Science.gov

Sample records for reimbursement incentive

  1. Survey-based Indices for Nursing Home Quality Incentive Reimbursement

    PubMed Central

    Willemain, Thomas R.

    1983-01-01

    Incentive payments are a theoretically appealing complement to nursing home quality assurance systems that rely on regulatory enforcement. However, the practical aspects of incentive program design are not yet well understood. After reviewing the rationale for incentive approaches and recent State and. Federal initiatives, the article considers a basic program design issue: creating an index of nursing home quality. It focuses on indices constructed from routine licensure and certification survey results because State initiatives have relied heavily on these readily accessible data. It also suggests a procedure for creating a survey-based index and discusses a sampling of Implementation issues. PMID:10309858

  2. Study participants incentives, compensation and reimbursement in resource-constrained settings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Controversies still exists within the research fraternity on the form and level of incentives, compensation and reimbursement to study participants in resource-constrained settings. While most research activities contribute significantly to advancement of mankind, little has been considered in rewarding directly the research participants from resource-constrained areas. Methods A study was conducted in Zimbabwe to investigate views and expectations of various stakeholders on study participation incentives, compensation and reimbursement issues. Data was collected using various methods including a survey of about 1,008 parents/guardians of school children participating in various immunological cohort studies and parasitology surveys. Community advisory boards (CABs) at 9 of the sites were also consulted. Further, information was gathered during discussions held at a basic research ethics training workshop. The workshop had 45 participants that including 40 seasoned Zimbabwean researchers and 5 international research collaborators. Results About 90% (907) of the study participants and guardians expected compensation of reasonable value, in view of the researchers' value and comparison to other sites regardless of economic status of the community. During discussion with researchers at a basic ethics training workshop, about 80% (32) believed that decisions on level of compensation should be determined by the local research ethics committees. While, the few international research collaborators were of the opinion that compensation should be in accordance with local guidelines, and incentives should be in line with funding. Both the CAB members and study participants expressed that there should be a clear distinction between study incentive and compensation accorded to individual and community expectations on benefits from studies. However, CABs expressed that their suggestions on incentives and compensation are often moderated by the regulatory authorities

  3. Hospital reimbursement incentives: is there a more effective option?--Part II.

    PubMed

    Weil, Thomas P

    2013-01-01

    As discussed in Part I of this article, hospital executives in Canada, Germany, and the United States manage their facilities' resources to maximize the incentives inherent in their respective reimbursement system and thereby increase their bottom line. It was also discussed that an additional supply of available hospitals, physicians, and other services will generate increased utilization. Part II discusses how the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 will eventually fail since it neither controls prices nor utilization (e.g., imaging, procedures, ambulatory surgery, discretionary spending). This article concludes with the discussion of the German multipayer approach with universal access and global budgets that might well be a model for U.S. healthcare in the future. Although the German healthcare system has a number of shortfalls, its paradigm could offer the most appropriate compromise when selecting the economic incentives to reduce the percentage of the U.S. gross domestic product expenditure for healthcare from 17.4% to roughly 12.0%. PMID:23547503

  4. Hospital reimbursement incentives: is there a more effective option?--Part II.

    PubMed

    Weil, Thomas P

    2013-01-01

    As discussed in Part I of this article, hospital executives in Canada, Germany, and the United States manage their facilities' resources to maximize the incentives inherent in their respective reimbursement system and thereby increase their bottom line. It was also discussed that an additional supply of available hospitals, physicians, and other services will generate increased utilization. Part II discusses how the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 will eventually fail since it neither controls prices nor utilization (e.g., imaging, procedures, ambulatory surgery, discretionary spending). This article concludes with the discussion of the German multipayer approach with universal access and global budgets that might well be a model for U.S. healthcare in the future. Although the German healthcare system has a number of shortfalls, its paradigm could offer the most appropriate compromise when selecting the economic incentives to reduce the percentage of the U.S. gross domestic product expenditure for healthcare from 17.4% to roughly 12.0%.

  5. Nursing home performance under case-mix reimbursement: responding to heavy-care incentives and market changes.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, M A; Freeman, J W; Kirby, E C

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of case mix-adjusted reimbursement policy and market factors on nursing home performance. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SETTING: Data from Medicaid certification inspection surveys, Medicaid cost reports, and the Kentucky State Center for Health Statistics for the years 1989 and 1991, to examine changes in nursing home performance stemming from the adoption of case mix-adjusted reimbursement in 1990. STUDY DESIGN: In addition to cross-sectional regressions, a first-difference approach to fixed-effects regression analyses was employed to control for facility differences that were essentially fixed during the survey years and to estimate the effects of time-varying predictors on changes in facility expenditures, efficiency, and profitability. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Facilities that increased the proportion of Medicaid residents and eliminated excess capacity experienced higher profitability gains during the beginning phase of case-mix reimbursement. Having a heavy-care resident population was positively related to expenditures prior to reimbursement reform, and it was negatively related to expenditures after the case-mix reimbursement policy was introduced. While facility-level changes in case mix had no reliable influence on costs or profits, nursing homes showing an increased prevalence of poor-quality nursing practices exhibited increases in efficiency and profitability. At the market level, reductions in excess or empty nursing home beds were accompanied by a significant growth in home health services. Moreover, nursing homes located in markets with expanding home health services exhibited higher increases in costs per case-mix unit. CONCLUSIONS: Characteristics of the reimbursement system appear to reward a cost minimization orientation with potentially detrimental effects on quality of care. These effects, exacerbated by a supply-constrained market, may be mitigated by policies that encourage the expansion of home health service

  6. [The position of the Brazilian Federal Board of Medicine on incentives for reimbursement of childbirth care and the impact on cesarean rates].

    PubMed

    Freitas, Paulo Fontoura; Moreira, Bianca Carvalho; Manoel, Andre Luciano; Botura, Ana Clara de Albuquerque

    2015-09-01

    This study analyzed incentives for reimbursement of childbirth care advocated by the Brazilian Federal Board of Medicine (CFM) and their impact on cesarean rates. A consecutive sample of 600 postpartum women was surveyed. The overall cesarean rate was 59.2%, as compared to 92.3% among women that had the same physician for their prenatal care and childbirth. Cesarean rates were significantly greater in the groups of women with higher prevalence of the same physician during prenatal care and delivery, that is, higher rates were associated with older maternal age (PR = 1.65), more schooling (PR = 1.25), prenatal care in the private sector (PR = 1.39) or through private health plans (PR = 1.43), previous cesarean section (PR = 2.78), and admission earlier in labor (PR = 1.93). The results challenge the position by the CFM that financial incentives for women to have the same obstetrician during prenatal care and labor would encourage normal childbirth, when these women are precisely the ones with the highest cesarean rates.

  7. Insurance Incentives for Health Promotion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosokawa, Michael C.

    1984-01-01

    To reduce the cost of reimbursements, many insurance companies have begun to use insurance incentives as a way to motivate individuals to participate in health promotion activities. Traditional health education, research and demonstration, and policy-premium incentives are methods of health promotion used by life and health insurance companies.…

  8. Vertical integration and optimal reimbursement policy.

    PubMed

    Afendulis, Christopher C; Kessler, Daniel P

    2011-09-01

    Health care providers may vertically integrate not only to facilitate coordination of care, but also for strategic reasons that may not be in patients' best interests. Optimal Medicare reimbursement policy depends upon the extent to which each of these explanations is correct. To investigate, we compare the consequences of the 1997 adoption of prospective payment for skilled nursing facilities (SNF PPS) in geographic areas with high versus low levels of hospital/SNF integration. We find that SNF PPS decreased spending more in high integration areas, with no measurable consequences for patient health outcomes. Our findings suggest that integrated providers should face higher-powered reimbursement incentives, i.e., less cost-sharing. More generally, we conclude that purchasers of health services (and other services subject to agency problems) should consider the organizational form of their suppliers when choosing a reimbursement mechanism.

  9. Vertical integration and optimal reimbursement policy

    PubMed Central

    Afendulis, Christopher C.

    2011-01-01

    Health care providers may vertically integrate not only to facilitate coordination of care, but also for strategic reasons that may not be in patients’ best interests. Optimal Medicare reimbursement policy depends upon the extent to which each of these explanations is correct. To investigate, we compare the consequences of the 1997 adoption of prospective payment for skilled nursing facilities (SNF PPS) in geographic areas with high versus low levels of hospital/SNF integration. We find that SNF PPS decreased spending more in high integration areas, with no measurable consequences for patient health outcomes. Our findings suggest that integrated providers should face higher-powered reimbursement incentives, i.e., less cost-sharing. More generally, we conclude that purchasers of health services (and other services subject to agency problems) should consider the organizational form of their suppliers when choosing a reimbursement mechanism. PMID:21850551

  10. Medicare and Medicaid programs: hospital outpatient prospective payment and ambulatory surgical center payment systems and quality reporting programs; Hospital Value-Based Purchasing Program; organ procurement organizations; quality improvement organizations; Electronic Health Records (EHR) Incentive Program; provider reimbursement determinations and appeals. Final rule with comment period and final rules.

    PubMed

    2013-12-10

    : This final rule with comment period revises the Medicare hospital outpatient prospective payment system (OPPS) and the Medicare ambulatory surgical center (ASC) payment system for CY 2014 to implement applicable statutory requirements and changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems. In this final rule with comment period, we describe the changes to the amounts and factors used to determine the payment rates for Medicare services paid under the OPPS and those paid under the ASC payment system. In addition, this final rule with comment period updates and refines the requirements for the Hospital Outpatient Quality Reporting (OQR) Program, the ASC Quality Reporting (ASCQR) Program, and the Hospital Value-Based Purchasing (VBP) Program. In the final rules in this document, we are finalizing changes to the conditions for coverage (CfCs) for organ procurement organizations (OPOs); revisions to the Quality Improvement Organization (QIO) regulations; changes to the Medicare fee-for-service Electronic Health Record (EHR) Incentive Program; and changes relating to provider reimbursement determinations and appeals.

  11. An evaluation of current approaches to nursing home capital reimbursement.

    PubMed

    Cohen, J; Holahan, J

    1986-01-01

    One of the more controversial issues in reimbursement policy is how to set the capital cost component of facilities rates. In this article we examine in detail the various approaches used by states to reimburse nursing homes for capital costs. We conclude that newer approaches that recognize the increasing value of nursing home assets over time, commonly called fair rental systems, are preferable to the methodologies that have been used historically in both the Medicare and the Medicaid programs to set capital rates. When properly designed, fair rental systems should provide more rational incentives and less encouragement of property manipulation than do more traditional systems, with little or no increase in state costs.

  12. Hospital 'profits': the effects of reimbursement policies.

    PubMed

    Danzon, P M

    1982-05-01

    This paper provides a theoretical and empirical analysis of the effect of cost-based reimbursement (CBR) on hospital costs and charges. It takes issue with previous analyses which have treated CBR as paying economic costs plus a mark-up, and have concluded that the mark-up is too small to significantly distort hospital decision-making. The basic thesis here is that if reimbursement is based on costs, accounting costs become a price to cost-paying patients, and will be optimized to maximize revenue. A hospital serving both cost and charge-paying (private) patients can set two price schedules. Accounting profits (ratio of charges to costs) are not a measure of economic profit but of relative prices to these two groups of patients. In the absence of constraints from regulation or patient co-payment, the optimum level of accounting costs would be infinite. In practice, the Medicare reimbursement formula links allowable costs to charges received from charge-paying patients. This formula creates incentives for the hospital to raise charges above the single-price, profit-maximizing monopoly level. This inflationary effect of the Medicare formula does not presuppose that Medicare pays less than full cost. The empirical analysis of hospital laboratory costs and charges generally supports the predictions; for other departments, the conclusions are consistent but more tentative because of data limitations. Overall, evidence suggests minimal cross-subsidy between cost and charge-paying patients. Comparisons of cost and charge levels in for-profit, voluntary non-profit and government hospitals are presented, but it is emphasized that inferences about relative efficiency and profitability cannot be drawn from accounting data, given the incentives created by CBR.

  13. A Carrot Is Better Than a Stick: The Effects of Advanced Placement Incentive Legislation in Arkansas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Ann; Anthony, Tommie Sue; Liu, Yuxiang; Dickerson, Larry R.; Clowers, Robert L.; Stanley, T. D.

    The Arkansas Advanced Placement Incentive Program served as a charter for the establishment, organization, and administration of a program designed to improve the course offerings available to high school students. The act provided three incentives: (1) one-time equipment/materials grants; (2) teacher professional development reimbursements; and…

  14. Using Incentives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the ethical implications of using incentives to encourage and recognise youth participation in research. While the complexity of research projects and the diversity of research subjects necessarily preclude simple solutions, the author argues that social research can successfully and ethically use a mix of extrinsic and…

  15. 42 CFR 413.177 - Quality incentive program payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 413.177 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PRINCIPLES OF REASONABLE COST REIMBURSEMENT; PAYMENT FOR END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE...-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.177 Quality incentive...

  16. An evaluation of current approaches to nursing home capital reimbursement.

    PubMed

    Cohen, J; Holahan, J

    1986-01-01

    One of the more controversial issues in reimbursement policy is how to set the capital cost component of facilities rates. In this article we examine in detail the various approaches used by states to reimburse nursing homes for capital costs. We conclude that newer approaches that recognize the increasing value of nursing home assets over time, commonly called fair rental systems, are preferable to the methodologies that have been used historically in both the Medicare and the Medicaid programs to set capital rates. When properly designed, fair rental systems should provide more rational incentives and less encouragement of property manipulation than do more traditional systems, with little or no increase in state costs. PMID:2937726

  17. 49 CFR 577.11 - Reimbursement notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... recall and the underlying problem; (2) State that the manufacturer has a program for reimbursing pre-notification remedies and identify the type of remedy eligible for reimbursement; (3) Identify any limits...

  18. 23 CFR 140.604 - Reimbursable schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reimbursable schedule. 140.604 Section 140.604 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES REIMBURSEMENT... Interstate funds shall be subject to a 36-month reimbursable schedule upon conversion to regular...

  19. 23 CFR 140.604 - Reimbursable schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reimbursable schedule. 140.604 Section 140.604 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES REIMBURSEMENT... Interstate funds shall be subject to a 36-month reimbursable schedule upon conversion to regular...

  20. 23 CFR 140.807 - Reimbursable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES REIMBURSEMENT State Highway Agency Audit Expense § 140.807 Reimbursable costs. (a) Federal funds may be used to reimburse an... benefiting parties. The portion of these costs allocated to the Federal-Aid Highway Program which are...

  1. 23 CFR 140.604 - Reimbursable schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reimbursable schedule. 140.604 Section 140.604 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES REIMBURSEMENT... Interstate funds shall be subject to a 36-month reimbursable schedule upon conversion to regular...

  2. 23 CFR 140.604 - Reimbursable schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reimbursable schedule. 140.604 Section 140.604 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES REIMBURSEMENT... Interstate funds shall be subject to a 36-month reimbursable schedule upon conversion to regular...

  3. 23 CFR 140.807 - Reimbursable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES REIMBURSEMENT State Highway Agency Audit Expense § 140.807 Reimbursable costs. (a) Federal funds may be used to reimburse an... benefiting parties. The portion of these costs allocated to the Federal-Aid Highway Program which are...

  4. 23 CFR 140.505 - Reimbursable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reimbursable costs. 140.505 Section 140.505 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES REIMBURSEMENT Administrative Settlement Costs-Contract Claims § 140.505 Reimbursable costs. (a) Federal funds may...

  5. 23 CFR 140.604 - Reimbursable schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reimbursable schedule. 140.604 Section 140.604 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES REIMBURSEMENT... Interstate funds shall be subject to a 36-month reimbursable schedule upon conversion to regular...

  6. 23 CFR 140.505 - Reimbursable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reimbursable costs. 140.505 Section 140.505 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES REIMBURSEMENT Administrative Settlement Costs-Contract Claims § 140.505 Reimbursable costs. (a) Federal funds may...

  7. 23 CFR 140.505 - Reimbursable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reimbursable costs. 140.505 Section 140.505 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES REIMBURSEMENT Administrative Settlement Costs-Contract Claims § 140.505 Reimbursable costs. (a) Federal funds may...

  8. 23 CFR 140.807 - Reimbursable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES REIMBURSEMENT State Highway Agency Audit Expense § 140.807 Reimbursable costs. (a) Federal funds may be used to reimburse an... benefiting parties. The portion of these costs allocated to the Federal-Aid Highway Program which are...

  9. 23 CFR 140.505 - Reimbursable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reimbursable costs. 140.505 Section 140.505 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES REIMBURSEMENT Administrative Settlement Costs-Contract Claims § 140.505 Reimbursable costs. (a) Federal funds may...

  10. 23 CFR 140.807 - Reimbursable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES REIMBURSEMENT State Highway Agency Audit Expense § 140.807 Reimbursable costs. (a) Federal funds may be used to reimburse an... benefiting parties. The portion of these costs allocated to the Federal-Aid Highway Program which are...

  11. 14 CFR 1214.803 - Reimbursement policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reimbursement policy. 1214.803 Section 1214.803 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement for... shall be escalated in accordance with the Shuttle policy. (c) Customers shall reimburse NASA an...

  12. 14 CFR 1214.803 - Reimbursement policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Reimbursement policy. 1214.803 Section 1214.803 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement for... shall be escalated in accordance with the Shuttle policy. (c) Customers shall reimburse NASA an...

  13. 14 CFR 1214.803 - Reimbursement policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reimbursement policy. 1214.803 Section 1214.803 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement for... shall be escalated in accordance with the Shuttle policy. (c) Customers shall reimburse NASA an...

  14. 14 CFR 1214.803 - Reimbursement policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reimbursement policy. 1214.803 Section 1214.803 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement for... shall be escalated in accordance with the Shuttle policy. (c) Customers shall reimburse NASA an...

  15. Reimbursement for critical care services in India

    PubMed Central

    Jayaram, Raja; Ramakrishnan, Nagarajan

    2013-01-01

    There are significant variations in critical care practices, costs, and reimbursements in various countries. Of note, there is a paucity of reliable information on remuneration and reimbursement models for intensivists in India. This review article aims to analyze the existing reimbursement models in United States and United Kingdom and propose a frame-work model that may be applicable in India. PMID:23833469

  16. 23 CFR 140.807 - Reimbursable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reimbursable costs. 140.807 Section 140.807 Highways... Highway Agency Audit Expense § 140.807 Reimbursable costs. (a) Federal funds may be used to reimburse an SHA for the following types of project related audit costs: (1) Salaries, wages, and related...

  17. 32 CFR 845.10 - Reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reimbursement. 845.10 Section 845.10 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE CLAIMS AND LITIGATION COUNSEL FEES AND OTHER EXPENSES IN FOREIGN TRIBUNALS § 845.10 Reimbursement. No reimbursement will ordinarily...

  18. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(19)-1 - Reimbursements under a self-insured medical reimbursement plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Reimbursements under a self-insured medical reimbursement plan. Amounts reimbursed to or on behalf of an employee after December 31, 1979, as a medical care reimbursement under a self-insured medical reimbursement plan... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reimbursements under a self-insured...

  19. Incentive models to increase living kidney donation: encouraging without coercing.

    PubMed

    Israni, Ajay K; Halpern, Scott D; Zink, Sheldon; Sidhwani, Sonal A; Caplan, Arthur

    2005-01-01

    Kidney transplantation is a superior treatment strategy than chronic dialysis for end-stage renal disease patients. However, there is a severe shortage of cadaveric kidneys that are available for transplantation. Therefore many patients are turning to living donors. We describe four models of incentives to improve rates of living kidney donation: the market compensation model, the fixed compensation model, no-compensation model and the expense reimbursement model. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each of these models. Any incentive to improve rates of living kidney donation must be accompanied by safeguards. These safeguards will prevent living donors from being viewed primarily as a resource for transplants. These safeguards will also prevent vulnerable individuals from being coerced into donation and will monitor long-term outcomes of donors using a donor registry. We recommend the use of the expense reimbursement model along with these safeguards, in order to increase rates of living kidney donation. PMID:15636607

  20. Evolving telehealth reimbursement in Australia.

    PubMed

    Bursell, S-E; Zang, S; Keech, A C; Jenkins, A J

    2016-08-01

    Video-based consultation is the only telehealth service reimbursed by the Medicare Benefits Schedule in Australia, but the uptake of telehealth is still low and inconsistent. There is a clear need for the development of appropriate medical evidence to support implementation of telehealth services. With the ubiquitous use of mobile phones, mobile health becomes important in facilitating health services and impacting clinical outcomes anywhere. PMID:27553999

  1. Reimbursement for Continuous Glucose Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Heinemann, Lutz; DeVries, J Hans

    2016-02-01

    Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems have been available for more than 15 years by now. However, market uptake is relatively low in most countries; in other words, relatively few patients with diabetes use CGM systems regularly. One major reason for the reluctance of patients to use CGM systems is the costs associated (i.e., in most countries no reimbursement is provided by the health insurance companies). In case reimbursement is in place, like in the United States, only certain patient groups get reimbursement that fulfills strict indications. This situation is somewhat surprising in view of the mounting evidence for benefits of CGM usage from clinical trials: most meta-analyses of these trials consistently show a clinically relevant improvement of glucose control associated with a reduction in hypoglycemic events. More recent trials with CGM systems with an improved CGM technology showed even more impressive benefits, especially if CGM systems are used in different combinations with an insulin pump (e.g., with automated bolus calculators and low glucose suspend features). Nevertheless, sufficient evidence is not available for all patient groups, and more data on cost-efficacy are needed. In addition, good data from real-world studies/registers documenting the benefits of CGM usage under daily life conditions would be of help to convince healthcare systems to cover the costs of CGM systems. In view of the ongoing improvements in established needle-type CGM systems, the fact that new CGM technology will come to the market soon (e.g., implantable sensors), that CGM-like systems are quite successfully at least in certain markets (like the flash glucose monitoring systems), and that the first artificial pancreas systems will come to the market in the next few years, there is a need to make sure that this major improvement in diabetes therapy becomes more widely available for patients with diabetes, for which better reimbursement is essential. PMID:26784130

  2. Reimbursement for Continuous Glucose Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    DeVries, J. Hans

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems have been available for more than 15 years by now. However, market uptake is relatively low in most countries; in other words, relatively few patients with diabetes use CGM systems regularly. One major reason for the reluctance of patients to use CGM systems is the costs associated (i.e., in most countries no reimbursement is provided by the health insurance companies). In case reimbursement is in place, like in the United States, only certain patient groups get reimbursement that fulfills strict indications. This situation is somewhat surprising in view of the mounting evidence for benefits of CGM usage from clinical trials: most meta-analyses of these trials consistently show a clinically relevant improvement of glucose control associated with a reduction in hypoglycemic events. More recent trials with CGM systems with an improved CGM technology showed even more impressive benefits, especially if CGM systems are used in different combinations with an insulin pump (e.g., with automated bolus calculators and low glucose suspend features). Nevertheless, sufficient evidence is not available for all patient groups, and more data on cost–efficacy are needed. In addition, good data from real-world studies/registers documenting the benefits of CGM usage under daily life conditions would be of help to convince healthcare systems to cover the costs of CGM systems. In view of the ongoing improvements in established needle-type CGM systems, the fact that new CGM technology will come to the market soon (e.g., implantable sensors), that CGM-like systems are quite successfully at least in certain markets (like the flash glucose monitoring systems), and that the first artificial pancreas systems will come to the market in the next few years, there is a need to make sure that this major improvement in diabetes therapy becomes more widely available for patients with diabetes, for which better reimbursement is essential. PMID

  3. Pricing and reimbursement of orphan drugs: the need for more transparency.

    PubMed

    Simoens, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Pricing and reimbursement of orphan drugs are an issue of high priority for policy makers, legislators, health care professionals, industry leaders, academics and patients. This study aims to conduct a literature review to provide insight into the drivers of orphan drug pricing and reimbursement. Although orphan drug pricing follows the same economic logic as drug pricing in general, the monopolistic power of orphan drugs results in high prices: a) orphan drugs benefit from a period of marketing exclusivity; b) few alternative health technologies are available; c) third-party payers and patients have limited negotiating power; d) manufacturers attempt to maximise orphan drug prices within the constraints of domestic pricing and reimbursement policies; and e) substantial R&D costs need to be recouped from a small number of patients. Although these conditions apply to some orphan drugs, they do not apply to all orphan drugs. Indeed, the small number of patients treated with an orphan drug and the limited economic viability of orphan drugs can be questioned in a number of cases. Additionally, manufacturers have an incentive to game the system by artificially creating monopolistic market conditions. Given their high price for an often modest effectiveness, orphan drugs are unlikely to provide value for money. However, additional criteria are used to inform reimbursement decisions in some countries. These criteria may include: the seriousness of the disease; the availability of other therapies to treat the disease; and the cost to the patient if the medicine is not reimbursed. Therefore, the maximum cost per unit of outcome that a health care payer is willing to pay for a drug could be set higher for orphan drugs to which society attaches a high social value. There is a need for a transparent and evidence-based approach towards orphan drug pricing and reimbursement. Such an approach should be targeted at demonstrating the relative effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and

  4. Pricing and reimbursement of orphan drugs: the need for more transparency

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Pricing and reimbursement of orphan drugs are an issue of high priority for policy makers, legislators, health care professionals, industry leaders, academics and patients. This study aims to conduct a literature review to provide insight into the drivers of orphan drug pricing and reimbursement. Although orphan drug pricing follows the same economic logic as drug pricing in general, the monopolistic power of orphan drugs results in high prices: a) orphan drugs benefit from a period of marketing exclusivity; b) few alternative health technologies are available; c) third-party payers and patients have limited negotiating power; d) manufacturers attempt to maximise orphan drug prices within the constraints of domestic pricing and reimbursement policies; and e) substantial R&D costs need to be recouped from a small number of patients. Although these conditions apply to some orphan drugs, they do not apply to all orphan drugs. Indeed, the small number of patients treated with an orphan drug and the limited economic viability of orphan drugs can be questioned in a number of cases. Additionally, manufacturers have an incentive to game the system by artificially creating monopolistic market conditions. Given their high price for an often modest effectiveness, orphan drugs are unlikely to provide value for money. However, additional criteria are used to inform reimbursement decisions in some countries. These criteria may include: the seriousness of the disease; the availability of other therapies to treat the disease; and the cost to the patient if the medicine is not reimbursed. Therefore, the maximum cost per unit of outcome that a health care payer is willing to pay for a drug could be set higher for orphan drugs to which society attaches a high social value. There is a need for a transparent and evidence-based approach towards orphan drug pricing and reimbursement. Such an approach should be targeted at demonstrating the relative effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and

  5. Reimbursement under DRGs: implementation in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Davies, R H; Westfall, G

    1983-01-01

    This paper addresses the general concept of incorporating DRGs (Diagnosis Related Groups) into health care reimbursement systems and specifically addresses the problems and issues encountered in implementing a DRG-based hospital reimbursement system in the State of New Jersey during the period 1978-1982. We will frame the problem by briefly discussing the traditional problem with cost-based reimbursement systems, the objective and general methodology of patient classification, and the use of DRGs in hospital reimbursement. We then explore in some detail each phase of the process of constructing a workable prospective case-mix reimbursement system as it occurred in the State of New Jersey, discussing in particular the major reimbursement policy issues, their resolution, and impact on the system as a whole. Specific concerns addressed are patient data requirements, financial and statistical data requirements, the allocation of costs to patients, the development of prospective rates, the actual mechanics of payment, and current developments in New Jersey.

  6. 7 CFR 1485.17 - Reimbursement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF FOREIGN MARKETS FOR AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES Market Access Program § 1485.17 Reimbursement procedures....

  7. The impending reimbursement revolution: how to prepare for future APN reimbursement.

    PubMed

    Kennerly, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Health care reimbursement reform is underway as part of a national effort to enhance quality outcomes and bring spiraling health care costs under control. Implications of pay-for-performance reimbursement are discussed along with ways to prepare for changes in APN reimbursement.

  8. 75 FR 82029 - Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... ADMINISTRATION Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy (OGP... Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates. SUMMARY: The General Services Administration's (GSA) annual privately owned vehicle (POV) mileage reimbursement rate reviews have resulted in new CY...

  9. 77 FR 22786 - Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... ADMINISTRATION Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy (OGP...) 2012 Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates. SUMMARY: The General Services Administration's (GSA) special review of privately owned vehicle (POV) mileage reimbursement rates has resulted...

  10. What explains DRG upcoding in neonatology? The roles of financial incentives and infant health.

    PubMed

    Jürges, Hendrik; Köberlein, Juliane

    2015-09-01

    We use the introduction of diagnosis related groups (DRGs) in German neonatology to study the determinants of upcoding. Since 2003, reimbursement is based inter alia on birth weight, with substantial discontinuities at eight thresholds. These discontinuities create incentives to upcode preterm infants into classes of lower birth weight. Using data from the German birth statistics 1996-2010 and German hospital data from 2006 to 2011, we show that (1) since the introduction of DRGs, hospitals have upcoded at least 12,000 preterm infants and gained additional reimbursement in excess of 100 million Euro; (2) upcoding rates are systematically higher at thresholds with larger reimbursement hikes and in hospitals that subsequently treat preterm infants, i.e. where the gains accrue; (3) upcoding is systematically linked with newborn health conditional on birth weight. Doctors and midwives respond to financial incentives by not upcoding newborns with low survival probabilities, and by upcoding infants with higher expected treatment costs. PMID:26114589

  11. 23 CFR 140.904 - Reimbursement basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reimbursement basis. 140.904 Section 140.904 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES REIMBURSEMENT... program. (2) Incurred subsequent to the date of authorization by the Federal Highway Administration...

  12. 23 CFR 140.904 - Reimbursement basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reimbursement basis. 140.904 Section 140.904 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES REIMBURSEMENT... program. (2) Incurred subsequent to the date of authorization by the Federal Highway Administration...

  13. 23 CFR 140.904 - Reimbursement basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reimbursement basis. 140.904 Section 140.904 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES REIMBURSEMENT... program. (2) Incurred subsequent to the date of authorization by the Federal Highway Administration...

  14. 23 CFR 140.904 - Reimbursement basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reimbursement basis. 140.904 Section 140.904 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES REIMBURSEMENT... program. (2) Incurred subsequent to the date of authorization by the Federal Highway Administration...

  15. 23 CFR 140.904 - Reimbursement basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reimbursement basis. 140.904 Section 140.904 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES REIMBURSEMENT... program. (2) Incurred subsequent to the date of authorization by the Federal Highway Administration...

  16. 44 CFR 208.52 - Reimbursement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reimbursement procedures. 208.52 Section 208.52 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE NATIONAL URBAN SEARCH AND RESCUE RESPONSE SYSTEM Reimbursement Claims and Appeals § 208.52...

  17. 14 CFR 1214.202 - Reimbursement policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... a space-available basis during both phases of Shuttle operation. The price for this service will be... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reimbursement policy. 1214.202 Section 1214.202 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement...

  18. 14 CFR 1214.202 - Reimbursement policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... a space-available basis during both phases of Shuttle operation. The price for this service will be... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reimbursement policy. 1214.202 Section 1214.202 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement...

  19. 14 CFR 1214.202 - Reimbursement policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... a space-available basis during both phases of Shuttle operation. The price for this service will be... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Reimbursement policy. 1214.202 Section 1214.202 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement...

  20. 50 CFR 37.46 - Cost reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF THE COASTAL PLAIN, ARCTIC NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE, ALASKA General Administration § 37.46 Cost reimbursement. (a) Each applicant for... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost reimbursement. 37.46 Section...

  1. 50 CFR 37.46 - Cost reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF THE COASTAL PLAIN, ARCTIC NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE, ALASKA General Administration § 37.46 Cost reimbursement. (a) Each applicant for... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost reimbursement. 37.46 Section...

  2. 50 CFR 37.46 - Cost reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF THE COASTAL PLAIN, ARCTIC NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE, ALASKA General Administration § 37.46 Cost reimbursement. (a) Each applicant for... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost reimbursement. 37.46 Section...

  3. 50 CFR 37.46 - Cost reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF THE COASTAL PLAIN, ARCTIC NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE, ALASKA General Administration § 37.46 Cost reimbursement. (a) Each applicant for... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost reimbursement. 37.46 Section...

  4. 76 FR 2291 - TRICARE Reimbursement Revisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... assistants and assistant-at-surgery claims; and this rule revises the regulation by removing references to... Assistant-at-Surgery The current regulatory language references specific reimbursement percentages for assistant-at-surgery reimbursement. Rather than including these specific percentage amounts, which...

  5. 77 FR 38173 - TRICARE Reimbursement Revisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... was published on January 13, 2011 (76 FR 2291). Two sets of comments were received on the proposed...: Hospice periods of care; reimbursement of physician assistants and assistant-at-surgery claims; and... Reimbursement Manual, and may be accessed at www.tricare.mil . II. Physician Assistants and...

  6. 50 CFR 37.46 - Cost reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost reimbursement. 37.46 Section 37.46... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE, ALASKA General Administration § 37.46 Cost reimbursement. (a) Each applicant for... actual costs incurred, including, but not limited to, its direct costs and indirect costs as...

  7. 23 CFR 140.505 - Reimbursable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reimbursable costs. 140.505 Section 140.505 Highways... Administrative Settlement Costs-Contract Claims § 140.505 Reimbursable costs. (a) Federal funds may participate in administrative settlement costs which are: (1) Incurred after notice of claim, (2)...

  8. 24 CFR 5.632 - Utility reimbursements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Utility reimbursements. 5.632... Section 8 Project-Based Assistance Family Payment § 5.632 Utility reimbursements. (a) Applicability. This...); (2) A public housing family paying an income-based rent (see § 960.253 of this title)....

  9. Changes in prescribing behaviors after implementing drug reimbursement rate reduction policy in Taiwan: implications for the medicare system.

    PubMed

    Chu, Hsuan-Lien; Liu, Shuen-Zen; Romeis, James C

    2008-01-01

    Prescription drug costs are the fastest rising component of health care spending worldwide. To control drug costs, the Bureau of the National Health Insurance in Taiwan has taken a series of actions over the years to reduce drug reimbursement rates. The purpose of this study is to investigate changes in physicians' prescribing behaviors after initial implementation of drug reimbursement rate reduction policy in Taiwan. For the study, variance cost analysis was used to investigate how physicians reacted after implementation of a policy that reduced selected drug reimbursement rates. The results indicate that the existence of financial benefits from prescribing drugs seems to create an incentive for physicians to increase prescription duration and drug items per prescription. In addition, differences in drug reimbursement rates may create incentives to prescribe drugs with higher revenue instead of lower revenue. From Taiwan's experience, we know that price is merely one of the many factors that influences drug expenditures. Taiwan's experience may offer lessons for the future of the Medicare system, as well as for non-US health policy officials when they design similar policies for their own countries. PMID:18468378

  10. Bringing Managed Care Incentives to Medicare's Fee-for-Service Sector

    PubMed Central

    Tompkins, Christopher P.; Wallack, Stanley S.; Bhalotra, Sarita; Chilingerian, Jon A.; Glavin, Mitchell P.V.; Ritter, Grant A.; Hodgkin, Dominic

    1996-01-01

    The Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) could work with eligible physician organizations to generate savings in total reimbursements for their Medicare patients. Medicare would continue to reimburse all providers according to standard payment policies and mechanisms, and beneficiaries would retain the freedom to choose providers. However, implementation of new financial incentives, based on meeting targets called Group-Specific Volume Performance Standards (GVPS), would encourage cost-effective service delivery patterns. HCFA could use new and existing data systems to monitor access, utilization patterns, cost outcomes and quality of care. In short, HCFA could manage providers, who, in turn, would manage their patients' care. PMID:10165712

  11. Photovoltaic Incentive Design Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, T. E.

    2006-12-01

    Investments in customer-owned grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) energy systems are growing at a steady pace. This is due, in part, to the availability of attractive economic incentives offered by public state agencies and utilities. In the United States, these incentives have largely been upfront lump payments tied to the system capacity rating. While capacity-based ''buydowns'' have stimulated the domestic PV market, they have been criticized for subsidizing systems with potentially poor energy performance. As a result, the industry has been forced to consider alternative incentive structures, particularly ones that pay based on long-term measured performance. The industry, however, lacks consensus in the debate over the tradeoffs between upfront incentive payments versus longer-term payments for energy delivery. This handbook is designed for agencies and utilities that offer or intend to offer incentive programs for customer-owned PV systems. Its purpose is to help select, design, and implement incentive programs that best meet programmatic goals. The handbook begins with a discussion of the various available incentive structures and then provides qualitative and quantitative tools necessary to design the most appropriate incentive structure. It concludes with program administration considerations.

  12. Medicaid Capital Reimbursement Policy and Environmental Artifacts of Nursing Home Culture Change

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Susan C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: To examine how Medicaid capital reimbursement policy is associated with nursing homes (NHs) having high proportions of private rooms and small households. Design and Methods: Through a 2009/2010 NH national survey, we identified NHs having small households and high proportions of private rooms (≥76%). A survey of state Medicaid officials and policy document review provided 2009 policy data. Facility- and county-level covariates were from Online Survey, Certification and Reporting, the Area Resource File, and aggregated resident assessment data (minimum data set). The policy of interest was the presence of traditional versus fair rental capital reimbursement policy. Average Medicaid per diem rates and the presence of NH pay-for-performance (p4p) reimbursement were also examined. A total of 1,665 NHs in 40 states were included. Multivariate logistic regression analyses (with clustering on states) were used. Results: In multivariate models, Medicaid capital reimbursement policy was not significantly associated with either outcome. However, there was a significantly greater likelihood of NHs having many private rooms when states had higher Medicaid rates (per $10 increment; adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.13; 95% CI 1.049, 1.228), and in states with versus without p4p (AOR 1.78; 95% CI 1.045, 3.036). Also, in states with p4p NHs had a greater likelihood of having small households (AOR 1.78; 95% CI 1.045, 3.0636). Implications: Higher NH Medicaid rates and reimbursement incentives may contribute to a higher presence of 2 important environmental artifacts of culture change—an abundance of private rooms and small households. However, longitudinal research examining policy change is needed to establish the cause and effect of the associations observed. PMID:24443609

  13. Chief nurse executive incentive compensation.

    PubMed

    Korth, N L; Reichelt, P A

    1990-12-01

    More and more chief nurse executives (CNEs) are receiving incentive compensation plans. The authors report trends in incentive compensation and discuss what 184 CNEs in multihospital systems said about their incentive compensation plan. PMID:2243273

  14. 78 FR 51061 - TRICARE; Reimbursement of Sole Community Hospitals and Adjustment to Reimbursement of Critical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... Part 199 RIN 0720-AB41 TRICARE; Reimbursement of Sole Community Hospitals and Adjustment to Reimbursement of Critical Access Hospitals; Correction AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Final rule; correction. SUMMARY: On Thursday, August 8, 2013 (78 FR 48303-48311),...

  15. 76 FR 39043 - TRICARE; Reimbursement of Sole Community Hospitals and Adjustment to Reimbursement of Critical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... Military Contingency Payment Adjustment On August 31, 2009, we published a final rule (74 FR 44752), which... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 199 TRICARE; Reimbursement of Sole Community Hospitals and Adjustment to Reimbursement of Critical Access Hospitals AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Department of Defense (DoD)....

  16. 7 CFR 400.712 - Research and development reimbursement, maintenance reimbursement, and user fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Research and development reimbursement, maintenance reimbursement, and user fees. 400.712 Section 400.712 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Submission of...

  17. 7 CFR 400.712 - Research and development reimbursement, maintenance reimbursement, and user fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Research and development reimbursement, maintenance... Submission of Policies, Provisions of Policies and Rates of Premium § 400.712 Research and development... submission may be eligible for a one-time payment of research and development costs and reimbursement...

  18. Diabetes device reimbursement in the EU-5.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Elmar; Schnell, Gerald; Bobáková, Tamara

    2013-07-01

    The reimbursement landscape for new and innovative diabetes devices in Europe is very heterogeneous and nontransparent, with each country employing different mechanisms, pathways, and requirements. This article provides an overview of how diabetes device reimbursement works in the outpatient setting in the five major European Union markets (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom; the EU-5). It will be of particular interest to manufacturers of innovative devices. Markets are first categorized as either a centralized or a regionalized reimbursement decision-making system, and implications for device reimbursement are explored. In the second part, specific requirements and success factors for wide reimbursement in the EU-5 are analyzed in detail. Gaining early acceptance by the main influencers (key opinion leaders and payers) is the first step. Equally important is the provision of convincing evidence, be this clinical, health-economic (cost-effectiveness), or a demonstration of cost savings (budget impact). In some countries, local usage data may be a requirement as well. Lastly, as payers' willingness to pay stems directly from their perceived value of a device, a key success factor and a necessary precondition for manufacturers is to set the right price. PMID:23911192

  19. Using an incentive spirometer

    MedlinePlus

    do Nascimento Jr P, Módolo NSP, Andrade S, et al. Incentive spirometry for prevention of postoperative pulmonary complications in upper abdominal surgery. Cochrane Database Sys Rev . Published online February 8, ...

  20. Analysis of nursing home capital reimbursement systems

    PubMed Central

    Boerstler, Heidi; Carlough, Tom; Schlenker, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    An increasing number of States are using a fair-rental approach for reimbursement of nursing home capital costs. In this study, two variants of the fair-rental capital-reimbursement approach are compared with the traditional cost-based approach in terms of after-tax cash flow to the investor, cost to the State, and rate of return to investor. Simulation models were developed to examine the effects of each capital-reimbursement approach both at specific points in time and over various periods of time. Results indicate that although long-term costs were similar for the three systems, both fair-rental approaches may be superior to the traditional cost-based approach in promoting and controlling industry stability and, at the same time, in providing an adequate return to investors. PMID:10110878

  1. Fertility incentives and disincentives.

    PubMed

    Financioglu, N

    1984-06-01

    Some 40 countries use some form of incentives and disincentives in support of population policies, about half with the aim of reducing fertility and half with the aim of increasing it. These schemes range from limitations on tax and family allowances or maternity benefits after a given family size has been reached to payments to acceptors of fertility control methods. Some schemes aim to eliminate or reduce the cost and inconvenience people may face in achieving their fertility preferences, whereas others contain an element of deterrence. It is difficult to isolate and measure the impact of incentives on fertility from the effects of other factors such as family planning service availability or modernization. Studies in pronatalist countries suggest that incentive schemes produce short-term fertility increases without a change in average family size. Monetary incentives must be constantly increased to keep pace with inflation, placing a heavy burden on government budgets. Administrative capacity to operate the scheme is critical in terms of both manpower and efficient systems for record keeping, monitoring, and close supervision to prevent abuse. There is also considerable debate on the moral and ethical implications of incentives and disincentives as policy tools. Incentives offered for the acceptance of a particular fertility control method potentially contravene the principle of voluntary and informed consent. In addition, the relative value of the reward is greater for those in the lower income groups. The discriminatory nature of certain types of incentives and disincentives is illustrated by measures introduced in Singapore that give highest priority in school enrollment to the children of highly educated mothers with 2-3 children. This ruling is expected to further intensify the controversy surrounding incentive and disincentive schemes. PMID:12266286

  2. 20 CFR 341.5 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.5 Amount of reimbursement. (a) The Board shall receive as reimbursement the lesser of: (1) The amount of sickness benefits paid to the employee for the infirmity...

  3. 20 CFR 341.5 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.5 Amount of reimbursement. (a) The Board shall receive as reimbursement the lesser of: (1) The amount of sickness benefits paid to the employee for the infirmity...

  4. 20 CFR 341.5 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.5 Amount of reimbursement. (a) The Board shall receive as reimbursement the lesser of: (1) The amount of sickness benefits paid to the employee for the infirmity...

  5. 20 CFR 341.5 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.5 Amount of reimbursement. (a) The Board shall receive as reimbursement the lesser of: (1) The amount of sickness benefits paid to the employee for the infirmity...

  6. 28 CFR 94.23 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amount of reimbursement. 94.23 Section 94.23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Coverage § 94.23 Amount of reimbursement....

  7. 14 CFR § 1214.803 - Reimbursement policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reimbursement policy. § 1214.803 Section § 1214.803 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement... shall be escalated in accordance with the Shuttle policy. (c) Customers shall reimburse NASA an...

  8. 19 CFR 147.33 - Reimbursement by fair operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reimbursement by fair operator. 147.33 Section 147... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Customs Supervision § 147.33 Reimbursement by fair operator. All... reimbursed by the fair operator to the Government, payment to be made on demand to the port director...

  9. 19 CFR 147.33 - Reimbursement by fair operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reimbursement by fair operator. 147.33 Section 147... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Customs Supervision § 147.33 Reimbursement by fair operator. All... reimbursed by the fair operator to the Government, payment to be made on demand to the port director...

  10. 45 CFR 149.100 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of reimbursement. 149.100 Section 149.100... REQUIREMENTS FOR THE EARLY RETIREE REINSURANCE PROGRAM Reinsurance Amounts § 149.100 Amount of reimbursement... reimbursement in the amount of 80 percent of the costs for health benefits (net of negotiated price...

  11. 75 FR 62348 - Reimbursement Offsets for Medical Care or Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 17 RIN 2900-AN55 Reimbursement Offsets for Medical Care or Services AGENCY: Department... to amend its regulations concerning the reimbursement of medical care and services delivered to... payers are required to reimburse VA for costs related to care provided by VA to a veteran covered...

  12. 78 FR 76626 - Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... ADMINISTRATION Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates AGENCY: Office of Government-wide Policy (OGP... Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates. SUMMARY: The General Services Administration's annual privately owned vehicle (POV) mileage reimbursement rate reviews have resulted in new CY 2014 rates for...

  13. 77 FR 76487 - Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... ADMINISTRATION Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy (OGP... Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates. SUMMARY: The General Services Administration's annual privately owned vehicle (POV) mileage reimbursement rate reviews have resulted in new CY 2013 rates for...

  14. 45 CFR 149.200 - Use of reimbursements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of reimbursements. 149.200 Section 149.200 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE EARLY RETIREE REINSURANCE PROGRAM Use of Reimbursements § 149.200 Use of reimbursements. (a) A sponsor must use the proceeds...

  15. 7 CFR 1484.56 - How are Cooperators reimbursed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....S. office to the Director, Marketing Operations Staff, FAS, USDA. (c) FAS will not reimburse claims submitted later than 6 months after the end of a marketing plan year. (d) If FAS overpays a reimbursement... format for reimbursement claims is available from the Director, Marketing Operations Staff, FAS,...

  16. 28 CFR 94.23 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amount of reimbursement. 94.23 Section 94.23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Coverage § 94.23 Amount of reimbursement....

  17. 28 CFR 94.23 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amount of reimbursement. 94.23 Section 94.23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Coverage § 94.23 Amount of reimbursement....

  18. 28 CFR 94.23 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amount of reimbursement. 94.23 Section 94.23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Coverage § 94.23 Amount of reimbursement....

  19. 28 CFR 94.23 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amount of reimbursement. 94.23 Section 94.23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Coverage § 94.23 Amount of reimbursement....

  20. 20 CFR 416.1496 - Who may be reimbursed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Who may be reimbursed. 416.1496 Section 416... Decisions Payment of Certain Travel Expenses § 416.1496 Who may be reimbursed. (a) The following individuals may be reimbursed for certain travel expenses— (1) You, when you attend medical examinations...

  1. 20 CFR 416.1496 - Who may be reimbursed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Who may be reimbursed. 416.1496 Section 416... Decisions Payment of Certain Travel Expenses § 416.1496 Who may be reimbursed. (a) The following individuals may be reimbursed for certain travel expenses— (1) You, when you attend medical examinations...

  2. 20 CFR 416.1496 - Who may be reimbursed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Who may be reimbursed. 416.1496 Section 416... Decisions Payment of Certain Travel Expenses § 416.1496 Who may be reimbursed. (a) The following individuals may be reimbursed for certain travel expenses— (1) You, when you attend medical examinations...

  3. 20 CFR 404.999b - Who may be reimbursed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Who may be reimbursed. 404.999b Section 404... Decisions Payment of Certain Travel Expenses § 404.999b Who may be reimbursed. (a) The following individuals may be reimbursed for certain travel expenses— (1) You, when you attend medical examinations...

  4. 20 CFR 404.999b - Who may be reimbursed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Who may be reimbursed. 404.999b Section 404... Decisions Payment of Certain Travel Expenses § 404.999b Who may be reimbursed. (a) The following individuals may be reimbursed for certain travel expenses— (1) You, when you attend medical examinations...

  5. 20 CFR 416.1496 - Who may be reimbursed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who may be reimbursed. 416.1496 Section 416... Decisions Payment of Certain Travel Expenses § 416.1496 Who may be reimbursed. (a) The following individuals may be reimbursed for certain travel expenses— (1) You, when you attend medical examinations...

  6. 20 CFR 404.999b - Who may be reimbursed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Who may be reimbursed. 404.999b Section 404... Decisions Payment of Certain Travel Expenses § 404.999b Who may be reimbursed. (a) The following individuals may be reimbursed for certain travel expenses— (1) You, when you attend medical examinations...

  7. 20 CFR 404.999b - Who may be reimbursed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who may be reimbursed. 404.999b Section 404... Decisions Payment of Certain Travel Expenses § 404.999b Who may be reimbursed. (a) The following individuals may be reimbursed for certain travel expenses— (1) You, when you attend medical examinations...

  8. 7 CFR 220.10 - Effective date for reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SCHOOL BREAKFAST PROGRAM § 220.10 Effective date for reimbursement. Reimbursement payments under the School Breakfast Program may be made only to School Food... execution of the agreement. Such payments may include reimbursement in connection with breakfasts served...

  9. 7 CFR 220.10 - Effective date for reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SCHOOL BREAKFAST PROGRAM § 220.10 Effective date for reimbursement. Reimbursement payments under the School Breakfast Program may be made only to School Food... execution of the agreement. Such payments may include reimbursement in connection with breakfasts served...

  10. 7 CFR 220.10 - Effective date for reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SCHOOL BREAKFAST PROGRAM § 220.10 Effective date for reimbursement. Reimbursement payments under the School Breakfast Program may be made only to School Food... execution of the agreement. Such payments may include reimbursement in connection with breakfasts served...

  11. 7 CFR 220.10 - Effective date for reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SCHOOL BREAKFAST PROGRAM § 220.10 Effective date for reimbursement. Reimbursement payments under the School Breakfast Program may be made only to School Food... execution of the agreement. Such payments may include reimbursement in connection with breakfasts served...

  12. 10 CFR 765.20 - Procedures for submitting reimbursement claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Section 765.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM... reimbursement ceiling for any active uranium or thorium processing site; (5) Any revision in the per dry short ton limit on reimbursement for all active uranium processing sites; and (6) Any other...

  13. 10 CFR 765.20 - Procedures for submitting reimbursement claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 765.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM... reimbursement ceiling for any active uranium or thorium processing site; (5) Any revision in the per dry short ton limit on reimbursement for all active uranium processing sites; and (6) Any other...

  14. 10 CFR 765.20 - Procedures for submitting reimbursement claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Section 765.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM... reimbursement ceiling for any active uranium or thorium processing site; (5) Any revision in the per dry short ton limit on reimbursement for all active uranium processing sites; and (6) Any other...

  15. 10 CFR 765.20 - Procedures for submitting reimbursement claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 765.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM... reimbursement ceiling for any active uranium or thorium processing site; (5) Any revision in the per dry short ton limit on reimbursement for all active uranium processing sites; and (6) Any other...

  16. 10 CFR 765.20 - Procedures for submitting reimbursement claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 765.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM... reimbursement ceiling for any active uranium or thorium processing site; (5) Any revision in the per dry short ton limit on reimbursement for all active uranium processing sites; and (6) Any other...

  17. 34 CFR 75.564 - Reimbursement of indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accordance with the restrictions in 34 CFR 76.564 through 76.569. (e)(1) Indirect costs for a group of... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reimbursement of indirect costs. 75.564 Section 75.564... by a Grantee? Indirect Cost Rates § 75.564 Reimbursement of indirect costs. (a) Reimbursement...

  18. 34 CFR 75.564 - Reimbursement of indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with the restrictions in 34 CFR 76.564 through 76.569. (e)(1) Indirect costs for a group of... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reimbursement of indirect costs. 75.564 Section 75.564... by a Grantee? Indirect Cost Rates § 75.564 Reimbursement of indirect costs. (a) Reimbursement...

  19. 34 CFR 75.564 - Reimbursement of indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... accordance with the restrictions in 34 CFR 76.564 through 76.569. (e)(1) Indirect costs for a group of... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reimbursement of indirect costs. 75.564 Section 75.564... by a Grantee? Indirect Cost Rates § 75.564 Reimbursement of indirect costs. (a) Reimbursement...

  20. 34 CFR 75.564 - Reimbursement of indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... accordance with the restrictions in 34 CFR 76.564 through 76.569. (e)(1) Indirect costs for a group of... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reimbursement of indirect costs. 75.564 Section 75.564... by a Grantee? Indirect Cost Rates § 75.564 Reimbursement of indirect costs. (a) Reimbursement...

  1. 34 CFR 75.564 - Reimbursement of indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... accordance with the restrictions in 34 CFR 76.564 through 76.569. (e)(1) Indirect costs for a group of... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reimbursement of indirect costs. 75.564 Section 75.564... by a Grantee? Indirect Cost Rates § 75.564 Reimbursement of indirect costs. (a) Reimbursement...

  2. 44 CFR 352.28 - Reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reimbursement. 352.28 Section 352.28 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS COMMERCIAL NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS PLANNING...

  3. 7 CFR 220.11 - Reimbursement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Lunch Program and the School Breakfast Program, the State agency or FNSRO, where applicable, may... reimbursement estimated for the total number of breakfasts, including free and reduced price breakfasts, to be... number of breakfasts, including free and reduced price breakfast, served to children times the...

  4. 7 CFR 220.11 - Reimbursement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Lunch Program and the School Breakfast Program, the State agency or FNSRO, where applicable, may... reimbursement estimated for the total number of breakfasts, including free and reduced price breakfasts, to be... number of breakfasts, including free and reduced price breakfast, served to children times the...

  5. 7 CFR 220.11 - Reimbursement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Lunch Program and the School Breakfast Program, the State agency or FNSRO, where applicable, may... reimbursement estimated for the total number of breakfasts, including free and reduced price breakfasts, to be... number of breakfasts, including free and reduced price breakfast, served to children times the...

  6. 7 CFR 220.11 - Reimbursement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Lunch Program and the School Breakfast Program, the State agency or FNSRO, where applicable, may... reimbursement estimated for the total number of breakfasts, including free and reduced price breakfasts, to be... number of breakfasts, including free and reduced price breakfast, served to children times the...

  7. 7 CFR 220.11 - Reimbursement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Lunch Program and the School Breakfast Program, the State agency or FNSRO, where applicable, may... reimbursement estimated for the total number of breakfasts, including free and reduced price breakfasts, to be... number of breakfasts, including free and reduced price breakfast, served to children times the...

  8. 7 CFR 1485.17 - Reimbursement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reimbursement procedures. 1485.17 Section 1485.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF FOREIGN MARKETS FOR...

  9. 7 CFR 215.10 - Reimbursement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL MILK PROGRAM FOR CHILDREN § 215.10 Reimbursement procedures. (a... agency administers any combination of the Child Nutrition Programs, the SFA shall be able to use a...

  10. 7 CFR 1485.16 - Reimbursement rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Travel Regulations (41 CFR parts 301 through 304) for no more than two representatives of a single brand.... Government employees in effect on the date the fee is earned; (8) International travel expenses plus... reimburse per diem in excess of the rates allowed under the U.S. Federal Travel Regulations (41 CFR...

  11. 7 CFR 215.8 - Reimbursement payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL MILK PROGRAM FOR CHILDREN § 215.8 Reimbursement payments. (a) (b... to all children; (ii) served to all children in pricing programs by institutions and School...

  12. 7 CFR 215.10 - Reimbursement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL MILK PROGRAM FOR CHILDREN § 215.10 Reimbursement procedures. (a... agency administers any combination of the Child Nutrition Programs, the SFA shall be able to use a...

  13. 44 CFR 352.28 - Reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reimbursement. 352.28 Section 352.28 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS COMMERCIAL NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS PLANNING...

  14. 10 CFR 765.11 - Reimbursable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM PROCESSING... uranium processing site licensees shall not exceed $6.25, as adjusted for inflation, multiplied by the... remedial action incurred at all active uranium processing sites shall not exceed $350 million....

  15. 10 CFR 765.11 - Reimbursable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM PROCESSING... uranium processing site licensees shall not exceed $6.25, as adjusted for inflation, multiplied by the... remedial action incurred at all active uranium processing sites shall not exceed $350 million....

  16. 10 CFR 765.11 - Reimbursable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM PROCESSING... uranium processing site licensees shall not exceed $6.25, as adjusted for inflation, multiplied by the... remedial action incurred at all active uranium processing sites shall not exceed $350 million....

  17. 10 CFR 765.11 - Reimbursable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM PROCESSING... uranium processing site licensees shall not exceed $6.25, as adjusted for inflation, multiplied by the... remedial action incurred at all active uranium processing sites shall not exceed $350 million....

  18. 10 CFR 765.11 - Reimbursable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM PROCESSING... uranium processing site licensees shall not exceed $6.25, as adjusted for inflation, multiplied by the... remedial action incurred at all active uranium processing sites shall not exceed $350 million....

  19. 77 FR 45520 - Reimbursed Entertainment Expenses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... section 274(n) analysis, which the Eighth Circuit's opinion could be read to imply. Rev. Rul. 2008-23 clarifies another issue raised by the TLC opinion. To define the term reimbursement or other expense...). Example 1. (i) Y, an employee, performs services under an arrangement in which L, an employee...

  20. Incentives for health.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter; Harrison, Oliver; Cooper, Cary; Jané-Llopis, Eva

    2011-08-01

    This article discusses incentives to help make healthy choices the easy choices for individuals, operating at the levels of the individual, producers and service providers, and governments. Whereas paying individuals directly to be healthier seems to have a limited effect, offering financial incentives through health insurance improves health. Changing the environment to make healthier choices more accessible acts as an incentive to improve health. Employers can provide incentives to improve the health of their employees. Producers and service providers can take voluntary action to make their products less harmful, and they can be nudged into marketing healthier products within a regulatory environment. International agreements and monitoring systems can incentivize governments to do more for health. Lessons from climate change adaptation suggest that multilevel governance and policy integration are greater obstacles to policy change and implementation than knowing what has to be done. Policy change and implementation are triggered by many drivers, many of which are side effects of other policy pressures rather than of the direct policy goal itself. Effective action to reduce noncommunicable diseases will require leveraging social networks into a new ways of thinking about health; making better health prestigious and aspirational, and giving health and wellness a brand that encourages positive behavior change.

  1. Incentives for health.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter; Harrison, Oliver; Cooper, Cary; Jané-Llopis, Eva

    2011-08-01

    This article discusses incentives to help make healthy choices the easy choices for individuals, operating at the levels of the individual, producers and service providers, and governments. Whereas paying individuals directly to be healthier seems to have a limited effect, offering financial incentives through health insurance improves health. Changing the environment to make healthier choices more accessible acts as an incentive to improve health. Employers can provide incentives to improve the health of their employees. Producers and service providers can take voluntary action to make their products less harmful, and they can be nudged into marketing healthier products within a regulatory environment. International agreements and monitoring systems can incentivize governments to do more for health. Lessons from climate change adaptation suggest that multilevel governance and policy integration are greater obstacles to policy change and implementation than knowing what has to be done. Policy change and implementation are triggered by many drivers, many of which are side effects of other policy pressures rather than of the direct policy goal itself. Effective action to reduce noncommunicable diseases will require leveraging social networks into a new ways of thinking about health; making better health prestigious and aspirational, and giving health and wellness a brand that encourages positive behavior change. PMID:21916718

  2. Physician reimbursement reform and family physicians.

    PubMed

    Higgins, C W

    1991-02-01

    In the final hours of the 1989 session, Congress passed the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) of 1989, which included the most important change in physician reimbursement policy since the introduction of Medicare. The new payment system will base physician Medicare reimbursement on a fee schedule, establish uniform percentage limits on balance billing, and set targets for total Part B physician expenditures. Medicare payments to family physicians will increase substantially under the new system. This will enhance the status and attractiveness of the specialty. The new system will decrease physician autonomy in some respects, and it is not clear that it will successfully control spending. However, on balance it offers significant advantages for family physicians.

  3. Physician efficiency and reimbursement: a case study.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, L E; Flick, J A

    1986-01-01

    Joint ventures between hospitals and doctors are being widely developed and reported as the most promising mechanism for building alliances, providing financial rewards, and accessing new markets. However, joint ventures cannot be structured to involve an entire medical staff directly. Likewise, they cannot motivate a medical staff to change medical practice patterns in order to improve a hospital's reimbursement efficiency. This article describes a system of physician economic efficiency criteria that is being used by one hospital in making medical staff reappointment decisions and has the effect of placing all physicians at risk individually for the hospital's reimbursement performance. Although somewhat controversial, this economic efficiency program has proven a remarkably effective tool for change.

  4. The reimbursement blues. A psychiatric hospital copes with decreasing reimbursement and declining admissions.

    PubMed

    Hume, S K

    1991-03-01

    Beginning in 1989, Harbor View Mercy Hospital, a freestanding psychiatric facility in Fort Smith, AR, saw a flattening of growth in inpatient days and declines in discharges. In addition to decreasing admissions, it faces the problems of decreasing reimbursement, the need to provide more services with fewer resources, and greater government regulations. The greatest problem is inadequate reimbursement. Psychiatric hospitals fare worse than their acute care counterparts under both Medicaid and Medicare. To fulfill its mission to serve those in need, Harbor View has allocated 43 percent of its revenue budget this year to cover charity care, bad debt, etc. Ron Summerhill, the hospital's chief administrative officer, predicts a slowdown in the growth and profitability of psychiatric services in both the for-profit and not-for-profit sectors. But he is combating this trend by increasing use of managed care arrangements, diversifying, offering more outpatient services, and advocating for change in the reimbursement situation. PMID:10109228

  5. Institutional incentives for altruism: gifting blood in China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In mainland China, the motivation behind voluntary blood donation is a relatively new and understudied behavior. In recent times provincial governments in China have implemented various institutional incentive measures. However, little is known regarding the effectiveness of such measures. This qualitative study investigated the nature and outcomes of some identified institutionalized mechanisms, in particular how these were created and distributed in the form of incentives for voluntary blood donation. Methods Participatory observations were conducted at two blood donation stations and four blood collecting vehicles in Changsha city, China. In-depth interviews were conducted with 17 staff and 58 blood donors at the aforementioned venues from May to October 2008 in Changsha. Results Thematic analysis revealed the operation of four primary type incentives: policy-driven, symbolic, information feedback and role models, which constituted the system of institutional incentives. The current blood reimbursement system was not the primary motivation for blood donation; instead this system was a subtheme of future assurance for emergency blood needs. It was evident that symbolic incentives stressed the meaning and value of blood donation. Furthermore, post-donation information services and the inherent mechanisms of communication, enhanced by some public role models, served to draw the public to donate blood. Conclusions At the institutional level, blood donation was not only informed by altruism, but also carried a system of benefit and reward for the donors and their family members. We would recommend that such arrangements, if accommodated effectively into China’s health promotion strategies, would increase the likelihood of blood donation. PMID:23721212

  6. [Influence of the reimbursement scheme on the consumption of drugs].

    PubMed

    Madsen, Ulla Kirkegaard

    2009-03-01

    Several factors have the potential to influence the consumption of medicine, including the reimbursement status. Examples of consumption patterns are compared to reimbursement status over time. In some situations the reimbursement status and changes herein may be a contributing factor for the consumption pattern, e.g. in the case of the selective COX-2 inhibitors. In other situations, the opposite is the case, e.g. medicinal products used for the treatment of hypertension, where there is under-treatment despite the fact that general reimbursement has existed for a number of years. General conclusions are therefore not possible.

  7. 7 CFR 1208.46 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... RASPBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order National Processed Raspberry Council § 1208.46 Compensation and reimbursement. The...

  8. 7 CFR 1208.46 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... RASPBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order National Processed Raspberry Council § 1208.46 Compensation and reimbursement. The...

  9. 42 CFR 413.5 - Cost reimbursement: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAM PRINCIPLES OF REASONABLE COST REIMBURSEMENT; PAYMENT FOR END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE SERVICES... furnished to beneficiaries. (f) Renal dialysis items and services furnished under the ESRD provision...

  10. 7 CFR 1214.45 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order Christmas Tree Promotion Board § 1214.45 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the...

  11. 7 CFR 1214.45 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order Christmas Tree Promotion Board § 1214.45 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the...

  12. 7 CFR 1214.45 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order Christmas Tree Promotion Board § 1214.45 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the...

  13. Tuition reimbursement for special education students.

    PubMed

    Zirkel, P A

    1997-01-01

    The spring 1996 issue of The Future of Children on special education reviewed the legislative and litigation history of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). This Revisiting article examines the impact of the two U.S. Supreme Court cases setting forth school districts' responsibility to reimburse parents of students with disabilities for private school tuition under certain circumstances. An extensive examination of published cases reveals that the number of cases litigated has increased but that the courts are no more likely to decide in favor of parents than they were before the Supreme Court rulings.

  14. Bundled-rate legislation for Medicare reimbursement for dialysis services: implications for anemia management with ESAs.

    PubMed

    Charytan, Chaim

    2010-12-01

    With the incidence of ESRD on the rise, there is a continuing need to control anemia-related treatment costs in dialysis patients receiving reimbursement through Medicare. Currently, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are billed separately from dialysis services, potentially creating little financial incentive for more efficient use. The Medicare Improvement for Patients and Providers Act, passed by the U.S. Congress in July 2008, includes provisions intended to address this concern. Under this act, dialysis services will be reimbursed using a fully bundled, comprehensive payment system that includes all services currently covered in the basic composite rate, as well as certain separately billable items, including ESAs. A base rate of $229.63 per treatment has been assigned, to be individualized using case-mix adjusters. The implications of this new system for anemia management with ESAs continue to be elucidated. With fixed compensation for ESAs, management strategies that maximize efficiencies and, thereby, optimize cost savings will be favored. Select strategies may include switching from intravenous (IV) to subcutaneous routes, lowering Hb targets and ESA doses in hyporesponsive patients, increasing administration of IV iron, increasing use of home dialysis, and optimizing ESA dosing intervals. Once-monthly ESA therapy has potential advantages under this new system as an alternative to more frequently administered ESAs and may help achieve quality metrics in a cost-efficient manner.

  15. Regulation, retrenchment--the DRG experience: problems from changing reimbursement practice.

    PubMed

    Gay, E G; Kronenfeld, J J

    1990-01-01

    A study of 227,771 discharge abstracts from one U.S. state's short-term, acute care hospitals compares changes in the inpatient market available to the oldest old Medicare patients (85 and older) with those less than 70 and those 70-84 between 1981, the last year when all hospitals were under cost-based reimbursement, and 1984, the first year in which all hospitals were under a prospective payment system based on diagnosis related groups (DRGs). All three populations experienced retrenchment in services as hospitals pursued practice changes to enhance revenue potential. An older, sicker client was admitted as hospitals implemented changes in admission patterns to avoid denial of reimbursement for an admission deemed inappropriate by the Peer Review Organization (PRO). Evidence demonstrates compression in service markets and retrenchment in services for less profitable DRGs and/or cohorts. Inpatient services were reduced the most for the oldest old population although this cohort was the sickest. Changes were observed in utilization of special care units, such as in coronary and intensive care units. Large increases in readmissions in all three cohorts suggests that DRG incentives to reduce length of hospital stay may have promoted premature discharge. Or, perhaps these readmissions resulted from 'unbundling', a practice of splitting patient problems into multiple admissions, as hospitals sought ways to enhance revenue instead of practicing cost-containment. Policy, perceived to be economically stringent, can affect hospital practice and produce undesired results with long-reaching untoward effects on certain segments of the population.

  16. 23 CFR 260.407 - Implementation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Implementation and reimbursement. 260.407 Section 260... EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAMS State Education and Training Programs § 260.407 Implementation and reimbursement. (a) After execution of the fiscal agreement, the State may make grants and contracts with...

  17. 48 CFR 2052.215-77 - Travel approvals and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Travel approvals and....215-77 Travel approvals and reimbursement. As prescribed at 2015.209-70(d), the contracting officer shall insert the following clause in cost reimbursement solicitations and contracts which require...

  18. 14 CFR § 1214.202 - Reimbursement policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reimbursement policy. § 1214.202 Section § 1214.202 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement for Shuttle Services Provided to Civil U.S. Government Users and Foreign Users Who Have...

  19. 36 CFR 64.15 - Financial reporting requirements and reimbursements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... RIGHTS-OF-WAY § 64.15 Financial reporting requirements and reimbursements. Payments to applicants will... reimbursement shall be submitted by the grantee in an original and three copies to the appropriate Regional... be submitted by the grantee in an original and three copies to the appropriate Regional Office....

  20. 36 CFR 64.15 - Financial reporting requirements and reimbursements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... RIGHTS-OF-WAY § 64.15 Financial reporting requirements and reimbursements. Payments to applicants will... reimbursement shall be submitted by the grantee in an original and three copies to the appropriate Regional... be submitted by the grantee in an original and three copies to the appropriate Regional Office....

  1. 41 CFR 101-39.104-2 - Reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.1-Establishment, Modification, and Discontinuance of Interagency Fleet Management Systems § 101-39.104-2 Reimbursement. Reimbursement for the motor vehicles and related...

  2. Obtaining reimbursement in France and Italy for new diabetes products.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Elmar; Schnell, Gerald; Sonsalla, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturers launching next-generation or innovative medical devices in Europe face a very heterogeneous reimbursement landscape, with each country having its own pathways, timing, requirements and success factors. We selected 2 markets for a deeper look into the reimbursement landscape: France, representing a country with central decision making with defined processes, and Italy, which delegates reimbursement decisions to the regional level, resulting in a less transparent approach to reimbursement. Based on our experience in working on various new product launches and analyzing recent reimbursement decisions, we found that payers in both countries do not reward improved next-generation products with incremental reimbursement. Looking at innovations, we observe that manufacturers face a challenging and lengthy process to obtain reimbursement. In addition, requirements and key success factors differ by country: In France, comparative clinical evidence and budget impact very much drive reimbursement decisions in terms of pricing and restrictions, whereas in Italy, regional key opinion leader (KOL) support and additional local observational data are key. PMID:25550411

  3. 40 CFR 791.20 - Initiation of reimbursement proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Initiation of reimbursement proceeding. 791.20 Section 791.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) DATA REIMBURSEMENT Hearing Procedures § 791.20 Initiation of...

  4. 40 CFR 791.20 - Initiation of reimbursement proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Initiation of reimbursement proceeding. 791.20 Section 791.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) DATA REIMBURSEMENT Hearing Procedures § 791.20 Initiation of...

  5. 40 CFR 791.20 - Initiation of reimbursement proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Initiation of reimbursement proceeding. 791.20 Section 791.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) DATA REIMBURSEMENT Hearing Procedures § 791.20 Initiation of...

  6. 22 CFR 202.3 - Freight reimbursement limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Freight reimbursement limitations. 202.3 Section 202.3 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OVERSEAS SHIPMENTS OF SUPPLIES BY VOLUNTARY NON-PROFIT RELIEF AGENCIES § 202.3 Freight reimbursement limitations. Economic utilization of...

  7. 22 CFR 202.3 - Freight reimbursement limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Freight reimbursement limitations. 202.3 Section 202.3 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OVERSEAS SHIPMENTS OF SUPPLIES BY VOLUNTARY NON-PROFIT RELIEF AGENCIES § 202.3 Freight reimbursement limitations. Economic utilization of...

  8. 22 CFR 202.3 - Freight reimbursement limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Freight reimbursement limitations. 202.3 Section 202.3 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OVERSEAS SHIPMENTS OF SUPPLIES BY VOLUNTARY NON-PROFIT RELIEF AGENCIES § 202.3 Freight reimbursement limitations. Economic utilization of...

  9. 22 CFR 202.7 - Documentation required for reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Section 202.7 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OVERSEAS SHIPMENTS OF SUPPLIES BY... reimbursement of freight charges must be supported by the following documents: (a) Voucher SF 1034. “Public... prepared by the agency requesting reimbursement of freight charges. (b) Bills of lading—(1) To ports...

  10. 22 CFR 202.3 - Freight reimbursement limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Freight reimbursement limitations. 202.3 Section 202.3 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OVERSEAS SHIPMENTS OF SUPPLIES BY VOLUNTARY NON-PROFIT RELIEF AGENCIES § 202.3 Freight reimbursement limitations. Economic utilization of...

  11. 47 CFR 54.407 - Reimbursement for offering Lifeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Low-Income Consumers § 54.407 Reimbursement for offering Lifeline. (a) Universal service support for providing Lifeline shall be provided directly to the... carrier may receive universal service support reimbursement for each qualifying low-income consumer...

  12. 48 CFR 2052.215-77 - Travel approvals and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Travel approvals and....215-77 Travel approvals and reimbursement. As prescribed at 2015.209-70(d), the contracting officer shall insert the following clause in cost reimbursement solicitations and contracts which require...

  13. 42 CFR 57.213a - Loan cancellation reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Health Professions Student Loans § 57.213a Loan cancellation reimbursement. (a) For loans made prior to October 22... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Loan cancellation reimbursement. 57.213a Section...

  14. 42 CFR 57.213a - Loan cancellation reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Health Professions Student Loans § 57.213a Loan cancellation reimbursement. (a) For loans made prior to October 22... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Loan cancellation reimbursement. 57.213a Section...

  15. 5 CFR 537.109 - Employee reimbursements to the Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS REPAYMENT OF STUDENT LOANS § 537.109 Employee reimbursements to the Government. (a) An employee is indebted to the Federal Government and must reimburse the paying agency for the amount of any student loan... existing service agreement to provide additional student loan repayment benefits for additional service...

  16. 5 CFR 537.109 - Employee reimbursements to the Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS REPAYMENT OF STUDENT LOANS § 537.109 Employee reimbursements to the Government. (a) An employee is indebted to the Federal Government and must reimburse the paying agency for the amount of any student loan... existing service agreement to provide additional student loan repayment benefits for additional service...

  17. 42 CFR 57.313a - Loan cancellation reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Nursing Student Loans § 57.313a Loan cancellation reimbursement. In the event that insufficient funds are available to... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Loan cancellation reimbursement. 57.313a Section...

  18. 42 CFR 57.313a - Loan cancellation reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Nursing Student Loans § 57.313a Loan cancellation reimbursement. In the event that insufficient funds are available to... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Loan cancellation reimbursement. 57.313a Section...

  19. 5 CFR 537.109 - Employee reimbursements to the Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS REPAYMENT OF STUDENT LOANS § 537.109 Employee reimbursements to the Government. (a) An employee is indebted to the Federal Government and must reimburse the paying agency for the amount of any student loan... existing service agreement to provide additional student loan repayment benefits for additional service...

  20. 5 CFR 537.109 - Employee reimbursements to the Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS REPAYMENT OF STUDENT LOANS § 537.109 Employee reimbursements to the Government. (a) An employee is indebted to the Federal Government and must reimburse the paying agency for the amount of any student loan... existing service agreement to provide additional student loan repayment benefits for additional service...

  1. 42 CFR 57.213a - Loan cancellation reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Health Professions Student Loans § 57.213a Loan cancellation reimbursement. (a) For loans made prior to October 22... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Loan cancellation reimbursement. 57.213a Section...

  2. 42 CFR 57.313a - Loan cancellation reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Nursing Student Loans § 57.313a Loan cancellation reimbursement. In the event that insufficient funds are available to... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Loan cancellation reimbursement. 57.313a Section...

  3. 42 CFR 57.213a - Loan cancellation reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Health Professions Student Loans § 57.213a Loan cancellation reimbursement. (a) For loans made prior to October 22... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Loan cancellation reimbursement. 57.213a Section...

  4. 5 CFR 537.109 - Employee reimbursements to the Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS REPAYMENT OF STUDENT LOANS § 537.109 Employee reimbursements to the Government. (a) An employee is indebted to the Federal Government and must reimburse the paying agency for the amount of any student loan... existing service agreement to provide additional student loan repayment benefits for additional service...

  5. 42 CFR 57.213a - Loan cancellation reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Health Professions Student Loans § 57.213a Loan cancellation reimbursement. (a) For loans made prior to October 22... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Loan cancellation reimbursement. 57.213a Section...

  6. 42 CFR 57.313a - Loan cancellation reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Nursing Student Loans § 57.313a Loan cancellation reimbursement. In the event that insufficient funds are available to... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Loan cancellation reimbursement. 57.313a Section...

  7. 42 CFR 57.313a - Loan cancellation reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Nursing Student Loans § 57.313a Loan cancellation reimbursement. In the event that insufficient funds are available to... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Loan cancellation reimbursement. 57.313a Section...

  8. 22 CFR 202.3 - Freight reimbursement limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Freight reimbursement limitations. 202.3 Section 202.3 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OVERSEAS SHIPMENTS OF SUPPLIES BY VOLUNTARY NON-PROFIT RELIEF AGENCIES § 202.3 Freight reimbursement limitations. Economic utilization of...

  9. 22 CFR 202.7 - Documentation required for reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Documentation required for reimbursement. 202.7 Section 202.7 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OVERSEAS SHIPMENTS OF SUPPLIES BY VOLUNTARY NON-PROFIT RELIEF AGENCIES § 202.7 Documentation required for reimbursement. Claims...

  10. 13 CFR 115.35 - Claims for reimbursement of Losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Claims for reimbursement of Losses. 115.35 Section 115.35 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SURETY BOND GUARANTEE Guarantees Subject to Prior Approval § 115.35 Claims for reimbursement of Losses. (a) Notification requirements—(1) Events...

  11. 47 CFR 97.527 - Reimbursement for expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reimbursement for expenses. 97.527 Section 97.527 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.527 Reimbursement for expenses. VEs and VECs...

  12. 47 CFR 97.527 - Reimbursement for expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reimbursement for expenses. 97.527 Section 97.527 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.527 Reimbursement for expenses. VEs and VECs...

  13. 47 CFR 97.527 - Reimbursement for expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reimbursement for expenses. 97.527 Section 97.527 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.527 Reimbursement for expenses. VEs and VECs...

  14. 47 CFR 97.527 - Reimbursement for expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reimbursement for expenses. 97.527 Section 97.527 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.527 Reimbursement for expenses. VEs and VECs...

  15. 47 CFR 97.527 - Reimbursement for expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reimbursement for expenses. 97.527 Section 97.527 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.527 Reimbursement for expenses. VEs and VECs...

  16. 10 CFR 765.32 - Reimbursement of excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM... additional reimbursement to uranium licensees for costs of remedial action, subject to the availability of... uranium licensee's prorated share will be determined by dividing the total excess funds available by...

  17. 47 CFR 24.247 - Triggering a reimbursement obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... For example, if a new entrant obtains a license for 5 megahertz of spectrum in this band, it is... licensed spectrum, but will be entitled to seek reimbursement from UTAM for the proportion of those band... Mhz Band § 24.247 Triggering a reimbursement obligation. (a) Licensed PCS. The clearinghouse...

  18. 47 CFR 24.247 - Triggering a reimbursement obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... For example, if a new entrant obtains a license for 5 megahertz of spectrum in this band, it is... licensed spectrum, but will be entitled to seek reimbursement from UTAM for the proportion of those band... Mhz Band § 24.247 Triggering a reimbursement obligation. (a) Licensed PCS. The clearinghouse...

  19. 47 CFR 24.247 - Triggering a reimbursement obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... For example, if a new entrant obtains a license for 5 megahertz of spectrum in this band, it is... licensed spectrum, but will be entitled to seek reimbursement from UTAM for the proportion of those band... Mhz Band § 24.247 Triggering a reimbursement obligation. (a) Licensed PCS. The clearinghouse...

  20. 47 CFR 24.247 - Triggering a reimbursement obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... For example, if a new entrant obtains a license for 5 megahertz of spectrum in this band, it is... licensed spectrum, but will be entitled to seek reimbursement from UTAM for the proportion of those band... Mhz Band § 24.247 Triggering a reimbursement obligation. (a) Licensed PCS. The clearinghouse...

  1. 47 CFR 24.247 - Triggering a reimbursement obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... For example, if a new entrant obtains a license for 5 megahertz of spectrum in this band, it is... licensed spectrum, but will be entitled to seek reimbursement from UTAM for the proportion of those band... Mhz Band § 24.247 Triggering a reimbursement obligation. (a) Licensed PCS. The clearinghouse...

  2. 44 CFR 206.8 - Reimbursement of other Federal agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... assignment will submit requests for reimbursement, as follows: (1) Federal agencies may submit requests for... will be stipulated in the mission assignment letter. (2) An agency shall document its request for... individual contracts and their associated costs. (3) Reimbursement requests shall cite the specific...

  3. 20 CFR 405.901 - Reimbursement of certain travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reimbursement of certain travel expenses. 405... FOR ADJUDICATING INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Payment of Certain Travel Expenses § 405.901 Reimbursement of certain travel expenses. When you file a disability claim, you may incur certain travel...

  4. 20 CFR 405.901 - Reimbursement of certain travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reimbursement of certain travel expenses. 405... FOR ADJUDICATING INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Payment of Certain Travel Expenses § 405.901 Reimbursement of certain travel expenses. When you file a disability claim, you may incur certain travel...

  5. 48 CFR 2052.215-77 - Travel approvals and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Travel approvals and....215-77 Travel approvals and reimbursement. As prescribed at 2015.209-70(d), the contracting officer shall insert the following clause in cost reimbursement solicitations and contracts which require...

  6. 76 FR 5328 - Summer Food Service Program; 2011 Reimbursement Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... final rule-related notice published at 48 FR 29114, June 24, 1983). In accordance with the Paperwork... Food and Nutrition Service Summer Food Service Program; 2011 Reimbursement Rates AGENCY: Food and... to the reimbursement rates for meals served in the Summer Food Service Program for Children....

  7. 78 FR 7750 - Summer Food Service Program; 2013 Reimbursement Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... Part 3015, Subpart V, and final rule-related ] notice published at 48 FR 29114, June 24, 1983.) In... Food and Nutrition Service Summer Food Service Program; 2013 Reimbursement Rates AGENCY: Food and... to the reimbursement rates for meals served in the Summer Food Service Program for Children....

  8. 75 FR 3197 - Summer Food Service Program; 2010 Reimbursement Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... final rule-related notice published at 48 FR 29114, June 24, 1983). In accordance with the Paperwork... Food and Nutrition Service Summer Food Service Program; 2010 Reimbursement Rates AGENCY: Food and... to the reimbursement rates for meals served in the Summer Food Service Program for Children....

  9. 77 FR 5228 - Summer Food Service Program; 2012 Reimbursement Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... final rule-related notice published at 48 FR 29114, June 24, 1983). In accordance with the Paperwork... Food and Nutrition Service Summer Food Service Program; 2012 Reimbursement Rates AGENCY: Food and... to the reimbursement rates for meals served in the Summer Food Service Program for Children....

  10. 3 CFR - Providing Stability and Security for Medicare Reimbursements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Providing Stability and Security for Medicare Reimbursements Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of June 25, 2010 Providing Stability and Security for Medicare Reimbursements Memorandum for the Secretary of Health and Human...

  11. 13 CFR 115.70 - Claims for reimbursement of Losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SBA of the claim for reimbursement, or as of such later date as additional information requested by... days of receipt of the requisite information. Claims for reimbursement and any additional information... Surety must handle and process all claims under the bond and all settlements and recoveries in the...

  12. 38 CFR 17.114 - Submittal of claim for reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Submittal of claim for reimbursement. 17.114 Section 17.114 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Reimbursement for Loss by Natural Disaster of Personal Effects of Hospitalized Or Nursing...

  13. 7 CFR 220.10 - Effective date for reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SCHOOL BREAKFAST PROGRAM § 220.10 Effective date for reimbursement. Reimbursement payments under the School Breakfast Program may be made only to School...

  14. Obtaining Reimbursement in France and Italy for New Diabetes Products

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Elmar; Sonsalla, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturers launching next-generation or innovative medical devices in Europe face a very heterogeneous reimbursement landscape, with each country having its own pathways, timing, requirements and success factors. We selected 2 markets for a deeper look into the reimbursement landscape: France, representing a country with central decision making with defined processes, and Italy, which delegates reimbursement decisions to the regional level, resulting in a less transparent approach to reimbursement. Based on our experience in working on various new product launches and analyzing recent reimbursement decisions, we found that payers in both countries do not reward improved next-generation products with incremental reimbursement. Looking at innovations, we observe that manufacturers face a challenging and lengthy process to obtain reimbursement. In addition, requirements and key success factors differ by country: In France, comparative clinical evidence and budget impact very much drive reimbursement decisions in terms of pricing and restrictions, whereas in Italy, regional key opinion leader (KOL) support and additional local observational data are key. PMID:25550411

  15. 48 CFR 46.303 - Cost-reimbursement supply contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost-reimbursement supply contracts. 46.303 Section 46.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 46.303 Cost-reimbursement supply contracts....

  16. 48 CFR 46.305 - Cost-reimbursement service contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost-reimbursement service contracts. 46.305 Section 46.305 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 46.305 Cost-reimbursement service contracts....

  17. 75 FR 37971 - Providing Stability and Security for Medicare Reimbursements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... Federal Register. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, June 25, 2010. [FR Doc. 2010-16128... Memorandum of June 25, 2010--Providing Stability and Security for Medicare Reimbursements #0; #0; #0... Stability and Security for Medicare Reimbursements Memorandum for the Secretary of Health and Human...

  18. 48 CFR 2052.215-77 - Travel approvals and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Travel approvals and....215-77 Travel approvals and reimbursement. As prescribed at 2015.209-70(d), the contracting officer shall insert the following clause in cost reimbursement solicitations and contracts which require...

  19. 48 CFR 2052.215-77 - Travel approvals and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Travel approvals and....215-77 Travel approvals and reimbursement. As prescribed at 2015.209-70(d), the contracting officer shall insert the following clause in cost reimbursement solicitations and contracts which require...

  20. 10 CFR 765.10 - Eligibility for reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligibility for reimbursement. 765.10 Section 765.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM... uranium or thorium processing site that has incurred costs of remedial action for the site that...

  1. 10 CFR 765.10 - Eligibility for reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligibility for reimbursement. 765.10 Section 765.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM... uranium or thorium processing site that has incurred costs of remedial action for the site that...

  2. 10 CFR 765.10 - Eligibility for reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligibility for reimbursement. 765.10 Section 765.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM... uranium or thorium processing site that has incurred costs of remedial action for the site that...

  3. 10 CFR 765.32 - Reimbursement of excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM... additional reimbursement to uranium licensees for costs of remedial action, subject to the availability of... uranium licensee's prorated share will be determined by dividing the total excess funds available by...

  4. 10 CFR 765.21 - Procedures for processing reimbursement claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Procedures for processing reimbursement claims. 765.21 Section 765.21 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM... uranium or thorium processing site licensees for approved costs of remedial action will be...

  5. 10 CFR 765.21 - Procedures for processing reimbursement claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for processing reimbursement claims. 765.21 Section 765.21 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM... uranium or thorium processing site licensees for approved costs of remedial action will be...

  6. 10 CFR 765.32 - Reimbursement of excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM... additional reimbursement to uranium licensees for costs of remedial action, subject to the availability of... uranium licensee's prorated share will be determined by dividing the total excess funds available by...

  7. 10 CFR 765.10 - Eligibility for reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligibility for reimbursement. 765.10 Section 765.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM... uranium or thorium processing site that has incurred costs of remedial action for the site that...

  8. 10 CFR 765.32 - Reimbursement of excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM... additional reimbursement to uranium licensees for costs of remedial action, subject to the availability of... uranium licensee's prorated share will be determined by dividing the total excess funds available by...

  9. 10 CFR 765.10 - Eligibility for reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligibility for reimbursement. 765.10 Section 765.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM... uranium or thorium processing site that has incurred costs of remedial action for the site that...

  10. 10 CFR 765.21 - Procedures for processing reimbursement claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Procedures for processing reimbursement claims. 765.21 Section 765.21 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM... uranium or thorium processing site licensees for approved costs of remedial action will be...

  11. 10 CFR 765.21 - Procedures for processing reimbursement claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Procedures for processing reimbursement claims. 765.21 Section 765.21 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM... uranium or thorium processing site licensees for approved costs of remedial action will be...

  12. 10 CFR 765.21 - Procedures for processing reimbursement claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Procedures for processing reimbursement claims. 765.21 Section 765.21 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM... uranium or thorium processing site licensees for approved costs of remedial action will be...

  13. 10 CFR 765.32 - Reimbursement of excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM... additional reimbursement to uranium licensees for costs of remedial action, subject to the availability of... uranium licensee's prorated share will be determined by dividing the total excess funds available by...

  14. Family Foster Care Reimbursement: Results of a National Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauderdale, Michael L.; And Others

    Based on data from the Family Foster Care Reimbursement Survey for 1981, tables in this report present the level of the 50 states' reimbursements for family foster care. Categories of data reported include age of child in foster care, basic monthly rate, clothing allowance, personal and incidental allowance, and special needs allowance (on a…

  15. 47 CFR 54.414 - Reimbursement for Tribal Link Up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reimbursement for Tribal Link Up. 54.414... Tribal Link Up. (a) Eligible telecommunications carriers that are receiving high-cost support, pursuant... reimbursement for providing Tribal Link Up, eligible telecommunications carriers must follow the procedures...

  16. 47 CFR 54.414 - Reimbursement for Tribal Link Up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reimbursement for Tribal Link Up. 54.414... Tribal Link Up. (a) Eligible telecommunications carriers that are receiving high-cost support, pursuant... reimbursement for providing Tribal Link Up, eligible telecommunications carriers must follow the procedures...

  17. 47 CFR 54.414 - Reimbursement for Tribal Link Up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reimbursement for Tribal Link Up. 54.414... Tribal Link Up. (a) Eligible telecommunications carriers that are receiving high-cost support, pursuant... reimbursement for providing Tribal Link Up, eligible telecommunications carriers must follow the procedures...

  18. Home Nutrition Support: Ethics and Reimbursement.

    PubMed

    Martin, Karen; McGinnis, Carol

    2016-06-01

    Ethical dilemmas challenge providers on both sides of the hospital and clinic doors. In addition to establishing the nutrition care plan and guiding the client into the home setting with safe and effective parenteral or enteral nutrition therapy, procuring home nutrition support involves meeting documentation requirements and verifying that clients meet reimbursement criteria for home therapy based on third-party payer criteria. Providers have entered a realm for which training has been scarce and they face moral and ethical dilemmas involving serving as patient advocates, possibly stretching the truth to fit the clinical documentation to criteria vs maintaining professional integrity. Nutrition research and evidence-based practice have outpaced modifications to policies including Medicare's national and local coverage determinations, the bulk of which have not seen revisions in 32 years. This review elucidates clinical dilemmas and urges a political call to action to advocate for changes in current, outdated requirements for reimbursement. Given the current healthcare environment and trend toward expedited hospital stays, patients may be better served (and nourished) with revised guidelines.

  19. Home Nutrition Support: Ethics and Reimbursement.

    PubMed

    Martin, Karen; McGinnis, Carol

    2016-06-01

    Ethical dilemmas challenge providers on both sides of the hospital and clinic doors. In addition to establishing the nutrition care plan and guiding the client into the home setting with safe and effective parenteral or enteral nutrition therapy, procuring home nutrition support involves meeting documentation requirements and verifying that clients meet reimbursement criteria for home therapy based on third-party payer criteria. Providers have entered a realm for which training has been scarce and they face moral and ethical dilemmas involving serving as patient advocates, possibly stretching the truth to fit the clinical documentation to criteria vs maintaining professional integrity. Nutrition research and evidence-based practice have outpaced modifications to policies including Medicare's national and local coverage determinations, the bulk of which have not seen revisions in 32 years. This review elucidates clinical dilemmas and urges a political call to action to advocate for changes in current, outdated requirements for reimbursement. Given the current healthcare environment and trend toward expedited hospital stays, patients may be better served (and nourished) with revised guidelines. PMID:27072855

  20. Achieving reimbursement for regenerative medicine products in the USA.

    PubMed

    Ginty, P J; Singh, P B; Smith, D; Hourd, P; Williams, D J

    2010-05-01

    Achieving reimbursement for regenerative medicine products is potentially a greater challenge than gaining US FDA approval, making it a decisive factor in the success or failure of small businesses. However, the mechanisms by which reimbursement is achieved are still seen as something of a 'black box', especially to those outside of the USA. This report aims to provide insights into the mechanisms of reimbursement and variety of payers in the USA, and to act as a starting point for a successful US reimbursement strategy. Fundamental concepts such as coverage, payment and coding are explained and linked with the factors that potentially determine the successful reimbursement of regenerative medicine products, including cost of goods and clinical study design. Finally, important considerations for the design of clinical studies that satisfy both the payers and the FDA are discussed and the key elements of a successful company strategy identified.

  1. Do financial incentives trump clinical guidance? Hip Replacement in England and Scotland.

    PubMed

    Papanicolas, Irene; McGuire, Alistair

    2015-12-01

    Following devolution in 1999 England and Scotland's National Health Services diverged, resulting in major differences in hospital payment. England introduced a case payment mechanism from 2003/4, while Scotland continued to pay through global budgets. We investigate the impact this change had on activity for Hip Replacement. We examine the financial reimbursement attached to uncemented Hip Replacement in England, which has been more generous than for its cemented counterpart, although clinical guidance from the National Institute for Clinical Excellence recommends the later. In Scotland this financial differential does not exist. We use a difference-in-difference estimator, using Scotland as a control, to test whether the change in reimbursement across the two countries had an influence on treatment. Our results indicate that financial incentives are directly linked to the faster uptake of the more expensive, uncemented Hip Replacement in England, which ran against the clinical guidance.

  2. Medicare program; end-stage renal disease prospective payment system, quality incentive program, and bad debt reductions for all Medicare providers. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-11-01

    This final rule updates and makes revisions to the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) prospective payment system (PPS) for calendar year (CY) 2013. This rule also sets forth requirements for the ESRD quality incentive program (QIP), including for payment year (PY) 2015 and beyond. In addition, this rule implements changes to bad debt reimbursement for all Medicare providers, suppliers, and other entities eligible to receive Medicare payment for bad debt and removes the cap on bad debt reimbursement to ESRD facilities. (See the Table of Contents for a listing of the specific issues addressed in this final rule.)

  3. Incentive Compensation and Organization Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitts, Robert A

    1974-01-01

    Designing and administering an incentive compensation plan is one of the most difficult tasks that corporate personnel executives face today. A rudimentary framework for guiding management's thinking in this area is presented here, together with some recent findings on actual incentive compensation practices in eleven large, diversified firms.…

  4. Financial incentives and weight control.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, Robert W

    2012-11-01

    This paper reviews research studies evaluating the use of financial incentives to promote weight control conducted between 1972 and 2010. It provides an overview of behavioral theories pertaining to incentives and describes empirical studies evaluating specific aspects of incentives. Research on financial incentives and weight control has a history spanning more than 30 years. Early studies were guided by operant learning concepts from Psychology, while more recent studies have relied on economic theory. Both theoretical orientations argue that providing financial rewards for losing weight should motivate people to engage in behaviors that produce weight loss. Empirical research has strongly supported this idea. However, results vary widely due to differences in incentive size and schedule, as well as contextual factors. Thus, many important questions about the use of incentives have not yet been clearly answered. Weight-maintenance studies using financial incentives are particularly sparse, so that their long-term efficacy and thus, value in addressing the public health problem of obesity is unclear. Major obstacles to sustained applications of incentive in weight control are funding sources and acceptance by those who might benefit.

  5. Financial incentives and weight control.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, Robert W

    2012-11-01

    This paper reviews research studies evaluating the use of financial incentives to promote weight control conducted between 1972 and 2010. It provides an overview of behavioral theories pertaining to incentives and describes empirical studies evaluating specific aspects of incentives. Research on financial incentives and weight control has a history spanning more than 30 years. Early studies were guided by operant learning concepts from Psychology, while more recent studies have relied on economic theory. Both theoretical orientations argue that providing financial rewards for losing weight should motivate people to engage in behaviors that produce weight loss. Empirical research has strongly supported this idea. However, results vary widely due to differences in incentive size and schedule, as well as contextual factors. Thus, many important questions about the use of incentives have not yet been clearly answered. Weight-maintenance studies using financial incentives are particularly sparse, so that their long-term efficacy and thus, value in addressing the public health problem of obesity is unclear. Major obstacles to sustained applications of incentive in weight control are funding sources and acceptance by those who might benefit. PMID:22244800

  6. Employee Incentive System for Hospitals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Health Service (DHEW/PHS), Arlington, VA. Div. of Health Resources.

    The purpose of this monograph is to discuss employee incentive plans with a potential for cost containment in order to assist hospitals in providing efficient and effective delivery of health care. Based on an examination of employee incentive systems both in and outside the health care field, the information is intended to aid the administrative…

  7. Incentives for Accountability. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    Policymakers and educators are taking a new look at incentives as they work to improve accountability systems. This ERIC Digest examines the role of rewards and sanctions in school reform and identifies key issues in implementing incentive systems. The new accountability is based on five components: carefully designed standards, assessments…

  8. An Argument for Early Retirement Incentive Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baenen, Leonard B.; Ernest, Robert C.

    1982-01-01

    Early retirement incentive programs are discussed as a humanitarian way of reducing payroll costs and rewarding long-tenured employees. The incentives to be considered, program communication, and problems found in incentive programs are addressed. (Author/MLF)

  9. Understanding The Role Played By Medicare's Patient Experience Points System In Hospital Reimbursement.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Marc N; Beckett, Megan K; Lehrman, William G; Cleary, Paul; Cohea, Christopher W; Giordano, Laura A; Goldstein, Elizabeth H; Damberg, Cheryl L

    2016-09-01

    In 2015 the Medicare Hospital Value-Based Purchasing (VBP) program paid hospitals $1.4 billion in performance-based incentives; 30 percent of a hospital's VBP Total Performance Score was based on performance on Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) measures of the patient experience of care. Hospitals receive patient experience points based on three components: achievement, improvement, and consistency. For 2015 we examined how the three components affected reimbursement for 3,152 hospitals, including their impact on low-performing and high-minority hospitals. Achievement accounted for 96 percent of the differences among hospitals in total HCAHPS points. Although achievement had the biggest influence on payments, payments related to improvement and consistency were more beneficial for low-performing hospitals that disproportionately served minority patients. The findings highlight the important inducement that paying for improvement provides to initially low-performing hospitals to improve care and the role this incentive structure plays in minimizing resource redistributions away from hospitals serving minority populations. Additional emphasis on improvement points could benefit hospitals serving disadvantaged patients. PMID:27605650

  10. The History of Reimbursements in Neurology

    PubMed Central

    Lakhan, Shaheen E.; Ebied, Amr M.; Tepper, Deborah; Nguyen, Truc

    2013-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) addresses consumer protection, employer-provided insurance coverage, as well as the government’s role in providing health care access to the most vulnerable populations. Within the practice of neurology, the PPACA has the challenging goal of reconciling the needs of the growing elderly population with the financial barriers to costly yet available health care services. To bridge that gap, all health care professionals working in the field of neurology must reflect on the effect previous Medicare reimbursement policies have had on the current practice of neurology, and utilize lessons learned in recent years. The test of time will tell whether the PPACA will achieve the goal of decreasing in health care spending while ensuring quality universal healthcare services. PMID:24223566

  11. Pricing and reimbursement of drugs in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Barry, Michael; Tilson, Lesley; Ryan, Máirín

    2004-06-01

    Expenditure on healthcare in Ireland, which is mainly derived from taxation, has increased considerably in recent years to an estimated 9.2 billion euro in 2003. Pharmaceuticals account for approximately 10% of total healthcare expenditure. Approximately one-third of patients receive their medications free of charge whilst the remaining two-thirds are subject to a co-payment threshold of 78 euro per month, i.e. 936 euro per year. The price of medications in Ireland is linked to those of five other member states where the price to the wholesaler of any medication will not exceed the lesser of the currency-adjusted wholesale price in the United Kingdom or the average of wholesale prices in Denmark, France, Germany, The Netherlands and the United Kingdom. A price freeze at the introduction price has been in existence since 1993. Despite the price freeze, expenditure on medicines on the community drugs scheme has increased from 201 million euro in 1993 to 898 million euro in 2002. The two main factors contributing to the increased expenditure on medicines include "product mix", the prescribing of new and more expensive medication, and "volume effect" comprising growth in the number of prescription items. Changing demographics and the extension of the General Medical Services (GMS) Scheme to provide free medicines for all those over the age of 70 years have also contributed. Prior to reimbursement under the community drugs schemes, a medicine must be included in the GMS code book or positive list. A demonstration of cost-effectiveness is not a pre-requisite for reimbursement. PMID:15452757

  12. 31 CFR 256.41 - When is reimbursement due for CDA and No FEAR payments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reimbursement plans must be made within 45 days of the request for reimbursement. See 5 CFR part 724. Agencies... No FEAR payments? 256.41 Section 256.41 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... When is reimbursement due for CDA and No FEAR payments? Reimbursement for a CDA or No FEAR...

  13. An overview of Medicare reimbursement regulations for advanced practice nurses.

    PubMed

    Frakes, Michael A; Evans, Tracylain

    2006-01-01

    The federal government spends nearly 15% of the budget on Medicare services annually, and advanced practice nurses are eligible for reimbursement from that pool. The regulations governing reimbursement are complex because of the social, political, and financial pressures involved in their development. Although economic viability and due diligence considerations make it incumbent on advanced practice nurses to understand the rules, the profession, as a whole, has knowledge deficits in this area. The essentials of regulatory development and structure are reviewed and considerations for optimizing reimbursement are described. PMID:16676748

  14. Service motives and profit incentives among physicians.

    PubMed

    Godager, Geir; Iversen, Tor; Ma, Ching-To Albert

    2009-03-01

    We model physicians as health care professionals who care about their services and monetary rewards. These preferences are heterogeneous. Different physicians trade off the monetary and service motives differently, and therefore respond differently to incentive schemes. Our model is set up for the Norwegian health care system. First, each private practice physician has a patient list, which may have more or less patients than he desires. The physician is paid a fee-for-service reimbursement and a capitation per listed patient. Second, a municipality may obligate the physician to perform 7.5 h/week of community services. Our data are on an unbalanced panel of 435 physicians, with 412 physicians for the year 2002, and 400 for 2004. A physician's amount of gross wealth and gross debt in previous periods are used as proxy for preferences for community service. First, for the current period, accumulated wealth and debt are predetermined. Second, wealth and debt capture lifestyle preferences because they correlate with the planned future income and spending. The main results show that both gross debt and gross wealth have negative effects on physicians' supply of community health services. Gross debt and wealth have no effect on fee-for-service income per listed person in the physician's practice, and positive effects on the total income from fee-for-service. The higher income from fee-for-service is due to a longer patient list. Patient shortage has no significant effect on physicians' supply of community services, a positive effect on the fee-for-service income per listed person, and a negative effect on the total income from fee for service. These results support physician preference heterogeneity.

  15. 76 FR 63844 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Lodging Reimbursement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... laws regarding reimbursement for Federal employees who travel in the performance of official business... influx of attendees at a special event (e.g., World's Fair or international sporting event). Such...

  16. 14 CFR 331.7 - What losses will be reimbursed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROVIDERS IN THE WASHINGTON, DC AREA General Provisions § 331.7 What losses will be reimbursed? (a) You may... attributable to the Federal government's closure of the five Washington-area airports, are in conformity...

  17. 7 CFR 1209.37 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Mushroom Council § 1209.37 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Council shall...

  18. 7 CFR 1209.37 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Mushroom Council § 1209.37 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Council shall...

  19. 7 CFR 1209.37 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Mushroom Council § 1209.37 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Council shall...

  20. 7 CFR 1209.37 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Mushroom Council § 1209.37 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Council shall...

  1. 7 CFR 1209.37 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Mushroom Council § 1209.37 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Council shall...

  2. 7 CFR 1230.57 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order National Pork Board § 1230.57 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Board shall serve...

  3. 7 CFR 1230.38 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order National Pork Producers Delegate Body § 1230.38 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the...

  4. 7 CFR 1230.38 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order National Pork Producers Delegate Body § 1230.38 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the...

  5. 7 CFR 1230.38 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order National Pork Producers Delegate Body § 1230.38 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the...

  6. 7 CFR 1230.57 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order National Pork Board § 1230.57 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Board shall serve...

  7. 7 CFR 1230.57 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order National Pork Board § 1230.57 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Board shall serve...

  8. 7 CFR 1230.38 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order National Pork Producers Delegate Body § 1230.38 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the...

  9. 7 CFR 1230.57 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order National Pork Board § 1230.57 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Board shall serve...

  10. 7 CFR 1230.38 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order National Pork Producers Delegate Body § 1230.38 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the...

  11. 7 CFR 1230.57 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order National Pork Board § 1230.57 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Board shall serve...

  12. 7 CFR 1218.46 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order U.s. Highbush Blueberry Council § 1218.46 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Council,...

  13. 7 CFR 1218.46 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order U.s. Highbush Blueberry Council § 1218.46 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Council,...

  14. 7 CFR 1218.46 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order U.s. Highbush Blueberry Council § 1218.46 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Council,...

  15. 7 CFR 1218.46 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order U.s. Highbush Blueberry Council § 1218.46 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Council,...

  16. 7 CFR 1218.46 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order U.s. Highbush Blueberry Council § 1218.46 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Council,...

  17. Reimbursement for Continuous Glucose Monitoring: A European View

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Lutz; Franc, Sylvia; Phillip, Moshe; Battelino, Tadej; Ampudia-Blasco, Francisco Javier; Bolinder, Jan; Diem, Peter; Pickup, John; Hans DeVries, J.

    2012-01-01

    Different systems for continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) are available on the European market. There is no unlimited reimbursement for CGM use in any European country, but in some countries, reimbursement exists for certain clinical indications. The aim of this commentary is to describe the different reimbursement situations across Europe for this innovative but costly technology, as a prelude to establishing more uniform use. From the perspective of many scientists and clinicians, a number of randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the efficacy of real-time CGM versus self-monitoring of blood glucose, at least for hemoglobin A1c reduction. Nevertheless, according to many health care professionals and potential CGM users, national health services and health insurance organizations are reluctant to reimburse CGM. Imminent technological and manufacturing developments are expected to reduce the day-to-day costs of CGM. PMID:23294797

  18. 40 CFR 310.5 - Am I eligible for reimbursement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS REIMBURSEMENT TO LOCAL GOVERNMENTS FOR EMERGENCY RESPONSE TO... you are the governing body of a county, parish, municipality, city, town, township,...

  19. 40 CFR 310.5 - Am I eligible for reimbursement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS REIMBURSEMENT TO LOCAL GOVERNMENTS FOR EMERGENCY RESPONSE TO... you are the governing body of a county, parish, municipality, city, town, township,...

  20. 40 CFR 310.5 - Am I eligible for reimbursement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS REIMBURSEMENT TO LOCAL GOVERNMENTS FOR EMERGENCY RESPONSE TO... you are the governing body of a county, parish, municipality, city, town, township,...

  1. 40 CFR 310.5 - Am I eligible for reimbursement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS REIMBURSEMENT TO LOCAL GOVERNMENTS FOR EMERGENCY RESPONSE TO... you are the governing body of a county, parish, municipality, city, town, township,...

  2. 40 CFR 310.5 - Am I eligible for reimbursement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS REIMBURSEMENT TO LOCAL GOVERNMENTS FOR EMERGENCY RESPONSE TO... you are the governing body of a county, parish, municipality, city, town, township,...

  3. 7 CFR 1215.28 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Popcorn Board § 1215.28 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Board shall serve...

  4. 7 CFR 1215.28 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Popcorn Board § 1215.28 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Board shall serve...

  5. 7 CFR 1215.28 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Popcorn Board § 1215.28 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Board shall serve...

  6. 7 CFR 1215.28 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Popcorn Board § 1215.28 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Board shall serve...

  7. 7 CFR 1215.28 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Popcorn Board § 1215.28 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Board shall serve...

  8. 7 CFR 1206.35 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions National Mango Promotion Board § 1206.35 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Board shall...

  9. 7 CFR 1206.35 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions National Mango Promotion Board § 1206.35 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Board shall...

  10. 7 CFR 1206.35 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions National Mango Promotion Board § 1206.35 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Board shall...

  11. 7 CFR 1206.35 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions National Mango Promotion Board § 1206.35 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Board shall...

  12. 7 CFR 1206.35 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions National Mango Promotion Board § 1206.35 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Board shall...

  13. Incentives to promote family planning

    PubMed Central

    Heil, Sarah H.; Gaalema, Diann E.; Herrmann, Evan S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Over the past 60 years, population control has become an increasingly urgent issue worldwide as a growing population strains already limited resources. The use of financial incentives to promote family planning is an innovative approach that has potential to make a contribution to efforts to better manage population growth. This report reviews eight studies that examined the effect of incentives on family planning. Method Published studies that tested the impact of incentives to promote some aspect of family planning and included an appropriate control or comparison condition were reviewed. Results Incentives have been used to promote attendance at contraceptive education sessions, adoption and continuation of contraceptive methods, sterilization, and to limit family size. All but one of the eight studies reviewed reported positive outcomes, but weaknesses in study design and execution limit the strength of the conclusions that can be drawn. Conclusion Review of this literature suggests that family planning behaviors, like other behaviors, are sensitive to incentives. Given the tremendous need for efficacious interventions in global efforts to manage population growth, further research on this topic using more rigorous experimental methods is warranted. PMID:22743293

  14. Diagnosis-related Groups and Hospital Inpatient Federal Reimbursement.

    PubMed

    Rimler, Simcha B; Gale, Brian D; Reede, Deborah L

    2015-10-01

    To understand the complex system of reimbursement for health care services, it is helpful to have a working knowledge of the historic context of diagnosis-related groups (DRGs), as well as their utility and increasing relevance. Congress implemented the DRG system in 1983 in response to rapidly increasing health care costs. The DRG system was designed to control hospital reimbursements by replacing retrospective payments with prospective payments for hospital charges. This article explains how these payments are calculated. Every inpatient admission is classified into one of several hundred DRGs that are based on the diagnosis, complications, and comorbidities. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) assigns each DRG a weight that the CMS uses in conjunction with hospital-specific data to determine reimbursement. A population's DRGs represent the resources needed to treat the medical disorders of that population. Hospital administrators use this information to budget and plan for the future. The Affordable Care Act and other recent legislation affect medical reimbursement by altering the DRG system. Radiologic procedures in particular are affected. This legislation will give DRGs an even larger role in determining reimbursements in the coming years. PMID:26466189

  15. Governance of conditional reimbursement practices in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Boon, Wouter; Martins, Luis; Koopmanschap, Marc

    2015-02-01

    When entering the market, orphan drugs are associated with substantial prices and a high degree of uncertainty regarding safety and effectiveness. This makes decision making about the reimbursement of these drugs a complex exercise. To advance on this, the Dutch government introduced a conditional reimbursement trajectory that requires a re-evaluation after four years. This article focuses on the origins, governance and outcomes of such a conditional reimbursement trajectory for orphan drugs. We find that the conditional reimbursement scheme is the result of years of discussion and returning public pressure about unequal access to expensive drugs. During the implementation of the scheme the actors involved went through a learning process about the regulation. Our analysis shows that previous collaborations or already existing organisational structures led to faster production of the required data on cost-effectiveness. However, cost-effectiveness evidence resulting from additional research seems to weigh less than political, judicial and ethical considerations in decision making on reimbursement of orphan drugs in The Netherlands. PMID:25467790

  16. Economic Growth Challenge/Innovation Incentive: Implementing the Incentive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Economic Growth Challenge / Innovation Incentive, as proposed by the Governor's Commission on Higher Education and the Economy, is a new line item involving reallocation of current higher education funding plus matching levels of performance funding to achieve a major restructuring and refocusing of Ohio's portfolio of doctoral research programs.…

  17. Future Research and Policy Directions in Physician Reimbursement

    PubMed Central

    McMenamin, Peter

    1981-01-01

    Payments to physicians absorb the second largest share of the health care dollar in the United States. In 1979, the share was 19 percent of the total, or $40.6 billion (Gibson, 1980). The Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) alone spent $8.6 billion for physician services, representing approximately 16 percent of all public funds disbursed under HCFA programs. This paper presents an overview of various issues concerning physician reimbursement. Several major areas have been identified (access, cost, quality, and improving or refining the Office of Research, Demonstrations, and Statistics' [ORDS] research techniques for analyzing topics concerning physician reimbursement). Each area is introduced with a brief discussion of some of the problems associated with the physician reimbursement systems relating to that area. Selected results are then presented from the previous research in each area, along with descriptions of continuing studies currently underway. Each section concludes with a discussion of potential future directions for new research or data development. PMID:10309465

  18. Medicare program; end-stage renal disease program; prospective reimbursement for dialysis services and approval of special purpose renal dialysis facilities--HCFA. Final rule.

    PubMed

    1983-05-11

    These regulations change the reimbursement system by which Medicare pays for outpatient maintenance dialysis and related physician and laboratory services. These changes establish a prospective method of payment for maintenance dialysis, whether furnished at home or in a hospital-based or independent dialysis facility, and revise other aspects of the reimbursement system to encourage home dialysis and provide incentives for economy and efficiency in furnishing these services. These amendments implement section 2145 of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981. We expect that these changes will improve our administration of the end-stage renal disease program and enable us to control the rapidly growing costs of furnishing dialysis. The controls on quality of care that have been in effect since the beginning of the program will continue to apply. These regulations will also ensure access to care by providing for adequate reimbursement to isolated, essential facilities, where patients have no alternative sources of dialysis care. These regulations also provide for time-limited approval for Medicare participation of special purpose renal dialysis facilities. As a general rule we have not approved facilities such as transient or mobile units set up for emergency purposes or to serve vacationing dialysis patients in State parks and children's camps. This change in regulations will remove this limitation.

  19. Awards and Incentives Can Help Speed Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blomgren, George W.; Thiss, Thomas N.

    1976-01-01

    Describes efforts in the banking industry to combine the reward elements of incentive programs with training activities. Concludes that incentive programs can be combined effectively with learning activities so that training is reinforced and learned behavior is also practiced. (WL)

  20. Federal Incentives for Wind Power (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-05-01

    This fact sheet describes the federal incentives available as of April 2013 that encourage increased development and deployment of wind energy technologies, including research grants, tax incentives, and loan programs.

  1. Behavioral Therapy, Incentives Enhance Addiction Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Behavioral Therapy, Incentives Enhance Addiction Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents For ... their addiction to marijuana can benefit from a treatment program that combines motivational incentives with cognitive-behavioral ...

  2. Financial Incentives for Staffing Hard Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Cynthia D.

    2002-01-01

    Describes examples of financial incentives used to recruit teachers for low-achieving and hard-to-staff schools. Includes targeted salary increases, housing incentives, tuition assistance, and tax credits. (PKP)

  3. Medicaid hospital spending: Effects of reimbursement and utilization control policies

    PubMed Central

    Zuckerman, Stephen

    1987-01-01

    Numerous Medicaid hospital spending policies were developed following the passage of the 1981 Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act. The impact of reimbursement and utilization control policies on Medicaid hospital spending was measured using Medicaid program data for 1977-84. Medicaid prospective reimbursement was found to contain real hospital spending by controlling spending per recipient. However, sustained reductions in the growth in real Medicaid spending are achieved only when Medicaid is included in a broader regulatory framework, not when it is the sole regulated payer. Prior authorization for specific services reduces growth in hospital spending by reducing the growth in inpatient recipients. PMID:10312394

  4. The Effect of Incentives and Meta-incentives on the Evolution of Cooperation.

    PubMed

    Okada, Isamu; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Toriumi, Fujio; Sasaki, Tatsuya

    2015-05-01

    Although positive incentives for cooperators and/or negative incentives for free-riders in social dilemmas play an important role in maintaining cooperation, there is still the outstanding issue of who should pay the cost of incentives. The second-order free-rider problem, in which players who do not provide the incentives dominate in a game, is a well-known academic challenge. In order to meet this challenge, we devise and analyze a meta-incentive game that integrates positive incentives (rewards) and negative incentives (punishments) with second-order incentives, which are incentives for other players' incentives. The critical assumption of our model is that players who tend to provide incentives to other players for their cooperative or non-cooperative behavior also tend to provide incentives to their incentive behaviors. In this paper, we solve the replicator dynamics for a simple version of the game and analytically categorize the game types into four groups. We find that the second-order free-rider problem is completely resolved without any third-order or higher (meta) incentive under the assumption. To do so, a second-order costly incentive, which is given individually (peer-to-peer) after playing donation games, is needed. The paper concludes that (1) second-order incentives for first-order reward are necessary for cooperative regimes, (2) a system without first-order rewards cannot maintain a cooperative regime, (3) a system with first-order rewards and no incentives for rewards is the worst because it never reaches cooperation, and (4) a system with rewards for incentives is more likely to be a cooperative regime than a system with punishments for incentives when the cost-effect ratio of incentives is sufficiently large. This solution is general and strong in the sense that the game does not need any centralized institution or proactive system for incentives. PMID:25974684

  5. The Effect of Incentives and Meta-incentives on the Evolution of Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Isamu; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Toriumi, Fujio; Sasaki, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    Although positive incentives for cooperators and/or negative incentives for free-riders in social dilemmas play an important role in maintaining cooperation, there is still the outstanding issue of who should pay the cost of incentives. The second-order free-rider problem, in which players who do not provide the incentives dominate in a game, is a well-known academic challenge. In order to meet this challenge, we devise and analyze a meta-incentive game that integrates positive incentives (rewards) and negative incentives (punishments) with second-order incentives, which are incentives for other players’ incentives. The critical assumption of our model is that players who tend to provide incentives to other players for their cooperative or non-cooperative behavior also tend to provide incentives to their incentive behaviors. In this paper, we solve the replicator dynamics for a simple version of the game and analytically categorize the game types into four groups. We find that the second-order free-rider problem is completely resolved without any third-order or higher (meta) incentive under the assumption. To do so, a second-order costly incentive, which is given individually (peer-to-peer) after playing donation games, is needed. The paper concludes that (1) second-order incentives for first-order reward are necessary for cooperative regimes, (2) a system without first-order rewards cannot maintain a cooperative regime, (3) a system with first-order rewards and no incentives for rewards is the worst because it never reaches cooperation, and (4) a system with rewards for incentives is more likely to be a cooperative regime than a system with punishments for incentives when the cost-effect ratio of incentives is sufficiently large. This solution is general and strong in the sense that the game does not need any centralized institution or proactive system for incentives. PMID:25974684

  6. The Effect of Incentives and Meta-incentives on the Evolution of Cooperation.

    PubMed

    Okada, Isamu; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Toriumi, Fujio; Sasaki, Tatsuya

    2015-05-01

    Although positive incentives for cooperators and/or negative incentives for free-riders in social dilemmas play an important role in maintaining cooperation, there is still the outstanding issue of who should pay the cost of incentives. The second-order free-rider problem, in which players who do not provide the incentives dominate in a game, is a well-known academic challenge. In order to meet this challenge, we devise and analyze a meta-incentive game that integrates positive incentives (rewards) and negative incentives (punishments) with second-order incentives, which are incentives for other players' incentives. The critical assumption of our model is that players who tend to provide incentives to other players for their cooperative or non-cooperative behavior also tend to provide incentives to their incentive behaviors. In this paper, we solve the replicator dynamics for a simple version of the game and analytically categorize the game types into four groups. We find that the second-order free-rider problem is completely resolved without any third-order or higher (meta) incentive under the assumption. To do so, a second-order costly incentive, which is given individually (peer-to-peer) after playing donation games, is needed. The paper concludes that (1) second-order incentives for first-order reward are necessary for cooperative regimes, (2) a system without first-order rewards cannot maintain a cooperative regime, (3) a system with first-order rewards and no incentives for rewards is the worst because it never reaches cooperation, and (4) a system with rewards for incentives is more likely to be a cooperative regime than a system with punishments for incentives when the cost-effect ratio of incentives is sufficiently large. This solution is general and strong in the sense that the game does not need any centralized institution or proactive system for incentives.

  7. 41 CFR 301-11.501 - What is the Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the Income Tax... EXPENSES Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA), Tax Years 1993 and 1994 General § 301-11.501 What is the Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA)? The ITRA is an allowance designed to reimburse...

  8. 41 CFR 301-11.501 - What is the Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is the Income Tax... EXPENSES Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA), Tax Years 1993 and 1994 General § 301-11.501 What is the Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA)? The ITRA is an allowance designed to reimburse...

  9. 47 CFR 27.1182 - Reimbursement under the Cost-Sharing Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reimbursement under the Cost-Sharing Plan. 27... Cost-Sharing Policies Governing Broadband Radio Service Relocation from the 2150-2160/62 Mhz Band § 27.1182 Reimbursement under the Cost-Sharing Plan. (a) Registration of reimbursement rights. (1) To...

  10. 45 CFR 2551.46 - What cost reimbursements are provided to Senior Companions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What cost reimbursements are provided to Senior..., and Cost Reimbursements § 2551.46 What cost reimbursements are provided to Senior Companions? Cost... cost to themselves. The stipend is paid for the time Senior Companions spend with their...

  11. 45 CFR 2551.46 - What cost reimbursements are provided to Senior Companions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What cost reimbursements are provided to Senior..., and Cost Reimbursements § 2551.46 What cost reimbursements are provided to Senior Companions? Cost... cost to themselves. The stipend is paid for the time Senior Companions spend with their...

  12. 45 CFR 2551.46 - What cost reimbursements are provided to Senior Companions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What cost reimbursements are provided to Senior..., and Cost Reimbursements § 2551.46 What cost reimbursements are provided to Senior Companions? Cost... cost to themselves. The stipend is paid for the time Senior Companions spend with their...

  13. 30 CFR 285.823 - Will MMS reimburse me for my expenses related to inspections?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Will MMS reimburse me for my expenses related... Assessments for Activities Conducted Under SAPs, COPs and GAPs Inspections and Assessments § 285.823 Will MMS reimburse me for my expenses related to inspections? Upon request, MMS will reimburse you for food,...

  14. 30 CFR 250.133 - Will MMS reimburse me for my expenses related to inspections?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Will MMS reimburse me for my expenses related... OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General Inspection of Operations § 250.133 Will MMS reimburse me for my expenses related to inspections? Upon request, MMS will reimburse you for food, quarters, and transportation...

  15. 30 CFR 285.823 - Will MMS reimburse me for my expenses related to inspections?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Will MMS reimburse me for my expenses related... Conducted Under SAPs, COPs and GAPs Inspections and Assessments § 285.823 Will MMS reimburse me for my expenses related to inspections? Upon request, MMS will reimburse you for food, quarters,...

  16. 30 CFR 250.133 - Will MMS reimburse me for my expenses related to inspections?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Will MMS reimburse me for my expenses related... Inspection of Operations § 250.133 Will MMS reimburse me for my expenses related to inspections? Upon request, MMS will reimburse you for food, quarters, and transportation that you provide for MMS...

  17. 75 FR 5234 - Procedures for Reimbursement of General Aviation Operators and Service Providers in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ...This final rule removes a DOT rule, Procedures for Reimbursement of General Aviation Operators and Service Providers in the Washington, DC Area, 14 CFR Part 331. This rule is being removed because all reimbursements under the program have been made and all program activities completed. The rule established procedures to reimburse eligible fixed-based general aviation operators and providers of......

  18. 48 CFR 252.228-7000 - Reimbursement for war-hazard losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reimbursement for war... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.228-7000 Reimbursement for war-hazard losses. As prescribed in 228.370(a), use the following clause: Reimbursement for War-Hazard Losses (DEC 1991) (a) Costs...

  19. Florida's Model of Nursing Home Medicaid Reimbursement for Disaster-Related Expenses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Kali S.; Hyer, Kathryn; Brown, Lisa M.; Polivka-West, LuMarie; Branch, Laurence G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study describes Florida's model of Medicaid nursing home (NH) reimbursement to compensate NHs for disaster-related expenses incurred as a result of 8 hurricanes within a 2-year period. This Florida model can serve as a demonstration for a national model for disaster-related reimbursement. Design and Methods: Florida reimburses NHs…

  20. 41 CFR 301-11.501 - What is the Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is the Income Tax... EXPENSES Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA), Tax Years 1993 and 1994 General § 301-11.501 What is the Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA)? The ITRA is an allowance designed to reimburse...

  1. 41 CFR 301-11.501 - What is the Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What is the Income Tax... EXPENSES Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA), Tax Years 1993 and 1994 General § 301-11.501 What is the Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA)? The ITRA is an allowance designed to reimburse...

  2. 41 CFR 301-11.501 - What is the Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is the Income Tax... EXPENSES Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA), Tax Years 1993 and 1994 General § 301-11.501 What is the Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA)? The ITRA is an allowance designed to reimburse...

  3. 32 CFR 623.6 - Reimbursement for loan of Army materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Reimbursement for loan of Army materiel. 623.6 Section 623.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL § 623.6 Reimbursement for loan of Army materiel. (a) Reimbursement...

  4. 32 CFR 623.6 - Reimbursement for loan of Army materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Reimbursement for loan of Army materiel. 623.6 Section 623.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL § 623.6 Reimbursement for loan of Army materiel. (a) Reimbursement...

  5. 42 CFR 405.515 - Reimbursement for clinical laboratory services billed by physicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reimbursement for clinical laboratory services... Criteria for Determining Reasonable Charges § 405.515 Reimbursement for clinical laboratory services billed... limitation on reimbursement for markups on clinical laboratory services billed by physicians. If a...

  6. 30 CFR 250.196 - Reimbursements for reproduction and processing costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reimbursements for reproduction and processing... Information and Reporting Requirements § 250.196 Reimbursements for reproduction and processing costs. (a... and retains the information. (c) When you request reimbursement, you must identify reproduction...

  7. 30 CFR 250.196 - Reimbursements for reproduction and processing costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reimbursements for reproduction and processing... Information and Reporting Requirements § 250.196 Reimbursements for reproduction and processing costs. (a... and retains the information. (c) When you request reimbursement, you must identify reproduction...

  8. 30 CFR 250.196 - Reimbursements for reproduction and processing costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reimbursements for reproduction and processing... SHELF General Information and Reporting Requirements § 250.196 Reimbursements for reproduction and... reproduction and processing costs separately from acquisition costs. (d) MMS will not reimburse you for...

  9. 30 CFR 250.196 - Reimbursements for reproduction and processing costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reimbursements for reproduction and processing... Information and Reporting Requirements § 250.196 Reimbursements for reproduction and processing costs. (a... and retains the information. (c) When you request reimbursement, you must identify reproduction...

  10. 30 CFR 550.196 - Reimbursements for reproduction and processing costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reimbursements for reproduction and processing... Reporting Requirements § 550.196 Reimbursements for reproduction and processing costs. (a) BOEM will... retains the information. (c) When you request reimbursement, you must identify reproduction and...

  11. 30 CFR 250.196 - Reimbursements for reproduction and processing costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reimbursements for reproduction and processing... Reporting Requirements § 250.196 Reimbursements for reproduction and processing costs. (a) MMS will... retains the information. (c) When you request reimbursement, you must identify reproduction and...

  12. 30 CFR 550.196 - Reimbursements for reproduction and processing costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reimbursements for reproduction and processing... Reporting Requirements § 550.196 Reimbursements for reproduction and processing costs. (a) BOEM will... retains the information. (c) When you request reimbursement, you must identify reproduction and...

  13. 30 CFR 550.196 - Reimbursements for reproduction and processing costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reimbursements for reproduction and processing... Reporting Requirements § 550.196 Reimbursements for reproduction and processing costs. (a) BOEM will... retains the information. (c) When you request reimbursement, you must identify reproduction and...

  14. 48 CFR 252.228-7000 - Reimbursement for war-hazard losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reimbursement for war... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.228-7000 Reimbursement for war-hazard losses. As prescribed in 228.370(a), use the following clause: Reimbursement for War-Hazard Losses (DEC 1991) (a) Costs...

  15. 48 CFR 252.228-7000 - Reimbursement for war-hazard losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reimbursement for war... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.228-7000 Reimbursement for war-hazard losses. As prescribed in 228.370(a), use the following clause: Reimbursement for War-Hazard Losses (DEC 1991) (a) Costs...

  16. 48 CFR 252.228-7000 - Reimbursement for war-hazard losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reimbursement for war... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.228-7000 Reimbursement for war-hazard losses. As prescribed in 228.370(a), use the following clause: Reimbursement for War-Hazard Losses (DEC 1991) (a) Costs...

  17. 48 CFR 252.228-7000 - Reimbursement for war-hazard losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reimbursement for war... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.228-7000 Reimbursement for war-hazard losses. As prescribed in 228.370(a), use the following clause: Reimbursement for War-Hazard Losses (DEC 1991) (a) Costs...

  18. 31 CFR 256.41 - When is reimbursement due for CDA and No FEAR payments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... days of the request for reimbursement. See 5 CFR part 724. Agencies that do not meet this requirement... No FEAR payments? 256.41 Section 256.41 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... When is reimbursement due for CDA and No FEAR payments? Reimbursement for a CDA or No FEAR...

  19. 31 CFR 256.41 - When is reimbursement due for CDA and No FEAR payments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... days of the request for reimbursement. See 5 CFR part 724. Agencies that do not meet this requirement... No FEAR payments? 256.41 Section 256.41 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... When is reimbursement due for CDA and No FEAR payments? Reimbursement for a CDA or No FEAR...

  20. 31 CFR 256.41 - When is reimbursement due for CDA and No FEAR payments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... days of the request for reimbursement. See 5 CFR part 724. Agencies that do not meet this requirement... No FEAR payments? 256.41 Section 256.41 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... When is reimbursement due for CDA and No FEAR payments? Reimbursement for a CDA or No FEAR...

  1. 31 CFR 256.41 - When is reimbursement due for CDA and No FEAR payments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... days of the request for reimbursement. See 5 CFR part 724. Agencies that do not meet this requirement... No FEAR payments? 256.41 Section 256.41 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... When is reimbursement due for CDA and No FEAR payments? Reimbursement for a CDA or No FEAR...

  2. 7 CFR 1486.405 - How are Recipients reimbursed for project expenditures?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How are Recipients reimbursed for project... Contributions and Reimbursements § 1486.405 How are Recipients reimbursed for project expenditures? (a) After implementation of an EMP project for which CCC has agreed to provide funding, Recipients may submit claims...

  3. 7 CFR 1486.405 - How are Recipients reimbursed for project expenditures?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... completion date of the project, and are subject to a complete final performance report acceptable to FAS. (d... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How are Recipients reimbursed for project... MARKETS PROGRAM Contributions and Reimbursements § 1486.405 How are Recipients reimbursed for...

  4. 7 CFR 1486.405 - How are Recipients reimbursed for project expenditures?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... completion date of the project, and are subject to a complete final performance report acceptable to FAS. (d... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How are Recipients reimbursed for project... MARKETS PROGRAM Contributions and Reimbursements § 1486.405 How are Recipients reimbursed for...

  5. 7 CFR 1486.405 - How are Recipients reimbursed for project expenditures?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false How are Recipients reimbursed for project... Contributions and Reimbursements § 1486.405 How are Recipients reimbursed for project expenditures? (a) After implementation of an EMP project for which CCC has agreed to provide funding, Recipients may submit claims...

  6. 32 CFR 623.6 - Reimbursement for loan of Army materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reimbursement for loan of Army materiel. 623.6 Section 623.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL § 623.6 Reimbursement for loan of Army materiel. (a) Reimbursement...

  7. Scaling Relative Incentive Value in Consummatory Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papini, Mauricio R.; Pellegrini, Santiago

    2006-01-01

    Surprising downshifts from more preferred (training incentive) to less preferred incentives (test incentive) are usually accompanied by emotional activation and suppression of conditioned behavior in rats. Two experiments were designed to determine whether consummatory behavior is similarly affected by downshifts of equal proportions. Within…

  8. Incentives for Excellence: Agendas and Arenas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gress, James R., Ed.

    The articles in this monograph focus on issues identified during participation in the U.S. Department of Education 1984 Teacher Incentive Structures Program, and the 1986 Project to Design Teacher Incentive Structures. Emphasis was on designing or adapting incentive structures for possible use in the school, community, or university. The following…

  9. [What do we know about economic incentives?].

    PubMed

    Bech, Mickael

    2008-11-17

    New incentive and regulatory mechanisms have been implemented in the health care sector. This article presents five basic statements about the effects of economic incentives. The five statements can be used to assess how incentive and regulatory mechanisms will influence behaviour. PMID:19014743

  10. 75 FR 71325 - Wildlife Habitat Incentive Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... Conservation Service 7 CFR Part 636 RIN 0578-AA49 Wildlife Habitat Incentive Program AGENCY: Commodity Credit... Department of Agriculture (USDA), is issuing a final rule for the Wildlife Habitat Incentive Program (WHIP... Habitat Incentive Program Manager, Financial Assistance Programs Division, Department of...

  11. A Demonstration of Incentives in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Economic Opportunity, Washington, DC. Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation.

    This report describes the methodology and results of the "incentives only" experiments at Mesa, Arizona and at Stockton, California. The incentives only experiment -- one facet of the performance contracting experiment -- involved contracting to provide incentives to teachers and students, rather than contracting with particular private technology…

  12. Incentive Systems for Education Personnel. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttenberg, Richard

    Herein are discussed the question of what is an incentive; the use of incentives in industry; the current patterns of reward and punishment in the schools; policy implications of the patterns of reward and punishment currently found in the schools; from an historical view, the incentive systems that the schools have tried out in the past,…

  13. 28 CFR 544.72 - Incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Incentives. 544.72 Section 544.72 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Literacy Program § 544.72 Incentives. The Warden shall establish a system of incentives to encourage...

  14. 28 CFR 544.72 - Incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Incentives. 544.72 Section 544.72 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Literacy Program § 544.72 Incentives. The Warden shall establish a system of incentives to encourage...

  15. 28 CFR 544.72 - Incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Incentives. 544.72 Section 544.72 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Literacy Program § 544.72 Incentives. The Warden shall establish a system of incentives to encourage...

  16. 28 CFR 544.72 - Incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Incentives. 544.72 Section 544.72 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Literacy Program § 544.72 Incentives. The Warden shall establish a system of incentives to encourage...

  17. 28 CFR 544.72 - Incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incentives. 544.72 Section 544.72 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Literacy Program § 544.72 Incentives. The Warden shall establish a system of incentives to encourage...

  18. Economics of periodontal care: market trends, competitive forces and incentives.

    PubMed

    Flemmig, Thomas F; Beikler, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    The adoption of new technologies for the treatment of periodontitis and the replacement of teeth has changed the delivery of periodontal care. The objective of this review was to conduct an economic analysis of a mature periodontal service market with a well-developed workforce, including general dentists, dental hygienists and periodontists. Publicly available information about the delivery of periodontal care in the USA was used. A strong trend toward increased utilization of nonsurgical therapy and decreased utilization of surgical periodontal therapy was observed. Although periodontal surgery remained the domain of periodontists, general dentists had taken over most of the nonsurgical periodontal care. The decline in surgical periodontal therapy was associated with an increased utilization of implant-supported prosthesis. Approximately equal numbers of implants were surgically placed by periodontists, oral and maxillofacial surgeons, and general dentists. Porter's framework of the forces driving industry competition was used to analyze the role of patients, dental insurances, general dentists, competitors, entrants, substitutes and suppliers in the periodontal service market. Estimates of out-of-pocket payments of self-pay and insured patients, reimbursement by dental insurances and providers' earnings for various periodontal procedures and alternative treatments were calculated. Economic incentives for providers may explain some of the observed shifts in the periodontal service market. Given the inherent uncertainty about treatment outcomes in dentistry, which makes clinical judgment critical, providers may yield to economic incentives without jeopardizing their ethical standards and professional norms. Although the economic analysis pertains to the USA, some considerations may also apply to other periodontal service markets.

  19. 44 CFR 208.35 - Reimbursement for Advisory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reimbursement for Advisory. 208.35 Section 208.35 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE NATIONAL URBAN SEARCH AND RESCUE RESPONSE SYSTEM Response Cooperative Agreements § 208.35...

  20. 14 CFR 1214.103 - Reimbursement for standard services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Reimbursement for standard services. 1214.103 Section 1214.103 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT General Provisions Regarding Space Shuttle Flights of Payloads for Non-U.S. Government,...

  1. 14 CFR 1214.104 - Reimbursement for optional services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reimbursement for optional services. 1214.104 Section 1214.104 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT General Provisions Regarding Space Shuttle Flights of Payloads for Non-U.S. Government,...

  2. 14 CFR § 1214.103 - Reimbursement for standard services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reimbursement for standard services. § 1214.103 Section § 1214.103 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT General Provisions Regarding Space Shuttle Flights of Payloads for Non-U.S....

  3. 14 CFR 1214.104 - Reimbursement for optional services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reimbursement for optional services. 1214.104 Section 1214.104 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT General Provisions Regarding Space Shuttle Flights of Payloads for Non-U.S. Government,...

  4. 14 CFR 1214.104 - Reimbursement for optional services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Reimbursement for optional services. 1214.104 Section 1214.104 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT General Provisions Regarding Space Shuttle Flights of Payloads for Non-U.S. Government,...

  5. 14 CFR 1214.103 - Reimbursement for standard services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reimbursement for standard services. 1214.103 Section 1214.103 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT General Provisions Regarding Space Shuttle Flights of Payloads for Non-U.S. Government,...

  6. 14 CFR 1214.103 - Reimbursement for standard services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reimbursement for standard services. 1214.103 Section 1214.103 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT General Provisions Regarding Space Shuttle Flights of Payloads for Non-U.S. Government,...

  7. 14 CFR § 1214.104 - Reimbursement for optional services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reimbursement for optional services. § 1214.104 Section § 1214.104 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT General Provisions Regarding Space Shuttle Flights of Payloads for Non-U.S....

  8. 14 CFR 1214.103 - Reimbursement for standard services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reimbursement for standard services. 1214.103 Section 1214.103 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT General Provisions Regarding Space Shuttle Flights of Payloads for Non-U.S. Government,...

  9. 44 CFR 63.6 - Reimbursable relocation costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... flood plain management ordinances, and sewer, septic, electric, gas, telephone, and water connections at... OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IMPLEMENTATION OF SECTION 1306(c) OF THE NATIONAL FLOOD INSURANCE ACT OF 1968 General § 63.6 Reimbursable...

  10. 44 CFR 63.6 - Reimbursable relocation costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... flood plain management ordinances, and sewer, septic, electric, gas, telephone, and water connections at... OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IMPLEMENTATION OF SECTION 1306(c) OF THE NATIONAL FLOOD INSURANCE ACT OF 1968 General § 63.6 Reimbursable...

  11. 26 CFR 20.2205-1 - Reimbursement out of estate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reimbursement out of estate. 20.2205-1 Section 20.2205-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Miscellaneous §...

  12. 26 CFR 20.2205-1 - Reimbursement out of estate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reimbursement out of estate. 20.2205-1 Section 20.2205-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Miscellaneous §...

  13. 26 CFR 20.2205-1 - Reimbursement out of estate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Reimbursement out of estate. 20.2205-1 Section 20.2205-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Miscellaneous §...

  14. 26 CFR 20.2205-1 - Reimbursement out of estate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reimbursement out of estate. 20.2205-1 Section 20.2205-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Miscellaneous §...

  15. 26 CFR 20.2205-1 - Reimbursement out of estate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Reimbursement out of estate. 20.2205-1 Section 20.2205-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Miscellaneous §...

  16. 42 CFR 413.5 - Cost reimbursement: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost reimbursement: General. 413.5 Section 413.5 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE...; OPTIONAL PROSPECTIVELY DETERMINED PAYMENT RATES FOR SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES Introduction and...

  17. 42 CFR 413.5 - Cost reimbursement: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost reimbursement: General. 413.5 Section 413.5 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE...; OPTIONAL PROSPECTIVELY DETERMINED PAYMENT RATES FOR SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES Introduction and...

  18. 45 CFR 703.9 - Reimbursement of members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... that of suitable public transportation for the same trip unless special circumstances justify the... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reimbursement of members. 703.9 Section 703.9 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS...

  19. 45 CFR 703.9 - Reimbursement of members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... that of suitable public transportation for the same trip unless special circumstances justify the... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reimbursement of members. 703.9 Section 703.9 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS...

  20. 7 CFR 210.8 - Claims for reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... school food authority; comparisons of daily free, reduced price and paid lunch counts against data which will assist in the identification of lunch counts in excess of the number of free, reduced price and... reimbursable free, reduced price and paid lunches, respectively, served for each day of operation. (2)...

  1. 7 CFR 210.8 - Claims for reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... school food authority; comparisons of daily free, reduced price and paid lunch counts against data which will assist in the identification of lunch counts in excess of the number of free, reduced price and... reimbursable free, reduced price and paid lunches, respectively, served for each day of operation. (2)...

  2. 7 CFR 210.8 - Claims for reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... school food authority; comparisons of daily free, reduced price and paid lunch counts against data which will assist in the identification of lunch counts in excess of the number of free, reduced price and... reimbursable free, reduced price and paid lunches, respectively, served for each day of operation. (2)...

  3. 7 CFR 210.8 - Claims for reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... school food authority; comparisons of daily free, reduced price and paid lunch counts against data which will assist in the identification of lunch counts in excess of the number of free, reduced price and... reimbursable free, reduced price and paid lunches, respectively, served for each day of operation. (2)...

  4. 7 CFR 210.8 - Claims for reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... school food authority; comparisons of daily free, reduced price and paid lunch counts against data which will assist in the identification of lunch counts in excess of the number of free, reduced price and... reimbursable free, reduced price and paid lunches, respectively, served for each day of operation. (2)...

  5. 78 FR 70244 - Electronic Interim Assistance Reimbursement Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ...: November 15, 2013. Carolyn W. Colvin, Acting Commissioner of Social Security. For the reasons set out in... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Part 416 RIN 0960-AH45 Electronic Interim Assistance Reimbursement Program AGENCY:...

  6. 14 CFR 1214.104 - Reimbursement for optional services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reimbursement for optional services. 1214.104 Section 1214.104 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT General Provisions Regarding Space Shuttle Flights of Payloads for Non-U.S. Government,...

  7. 20 CFR 416.1498 - What travel expenses are reimbursable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... govern travel expenses for Federal employees as authorized under 41 CFR chapter 301. If a State agency... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What travel expenses are reimbursable. 416... Determinations and Decisions Payment of Certain Travel Expenses § 416.1498 What travel expenses are...

  8. 45 CFR 149.100 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... reimbursement in the amount of 80 percent of the costs for health benefits (net of negotiated price concessions... costs for health benefits net of negotiated price concessions, within the applicable plan year for each... threshold and above the cost limit for any given early retiree, all costs for health benefits paid by...

  9. 45 CFR 149.100 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... reimbursement in the amount of 80 percent of the costs for health benefits (net of negotiated price concessions... costs for health benefits net of negotiated price concessions, within the applicable plan year for each... threshold and above the cost limit for any given early retiree, all costs for health benefits paid by...

  10. 20 CFR 725.602 - Reimbursement of the fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... subrogated to the rights of the beneficiary. The Secretary of Labor may, as appropriate, exercise such... HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED CLAIMS FOR BENEFITS UNDER PART C OF TITLE IV OF THE FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT, AS AMENDED Enforcement of Liability; Reports § 725.602 Reimbursement of...

  11. 20 CFR 416.1498 - What travel expenses are reimbursable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... govern travel expenses for Federal employees as authorized under 41 CFR chapter 301. If a State agency... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What travel expenses are reimbursable. 416... Determinations and Decisions Payment of Certain Travel Expenses § 416.1498 What travel expenses are...

  12. 10 CFR 140.22 - Commission guarantee and reimbursement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... required to have and maintain financial protection for each nuclear reactor as determined in § 140.11(a)(4... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Commission guarantee and reimbursement agreements. 140.22 Section 140.22 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS...

  13. 10 CFR 140.22 - Commission guarantee and reimbursement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... required to have and maintain financial protection for each nuclear reactor as determined in § 140.11(a)(4... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commission guarantee and reimbursement agreements. 140.22 Section 140.22 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS...

  14. 10 CFR 140.22 - Commission guarantee and reimbursement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... required to have and maintain financial protection for each nuclear reactor as determined in § 140.11(a)(4... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commission guarantee and reimbursement agreements. 140.22 Section 140.22 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS...

  15. 10 CFR 140.22 - Commission guarantee and reimbursement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... required to have and maintain financial protection for each nuclear reactor as determined in § 140.11(a)(4... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commission guarantee and reimbursement agreements. 140.22 Section 140.22 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS...

  16. 10 CFR 140.22 - Commission guarantee and reimbursement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... required to have and maintain financial protection for each nuclear reactor as determined in § 140.11(a)(4... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commission guarantee and reimbursement agreements. 140.22 Section 140.22 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS...

  17. 23 CFR 645.117 - Cost development and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of actual length of service and total life expectancy applied to the original cost. Credit for... consistent with the provisions of 48 CFR part 31. (2) Costs not eligible for Federal reimbursement include..., less a considertion for loss in service life at 10 percent. Materials recovered from the...

  18. 23 CFR 645.117 - Cost development and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of actual length of service and total life expectancy applied to the original cost. Credit for... consistent with the provisions of 48 CFR part 31. (2) Costs not eligible for Federal reimbursement include..., less a considertion for loss in service life at 10 percent. Materials recovered from the...

  19. Focusing pharmacoeconomic activities: reimbursement or the drug life cycle?

    PubMed

    Langley, Paul C

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to consider the role of pharmacoeconomic activities in the drug life cycle and not just as activities to support reimbursement applications and market entry. These activities are important in establishing the value case for a drug product to both internal and external audiences. Unless these activities are fully integrated into establishing the business case for a product from the pre-phase I period of drug discovery, manufacturers run the risk of establishing a unit price for the product and claims for cost-effectiveness which are inconsistent with achieving reimbursement. Importantly, manufacturers need to consider at an early stage the evidentiary and analytical needs for product evaluation under formulary submission guidelines (AMCP; NICE) and the integration of pharmacoeconomic activities over the life cycle. These activities include justifying assumptions for business opportunity assessments and an early commitment to developing a mock reimbursement submission at post-phase II. The integration of pharmacoeconomic activities in the drug cycle is not only an antidote to excessive clinical optimism but also provides the basis for an effective assessment of the likely performance of new products in the health-care market place at a price and formulary position acceptable both to the manufacturer and the reimburser.

  20. 23 CFR 710.203 - Funding and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... normally be deferred until after NEPA approval, except as provided in 23 CFR 710.503 for protective buying and hardship acquisition; and in 23 CFR 710.501, early acquisition. Appraisal completion may be...-WAY AND REAL ESTATE Program Administration § 710.203 Funding and reimbursement. (a) General...

  1. 47 CFR 27.1233 - Reimbursement costs of transitioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Policies Governing the Transition of the 2500-2690 Mhz Band for Brs and Ebs § 27.1233 Reimbursement costs... following minimum technical requirements: (i) The downconverter's input frequency range (the “in-band...-band input 3rd order intercept point (input IP3) of at least +9 dBm, where out-of-band is defined...

  2. 47 CFR 27.1233 - Reimbursement costs of transitioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Policies Governing the Transition of the 2500-2690 Mhz Band for Brs and Ebs § 27.1233 Reimbursement costs... following minimum technical requirements: (i) The downconverter's input frequency range (the “in-band...-band input 3rd order intercept point (input IP3) of at least +9 dBm, where out-of-band is defined...

  3. 47 CFR 27.1233 - Reimbursement costs of transitioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Policies Governing the Transition of the 2500-2690 Mhz Band for Brs and Ebs § 27.1233 Reimbursement costs... following minimum technical requirements: (i) The downconverter's input frequency range (the “in-band...-band input 3rd order intercept point (input IP3) of at least +9 dBm, where out-of-band is defined...

  4. 47 CFR 27.1233 - Reimbursement costs of transitioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Policies Governing the Transition of the 2500-2690 Mhz Band for Brs and Ebs § 27.1233 Reimbursement costs... following minimum technical requirements: (i) The downconverter's input frequency range (the “in-band...-band input 3rd order intercept point (input IP3) of at least +9 dBm, where out-of-band is defined...

  5. 32 CFR 241.9 - Costs and reimbursements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Costs and reimbursements. 241.9 Section 241.9 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PILOT PROGRAM FOR TEMPORARY EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY PERSONNEL § 241.9 Costs...

  6. 32 CFR 241.9 - Costs and reimbursements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Costs and reimbursements. 241.9 Section 241.9 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PILOT PROGRAM FOR TEMPORARY EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY PERSONNEL § 241.9 Costs...

  7. 32 CFR 241.9 - Costs and reimbursements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Costs and reimbursements. 241.9 Section 241.9 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PILOT PROGRAM FOR TEMPORARY EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY PERSONNEL § 241.9 Costs...

  8. 44 CFR 208.36 - Reimbursement for Alert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE NATIONAL URBAN SEARCH AND RESCUE RESPONSE SYSTEM Response... § 208.41 of this part. (4) Food and beverages for Task Force Members and Support Specialists when DHS does not provide meals during the Alert. DHS will limit food and beverage reimbursement to the...

  9. 23 CFR 645.117 - Cost development and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....117 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC... accepted industry practices and be reasonably supported by recent actual expenditures. Unit costs should be... consistent with the provisions of 48 CFR part 31. (2) Costs not eligible for Federal reimbursement...

  10. 44 CFR 208.36 - Reimbursement for Alert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... § 208.41 of this part. (4) Food and beverages for Task Force Members and Support Specialists when DHS does not provide meals during the Alert. DHS will limit food and beverage reimbursement to the amount... where such food and beverages were provided, multiplied by the number of personnel who received them....

  11. Reimbursing Parents for Unilateral Placements in Private Special Education Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Steven S.

    1986-01-01

    In Burlington School Committee v. Department of Education, Commonwealth of Massachusetts, the U.S. Supreme Court held that the law does not bar parents from making unilateral placements, but they may be reimbursed only if the private educational program is eventually approved through the appeal set forth in the law. (Author/CL)

  12. 23 CFR 645.117 - Cost development and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... consistent with the provisions of 48 CFR part 31. (2) Costs not eligible for Federal reimbursement include... been accomplished as economically by employees outside the overhead organization. (3) Amounts paid to... replaced, such as a building, pumping station, filtration plant, power plant, substation, or any...

  13. 20 CFR 416.1498 - What travel expenses are reimbursable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... govern travel expenses for Federal employees as authorized under 41 CFR chapter 301. If a State agency... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What travel expenses are reimbursable. 416... Determinations and Decisions Payment of Certain Travel Expenses § 416.1498 What travel expenses are...

  14. 20 CFR 416.1498 - What travel expenses are reimbursable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... govern travel expenses for Federal employees as authorized under 41 CFR chapter 301. If a State agency... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What travel expenses are reimbursable. 416... Determinations and Decisions Payment of Certain Travel Expenses § 416.1498 What travel expenses are...

  15. Profitability, third-party reimbursement, and access to community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Carroll, N V; Miederhoff, P A; Waters, L W

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the extent to which third-party reimbursement programs have affected the profitability and availability of community pharmacies. Data were taken from records maintained by the Virginia Board of Pharmacy and a survey of 177 community pharmacies. Between 1989 and 1994, 258 outpatient pharmacies opened and 342 closed. Chain and independent pharmacies suffered net losses, and supermarket and mass merchandiser pharmacies experienced net increases. Few significant changes occurred in the distribution of pharmacies over the study period. Fifty-nine chain and independent pharmacies and 1 supermarket pharmacy chain provided usable profit and reimbursement data. These pharmacies experienced declines in profits and increases in the percentage of prescriptions reimbursed by private third-party prescription programs over the last several years. Regression analyses indicated that higher ratios of sales of private third-party prescriptions to private-pay prescriptions were associated with lower profits. All respondents indicated that changes in private third-party reimbursement had substantially reduced profits over the past 5 years. The results indicate that the growth of private third-party payment has led to lower pharmacy profits but has not yet resulted in problems of consumer access.

  16. 7 CFR 210.7 - Reimbursement for school food authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... prescribed under 7 CFR part 245; (ii) Maintain a system to issue benefits and to update the eligibility of... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reimbursement for school food authorities. 210.7 Section 210.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND...

  17. 44 CFR 208.42 - Reimbursement for other administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... administrative costs. 208.42 Section 208.42 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE NATIONAL URBAN SEARCH AND RESCUE RESPONSE SYSTEM Response Cooperative Agreements § 208.42 Reimbursement for other administrative costs....

  18. 20 CFR 61.102 - Disposition of reimbursement requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disposition of reimbursement requests. 61.102 Section 61.102 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COMPENSATION FOR INJURY, DISABILITY, DEATH, OR ENEMY DETENTION OF EMPLOYEES OF CONTRACTORS WITH THE...

  19. 20 CFR 61.104 - Reimbursement of claims expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reimbursement of claims expense. 61.104 Section 61.104 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COMPENSATION FOR INJURY, DISABILITY, DEATH, OR ENEMY DETENTION OF EMPLOYEES OF CONTRACTORS WITH THE...

  20. 20 CFR 61.100 - General reimbursement provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General reimbursement provisions. 61.100 Section 61.100 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COMPENSATION FOR INJURY, DISABILITY, DEATH, OR ENEMY DETENTION OF EMPLOYEES OF CONTRACTORS WITH THE...

  1. 20 CFR 61.101 - Filing a request for reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing a request for reimbursement. 61.101 Section 61.101 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COMPENSATION FOR INJURY, DISABILITY, DEATH, OR ENEMY DETENTION OF EMPLOYEES OF CONTRACTORS WITH THE...

  2. 5 CFR 2634.304 - Gifts and reimbursements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of the nature, source, and value of the gift. Example to paragraph (f)(1). i. The Secretary of... description, and the value of all gifts aggregating more than $335 in value which are received by the filer... itinerary, dates, and nature of expenses provided. (b) Reimbursements. Except as indicated in §...

  3. 36 CFR 64.15 - Financial reporting requirements and reimbursements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Financial reporting... Check. The Outlay Report and Request for Reimbursement (OMB Circular A-102, Attachment H) is the... A-102, Attachment H) is the standard form for all requests for advance. An advance by Treasury...

  4. 36 CFR 64.15 - Financial reporting requirements and reimbursements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Financial reporting... Check. The Outlay Report and Request for Reimbursement (OMB Circular A-102, Attachment H) is the... A-102, Attachment H) is the standard form for all requests for advance. An advance by Treasury...

  5. 36 CFR 64.15 - Financial reporting requirements and reimbursements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Financial reporting... Check. The Outlay Report and Request for Reimbursement (OMB Circular A-102, Attachment H) is the... A-102, Attachment H) is the standard form for all requests for advance. An advance by Treasury...

  6. Employee Medical Reimbursement Plans in the Age of ERISA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosewater, Robert D.

    1976-01-01

    The employee medical reimbursement plan offers a new dimension in fringe benefits. This article discusses the purposes of such plans to determine who should adopt them, to guide draftsmen in their preparation, and to aid administrators and fiduciaries in their management. (LBH)

  7. 20 CFR 416.1498 - What travel expenses are reimbursable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... govern travel expenses for Federal employees as authorized under 41 CFR chapter 301. If a State agency... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What travel expenses are reimbursable. 416... Determinations and Decisions Payment of Certain Travel Expenses § 416.1498 What travel expenses are...

  8. 48 CFR 47.104-3 - Cost-reimbursement contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 13712 rates may be applied to shipments other than those made by the Government if the total benefit accrues to the Government, i.e., the Government shall pay the charges or directly and completely reimburse... employees who are relocated for the convenience and at the direction of the Government and whose...

  9. Special Education Tuition Reimbursement Claims: An Empirical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Thomas A.; Zirkel, Perry A.

    2001-01-01

    Using published court and hearing officer decisions regarding special education tuition reimbursement, this study found that the annual average number of such clams has increased over time, that there has been a significant difference in case outcomes between the administrative and judicial forums, but that differences in case outcomes did not…

  10. 38 CFR 21.4153 - Reimbursement of expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... administration of an educational program which are costs properly chargeable as tuition costs, such as the...). In making that application, VA will determine reimbursable salary cost pursuant to paragraph (c)(1... activities, expenses of coordinators, or administrative costs, such as those involving selection...

  11. 38 CFR 21.4153 - Reimbursement of expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... administration of an educational program which are costs properly chargeable as tuition costs, such as the...). In making that application, VA will determine reimbursable salary cost pursuant to paragraph (c)(1... activities, expenses of coordinators, or administrative costs, such as those involving selection...

  12. 38 CFR 21.4153 - Reimbursement of expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... administration of an educational program which are costs properly chargeable as tuition costs, such as the...). In making that application, VA will determine reimbursable salary cost pursuant to paragraph (c)(1... activities, expenses of coordinators, or administrative costs, such as those involving selection...

  13. 38 CFR 21.4153 - Reimbursement of expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... administration of an educational program which are costs properly chargeable as tuition costs, such as the...). In making that application, VA will determine reimbursable salary cost pursuant to paragraph (c)(1... activities, expenses of coordinators, or administrative costs, such as those involving selection...

  14. 44 CFR 208.44 - Reimbursement for other costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reimbursement for other costs. 208.44 Section 208.44 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY..., permission for a specific expenditure and has received written permission from the Program Manager or his...

  15. Tube feeding in dementia: how incentives undermine health care quality and patient safety.

    PubMed

    Finucane, Thomas E; Christmas, Colleen; Leff, Bruce A

    2007-05-01

    For nursing home residents with advanced dementia, very little evidence is available to show clinical benefit from enteral tube feeding. Although no randomized clinical trials have been done, considerable evidence from studies of weaker design strongly suggest that tube feeding does not reduce the risks of death, aspiration pneumonia, pressure ulcers, other infections, or poor functional outcome. Nationally, however, utilization is high and highly variable. System-wide incentives favor use of tube feeding, and may influence substitute decision-makers, bedside clinicians, gastroenterologists, and administrators regardless of patient preferences or putative medical indications. Underlying the widespread use of this marginally effective therapy is a basic misunderstanding about malnutrition and about aspiration pneumonia. The face value of tube feeding is strong indeed. In addition to the general faith in intervention, the impulse to "do something" when things are going poorly, financial incentives favor tube feeding for gastroenterologists, hospitals, and nursing homes. The desire to avoid regulatory sanctions, bad publicity, and liability exposure creates a further incentive for nursing homes to provide tube feeding. Rational, evidence-based use of tube feeding in advanced dementia will depend fundamentally on improved education. Reimbursement schemes require significant modification to limit the irrational use of tube feeding. Nursing home regulations based more securely on scientific evidence would likely reduce nonbeneficial tube feeding, as would evidence-based tort reform. Quality improvement initiatives could create positive incentives. Realigning incentives in these ways could, we believe, improve the quality of care, quality of life, and safety of these vulnerable individuals, likely with reduced costs of care.

  16. Getting the incentives right for children.

    PubMed Central

    Glied, S

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: One way to improve the functioning of the American child healthcare system is through the design of incentives. Objective: to examine what we know and need to know about designing incentives to encourage the production of high-quality care both for healthy children and for children with serious illnesses. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS: For healthy children, incentives should encourage the provision of preventive services, including services that encourage healthy behavior. For children with serious illnesses, incentives should reduce risk selection, promote collaborative systems of care, and ensure access to appropriate specialty services. Research findings needed for incentive design includes information on the actual working of existing incentive mechanisms as well as information about risk adjustment, mixed payment system, carve-outs, and other mechanisms to reduce risk selection; options for defining service scope that encourage collaboration; and information about the ways in which quality measurement interacts with payment incentives. PMID:9776952

  17. A comparative study of current Medicaid prescription reimbursement (MAC/EAC) (maximum allowable cost/estimated acquisition cost) with prescription reimbursement based on a competitive market.

    PubMed

    Porter, B H; Carroll, N V; Kotzan, J A

    1988-01-01

    Many pharmacists have suggested that the current Maximum Allowable Cost/Estimated Acquisition Cost (MAC/EAC) program has departed from its intended purpose of generating savings by taking full but fair advantage of the competitive marketplace. The objective of this study was to compare Medicaid prescription reimbursement under current MAC/EAC regulations with prescription reimbursement based on a competitive market. Data representing the top selling single source and multiple source drug products for nine states were analyzed. Results indicated that the current MAC/EAC system of Medicaid reimbursement produced a small savings when compared to reimbursement based on a competitive market. PMID:10303401

  18. Incentive theory III: Adaptive clocks.

    PubMed

    Killeen, P R

    1984-01-01

    Incentive theory is extended to address the phenomenon of autoshaping. To do so, it is necessary to permit the speed of the animal's internal clock to vary with rates of reinforcement; clock speed is the basis for the animal's calculations of reinforcement densities. This notion of an "adaptive clock" is consistent with other effects, such as the partial-reinforcement extinction effect, and permits us to deal with the various experimental manipulations that are found in autoshaping experiments from a unified perspective.

  19. 41 CFR 102-36.80 - How much do we pay for excess personal property on a transfer with reimbursement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... transfer with reimbursement? (a) You may be required to reimburse the holding agency the fair market value... fair value reimbursement. Fair value reimbursement is 20 percent of the original acquisition cost for... circumstances warrant, a higher fair value may be used if the agencies concerned agree. Due to...

  20. Incentives for Reporting Disease Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Reif, Julian; Malani, Anup

    2014-01-01

    Background Countries face conflicting incentives to report infectious disease outbreaks. Reports of outbreaks can prompt other countries to impose trade and travel restrictions, which has the potential to discourage reporting. However, reports can also bring medical assistance to contain the outbreak, including access to vaccines. Methods We compiled data on reports of meningococcal meningitis to the World Health Organization (WHO) from 54 African countries between 1966 and 2002, a period is marked by two events: first, a large outbreak reported from many countries in 1987 associated with the Hajj that resulted in more stringent requirements for meningitis vaccination among pilgrims; and second, another large outbreak in Sub-Saharan Africa in 1996 that led to a new international mechanism to supply vaccines to countries reporting a meningitis outbreak. We used fixed-effects regression modeling to statistically estimate the effect of external forcing events on the number of countries reporting cases of meningitis to WHO. Findings We find that the Hajj vaccination requirements started in 1988 were associated with reduced reporting, especially among countries with relatively fewer cases reported between 1966 and 1979. After the vaccine provision mechanism was in place in 1996, reporting among countries that had previously not reported meningitis outbreaks increased. Interpretation These results indicate that countries may respond to changing incentives to report outbreaks when they can do so. In the long term, these incentives are likely to be more important than surveillance assistance in prompt reporting of outbreaks. PMID:24603414

  1. Is what's good for the patient good for the hospital? Aligning incentives and the business case for nursing.

    PubMed

    Needleman, Jack

    2008-05-01

    This article examines the social and business case for quality related to nursing and the need to restructure incentives to align the interests of the hospital and payers with the interests of the patients. Increasing the proportion of nurses who are registered nurses is associated with net cost savings. Increasing both nursing hours and the proportion of nurses who are registered nurses would result in improved quality and fewer deaths (creating a social case for improved staffing) but would be associated with small cost increases. Cost offsets associated with reduced turnover because of higher staffing would reduce the net cost increase but not result in savings. Under current reimbursement systems, hospitals that increase nurse staffing to improve patient outcomes will likely lose money as a result. Current proposals for pay for performance would create limited incentives for improving hospital nursing care. PMID:18650412

  2. Is what's good for the patient good for the hospital? Aligning incentives and the business case for nursing.

    PubMed

    Needleman, Jack

    2008-05-01

    This article examines the social and business case for quality related to nursing and the need to restructure incentives to align the interests of the hospital and payers with the interests of the patients. Increasing the proportion of nurses who are registered nurses is associated with net cost savings. Increasing both nursing hours and the proportion of nurses who are registered nurses would result in improved quality and fewer deaths (creating a social case for improved staffing) but would be associated with small cost increases. Cost offsets associated with reduced turnover because of higher staffing would reduce the net cost increase but not result in savings. Under current reimbursement systems, hospitals that increase nurse staffing to improve patient outcomes will likely lose money as a result. Current proposals for pay for performance would create limited incentives for improving hospital nursing care.

  3. Unintended effects of reimbursement schedules in mental health care.

    PubMed

    Douven, Rudy; Remmerswaal, Minke; Mosca, Ilaria

    2015-07-01

    We evaluate the introduction of a reimbursement schedule for self-employed mental health care providers in the Netherlands in 2008. The reimbursement schedule follows a discontinuous discrete step function-once the provider has passed a treatment duration threshold the fee is flat until a next threshold is reached. We use administrative mental health care data of the total Dutch population from 2008 to 2010. We find an "efficiency" effect: on the flat part of the fee schedule providers reduce treatment duration by 2 to 7% compared to a control group. However, we also find unintended effects: providers treat patients longer to reach a next threshold and obtain a higher fee. The data shows gaps and bunches in the distribution function of treatment durations, just before and after a threshold. About 11 to 13% of treatments are shifted over a next threshold, resulting in a cost increase of approximately 7 to 9%. PMID:25974274

  4. Cost accounting and public reimbursement schemes in Spanish hospitals.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Martínez, Fernando; Abellán-Perpiñán, José-María; Martínez-Pérez, Jorge-Eduardo; Puig-Junoy, Jaume

    2006-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a description and analysis of the main costing and pricing (reimbursement) systems employed by hospitals in the Spanish National Health System (NHS). Hospitals cost calculations are mostly based on a full costing approach as opposite to other systems like direct costing or activity based costing. Regional and hospital differences arise on the method used to allocate indirect costs to cost centres and also on the approach used to measure resource consumption. Costs are typically calculated by disaggregating expenditure and allocating it to cost centres, and then to patients and DRGs. Regarding public reimbursement systems, the impression is that unit costs are ignored, except for certain type of high technology processes and treatments.

  5. Reward employees, achieve goals with incentive compensation.

    PubMed

    Vergara, G H; Bourke, J

    1985-08-01

    Incentive compensation, rewarding employees financially for extraordinary performance, can be a motivational tool for healthcare organizations. This method of compensation uses a financial reward as an incentive for executives to achieve certain predetermined, agreed-upon goals. Incentive compensation provides two advantages for the healthcare organization--it provides a mechanism to maximize organizational productivity and it gives executives a means to achieve greater compensation.

  6. Special report on reimbursement. Medicare program abandons 1986 malpractice rule.

    PubMed

    Manning, M M

    1992-01-01

    Hospitals with claims "properly pending" before fiscal intermediaries or in the courts need do nothing in order to obtain corrected reimbursement for fiscal years so pending. However, to speed processing of corrected reimbursements for fiscal years pending in appeals before the PRRB, hospitals should request that the Board determine its jurisdiction and remand to the fiscal intermediary for payment as soon as possible. It will be helpful to include with any such request a copy of the notice of program reimbursement and the original appeal letter for each fiscal year under appeal. Despite the fact that HCFA Ruling 91-1 effectively concedes that HCFA has applied an invalid regulation to all fiscal years since May 1, 1986, HCFA counsel have stated that HCFA will not permit reopening of closed cost reports to correct the inappropriate apportionment of malpractice insurance costs. Nevertheless, hospitals that do not presently have a claim or appeal pending have several options. Under the Provider Reimbursement Manual, HIM-15, sections 2930-2931, fiscal intermediaries are required to reopen cost reports filed within the three-year reopening period to correct errors. Accordingly, should a fiscal intermediary deny a provider's reopening request, the provider should seriously consider taking an appeal to the PRRB. The PRRB's jurisdiction to review fiscal intermediary denials of requests to reopen cost reports was affirmed by the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, see State of Oregon v. Bowen, 854 F.2d 346 (9th Cir. 1988), a decision that is controlling in California, Oregon, Washington, Nevada, Arizona, Montana, Idaho, Hawaii, Alaska, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10117365

  7. Staying ahead financially. Reimbursement tips for a changing environment.

    PubMed

    Kondek, D

    1998-03-01

    Physicians' primary goal is to give good care to their patients. But like other managers in changing times, they face big challenges to achieving their goals. Major national stressors for all professionals today, experts report, are time and money. MSMS leaders, participating in strategic planning sessions this past summer and fall, agreed, ranking reimbursement/revenue problems as second on their list of concerns, right behind autonomy as physicians.

  8. Breast Cancer Surgery and Financial Reimbursement in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Juergen; Wallwiener, Diethelm

    2012-01-01

    The reimbursement for breast cancer-specific operative interventions in Germany is regulated by the diagnosis-related group (DRG) system. The essential elements of the German DRG system, which was developed as a per-case lump-sum payment system, are presented, including the participating institutions. The actual treatment situation in breast cancer surgery is now aptly reflected in the introduction of the OPS (operation and treatment procedure classification) 2012. This is oriented on the classification model of Hoffmann and Wallwiener, with its complexity-based differentiation that reflects the basic idea of different resource usage. Despite the actual potential of the appropriately differentiated encryption of surgical procedures, which illustrates their differences in resource costs and consumption, appropriate reimbursement has still not been achieved. Hopefully, in the future the calculation of the DRGs in the field of breast cancer surgery will be based on data feedback from the hospitals and treatment institutions, and will be more suited to the main purpose of the DRG system, i.e. that reimbursement reflects resource expenditure. A necessary basic tool for differentiated, complexity-oriented encryption has been achieved with the OPS 2012, which mirrors our classification model for oncological, oncoplastic and reconstructive breast surgery. PMID:24647777

  9. Reimbursing Dentists for Smoking Cessation Treatment: Views From Dental Insurers

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Shana; McNeely, Jennifer; Rotrosen, John; Winitzer, Rebecca F.; Pollack, Harold; Abel, Stephen; Metsch, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Screening and delivery of evidence-based interventions by dentists is an effective way to reduce tobacco use. However, dental visits remain an underutilized opportunity for the treatment of tobacco dependence. This is, in part, because the current reimbursement structure does not support expansion of dental providers’ role in this arena. The purpose of this study was to interview dental insurers to assess attitudes toward tobacco use treatment in dental practice, pros and cons of offering dental provider reimbursement, and barriers to instituting a tobacco use treatment-related payment policy for dental providers. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 dental insurance company executives. Participants were identified using a targeted sampling method and represented viewpoints from a significant share of companies within the dental insurance industry. Results: All insurers believed that screening and intervention for tobacco use was an appropriate part of routine care during a dental visit. Several indicated a need for more evidence of clinical and cost-effectiveness before reimbursement for these services could be actualized. Lack of purchaser demand, questionable returns on investment, and segregation of the medical and dental insurance markets were cited as additional barriers to coverage. Conclusions: Dissemination of findings on efficacy and additional research on financial returns could help to promote uptake of coverage by insurers. Wider issues of integration between dental and medical care and payment systems must be addressed in order to expand opportunities for preventive services in dental care settings. PMID:22387994

  10. HCPCS Coding: An Integral Part of Your Reimbursement Strategy.

    PubMed

    Nusgart, Marcia

    2013-12-01

    The first step to a successful reimbursement strategy is to ensure that your wound care product has the most appropriate Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System (HCPCS) code (or billing) for your product. The correct HCPCS code plays an essential role in patient access to new and existing technologies. When devising a strategy to obtain a HCPCS code for its product, companies must consider a number of factors as follows: (1) Has the product gone through the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulatory process or does it need to do so? Will the FDA code designation impact which HCPCS code will be assigned to your product? (2) In what "site of service" do you intend to market your product? Where will your customers use the product? Which coding system (CPT(®) or HCPCS) applies to your product? (3) Does a HCPCS code for a similar product already exist? Does your product fit under the existing HCPCS code? (4) Does your product need a new HCPCS code? What is the linkage, if any, between coding, payment, and coverage for the product? Researchers and companies need to start early and place the same emphasis on a reimbursement strategy as it does on a regulatory strategy. Your reimbursement strategy staff should be involved early in the process, preferably during product research and development and clinical trial discussions.

  11. 48 CFR 16.402-1 - Cost incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost incentives. 16.402-1... AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 16.402-1 Cost incentives. (a) Most incentive contracts include only cost incentives, which take the form of a profit or fee adjustment formula and...

  12. 48 CFR 16.402-1 - Cost incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost incentives. 16.402-1... AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 16.402-1 Cost incentives. (a) Most incentive contracts include only cost incentives, which take the form of a profit or fee adjustment formula and...

  13. Fighting antibiotic resistance: marrying new financial incentives to meeting public health goals.

    PubMed

    Kesselheim, Aaron S; Outterson, Kevin

    2010-09-01

    The world faces a worsening public health crisis: A growing number of bacteria are resistant to available antibiotics. Yet there are few new antibiotics in the development pipeline to take the place of these increasingly ineffective drugs. We review a number of proposals intended to bolster drug development, including such financial incentives for pharmaceutical manufacturers as extending the effective patent life for new antibiotics. However, such strategies directly conflict with the clear need to reduce unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions and could actually increase prescription use. As an alternative, we recommend a two-prong, "integrated" strategy. This would increase reimbursement for the appropriate, evidence-based use of antibiotics that also met specific public health goals--such as reducing illness levels while limiting antibiotic resistance.

  14. Overconfidence, Incentives and Digit Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Neyse, Levent; Bosworth, Steven; Ring, Patrick; Schmidt, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    This paper contributes to a better understanding of the biological underpinnings of overconfidence by analyzing performance predictions in the Cognitive Reflection Test with and without monetary incentives. In line with the existing literature we find that the participants are too optimistic about their performance on average; incentives lead to higher performance; and males score higher than females on this particular task. The novelty of this paper is an analysis of the relation between participants’ performance prediction accuracy and their second to fourth digit ratio. It has been reported that the digit ratio is a negatively correlated bio-marker of prenatal testosterone exposure. In the un-incentivized treatment, we find that males with low digit ratios, on average, are significantly more overconfident about their performance. In the incentivized treatment, however, we observe that males with low digit ratios, on average, are less overconfident about their performance. These effects are not observed in females. We discuss how these findings fit into the literature on testosterone and decision making and how they might help to explain seemingly opposing evidence. PMID:27039893

  15. Incentives for telehealthcare deployment that support integrated care: a comparative analysis across eight European countries

    PubMed Central

    Lluch, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Health care systems are struggling to deal with the increasing demands of an older population. In an attempt to find a solution to these demands, there has been a shift towards integrated care supported by information and communication technologies. However, little is understood about the role played by incentives and reimbursement schemes in the development of integrated care and information and communication technologies uptake. The objective of this paper is to investigate this question, specifically as regards telehealthcare. Methods In order to identify the deployment of telehealthcare applications and their role in supporting integrated care, a case study approach was used. A clustering exercise was carried out and eight European countries were selected for in-depth study: Denmark, Estonia, Germany, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain and the UK. In total, 31 telehealthcare initiatives across eight countries involving over 20,000 patients were investigated. Results Reflecting on specific examples in each initiative, drivers promoting integrated care delivery supported by telehealthcare mainstreaming and associated incentive mechanisms were identified. Attention was also paid to other factors which acted as barriers for widespread deployment. Discussion and conclusions Trends towards telehealthcare mainstreaming were found in Denmark, the UK, and in some regions of Spain, Italy and France. Mainstreaming often went hand-in-hand with progress towards integrated care delivery and payment reforms. A general trend was found towards outcomes-based payments and bundled payment schemes, which aimed to promote integrated care supported by telehealthcare deployment. Their effectiveness in achieving these goals remains to be seen. In addition, a form of outpatient diagnostic-related group reimbursement for telehealthcare services was found to have emerged in a few countries. However, it is questionable how this incentive could promote integrated care

  16. Capital cost reimbursement to community hospitals under Federal health insurance programs.

    PubMed

    Kinney, E D; Lefkowitz, B

    1982-01-01

    Issues in current capital cost reimbursement to community hospitals by Medicare and Medicaid are described, and options for change analyzed. Major reforms in the way the federal government pays for capital costs--in particular substitution of other methods of payment for existing depreciation reimbursement--could have significant impact on the structure of the health care system and on government expenditures. While such reforms are likely to engender substantial political opposition, they may be facilitated by broader changes in the reimbursement system.

  17. 28 CFR 544.43 - Incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Incentives. 544.43 Section 544.43 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Mandatory English-as-a-Second Language Program (ESL) § 544.43 Incentives. The Warden or designee...

  18. 28 CFR 544.43 - Incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Incentives. 544.43 Section 544.43 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Mandatory English-as-a-Second Language Program (ESL) § 544.43 Incentives. The Warden or designee...

  19. 28 CFR 544.43 - Incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Incentives. 544.43 Section 544.43 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Mandatory English-as-a-Second Language Program (ESL) § 544.43 Incentives. The Warden or designee...

  20. The Incentive System in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landfried, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the incentive system in German higher education. He states that the underdeveloped incentive and management mechanisms in German higher education result in mistaken allocations in the higher education system in general and in some individual institutions in particular. He believes that the only way to optimize…

  1. Benefits & Incentives for Students Entering Supported Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Thomas H.; Moore, Stephen C.

    1992-01-01

    This article describes available benefits and work incentives affecting supported employment placement for students with severe disabilities, including payment for necessary supports (state programs and the Department of Labor), protection of benefits (Social Security programs), and incentives to employers (the Targeted Job Tax Credits program and…

  2. Incentives for Innovation in the Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pincus, John

    Innovative behavior in the schools is determined by market structure, in which the schools behave as a special type of public utility, and by bureaucratic incentives which govern the schools' motivation and ability to implement change. The market incentives for school districts are systematically different from those of a competitive firm,…

  3. 12 CFR 708a.12 - Voting incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voting incentives. 708a.12 Section 708a.12 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS CONVERSION OF INSURED CREDIT UNIONS TO MUTUAL SAVINGS BANKS § 708a.12 Voting incentives. If a converting credit...

  4. 12 CFR 708a.311 - Voting incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Voting incentives. 708a.311 Section 708a.311 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS BANK CONVERSIONS AND MERGERS Merger of Insured Credit Unions Into Banks § 708a.311 Voting incentives. If a...

  5. Scaling Relative Incentive Value in Anticipatory Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrini, Santiago; Papini, Mauricio R.

    2007-01-01

    Papini and Pellegrini (Papini, M. R., & Pellegrini, S. "Scaling relative incentive value in consummatory behavior." "Learning and Motivation", in press) observed that, within limits, the level of consummatory responding of rats exposed to incentive downshifts in the concentration of sucrose solutions was similar when the ratio of test/training…

  6. 7 CFR 3560.656 - Incentives offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... caused by any rent increase as a result of a borrower's acceptance of an incentive offer or tenants who...) The Agency will offer a borrower, who submits a prepayment request meeting the conditions of § 3560...) The Agency may offer the following incentives: (1) The Agency may increase the borrower's...

  7. 75 FR 76079 - Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision... collection. Title of Proposal: Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance. OMB Number: 1550-0129. Form Number: N/A... compensation arrangements at a financial institution do not encourage employees to take excessive risks....

  8. 75 FR 22679 - Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision... collection. Title of Proposal: Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance. OMB Number: 1550-0NEW. Form Number: N/A... compensation arrangements at a financial institution do not encourage employees to take excessive risks....

  9. 75 FR 53023 - Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision... collection. Title of Proposal: Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance. OMB Number: 1550-0129. Form Number: N/A... compensation arrangements at a financial institution do not encourage employees to take excessive risks....

  10. Building on Student Achievement through Incentive Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Saneik

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine if incentive programs like Renaissance impact high school students and faculty. Incentives can go a long way for students in schools. At Lehigh Senior High School (LSHS), for example, students were introduced to the Renaissance Program this school year, by receiving goodies. Coupons at Dairy Queen,…

  11. 28 CFR 544.43 - Incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incentives. 544.43 Section 544.43 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Mandatory English-as-a-Second Language Program (ESL) § 544.43 Incentives. The Warden or designee...

  12. 28 CFR 544.43 - Incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Incentives. 544.43 Section 544.43 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Mandatory English-as-a-Second Language Program (ESL) § 544.43 Incentives. The Warden or designee...

  13. 4 CFR 4.4 - Incentive awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Incentive awards. 4.4 Section 4.4 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE AND UTILIZATION § 4.4 Incentive awards. The... regulations apply to Government Accountability Office employees....

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF INCENTIVE VALUES IN CHILDHOOD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WITRYOL, SAM L.; AND OTHERS

    THE USE OF REWARDS AS INCENTIVES TO INFLUENCE BEHAVIOR WAS STUDIED AND AN EVALUATION WAS MADE OF THE INCENTIVE VALUE OF EACH OF THE REWARDS. PORTABLE VERSIONS OF THE WISCONSIN GENERAL TEST APPARATUS WERE USED TO TEST 120 CHILDREN FROM GRADES 1, 3, AND 5. FOR A DISCRIMINATION LEARNING TEST EACH CHILD WAS PRESENTED 5 STIMULI THAT WERE SELECTED FROM…

  15. The effect of case-mix adjustment on admission-based reimbursement.

    PubMed Central

    Kinzer, D; Warner, M

    1983-01-01

    This paper addresses two questions: (1) Does adjusting for case mix have any effect on prospective admission-based reimbursement? and (2) How does the way in which case type is defined (DRG, ICD9CM, Age, etc) affect reimbursement systems? Data from 20 Maryland hospitals provided the basis for analysis, and the results illustrate how hospital reimbursement is affected under alternative definitions of case type (including no case type), showing highly significant variation. Implications for cost control and existing and proposed prospective reimbursement systems are discussed. Images Figure 5 PMID:6409840

  16. State-Sponsored School Performance Incentive Plans: A Policy Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Craig E.; Shujaa, Mwalimu

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the rationale for the use of school incentives in public education and reviews the use of incentives in the public sector. Provides a topological overview of incentive programs and case descriptions. (JOW)

  17. Incentive contracts for development projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finley, David T.; Smith, Byron; DeGroff, B.

    2012-09-01

    Finding a contract vehicle that balances the concerns of the customer and the contractor in a development project can be difficult. The customer wants a low price and an early delivery, with as few surprises as possible as the project progresses. The contractor wants sufficient cost and schedule to cover risk. Both want to clearly define what each party will provide. Many program offices do not want to award cost plus contracts because their funding sources will not allow it, their boards do not want an open ended commitment, and they feel like they lose financial control of the project. A fixed price incentive contract, with a mutually agreed upon target cost, provides the owner with visibility into the project and input into the execution of the project, encourages both parties to save costs, and stimulates a collaborative atmosphere by aligning the respective interests of customers and contractors.

  18. Proton Therapy Expansion Under Current United States Reimbursement Models

    SciTech Connect

    Kerstiens, John; Johnstone, Peter A.S.

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To determine whether all the existing and planned proton beam therapy (PBT) centers in the United States can survive on a local patient mix that is dictated by insurers, not by number of patients. Methods and Materials: We determined current and projected cancer rates for 10 major US metropolitan areas. Using published utilization rates, we calculated patient percentages who are candidates for PBT. Then, on the basis of current published insurer coverage policies, we applied our experience of what would be covered to determine the net number of patients for whom reimbursement is expected. Having determined the net number of covered patients, we applied our average beam delivery times to determine the total number of minutes needed to treat that patient over the course of their treatment. We then calculated our expected annual patient capacity per treatment room to determine the appropriate number of treatment rooms for the area. Results: The population of patients who will be both PBT candidates and will have treatments reimbursed by insurance is significantly smaller than the population who should receive PBT. Coverage decisions made by insurers reduce the number of PBT rooms that are economically viable. Conclusions: The expansion of PBT centers in the US is not sustainable under the current reimbursement model. Viability of new centers will be limited to those operating in larger regional metropolitan areas, and few metropolitan areas in the US can support multiple centers. In general, 1-room centers require captive (non–PBT-served) populations of approximately 1,000,000 lives to be economically viable, and a large center will require a population of >4,000,000 lives. In areas with smaller populations or where or a PBT center already exists, new centers require subsidy.

  19. Role of budget impact in drug reimbursement decisions.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joshua Parsons; Stolk, Elly; Niezen, Maartje

    2008-04-01

    There are three known criteria that underlie drug reimbursement decisions: therapeutic value, cost-effectiveness, and burden of disease. However, evidence from recent reimbursement decisions in several jurisdictions points to residual, unexplained variables, among which is budget impact. Budget impact refers to the total costs that drug reimbursement and use entail with respect to one part of the health care system, pharmaceutical care, or to the entire health care system, taking into account the possible reallocation of resources across budgets or sectors of the health care system. The economic and equity rationale for carrying out budget impact analyses is opportunity cost, or benefits forgone, measured in terms of utility or equitable distribution, by using resources in one way rather than another. In other words, by choosing to draw down the budget in one way, decision makers forgo other opportunities to use the same resources. Under a set of unrealistic assumptions, cost-effectiveness analysis accounts for opportunity cost while conveying to the decision maker the price of maximizing health gains, subject to a budget or resource constraint. However, the underlying assumptions are implausible, particularly in the context of pharmaceutical care. Moreover, budget impact analysis is more useful to the decision maker than cost-effectiveness analysis if the objective is not to maximize health gains subject to a budget or resource constraint, but to reduce variance in health gains. With respect to equitable distribution, budget impact analyses lay bare the individuals or groups who lose out - those who bear the opportunity cost of spending resources in accordance with one decision rule rather than another. PMID:18325899

  20. Hospitalizations of nursing homes residents: the role of reimbursement policies.

    PubMed

    Ashton, Toni

    2014-01-23

    Factors which contribute to hospitalization of nursing home residents are multiple and complex. They include dimensions of the policy setting as well as patient management practices. In seeking interventions to reduce such hospitalizations, most research has focussed on changing patient management. But provider reimbursement policies may also influence the decision to hospitalize nursing home residents. This includes payments to hospitals and general practitioners as well as to the nursing homes themselves. Differences in payment methods may mean that interventions that work well in one setting do not work well in another.This is a commentary on http://www.ijhpr.org/content/3/1/2/.

  1. Transitional care management reimbursement to reduce COPD readmission.

    PubMed

    Kangovi, Shreya; Grande, David

    2014-01-01

    Reducing preventable readmissions for COPD is an important national health policy goal. Thus far, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) policies focused on incentivizing improvements in inpatient quality have had variable success. In its 2013 physician-payment rule, CMS announced new payments that reimburse ambulatory care providers for timely posthospital visits and transitional care management services. CMS hopes that posthospital transitional care and services will substitute for readmission, but the evidence supporting this hypothesis is mixed. In this article, we discuss ways for ambulatory pulmonologists to leverage transitional care management payments to enhance access for their patients with COPD while minimizing the risk of a paradoxic increase in readmission rates. PMID:24394826

  2. Hospital Payroll Costs, Productivity, and Employment Under Prospective Reimbursement

    PubMed Central

    Kidder, David; Sullivan, Daniel

    1982-01-01

    This paper reports preliminary findings from the National Hospital Rate-Setting Study regarding the effects of State prospective reimbursement (PR) programs on measures of payroll costs and employment in hospitals. PR effects were estimated through reduced-form equations, using American Hospital Association Annual Survey data on over 2,700 hospitals from 1969 through 1978. These tests suggest that hospitals responded to PR by lowering payroll expenditures. PR also seems to have been associated with reductions in full-time equivalent staff per adjusted inpatient day. However, tests did not confirm the hypothesis that hospitals reduce payroll per full-time equivalent staff as a result of PR. PMID:10309913

  3. Accounting and reimbursement schemes for inpatient care in France.

    PubMed

    Bellanger, Martine M; Tardif, Laurent

    2006-08-01

    The new French case-mix system of hospital payment was adopted in 2004 for public hospitals and in March 2005 for private-for-profit hospitals. Implementing this reform requires a period of transition but the challenges ahead can already be predicted. Prices will have to change before this mode of reimbursement can have any real impact. This requires producing more detailed hospital cost data and using fine measuring tools such as the cost accounting method developed for use in this context. This article describes and analyses the main tools and methods selected to implement the new French prospective payment system.

  4. 41 CFR 102-3.130 - What policies apply to the appointment, and compensation or reimbursement of advisory committee...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the appointment, and compensation or reimbursement of advisory committee members, staff, and experts... Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION GENERAL 3-FEDERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE... compensation or reimbursement of advisory committee members, staff, and experts and consultants? In...

  5. 10 CFR 765.30 - Reimbursement of costs incurred in accordance with a plan for subsequent remedial action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM PROCESSING SITES Additional Reimbursement... reimbursement ratio established for such site; or (2) For the uranium site licensees only, $6.25, as...

  6. 48 CFR 3028.311 - Solicitation provision and contract clause on liability insurance under cost-reimbursement...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... contract clause on liability insurance under cost-reimbursement contracts. 3028.311 Section 3028.311 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION... contract clause on liability insurance under cost-reimbursement contracts....

  7. 10 CFR 765.30 - Reimbursement of costs incurred in accordance with a plan for subsequent remedial action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM PROCESSING SITES Additional Reimbursement... reimbursement ratio established for such site; or (2) For the uranium site licensees only, $6.25, as...

  8. 10 CFR 765.30 - Reimbursement of costs incurred in accordance with a plan for subsequent remedial action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM PROCESSING SITES Additional Reimbursement... reimbursement ratio established for such site; or (2) For the uranium site licensees only, $6.25, as...

  9. 10 CFR 765.30 - Reimbursement of costs incurred in accordance with a plan for subsequent remedial action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM PROCESSING SITES Additional Reimbursement... reimbursement ratio established for such site; or (2) For the uranium site licensees only, $6.25, as...

  10. 10 CFR 765.30 - Reimbursement of costs incurred in accordance with a plan for subsequent remedial action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM PROCESSING SITES Additional Reimbursement... reimbursement ratio established for such site; or (2) For the uranium site licensees only, $6.25, as...

  11. 26 CFR 1.62-2 - Reimbursements and other expense allowance arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., and Taxable Income § 1.62-2 Reimbursements and other expense allowance arrangements. (a) Table of contents. The contents of this section are as follows: (a) Table of contents. (b) Scope. (c) Reimbursement... general. (2) Safe harbors. (i) Fixed date method. (ii) Periodic payment method. (3) Pattern...

  12. 26 CFR 1.62-2 - Reimbursements and other expense allowance arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., and Taxable Income § 1.62-2 Reimbursements and other expense allowance arrangements. (a) Table of contents. The contents of this section are as follows: (a) Table of contents. (b) Scope. (c) Reimbursement... general. (2) Safe harbors. (i) Fixed date method. (ii) Periodic payment method. (3) Pattern...

  13. 26 CFR 1.62-2 - Reimbursements and other expense allowance arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., and Taxable Income § 1.62-2 Reimbursements and other expense allowance arrangements. (a) Table of contents. The contents of this section are as follows: (a) Table of contents. (b) Scope. (c) Reimbursement... general. (2) Safe harbors. (i) Fixed date method. (ii) Periodic payment method. (3) Pattern...

  14. Education Program Cost Reimbursement in University Hospitals. Is There a Coherent National Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeddeloh, Norman P.

    1981-01-01

    Medicare reimbursement for educational program costs is a quagmire of conflicting rules, regulations, laws, procedures, and precedents. The reimbursement principles in force fail to recognize the special value to patient care provided by the integration of the university hospital with an academic health sciences center and are illogical and…

  15. 23 CFR 230.117 - Reimbursement procedures (Federal-aid highway construction projects only).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reimbursement procedures (Federal-aid highway... TRANSPORTATION CIVIL RIGHTS EXTERNAL PROGRAMS Equal Employment Opportunity on Federal and Federal-Aid Construction Contracts (Including Supportive Services) § 230.117 Reimbursement procedures (Federal-aid...

  16. 23 CFR 140.608 - Reimbursable bond interest costs of Interstate projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reimbursable bond interest costs of Interstate projects. 140.608 Section 140.608 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT... Interstate projects. (a) Bond interest earned on bonds actually retired may be reimbursed on the Federal...

  17. 23 CFR 140.608 - Reimbursable bond interest costs of Interstate projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reimbursable bond interest costs of Interstate projects. 140.608 Section 140.608 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT... Interstate projects. (a) Bond interest earned on bonds actually retired may be reimbursed on the Federal...

  18. 23 CFR 140.608 - Reimbursable bond interest costs of Interstate projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reimbursable bond interest costs of Interstate projects. 140.608 Section 140.608 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT... Interstate projects. (a) Bond interest earned on bonds actually retired may be reimbursed on the Federal...

  19. 23 CFR 140.608 - Reimbursable bond interest costs of Interstate projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reimbursable bond interest costs of Interstate projects. 140.608 Section 140.608 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT... Interstate projects. (a) Bond interest earned on bonds actually retired may be reimbursed on the Federal...

  20. 23 CFR 140.608 - Reimbursable bond interest costs of Interstate projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reimbursable bond interest costs of Interstate projects. 140.608 Section 140.608 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT... Interstate projects. (a) Bond interest earned on bonds actually retired may be reimbursed on the Federal...