol, leading to an indeterminate expected impact on alcohol-involved crash risk. This study separately investigates the effects of outlet density on (1) the risk of injury crashes relative to population and (2) the likelihood that any given crash is alcohol-involved, as indicated by police reports and single-vehicle nighttime status of crashes. Alcohol outlet density effects are estimated using Bayesian misalignment Poisson analyses of all California ZIP codes over the years 1999-2008. These misalignment models allow panel analysis of ZIP-code data despite frequent redefinition of postal-code boundaries, while also controlling for overdispersion and the effects of spatial autocorrelation. Because models control for overall retail density, estimated alcohol-outlet associations represent the extra effect of retail establishments selling alcohol. The results indicate a number of statistically well-supported associations between retail density and crash behavior, but the implied effects on crash risks are relatively small. Alcohol-serving restaurants have a greater impact on overall crash risks than on the likelihood that those crashes involve alcohol, whereas bars primarily affect the odds that crashes are alcohol-involved. Off-premise outlet density is negatively associated with risks of both crashes and alcohol involvement, while the presence of a tribal casino in a ZIP code is linked to higher odds of police-reported drinking involvement. Alcohol outlets in a given area are found to influence crash risks both locally and in adjacent ZIP codes, and significant spatial autocorrelation also suggests important relationships across geographical units

  1. The ecology of domestic violence: the role of alcohol outlet density.

    PubMed

    Livingston, Michael

    2010-11-01

    Studies have consistently found positive associations between the density of alcohol outlets and levels of violence in areas. Few studies have examined whether this relationship holds for domestic violence. This study assesses whether alcohol outlet density is related to domestic violence and whether this relationship is due to alcohol availability or to co-occurring economic disadvantage and social disorganisation. Cross-sectional data on family incidents, liquor outlets and socio-demographic characteristics were obtained for 217 postcodes in Melbourne, Australia. These data were used to construct models assessing the association between alcohol outlet density and domestic violence, both with and without controlling for socio-demographic factors. Models were tested for spatial autocorrelation, and spatial- error models were developed to control for its influence. Outlet density was significantly associated with rates of domestic violence, even controlling for socio-demographic factors. The density of hotels (pubs) was positively associated with domestic violence rates and the density of restaurants and bars was negatively associated with domestic violence. Socio-economic disadvantage was also associated with domestic violence rates. The density of packaged liquor outlets was not associated with rates of domestic violence. The results present a mixed picture, and further study is required to develop a clearer understanding of the links between alcohol availability and domestic violence.

  2. Development of a solenoid actuated planar valveless micropump with single and multiple inlet-outlet arrangements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, N.; George, D.; Sajeesh, P.; Manivannan, P. V.; Sen, A. K.

    2016-07-01

    We report a planar solenoid actuated valveless micropump with multiple inlet-outlet configurations. The self-priming characteristics of the multiple inlet-multiple outlet micropump are studied. The filling dynamics of the micropump chamber during start-up and the effects of fluid viscosity, voltage and frequency on the dynamics are investigated. Numerical simulations for multiple inlet-multiple outlet micropumps are carried out using fluid structure algorithm. With DI water and at 5.0 Vp-p, 20 Hz frequency, the two inlet-two outlet micropump provides a maximum flow rate of 336 μl min-1 and maximum back pressure of 441 Pa. Performance characteristics of the two inlet-two outlet micropump are studied for aqueous fluids of different viscosity. Transport of biological cell lines and diluted blood samples are demonstrated; the flow rate-frequency characteristics are studied. Viability of cells during pumping with multiple inlet multiple outlet configuration is also studied in this work, which shows 100% of cells are viable. Application of the proposed micropump for simultaneous pumping, mixing and distribution of fluids is demonstrated. The proposed integrated, standalone and portable micropump is suitable for drug delivery, lab-on-chip and micro-total-analysis applications.

  3. Using public health and community partnerships to reduce density of alcohol outlets.

    PubMed

    Jernigan, David H; Sparks, Michael; Yang, Evelyn; Schwartz, Randy

    2013-04-11

    Excessive alcohol use causes approximately 80,000 deaths in the United States each year. The Guide to Community Preventive Services recommends reducing the density of alcohol outlets - the number of physical locations in which alcoholic beverages are available for purchase either per area or per population - through the use of regulatory authority as an effective strategy for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. We briefly review the research on density of alcohol outlets and public health and describe the powers localities have to influence alcohol outlet density. We summarize Regulating Alcohol Outlet Density: An Action Guide, which describes steps that local communities can take to reduce outlet density and the key competencies and resources of state and local health departments. These include expertise in public health surveillance and evaluation methods, identification and tracking of outcome measures, geographic information systems (GIS) mapping, community planning and development of multisector efforts, and education of community leaders and policy makers. We illustrate the potential for partnerships between public health agencies and local communities by presenting a contemporary case study from Omaha, Nebraska. Public health agencies have a vital and necessary role to play in efforts to reduce alcohol outlet density. They are often unaware of the potential of this strategy and have strong potential partners in the thousands of community coalitions nationwide that are focused on reducing alcohol-related problems.

  4. The Impact of the Tobacco Retail Outlet Environment on Adult Cessation and Differences by Neighborhood Poverty

    PubMed Central

    Anesetti-Rothermel, Andrew; Pearson, Jennifer L.; Xiao, Haijun; Vallone, Donna; Kirchner, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    Aims This study examined the impact of tobacco retail outlets on cessation outcomes over time among non-treatment-seeking smokers and assessed differences by neighborhood poverty and individual factors. Design Observational longitudinal cohort study using geospatial data. We used generalized estimating equations to examine cessation outcomes in relation to the proximity and density of tobacco retail outlets near the home. Setting Eight large Designated Media Areas across the U.S. Participants A total of 2,377 baseline smokers followed over 3 waves from 2008 to 2010. Measurements Outlet addresses were identified through North American Industry Classification System codes and proximity and density measures were constructed for each participant at each wave. Outcomes included past 30-day abstinence and pro-cessation attitudes. Findings Smokers in high poverty census tracts living between 500 meters and 1.9 kilometers from an outlet were over 2 times more likely to be abstinent than those living fewer than 500 meters from an outlet (p<.05). Density within 500 meters of home was associated with reduced abstinence (OR: 0.94; CI: 0.90, 0.98) and lower pro-cessation attitudes (Coef: −0.07, CI: −0.10, −0.03) only in high poverty areas. In low poverty areas, density within 500 meters was associated with greater pro-cessation attitudes (OR: 0.06; CI: 0.01, 0.12). Gender, education and heaviness of smoking did not moderate the impact of outlet proximity and density on cessation outcomes. Conclusions In the US, density of tobacco outlets within 500 meters of the home residence appears to be negatively associated with smoking abstinence and pro-cessation attitudes only in poor areas. PMID:25171184

  5. The premises is the premise: understanding off- and on-premises alcohol sales outlets to improve environmental alcohol prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Chinman, Matthew; Burkhart, Q; Ebener, Patricia; Fan, Cha-Chi; Imm, Pamela; Osilla, Karen Chan; Paddock, Susan M; Wright, Annie

    2011-06-01

    Environmental strategies to prevent the misuse of alcohol among youth--e.g., use of public policies to restrict minors' access to alcohol--have been shown to reduce underage drinking. However, implementation of policy changes often requires public and private partnerships. One way to support these partnerships is to better understand the target of many of the environmental strategies, which is the alcohol sales outlet. Knowing more about how off-premises outlets (e.g., liquor and convenience stores) and on-premises outlets (e.g., bars and restaurants) are alike and different could help community-based organizations better tailor, plan, and implement their environmental strategies and strengthen partnerships between the public and commercial sectors. We conducted a survey of managerial or supervisory staff and/or owners of 336 off- and on-premises alcohol outlets in six counties in South Carolina, comparing these two outlet types on their preferences regarding certain alcohol sales practices, beliefs toward underage drinking, alcohol sales practices, and outcomes. Multilevel logistic regression showed that while off- and on-premises outlets did have many similarities, off-premises outlets appear to engage in more practices designed to prevent sales of alcohol to minors than on-premises outlets. The relationship between certain Responsible Beverage Service (RBS) practices and outcomes varied by outlet type. This study furthers the understanding of the differences between off- and on-premises alcohol sales outlets and offers options for increasing and tailoring environmental prevention efforts to specific settings.

  6. Changes in Density of On-Premises Alcohol Outlets and Impact on Violent Crime, Atlanta, Georgia, 1997–2007

    PubMed Central

    Hatcher, Bonnie; Clarkson, Lydia; Holt, James; Bagchi, Suparna; Kanny, Dafna; Brewer, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Regulating alcohol outlet density is an evidence-based strategy for reducing excessive drinking. However, the effect of this strategy on violent crime has not been well characterized. A reduction in alcohol outlet density in the Buckhead neighborhood of Atlanta from 2003 through 2007 provided an opportunity to evaluate this effect. Methods We conducted a community-based longitudinal study to evaluate the impact of changes in alcohol outlet density on violent crime in Buckhead compared with 2 other cluster areas in Atlanta (Midtown and Downtown) with high densities of alcohol outlets, from 1997 through 2002 (preintervention) to 2003 through 2007 (postintervention). The relationship between exposures to on-premises retail alcohol outlets and violent crime were assessed by using annual spatially defined indices at the census block level. Multilevel regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between changes in exposure to on-premises alcohol outlets and violent crime while controlling for potential census block-level confounders. Results A 3% relative reduction in alcohol outlet density in Buckhead from 1997–2002 to 2003–2007 was associated with a 2-fold greater reduction in exposure to violent crime than occurred in Midtown or Downtown, where exposure to on-premises retail alcohol outlets increased. The magnitude of the association between exposure to alcohol outlets and violent crime was 2 to 5 times greater in Buckhead than in either Midtown or Downtown during the postintervention period. Conclusions A modest reduction in alcohol outlet density can substantially reduce exposure to violent crime in neighborhoods with high density of alcohol outlets. Routine monitoring of community exposure to alcohol outlets could also inform the regulation of alcohol outlet density, consistent with Guide to Community Preventive Services recommendations. PMID:26020548

  7. Methods for implementing a medicine outlet survey: lessons from the anti-malarial market

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent years an increasing number of public investments and policy changes have been made to improve the availability, affordability and quality of medicines available to consumers in developing countries, including anti-malarials. It is important to monitor the extent to which these interventions are successful in achieving their aims using quantitative data on the supply side of the market. There are a number of challenges related to studying supply, including outlet sampling, gaining provider cooperation and collecting accurate data on medicines. This paper provides guidance on key steps to address these issues when conducting a medicine outlet survey in a developing country context. While the basic principles of good survey design and implementation are important for all surveys, there are a set of specific issues that should be considered when conducting a medicine outlet survey. Methods This paper draws on the authors’ experience of designing and implementing outlet surveys, including the lessons learnt from ACTwatch outlet surveys on anti-malarial retail supply, and other key studies in the field. Key lessons and points of debate are distilled around the following areas: selecting a sample of outlets; techniques for collecting and analysing data on medicine availability, price and sales volumes; and methods for ensuring high quality data in general. Results and conclusions The authors first consider the inclusion criteria for outlets, contrasting comprehensive versus more focused approaches. Methods for developing a reliable sampling frame of outlets are then presented, including use of existing lists, key informants and an outlet census. Specific issues in the collection of data on medicine prices and sales volumes are discussed; and approaches for generating comparable price and sales volume data across products using the adult equivalent treatment dose (AETD) are explored. The paper concludes with advice on practical considerations

  8. Numerical Study of Outlet Boundary Conditions for Unsteady Turbulent Internal Flows Using the NCC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Nan-Suey; Shih, Tsan-Hsing

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of studies on the outlet boundary conditions for turbulent internal flow simulations. Several outlet boundary conditions have been investigated by applying the National Combustion Code (NCC) to the configuration of a LM6000 single injector flame tube. First of all, very large eddy simulations (VLES) have been performed using the partially resolved numerical simulation (PRNS) approach, in which both the nonlinear and linear dynamic subscale models were employed. Secondly, unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier- Stokes (URANS) simulations have also been performed for the same configuration to investigate the effects of different outlet boundary conditions in the context of URANS. Thirdly, the possible role of the initial condition is inspected by using three different initial flow fields for both the PRNS/VLES simulation and the URANS simulation. The same grid is used for all the simulations and the number of mesh element is about 0.5 million. The main purpose of this study is to examine the long-time behavior of the solution as determined by the imposed outlet boundary conditions. For a particular simulation to be considered as successful under the given initial and boundary conditions, the solution must be sustainable in a physically meaningful manner over a sufficiently long period of time. The commonly used outlet boundary condition for steady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulation is a fixed pressure at the outlet with all the other dependent variables being extrapolated from the interior. The results of the present study suggest that this is also workable for the URANS simulation of the LM6000 injector flame tube. However, it does not work for the PRNS/VLES simulation due to the unphysical reflections of the pressure disturbances at the outlet boundary. This undesirable situation can be practically alleviated by applying a simple unsteady convection equation for the pressure disturbances at the outlet boundary. The

  9. Alcohol Consumption, Alcohol Outlets, and the Risk of Being Assaulted With a Gun

    PubMed Central

    Branas, Charles C.; Elliott, Michael R.; Richmond, Therese S.; Culhane, Dennis P.; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2010-01-01

    Background We conducted a population-based case–control study to better delineate the relationship between individual alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets in the surrounding environment, and being assaulted with a gun. Methods An incidence density sampled case–control study was conducted in the entire city of Philadelphia from 2003 to 2006. We enrolled 677 cases that had been shot in an assault and 684 population-based controls. The relationships between 2 independent variables of interest, alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, and the outcome of being assaulted with a gun were analyzed. Conditional logistic regression was used to adjust for numerous confounding variables. Results After adjustment, heavy drinkers were 2.67 times as likely to be shot in an assault when compared with nondrinkers (p < 0.10) while light drinkers were not at significantly greater risk of being shot in an assault when compared with nondrinkers. Regression-adjusted analyses also demonstrated that being in an area of high off-premise alcohol outlet availability significantly increased the risk of being shot in an assault by 2.00 times (p < 0.05). Being in an area of high on-premise alcohol outlet availability did not significantly change this risk. Heavy drinkers in areas of high off-premise alcohol outlet availability were 9.34 times (p < 0.05) as likely to be shot in an assault. Conclusions This study finds that the gun assault risk to individuals who are near off-premise alcohol outlets is about the same as or statistically greater than the risk they incur from heavy drinking. The combination of heavy drinking and being near off-premise outlets resulted in greater risk than either factor alone. By comparison, light drinking and being near on-premise alcohol outlets were not associated with increased risks for gun assault. Cities should consider addressing alcohol-related factors, especially off-premise outlets, as highly modifiable and politically feasible approaches

  10. Diurnal Changes of Zooplankton Community Reduction Rate at Lake Outlets and Related Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Czerniawski, Robert; Sługocki, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    The reduced zooplankton abundance at the outlet sections of lakes depends on the occurrence of preying fry. Therefore, light conditions can play a major role in the drift of zooplankton along river outlets. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of diurnal light conditions on the decline of zooplankton densities at lake outlets. Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) levels were measured to determine their effect on the rate of reduced zooplankton abundance. Cladocerans and copepods showed a significantly greater reduction in abundance than rotifers and nauplii. A significant positive relationship was observed between the PAR levels and the reduced abundance of Asplanchna sp., small cladocerans, large cladocerans and Copepoda at the lake outlets. Among the rotifers, small pelagic rotifers drifted the farthest at all hours of the day. Large crustaceans, especially the large cladocerans and copepodites and adult copepods, had the lowest chance of dispersing over a wide area. Our results indicate that light conditions play an important role in the reduction of zooplankton abundance at lake outlets and have an indirect influence on the downstream food web. PMID:27392017

  11. The relationship between the density of alcohol outlets and parental supply of alcohol to adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rowland, B; Toumbourou, J W; Satyen, L; Livingston, M; Williams, J

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated whether the number of alcohol outlets per 10,000 population in a given area (density) influenced parental supply of alcohol to adolescents; differences in Australian born and acculturating parents were also examined. A state-representative student survey in Victoria identified that the majority of adolescents (55%) reported that they had used alcohol in the past 12months; 34 % of those who had consumed alcohol reported that it had been supplied by their parents. Multilevel modelling identified that there were no overall effects of density, however there were different effects based on parent country of birth and type of license. Specifically, each unit increase in the density of takeaway liquor stores increased the likelihood by 2.03 that children with both Australian-born parents would be supplied alcohol. Adolescents with both migrant parents on the other hand, had a 1.36 increased risk of being supplied alcohol as the density of outlets requiring at-venue consumption increased. The findings of this study suggest that in Australia, alcohol outlet density is associated with parental supply of alcohol to children, with this effect moderated by the cultural background of the parent and type of outlet density. Future research should investigate the association between the density of alcohol outlets and public approval of parents supplying alcohol to adolescents.

  12. Sociodemographic Disparities in Proximity of Schools to Tobacco Outlets and Fast-Food Restaurants

    PubMed Central

    Ammerman, Alice; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Linnan, Laura; Lytle, Leslie; Ribisl, Kurt M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the association of school sociodemographic characteristics with tobacco outlet and fast-food restaurant availability near schools in a national study. Methods. Business lists and data from the National Center for Education Statistics were used to calculate the numbers of tobacco outlets and fast-food restaurants within 800 meters of public schools in 97 US counties. Results. More than 50% of schools with a majority of Hispanic students had both a fast-food restaurant and tobacco outlet nearby, compared with 21% of schools with a majority of White students. In adjusted models, each 10% increase in the number of low-income and Hispanic students enrolled in a school led to a 3% to 5% increase in the odds of the school having both a fast-food restaurant and a tobacco outlet nearby. Conclusions. Low-income and Hispanic students are disproportionately exposed to both tobacco outlets and fast-food restaurants near their schools. Easy access to tobacco products and fast food may influence youth smoking initiation and contribute to poor dietary intake. PMID:27459453

  13. Spatial patterning of supermarkets and fast food outlets with respect to neighborhood characteristics.

    PubMed

    Lamichhane, Archana P; Warren, Joshua; Puett, Robin; Porter, Dwayne E; Bottai, Matteo; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J; Liese, Angela D

    2013-09-01

    A large body of literature has reported differences in exposure to environments supporting either healthy (e.g. supermarkets) or unhealthy (e.g. fast food outlets) dietary choices by neighborhood characteristics. We explored the associations of both supermarkets and fast food outlets availability with neighborhood characteristics, and clustering of these two outlet types in a largely rural state. Compared to block groups without a supermarket, those with a supermarket had a significantly higher income, higher housing value, larger population with high school education and above, lower minority population and lower population living below poverty even after controlling for urbanicity and population density of census block groups. Surprisingly, a similar relationship was found for block groups with and without fast food outlets. This was due to spatial co-occurrence and clustering of fast food outlets around supermarket locations. Hence, future studies exploring the associations of food environment with diet or diet-related health outcome should concurrently examine all aspects of food environment (healthy and unhealthy).

  14. Using ZIP code business patterns data to measure alcohol outlet density.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Stephen A; McCarthy, John D; Rafail, Patrick S

    2011-07-01

    Some states maintain high-quality alcohol outlet databases but quality varies by state, making comprehensive comparative analysis across US communities difficult. This study assesses the adequacy of using ZIP Code Business Patterns (ZIP-BP) data on establishments as estimates of the number of alcohol outlets by ZIP code. Specifically we compare ZIP-BP alcohol outlet counts with high-quality data from state and local records surrounding 44 college campus communities across 10 states plus the District of Columbia. Results show that a composite measure is strongly correlated (R=0.89) with counts of alcohol outlets generated from official state records. Analyses based on Generalized Estimation Equation models show that community and contextual factors have little impact on the concordance between the two data sources. There are also minimal inter-state differences in the level of agreement. To validate the use of a convenient secondary data set (ZIP-BP) it is important to have a high correlation with the more complex, high quality and more costly data product (i.e., datasets based on the acquisition and geocoding of state and local records) and then to clearly demonstrate that the discrepancy between the two to be unrelated to relevant explanatory variables. Thus our overall findings support the adequacy of using a conveniently available data set (ZIP-BP data) to estimate alcohol outlet densities in ZIP code areas in future research.

  15. Communicating Ebola through social media and electronic news media outlets: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Househ, Mowafa

    2016-09-01

    Social media and electronic news media activity are an important source of information for the general public. Yet, there is a dearth of research exploring the use of Twitter and electronic news outlets during significant worldly events such as the recent Ebola Virus scare. The purpose of this article is to investigate the use of Twitter and electronic news media outlets in communicating Ebola Virus information. A cross-sectional survey of Twitter data and Google News Trend data from 30 September till 29 October, 2014 was conducted. Between 30 September and 29 October, there were approximately 26 million tweets (25,925,152) that contained the word Ebola. The highest number of correlated activity for Twitter and electronic news outlets occurred on 16 October 2014. Other important peaks in Twitter data occurred on 1 October, 6 October, 8 October, and 12 October, 2014. The main influencers of the Twitter feeds were news media outlets. The study reveals a relationship between electronic news media publishing and Twitter activity around significant events such as Ebola. Healthcare organizations should take advantage of the relationship between electronic news media and trending events on social media sites such as Twitter and should work on developing social media campaigns in co-operation with leading electronic news media outlets (e.g. CNN, Yahoo, Reuters) that can have an influence on social media activity.

  16. 40 CFR 63.3555 - How do I determine the outlet THC emissions and add-on control device emission destruction or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true How do I determine the outlet THC.../outlet Concentration Option § 63.3555 How do I determine the outlet THC emissions and add-on control... section to determine either the outlet THC emissions or add-on control device emission destruction...

  17. 40 CFR 63.3555 - How do I determine the outlet THC emissions and add-on control device emission destruction or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How do I determine the outlet THC... Control Efficiency/outlet Concentration Option § 63.3555 How do I determine the outlet THC emissions and... methods in this section to determine either the outlet THC emissions or add-on control device...

  18. 40 CFR 63.3555 - How do I determine the outlet THC emissions and add-on control device emission destruction or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I determine the outlet THC... Control Efficiency/outlet Concentration Option § 63.3555 How do I determine the outlet THC emissions and... methods in this section to determine either the outlet THC emissions or add-on control device...

  19. 40 CFR 63.3555 - How do I determine the outlet THC emissions and add-on control device emission destruction or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I determine the outlet THC... Control Efficiency/outlet Concentration Option § 63.3555 How do I determine the outlet THC emissions and... methods in this section to determine either the outlet THC emissions or add-on control device...

  20. EFFECTS OF THE 1906 EARTHQUAKE ON THE BALD HILL OUTLET SYSTEM, SAN MATEO COUNTY, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pampeyan, Earl H.

    1986-01-01

    Following the earthquake of April 18, 1906, it was discovered that a brick forebay and other parts of the reservoir outlet system were in the slip zone of the San Andreas fault. The original outlet through which water was directed to San Francisco consisted of two tunnels joined at the brick forebay; one tunnel extends 2,820 ft to the east under Bald Hill on Buri Buri Ridge, and the other tunnel intersects the lake bottom about 250 ft west of the forebay. In 1897 a second intake was added to the system, also joining the original forebay. During the present study the accessible parts of this original outlet system were examined with the hope of learning how the system had been affected by fault slip in 1906.

  1. Parallel segmented outlet flow high performance liquid chromatography with multiplexed detection.

    PubMed

    Camenzuli, Michelle; Terry, Jessica M; Shalliker, R Andrew; Conlan, Xavier A; Barnett, Neil W; Francis, Paul S

    2013-11-25

    We describe a new approach to multiplex detection for HPLC, exploiting parallel segmented outlet flow - a new column technology that provides pressure-regulated control of eluate flow through multiple outlet channels, which minimises the additional dead volume associated with conventional post-column flow splitting. Using three detectors: one UV-absorbance and two chemiluminescence systems (tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(III) and permanganate), we examine the relative responses for six opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) alkaloids under conventional and multiplexed conditions, where approximately 30% of the eluate was distributed to each detector and the remaining solution directed to a collection vessel. The parallel segmented outlet flow mode of operation offers advantages in terms of solvent consumption, waste generation, total analysis time and solute band volume when applying multiple detectors to HPLC, but the manner in which each detection system is influenced by changes in solute concentration and solution flow rates must be carefully considered.

  2. Faecal pollution of ocean swimming pools and stormwater outlets in eastern Sydney.

    PubMed

    Butler, T; Ferson, M J

    1997-10-01

    We determined the levels of faecal contamination over a three-year period from 1991 to 1993 at selected ocean swimming pools and stormwater outlets to assess whether these levels represented a threat to public health. Three popular ocean swimming pools and three nearby stormwater outlets located in Sydney's eastern suburbs were included in the analysis. The ocean swimming pools consistently had elevated levels of faecal coliform bacteria; the highest microbe levels were observed in a pool used largely by children. Faecal coliform bacteria counts in the ocean pools at times reach levels likely to be associated with illness in bathers. Stormwater outlets at three locations had reducing counts over the three-year period. An improved system of sampling, testing and risk communication appears to be needed to reduce potential health risks to users of these popular ocean pools.

  3. Thoracic outlet syndrome--a myofascial variant: Part 3. Structural and postural considerations.

    PubMed

    Sucher, B M; Heath, D M

    1993-03-01

    Thoracic outlet syndrome involves more than just local neurovascular compression. Myofascial release treatments and stretching exercises may be only partially or temporarily successful unless all related components of somatic dysfunction, including craniosacral mechanisms, are addressed. Structural and postural abnormalities in the frontal plane, as with a short leg, and in the sagittal plane, such as lumbopelvic imbalances, as well as neural involvement all contribute to thoracic outlet syndrome symptoms. Once segmental restrictions are treated and symptoms diminish, postural correction and strengthening exercises may be initiated. Osteopathic diagnosis and treatment of the local, regional, and remote structural problems is necessary for optimal treatment of thoracic outlet syndrome and the maintenance of a symptom-free status.

  4. Hybrid management of Paget-Schroetter syndrome due to thoracic outlet syndrome.

    PubMed

    De Caridi, Giovanni; Massara, Mafalda; Greco, Michele; Villari, Simona; Squillaci, Domenico; Spinelli, Francesco

    2016-02-01

    Paget-Schroetter syndrome due to thoracic outlet syndrome is a rare but potentially disabling condition that generally affects young patients otherwise healthy. The prompt diagnosis and treatment of Paget-Schroetter syndrome is necessary to avoid major morbidity and long-term disability. The more modern treatment paradigm reported in the current literature consists of hybrid procedures with surgical decompression of the thoracic outlet and endovascular techniques to potentially improve long-term vein patency. However, there seems to be no consensus in the literature with regard to the timing and precise nature of active management, and there is presently no agreed protocol for the optimum management of Paget-Schroetter syndrome. Controversy exists partly because no randomised controlled studies are present in literature. We present a case of Paget-Schroetter syndrome due to thoracic outlet syndrome in a young male patient submitted to a multimodal procedure.

  5. Catchment power and the joint distribution of elevation and travel distance to the outlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sklar, Leonard S.; Riebe, Clifford S.; Lukens, Claire E.; Bellugi, Dino

    2016-10-01

    The delivery of water, sediment, and solutes by catchments is influenced by the distribution of source elevations and their travel distances to the outlet. For example, elevation affects the magnitude and phase of precipitation, as well as the climatic factors that govern rock weathering, which influence the production rate and initial particle size of sediments. Travel distance, in turn, affects the timing of flood peaks at the outlet and the degree of sediment size reduction by wear, which affects particle size distributions at the outlet. The distributions of elevation and travel distance have been studied extensively but separately, as the hypsometric curve and width function. Yet a catchment can be considered as a collection of points, each with paired values of elevation and travel distance. For every point, the ratio of elevation to travel distance defines the mean slope for transport of mass to the outlet. Recognizing that mean slope is proportional to the average rate of loss of potential energy by water and sediment during transport to the outlet, we use the joint distribution of elevation and travel distance to define two new metrics for catchment geometry: "source-area power", and the corresponding catchment-wide integral "catchment power". We explore patterns in source-area and catchment power across three study catchments spanning a range of relief and drainage area. We then develop an empirical algorithm for generating synthetic source-area power distributions, which can be parameterized with data from natural catchments. This new way of quantifying the three-dimensional geometry of catchments can be used to explore the effects of topography on the distribution on fluxes of water, sediment, isotopes, and other landscape products passing through catchment outlets, and may provide a fresh perspective on problems of both practical and theoretical interest.

  6. The roles of outlet density and norms in alcohol use disorder*

    PubMed Central

    Ahern, Jennifer; Balzer, Laura; Galea, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol outlet density and norms shape alcohol consumption. However, due to analytic challenges we do not know: (a) if alcohol outlet density and norms also shape alcohol use disorder, and (b) whether they act in combination to shape disorder. Methods We applied a new targeted minimum loss-based estimator for rare outcomes (rTMLE) to a general population sample from New York City (n=4000) to examine the separate and combined relations of neighborhood alcohol outlet density and norms around drunkenness with alcohol use disorder. Alcohol use disorder was assessed using the World Mental Health Comprehensive International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI) alcohol module. Confounders included demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, as well as history of drinking prior to residence in the current neighborhood. Results Alcohol use disorder prevalence was 1.78%. We found a marginal risk difference for alcohol outlet density of 0.88% (95% CI 0.00%–1.77%), and for norms of 2.05% (95% CI 0.89%–3.21%), adjusted for confounders. While each exposure had a substantial relation with alcohol use disorder, there was no evidence of additive interaction between the exposures. Conclusions Results indicate that the neighborhood environment shapes alcohol use disorder. Despite the lack of additive interaction, each exposure had a substantial relation with alcohol use disorder and our findings suggest that alteration of outlet density and norms together would likely be more effective than either one alone. Important next steps include development and testing of multi-component intervention approaches aiming to modify alcohol outlet density and norms towards reducing alcohol use disorder. PMID:25858787

  7. Contamination of faecal coliforms in ice cubes sampled from food outlets in Kubang Kerian, Kelantan.

    PubMed

    Noor Izani, N J; Zulaikha, A R; Mohamad Noor, M R; Amri, M A; Mahat, N A

    2012-03-01

    The use of ice cubes in beverages is common among patrons of food outlets in Malaysia although its safety for human consumption remains unclear. Hence, this study was designed to determine the presence of faecal coliforms and several useful water physicochemical parameters viz. free residual chlorine concentration, turbidity and pH in ice cubes from 30 randomly selected food outlets in Kubang Kerian, Kelantan. Faecal coliforms were found in ice cubes in 16 (53%) food outlets ranging between 1 CFU/100mL to >50 CFU/ 100mL, while in the remaining 14 (47%) food outlets, in samples of tap water as well as in commercially bottled drinking water, faecal coliforms were not detected. The highest faecal coliform counts of >50 CFU/100mL were observed in 3 (10%) food outlets followed by 11-50 CFU/100mL and 1-10 CFU/100mL in 7 (23%) and 6 (20%) food outlets, respectively. All samples recorded low free residual chlorine concentration (<0.10mg/L) with the pH ranging between 5.5 and 7.3 and turbidity between 0.14-1.76 NTU. Since contamination by faecal coliforms was not detected in 47% of the samples, tap water and commercially bottled drinking water, it was concluded that (1) contamination by faecal coliforms may occur due to improper handling of ice cubes at the food outlets or (2) they may not be the water sources used for making ice cubes. Since low free residual chlorine concentrations were observed (<0.10mg/ L) in all samples as well as in both tap water and commercially bottled drinking water, with the pH ranged between 5.5-7.3, ineffective disinfection of water source as a contributing factor to such high counts of faecal coliforms in ice cubes also could not be ruled out. Therefore, a periodical, yet comprehensive check on the food outlets, including that of ice cube is crucial in ensuring better food and water for human consumption.

  8. Alcohol outlet density and related use in an urban Black population in Philadelphia public housing communities

    PubMed Central

    Cederbaum, Julie A.; Petering, Robin; Hutchinson, M. Katherine; He, Amy S.; Wilson, John P.; Jemmott, John B.; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent alcohol use behaviors are influenced by familial patterns and neighborhood factors. This work explored the influence of individual, family, and environment on alcohol use. Baseline data from a randomized controlled trial with Black mothers son dyads (n=382) were paired with census tract and alcohol control board data. Among mothers, younger age, along with neighborhood factors of alcohol outlet density, race, and education were significantly associated with use. Among sons, older age and alcohol outlet density in the neighborhood predicted use. Findings highlight neighborhood influence, beyond family qualities, as a significant determinant of disadvantaged Black mothers’ alcohol use. Implications for public health policy are discussed. PMID:25463915

  9. Collective efficacy, alcohol outlet density, and young men's alcohol use in rural South Africa.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Hannah H; Ahern, Jennifer; Pettifor, Audrey E; Twine, Rhian; Kahn, Kathleen; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier; Lippman, Sheri A

    2015-07-01

    Alcohol use contributes to morbidity and mortality in developing countries by increasing the risk of trauma and disease, including alcohol dependence. Limited research addresses determinants of alcohol use beyond the individual level in sub-Saharan Africa. We test the association of community collective efficacy and alcohol outlet density with young men's drinking in a cross-sectional, locally representative survey conducted in rural northeast South Africa. Informal social control and cohesion show protective associations with men's heavy drinking, while alcohol outlet density is associated with more potential problem drinking. These findings provide initial support for intervening at the community level to promote alcohol reduction.

  10. On enzymatic pH oscillations in CSTR with outlet regulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmori, Takao; Yu, Weifang; Yamamoto, Takuji; Endo, Akira; Nakaiwa, Masaru; Amemiya, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Tomohiko

    2005-05-01

    The possibility of enzymatic pH oscillations is investigated for a CSTR with an outlet regulator. A linear stability analysis shows that no oscillation is possible in a CSTR without the regulator, using a proton-producing pH-dependent enzymatic reaction. However, self-sustained oscillations are found to occur in a CSTR, where the discharge of substrate is regulated at the outlet. The regions of oscillations in the parameter space are determined using a hydrolysis of N-α-benzoyl- L-arginine ethyl ester with papain. It is found that the region is quite large only when the substrate concentration in the outflow is kept at zero.

  11. Successful surgical palliation of a triple-outlet right ventricle: a rare congenital cardiac malformation.

    PubMed

    Traa, Beatrix S; Alfieris, George M; Wittlieb-Weber, Carol A

    2016-02-01

    Most commonly, hearts have either a single arterial trunk or two arterial trunks; however, rare reports exist of a "tritruncal" heart, a heart with three outflow tracts. Here, we present one of the first reports of successful surgical palliation of a triple-outlet right ventricle.

  12. 24 CFR 3280.813 - Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-conditioning equipment, etc. 3280.813 Section 3280.813 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... Electrical Systems § 3280.813 Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc. (a) Outdoor.../or air conditioning equipment located outside the manufactured home, shall have permanently...

  13. Biomass bale stack and field outlet locations assessment for efficient infield logistics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harvested hay or biomass are traditionally baled for better handling and they are transported to the outlet for final utilization. For better management of bale logistics, producers often aggregate bales into stacks so that bale-hauling equipment can haul multiple bales for improved efficiency. Obje...

  14. 5 CFR 591.217 - In which outlets does OPM collect prices?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false In which outlets does OPM collect prices? 591.217 Section 591.217 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Cost-of-Living Allowance and Post Differential-Nonforeign Areas...

  15. 5 CFR 591.217 - In which outlets does OPM collect prices?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false In which outlets does OPM collect prices? 591.217 Section 591.217 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Cost-of-Living Allowance and Post Differential-Nonforeign Areas...

  16. 7 CFR 981.467 - Disposition in reserve outlets by handlers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations § 981.467 Disposition in reserve outlets... agent of the Board pursuant to § 981.67 for the purpose of disposing of reserve almonds of such crop... reserve obligation derived by applying the reserve percentage to the quanity of almonds received by...

  17. 7 CFR 981.467 - Disposition in reserve outlets by handlers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations § 981.467 Disposition in reserve outlets... agent of the Board pursuant to § 981.67 for the purpose of disposing of reserve almonds of such crop... reserve obligation derived by applying the reserve percentage to the quanity of almonds received by...

  18. 7 CFR 981.467 - Disposition in reserve outlets by handlers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations § 981.467 Disposition in reserve outlets... agent of the Board pursuant to § 981.67 for the purpose of disposing of reserve almonds of such crop... reserve obligation derived by applying the reserve percentage to the quanity of almonds received by...

  19. Outlet glacier response to the 2012 collapse of the Matusevich Ice Shelf, Severnaya Zemlya, Russian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, Michael J.; Melkonian, Andrew K.; Pritchard, Matthew E.

    2015-10-01

    The Matusevich Ice Shelf (MIS), located within the Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago in the Russian Arctic, rapidly broke apart between 10 August and 7 September 2012. We examine the response of the outlet glaciers that fed the MIS from local ice caps to the removal of the ice shelf. We use spaceborne laser altimetry and multiple optically derived digital elevation models to track ice surface elevation change rates (dh/dt) between 1984 and 2014. Glacier speeds are measured by pixel-tracking from optical and RADAR imagery between 2010 and 2014 and interferometric synthetic aperture radar in 1995 to compare precollapse and postcollapse velocities. We find that the three main outlet glaciers that fed the MIS are thinning an order of magnitude more rapidly than most of the rest of Severnaya Zemyla, based upon ICESat data from 2003 to 2009. Recent, 2012 to 2014 thinning rates are three to four times faster than the 30 year average thinning rate, calculated between 1984 and 2014. The springtime speeds of the largest outlet glacier (Issledovateley) have increased more than 200% at the terminus between April 2010 and April 2014. To date, changes in surface elevation (dh/dt) and velocity at the outlet glaciers near MIS are smaller than glacier responses to ice shelf collapse in Antarctica. It is possible that the MIS was already very weak prior to the 2012 collapse and unable to support back stress. Further observations are required to assess whether the thinning and nonmelt season glacier speeds are continuing to accelerate.

  20. Validation of 3 food outlet databases: completeness and geospatial accuracy in rural and urban food environments.

    PubMed

    Liese, Angela D; Colabianchi, Natalie; Lamichhane, Archana P; Barnes, Timothy L; Hibbert, James D; Porter, Dwayne E; Nichols, Michele D; Lawson, Andrew B

    2010-12-01

    Despite interest in the built food environment, little is known about the validity of commonly used secondary data. The authors conducted a comprehensive field census identifying the locations of all food outlets using a handheld global positioning system in 8 counties in South Carolina (2008-2009). Secondary data were obtained from 2 commercial companies, Dun & Bradstreet, Inc. (D&B) (Short Hills, New Jersey) and InfoUSA, Inc. (Omaha, Nebraska), and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (DHEC). Sensitivity, positive predictive value, and geospatial accuracy were compared. The field census identified 2,208 food outlets, significantly more than the DHEC (n = 1,694), InfoUSA (n = 1,657), or D&B (n = 1,573). Sensitivities were moderate for DHEC (68%) and InfoUSA (65%) and fair for D&B (55%). Combining InfoUSA and D&B data would have increased sensitivity to 78%. Positive predictive values were very good for DHEC (89%) and InfoUSA (86%) and good for D&B (78%). Geospatial accuracy varied, depending on the scale: More than 80% of outlets were geocoded to the correct US Census tract, but only 29%-39% were correctly allocated within 100 m. This study suggests that the validity of common data sources used to characterize the food environment is limited. The marked undercount of food outlets and the geospatial inaccuracies observed have the potential to introduce bias into studies evaluating the impact of the built food environment.

  1. Hydraulic response and nitrogen retention in bioretention mesocosms with regulated outlets: part II--nitrogen retention.

    PubMed

    Lucas, William C; Greenway, Margaret

    2011-08-01

    We observed dissolved nitrogen retention in vegetated bioretention mesocosms using different media with varying hydraulic conductivities. Elevated outlets were installed to regulate hydraulic response, with one treatment left free draining. The treatments (three replicates each) were loaded weekly with 50 cm of effluent averaging 2.47 mg/L nitrogen oxides (NOx) and 4.67 mg/L total nitrogen for 1 year. The NOx and total nitrogen retention by the outlet regulated treatments was significantly greater than the unregulated treatment. The systems then were dosed 6 times with 53 cm of synthetic stormwater averaging 0.77 mg/ L NOx and 1.46 mg/L total nitrogen, applied over 90 minutes. The outlet regulated treatment retained 68% NOx and 60% total nitrogen, while the corresponding free draining treatment retained 25% NOx and 27% total nitrogen. Over the following winter, the outlet regulated treatment retained 50% NOx and 73% total nitrogen, while the corresponding free draining treatment exported 17% more NOx, while retaining 50% total nitrogen.

  2. 24 CFR 3280.813 - Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS... the home or located under roof extensions or similarly protected locations, they may be listed for use in damp locations. (b) A manufactured home provided with an outlet designed to energize heating...

  3. The Quiet Plug Crisis: A Digital Generation Scours the Library for Electrical Outlets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Thirty years ago, the only person in a library looking for an electrical outlet was a blue-smocked cleaning person who had to plug in a vacuum cleaner with a very long cord. Now, hordes of patrons outfitted with amp-devouring laptops and cell phones expect and need the library to offer an endless supply of electricity. The overall demand for…

  4. A rare presentation of breast cancer: near obstructing rectal mass and gastric outlet obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Rachel; Mathews, Winn; Scarcliff, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer metastasizes to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are exceedingly rare. The low incidence and vague presentation of GI metastasizes often cause delay in diagnosis and treatment. Here, we present a case of metastatic breast cancer causing gastric outlet obstruction and rectal obstruction. PMID:27672104

  5. Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Air Inlet and Outlet Openings on a Streamline Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, John V

    1951-01-01

    In connection with the general problem of providing air flow to an aircraft power plant located within a fuselage, an investigation was conducted in the Langley 8-foot high-speed tunnel to determine the effect on external drag and pressure distribution of air inlet openings located at the nose of a streamline body. Air outlet openings located at the tail and at the 21-percent and 63-percent stations of the body were also investigated. Boundary layer transition measurements were made and correlated with the force and the pressure data. Individual openings were investigated with the aid of a blower and then practicable combinations of inlet and outlet openings were tested. Various modifications to the internal duct shape near the inlet opening and the aerodynamic effects of a simulated gun in the duct were also studied. The results of the tests suggested that outlet openings should be designed so that the static pressure of the internal flow at the outlet would be the same as the static pressure of the external flow in the vicinity of the opening.

  6. Understanding and Modelling Rapid Dynamic Changes of Tidewater Outlet Glaciers: Issues and Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieli, Andreas; Nick, Faezeh M.

    2011-09-01

    Recent dramatic acceleration, thinning and retreat of tidewater outlet glaciers in Greenland raises concern regarding their contribution to future sea-level rise. These dynamic changes seem to be parallel to oceanic and climatic warming but the linking mechanisms and forcings are poorly understood and, furthermore, large-scale ice sheet models are currently unable to realistically simulate such changes which provides a major limitation in our ability to predict dynamic mass losses. In this paper we apply a specifically designed numerical flowband model to Jakobshavn Isbrae (JIB), a major marine outlet glacier of the Greenland ice sheet, and we explore and discuss the basic concepts and emerging issues in our understanding and modelling ability of the dynamics of tidewater outlet glaciers. The modelling demonstrates that enhanced ocean melt is able to trigger the observed dynamic changes of JIB but it heavily relies on the feedback between calving and terminus retreat and therefore the loss of buttressing. Through the same feedback, other forcings such as reduced winter sea-ice duration can produce similar rapid retreat. This highlights the need for a robust representation of the calving process and for improvements in the understanding and implementation of forcings at the marine boundary in predictive ice sheet models. Furthermore, the modelling uncovers high sensitivity and rapid adjustment of marine outlet glaciers to perturbations at their marine boundary implying that care should be taken in interpreting or extrapolating such rapid dynamic changes as recently observed in Greenland.

  7. The density of alcohol outlets and adolescent alcohol consumption: An Australian longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Rowland, B; Evans-Whipp, Tracy; Hemphill, Sheryl; Leung, Rachel; Livingston, M; Toumbourou, J W

    2016-01-01

    Higher density of alcohol outlets has been linked to increased levels of adolescent alcohol-related behaviour. Research to date has been cross-sectional. A longitudinal design using two waves of annual survey data from the Australian arm of the International Youth Development Study was used. The sample comprised 2835 individuals with average age at wave 2 of 14 years (SD=1.67; range=11-17 years). GSEM was used to examine how absolute levels of alcohol outlet density was associated with student-reported alcohol use one year later, while controlling for prior alcohol use, risk factors at wave one and changes in density over the 2 years. Adolescents' perception of alcohol availability and friends' alcohol use were tested as potential mediators of the association between alcohol outlet density and adolescent alcohol use. Elasticity modelling identified a 10% increase in overall density at wave one was associated with an approximately 17% increase in odds of adolescent alcohol consumption at wave two. Living in areas with a higher density of outlets was associated with a statistically significant increase in the likelihood of adolescents developing early age alcohol consumption.

  8. The concept of double inlet-double outlet right ventricle: a distinct congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Spadotto, Veronica; Frescura, Carla; Ho, Siew Yen; Thiene, Gaetano

    The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and to analyze the anatomy of double inlet-double outlet right ventricle complex and its associated cardiac anomalies in our autopsy series. Among the 1640 hearts with congenital heart disease of our Anatomical Collection, we reviewed the specimens with double inlet-double outlet right ventricle, according to the sequential-segmental analysis, identifying associated cardiac anomalies and examining lung histology to assess the presence of pulmonary vascular disease. We identified 14 hearts with double inlet-double outlet right ventricle (0.85%). Right atrial isomerism was observed in 10 hearts, situs solitus in 3 and left atrial isomerism in one. Regarding the mode of atrioventricular connection, all hearts but one had a common atrioventricular valve. Systemic or pulmonary venous abnormalities were noted in all patients with atrial isomerism. In nine patients a valvular or subvalvular pulmonary stenosis was present. Among the functionally "univentricular hearts", double inlet- double outlet right ventricle represents a peculiar entity, mostly in association with right atrial isomerism. Multiple cardiac anomalies are associated and may complicate surgical repair.

  9. MTR, TRA603. SUBBASEMENT FLOOR PLAN. INLET/OUTLET TUNNELS FOR COOLANT WATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR, TRA-603. SUB-BASEMENT FLOOR PLAN. INLET/OUTLET TUNNELS FOR COOLANT WATER (NORTH SIDE) AND AIR (SOUTH SIDE). RABBIT CANAL AND BULKHEADS. SUMPS AND DRAINS. BLAW-KNOX 3150-3-7, 3/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-00-098-100006, REV. 4. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. Ensemble simulations of Greenland outlet glaciers into the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrette, Mahé; Beckmann, Johanna; Alexander, David; Calov, Reinhard; Ganopolski, Andrey

    2015-04-01

    Greenland ice sheet contribution to sea level rise can be partitioned between increased surface melting and enhanced dynamic discharge in the ocean, via its outlet glaciers. Marine-terminating, outlet glaciers are challenging to include in conventional Greenland-wide ice sheet models because of the large variation in scale between model grid size (typically 10 km) and outlet glacier width (typically 1-5km), making it a subgrid scale feature. A possible approach to tackle this problem is to use one-dimensional flowline models for the individual glaciers (e.g. Nick et al., 2013, Nature), as used in the IPCCAR5, but data are scarce and results are sensitive to model formulation (Enderlin et al 2013a,b, The Cryosphere). Here, we perform an extensive uncertainty analysis of projections into the 21st century with a flowline model by generating an ensemble of simulations for some of the largest Greenland outlet glaciers. Geometry, boundary conditions and forcing are systematically varied within the range of observational uncertainty and to reflect our physical understanding of processes, while remaining consistent with present-day geometry and observed changes. Dominant sources of uncertainty are analyzed and compared between the glaciers.

  11. ETRCF, TRA654, INTERIOR. TEST VESSEL INSIDE PIT. INLET OR OUTLET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR-CF, TRA-654, INTERIOR. TEST VESSEL INSIDE PIT. INLET OR OUTLET AT SIDE OF VESSEL. EQUIPMENT IS IN MIDST OF DISMANTLEMENT. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD24-2-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, ca. 2003 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. LPT. EBOR (TAN646) reactor vessel, flow distribution tank. Outlet nozzle ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LPT. EBOR (TAN-646) reactor vessel, flow distribution tank. Outlet nozzle on side of vessel will be connected to coolant duct. Photographer: Lowin. Date: January 20, 1965. INEEL negative no. 65-237 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. Change in alcohol outlet density and alcohol-related harm to population health (CHALICE)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Excess alcohol consumption has serious adverse effects on health and violence-related harm. In the UK around 37% of men and 29% of women drink to excess and 20% and 13% report binge drinking. The potential impact on population health from a reduction in consumption is considerable. One proposed method to reduce consumption is to reduce availability through controls on alcohol outlet density. In this study we investigate the impact of a change in the density of alcohol outlets on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms to health in the community. Methods/Design A natural experiment of the effect of change in outlet density between 2005–09, in Wales, UK; population 2.4 million aged 16 years and over. Data on outlets are held by the 22 local authorities in Wales under The Licensing Act 2003. The study outcomes are change in (1) alcohol consumption using data from annual Welsh Health Surveys, (2) alcohol-related hospital admissions using the Patient Episode Database for Wales, (3) Accident & Emergency department attendances between midnight–6am, and (4) alcohol-related violent crime against the person, using Police data. The data will be anonymously record-linked within the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage Databank at individual and 2001 Census Lower Super Output Area levels. New methods of network analysis will be used to estimate outlet density. Longitudinal statistical analysis will use (1) multilevel ordinal models of consumption and logistic models of admissions and Accident & Emergency attendance as a function of change in individual outlet exposure, adjusting for confounding variables, and (2) spatial models of the change in counts/rates of each outcome measure and outlet density. We will assess the impact on health inequalities and will correct for population migration. Discussion This inter-disciplinary study requires expertise in epidemiology and public health, health informatics, medical statistics, geographical information science

  14. Effect of blade outlet angle on radial thrust of single-blade centrifugal pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishi, Y.; Fukutomi, J.; Fujiwara, R.

    2012-11-01

    Single-blade centrifugal pumps are widely used as sewage pumps. However, a large radial thrust acts on a single blade during pump operation because of the geometrical axial asymmetry of the impeller. This radial thrust causes vibrations of the pump shaft, reducing the service life of bearings and shaft seal devices. Therefore, to ensure pump reliability, it is necessary to quantitatively understand the radial thrust and clarify the behavior and generation mechanism. This study investigated the radial thrust acting on two kinds of single-blade centrifugal impellers having different blade outlet angles by experiments and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. Furthermore, the radial thrust was modeled by a combination of three components, inertia, momentum, and pressure, by applying an unsteady conservation of momentum to this impeller. As a result, the effects of the blade outlet angle on both the radial thrust and the modeled components were clarified. The total head of the impeller with a blade outlet angle of 16 degrees increases more than the impeller with a blade outlet angle of 8 degrees at a large flow rate. In this case, since the static pressure of the circumference of the impeller increases uniformly, the time-averaged value of the radial thrust of both impellers does not change at every flow rate. On the other hand, since the impeller blade loading becomes large, the fluctuation component of the radial thrust of the impeller with the blade outlet angle of 16 degrees increases. If the blade outlet angle increases, the fluctuation component of the inertia component will increase, but the time-averaged value of the inertia component is located near the origin despite changes in the flow rate. The fluctuation component of the momentum component becomes large at all flow rates. Furthermore, although the time-averaged value of the pressure component is almost constant, the fluctuation component of the pressure component becomes large at a large flow rate

  15. Future sea-level rise from Greenland's main outlet glaciers in a warming climate.

    PubMed

    Nick, Faezeh M; Vieli, Andreas; Andersen, Morten Langer; Joughin, Ian; Payne, Antony; Edwards, Tamsin L; Pattyn, Frank; van de Wal, Roderik S W

    2013-05-09

    Over the past decade, ice loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet increased as a result of both increased surface melting and ice discharge to the ocean. The latter is controlled by the acceleration of ice flow and subsequent thinning of fast-flowing marine-terminating outlet glaciers. Quantifying the future dynamic contribution of such glaciers to sea-level rise (SLR) remains a major challenge because outlet glacier dynamics are poorly understood. Here we present a glacier flow model that includes a fully dynamic treatment of marine termini. We use this model to simulate behaviour of four major marine-terminating outlet glaciers, which collectively drain about 22 per cent of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Using atmospheric and oceanic forcing from a mid-range future warming scenario that predicts warming by 2.8 degrees Celsius by 2100, we project a contribution of 19 to 30 millimetres to SLR from these glaciers by 2200. This contribution is largely (80 per cent) dynamic in origin and is caused by several episodic retreats past overdeepenings in outlet glacier troughs. After initial increases, however, dynamic losses from these four outlets remain relatively constant and contribute to SLR individually at rates of about 0.01 to 0.06 millimetres per year. These rates correspond to ice fluxes that are less than twice those of the late 1990s, well below previous upper bounds. For a more extreme future warming scenario (warming by 4.5 degrees Celsius by 2100), the projected losses increase by more than 50 per cent, producing a cumulative SLR of 29 to 49 millimetres by 2200.

  16. Response of Different Antarctic Outlet Glacier Types to Perturbations at Their Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weitz, N. A.; Stearns, L. A.; van der Veen, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Ice sheets are primarily drained by outlet glaciers and ice streams that transport mass from the inland to the ocean. Determining mass loss from the ice sheets is particularly important for calculating future sea level rise. Currently, dynamic ice loss is not included in the prediction of future sea levels, due to the uncertain response of outlet glaciers to climatic perturbations. It is therefore crucial to understand how different types of glaciers respond to changes at their boundaries.Outlet glaciers can be categorized based on their geometry and the mechanisms that drive fast flow. Ice streams are wide with a small surface slope, flow fast despite low driving stress and have little basal drag. Isbrae on the other hand are narrow with a steep surface slope and large driving stress. Between these two end members fall a variety of mixed-type glaciers.We investigate the response of different types of Antarctic outlet glaciers to perturbation scenarios with a flow line model. The effect of reduction in basal drag due to increased sliding, changes in surface accumulation, an increase in submarine melting around the grounding zone, a lower back force at the terminus, and a decrease in lateral drag on glacier stability are explored. Preliminary results indicate that a short-term increase in basal sliding (e.g. from lake discharge events), or increased surface accumulation rates have little impact on the ice flow and the glacier's stability, whereas ice shelf thinning or a reduction in back force result in an immediate response of the outlet glacier. In these cases, a new stable position with an increased but constant ice discharge is obtained soon.

  17. Relationships among Alcohol Outlet Density, Alcohol Use, and Intimate Partner Violence Victimization among Young Women in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Martha W.; Iritani, Bonita J.; Christ, Sharon L.; Clark, Heddy Kovach; Moracco, Kathryn E.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Flewelling, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Greater access to alcohol has been widely found to be associated with many negative outcomes including violence perpetration. This study examines the relationship between alcohol outlet density, alcohol use, and intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization among young women in the United States. A direct association between alcohol outlet density…

  18. Influence of outlet channel width to the flow velocity and pressure of a flow focusing microfluidic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fhong Soon, Chin; Hiung Yin, Yap; Sek Tee, Kian; Khairul Ahmad, Mohd; Zainizan Sahdan, Mohd; Nayan, Nafarizal

    2016-11-01

    Microencapsulation using flow focusing microfluidic devices attract great interest because of the simple fabrication technique using polymeric material. Simulation of the microfluidic device provides the advantage of reducing the waste of material before actual implementation of the fabrication. This paper reports the design of a flow focusing microfluidic device based on emulsification of two immiscible fluids. The system was build and simulated in COMSOL Multiphysics software by varying the outlet width in examining the effects of the flow and pressure at the outlet. The simulation results reveal that both the flow rate and the pressure decreased dramatically when the ratio of outlet channel to inlet channel (R) is greater than 2. The width of the outlet is critical in ensuring the flow of microcapsules without accumulation of microcapsules at the output pool due to the poor flow rate at the outlet channel and avoidance of leakage problem. The recommended R to achieve the objective of microencapsulation is between 2 and 4.

  19. ALCOHOL OUTLET DENSITY AND INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE-RELATED EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT VISITS

    PubMed Central

    Cunradi, Carol B.; Mair, Christina; Ponicki, William; Remer, Lillian

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous research has identified risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) severity, injury, and Emergency Department (ED) visits. These risk factors have been shown at both the individual level (heavy drinking and other substance use on the part of one or both partners) and the neighborhood level (residence in an area characterized by poverty and social disadvantage). Alcohol outlet density has been linked with assaultive violence in community settings, but has not been analyzed in relation to IPV-related ED visits. This study examined the effects of outlet densities on IPV-related ED visits throughout California between July 2005 and December 2008. Methods Half-yearly counts of ED visits related to IPV (E-code 967.3) were computed for each zip code from patient-level public datasets. Alcohol outlet density measures, calculated separately for bars, off-premise outlets, and restaurants, were derived from California Alcohol Beverage Control records. Census-based neighborhood demographic characteristics previously shown to be related to health disparities and IPV (percent Black, percent Hispanic, percent below 150% of poverty line, percent unemployed) were included in models. This study used Bayesian space-time models that allow longitudinal analysis at the zip code level despite frequent boundary redefinitions. These spatial misalignment models control for spatial variation in geographic unit definitions over time and account for spatial autocorrelation using conditional autoregressive (CAR) priors. The model incorporated data from between 1,686 (2005) and 1,693 (2008) zip codes across California for 7 half-year time periods from 2005 through 2008 (n = 11,836). Results Density of bars was positively associated with IPV-related ED visits. Density of off-premise outlets was negatively associated with IPV-related ED visits; this association was weaker and smaller than the bar association. There was no association between density of restaurants and IPV

  20. Rapid Holocene thinning of an East Antarctic outlet glacier driven by marine ice sheet instability

    PubMed Central

    Jones, R. S.; Mackintosh, A. N.; Norton, K. P.; Golledge, N. R.; Fogwill, C. J.; Kubik, P. W.; Christl, M.; Greenwood, S. L.

    2015-01-01

    Outlet glaciers grounded on a bed that deepens inland and extends below sea level are potentially vulnerable to ‘marine ice sheet instability'. This instability, which may lead to runaway ice loss, has been simulated in models, but its consequences have not been directly observed in geological records. Here we provide new surface-exposure ages from an outlet of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet that reveal rapid glacier thinning occurred approximately 7,000 years ago, in the absence of large environmental changes. Glacier thinning persisted for more than two and a half centuries, resulting in hundreds of metres of ice loss. Numerical simulations indicate that ice surface drawdown accelerated when the otherwise steadily retreating glacier encountered a bedrock trough. Together, the geological reconstruction and numerical simulations suggest that centennial-scale glacier thinning arose from unstable grounding line retreat. Capturing these instability processes in ice sheet models is important for predicting Antarctica's future contribution to sea level change. PMID:26608558

  1. Rapid Holocene thinning of an East Antarctic outlet glacier driven by marine ice sheet instability.

    PubMed

    Jones, R S; Mackintosh, A N; Norton, K P; Golledge, N R; Fogwill, C J; Kubik, P W; Christl, M; Greenwood, S L

    2015-11-26

    Outlet glaciers grounded on a bed that deepens inland and extends below sea level are potentially vulnerable to 'marine ice sheet instability'. This instability, which may lead to runaway ice loss, has been simulated in models, but its consequences have not been directly observed in geological records. Here we provide new surface-exposure ages from an outlet of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet that reveal rapid glacier thinning occurred approximately 7,000 years ago, in the absence of large environmental changes. Glacier thinning persisted for more than two and a half centuries, resulting in hundreds of metres of ice loss. Numerical simulations indicate that ice surface drawdown accelerated when the otherwise steadily retreating glacier encountered a bedrock trough. Together, the geological reconstruction and numerical simulations suggest that centennial-scale glacier thinning arose from unstable grounding line retreat. Capturing these instability processes in ice sheet models is important for predicting Antarctica's future contribution to sea level change.

  2. [A case of true neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome accompanied by an aberrant right subclavian artery].

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Kenji; Saito, Takanori; Yokota, Ichiro; Kowa, Hisatomo; Kanda, Fumio; Toda, Tatsushi

    2015-01-01

    A 65-year-old woman experienced progressive intrinsic muscle wasting on the right hand over a period of 7 years. The distribution of muscular atrophy and weakness was consistent with the area innervated by the right C8 and Th1 nerve roots. Neurophysiological examination suggested a right lower trunk lesion. An elongated right transverse process of the C7 vertebra and an aberrant subclavian artery were detected on computed tomography images, and the right lower trunk of the brachial plexus appeared to be lifted upward on magnetic resonance images. The patient was diagnosed with true neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome. A fibrous band extending from the elongated transverse process was found during surgery, and symptoms did not progress further after resection of the band. True neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome can cause monomelic amyotrophy, and localized neuroimaging and detailed neurophysiological examination were useful for diagnosis.

  3. Neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome: current diagnostic criteria and advances in MRI diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Magill, Stephen T; Brus-Ramer, Marcel; Weinstein, Philip R; Chin, Cynthia T; Jacques, Line

    2015-09-01

    Neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (nTOS) is caused by compression of the brachial plexus as it traverses from the thoracic outlet to the axilla. Diagnosing nTOS can be difficult because of overlap with other complex pain and entrapment syndromes. An nTOS diagnosis is made based on patient history, physical exam, electrodiagnostic studies, and, more recently, interpretation of MR neurograms with tractography. Advances in high-resolution MRI and tractography can confirm an nTOS diagnosis and identify the location of nerve compression, allowing tailored surgical decompression. In this report, the authors review the current diagnostic criteria, present an update on advances in MRI, and provide case examples demonstrating how MR neurography (MRN) can aid in diagnosing nTOS. The authors conclude that improved high-resolution MRN and tractography are valuable tools for identifying the source of nerve compression in patients with nTOS and can augment current diagnostic modalities for this syndrome.

  4. Vascular thoracic outlet syndrome developed after minimally invasive repair of pectus excavatum.

    PubMed

    Kılıç, Burcu; Demirkaya, Ahmet; Turna, Akif; Kaynak, Kamil

    2013-09-01

    The Nuss procedure is a minimally invasive surgical repair technique for pectus excavatum with fewer delayed complications compared to open procedures. We report the case of a 22-year-old man with deep pectus excavatum who developed vascular thoracic outlet syndrome after the Nuss procedure. Further evaluation demonstrated that the first rib was causing severe obstruction of the right subclavian artery. The patient showed clinical features of subclavian artery compression. A first rib resection, division of the anterior scalene muscle and fibrous bands provided complete relief of the complaints. The forced structural and spatial changes produced by the elevation of the depressed upper chest might have caused this complication. Vascular thoracic outlet syndrome should be kept in mind as a possible complication in patients who have undergone minimally invasive repair of pectus excavatum, and this complication can be treated by first rib resection.

  5. Food outlet availability, deprivation and obesity in a multi-ethnic sample of pregnant women in Bradford, UK.

    PubMed

    Fraser, L K; Edwards, K L; Tominitz, M; Clarke, G P; Hill, A J

    2012-09-01

    The obesogenic environment model would suggest that increased availability or access to energy dense foods which are high in saturated fat may be related to obesity. The association between food outlet location, deprivation, weight status and ethnicity was analysed using individual level data on a sample of 1198 pregnant women in the UK Born in Bradford cohort using geographic information systems (GIS) methodology. In the non South Asian group 24% were obese as were 17% of the South Asian group (BMI > 30). Food outlet identification methods revealed 886 outlets that were allocated into 5 categories of food shops. More than 95% of all participants lived within 500 m of a fast food outlet. Women in higher areas of deprivation had greater access to fast food outlets and to other forms of food shops. Contrary to hypotheses, there was a negative association between BMI and fast food outlet density in close (250 m) proximity in the South Asian group. Overall, these women had greater access to all food stores including fast food outlets compared to the non South Asian group. The stronger association between area level deprivation and fast food density than with area level deprivation and obesity argues for more detailed accounts of the obesogenic environment that include measures of individual behaviour.

  6. Farm-to-Consumer Retail Outlet Use, Fruit and Vegetable Intake, and Obesity Status among WIC Program Participants in Alabama

    PubMed Central

    Singleton, Chelsea R.; Baskin, Monica; Levitan, Emily B.; Sen, Bisakha; Affuso, Ermanno; Affuso, Olivia

    2017-01-01

    Objectives We studied whether use of farm-to-consumer (FTC) retail outlets (eg, farmers market, farm/roadside stand) was associated with daily fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake or obesity status among women who participate in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) in Birmingham, AL. Methods We used a cross-sectional study design and recruited a convenience sample of 312 women (mean age = 27.6; 67.0% non-Hispanic black; 45.6% obese) participating in Birmingham’s WIC Program. Participants were recruited between October 2014 and January 2015. Participants who self-reported purchasing produce from a FTC outlet during the 2014 farmers’ market season were classified as FTC outlet users. Multivariable-adjusted regression models were used to examine associations between FTC outlet use, daily F&V intake, and obesity status (ie, body mass index ≥ 30). Results Approximately 26.1% of participants were classified as FTC outlet users. After adjusting for socio-demographic factors and WIC Cash Value Voucher redemption, FTC outlet use was associated with increased odds of consuming ≥ 5 servings of F&Vs per day (OR: 2.01; 95%: 1.15 – 3.50), but not obesity status (OR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.39 – 1.20). Conclusions FTC retail outlet use was associated with F&V intake among program participants but not obesity status. PMID:27338991

  7. Considerations of blood properties, outlet boundary conditions and energy loss approaches in computational fluid dynamics modeling.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji Young; Suh, Dae Chul; Lee, Yong Sang; Kim, Young Woo; Lee, Joon Sang

    2014-02-01

    Despite recent development of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) research, analysis of computational fluid dynamics of cerebral vessels has several limitations. Although blood is a non-Newtonian fluid, velocity and pressure fields were computed under the assumptions of incompressible, laminar, steady-state flows and Newtonian fluid dynamics. The pulsatile nature of blood flow is not properly applied in inlet and outlet boundaries. Therefore, we present these technical limitations and discuss the possible solution by comparing the theoretical and computational studies.

  8. Multi-decadal retreat of Novaya Zemlya outlet glaciers, in response to climatic forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Rachel; Bell, Heather

    2016-04-01

    Arctic ice masses have rapidly lost ice from the mid-1990s, through a combination of negative surface mass balance and accelerated ice discharge from marine-terminating outlet glaciers. In the past decade, substantial mass deficits have been identified on Novaya Zemlya (NVZ), Russian High Arctic, and its outlet glaciers have retreated dramatically, likely due to declining sea ice concentrations. However, little is known about longer-term glacier behaviour on NVZ, and its potential impact on overall mass balance. Here we greatly extend the available record of retreat and assess multi-decadal glacier response to forcing between 1976 and 2014 using remotely sensed data. Following at least 25 years of gradual recession, retreat rates accelerated substantially from circa. 2000 and again from 2011 onwards. The rate and temporal pattern of retreat were strongly dependant on terminus type: marine-terminating outlets receded an order of magnitude faster than land- or lagoon-terminating glaciers and land-based termini showed limited change in retreat rate over time. Furthermore, retreat was markedly higher on the Barents Sea coast than the Kara Sea. Comparison with forcing data shows that accelerated retreat from 2011 onwards coincided with exceptionally low sea ice concentration and duration between 2011 and 2013. This suggests that sea ice is an important controlling factor, which agrees with shorter-term studies on NVZ. Although air temperature information is more limited on NVZ, data from both meteorological stations and reanalysis highlight 2011 and 2012 as two of the warmest years during the period 1950 to 2014. The limited response of land-terminating outlets suggests that air temperatures do not cause retreat directly, via melting or enhanced basal lubrication, but may have an indirect influence through melting of sea ice or hydro fracture.

  9. CREATION OF A SECONDARY VENTRICULAR OUTLET TO REVERSE HEMOLYSIS AFTER AORTIC VALVE REPLACEMENT

    PubMed Central

    Ott, David A.; Cooley, Denton A.; Norman, John C.

    1979-01-01

    A 66-year-old woman developed severe hemolysis after undergoing aortic valve replacement. A diminutive annulus and extensive calcification of the aorta precluded further surgery of the aortic root. Hemolysis was completely reversed by the implantation of a woven Dacron apicoabdominal aortic conduit incorporating a Cooley-Cutter prosthetic valve. Fractionation of stroke volume by means of a second ventricular outlet can reduce shear stresses and turbulence associated with unfavorable hemodynamic conditions, thereby successfully correcting hemolysis. Images PMID:15216312

  10. Aerodynamic Performance of Scale-Model Turbofan Outlet Guide Vanes Designed for Low Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Christopher E.

    2001-01-01

    The design of effective new technologies to reduce aircraft propulsion noise is dependent on an understanding of the noise sources and noise generation mechanisms in the modern turbofan engine. In order to more fully understand the physics of noise in a turbofan engine, a comprehensive aeroacoustic wind tunnel test programs was conducted called the 'Source Diagnostic Test.' The text was cooperative effort between NASA and General Electric Aircraft Engines, as part of the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology Noise Reduction Program. A 1/5-scale model simulator representing the bypass stage of a current technology high bypass ratio turbofan engine was used in the test. The test article consisted of the bypass fan and outlet guide vanes in a flight-type nacelle. The fan used was a medium pressure ratio design with 22 individual, wide chord blades. Three outlet guide vane design configurations were investigated, representing a 54-vane radial Baseline configuration, a 26-vane radial, wide chord Low Count configuration and a 26-vane, wide chord Low Noise configuration with 30 deg of aft sweep. The test was conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center 9 by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel at velocities simulating the takeoff and approach phases of the aircraft flight envelope. The Source Diagnostic Test had several acoustic and aerodynamic technical objectives: (1) establish the performance of a scale model fan selected to represent the current technology turbofan product; (2) assess the performance of the fan stage with each of the three distinct outlet guide vane designs; (3) determine the effect of the outlet guide vane configuration on the fan baseline performance; and (4) conduct detailed flowfield diagnostic surveys, both acoustic and aerodynamic, to characterize and understand the noise generation mechanisms in a turbofan engine. This paper addresses the fan and stage aerodynamic performance results from the Source Diagnostic Test.

  11. Medial antebrachial cutaneous sensory studies in the evaluation of neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kothari, M J; Macintosh, K; Heistand, M; Logigian, E L

    1998-05-01

    Over 3 years, we studied 8 patients with neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) and tested the medial antebrachial sensory response (MASR) to determine its diagnostic value. The MASR and ulnar sensory response (USR) were abnormal in all 8 patients. Seven had a low median motor response (MMR) with a low USR. In 1, the MASR and USR were abnormal but the MMR was normal. We conclude that the MASR is of diagnostic value in patients with neurogenic TOS.

  12. Greater access to fast food outlets is associated with poorer bone health in young children

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Christina; Parsons, Camille; Godfrey, Keith; Robinson, Sian; Harvey, Nicholas C; Inskip, Hazel; Cooper, Cyrus; Baird, Janis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Identifying factors that contribute to optimal childhood bone development could help pinpoint strategies to improve long term bone health. A healthy diet positively influences bone health from before birth and during childhood. This study addressed a gap in the literature by examining the relationship between residential neighbourhood food environment and bone mass in infants and children. Methods 1107 children participating in the Southampton Women’s Survey, United Kingdom, underwent measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) at birth and four and/or six years by Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Cross-sectional observational data describing food outlets within the boundary of each participant’s neighbourhood were used to derive three measures of the food environment: the counts of fast food outlets, healthy speciality stores and supermarkets. Results Neighbourhood exposure to fast food outlets was associated with lower BMD in infancy (β=−0.23(z-score): 95% CI −0.38, −0.08), and lower BMC after adjustment for bone area and confounding variables (β=−0.17(z-score): 95% CI −0.32, −0.02). Increasing neighbourhood exposure to healthy speciality stores was associated with higher BMD at four and six years (β=0.16(z-score): 95% CI 0.00, 0.32 and β=0.13(z-score): 95% CI −0.01, 0.26 respectively). The relationship with BMC after adjustment for bone area and confounding variables was statistically significant at four years but not at six years. Conclusions The neighbourhood food environment pregnant mothers and young children are exposed to may effect bone development during early childhood. If confirmed in future studies, action to reduce access to fast food outlets could have benefits for childhood development and long term bone health. PMID:26458387

  13. Validation of 3 Food Outlet Databases: Completeness and Geospatial Accuracy in Rural and Urban Food Environments

    PubMed Central

    Liese, Angela D.; Colabianchi, Natalie; Lamichhane, Archana P.; Barnes, Timothy L.; Hibbert, James D.; Porter, Dwayne E.; Nichols, Michele D.; Lawson, Andrew B.

    2010-01-01

    Despite interest in the built food environment, little is known about the validity of commonly used secondary data. The authors conducted a comprehensive field census identifying the locations of all food outlets using a handheld global positioning system in 8 counties in South Carolina (2008–2009). Secondary data were obtained from 2 commercial companies, Dun & Bradstreet, Inc. (D&B) (Short Hills, New Jersey) and InfoUSA, Inc. (Omaha, Nebraska), and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (DHEC). Sensitivity, positive predictive value, and geospatial accuracy were compared. The field census identified 2,208 food outlets, significantly more than the DHEC (n = 1,694), InfoUSA (n = 1,657), or D&B (n = 1,573). Sensitivities were moderate for DHEC (68%) and InfoUSA (65%) and fair for D&B (55%). Combining InfoUSA and D&B data would have increased sensitivity to 78%. Positive predictive values were very good for DHEC (89%) and InfoUSA (86%) and good for D&B (78%). Geospatial accuracy varied, depending on the scale: More than 80% of outlets were geocoded to the correct US Census tract, but only 29%–39% were correctly allocated within 100 m. This study suggests that the validity of common data sources used to characterize the food environment is limited. The marked undercount of food outlets and the geospatial inaccuracies observed have the potential to introduce bias into studies evaluating the impact of the built food environment. PMID:20961970

  14. Outlet-glacier flow dynamics estimation combining in-situ and spaceborne SAR measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohner, Christoph; Henke, Daniel; Small, David; Mercenier, Rémy; Lüthi, Martin; Vieli, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Terminus retreat and flow acceleration changes of ocean-terminating outlet glaciers contribute significantly to the current mass loss of the Greenland Ice Sheet and therefore to global sea level rise. In order to constrain models ice dynamics, detailed knowledge of geometry, ice-flow velocity and strain fields of such calving glaciers is needed. Of specific importance is the near terminus flow dynamics, as the flow fields there are highly influential on the glacier's calving rate. With the current temporal resolution of spaceborne radar systems, it is difficult to accurately capture the near terminus flow fields for fast moving outlet glaciers glaciers, while in-situ measurements using ground based radar interferometers are limited in coverage and constrained by distance and geometric shading of the glacier. We present and analyze the combined continuous velocity fields from a ground based, portable radar system as well as from spaceborne SAR scenes for Eqip Sermia, a medium-sized ocean terminating outlet glacier in western Greenland. The flow fields for the spaceborne data are calculated using feature tracking with a temporal resolution of 12 and 24 days for Sentinel-1 (Interferometric Wide Swath) and RADARSAT-2 (Ultra Fine/Fine Quad) respectively. The in-situ terrestrial radar data were recorded at one minute intervals were additionally processed using interferometry. The combination of in-situ and spaceborne radar enables a spatially continuous assessment of the strain fields of the ocean terminating outlet glacier. An assimilation of the data based on areas with both in-situ and spaceborne measurements is carried out and the results are compared to historical strain field data sets. These data ultimately provide constraints for a physical fracture and damage model.

  15. Neighborhood alcohol outlets and the association with violent crime in one mid-Atlantic City: the implications for zoning policy.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Jacky M; Milam, Adam J; Greiner, Amelia; Furr-Holden, C Debra M; Curriero, Frank C; Thornton, Rachel J

    2014-02-01

    Violent crime such as homicide causes significant excess morbidity and mortality in US urban areas. A health impact assessment (HIA) identified zoning policy related to alcohol outlets as one way to decrease violent crime. The objectives were to determine the relationship between alcohol outlets including off-premise alcohol outlets and violent crime in one urban area to provide local public health evidence to inform a zoning code rewrite. An ecologic analysis of census tracts in Baltimore City was conducted from 2011 to 2012. The data included violent crimes (n = 51,942) from 2006 to 2010, licensed alcohol outlets establishments (n = 1,327) from 2005 to 2006, and data on neighborhood disadvantage, percent minority, percent occupancy, and drug arrests from 2005 to 2009. Negative binomial regression models were used to determine the relationship between the counts of alcohol outlets and violent crimes controlling for other factors. Spatial correlation was assessed and regression inference adjusted accordingly. Each one-unit increase in the number of alcohol outlets was associated with a 2.2 % increase in the count of violent crimes adjusting for neighborhood disadvantage, percent minority, percent occupancy, drug arrests, and spatial dependence (IRR = 1.022, 95 % CI = 1.015, 1.028). Off-premise alcohol outlets were significantly associated with violent crime in the adjusted model (IRR = 1.048, 95 % CI = 1.035, 1.061). Generating Baltimore-specific estimates of the relationship between alcohol outlets and violent crime has been central to supporting the incorporation of alcohol outlet policies in the zoning code rewrite being conducted in Baltimore City.

  16. Transvaginal Mesh and Transanal Resection to Treat Outlet Obstruction Constipation Caused by Rectocele

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yang; Yu, Yongjun; Zhang, Xipeng; Li, Yuwei

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the curative effect of transvaginal mesh repair (TVMR) and stapled transanal rectal resection (STARR) in treating outlet obstruction constipation caused by rectocele. Material/Methods Patients who had outlet obstruction constipation caused by rectocele were retrospectively analyzed and 39 patients were enrolled the study. Patients were assigned to either the TVMR or STARR group. Postoperative factors such as complications, pain, recurrence rate, and operative time were compared between the 2 groups. Results Total effective rate was 100% in both groups. No long-term chronic pain occurred and discomfort rate of tenesmus was higher in the STARR group than in the TVMR group. Postoperative defecography showed that the rectocele depth was significantly reduced, and the prolapse of the rectal mucosa and the lower rectal capacity was also decreased. Four cases had mesh exposure in the TVMR group and 2 cases in the STARR group had anastomotic bleeding after the surgery. Conclusions For outlet obstruction constipation caused by rectocele, TVMR and STARR both obtained satisfactory results. Although TVMR is complex with longer operative time and hospitalization period, its long-term effect is better than that of STARR. PMID:28146137

  17. Flow and heat transfer measurements in a swirl chamber with different outlet geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biegger, Christoph; Weigand, Bernhard

    2015-04-01

    In technical applications, an efficient cooling is necessary for high thermal load components such as turbine blades. One potential and promising technique is a swirling tube flow in comparison with an axial flow. The additional circumferential velocity and enhanced turbulent mixing increase the heat transfer. But the complex flow field and heat transfer mechanisms are still under research. Furthermore, the reliability of a swirl chamber regarding different outlet conditions is of great interest for a robust cooling design. Therefore, we investigated the influence of a straight, a tangential and a bend outlet. To gain understanding of the flow phenomena, we measured the velocity field by means of stereo-PIV (particle image velocimetry). We experimentally studied the cooling capability measuring the heat transfer coefficients using thermochromic liquid crystals. For an accurate cooling design, we used the local adiabatic wall temperature as the correct reference temperature for calculating the heat transfer coefficients. We will show the velocity field, the pressure loss and the heat transfer results for realistic Reynolds numbers from 10,000 to 40,000 and for swirl numbers between and . The obtained heat transfer is more than four times higher compared to an axial tube flow. Our measurements indicate that the here investigated outlet redirection has no significant influence on the flow field and the heat transfer coefficients.

  18. Urethrolysis with Martius labial fat pad graft for iatrogenic bladder outlet obstruction.

    PubMed

    Carey, Jeffrey M; Chon, Joanna K; Leach, Gary E

    2003-04-01

    This article evaluates treatment outcomes of urethrolysis with the Martius labial fat pad graft for patients with outlet obstruction after incontinence surgery. A total of 23 women were diagnosed with iatrogenic bladder outlet obstruction by urinary retention, urodynamic criteria, physical examination findings, and/or temporal relation of voiding dysfunction to anti-incontinence surgery. The urodynamic definition of female outlet obstruction was a maximum flow rate <12 mL/sec and a detrusor pressure at maximum flow >20 cm of water. Surgical treatment consisted of urethrolysis with complete circumferential urethral mobilization. A Martius labial fat pad graft was used to circumferentially wrap the urethra. No concurrent resuspension procedures were performed. Procedure efficacy was determined by retrospective review and phone interview. Mean patient age was 55 years (range, 37 to 85 years). Mean postoperative follow-up time was 15 months (maximum, 44 months). All patients related voiding dysfunction symptoms to their anti-incontinence surgery. In all, 17 of 23 (74%) patients had preoperative urinary retention requiring catheterization, and 63% of patients met urodynamic criteria for obstruction. After urethrolysis with a Martius labial fat pad graft, 20 of 23 (87%) patients had complete resolution of their obstruction; 3 patients required persistent catheterization. Postoperative stress incontinence was reported by 6 of 23 (13%) patients. Urodynamically documented detrusor instability occurred in 6 of 23 (26%) patients with de novo detrusor instability occurring in 3 of 15 (20%) patients.

  19. Hydraulic response and nitrogen retention in bioretention mesocosms with regulated outlets: part I--hydraulic response.

    PubMed

    Lucas, William C; Greenway, Margaret

    2011-08-01

    In bioretention systems used for stormwater treatment, runoff interception improves with increased infiltration rates. However, nitrogen retention improves with increased retention time or decreasing infiltration rates. These contrasting responses were analyzed in 240-L experimental mesocosms using a variety of media treatments. The mesocosms were vegetated, except for one barren control. Dual-stage outlets were installed to extend retention time and equalize hydraulic responses. One unregulated treatment was free-draining. This part 1 paper presents the media properties and hydraulic responses. The highly aggregated media had saturated hydraulic conductivities ranging from 20.7 to 59.6 cm/h in August 2008 (austral winter), which increased to 42.8 to 110.6 cm/h in March 2009 (austral summer). The outlet regulated mesocosms provided retention over 8 times longer than the free-draining mesocosms, while still being able to capture large events. The outlets provide adaptive management for bioretention design to improve both runoff capture and nitrogen retention.

  20. Climatology, hydrology, and simulation of an emergency outlet, Devils Lake basin, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiche, Gregg J.; Vecchia, A.V.; Osborne, Leon; Wood, Carrie M.; Fay, James T.

    2000-01-01

    Devils Lake is a natural lake in northeastern North Dakota that is the terminus of a nearly 4,000-square-mile subbasin in the Red River of the North Basin. The lake has not reached its natural spill elevation to the Sheyenne River (a tributary of the Red River of the North) in recorded history. However, geologic evidence indicates a spill occurred sometime within the last 1,800 years. From 1993 to 1999, Devils Lake rose 24.5 feet and, at the present (August 2000), is about 13 feet below the natural spill elevation. The recent lake-level rise has caused flood damages exceeding $300 million and triggered development of future flood-control options to prevent further infrastructure damage and reduce the risk of a potentially catastrophic uncontrolled spill. Construction of an emergency outlet from the west end of Devils Lake to the Sheyenne River is one flood-control option being considered. This report describes the climatologic and hydrologic causes of the recent lake level rise, provides information on the potential for continued lake-level rises during the next 15 years, and describes the potential effectiveness of an emergency outlet in reducing future lake levels and in reducing the risk of an uncontrolled spill. The potential effects of an outlet on downstream water quantity and quality in the upper Sheyenne River also are described.

  1. Air demand estimation in bottom outlets with the particle finite element method - Susqueda Dam case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, Fernando; San-Mauro, Javier; Celigueta, Miguel Ángel; Oñate, Eugenio

    2016-06-01

    Dam bottom outlets play a vital role in dam operation and safety, as they allow controlling the water surface elevation below the spillway level. For partial openings, water flows under the gate lip at high velocity and drags the air downstream of the gate, which may cause damages due to cavitation and vibration. The convenience of installing air vents in dam bottom outlets is well known by practitioners. The design of this element depends basically on the maximum air flow through the air vent, which in turn is a function of the specific geometry and the boundary conditions. The intrinsic features of this phenomenon makes it hard to analyse either on site or in full scaled experimental facilities. As a consequence, empirical formulas are frequently employed, which offer a conservative estimate of the maximum air flow. In this work, the particle finite element method was used to model the air-water interaction in Susqueda Dam bottom outlet, with different gate openings. Specific enhancements of the formulation were developed to consider air-water interaction. The results were analysed as compared to the conventional design criteria and to information gathered on site during the gate operation tests. This analysis suggests that numerical modelling with the PFEM can be helpful for the design of this kind of hydraulic works.

  2. Investigation of the Association Between Alcohol Outlet Density and Alcohol-Related Hospital Admission Rates in England: Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, John; Green, Mark; Strong, Mark; Pearson, Tim; Meier, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Background Availability of alcohol is a major policy issue for governments, and one of the availability factors is the density of alcohol outlets within geographic areas. Objective The aim of this study is to investigate the association between alcohol outlet density and hospital admissions for alcohol-related conditions in a national (English) small area level ecological study. Methods This project will employ ecological correlation and cross-sectional time series study designs to examine spatial and temporal relationships between alcohol outlet density and hospital admissions. Census units to be used in the analysis will include all Lower and Middle Super-Output Areas (LSOAs and MSOAs) in England (53 million total population; 32,482 LSOAs and 6781 MSOAs). LSOAs (approximately 1500 people per LSOA) will support investigation at a fine spatial resolution. Spatio-temporal associations will be investigated using MSOAs (approximately 7500 people per MSOA). The project will use comprehensive coverage data on alcohol outlets in England (from 2003, 2007, 2010, and 2013) from a commercial source, which has estimated that the database includes 98% of all alcohol outlets in England. Alcohol outlets may be classified into two broad groups: on-trade outlets, comprising outlets from which alcohol can be purchased and consumed on the premises (eg, pubs); and off-trade outlets, in which alcohol can be purchased but not consumed on the premises (eg, off-licenses). In the 2010 dataset, there are 132,989 on-trade and 51,975 off-trade outlets. The longitudinal data series will allow us to examine associations between changes in outlet density and changes in hospital admission rates. The project will use anonymized data on alcohol-related hospital admissions in England from 2003 to 2013 and investigate associations with acute (eg, admissions for injuries) and chronic (eg, admissions for alcoholic liver disease) harms. The investigation will include the examination of conditions that

  3. Monitoring of suspended sediments, sediment conditions and aquatic biota during the functional check of bottom outlets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haun, Stefan; Seitz, Lydia; Stockinger, Wolfram; Riedl, Martin; Schletterer, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Reservoirs are used to store water for multiple purposes and are therefore of great importance for our society. Regularly inspections of the dam structure and the bottom outlets are necessary to ensure a safe operation of these structures. The release of water from the reservoirs for this procedure often results in high suspended sediment concentrations downstream by the remobilization of deposited sediments, which may result further in negative effects on the downstream located habitats. Due to a careful elaborated monitoring concept, e.g. regarding the opening procedure of the bottom outlets, it is possible to change the management strategy and to avoid or to minimize ecological impacts. Within this study a monitoring concept is developed and implemented to observe occurring suspended sediment concentrations during the opening of the bottom outlets of a small reservoir in the alpine region. The measurement concept includes suspended sediment concentration and discharge measurements at the two upstream located tributaries as well as suspended sediment concentration measurements downstream. Two stations are selected downstream with a distance of 750 m and 2,000 m from the dam. To ensure a complete series of concentrations over time bottom samples, Imhoff-cones as well as turbidity meters are implemented. Whereas the turbidity meters ensure a permanent observation of the conditions (will be calibrated with laboratory results from the bottle samples), the Imhoff-cones make it possible to intervene right away into the process of releasing water. A second focus lies on the downstream located river bed, which is monitored before and after the opening of the bottom outlets in order to assess morphodynamical changes such as river bed clogging occurs. Therefore sediment samples with the so called freeze-panel technique are collected before and after the opening of the bottom outlets to quantify possible changes of the bed material. The results show that downstream habitats

  4. Frequency, triggering factors and possible consequences of mass movements on outlet glaciers in Iceland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saemundsson, Thorsteinn; Margeirsson, Guðbjörn

    2016-04-01

    During the last 15 years several mass movements of various size and origin, e.g. rock avalanches, rock slides and debris slides have been observed to have fall on outlet glaciers in Iceland. This should not come as a surprise in this type of glacial environment, but in a way it does. When looking at the history only few mass movements are recorded to have fall on outlet glaciers in Iceland, during the decades before the year 2000 or since 1960. This "lack of mass movements" can be explained by the fact that fewer observations and monitoring were done in the past, but is it so or are we seeing increasing activity? Looking at the distribution of the known mass movements, two activity periods cam be identified. The former one around 1970 and the second one starting around 2000 and is still ongoing. Both of these periods are characterized by warmer climate leading to retreating phases of glaciers. Two larger mass movements are known from these two retreating periods. The former one occurred in January 1967. Then a large rockslide fell on the snout and into the glacial lake of the Steinholtsjökull outlet glacier in the northern side of the Eyjafjallajökull ice cap. The rockslide broke up the snout of the glacier and caused large floodwave bursting down the Steinholtsdalur valley transporting large volume of sediments down its path. The later one occurred in 2007, when a large rockavalanche fell on the Morsárjökull outlet glacier, in the southern side of the Vatnajökull ice cap. The avalanche debris covered around 1/5 of the glacier surface. Today the retreat and thinning of glaciers in Iceland are extremely rapid. The consequences of such a rapid retreat are e.g. unstable valley slopes surrounding the outlet glaciers, both in loose sediments and bedrock, thawing of mountain permafrost and not least formation of glacial lakes in front of the rapid retreating ice margins. Such conditions can become extremely hazardous, as seen by the above mentioned examples, both

  5. Coolant mixing in LMFBR rod bundles and outlet plenum mixing transients. Progress report, March 1, 1980-May 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Todreas, N.E.; Golay, M.W.; Wolf, L.

    1980-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical work is reported on four tasks: bundle geometry (wrapped and bare rods), subchannel geometry (bare rods), LMFBR outlet plenum flow mixing, and theoretical local temperature files in LMFBR fuel rod bundles. (DLC)

  6. Coolant mixing in LMFBR rod bundles and outlet plenum mixing transients. Progress report, September 1, 1980-November 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Todreas, N.E.; Golay, M.W.; Wolf, L.

    1981-02-01

    Four tasks are reported: bundle geometry (wrapped and bare rods), subchannel geometry (bare rods), subchannel geometry (bare rods), LMFBR outlet plenum flow mixing, and theoretical determination of local temperature fields in LMFBR fuel rod bundles. (DLC)

  7. Seismic damage analysis of the outlet piers of arch dams using the finite element sub-model method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Liangfeng; Wu, Mingxin; Wang, Jinting; Xu, Yanjie

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to analyze seismic damage of reinforced outlet piers of arch dams by the nonlinear finite element (FE) sub-model method. First, the dam-foundation system is modeled and analyzed, in which the effects of infinite foundation, contraction joints, and nonlinear concrete are taken into account. The detailed structures of the outlet pier are then simulated with a refined FE model in the sub-model analysis. In this way the damage mechanism of the plain (unreinforced) outlet pier is analyzed, and the effects of two reinforcement measures (i.e., post-tensioned anchor cables and reinforcing bar) on the dynamic damage to the outlet pier are investigated comprehensively. Results show that the plain pier is damaged severely by strong earthquakes while implementation of post-tensioned anchor cables strengthens the pier effectively. In addition, radiation damping strongly alleviates seismic damage to the piers.

  8. Case of duplication of the urethra in an adult male, presenting with symptoms of bladder outlet obstruction.

    PubMed

    Slavov, Chavdar; Donkov, Ivo; Popov, Elenko

    2007-10-01

    Duplication of the urethra is a rare congenital anomaly, usually found in children and adolescents. The authors present a rare case of urethral duplication, presenting in a 58-yr-old man, with symptoms of bladder outlet obstruction.

  9. A Spatial Analysis of Heterogeneity in the Link Between Alcohol Outlets and Assault Victimization: Differences Across Victim Subpopulations

    PubMed Central

    Goldstick, Jason E.; Brenner, Allison B.; Lipton, Robert I.; Mistry, Ritesh; Aiyer, Sophie M.; Reischl, Thomas M.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    The positive association between alcohol outlet density and assault rates is well established, but little is known about how this association differs across victim subpopulations. We use spatial point process models on police data from Flint, Michigan, to test how the link between alcohol outlet density and assault rates changes as a function of three victim characteristics: age, gender, and race. We found that, although both on-premises and package outlet densities consistently emerge as risk factors for victimization, their relative effects are markedly larger in Whites than in African Americans. No analogous age- or gender-based differences were found. These results suggest the racial effects arise more from relative differences in the atmosphere in and around alcohol outlets than differences in drinking behavior alone. PMID:26159914

  10. Behavior and Inactivation of Enterotoxin-Positive Clostridium perfringens in Pork Picadillo and Tamales Filled with Pork Picadillo under Different Cooking, Storage, and Reheating Conditions.

    PubMed

    Villarruel-López, A; Ruíz-Quezada, S L; Castro-Rosas, J; Gomez-Aldapa, C A; Olea-Rodríguez, M A; Nuño, K; Navarro-Hidalgo, V; Torres-Vitela, M R

    2016-05-01

    This study analyzed the behavior of Clostridium perfringens in individual ingredients and tamales containing different pathogen concentrations upon exposure to different temperatures and methods of cooking, storage, and reheating. In ground pork, C. perfringens cells were inactivated when exposed to 95°C for 30 min. Three lots of picadillo inoculated with 0, 3, and 5 log CFU/g C. perfringens cells, respectively, were exposed to different storage temperatures. At 20°C, cell counts increased 1 log in all lots, whereas at 8°C, counts decreased by 2 log. Four lots of tamales prepared with picadillo inoculated with 0, 2, 3, and 7 log CFU/g prior to the final cooking step exhibited no surviving cells (91°C for 90, 45, or 35 min). Four lots of tamales were inoculated after cooking with concentrations of 0, 0.6, 4, and 6 log CFU/g of the pathogen and then stored at different temperatures. In these preparations, after 24 h at 20°C, the count increased by 1.4, 1.7, and 1.8 log in the tamales inoculated with 0.6, 4, and 6 log inoculum, respectively. When they were stored at 8°C for 24 h, enumerations decreased to <1, 2.5, and 1.9 log in the tamales inoculated with 0.6, 4, and 6 log of C. perfringens cells, respectively. However, when the lots were exposed to 20°C and then 8°C, 0.8, 1.8, and 2.4 log changes were observed for the tamales inoculated with 0.6, 4, and 6 log, respectively. Microwaving, steaming, and frying to reheat tamales inoculated with 6 log CFU/g C. perfringens cells showed that the pathogen was inactivated after 2 min of exposure in the microwave and after 5 min of exposure to steam. In contrast, no inactivation was observed after 5 min of frying. The tamales inoculated with spores (7 log most probable number [MPN]/g) showed a decrease of 2 log after steaming or frying, and no survival was observed after microwaving. Tamales inoculated with spores (7 log MPN/g) after cooking were susceptible to microwaves, but 2.4 and 255 MPN/g remained after frying

  11. Outlet Works for Cerrillos Dam, Cerrillos River, and Portugues Dam, Portugues River, Puerto Rico; Hydraulic Model Investigation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-01

    Tests were conducted on a 1:24-scale model of the outlet works for the Cerrillos and Portugues Dams located in Puerto Rico. The purpose of the model... Portugues outlet works were designed to provide for river diversion during construction of the dams. When the dams are completed, the flow will be regulated... Portugues . However, the stilling basins were designed for 2500 cfs (Cerrillos) and 1100 cfs ( Portugues ), the bank-full capacities downstream. Therefore

  12. Jadwin Dam Condition Report. Dam, Outlet Works & Spillway Periodic Inspection Report Number 4. Lackawaxen River Basin, Dyberry Creek, Pennsylvania.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    AD-A098 782 ARMY ENGINEER DISTRICTE PHILADELPHIA PA FIG 13/13 JADAI N DAM CONDITION REPORT. DA, OUTLET WORKS & SPILLWAY PERIO-ETC (U) UNCLASSIFIED...HUJREALI f ANDARD, 1961, L -GOVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUtiON UNLIMITED. LACKAWAXEN RIVER BASIN * DYBERRY CREEK, PENNSYLVANIA DClJADWIN DAM DTIC ELECTE...MAY 1 2 1981fl CONDITION REFORT E DAM , OUTLET WORKS a SPILLWAY - PERIODIC INSPECTION REPORT NO. 4 NOVEMBER 1980 DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY 0. PHILADELPHIA

  13. Preliminary Cosmogenic Surface Exposure Ages on Laurentide Ice-sheet Retreat and Opening of the Eastern Lake Agassiz Outlets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leydet, D.; Carlson, A. E.; Sinclair, G.; Teller, J. T.; Breckenridge, A. J.; Caffee, M. W.; Barth, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    The chronology for the eastern outlets of glacial Lake Agassiz holds important consequences for the cause of Younger Dryas cold event during the last deglaciation. Eastward routing of Lake Agassiz runoff was originally hypothesized to have triggered the Younger Dryas. However, currently the chronology of the eastern outlets is only constrained by minimum-limiting radiocarbon ages that could suggest the eastern outlets were still ice covered at the start of the Younger Dryas at ~12.9 ka BP, requiring a different forcing of this abrupt climate event. Nevertheless, the oldest radiocarbon ages are still consistent with an ice-free eastern outlet at the start of the Younger Dryas. Here we will present preliminary 10-Be cosmogenic surface exposure ages from the North Lake, Flat Rock Lake, glacial Lake Kaministiquia, and Lake Nipigon outlets located near Thunder Bay, Ontario. These ages will date the timing of the deglaciation of the Laurentide ice sheet in the eastern outlet region of glacial Lake Agassiz. This will provide an important constraint for the hypothesized freshwater forcing of the cause of Younger Dryas cold event.

  14. Neighborhood alcohol outlet density and rates of child abuse and neglect: moderating effects of access to substance abuse services.

    PubMed

    Morton, Cory M; Simmel, Cassandra; Peterson, N Andrew

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized data from 163 census tracts in Bergen County, New Jersey, on reports of child abuse and neglect, alcohol outlets, substance abuse treatment and prevention facilities, and the United States Census to investigate the linkages between socioeconomic structure, alcohol availability, and access to substance abuse service facilities on rates of child abuse and neglect. Findings indicate areas with a greater concentration of on-premises alcohol outlets (i.e., bars) had higher rates of child neglect, and those with easier access to substance abuse services had lower rates of neglect, controlling for neighborhood demographic and socioeconomic structure. Additionally, the relationship between on-premises alcohol outlet density and rates of child neglect was moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. A greater concentration of off-premises outlets (i.e., liquor stores) was associated with lower rates of physical abuse. Findings suggest that the built environment and socioeconomic structure of neighborhoods have important consequences for child well-being. The implications for future research on the structural features of neighborhoods that are associated with child well-being are discussed.

  15. Solar collector and arrangements thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, H.N.

    1985-03-19

    In an all liquid flat plate type solar collector having risers therein, the risers having inlet and outlet portions, the improvement comprises providing a single header for servicing the risers and arranging the risers inlet and outlet portions within the header so as to obtain flow through the risers using the velocity effect or dynamic effect of flow through the header.

  16. Investigating connections between local-remote atmospheric variability and Greenland outlet glacier behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolowski, Stefan; Chen, Linling; Miles, Victoria

    2016-04-01

    The outlet glaciers along the margins of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) exhibit a range of behaviors, which are crucial for understanding GrIS mass changes from a dynamical point of view. However, the drivers of this behavior are still poorly understood. Arguments (counter-arguments) have been made for a strong (weak) local oceanic influence on marine terminating outlet glaciers while decadal-scale drivers linked to fluctuations in the Ice sheet itself and the North Atlantic ocean (e.g. Atlantic Multidecadal Variability) have also been posited as drivers. Recently there have also been studies linking (e.g. seasonal to interannual) atmospheric variability, synoptic activity and the Ice Sheet variability. But these studies typically investigate atmospheric links to the large-scale behavior of the Ice Sheet itself and do not go down to the scale of the outlet glaciers. Conversely, investigations of the outlet glaciers often do not include potential links to non-local atmospheric dynamics. Here the authors attempt to bridge the gap and investigate the relationship between atmospheric variability across a range of scales and the behavior of three outlet glaciers on Greenland's southeast coast over a 33-year period (1980-2012). The glaciers - Helheim, Midgard and Fenris - are near Tasiilaq, are marine terminating and exhibit varying degree of connection to the GrIS. ERA-Interim reanalysis, sea-ice data and glacier observations are used for the investigation. Long records of mass balance are unavailable for these glaciers and front position is employed as a measure of glacier atmosphere interactions across multiple scales, as it exhibits robust relationships to atmospheric variability on time scales of seasons to many years, with the strongest relationships seen at seasonal - interannual time scales. The authors do not make the argument that front position is a suitable proxy for mass balance, only that it is indicative of the role of local and remote atmospheric

  17. Subglacial morphology and glacial evolution of the Palmer deep outlet system, Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domack, Eugene; Amblàs, David; Gilbert, Robert; Brachfeld, Stefanie; Camerlenghi, Angelo; Rebesco, Michele; Canals, Miquel; Urgeles, Roger

    2006-04-01

    The Palmer Deep is an erosional, inner-shelf trough located at the convergence of ice flow from three distinct accumulation centers. It served as a funnel for ice flow out across the continental shelf of the Antarctic Peninsula. Swath mapping of 1440 km 2 of seafloor in and adjacent to the Palmer Deep basin defines a large paleo-ice stream that flowed 230 km across the Antarctic Peninsula continental shelf during the Last Glacial Maximum (MIS-2). The unique perspective and detail of the Palmer Deep physiography allow us to recognize several phases of erosion and deposition in the outlet basin. These events are uniquely constrained by two ODP drill cores (sites 1099 and 1098) that together recovered over 150 m of latest Pleistocene and Holocene sediment. We divide this region of the continental shelf into three zones based upon mega- to meso-scale bathymetric features and emphasize that all three were part of one glacial outlet during the most recent period of glaciation. These zones include from inner shelf to outer shelf: the Palmer Deep basin, the Palmer Deep Outlet Sill and the Hugo Island Trough. Specific seafloor features associated with these zones include: relict terraces, sub-glacial lake deltas, channels and levees, debris slopes, spindle and out bed forms, mega-scale glacial lineations, morainal banks, and bank breach points. The origin of many of these features can be linked to the development of a sub-glacial lake basin within the Palmer Deep during or prior to MIS-2, its subsequent drainage, and recession of the Palmer Deep ice stream system. This sub-glacial lake system is reconstructed at the head of a major paleo-ice stream.

  18. Investigating the flow and stress regime at the front of a tidewater outlet glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercenier, Rémy; Luethi, Martin; Vieli, Andreas; Rohner, Christoph; Small, David

    2016-04-01

    Dynamic changes in ocean-terminating glaciers are responsible for approximately half of the current high rate of mass loss of the Greenland ice sheet. The related calving process, which occurs when the stresses at the calving front exceed the fracture toughness of ice, is still not well understood and poorly represented in current generation ice-sheet models, but is a crucial requisite to understand and model dynamics and future mass loss of the ice sheet. Here, we use a two-dimensional finite-element model to compute the stress and flow fields near the front of a tidewater outlet glacier. First, we perform a sensitivity analysis for an idealized glacier exploring the effects of variable calving front slope, water depth and basal sliding. We then apply the model to two flowlines of Eqip Sermia, an ocean terminating outlet glacier in West Greenland. Detailed velocity and geometry measurements obtained from terrestrial radar interferometry serve as constraints to the model. These flowline geometries and velocities strongly differ. One flowline ends with a ˜ 50 meter vertical cliff, close to floatation, while the other has a 150-200 meter high grounded front with a ˜ 45° slope and for which extrusion flow is observed. These different geometry settings lead to substantial difference in stress and flow regimes. This stress analysis improves our understanding of how and where the ice is susceptible to failure and crevasse formation for different idealized as well as real conditions. In further work, we aim to use this information as a constraint to investigate the short-term and long-term processes related to outlet glacier calving.

  19. Warm dark matter via ultra-violet freeze-in: reheating temperature and non-thermal distribution for fermionic Higgs portal dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, John

    2016-08-17

    Warm dark matter (WDM) of order keV mass may be able to resolve the disagreement between structure formation in cold dark matter simulations and observations. The detailed properties of WDM will depend upon its energy distribution, in particular how it deviates from the thermal distribution usually assumed in WDM simulations. Here we focus on WDM production via the Ultra-Violet (UV) freeze-in mechanism, for the case of fermionic Higgs portal dark matter ψ produced via the portal interaction ψ-barψH{sup †}H/Λ. We introduce a new method to simplify the computation of the non-thermal energy distribution of dark matter from freeze-in. We show that the non-thermal energy distribution from UV freeze-in is hotter than the corresponding thermal distribution and has the form of a Bose-Einstein distribution with a non-thermal normalization. The resulting range of dark matter fermion mass consistent with observations is 5–7 keV. The reheating temperature must satisfy T{sub R}≳120 GeV in order to account for the observed dark matter density when m{sub ψ}≈5 keV, where the lower bound on T{sub R} corresponds to the limit where the fermion mass is entirely due to electroweak symmetry breaking via the portal interaction. The corresponding bound on the interaction scale is Λ≳6.0×10{sup 9} GeV.

  20. Warm dark matter via ultra-violet freeze-in: reheating temperature and non-thermal distribution for fermionic Higgs portal dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, John

    2016-08-01

    Warm dark matter (WDM) of order keV mass may be able to resolve the disagreement between structure formation in cold dark matter simulations and observations. The detailed properties of WDM will depend upon its energy distribution, in particular how it deviates from the thermal distribution usually assumed in WDM simulations. Here we focus on WDM production via the Ultra-Violet (UV) freeze-in mechanism, for the case of fermionic Higgs portal dark matter ψ produced via the portal interaction bar psiψH†H/Λ. We introduce a new method to simplify the computation of the non-thermal energy distribution of dark matter from freeze-in. We show that the non-thermal energy distribution from UV freeze-in is hotter than the corresponding thermal distribution and has the form of a Bose-Einstein distribution with a non-thermal normalization. The resulting range of dark matter fermion mass consistent with observations is 5-7 keV. The reheating temperature must satisfy TR gtrsim 120 GeV in order to account for the observed dark matter density when mψ ≈ 5 keV, where the lower bound on TR corresponds to the limit where the fermion mass is entirely due to electroweak symmetry breaking via the portal interaction. The corresponding bound on the interaction scale is Λ gtrsim 6.0 × 109 GeV.