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Sample records for reimbursement incentive

  1. 48 CFR 216.405 - Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... incentive contracts. 216.405 Section 216.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 216.405 Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts. ...

  2. 48 CFR 1316.405 - Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... incentive contracts. 1316.405 Section 1316.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 1316.405 Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts. ...

  3. 48 CFR 416.405 - Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... incentive contracts. 416.405 Section 416.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 416.405 Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts. ...

  4. 48 CFR 1816.405 - Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... incentive contracts. 1816.405 Section 1816.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 1816.405 Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts. ...

  5. 48 CFR 16.405 - Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... incentive contracts. 16.405 Section 16.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 16.405 Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts. See 16.301 for requirements applicable to all cost-reimbursement contracts...

  6. 48 CFR 916.405 - Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts. 916.405 Section 916.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 916.405...

  7. 48 CFR 916.405 - Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts. 916.405 Section 916.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 916.405...

  8. 48 CFR 916.405 - Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts. 916.405 Section 916.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 916.405...

  9. 48 CFR 916.405 - Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts. 916.405 Section 916.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 916.405...

  10. 48 CFR 916.405 - Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts. 916.405 Section 916.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 916.405...

  11. Survey-based Indices for Nursing Home Quality Incentive Reimbursement

    PubMed Central

    Willemain, Thomas R.

    1983-01-01

    Incentive payments are a theoretically appealing complement to nursing home quality assurance systems that rely on regulatory enforcement. However, the practical aspects of incentive program design are not yet well understood. After reviewing the rationale for incentive approaches and recent State and. Federal initiatives, the article considers a basic program design issue: creating an index of nursing home quality. It focuses on indices constructed from routine licensure and certification survey results because State initiatives have relied heavily on these readily accessible data. It also suggests a procedure for creating a survey-based index and discusses a sampling of Implementation issues. PMID:10309858

  12. Study participants incentives, compensation and reimbursement in resource-constrained settings.

    PubMed

    Mduluza, Takafira; Midzi, Nicholas; Duruza, Donold; Ndebele, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Controversies still exists within the research fraternity on the form and level of incentives, compensation and reimbursement to study participants in resource-constrained settings. While most research activities contribute significantly to advancement of mankind, little has been considered in rewarding directly the research participants from resource-constrained areas. A study was conducted in Zimbabwe to investigate views and expectations of various stakeholders on study participation incentives, compensation and reimbursement issues. Data was collected using various methods including a survey of about 1,008 parents/guardians of school children participating in various immunological cohort studies and parasitology surveys. Community advisory boards (CABs) at 9 of the sites were also consulted. Further, information was gathered during discussions held at a basic research ethics training workshop. The workshop had 45 participants that including 40 seasoned Zimbabwean researchers and 5 international research collaborators. About 90% (907) of the study participants and guardians expected compensation of reasonable value, in view of the researchers' value and comparison to other sites regardless of economic status of the community. During discussion with researchers at a basic ethics training workshop, about 80% (32) believed that decisions on level of compensation should be determined by the local research ethics committees. While, the few international research collaborators were of the opinion that compensation should be in accordance with local guidelines, and incentives should be in line with funding. Both the CAB members and study participants expressed that there should be a clear distinction between study incentive and compensation accorded to individual and community expectations on benefits from studies. However, CABs expressed that their suggestions on incentives and compensation are often moderated by the regulatory authorities who cite fear of unknown

  13. Financial incentives in health care. The impact of performance-based reimbursement.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, E; Axelsson, R; Arnetz, B

    2001-12-01

    The key question addressed in this study is whether performance-based reimbursement (PBR) is a useful way to create the right incentive for efficiency improvements in health care. In this 4-year prospective cohort study, physicians in one council with PBR and in ten councils without such a system were studied. The results of this study indicate that PBR, compared to an annual budget system, creates a different incentive, an 'inner incentive' which may be stronger than the external incentive of financial pressures. PBR may result in a greater cost awareness and shorter average length of stay, but it may also lead to negative effects on the quality of care. A strong cost awareness was found to be a negative predictor of quality of care indicating that it is a difficult balancing act to maintain cost considerations at a 'good' level in order to retain the benefits of cost awareness without adversely impacting quality of care. There is a need for further studies of the impact of PBR on financial performance and quality of care issues.

  14. Financial incentives for lumbar surgery: a critical analysis of physician reimbursement for decompression and fusion procedures.

    PubMed

    Whang, Peter G; Lim, Moe R; Sasso, Rick C; Skelton, Alta; Brown, Zoe B; Greg Anderson, David; Albert, Todd J; Hilibrand, Alan S; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2008-08-01

    Retrospective case-control study/economic analysis. To determine the treatment times required for isolated lumbar decompressions and for combined decompression and instrumented fusion procedures to compare the relative reimbursements for each type of operation as a function of time expenditure by the surgeon. Under current Medicare fee schedules, the payment for a fusion procedure is higher than of an isolated decompression. It has been recently suggested in the lay press that the greater reimbursement for a lumbar arthrodesis may inappropriately influence the manner in which surgeons elect to treat lumbar degenerative conditions, resulting in what they believe to be a substantial number of unnecessary spinal fusions. A consecutive series of 50 single-level decompression cases performed by single surgeon were retrospectively analyzed and compared with an equivalent cohort of subjects who underwent single-level decompression and instrumented posterolateral fusion with autogenous iliac crest bone grafting. The operative reports, office charts, and billing records were reviewed to determine the total clinical time invested by the surgeon and the Medicare reimbursement for each surgery. Relative to the corresponding values of the decompression group, combined decompression and fusion procedures were associated with a longer mean surgical time (134.6 min vs. 47.3 min, P<0.0001), a greater number of postoperative visits (1.0 vs. 3.2, P<0.0001), a higher mean total clinical time expenditure (186.6 min vs. 62.2 min, P<0.0001), and a lower mean dollars received per minute of surgeon time ($12.51 vs. $15.51, P<0.001). These findings challenge the assertion that spine surgeons have an undue financial incentive to recommend a combined decompression and instrumented fusion procedure over an isolated decompression to patients with symptomatic lumbar degeneration, especially when considering the greater time, effort, and risk characteristic of this more complex operation.

  15. Paying for quality not quantity: a wisconsin health maintenance organization proposes an incentive model for reimbursement of chiropractic services.

    PubMed

    Pursel, Kevin J; Jacobson, Martin; Stephenson, Kathy

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe a reimbursement model that was developed by one Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) to transition from fee-for-service to add a combination of pay for performance and reporting model of reimbursement for chiropractic care. The previous incentive program used by the HMO provided best-practice education and additional reimbursement incentives for achieving the National Committee for Quality Assurance Back Pain Recognition Program (NCQA-BPRP) recognition status. However, this model had not leveled costs between doctors of chiropractic (DCs). Therefore, the HMO management aimed to develop a reimbursement model to incentivize providers to embrace existing best-practice models and report existing quality metrics. The development goals included the following: it should (1) be as financially predictable as the previous system, (2) cost no more on a per-member basis, (3) meet the coverage needs of its members, and (4) be able to be operationalized. The model should also reward DCs who embraced best practices with compensation, not simply tied to providing more procedures, the new program needed to (1) cause little or no disruption in current billing, (2) be grounded achievable and defined expectations for improvement in quality, and (3) be voluntary, without being unduly punitive, should the DC choose not to participate in the program. The generated model was named the Comprehensive Chiropractic Quality Reimbursement Methodology (CCQRM; pronounced "Quorum"). In this hybrid model, additional reimbursement, beyond pay-for-procedures will be based on unique payment interpretations reporting selected, existing Physician Quality Reporting System (PQRS) codes, meaningful use of electronic health records, and achieving NCQA-BPRP recognition. This model aims to compensate providers using pay-for-performance, pay-for-quality reporting, pay-for-procedure methods. The CCQRM reimbursement model was developed to address the current needs of one

  16. Medicare Payment Policy Creates Incentives For Long-Term Care Hospitals To Time Discharges For Maximum Reimbursement.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yan S; Kleerup, Eric C; Ganz, Patricia A; Ponce, Ninez A; Lorenz, Karl A; Needleman, Jack

    2015-06-01

    Long-term care hospitals are postacute care facilities for patients requiring extended hospital-level care. These facilities are reimbursed by Medicare under a prospective payment system with a short-stay outlier policy, which results in substantially lower payments for patients discharged before a diagnosis-related group-specific short-stay threshold. Using Medicare data, we examined the impact of the short-stay policy on lengths-of-stay and Medicare reimbursement among patients in long-term care hospitals who require prolonged mechanical ventilation. After accounting for case-mix and facility-level differences, we found that discharges for reasons other than death in the period 2005-10 were most likely to occur on the day of or immediately after the short-stay threshold; this held true regardless of facility ownership. In contrast, live discharges in 2002—the year before the prospective payment system started phasing out cost-based payment—were evenly distributed around the day that later became the short-stay threshold. Our findings confirm that the short-stay outlier payment policy created a strong financial incentive for long-term care hospitals to time patient discharges to maximize Medicare reimbursement. The results suggest that the new very-short-stay policy implemented in December 2012 could have a similar effect.

  17. Nursing home performance under case-mix reimbursement: responding to heavy-care incentives and market changes.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, M A; Freeman, J W; Kirby, E C

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of case mix-adjusted reimbursement policy and market factors on nursing home performance. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SETTING: Data from Medicaid certification inspection surveys, Medicaid cost reports, and the Kentucky State Center for Health Statistics for the years 1989 and 1991, to examine changes in nursing home performance stemming from the adoption of case mix-adjusted reimbursement in 1990. STUDY DESIGN: In addition to cross-sectional regressions, a first-difference approach to fixed-effects regression analyses was employed to control for facility differences that were essentially fixed during the survey years and to estimate the effects of time-varying predictors on changes in facility expenditures, efficiency, and profitability. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Facilities that increased the proportion of Medicaid residents and eliminated excess capacity experienced higher profitability gains during the beginning phase of case-mix reimbursement. Having a heavy-care resident population was positively related to expenditures prior to reimbursement reform, and it was negatively related to expenditures after the case-mix reimbursement policy was introduced. While facility-level changes in case mix had no reliable influence on costs or profits, nursing homes showing an increased prevalence of poor-quality nursing practices exhibited increases in efficiency and profitability. At the market level, reductions in excess or empty nursing home beds were accompanied by a significant growth in home health services. Moreover, nursing homes located in markets with expanding home health services exhibited higher increases in costs per case-mix unit. CONCLUSIONS: Characteristics of the reimbursement system appear to reward a cost minimization orientation with potentially detrimental effects on quality of care. These effects, exacerbated by a supply-constrained market, may be mitigated by policies that encourage the expansion of home health service

  18. Nursing Home Patient Outcomes: The Results of an Incentive Reimbursement Experiment. Long-Term Care Studies Program Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorburn, Phyllis; Meiners, Mark R.

    A major demonstration and evaluation project was undertaken to study the consequences of using incentive payments to change admission, discharge, and outcome patterns for Medicaid patients in nursing homes. Thirty-six proprietary, Medicaid-certified, skilled nursing homes in San Diego County with a combined Medicaid inpatient census of…

  19. Commentary on the reimbursement paradox.

    PubMed

    Reaven, Nancy L; Rosenbloom, Judy

    2009-07-01

    Reimbursement policies are a critical step in the incorporation of new technologies and therapies into the clinical armamentarium. Reimbursement is an umbrella concept describing the process to manage and pay for healthcare services, including benefit coverage, coding, and payment processes. The technologies and services used in therapeutic temperature management are not directly reimbursed, leading to challenges by hospitals and physicians that the services are too expensive to use. The reimbursement models used in the United States make it increasingly difficult for new technologies and therapies to gain direct reimbursement, part of a strategy by insurers, including Medicare and private insurance companies, to manage access to health care services. Insurers, physicians, hospitals, and other providers face conflicting financial incentives in current reimbursement systems. Aligning the financial incentives underlying reimbursement systems is necessary to adequately support new technologies of merit.

  20. Components of Medicare reimbursement.

    PubMed

    Malatestinic, William; Braun, LeeAnn; Jorgenson, James A; Eskew, Jim

    2003-11-01

    The history of the Medicare reimbursement system, how it works, and issues related to fraud and abuse are discussed. The statutory charge of Medicare is to ensure adequate reimbursement through a Prospective Payment System (PPS) to cover the costs for providing a given service to Medicare beneficiaries. The PPS was introduced as a way to change hospital behavior through financial incentives that encourage cost-efficient management of resources. The system utilizes a rate of payment in which a hospital is paid a fixed amount that is expected to cover the costs of care while treating a typical patient in a particular diagnosis-related group (DRG). The PPS uses DRGs as payment categories and Major Diagnostic Categories (MDCs) for classifying the DRGs into similar groupings. One of the first steps in DRG assignment is identification of the principal diagnosis represented by an International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) code. The secondary diagnoses (referred to as complications or comorbidities), presence or absence of surgery, age of the patient, and discharge status are the other pieces of information making up assignment of a specific DRG to a patient. A basic knowledge of the Medicare program will help in the understanding of how hospitals will be reimbursed for patient care, as well as how changes in Medicare payment may affect reimbursement. Medicare is one of the largest health insurance providers in the United States. A basic understanding of the Medicare system will provide valuable insights into Medicare reimbursement and the influence it has on a hospital's bottom line.

  1. Optimal reimbursement health insurance and the theory of Ramsey taxation.

    PubMed

    Besley, T J

    1988-12-01

    This paper explores the trade-off between risk sharing and the incentives to consume increased medical care inherent in reimbursement insurance. The results for the theory of reimbursement insurance are compared with those on Ramsey taxation. It is shown that there is a close formal analogy and interpretations are given.

  2. Inadequate reimbursement for care management to primary care offices.

    PubMed

    Holtrop, Jodi Summers; Luo, Zhehui; Alexanders, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Care management in primary care can be effective in helping patients with chronic disease improve their health; however, primary care practices are often challenged to identify revenue to pay for it. This study explored the impact of direct reimbursement on the provision of care management in a primary care physician organization. Using data on expenses and health plan reimbursement during the initial 16 months of care management implementation at 5 practices, we calculated the percentage of related costs that were covered by payments. Qualitative data from interviews with practice members were used to identify their perceived barriers to care management reimbursement and the impact of current reimbursement strategies on service delivery. Direct reimbursement for care management covered only 21% of the costs. Reimbursement varied by care manager background, patient diagnoses, insurer, and indication for the visit. Barriers to gaining reimbursement included patient resistance to copay, clinician hesitation to bill for care management visits (for fear the patient may receive a bill), differential reimbursement policies of insurers, and general lack of reimbursement for care management in many cases. Although practice-level quality improvement incentives were an alternative means of supporting care management, because these incentives were not directly tied to the service of care management, they were used for other activities ultimately supporting patient care. This study highlights the need for sufficient reimbursement to initiate and maintain care management for patients in primary care as proposed for service reforms under the Affordable Care Act. © Copyright 2015 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  3. Vertical integration and optimal reimbursement policy.

    PubMed

    Afendulis, Christopher C; Kessler, Daniel P

    2011-09-01

    Health care providers may vertically integrate not only to facilitate coordination of care, but also for strategic reasons that may not be in patients' best interests. Optimal Medicare reimbursement policy depends upon the extent to which each of these explanations is correct. To investigate, we compare the consequences of the 1997 adoption of prospective payment for skilled nursing facilities (SNF PPS) in geographic areas with high versus low levels of hospital/SNF integration. We find that SNF PPS decreased spending more in high integration areas, with no measurable consequences for patient health outcomes. Our findings suggest that integrated providers should face higher-powered reimbursement incentives, i.e., less cost-sharing. More generally, we conclude that purchasers of health services (and other services subject to agency problems) should consider the organizational form of their suppliers when choosing a reimbursement mechanism.

  4. Changing the rules of the reimbursement game.

    PubMed

    Curtiss, F R

    1982-11-01

    Recently enacted federal and state legislation reflect a gradual transition from cost-based reimbursement to rate-based reimbursement for hospital services; the implications of this trend for hospital pharmacists are discussed. Under "The Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982," Medicare hospital reimbursement is limited based on total hospital costs, effective for the 1983 fiscal reporting period. In addition, a target limit of costs for each hospital will be computed and hospitals will have positive and negative incentives to keep costs below this amount. These reimbursement changes calculate limits on the basis of costs per case, not costs incurred. These changes increasingly require hospitals to share in the risk of expenditures attributed to use of services. For hospital pharmacists, this means that the focus is changing from maximizing revenue from drug products to controlling unnecessary use and reducing departmental expense. Clinical pharmacy services will survive only if they are shown to be cost effective. Hospital pharmacists cannot afford to ignore the changing patterns of reimbursement; the consequences of unpreparedness and inaction may be decreased budgets and the relegation of hospital pharmacy practice to assembly-line economics.

  5. Massachusetts law gives hospitals energy incentives

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, L.

    1982-08-30

    A new law allowing hospitals to retain the difference between pre-paid insurer's rates over actual costs reverses a cost-cutting disincentive into a financial incentive for the Massachusetts General Hospital and the American Hospital Association. If hospital costs exceed the insurer's preset reimbursements, however, hospitals must make up the difference. The new law creates incentives for energy management and could serve as a model for other states if it proves effective. The federal government may apply the concept to the Medicare-Medicaid reimbursement formula. (DCK)

  6. Quality Assurance Through Reimbursement

    PubMed Central

    Shaughnessy, Peter W.; Kurowski, Bettina

    1982-01-01

    Quality assurance and reimbursement programs normally function separately in the health care field. This paper reviews objectives and certain conceptual issues associated with each type of program. Its primary intent is to summarize substantive and operational topics which must be addressed if quality of care is to be enhanced through reimbursement. The focus is on methods for integrating quality assurance and reimbursement. The final section presents topics for future research. PMID:6807939

  7. 42 CFR 413.177 - Quality incentive program payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Quality incentive program payment. 413.177 Section... SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PRINCIPLES OF REASONABLE COST REIMBURSEMENT; PAYMENT FOR END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE...-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.177 Quality incentive program...

  8. Incentives and provider payment methods.

    PubMed

    Barnum, H; Kutzin, J; Saxenian, H

    1995-01-01

    The mode of payment creates powerful incentives affecting provider behavior and the efficiency, equity and quality outcomes of health finance reforms. This article examines provider incentives as well as administrative costs, and institutional conditions for successful implementation associated with provider payment alternatives. The alternatives considered are budget reforms, capitation, fee-for-service, and case-based reimbursement. We conclude that competition, whether through a regulated private sector or within a public system, has the potential to improve the performance of any payment method. All methods generate both adverse and beneficial incentives. Systems with mixed forms of provider payment can provide tradeoffs to offset the disadvantages of individual modes. Low-income countries should avoid complex payment systems requiring higher levels of institutional development.

  9. Nurse practitioner reimbursement.

    PubMed

    Wriston, S

    1981-01-01

    The Rural Health Clinics Act demonstrates the current trend in reimbursement of nurse practitioners: Congress intends to move slowly and continuously with mid-level practitioner reimbursement, limiting NP practice first to rural underserved areas, and reimbursing at a cost-related rate to avoid unnecessarily inflating costs. The Act's recognition of the NP as a reimbursable provider of traditional medical services, needing only indirect supervision, is important, especially with regard to the mandatory Medicaid coverage of "rural health clinic services." All states which do not explicitly prohibit NPs have been affected by this mandate, precipitating state legislative efforts to more clearly define NP scope of practice. There is still a need to clarify the ambiguity surrounding NP Medicaid reimbursement policies; Medicaid plans are frequently not well coordinated with nurse practice statutes. Altering third-party payor practices to permit reimbursement for services of nurse practitioners would alleviate some of the current restrictions on NP practice. However, medical society opposition also plays a significant role in such restriction. Antitrust courts, free of the tremendous lobbying power of medical interest groups, may be able to provide remedies which will facilitate greater competition and innovation in the health care industry. Legal test cases are necessary to begin contesting obstacles to the implementation of the Rural Health Clinic Services Act. The aggregate surplus of physicians projected for 1990 will continue to be an issue in the development of new financial programs concerning NP services. Demonstration projects which utilize various reimbursement strategies should evaluate the effect on health manpower of reimbursement for medical services provided by nurse practitioners.

  10. An evaluation of current approaches to nursing home capital reimbursement.

    PubMed

    Cohen, J; Holahan, J

    1986-01-01

    One of the more controversial issues in reimbursement policy is how to set the capital cost component of facilities rates. In this article we examine in detail the various approaches used by states to reimburse nursing homes for capital costs. We conclude that newer approaches that recognize the increasing value of nursing home assets over time, commonly called fair rental systems, are preferable to the methodologies that have been used historically in both the Medicare and the Medicaid programs to set capital rates. When properly designed, fair rental systems should provide more rational incentives and less encouragement of property manipulation than do more traditional systems, with little or no increase in state costs.

  11. Nurse practitioners & reimbursement.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, E M

    1992-05-01

    Nursing's Agenda for Health Care Reform (1991) embraces primary health care as the focus of a restructured health care system. As part of this reformed system, consumers would access the most cost-effective providers in community-based settings. Removal of financial and regulatory barriers that limit consumer access to providers, such as lack of direct reimbursement by Medicare for nurse practitioners, should be eliminated according to this plan. Senate bills S2103 and S2104 have been recently introduced to the U.S. Senate mandating reimbursement for services provided by nurse practitioners, clinical nurse specialists, nurse midwives, and physician assistants at 97% of physician payment. The aim of this global legislation is to eliminate the current piecemeal mechanisms for nurse practitioner reimbursement and remove financial disincentives. Case examples presented in this article illustrate how obstacles to reimbursement limit access to care for consumers. Quality of care, opportunities for autonomous practice, and control of nursing practice issues have been highlighted as well by the case format. It is intended that these cases would be useful to support changes in patterns of nurse practitioner reimbursement.

  12. Hospital 'profits': the effects of reimbursement policies.

    PubMed

    Danzon, P M

    1982-05-01

    This paper provides a theoretical and empirical analysis of the effect of cost-based reimbursement (CBR) on hospital costs and charges. It takes issue with previous analyses which have treated CBR as paying economic costs plus a mark-up, and have concluded that the mark-up is too small to significantly distort hospital decision-making. The basic thesis here is that if reimbursement is based on costs, accounting costs become a price to cost-paying patients, and will be optimized to maximize revenue. A hospital serving both cost and charge-paying (private) patients can set two price schedules. Accounting profits (ratio of charges to costs) are not a measure of economic profit but of relative prices to these two groups of patients. In the absence of constraints from regulation or patient co-payment, the optimum level of accounting costs would be infinite. In practice, the Medicare reimbursement formula links allowable costs to charges received from charge-paying patients. This formula creates incentives for the hospital to raise charges above the single-price, profit-maximizing monopoly level. This inflationary effect of the Medicare formula does not presuppose that Medicare pays less than full cost. The empirical analysis of hospital laboratory costs and charges generally supports the predictions; for other departments, the conclusions are consistent but more tentative because of data limitations. Overall, evidence suggests minimal cross-subsidy between cost and charge-paying patients. Comparisons of cost and charge levels in for-profit, voluntary non-profit and government hospitals are presented, but it is emphasized that inferences about relative efficiency and profitability cannot be drawn from accounting data, given the incentives created by CBR.

  13. Incentives for organ donation: some ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Sells, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Objections to commerce in organs has not stopped the spread of such practice around the world. In most countries the gap between supply and demand for organs continues to increase. Kidneys from living donors are considered a valuable addition to the donor pool, and in a more acquisitive world, donor incentives are becoming thinkable, even acceptable. Current incentives for cadaver and living organ donation are reviewed from ethical and legal perspectives. A new principle of reimbursement for the living donor's risk and pain is defined and presented for debate.

  14. Using Incentives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the ethical implications of using incentives to encourage and recognise youth participation in research. While the complexity of research projects and the diversity of research subjects necessarily preclude simple solutions, the author argues that social research can successfully and ethically use a mix of extrinsic and…

  15. Using Incentives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the ethical implications of using incentives to encourage and recognise youth participation in research. While the complexity of research projects and the diversity of research subjects necessarily preclude simple solutions, the author argues that social research can successfully and ethically use a mix of extrinsic and…

  16. Reinventing radiology reimbursement.

    PubMed

    Marshall, John; Adema, Denise

    2005-01-01

    Lee Memorial Health System (LMHS), located in southwest Florida, consists of 5 hospitals, a home health agency, a skilled nursing facility, multiple outpatient centers, walk-in medical centers, and primary care physician offices. LMHS annually performs more than 300,000 imaging procedures with gross imaging revenues exceeding dollar 350 million. In fall 2002, LMHS received the results of an independent audit of its IR coding. The overall IR coding error rate was determined to be 84.5%. The projected net financial impact of these errors was an annual reimbursement loss of dollar 182,000. To address the issues of coding errors and reimbursement loss, LMHS implemented its clinical reimbursementspecialist (CRS) system in October 2003, as an extension of financial services' reimbursement division. LMHS began with CRSs in 3 service lines: emergency department, cardiac catheterization, and radiology. These 3 CRSs coordinate all facets of their respective areas' chargemaster, patient charges, coding, and reimbursement functions while serving as a resident coding expert within their clinical areas. The radiology reimbursement specialist (RRS) combines an experienced radiologic technologist, interventional technologist, medical records coder, financial auditor, reimbursement specialist, and biller into a single position. The RRS's radiology experience and technologist knowledge are key assets to resolving coding conflicts and handling complex interventional coding. In addition, performing a daily charge audit and an active code review are essential if an organization is to eliminate coding errors. One of the inherent effects of eliminating coding errors is the capturing of additional RVUs and units of service. During its first year, based on account level detail, the RRS system increased radiology productivity through the additional capture of just more than 3,000 RVUs and 1,000 additional units of service. In addition, the physicians appreciate having someone who "keeps up

  17. Recommendations for responding to changes in reimbursement policy.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, John; Fifer, Joe

    2010-01-01

    With profound changes in reimbursement policy on the horizon, organizations are preparing a variety of responses to ensure long-term success. Most are anticipating decreases in reimbursement rates from most payers. Whether due to nonpayment for hospital-acquired complications and infections, reductions due to high readmission rates, or a move toward value-based purchasing and bundled payment models, the impact is predicted to be substantial. Because of these sweeping changes, organizations must quickly prepare a thoughtful, effective response to ensure their financial stability. At the heart of these global changes in reimbursement, including those in the healthcare reform legislation, is a drive toward integration, the formation of integrated delivery systems in response to changing financial incentives. However, the new integrated systems must be not just an assemblage of the required components, but a true functional integration in which patients experience a seamless continuum of care that is highly coordinated, efficient, effective, and accessible. In this article, we'll address changes in reimbursement and recommended responses from three perspectives. First, we offer a three-pronged approach for managing general decreases in reimbursement. Second, we highlight strategies for managing nonpayment for readmissions, focusing on the demonstration project in the state of Michigan, MI STAAR. And finally, we review managing patient care in an environment of bundled payment, including the interventions at the center of the PROMETHEUS demonstration project.

  18. 48 CFR 16.304 - Cost-plus-incentive-fee contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... allowable costs to total target costs. Cost-plus-incentive-fee contracts are covered in subpart 16.4... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost-plus-incentive-fee... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-Reimbursement Contracts 16.304...

  19. Fundamentals of coding and reimbursement.

    PubMed

    Price, Paula

    2002-01-01

    After completing this introduction to radiology coding and reimbursement, readers will: Understand how health care reimbursement evolved over the past 50 years. Know the importance of documenting the patient's history. Have an overall picture of the standardized numerical coding system. Understand how accurate coding affects reimbursement. Understand coding functions as they pertain to regulatory compliance in the radiology department. Be familiar with the U.S. Justice Department's use of coding in tracking health care fraud.

  20. 7 CFR 1485.18 - Reimbursement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... required to use CCC's Internet-based UES system to request reimbursement for eligible MAP expenses. Claims... reimbursed; (7) If applicable, any reduction in the amount of reimbursement claimed to offset CCC demand for... reimbursement shall be submitted by the MAP Participant's U.S. office to CCC. (c) CCC will not reimburse a claim...

  1. 42 CFR 413.177 - Quality incentive program payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PRINCIPLES OF REASONABLE COST REIMBURSEMENT; PAYMENT FOR END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE...-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.177 Quality incentive program payment. (a) With respect to renal dialysis services as defined under § 413.171 of this part, in the...

  2. 42 CFR 413.177 - Quality incentive program payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PRINCIPLES OF REASONABLE COST REIMBURSEMENT; PAYMENT FOR END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE...-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.177 Quality incentive program payment. (a) With respect to renal dialysis services as defined under § 413.171 of this part, in the...

  3. 42 CFR 413.177 - Quality incentive program payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PRINCIPLES OF REASONABLE COST REIMBURSEMENT; PAYMENT FOR END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE...-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.177 Quality incentive program payment. (a) With respect to renal dialysis services as defined under § 413.171 of this part, in the...

  4. Reimbursement for nurse practitioner services.

    PubMed

    Buppert, C

    1998-01-01

    Whether a nurse practitioner (NP) is employed by a medical practice or is self-employed, the reimbursement policies of third-party payers will determine whether an NP continues to provide care on a long-term basis. The payers--Medicare, Medicaid, indemnity insurers, and managed care organizations--each have their own reimbursement policies and fee schedules, and each operates under a separate body of law. Some payers have a history of reimbursing for NP services in the same manner as they reimburse for physician services. On the other hand, some payers have recently begun to reimburse NPs directly, either as separate and apart from an employment relationship with a physician practice or following NP-specific rules and policies regarding reimbursement. This article offers basic information necessary to communicate with practice managers, billing experts, and the payers about reimbursement mechanisms and problems. It covers how to set up provider relationships with the various payers, how to submit bills, and how to deal with denial of reimbursement when it occurs.

  5. 7 CFR 1485.18 - Reimbursement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... required to use CCC's Internet-based UES system to request reimbursement for eligible MAP expenses. Claims... reimbursement shall be submitted by the MAP Participant's U.S. office to CCC. (c) CCC will not reimburse a claim for less than $10,000, except that CCC will reimburse a final claim for a MAP Participant's program...

  6. The relationship of California's Medicaid reimbursement system to nurse staffing levels.

    PubMed

    Mukamel, Dana B; Kang, Taewoon; Collier, Eric; Harrington, Charlene

    2012-10-01

    Policy initiatives at the Federal and state level are aimed at increasing staffing in nursing homes. These include direct staffing standards, public reporting, and financial incentives. To examine the impact of California's Medicaid reimbursement for nursing homes which includes incentives directed at staffing. Two-stage limited-information maximum-likelihood regressions were used to model the relationship between staffing [registered nurses (RNs), licensed practical nurses, and certified nursing assistants hours per resident day] and the Medicaid payment rate, accounting for the specific structure of the payment system, endogeneity of payment and case-mix, and controlling for facility and market characteristics. A total of 927 California free-standing nursing homes in 2006. The model included facility characteristics (case-mix, size, ownership, and chain affiliation), market competition and excess demand, labor supply and wages, unemployment, and female employment. The instrumental variable for Medicaid reimbursement was the peer group payment rate for 7 geographical market areas, and the instrumental variables for resident case-mix were the average county revenues for professional therapy establishments and the percent of county population aged 65 and over. Consistent with the rate incentives and rational expectation behavior, expected nursing home reimbursement rates in 2008 were associated with increased RN staffing levels in 2006 but had no relationship with licensed practical nurse and certified nursing assistant staffing. The effect was estimated at 2 minutes per $10 increase in rate. The incentives in the Medicaid system impacted only RN staffing suggesting the need to improve the state's rate setting methodology.

  7. Care for the chronically ill: Nursing home incentive payment experiment

    PubMed Central

    Weissert, William G.; Scanlon, William J.; Wan, Thomas T. H.; Skinner, Douglas E.

    1983-01-01

    Nursing home reinbursement systems which do not adjust payment levels to patient care needs lead to access problems for heavy-care patients. Unnecessarily long and costly hospital stays may result. A patient-based nursing home incentive reimbursement system has been designed and is being evaluated in a controlled field experiment in 36 California skilled nursing facilities. Incentives are paid for admitting heavy-care patients, meeting outcome goals on some patients, and discharging and maintaining some patients in the community. This article describes a nursing home reimbursement system which is intended to simultaneously mitigate problems of restricted access, inefficient use of beds, and nonoptimal care. It also discusses the approach to evaluating this broad social intervention by application of a controlled experimental design. PMID:10310528

  8. 44 CFR 208.52 - Reimbursement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Reimbursement Claims and Appeals § 208.52 Reimbursement procedures. (a) General. A Sponsoring Agency must... extend and specify the time limitation in paragraph (b)(1) of this section when the Sponsoring Agency...

  9. 44 CFR 208.52 - Reimbursement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Reimbursement Claims and Appeals § 208.52 Reimbursement procedures. (a) General. A Sponsoring Agency must... extend and specify the time limitation in paragraph (b)(1) of this section when the Sponsoring Agency...

  10. Effects of incentives programs

    Treesearch

    Duane L. Green

    1977-01-01

    Incentives have played an important role in forestry accomplishments on private forest lands. Direct cost-share assistance programs, such as the Forestry Incentives Program, stimulate additional accomplishments in greater proportion than their actual inputs. Two States currently operate their own "incentives" programs. In addition, the Pacific Northwest...

  11. 77 FR 38173 - TRICARE Reimbursement Revisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ...: Hospice periods of care; reimbursement of physician assistants and assistant-at-surgery claims; and... Reimbursement Manual, and may be accessed at www.tricare.mil . II. Physician Assistants and Assistant-at-Surgery The current regulatory language references specific reimbursement percentages for...

  12. 12 CFR 219.3 - Cost reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM REIMBURSEMENT FOR PROVIDING FINANCIAL RECORDS; RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS FOR CERTAIN FINANCIAL RECORDS (REGULATION S) Reimbursement to Financial Institutions for Providing Financial Records § 219.3 Cost reimbursement. (a) Fees...

  13. 12 CFR 219.3 - Cost reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM REIMBURSEMENT FOR PROVIDING FINANCIAL RECORDS; RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS FOR CERTAIN FINANCIAL RECORDS (REGULATION S) Reimbursement to Financial Institutions for Providing Financial Records § 219.3 Cost reimbursement. (a) Fees...

  14. 12 CFR 219.3 - Cost reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM REIMBURSEMENT FOR PROVIDING FINANCIAL RECORDS; RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS FOR CERTAIN FINANCIAL RECORDS (REGULATION S) Reimbursement to Financial Institutions for Providing Financial Records § 219.3 Cost reimbursement. (a) Fees...

  15. 12 CFR 219.3 - Cost reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM REIMBURSEMENT FOR PROVIDING FINANCIAL RECORDS; RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS FOR CERTAIN FINANCIAL RECORDS (REGULATION S) Reimbursement to Financial Institutions for Providing Financial Records § 219.3 Cost reimbursement. (a) Fees...

  16. 12 CFR 219.3 - Cost reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM REIMBURSEMENT FOR PROVIDING FINANCIAL RECORDS; RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS FOR CERTAIN FINANCIAL RECORDS (REGULATION S) Reimbursement to Financial Institutions for Providing Financial Records § 219.3 Cost reimbursement. (a) Fees...

  17. Reimbursement for critical care services in India

    PubMed Central

    Jayaram, Raja; Ramakrishnan, Nagarajan

    2013-01-01

    There are significant variations in critical care practices, costs, and reimbursements in various countries. Of note, there is a paucity of reliable information on remuneration and reimbursement models for intensivists in India. This review article aims to analyze the existing reimbursement models in United States and United Kingdom and propose a frame-work model that may be applicable in India. PMID:23833469

  18. 23 CFR 140.807 - Reimbursable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reimbursable costs. 140.807 Section 140.807 Highways... Highway Agency Audit Expense § 140.807 Reimbursable costs. (a) Federal funds may be used to reimburse an SHA for the following types of project related audit costs: (1) Salaries, wages, and related...

  19. TRICARE reimbursement revisions. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-06-27

    This final rule provides several necessary revisions to the regulation in order for TRICARE to be consistent with Medicare. These revisions affect: Hospice periods of care; reimbursement of physician assistants and assistant-at-surgery claims; and diagnosis-related group values, removing references to specific numeric diagnosis-related group values and replacing them with their narrative description.

  20. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(19)-1 - Reimbursements under a self-insured medical reimbursement plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reimbursements under a self-insured medical... Reimbursements under a self-insured medical reimbursement plan. Amounts reimbursed to or on behalf of an employee after December 31, 1979, as a medical care reimbursement under a self-insured medical reimbursement...

  1. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(19)-1 - Reimbursements under a self-insured medical reimbursement plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reimbursements under a self-insured medical... Reimbursements under a self-insured medical reimbursement plan. Amounts reimbursed to or on behalf of an employee after December 31, 1979, as a medical care reimbursement under a self-insured medical reimbursement...

  2. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(19)-1 - Reimbursements under a self-insured medical reimbursement plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reimbursements under a self-insured medical... Reimbursements under a self-insured medical reimbursement plan. Amounts reimbursed to or on behalf of an employee after December 31, 1979, as a medical care reimbursement under a self-insured medical reimbursement...

  3. 48 CFR 719.273-3 - Incentives for prime contractor participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Development (USAID) Mentor-Protégé Program 719.273-3 Incentives for prime contractor participation. (a) Under the Small Business Act, 15 U.S.C. 637(d)(4)(E), USAID is authorized to provide appropriate... reimbursable as a direct cost under a USAID contract. If USAID is the mentor's responsible audit agency under...

  4. 77 FR 40951 - Medicare Program; End-Stage Renal Disease Prospective Payment System, Quality Incentive Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-11

    ... replaced the basic case-mix adjusted composite payment system and the methodologies for the reimbursement... 42 CFR Parts 413 and 417 Medicare Program; End-Stage Renal Disease Prospective Payment System... Program; End-Stage Renal Disease Prospective Payment System, Quality Incentive Program, and Bad Debt...

  5. Reimbursement for Continuous Glucose Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    DeVries, J. Hans

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems have been available for more than 15 years by now. However, market uptake is relatively low in most countries; in other words, relatively few patients with diabetes use CGM systems regularly. One major reason for the reluctance of patients to use CGM systems is the costs associated (i.e., in most countries no reimbursement is provided by the health insurance companies). In case reimbursement is in place, like in the United States, only certain patient groups get reimbursement that fulfills strict indications. This situation is somewhat surprising in view of the mounting evidence for benefits of CGM usage from clinical trials: most meta-analyses of these trials consistently show a clinically relevant improvement of glucose control associated with a reduction in hypoglycemic events. More recent trials with CGM systems with an improved CGM technology showed even more impressive benefits, especially if CGM systems are used in different combinations with an insulin pump (e.g., with automated bolus calculators and low glucose suspend features). Nevertheless, sufficient evidence is not available for all patient groups, and more data on cost–efficacy are needed. In addition, good data from real-world studies/registers documenting the benefits of CGM usage under daily life conditions would be of help to convince healthcare systems to cover the costs of CGM systems. In view of the ongoing improvements in established needle-type CGM systems, the fact that new CGM technology will come to the market soon (e.g., implantable sensors), that CGM-like systems are quite successfully at least in certain markets (like the flash glucose monitoring systems), and that the first artificial pancreas systems will come to the market in the next few years, there is a need to make sure that this major improvement in diabetes therapy becomes more widely available for patients with diabetes, for which better reimbursement is essential. PMID

  6. Evolving telehealth reimbursement in Australia.

    PubMed

    Bursell, S-E; Zang, S; Keech, A C; Jenkins, A J

    2016-08-01

    Video-based consultation is the only telehealth service reimbursed by the Medicare Benefits Schedule in Australia, but the uptake of telehealth is still low and inconsistent. There is a clear need for the development of appropriate medical evidence to support implementation of telehealth services. With the ubiquitous use of mobile phones, mobile health becomes important in facilitating health services and impacting clinical outcomes anywhere.

  7. Administrative and policy issues in reimbursement for nursing home capital investment.

    PubMed

    Boerstler, H; Carlough, T; Schlenker, R E

    1991-01-01

    The way in which states reimburse for nursing home capital costs can create incentives for nursing home owners to use the home primarily as a vehicle for real estate speculation, with potentially adverse consequences for patient care. In order to help promote and control the stability, adequacy, and quality of capital investment in long-term care, an increasing number of states are using a fair-rental approach for calculating capital reimbursement. In this article we compare the fair-rental approach with traditional cost-based capital reimbursement in terms of administration and policy. We discuss issues of concern to the state (cost and reimbursement design options) and the investor (after-tax cash flows, rate of return, etc.). Our analysis suggests that fair-rental systems may be superior to traditional cost-based reimbursement in promoting and controlling industry stability, while at the same time providing an adequate return to investors, without incurring long-term increases in the costs of administering programs.

  8. Comparison of pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement systems in Turkey and certain EU countries.

    PubMed

    Atikeler, Enver Kagan; Özçelikay, Gulbin

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the need for health care services has increased gradually and the limitations in sources allocated for this area have been recognized. Moving from this fact, it has gained a supreme importance to determine what health programs or technologies will be given priority. According to Danzon (Reference pricing: theory and evidence, reference pricing and pharmaceutical policy: perspectives on economics and innovation, springer, New York, pp 86-126, 2001), arrangements towards controlling the expenses through price and profit controls, reimbursement methods and incentives have recently gained wide currency. This present study examines; along with the current situation in Turkey, pharmaceutical pricing methods, reimbursement methods and basic health indicators, within the scope of changing pharmaceutical policies, in Turkey, the EU countries which Turkey takes as reference and the United Kingdom, the implementations of which are of utmost importance for other countries. Upon the research conducted, it was detected that the pharmaceutical pricing in Turkey has been performed on the basis of the reference pricing system that takes Italy, Portugal, Spain, Greece and France as reference. The regulations regarding the reimbursement process are determined by SSI. For Turkey's case; pricing and reimbursement system has been changed numerous times and the discount rates has incrementally risen. In pricing, on the other hand, during this period companies faced with difficulties in economic terms because of the fact that price discount of high rates are implemented over the reference price and that the European currency of Euro is determined as 70% of previous year average Euro sales rate which is 2,1166 for the year 2016. Each country has specific regulations and pricing and reimbursement policies of medicines based on economic situation, reimbursement methods and market size. The aim of pricing and reimbursement systems are reaching more efficient and sustainable

  9. Pricing and reimbursement of orphan drugs: the need for more transparency.

    PubMed

    Simoens, Steven

    2011-06-17

    Pricing and reimbursement of orphan drugs are an issue of high priority for policy makers, legislators, health care professionals, industry leaders, academics and patients. This study aims to conduct a literature review to provide insight into the drivers of orphan drug pricing and reimbursement. Although orphan drug pricing follows the same economic logic as drug pricing in general, the monopolistic power of orphan drugs results in high prices: a) orphan drugs benefit from a period of marketing exclusivity; b) few alternative health technologies are available; c) third-party payers and patients have limited negotiating power; d) manufacturers attempt to maximise orphan drug prices within the constraints of domestic pricing and reimbursement policies; and e) substantial R&D costs need to be recouped from a small number of patients. Although these conditions apply to some orphan drugs, they do not apply to all orphan drugs. Indeed, the small number of patients treated with an orphan drug and the limited economic viability of orphan drugs can be questioned in a number of cases. Additionally, manufacturers have an incentive to game the system by artificially creating monopolistic market conditions. Given their high price for an often modest effectiveness, orphan drugs are unlikely to provide value for money. However, additional criteria are used to inform reimbursement decisions in some countries. These criteria may include: the seriousness of the disease; the availability of other therapies to treat the disease; and the cost to the patient if the medicine is not reimbursed. Therefore, the maximum cost per unit of outcome that a health care payer is willing to pay for a drug could be set higher for orphan drugs to which society attaches a high social value. There is a need for a transparent and evidence-based approach towards orphan drug pricing and reimbursement. Such an approach should be targeted at demonstrating the relative effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and

  10. Photovoltaic Incentive Design Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, T. E.

    2006-12-01

    Investments in customer-owned grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) energy systems are growing at a steady pace. This is due, in part, to the availability of attractive economic incentives offered by public state agencies and utilities. In the United States, these incentives have largely been upfront lump payments tied to the system capacity rating. While capacity-based ''buydowns'' have stimulated the domestic PV market, they have been criticized for subsidizing systems with potentially poor energy performance. As a result, the industry has been forced to consider alternative incentive structures, particularly ones that pay based on long-term measured performance. The industry, however, lacks consensus in the debate over the tradeoffs between upfront incentive payments versus longer-term payments for energy delivery. This handbook is designed for agencies and utilities that offer or intend to offer incentive programs for customer-owned PV systems. Its purpose is to help select, design, and implement incentive programs that best meet programmatic goals. The handbook begins with a discussion of the various available incentive structures and then provides qualitative and quantitative tools necessary to design the most appropriate incentive structure. It concludes with program administration considerations.

  11. Crime and Economic Incentives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machin, Stephen; Meghir, Costas

    2004-01-01

    The role that economic incentives play in determining crime rates is explored. A number of experiments were carried out with different wage measures and the result that incentives were the most important factor was reinforced by the strong impact of crime of deterrence measures and of a measure of the returns to crime.

  12. Incentives from Curriculum Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koerselman, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Curriculum tracking creates incentives in the years before its start, and we should therefore expect test scores to be higher during those years. I find robust evidence for incentive effects of tracking in the UK based on the UK comprehensive school reform. Results from the Swedish comprehensive school reform are inconclusive. Internationally, I…

  13. Incentives from Curriculum Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koerselman, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Curriculum tracking creates incentives in the years before its start, and we should therefore expect test scores to be higher during those years. I find robust evidence for incentive effects of tracking in the UK based on the UK comprehensive school reform. Results from the Swedish comprehensive school reform are inconclusive. Internationally, I…

  14. 78 FR 51061 - TRICARE; Reimbursement of Sole Community Hospitals and Adjustment to Reimbursement of Critical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... Part 199 RIN 0720-AB41 TRICARE; Reimbursement of Sole Community Hospitals and Adjustment to Reimbursement of Critical Access Hospitals; Correction AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Department of Defense... Department of Defense published a final rule titled TRICARE; Reimbursement of Sole Community Hospitals and...

  15. Impact of Medicaid Reimbursement on Mental Health Quality Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Bellows, Nicole M; Halpin, Helen A

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between the use of the Minimum Data Set (MDS) for determining Medicaid reimbursement to nursing facilities and the MDS Quality Indicators examining nursing facility residents' mental health. Data Sources The 2004 National MDS facility Quality Indicator reports served as the dependent variables. Explanatory variables were based on the 2004 Online Survey Certification and Reporting system (OSCAR) and an examination of existing reports, a review of the State Medicaid Plans, and State Medicaid personnel. Study Design Multilevel regression models were used to account for the hierarchical structure of the data. Data Collection MDS and OSCAR data were linked by facility identifiers and subsequently linked with state-level variables. Principal Findings The use of the MDS for determining Medicaid reimbursement was associated with higher (poorer) quality indicator values for all four mental health quality indicators examined. This effect was not found in four comparison quality indicators. Conclusions The findings indicate that documentation of mental health symptoms may be influenced by economic incentives. Policy makers should be cautioned from using these measures as the basis for decision making, such as with pay-for-performance initiatives. PMID:18370968

  16. Global budgets and provider incentives: hospitals' drug expenditures in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chou, Shin-Yi; Deily, Mary E; Lien, Hsien-Ming; Zhang, Jing Hua

    2010-01-01

    This chapter examines how drug prescribing behavior in Taiwanese hospitals changed after the government changed reimbursement systems. In 2002, Taiwan instituted a system in which hospitals are reimbursed for drug expenditures at full price from a fixed global budget before the remaining budget is allocated to reimburse all other expenditures, often at discounted prices. Providers are thus given a financial incentive to increase prescriptions. We isolate the effect of this system from that of other confounding factors by estimating a difference-in-difference model to analyze monthly drug expenditures of hospital departments for outpatients during the years 1999-2006. Our results suggest that hospital departments which use drugs more heavily as part of their regular medical care increased their drug prescription expenditures after the implementation of the global budget system. In addition, we find that the response was stronger among for-profit than not-for-profit and public hospitals. Hospital doctors responded to the financial incentive created by the particular global budgeting system adopted in Taiwan by increasing expenditures on drug treatments for outpatients.

  17. 77 FR 22786 - Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... ADMINISTRATION Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy (OGP...) 2012 Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates. SUMMARY: The General Services Administration's (GSA) special review of privately owned vehicle (POV) mileage reimbursement rates has resulted...

  18. 75 FR 82029 - Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ...; Sequence 6] Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy...) 2011 Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates. SUMMARY: The General Services Administration's (GSA) annual privately owned vehicle (POV) mileage reimbursement rate reviews have resulted in...

  19. 77 FR 76487 - Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ...; Sequence 6] Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy...) 2013 Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates. SUMMARY: The General Services Administration's annual privately owned vehicle (POV) mileage reimbursement rate reviews have resulted in new...

  20. Ethics, economics, and physician reimbursement.

    PubMed

    Baily, Mary Ann

    2004-09-01

    There has been much debate among health care professionals over how physicians should be paid for their services. This paper addresses the topic through an economic and ethical analysis. It starts from the premise that fairness and cost effectiveness should be the goals of a good physician reimbursement system. Using the goals of fairness and cost effectiveness as measures, it examines the current market model. Finding that the current model provides neither fairness nor cost effectiveness, the paper compares the structure of the physician services market to the assumptions made by economists in the idealized market model. Two major imperfections are found in the former. These imperfections are an asymmetry in information between patient and physician, and the uneven and unpredictable distribution of health needs. These two imperfections are examined in light of the goals set out in the beginning of the paper. The paper finds that, given the imperfections, physician reimbursement as it currently exists is incompatible with the goals of fairness and cost effectiveness. In conclusion, several recommendations are made, most significantly a broadening of the interpretation of physician agency, i.e., physician as "agent," and the switch from a fee-for-service physician payment system to a salaried medical practice.

  1. Reimbursements for telehealth services are likely to be lower than non-telehealth services in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Fernando A; Rampa, Sankeerth; Trout, Kate E; Stimpson, Jim P

    2016-06-03

    Telehealth technologies promise to increase access to care, particularly in underserved communities. However, little is known about how private payer reimbursements vary between telehealth and non-telehealth services. We use the largest private claims database in the United States provided by the Health Care Cost Institute to identify telehealth claims and compare average reimbursements to non-telehealth claims. We find average reimbursements for telehealth services are significantly lower than those for non-telehealth for seven of the ten most common services. For example, telehealth reimbursements for office visits for evaluation and management of established patients with low complexity were 30% lower than the corresponding non-telehealth service. Reimbursements by clinical diagnosis code also tended to be lower for telehealth than non-telehealth claims. Widespread adoption of telehealth may be hampered by lower reimbursements for telehealth services relative to face-to-face services. This may result in lower incentives for providers to invest in telehealth technologies that do not result in significant cost savings to their practice, even if telehealth improves patient outcomes.

  2. 10 CFR 765.11 - Reimbursable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reimbursable costs. 765.11 Section 765.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM PROCESSING... remedial action at the active thorium processing site shall be limited to costs incurred for offsite...

  3. 76 FR 2291 - TRICARE Reimbursement Revisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... assistants and assistant-at-surgery claims; and this rule revises the regulation by removing references to... Assistant-at-Surgery The current regulatory language references specific reimbursement percentages for assistant-at-surgery reimbursement. Rather than including these specific percentage amounts, which...

  4. 7 CFR 215.10 - Reimbursement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL MILK PROGRAM FOR CHILDREN § 215.10 Reimbursement procedures. (a... by FNS, the Claim for Reimbursement for any month shall include only milk served in that month...

  5. 7 CFR 215.8 - Reimbursement payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL MILK PROGRAM FOR CHILDREN § 215.8 Reimbursement payments. (a) (b)(1) The rate of reimbursement per half-pint of milk purchased and (i) served in nonpricing...

  6. 7 CFR 215.8 - Reimbursement payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL MILK PROGRAM FOR CHILDREN § 215.8 Reimbursement payments. (a) (b)(1) The rate of reimbursement per half-pint of milk purchased and (i) served in nonpricing...

  7. 7 CFR 215.8 - Reimbursement payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL MILK PROGRAM FOR CHILDREN § 215.8 Reimbursement payments. (a) (b)(1) The rate of reimbursement per half-pint of milk purchased and (i) served in nonpricing...

  8. 7 CFR 215.10 - Reimbursement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL MILK PROGRAM FOR CHILDREN § 215.10 Reimbursement procedures. (a... by FNS, the Claim for Reimbursement for any month shall include only milk served in that month...

  9. 7 CFR 215.10 - Reimbursement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL MILK PROGRAM FOR CHILDREN § 215.10 Reimbursement procedures. (a... by FNS, the Claim for Reimbursement for any month shall include only milk served in that month...

  10. 7 CFR 215.10 - Reimbursement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL MILK PROGRAM FOR CHILDREN § 215.10 Reimbursement procedures. (a... by FNS, the Claim for Reimbursement for any month shall include only milk served in that month...

  11. 7 CFR 215.10 - Reimbursement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL MILK PROGRAM FOR CHILDREN § 215.10 Reimbursement procedures. (a... by FNS, the Claim for Reimbursement for any month shall include only milk served in that month...

  12. 7 CFR 215.8 - Reimbursement payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL MILK PROGRAM FOR CHILDREN § 215.8 Reimbursement payments. (a) (b)(1) The rate of reimbursement per half-pint of milk purchased and (i) served in nonpricing...

  13. 50 CFR 37.46 - Cost reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF THE COASTAL PLAIN, ARCTIC NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE, ALASKA General Administration § 37.46 Cost reimbursement. (a) Each applicant for... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost reimbursement. 37.46 Section 37.46...

  14. 50 CFR 37.46 - Cost reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF THE COASTAL PLAIN, ARCTIC NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE, ALASKA General Administration § 37.46 Cost reimbursement. (a) Each applicant for... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost reimbursement. 37.46 Section 37.46...

  15. 50 CFR 37.46 - Cost reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF THE COASTAL PLAIN, ARCTIC NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE, ALASKA General Administration § 37.46 Cost reimbursement. (a) Each applicant for... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost reimbursement. 37.46 Section 37.46...

  16. 50 CFR 37.46 - Cost reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF THE COASTAL PLAIN, ARCTIC NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE, ALASKA General Administration § 37.46 Cost reimbursement. (a) Each applicant for... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost reimbursement. 37.46 Section 37.46...

  17. 50 CFR 37.46 - Cost reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF THE COASTAL PLAIN, ARCTIC NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE, ALASKA General Administration § 37.46 Cost reimbursement. (a) Each applicant for... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost reimbursement. 37.46 Section 37.46...

  18. 10 CFR 765.11 - Reimbursable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM PROCESSING... action incurred at an active processing site that are otherwise reimbursable pursuant to the provisions... uranium processing site licensees shall not exceed $6.25, as adjusted for inflation, multiplied by the...

  19. 10 CFR 765.11 - Reimbursable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM PROCESSING... action incurred at an active processing site that are otherwise reimbursable pursuant to the provisions... uranium processing site licensees shall not exceed $6.25, as adjusted for inflation, multiplied by the...

  20. 14 CFR 1214.803 - Reimbursement policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reimbursement policy. 1214.803 Section 1214.803 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement for...) Standard flight price. During this phase, customers covered by subpart 1214.1 or subpart 1214.2...

  1. 14 CFR 1214.803 - Reimbursement policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reimbursement policy. 1214.803 Section 1214.803 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement for...) Standard flight price. During this phase, customers covered by subpart 1214.1 or subpart 1214.2...

  2. 14 CFR 1214.803 - Reimbursement policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reimbursement policy. 1214.803 Section 1214.803 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement for...) Standard flight price. During this phase, customers covered by subpart 1214.1 or subpart 1214.2...

  3. 14 CFR 1214.803 - Reimbursement policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Reimbursement policy. 1214.803 Section 1214.803 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement for...) Standard flight price. During this phase, customers covered by subpart 1214.1 or subpart 1214.2...

  4. 10 CFR 765.11 - Reimbursable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reimbursable costs. 765.11 Section 765.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM PROCESSING... remedial action at the active thorium processing site shall be limited to costs incurred for...

  5. 23 CFR 140.505 - Reimbursable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reimbursable costs. 140.505 Section 140.505 Highways... Administrative Settlement Costs-Contract Claims § 140.505 Reimbursable costs. (a) Federal funds may participate in administrative settlement costs which are: (1) Incurred after notice of claim, (2)...

  6. 12 CFR 607.9 - Reimbursable billings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reimbursable billings. 607.9 Section 607.9 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS ASSESSMENT AND APPORTIONMENT OF ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENSES § 607.9 Reimbursable billings. The FCA shall bill the amounts due for services to...

  7. 12 CFR 607.9 - Reimbursable billings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reimbursable billings. 607.9 Section 607.9 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS ASSESSMENT AND APPORTIONMENT OF ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENSES § 607.9 Reimbursable billings. The FCA shall bill the amounts due for services to...

  8. 14 CFR 1214.202 - Reimbursement policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... reimbursement schedule plus short term call-up additional costs. The additional costs will be based on estimated... according to the reimbursement schedule plus short term call-up additional costs. These additional charges... services. (2) The price will be based on estimated costs. (3) The price will be held constant for flights...

  9. Rewards and Performance Incentives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigon, Jack

    1994-01-01

    Discusses rewards and performance incentives for employees, including types of rewards; how rewards help in managing; dysfunctional awards; selecting the right reward; how to find rewards that fit; and delivering rewards effectively. Examples are included. (three references) (LRW)

  10. Fertility incentives and disincentives.

    PubMed

    Financioglu, N

    1984-06-01

    Some 40 countries use some form of incentives and disincentives in support of population policies, about half with the aim of reducing fertility and half with the aim of increasing it. These schemes range from limitations on tax and family allowances or maternity benefits after a given family size has been reached to payments to acceptors of fertility control methods. Some schemes aim to eliminate or reduce the cost and inconvenience people may face in achieving their fertility preferences, whereas others contain an element of deterrence. It is difficult to isolate and measure the impact of incentives on fertility from the effects of other factors such as family planning service availability or modernization. Studies in pronatalist countries suggest that incentive schemes produce short-term fertility increases without a change in average family size. Monetary incentives must be constantly increased to keep pace with inflation, placing a heavy burden on government budgets. Administrative capacity to operate the scheme is critical in terms of both manpower and efficient systems for record keeping, monitoring, and close supervision to prevent abuse. There is also considerable debate on the moral and ethical implications of incentives and disincentives as policy tools. Incentives offered for the acceptance of a particular fertility control method potentially contravene the principle of voluntary and informed consent. In addition, the relative value of the reward is greater for those in the lower income groups. The discriminatory nature of certain types of incentives and disincentives is illustrated by measures introduced in Singapore that give highest priority in school enrollment to the children of highly educated mothers with 2-3 children. This ruling is expected to further intensify the controversy surrounding incentive and disincentive schemes.

  11. Value-Based Pricing and Reimbursement in Personalised Healthcare: Introduction to the Basic Health Economics.

    PubMed

    Garrison, Louis P; Towse, Adrian

    2017-09-04

    'Value-based' outcomes, pricing, and reimbursement are widely discussed as health sector reforms these days. In this paper, we discuss their meaning and relationship in the context of personalized healthcare, defined as receipt of care conditional on the results of a biomarker-based diagnostic test. We address the question: "What kinds of pricing and reimbursement models should be applied in personalized healthcare?" The simple answer is that competing innovators and technology adopters should have incentives that promote long-term dynamic efficiency. We argue that-to meet this social objective of optimal innovation in personalized healthcare-payers, as agents of their plan participants, should aim to send clear signals to their suppliers about what they value. We begin by revisiting the concept of value from an economic perspective, and argue that a broader concept of value is needed in the context of personalized healthcare. We discuss the market for personalized healthcare and the interplay between price and reimbursement. We close by emphasizing the potential barrier posed by inflexible or cost-based reimbursement systems, especially for biomarker-based predictive tests, and how these personalized technologies have global public goods characteristics that require global value-based differential pricing to achieve dynamic efficiency in terms of the optimal rate of innovation and adoption.

  12. Bringing Managed Care Incentives to Medicare's Fee-for-Service Sector

    PubMed Central

    Tompkins, Christopher P.; Wallack, Stanley S.; Bhalotra, Sarita; Chilingerian, Jon A.; Glavin, Mitchell P.V.; Ritter, Grant A.; Hodgkin, Dominic

    1996-01-01

    The Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) could work with eligible physician organizations to generate savings in total reimbursements for their Medicare patients. Medicare would continue to reimburse all providers according to standard payment policies and mechanisms, and beneficiaries would retain the freedom to choose providers. However, implementation of new financial incentives, based on meeting targets called Group-Specific Volume Performance Standards (GVPS), would encourage cost-effective service delivery patterns. HCFA could use new and existing data systems to monitor access, utilization patterns, cost outcomes and quality of care. In short, HCFA could manage providers, who, in turn, would manage their patients' care. PMID:10165712

  13. 10 CFR 765.32 - Reimbursement of excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reimbursement of excess funds. 765.32 Section 765.32 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM PROCESSING SITES Additional Reimbursement Procedures § 765.32 Reimbursement of excess funds. (a) No later...

  14. 10 CFR 765.10 - Eligibility for reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligibility for reimbursement. 765.10 Section 765.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM PROCESSING SITES Reimbursement Criteria § 765.10 Eligibility for reimbursement. (a) Any licensee of an...

  15. 10 CFR 765.10 - Eligibility for reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligibility for reimbursement. 765.10 Section 765.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM PROCESSING SITES Reimbursement Criteria § 765.10 Eligibility for reimbursement. (a) Any licensee of an...

  16. 10 CFR 765.10 - Eligibility for reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligibility for reimbursement. 765.10 Section 765.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM PROCESSING SITES Reimbursement Criteria § 765.10 Eligibility for reimbursement. (a) Any licensee of an...

  17. 10 CFR 765.32 - Reimbursement of excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reimbursement of excess funds. 765.32 Section 765.32 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM PROCESSING SITES Additional Reimbursement Procedures § 765.32 Reimbursement of excess funds. (a) No...

  18. 10 CFR 765.32 - Reimbursement of excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reimbursement of excess funds. 765.32 Section 765.32 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM PROCESSING SITES Additional Reimbursement Procedures § 765.32 Reimbursement of excess funds. (a) No...

  19. 47 CFR 27.1239 - Reimbursement obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reimbursement obligation. 27.1239 Section 27.1239 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband Radio Service and Educational Broadband Service...

  20. 78 FR 46502 - Reimbursed Entertainment Expenses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... regulations regarding the exception to the deduction limitations on certain expenditures paid or incurred... limitations for certain expenditures paid or incurred under reimbursement or other expense allowance... expenditure for entertainment, amusement, recreation, food, or beverages made by one person in...

  1. Optimizing pharmaceutical reimbursement: one institution's approach.

    PubMed

    Loyd, Laurel M

    2006-11-01

    The importance of understanding the revenue cycle, reviewing the billing system for errors, and collaborating with other health system departments in maximizing pharmaceutical reimbursement, and the approach used at a large academic medical center to justify a reimbursement specialist and achieve this goal are discussed. Understanding the revenue cycle may enable pharmacy departments to make wise decisions about programs and services that maximize revenue recovery and meet patient needs. Parts of the revenue cycle that pharmacists can have a favorable effect on include claim denials/payment variances, regulatory changes, compliance, contracting, and price setting. Pharmaceutical reimbursement was increased substantially at one institution through a collaborative effort involving multiple departments and a reimbursement specialist who analyzed the revenue cycle, reviewed billing systems, and took steps to avoid or correct billing errors. Collaborating with members of key health system departments can help identify and resolve billing system errors that diminish revenue. Documenting efforts to increase revenue recovery can help justify adding personnel dedicated to reimbursement matters. Analyzing the revenue cycle can contribute to wise decision-making that optimizes pharmaceutical reimbursement.

  2. Incentive Funding Meets Incentive-Based Budgeting: Can They Coexist?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Daniel W.

    2016-01-01

    Two major developments in the financial management of higher education have occurred more or less contemporaneously: incentive or performance funding on the part of government and incentive-based budgeting on the part of institutions. Both are based on fiscal incentives. Despite their several inherent and interconnected similarities, incentive…

  3. The Challenges and Opportunities Associated with Reimbursement for Obesity Pharmacotherapy in the USA.

    PubMed

    Baum, Charles; Andino, Katherine; Wittbrodt, Eric; Stewart, Shelley; Szymanski, Keith; Turpin, Robin

    2015-07-01

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem that has stimulated primordial and primary prevention efforts, and a triad of management options (lifestyle, pharmacotherapy, and surgical interventions). A growing body of evidence supports the need for a multi-pronged, clinic-based approach that leverages the synergy between pharmaceutical and lifestyle modification. Recent US policy changes-namely, the passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act coupled with recognition of obesity as a disease by the American Medical Association-suggest that financial incentives and attitudes towards obesity management are changing. This paradigm shift has implications for current and future obesity pharmacotherapy. However, barriers to pharmacotherapy utilization include patient and physician perceptions of modest efficacy, historical safety issues, regulatory obstacles, and lack of reimbursement. The shifting attitudes and challenges associated not only with a multi-payer system, but also the lack of clearly defined cross-payer reimbursement strategies, prompted a survey to determine coverage for obesity treatment. Participants indicated that federal/state mandates and growth of quality-driven healthcare initiatives will eventually drive wider pharmacotherapy reimbursement within 1-5 years. There are signs that federal/state programs are already moving towards reimbursement by improving quality measures to track obesity outcomes and reduce costs. Future research on clinical and economic outcomes of combination weight-management programs coupled with innovative approaches (e.g., eHealth) in the real-world setting that demonstrate value to patients, healthcare providers, payers, and employers will help reshape obesity management by reducing barriers and broadening reimbursement coverage for anti-obesity pharmacotherapy.

  4. Medicaid capital reimbursement policy and environmental artifacts of nursing home culture change.

    PubMed

    Miller, Susan C; Cohen, Neal; Lima, Julie C; Mor, Vincent

    2014-02-01

    To examine how Medicaid capital reimbursement policy is associated with nursing homes (NHs) having high proportions of private rooms and small households. Through a 2009/2010 NH national survey, we identified NHs having small households and high proportions of private rooms (≥76%). A survey of state Medicaid officials and policy document review provided 2009 policy data. Facility- and county-level covariates were from Online Survey, Certification and Reporting, the Area Resource File, and aggregated resident assessment data (minimum data set). The policy of interest was the presence of traditional versus fair rental capital reimbursement policy. Average Medicaid per diem rates and the presence of NH pay-for-performance (p4p) reimbursement were also examined. A total of 1,665 NHs in 40 states were included. Multivariate logistic regression analyses (with clustering on states) were used. In multivariate models, Medicaid capital reimbursement policy was not significantly associated with either outcome. However, there was a significantly greater likelihood of NHs having many private rooms when states had higher Medicaid rates (per $10 increment; adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.13; 95% CI 1.049, 1.228), and in states with versus without p4p (AOR 1.78; 95% CI 1.045, 3.036). Also, in states with p4p NHs had a greater likelihood of having small households (AOR 1.78; 95% CI 1.045, 3.0636). Higher NH Medicaid rates and reimbursement incentives may contribute to a higher presence of 2 important environmental artifacts of culture change-an abundance of private rooms and small households. However, longitudinal research examining policy change is needed to establish the cause and effect of the associations observed.

  5. Incentives for health.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter; Harrison, Oliver; Cooper, Cary; Jané-Llopis, Eva

    2011-08-01

    This article discusses incentives to help make healthy choices the easy choices for individuals, operating at the levels of the individual, producers and service providers, and governments. Whereas paying individuals directly to be healthier seems to have a limited effect, offering financial incentives through health insurance improves health. Changing the environment to make healthier choices more accessible acts as an incentive to improve health. Employers can provide incentives to improve the health of their employees. Producers and service providers can take voluntary action to make their products less harmful, and they can be nudged into marketing healthier products within a regulatory environment. International agreements and monitoring systems can incentivize governments to do more for health. Lessons from climate change adaptation suggest that multilevel governance and policy integration are greater obstacles to policy change and implementation than knowing what has to be done. Policy change and implementation are triggered by many drivers, many of which are side effects of other policy pressures rather than of the direct policy goal itself. Effective action to reduce noncommunicable diseases will require leveraging social networks into a new ways of thinking about health; making better health prestigious and aspirational, and giving health and wellness a brand that encourages positive behavior change.

  6. Incentives for partitioning, revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Cloninger, M.O.

    1980-03-24

    The incentives for separating and eliminating various elements from radioactive waste prior to final geologic disposal were investigated. Exposure pathways to humans were defined, and potential radiation doses to an individual living within the region of influence of the underground storage site were calculated. The assumed radionuclide source was 1/5 of the accumulated high-level waste from the US nuclear power economy through the year 2000. The repository containing the waste was assumed to be located in a reference salt site geology. The study required numerous assumptions concerning the transport of radioactivity from the geologic storage site to man. The assumptions used maximized the estimated potential radiation doses, particularly in the case of the intrusion water well scenario, where hydrologic flow field dispersion effects were ignored. Thus, incentives for removing elements from the waste tended to be maximized. Incentives were also maximized by assuming that elements removed from the waste could be eliminated from the earth without risk. The results of the study indicate that for reasonable disposal conditions, incentives for partitioning any elements from the waste in order to minimize the risk to humans are marginal at best.

  7. Cooperative Performance Incentive Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raham, Helen

    2000-01-01

    Discusses what is known about cooperative performance incentive (CPI) plans, which are award programs that offer teachers and other school staff pay bonuses for achievement of specific schoolwide educational objectives. The paper describes and compares existing CPI models worldwide, analyzes their impact on student learning and school practices,…

  8. Innovative Instructional Incentive Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banashak, Joan M.

    The Innovative Instructional Incentive Plan represents a set of goals and action strategies for implementing the school improvement plan of the Fairway Elementary School in Miramar, Florida, where instructional time was being lost due to disruptive student behavior, and where behavioral infractions were not always dealt with quickly or…

  9. Incentives for Recruiters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    promotions, with prizes for the kids: anything from football ti’kets to trips to Disneyland ." [Ref. 10:p. 68] Any publisher who wants a successful...such as a trip to Disneyland . The latter focuses more on providing an 29 incentive to the carrier to get a certain number of new customers in a short

  10. 76 FR 39043 - TRICARE; Reimbursement of Sole Community Hospitals and Adjustment to Reimbursement of Critical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 199 TRICARE; Reimbursement of Sole Community Hospitals and Adjustment to Reimbursement of Critical Access Hospitals AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION... Hospitals (SCHs). It will be phased in over a several- year period. DATES: Written comments received at the...

  11. 7 CFR 400.712 - Research and development reimbursement, maintenance reimbursement, and user fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... submission may be eligible for a one-time payment of research and development costs and reimbursement of... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research and development reimbursement, maintenance... Submission of Policies, Provisions of Policies and Rates of Premium § 400.712 Research and...

  12. Are Small Reimbursement Changes Enough to Change Cancer Care? Reimbursement Variation in Prostate Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ronald C.; Dusetzina, Stacie B.; Wheeler, Stephanie B.; Jackson, George L.; Nielsen, Matthew E.; Carpenter, William R.; Weinberger, Morris

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services recently initiated small reimbursement adjustments to improve the value of care delivered under fee-for-service. To estimate the degree to which reimbursement influences physician decision making, we examined utilization of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists among urologists as Part B drug reimbursement varied in a fee-for-service environment. Methods: We analyzed treatment patterns of urologists treating 15,128 men included in SEER-linked Medicare claims who were diagnosed with localized prostate cancer between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2003. We calculated a reimbursement generosity index to measure differences in GnRH agonist reimbursement among regional Medicare carriers and over time. We used multilevel analysis to control for patient and provider characteristics. Results: Among urologists treating early-stage and lower grade prostate cancer, variation in reimbursement was not associated with overuse of GnRH agonists from 2000 to 2003, a period of guideline stability (odds ratio, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.00). Conclusion: Small differences in androgen-deprivation therapy reimbursement generosity were not associated with differential use. Fee-for-service reimbursement changes currently being implemented to improve quality in fee-for-service Medicare may not affect patterns of cancer care. PMID:26957641

  13. Medicaid provider reimbursement policy for adult immunizations☆

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Alexandra M.; Lindley, Megan C.; Cox, Marisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Background State Medicaid programs establish provider reimbursement policy for adult immunizations based on: costs, private insurance payments, and percentage of Medicare payments for equivalent services. Each program determines provider eligibility, payment amount, and permissible settings for administration. Total reimbursement consists of different combinations of Current Procedural Terminology codes: vaccine, vaccine administration, and visit. Objective Determine how Medicaid programs in the 50 states and the District of Columbia approach provider reimbursement for adult immunizations. Design Observational analysis using document review and a survey. Setting and participants Medicaid administrators in 50 states and the District of Columbia. Measurements Whether fee-for-service programs reimburse providers for: vaccines; their administration; and/or office visits when provided to adult enrollees. We assessed whether adult vaccination services are reimbursed when administered by a wide range of providers in a wide range of settings. Results Medicaid programs use one of 4 payment methods for adults: (1) a vaccine and an administration code; (2) a vaccine and visit code; (3) a vaccine code; and (4) a vaccine, visit, and administration code. Limitations Study results do not reflect any changes related to implementation of national health reform. Nine of fifty one programs did not respond to the survey or declined to participate, limiting the information available to researchers. Conclusions Medicaid reimbursement policy for adult vaccines impacts provider participation and enrollee access and uptake. While programs have generally increased reimbursement levels since 2003, each program could assess whether current policies reflect the most effective approach to encourage providers to increase vaccination services. PMID:26403369

  14. The Role of Government in Physician Reimbursement.

    PubMed

    Woerheide, James; Lake, Tim; Rich, Eugene C

    2016-01-01

    Governments around the world exert a substantial degree of influence over physician reimbursement, but the structure and level of that influence varies greatly. This article defines and analyzes the role of government in physician reimbursement both internationally and in the United States. We create a typology for government involvement in physician reimbursement that divides intervention into either direct control or indirect control. Within those broad categories, we describe more specific forms of involvement including rate setting, operating as a public payer, employing physicians directly, providing a source of market discipline, regulating private insurance, and convening private participants in the market. We apply our framework to the modern healthcare systems of Germany, Sweden, Canada, and the United States, highlighting some of the implications of differences between the systems. Our central finding is that in contrast to other example healthcare systems, the United States system features a complex interplay of federal and state government influence, both direct and indirect, into physician reimbursement. We conclude the article by examining the ways in which recent legislation including the Affordable Care Act and the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act would likely change the role of government in physician reimbursement in the United States. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Reimbursement for acute care nurse practitioner services.

    PubMed

    Richmond, T S; Thompson, H J; Sullivan-Marx, E M

    2000-01-01

    Until the passage of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, acute care nurse practitioners could not be directly reimbursed for inpatient services provided to Medicare patients. With the enactment of this legislation, acute care nurse practitioners may now be directly compensated for care provided. The historical and contextual issues that surround reimbursement for nursing and advanced practice nursing services are reviewed to serve as a foundation for understanding the current Medicare reimbursement regulations. The implications of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 for acute care nurse practitioners and their professional colleagues are critically examined. The language of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 and the subsequent rules and regulations issued by the Health Care Financing Administration are reviewed with specific focus on implications for acute care nurse practitioners. The opportunities for reimbursement for services provided by acute care nurse practitioners are more extensive than ever before. Acute care nurse practitioners and their physician colleagues will be wise to become fully conversant with the changes in Medicare reimbursement regulations.

  16. Medicaid reimbursement, prenatal care and infant health.

    PubMed

    Sonchak, Lyudmyla

    2015-12-01

    This paper evaluates the impact of state-level Medicaid reimbursement rates for obstetric care on prenatal care utilization across demographic groups. It also uses these rates as an instrumental variable to assess the importance of prenatal care on birth weight. The analysis is conducted using a unique dataset of Medicaid reimbursement rates and 2001-2010 Vital Statistics Natality data. Conditional on county fixed effects, the study finds a modest, but statistically significant positive relationship between Medicaid reimbursement rates and the number of prenatal visits obtained by pregnant women. Additionally, higher rates are associated with an increase in the probability of obtaining adequate care, as well as a reduction in the incidence of going without any prenatal care. However, the effect of an additional prenatal visit on birth weight is virtually zero for black disadvantaged mothers, while an additional visit yields a substantial increase in birth weight of over 20 g for white disadvantaged mothers.

  17. Reimbursement and economic factors influencing dialysis modality choice around the world

    PubMed Central

    Just, Paul M.; de Charro, Frank Th.; Tschosik, Elizabeth A.; Noe, Les L.; Bhattacharyya, Samir K.; Riella, Miguel C.

    2008-01-01

    The worldwide incidence of kidney failure is on the rise and treatment is costly; thus, the global burden of illness is growing. Kidney failure patients require either a kidney transplant or dialysis to maintain life. This review focuses on the economics of dialysis. Alternative dialysis modalities are haemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD). Important economic factors influencing dialysis modality selection include financing, reimbursement and resource availability. In general, where there is little or no facility or physician reimbursement or payment for PD, the share of PD is very low. Regarding resource availability, when centre HD capacity is high, there is an incentive to use that capacity rather than place patients on home dialysis. In certain countries, there is interest in revising the reimbursement structure to favour home-based therapies, including PD and home HD. Modality selection is influenced by employment status, with an association between being employed and PD as the modality choice. Cost drivers differ for PD and HD. PD is driven mainly by variable costs such as solutions and tubing, while HD is driven mainly by fixed costs of facility space and staff. Many cost comparisons of dialysis modalities have been conducted. A key factor to consider in reviewing cost comparisons is the perspective of the analysis because different costs are relevant for different perspectives. In developed countries, HD is generally more expensive than PD to the payer. Additional research is needed in the developing world before conclusive statements may be made regarding the relative costs of HD and PD. PMID:18234844

  18. Incentives, health promotion and equality.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Kristin

    2012-07-01

    The use of incentives to encourage individuals to adopt 'healthier' behaviours is an increasingly popular instrument in health policy. Much of the literature has been critical of 'negative' incentives, often due to concerns about equality; 'positive' incentives, however, have largely been welcomed as an instrument for the improvement of population health and possibly the reduction of health inequalities. The aim of this paper is to provide a more systematic assessment of the use of incentives from the perspective of equality. The paper begins with an overview of existing and proposed incentive schemes. I then suggest that the distinction between 'positive' and 'negative' incentives - or 'carrots' and 'sticks' - is of limited use in distinguishing those incentive schemes that raise concerns of equality from those that do not. The paper assesses incentive schemes with respect to two important considerations of equality: equality of access and equality of outcomes. While our assessment of incentive schemes will, ultimately, depend on various empirical facts, the paper aims to advance the debate by identifying some of the empirical questions we need to ask. The paper concludes by considering a number of trade-offs and caveats relevant to the assessment of incentive schemes.

  19. 10 CFR 765.20 - Procedures for submitting reimbursement claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND THORIUM PROCESSING SITES Procedures for Submitting and Processing Reimbursement Claims § 765.20... reimbursement ceiling for any active uranium or thorium processing site; (5) Any revision in the per dry short...

  20. 10 CFR 765.20 - Procedures for submitting reimbursement claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND THORIUM PROCESSING SITES Procedures for Submitting and Processing Reimbursement Claims § 765.20... reimbursement ceiling for any active uranium or thorium processing site; (5) Any revision in the per dry...

  1. 10 CFR 765.20 - Procedures for submitting reimbursement claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND THORIUM PROCESSING SITES Procedures for Submitting and Processing Reimbursement Claims § 765.20... reimbursement ceiling for any active uranium or thorium processing site; (5) Any revision in the per dry...

  2. Institutional incentives for altruism: gifting blood in China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In mainland China, the motivation behind voluntary blood donation is a relatively new and understudied behavior. In recent times provincial governments in China have implemented various institutional incentive measures. However, little is known regarding the effectiveness of such measures. This qualitative study investigated the nature and outcomes of some identified institutionalized mechanisms, in particular how these were created and distributed in the form of incentives for voluntary blood donation. Methods Participatory observations were conducted at two blood donation stations and four blood collecting vehicles in Changsha city, China. In-depth interviews were conducted with 17 staff and 58 blood donors at the aforementioned venues from May to October 2008 in Changsha. Results Thematic analysis revealed the operation of four primary type incentives: policy-driven, symbolic, information feedback and role models, which constituted the system of institutional incentives. The current blood reimbursement system was not the primary motivation for blood donation; instead this system was a subtheme of future assurance for emergency blood needs. It was evident that symbolic incentives stressed the meaning and value of blood donation. Furthermore, post-donation information services and the inherent mechanisms of communication, enhanced by some public role models, served to draw the public to donate blood. Conclusions At the institutional level, blood donation was not only informed by altruism, but also carried a system of benefit and reward for the donors and their family members. We would recommend that such arrangements, if accommodated effectively into China’s health promotion strategies, would increase the likelihood of blood donation. PMID:23721212

  3. Volunteer faculty: what rewards or incentives do they prefer?

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashir; Kallen, David J; Mathew, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Clerkship directors and college administrators have concerns about recruitment and retention of practicing physicians for volunteer teaching. There is a paucity of data regarding the rewards and incentives offered to, or desired by, the nonsalaried community-based practicing physicians who volunteer their time to teach. This study was designed to gain information about rewards and incentives from volunteer teachers in pediatric, family practice, and internal medicine clerkships. We surveyed nonsalaried physician teachers of internal medicine, family medicine, and pediatrics across the United States. The survey focused on teachers' evaluation of the rewards or incentives offered by the programs in the following categories: educational opportunities, services or gifts, recognition bestowed by the school, academic appointments, and monetary payments. Respondents rated each item from 1 (not appreciated) to 5 (very much appreciated). They also were asked to rank order the rewards or incentives (with the addition of a category of personal satisfaction) from 1 (least appreciated) to 6 (most appreciated). Educational opportunities received high ratings, especially when the school bore the cost of providing a service. Payment for teaching was offered to 37% of the respondents, and those who were paid rated it higher. Overall, payment for teaching had a mean appreciation score of 3.94, second only to travel and meeting registration reimbursement (4.27). However, in the rank order listing, personal satisfaction had the highest rank (5.16). In contrast, payment for teaching (2.92) and gifts or services from the college (2.53) were at the bottom of the rank order. The survey asked practicing physicians the value they placed on awards and incentives provided to them by the college. This information should help administrators and clerkship directors in recruiting and retaining community-based practicing physicians for teaching.

  4. A performance-based incentive program for influenza immunization in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Kouides, R W; Lewis, B; Bennett, N M; Bell, K M; Barker, W H; Black, E R; Cappuccio, J D; Raubertas, R F; LaForce, F M

    1993-01-01

    Our objective was to implement and evaluate performance-based reimbursement for influenza immunization of the elderly in physician offices. We performed a community-based quasi-experiment with historic and concurrent comparisons, using primary care physician offices in Monroe County, New York. Participants in the intervention group included 53 primary care physicians admitting to one hospital, and the comparison group included 82 primary care physicians admitting to other hospitals. All physicians participated in a Medicare-sponsored demonstration to increase influenza immunization rates, and, during the 1990-1991 immunization season, used a target-based poster to track immunization rates. Physicians in the intervention group were enrolled in a performance-based financial incentive program that rewarded immunization rates above 70%. A survey concerning influenza immunization practices and opinions was sent to all physicians. The average physician-specific immunization rate in the incentive group was 73.1% versus 55.7% in the comparison practices (P < .001). Eligibility for incentives, practice size, sex of physician, medical specialty, reminder postcards, and practice populations including medically indigent patients were associated with immunization level. Controlling for the above variables, we completed a regression analysis showing that eligibility for the incentive was still significant (P = .003). The survey responses were not predictive of performance or significantly different between the two groups, except for the negative influence of sending postcards. This study in a community setting suggests that linking reimbursement to performance may be a successful strategy to increase influenza immunization levels for the elderly.

  5. 42 CFR 413.5 - Cost reimbursement: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost reimbursement: General. 413.5 Section 413.5... PROGRAM PRINCIPLES OF REASONABLE COST REIMBURSEMENT; PAYMENT FOR END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE SERVICES... Rules § 413.5 Cost reimbursement: General. (a) In formulating methods for making fair and...

  6. 28 CFR 94.23 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amount of reimbursement. 94.23 Section 94.23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Coverage § 94.23 Amount of reimbursement....

  7. 28 CFR 94.23 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amount of reimbursement. 94.23 Section 94.23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Coverage § 94.23 Amount of reimbursement....

  8. 28 CFR 94.23 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amount of reimbursement. 94.23 Section 94.23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Coverage § 94.23 Amount of reimbursement....

  9. 28 CFR 94.23 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amount of reimbursement. 94.23 Section 94.23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Coverage § 94.23 Amount of reimbursement....

  10. 28 CFR 94.23 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amount of reimbursement. 94.23 Section 94.23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Coverage § 94.23 Amount of reimbursement....

  11. 19 CFR 147.33 - Reimbursement by fair operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Customs Supervision § 147.33 Reimbursement by fair operator. All... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reimbursement by fair operator. 147.33 Section 147... reimbursed by the fair operator to the Government, payment to be made on demand to the port director for...

  12. 44 CFR 208.35 - Reimbursement for Advisory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Reimbursement for Advisory. 208.35 Section 208.35 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... Cooperative Agreements § 208.35 Reimbursement for Advisory. DHS will not reimburse costs incurred during an...

  13. 7 CFR 220.10 - Effective date for reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SCHOOL BREAKFAST PROGRAM § 220.10 Effective date for reimbursement. Reimbursement payments under the School Breakfast Program may be made only to School Food... execution of the agreement. Such payments may include reimbursement in connection with breakfasts served in...

  14. 7 CFR 220.10 - Effective date for reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SCHOOL BREAKFAST PROGRAM § 220.10 Effective date for reimbursement. Reimbursement payments under the School Breakfast Program may be made only to School Food... execution of the agreement. Such payments may include reimbursement in connection with breakfasts served in...

  15. 7 CFR 220.10 - Effective date for reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SCHOOL BREAKFAST PROGRAM § 220.10 Effective date for reimbursement. Reimbursement payments under the School Breakfast Program may be made only to School Food... execution of the agreement. Such payments may include reimbursement in connection with breakfasts served in...

  16. 7 CFR 220.10 - Effective date for reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SCHOOL BREAKFAST PROGRAM § 220.10 Effective date for reimbursement. Reimbursement payments under the School Breakfast Program may be made only to School Food... execution of the agreement. Such payments may include reimbursement in connection with breakfasts served in...

  17. 7 CFR 220.10 - Effective date for reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SCHOOL BREAKFAST PROGRAM § 220.10 Effective date for reimbursement. Reimbursement payments under the School Breakfast Program may be made only to School Food... execution of the agreement. Such payments may include reimbursement in connection with breakfasts served in...

  18. 10 CFR 765.20 - Procedures for submitting reimbursement claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 765.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM... Department's evaluation of all claims for reimbursement submitted by a licensee. (c) Each submitted claim... reimbursement ceiling for any active uranium or thorium processing site; (5) Any revision in the per dry...

  19. 10 CFR 765.32 - Reimbursement of excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PROCESSING SITES Additional Reimbursement Procedures § 765.32 Reimbursement of excess funds. (a) No later... total number of Federal-related dry short tons of byproduct material present at the site where costs of... resulting number will be the maximum cost per dry short ton, over $6.25, that may be reimbursed. Total...

  20. 78 FR 76626 - Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... ADMINISTRATION Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates AGENCY: Office of Government-wide Policy (OGP... Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates. SUMMARY: The General Services Administration's annual privately owned vehicle (POV) mileage reimbursement rate reviews have resulted in new CY 2014 rates for...

  1. 76 FR 63844 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Lodging Reimbursement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ...] RIN 3090-AJ22 Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Lodging Reimbursement AGENCY: General Services... Travel Regulation (FTR) regarding reimbursement of lodging per diem expenses while on temporary duty travel (TDY). This final rule specifically states GSA's policy in regards to reimbursement for...

  2. 19 CFR 147.33 - Reimbursement by fair operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reimbursement by fair operator. 147.33 Section 147... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Customs Supervision § 147.33 Reimbursement by fair operator. All... reimbursed by the fair operator to the Government, payment to be made on demand to the port director for...

  3. 19 CFR 147.33 - Reimbursement by fair operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reimbursement by fair operator. 147.33 Section 147... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Customs Supervision § 147.33 Reimbursement by fair operator. All... reimbursed by the fair operator to the Government, payment to be made on demand to the port director for...

  4. 19 CFR 147.33 - Reimbursement by fair operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reimbursement by fair operator. 147.33 Section 147... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Customs Supervision § 147.33 Reimbursement by fair operator. All... reimbursed by the fair operator to the Government, payment to be made on demand to the port director for...

  5. 19 CFR 147.33 - Reimbursement by fair operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reimbursement by fair operator. 147.33 Section 147... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Customs Supervision § 147.33 Reimbursement by fair operator. All... reimbursed by the fair operator to the Government, payment to be made on demand to the port director for...

  6. 10 CFR 765.20 - Procedures for submitting reimbursement claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 765.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM... reimbursement ceiling for any active uranium or thorium processing site; (5) Any revision in the per dry short ton limit on reimbursement for all active uranium processing sites; and (6) Any other...

  7. 7 CFR 1484.56 - How are Cooperators reimbursed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How are Cooperators reimbursed? 1484.56 Section 1484.56 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION... AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES Contributions and Reimbursements § 1484.56 How are Cooperators reimbursed? (a)...

  8. Making incentives work: hospital organisation and performance.

    PubMed

    Bjorvatn, Afsaneh

    2012-07-01

    In 1997, financing of Norwegian hospitals was changed to a combination of block grants and activity-based reimbursements. Since then, many hospitals have also reorganised their internal structures, for instance by implementing activity-based budgets at the departmental level. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of departmental activity-based budgets on overall hospital productivity and unit costs. The analysis is based on register data on hospital admissions and hospital input factors, along with survey data on internal organisation of hospitals. Fixed-effects regression models are applied for the analysis. The main results indicate that hospitals with departmental activity-based budgets and department authority have higher productivity. The effect on unit costs is insignificant. The positive effect of the departmental activity-based budgets and departmental authority on productivity without increase in costs may indicate that providing incentives at lower hospital levels such as departments could be a useful tool for increasing overall hospital productivity and cost efficiency.

  9. Local Governments Reimbursement Program - More Information

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Local Governments Reimbursement (LGR) Program provides a safety net of up to $25,000 per incident to local governments that do not have funds available to pay for response actions. This is a collection of answers to frequent questions about LGR.

  10. 44 CFR 352.28 - Reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reimbursement. 352.28 Section 352.28 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS COMMERCIAL NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS PLANNING...

  11. 44 CFR 352.28 - Reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reimbursement. 352.28 Section 352.28 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS COMMERCIAL NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS PLANNING...

  12. 7 CFR 1485.17 - Reimbursement rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... calculated as the percentage difference between the second highest and the highest grade in the FSN salary plan, with that percentage applied to each of the steps in the top grade. Where the non-U.S. citizen... reimbursed. MAP Participants must pay the difference between the total cost of STRE events and...

  13. 34 CFR 303.528 - Reimbursement procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reimbursement procedure. 303.528 Section 303.528 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS...

  14. 26 CFR 601.804 - Reimbursements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., and accounting and financial control systems. (b) Direct, reasonable, and prudent expenses... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reimbursements. 601.804 Section 601.804 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INTERNAL REVENUE...

  15. 26 CFR 601.804 - Reimbursements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., and accounting and financial control systems. (b) Direct, reasonable, and prudent expenses... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reimbursements. 601.804 Section 601.804 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INTERNAL REVENUE...

  16. 26 CFR 601.804 - Reimbursements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., and accounting and financial control systems. (b) Direct, reasonable, and prudent expenses... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reimbursements. 601.804 Section 601.804 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INTERNAL REVENUE...

  17. 26 CFR 601.804 - Reimbursements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., and accounting and financial control systems. (b) Direct, reasonable, and prudent expenses... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reimbursements. 601.804 Section 601.804 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INTERNAL REVENUE...

  18. 44 CFR 208.52 - Reimbursement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reimbursement procedures. 208.52 Section 208.52 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE NATIONAL URBAN SEARCH AND RESCUE RESPONSE SYSTEM...

  19. 44 CFR 208.52 - Reimbursement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Reimbursement procedures. 208.52 Section 208.52 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE NATIONAL URBAN SEARCH AND RESCUE RESPONSE SYSTEM...

  20. 44 CFR 208.52 - Reimbursement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reimbursement procedures. 208.52 Section 208.52 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE NATIONAL URBAN SEARCH AND RESCUE RESPONSE SYSTEM...

  1. Know the Law: Reimbursement under the IDEA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Allan G., Jr.; Rehberg, Megan L.

    2009-01-01

    When school boards fail to provide the free appropriate public education (FAPE) guaranteed in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), students with disabilities and their parents can be compensated in various ways. One of the more common remedies is to reimburse parents for tuition and other costs they may have incurred in…

  2. [Alternatives to pharmaceutical distribution and reimbursement].

    PubMed

    Meneu, R

    2002-01-01

    In Spain pharmaceutical distribution is carried out mainly thorugh the 20,000 independent pharmacies located throughout the country. This situation contrasts with that in other countries where other health care providers play a major role in drug dispensation or where pharmacies form part of industrial conglomerates or commercial chains. We describe the pharmaceutical distribution chain in Spain wholesale and through the pharmacies and place particular emphasis on five aspects of relevance when considering alternatives: ownership of the pharmacy and norms of professional service, criteria for setting up a pharmacy, monopoly on dispensing, automatic ageement with the Spanish national health system and reimbursement system. Several alternatives found in comparable countries are described: mail order and on-line distribution, sale of over-the counter pharmaceutical products in establishments other than pharmacies, the estabilishment of pharmaceutical chains, dispensing by providers, the repercussions of electronic prescribing and the possibilities of the still-emerging Pharmacuetical Care. The characteristics of pharmacy reimbursement systems are also reviewed. We recommend modification of limitations on ownership of pharmacies, the establishment of optional agreements between pharmacies and the Spanish national health system and the authorization of alternative or complementary channels of distribution for some products. We propose a mixed model of reimbursement that would include: a) a ficed price for dispensing; b) almost total return of the cost of the product; c) reimbursement for services explicity defined by the financer, and d) the possibility of a selective fixed payment for certain situations depending on the agreed services or a guaranteed minimum income.

  3. 7 CFR 220.11 - Reimbursement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Lunch Program and the School Breakfast Program, the State agency or FNSRO, where applicable, may... reimbursement estimated for the total number of breakfasts, including free and reduced price breakfasts, to be... number of breakfasts, including free and reduced price breakfast, served to children times the respective...

  4. 7 CFR 220.11 - Reimbursement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Lunch Program and the School Breakfast Program, the State agency or FNSRO, where applicable, may... reimbursement estimated for the total number of breakfasts, including free and reduced price breakfasts, to be... number of breakfasts, including free and reduced price breakfast, served to children times the respective...

  5. 7 CFR 220.11 - Reimbursement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Lunch Program and the School Breakfast Program, the State agency or FNSRO, where applicable, may... reimbursement estimated for the total number of breakfasts, including free and reduced price breakfasts, to be... number of breakfasts, including free and reduced price breakfast, served to children times the respective...

  6. 7 CFR 220.11 - Reimbursement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Lunch Program and the School Breakfast Program, the State agency or FNSRO, where applicable, may... reimbursement estimated for the total number of breakfasts, including free and reduced price breakfasts, to be... number of breakfasts, including free and reduced price breakfast, served to children times the respective...

  7. 7 CFR 220.11 - Reimbursement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Lunch Program and the School Breakfast Program, the State agency or FNSRO, where applicable, may... reimbursement estimated for the total number of breakfasts, including free and reduced price breakfasts, to be... number of breakfasts, including free and reduced price breakfast, served to children times the respective...

  8. 10 CFR 765.11 - Reimbursable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM PROCESSING... uranium processing site licensees shall not exceed $6.25, as adjusted for inflation, multiplied by the... remedial action incurred at all active uranium processing sites shall not exceed $350 million....

  9. 34 CFR 303.528 - Reimbursement procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Reimbursement procedure. 303.528 Section 303.528 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND...

  10. Payment systems and incentives in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Grytten, Jostein

    2016-11-03

    In this commentary, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the following incentive-based remuneration systems in dentistry: fee-for-service remuneration, per capita remuneration, a mixed payment system (a combination of fee-for-service remuneration and per capita remuneration) and pay-for-performance. The two latter schemes are fairly new in dentistry. Fee-for-service payments secure high quality, but lead to increased costs, probably due to supplier-induced demand. Per capita payments secure effectiveness, but may lead to under-treatment and patient selection. A mixed payment scheme produces results somewhere between over- and under-treatment. The prospective component (the per capita payment) promotes efficiency, while the retrospective component (the fee-for-service payment) secures high quality of the care that is provided. A pay-for-performance payment scheme is specifically designed towards improvements in dental health. This is done by linking provider reimbursements directly to performance indicators measuring dental health outcomes and quality of the services. Experience from general health services is that pay-for-performance payment has not been very successful. This is due to significant design and implementation obstacles and lack of provider acceptance. A major criticism of all the incentive-based remuneration schemes is that they may undermine the dentists' intrinsic motivation for performing a task. This is a crowding-out effect, which is particularly strong when monetary incentives are introduced for care that is cognitively demanding and complex, for example as in dentistry. One way in which intrinsic motivation may not be undermined is to introduce a fixed salary component into the remuneration scheme. Dentists would then be able to choose their type of contract according to their abilities and their preferences for nonmonetary rewards as opposed to monetary rewards. If a fixed salary component cannot be introduced into the remuneration

  11. Do religious nonprofit and for-profit organizations respond differently to financial incentives? The hospice industry.

    PubMed

    Lindrooth, Richard C; Weisbrod, Burton A

    2007-03-01

    We study how for-profit and religious nonprofit hospices respond to an exogenous Medicare reimbursement incentive that encourages maximization of patient length of stay. Hospices have the incentive to selectively admit patients with longer expected lengths of stay, and admit patients sooner after a hospital discharge. We find that for-profit hospices are significantly less likely to admit patients with shorter, less profitable, expected lengths of stay. We do not find any difference in the timing of admission by ownership. Incentives for efficiency could be strengthened by a Medicare pricing system that replaced the current flat per diem payment with one that reflected the high costs at the beginning and end of hospice stay and the lower costs in between.

  12. Adopting electronic medical records: what do the new federal incentives mean to your individual physician practice?

    PubMed

    Neclerio, John M; Cheney, Kathleen; Goldman, C Mitchell; Clark, Lisa W

    2009-01-01

    Under President Obama's American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, the federal government is offering incentives to physicians to adopt electronic health records. The goal is to improve quality of care and constrain costs. Higher incentive payments are available for those physicians who act quickly to meet the government's standards. Physicians who practice in "health professional shortage areas" and who serve mainly Medicaid recipients may qualify for additional incentives. Although compliance is "voluntary, "physicians who have not met the standards by 2015 will face reductions in their Medicare reimbursements unless they can show a significant hardship. Physicians can get started by contacting hospitals with which they are affiliated and professional associations to find out what vendors are being used in their service area. Agreements for electronic health records should be reviewed carefully to ensure that physicians' interests are protected.

  13. Pricing and reimbursement of pharmaceuticals in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Annemans, L; Crott, R; De Clercq, H; Huybrechts, M; Peys, F; Robays, H; Steens, I; Vanschoubroek, K; Winderickx, P

    1997-03-01

    The Belgian healthcare system has a tradition of access and equity at affordable prices. As in other countries, the system becomes pressured by increasing healthcare costs. This paper describes the actual situation in Belgium with special focus on pharmaceutical products and the potential role of pharmacoeconomics in decision making on price and reimbursement. Nearly all people in Belgium are covered by compulsory health insurance. The system is paid for by social security, the patients and the federal and regional authorities. The part of the consumption of pharmaceuticals that is charged to insurance was about 62.1 billion Belgian francs (BeF), i.e. about 50% of the pharmaceutical market in 1994. Price setting in Belgium has been rather low due to the positive reimbursement list, where the price of a new drug is compared to existing drugs in a comparable therapeutic class (so-called reimbursement criteria). The expenditure on pharmaceuticals is increasing faster than global funding for public health. In order to control drug budgets, different cost-containment measures have been or are being taken, i.e. a mix of price, reimbursement and volume controls. These cost-containment measures are not necessarily in accordance with a health economic approach. This paper suggests the scope for better implementation of pharmacoeconomic evaluation, which can lead to more flexible reimbursement systems in specific indications. Therefore, a formal recognition of the role of objective economic evaluations is needed for both hospital and ambulatory care. This process should be proceeded by improving the understanding and robustness of pharmacoeconomic evaluations.

  14. Incentives for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Kate; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie; Perera, Rafael

    2015-05-18

    Material or financial incentives are widely used in an attempt to precipitate or reinforce behaviour change, including smoking cessation. They operate in workplaces, in clinics and hospitals, and to a lesser extent within community programmes. In this third update of our review we now include trials conducted in pregnant women, to reflect the increasing activity and resources now targeting this high-risk group of smokers. To determine whether incentives and contingency management programmes lead to higher long-term quit rates. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, with additional searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO. The most recent searches were in December 2014, although we also include two trials published in 2015. We considered randomised controlled trials, allocating individuals, workplaces, groups within workplaces, or communities to experimental or control conditions. We also considered controlled studies with baseline and post-intervention measures. We include studies in a mixed-population setting (e.g. community-, work-, institution-based), and also, for this update, trials in pregnant smokers. One author (KC) extracted data and a second (JH-B) checked them. We contacted study authors for additional data where necessary. The main outcome measure in the mixed-population studies was abstinence from smoking at longest follow-up, and at least six months from the start of the intervention. In the trials of pregnant smokers abstinence was measured at the longest follow-up, and at least to the end of the pregnancy. Twenty-one mixed-population studies met our inclusion criteria, covering more than 8400 participants. Ten studies were set in clinics or health centres, one in Thai villages served by community health workers, two in academic institutions, and the rest in worksites. All but six of the trials were run in the USA. The incentives included lottery tickets or prize draws, cash payments, vouchers for goods and

  15. Addressing government and market failures with payment incentives: Hospital reimbursement reform in Hainan, China.

    PubMed

    Yip, Winnie; Eggleston, Karen

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the role of provider payment policy as an instrument for addressing government and market failures and controlling costs in the health sector, particularly in developing countries. We empirically evaluate the impact of provider payment reform in Hainan province, China, on expenditures for different categories of services that had been subject to distorted prices under fee-for-service. Using a pre-post study design with a control group, we analyze two years of claims data to assess the impact of a January 1997 change to prospective payment for a sub-sample of the hospitals. This difference-in-difference empirical strategy allows us to isolate the supply-side payment reform effects from demand-side policy interventions. We find that prepayment is associated with a slower increase in spending on expensive drugs and high technology services, compared to fee-for-service. The fact that payment reform is associated with reduced growth in spending on the most expensive drugs is particularly encouraging, given that drugs account for a remarkably high percentage of both the level and growth of aggregate health expenditure in China. Payment reform can be an effective policy instrument for correcting market failures and adverse side effects of government health sector interventions (such as distorted prices to assure access to basic services), both of which can lead to excessive health care expenditure growth. Such health spending growth can have a particularly high opportunity cost for developing countries.

  16. Incentives for Accountability. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    Policymakers and educators are taking a new look at incentives as they work to improve accountability systems. This ERIC Digest examines the role of rewards and sanctions in school reform and identifies key issues in implementing incentive systems. The new accountability is based on five components: carefully designed standards, assessments…

  17. Financial Incentives and Weight Control

    PubMed Central

    Jeffery, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews research studies evaluating the use of financial incentives to promote weight control conducted between 1972 and 2010. It provides an overview of behavioral theories pertaining to incentives and describes empirical studies evaluating specific aspects of incentives. Research on financial incentives and weight control has a history spanning more than 30 years. Early studies were guided by operant learning concepts from Psychology, while more recent studies have relied on economic theory. Both theoretical orientations argue that providing financial rewards for losing weight should motivate people to engage in behaviors that produce weight loss. Empirical research has strongly supported this idea. However, results vary widely due to differences in incentive size and schedule, as well as contextual factors. Thus, many important questions about the use of incentives have not yet been clearly answered. Weight-maintenance studies using financial incentives are particularly sparse, so that their long-term efficacy and thus, value in addressing the public health problem of obesity is unclear. Major obstacles to sustained applications of incentive in weight control are funding sources and acceptance by those who might benefit. PMID:22244800

  18. An Argument for Early Retirement Incentive Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baenen, Leonard B.; Ernest, Robert C.

    1982-01-01

    Early retirement incentive programs are discussed as a humanitarian way of reducing payroll costs and rewarding long-tenured employees. The incentives to be considered, program communication, and problems found in incentive programs are addressed. (Author/MLF)

  19. Ambulatory patient classifications and the regressive nature of Medicare reform: is the reduction in outpatient health care reimbursement worth the price?

    PubMed

    Borgelt, B B; Stone, C

    1999-10-01

    To evaluate the impact of the proposed Ambulatory Patient Classification (APC) system on reimbursement for hospital outpatient Medicare procedures at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Department of Radiation Oncology. Treatment and cost data for the MGH Department of Radiation Oncology for the fiscal year 1997 were analyzed. This represented 66,981 technical procedures and 41 CPT-4 codes. The cost of each procedure was calculated by allocating departmental costs to the relative value units (RVUs) for each procedure according to accepted accounting principles. Net reimbursement for each CPT-4 procedure was then calculated by subtracting its cost from the allowed 1998 Boston area Medicare reimbursement or from the proposed Boston area APC reimbursement. The impact of the proposed APC reimbursement system on changes in reimbursement per procedure and on volume-adjusted changes in overall net reimbursements per procedure was determined. Although the overall effect of APCs on volume-adjusted net reimbursements for Medicare patients was projected to be budget-neutral, treatment planning revenues would have decreased by 514% and treatment delivery revenues would have increased by 151%. Net reimbursements for less complicated courses of treatment would have increased while those for treatment courses requiring more complicated or more frequent treatment planning would have decreased. Net reimbursements for a typical prostate interstitial implant and a three-treatment high-dose-rate intracavitary application would have decreased by 481% and 632%, respectively. The financial incentives designed into the proposed APC reimbursement structure could lead to compromises in currently accepted standards of care, and may make it increasingly difficult for academic institutions to continue to fulfill their missions of research and service to their communities. The ability of many smaller, low patient volume, high Medicare mix hospital-based radiation oncology departments to

  20. Implementation of the 2011 Reimbursement Act in Poland: Desired and undesired effects of the changes in reimbursement policy.

    PubMed

    Kawalec, Paweł; Sagan, Anna; Stawowczyk, Ewa; Kowalska-Bobko, Iwona; Mokrzycka, Anna

    2016-04-01

    The Act of 12 May 2011 on the Reimbursement of Medicines, Foodstuffs Intended for Particular Nutritional Uses and Medical Devices constitutes a major change of the reimbursement policy in Poland. The main aims of this Act were to rationalize the reimbursement policy and to reduce spending on reimbursed drugs. The Act seems to have met these goals: reimbursement policy (including pricing of reimbursed drugs) was overhauled and the expenditure of the National Health Fund on reimbursed drugs saw a significant decrease in the year following the Act's introduction. The annual savings achieved since then (mainly due to the introduction of risk sharing schemes), have made it possible to include new drugs into the reimbursement list and improve access to innovative drugs. However, at the same time, the decrease in prices of reimbursed drugs, that the Act brought about, led to an uncontrolled outflow of some of these drugs abroad and shortages in Poland. This paper analyses the main changes introduced by the Reimbursement Act and their implications. Since the Act came into force relatively recently, its full impact on the reimbursement policy is not yet possible to assess. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Drug reimbursement: Indicators of inappropriate resource allocation

    PubMed Central

    Bégaud, Bernard; Bergman, Ulf; Eichler, Hans-Georg; Leufkens, Hubert G M; Meier, Peter J

    2002-01-01

    Aims In many countries, governments and third parties find themselves paying for (reimbursing) unproven, inadequate products limiting their ability to invest in therapies with evidence of relevant patient benefit. We examined how three characteristics, level of therapeutic evidence, susceptibility of inappropriate prescribing, and intercountry variation can be used to identify inefficiencies in pharmaceutical reimbursement among four European Union countries, Austria, Belgium, the Netherlands and Sweden. Methods Specific classes of medicines were chosen to provide useful examples of how healthcare resources could be reallocated. A high level of therapeutic evidence was defined as a substantial body of evidence in at least one indication with clear-cut support of relevant patient benefit. The susceptibility of inappropriate prescribing was defined as the likelihood of prescribing a drug outside the scenario for which clear-cut evidence (if any) has been documented to produce relevant benefit for the patient. The intercountry variation represents the variation in utilization of reimbursed drugs across the four countries. Results The combination of these characteristics provides a useful tool for assessing appropriate reimbursement decisions. It would be beneficial to healthcare payers as well as patients to move resources from products that have a low level of therapeutic evidence and a high susceptibility of inappropriate prescribing to products with a high level of therapeutic evidence and low susceptibility of inappropriate prescribing, and to use intercountry variation as a signal of drug classes that should be subject to further scrutiny. Conclusions A method is presented to help policy-makers identify inefficiencies in the spending of limited health care resources, and to reallocate resources to products that have been shown to improve patient care through evidence-based medicine. PMID:12445033

  2. What explains DRG upcoding in neonatology? The roles of financial incentives and infant health.

    PubMed

    Jürges, Hendrik; Köberlein, Juliane

    2015-09-01

    We use the introduction of diagnosis related groups (DRGs) in German neonatology to study the determinants of upcoding. Since 2003, reimbursement is based inter alia on birth weight, with substantial discontinuities at eight thresholds. These discontinuities create incentives to upcode preterm infants into classes of lower birth weight. Using data from the German birth statistics 1996-2010 and German hospital data from 2006 to 2011, we show that (1) since the introduction of DRGs, hospitals have upcoded at least 12,000 preterm infants and gained additional reimbursement in excess of 100 million Euro; (2) upcoding rates are systematically higher at thresholds with larger reimbursement hikes and in hospitals that subsequently treat preterm infants, i.e. where the gains accrue; (3) upcoding is systematically linked with newborn health conditional on birth weight. Doctors and midwives respond to financial incentives by not upcoding newborns with low survival probabilities, and by upcoding infants with higher expected treatment costs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Economic incentives: Options for environmental protection

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-01

    The authors recognize that careful examination of the costs and benefits of further policy action, and of incentives as a way to achieve policy goals, is needed in each case to identify cost-effective program designs and efficient program targets. Because further evaluation is needed, this report does not endorse any of the incentives it describes. The authors hope that this report will encourage more focused study and discussion of these and other incentives. This report reflects what has been learned from EPA's past analyses of incentive approaches, and is intended to encourage new efforts toward creative use of incentives. They encourage debate on these ideas, as well as suggestions for other applications of incentives. Incentives addressed include municipal solid waste incentives, global climate change incentives, water resource incentives, and multimedia incentives.

  4. TRICARE; reimbursement of sole community hospitals and adjustment to reimbursement of critical access hospitals. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2013-08-08

    This Final Rule implements for Sole Community Hospitals (SCHs) the statutory provision at title 10, United States Code (U.S.C.), section 1079(j)(2) that TRICARE payment methods for institutional care be determined, to the extent practicable, in accordance with the same reimbursement rules as those that apply to payments to providers of services of the same type under Medicare. This Final Rule implements a reimbursement methodology similar to that applicable to Medicare beneficiaries for inpatient services provided by SCHs. It will be phased in over a several-year period. This Final Rule also provides for special reimbursement for labor/delivery and nursery services in SCHs and creates a possible General Temporary Military Contingency Payment Adjustment (GTMCPA) for inpatient services in SCHs and for Critical Access Hospitals (CAHs).

  5. Trends in glaucoma surgery incidence and reimbursement for physician services in the Medicare population from 1995 to 1998.

    PubMed

    Paikal, David; Yu, Fei; Coleman, Anne L

    2002-07-01

    To better understand the relationship between glaucoma management and economic incentives, we examined the volume and the reimbursement of argon laser trabeculoplasty (ALT) and trabeculectomy in a 5% random sample of the Medicare population from 1995 to 1998. Retrospective cohort study. Subjects in a 5% random sample of the Medicare population who had ALT and trabeculectomy from 1995 to 1998. Using the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) Physician/Supplier Part-B files for a 5% random sample of the Medicare population, we identified all subjects who had ALT and trabeculectomy from 1995 to 1998. Descriptive summaries (the number of surgeries and the mean and the standard deviation of reimbursement per surgery) were calculated for each year. Analysis of variance was used to test for differences in reimbursement per surgery across years. Chi-square tests were used to assess any associations between the changing numbers of ALTs and trabeculectomies over the study period and both age and race. We assessed the number of ALTs and trabeculectomies and the allowed charges for each surgery in the 5% random sample of the Medicare population from 1995 to 1998. The volume of both ALTs and trabeculectomies declined during the study period. Reimbursement per surgery for both ALT and trabeculectomy varied significantly across years (P < 0.001). Significant associations were found between the changing number of ALTs and both age and race. Changing numbers of ALT and trabeculectomy seem unrelated to reimbursement rates. Rather, these changes are more likely driven by new developments in the clinical management of glaucoma, among other factors.

  6. Michigan's fee-for-value physician incentive program reduces spending and improves quality in primary care.

    PubMed

    Lemak, Christy Harris; Nahra, Tammie A; Cohen, Genna R; Erb, Natalie D; Paustian, Michael L; Share, David; Hirth, Richard A

    2015-04-01

    As policy makers and others seek to reduce health care cost growth while improving health care quality, one approach gaining momentum is fee-for-value reimbursement. This payment strategy maintains the traditional fee-for-service arrangement but includes quality and spending incentives. We examined Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan's Physician Group Incentive Program, which uses a fee-for-value approach focused on primary care physicians. We analyzed the program's impact on quality and spending from 2008 to 2011 for over three million beneficiaries in over 11,000 physician practices. Participation in the incentive program was associated with approximately 1.1 percent lower total spending for adults (5.1 percent lower for children) and the same or improved performance on eleven of fourteen quality measures over time. Our findings contribute to the growing body of evidence about the potential effectiveness of models that align payment with cost and quality performance, and they demonstrate that it is possible to transform reimbursement within a fee-for-service framework to encourage and incentivize physicians to provide high-quality care, while also reducing costs.

  7. Bandwidth Trading as Incentive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eger, Kolja; Killat, Ulrich

    In P2P networks with multi-source download the file of interest is fragmented into pieces and peers exchange pieces with each other although they did not finish the download of the complete file. Peers can adopt different strategies to trade upload for download bandwidth. These trading schemes should give peers an incentive to contribute bandwidth to the P2P network. This chapter studies different trading schemes analytically and by simulations. A mathematical framework for bandwidth trading is introduced and two distributed algorithms, which are denoted as Resource Pricing and Reciprocal Rate Control, are derived. The algorithms are compared to the tit-for-tat principle in BitTorrent. Nash Equilibria and results from simulations of static and dynamic networks are presented. Additionally, we discuss how trading schemes can be combined with a piece selection algorithm to increase the availability of a full copy of the file. The chapter closes with an extension of the mathematical model which takes also the underlying IP network into account. This results in a TCP variant optimised for P2P content distribution.

  8. Third party reimbursement: is therapeutic recreation too late?

    PubMed

    Reitter, M S

    1984-01-01

    The Social Security Amendments of 1983 have brought added concerns about the feasibility of securing third-party reimbursement for therapeutic recreation services. Retrospective, cost-based reimbursement is compared with prospective payment systems, and potential impacts on therapeutic recreation services are explored. Present status of third-party reimbursement for therapeutic recreation is outlined, and suggestions are offered for therapeutic recreation managers to utilize in responding to the changing health care industry.

  9. Reimbursement of orphan drugs in Belgium: what (else) matters?

    PubMed

    Picavet, Eline; Cassiman, David; Simoens, Steven

    2014-09-12

    Most orphan drugs do not meet traditional standards of cost-effectiveness. Yet, most orphan drugs are reimbursed, which implies that other factors are taken into account at the time of reimbursement. To increase accountability of decision-makers, there is a need for more transparency in the factors that play a role in reimbursement decisions of orphan drugs. Therefore, the aim of this study is to use a combination of qualitative research methods to examine which official and non-official factors influence reimbursement decisions for orphan drugs in Belgium. Six semi-structured interviews with past or present members of the Drug Reimbursement Committee (DRC) were performed with a view to obtaining an overview of the potential factors influencing reimbursement. Additionally, these presence of these factors was assessed in the reimbursement dossiers of all orphan drugs (n = 64) for which an application for reimbursement was submitted to the National Institute for Health and Disability Insurance in Belgium between January 2002 and July 2013. Different official (i.e. therapeutic value, budget impact, price and impact in clinical practice) and non-official factors (i.e. pricing and reimbursement in other countries, interference by patient organisations and experts, arguments related to quality of branded drug versus compounding, media attention, innovative character, economic importance, ethical arguments and the political climate) may have influenced past reimbursement decisions for orphan drugs in Belgium. The identification of factors influencing orphan drug reimbursement is a crucial step in the development of a transparent and consistent framework which will guide future decision-making for reimbursement of orphan drugs.

  10. Incentive spirometry after abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Davis, Suja P

    Patients face various possible complications after abdominal surgery. This article examines best practice in guiding and teaching them how to use an incentive spirometer to facilitate recovery and prevent respiratory complications.

  11. Do financial incentives trump clinical guidance? Hip Replacement in England and Scotland.

    PubMed

    Papanicolas, Irene; McGuire, Alistair

    2015-12-01

    Following devolution in 1999 England and Scotland's National Health Services diverged, resulting in major differences in hospital payment. England introduced a case payment mechanism from 2003/4, while Scotland continued to pay through global budgets. We investigate the impact this change had on activity for Hip Replacement. We examine the financial reimbursement attached to uncemented Hip Replacement in England, which has been more generous than for its cemented counterpart, although clinical guidance from the National Institute for Clinical Excellence recommends the later. In Scotland this financial differential does not exist. We use a difference-in-difference estimator, using Scotland as a control, to test whether the change in reimbursement across the two countries had an influence on treatment. Our results indicate that financial incentives are directly linked to the faster uptake of the more expensive, uncemented Hip Replacement in England, which ran against the clinical guidance.

  12. 7 CFR 1208.46 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... RASPBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order National Processed Raspberry Council § 1208.46 Compensation and reimbursement. The members...

  13. 7 CFR 1208.46 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... RASPBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order National Processed Raspberry Council § 1208.46 Compensation and reimbursement. The members...

  14. 42 CFR 413.5 - Cost reimbursement: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PROGRAM PRINCIPLES OF REASONABLE COST REIMBURSEMENT; PAYMENT FOR END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE SERVICES... furnished to beneficiaries. (f) Renal dialysis items and services furnished under the ESRD provision...

  15. 42 CFR 413.5 - Cost reimbursement: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PROGRAM PRINCIPLES OF REASONABLE COST REIMBURSEMENT; PAYMENT FOR END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE SERVICES... furnished to beneficiaries. (f) Renal dialysis items and services furnished under the ESRD provision...

  16. 42 CFR 413.5 - Cost reimbursement: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PROGRAM PRINCIPLES OF REASONABLE COST REIMBURSEMENT; PAYMENT FOR END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE SERVICES... furnished to beneficiaries. (f) Renal dialysis items and services furnished under the ESRD provision...

  17. 42 CFR 413.5 - Cost reimbursement: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PROGRAM PRINCIPLES OF REASONABLE COST REIMBURSEMENT; PAYMENT FOR END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE SERVICES... furnished to beneficiaries. (f) Renal dialysis items and services furnished under the ESRD provision...

  18. The importance of third-party reimbursement for NPS.

    PubMed

    Caraher, M T

    1988-04-01

    Lack of third-party reimbursement is one of the major impediments to the use of nurse practitioner services. Although NPs have been successful in obtaining third-party reimbursement under some health care plans, barriers still exist, such as opposition by medical societies, procedural problems and restrictive interpretations of state licensure laws. Consumer education about available health care and legislative involvement of NPs are two ways to attain third-party reimbursement for NPs. However, NPs first must have a clear understanding of third-party reimbursement, including how it is mandated and which providers and services are covered, before they can educate the consumer and become involved with legislation.

  19. 7 CFR 400.712 - Research and development reimbursement, maintenance reimbursement, and user fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and received by FCIC by August 1 immediately following the date the submission was first available to... policy language will be eligible for a higher reimbursement than policies or plans of insurance for... miscellaneous expenses, other costs, and the total cost); (vi) Software and computer programming...

  20. Postoperative incentive spirometry use.

    PubMed

    Hassanzadeh, Hamid; Jain, Amit; Tan, Eric W; Stein, Benjamin E; Van Hoy, Megan L; Stewart, Nadine N; Lemma, Mesfin A

    2012-06-01

    The authors hypothesized that the use of incentive spirometry by orthopedic patients is less than the recommended level and is affected by patient-related factors and type of surgery. To determine its postoperative use, the authors prospectively surveyed all patients in their institution's general orthopedic ward who had undergone elective spine surgery or total knee or hip arthroplasty during a consecutive 3-month period in 2010, excluding patients with postoperative delirium or requiring a monitored bed. All 182 patients (74 men, 108 women; average age, 64.5 years; range, 32-88 years; spine group, n=55; arthroplasty group, n=127), per protocol, received preoperative spirometry education by a licensed respiratory therapist (recommended use, 10 times hourly) and reinforcement education by nurses. Patients were asked twice daily (morning and evening) regarding their spirometry use during the previous 1-hour period by a registered nurse on postoperative days 1 through 3. All data were collected by the same 2 nurses using the same standardized questionnaire. Spirometry use was correlated with surgery type, postoperative day/time, and patient's age and sex. Student's t test, Spearman test, and one-way analysis of variance were used to compare differences (P<.05). Spirometry use averaged 4.1 times per hour (range, 0-10 times). No statistical correlations were found between spirometry use and age. Sex did not influence spirometry use. The arthroplasty group reported significantly higher use than did the spine group: 4.3 and 3.5 times per hour, respectively. Mean use increased significantly between postoperative days 1, 2, and 3.

  1. MIS Requirements for Managing a Hospital under ‘Per Case’ Reimbursement

    PubMed Central

    Steinwachs, Donald M.; Fahey, Maureen; Horky, Ralph; Perkel, Sara; Tower, David

    1979-01-01

    Maryland is the first state to regulate reimbursement of some of its hospitals on the basis of admissions, instead of services, with adjustments for case mix. This form of reimbursement is intended to provide incentives for increasing efficiency and reducing service intensity (i.e., length of stay and use of ancillaries). Any savings achieved by hospitals may be retained, while losses must be absorbed. Existing management information systems (MIS) are not oriented toward producing data on admissions, with the exception of the Uniform Hospital Discharge Abstract Data Set (UHDADS). Using UHDADS, supplemented with detailed charge data, two issues are being addressed in the Department of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins Hospital: (1) can charges per admission be predicted from a minimal data set? (2) can diagnostic specific trends in utilization and charges be detected on a timely basis? Results of multivariate analysis have shown that significant variations in length of stay among diagnostic categories are frequently not associated with significant variations in charges. Through a detailed analysis of selected diagnostic groups, the need for a treatment pattern classification to compliment the diagnostic classification of admissions has been identified. A classification system based on level and type of treatment charges has been tested. Effectiveness is being measured by its capability to detect trends in charges, and to characterize resource use patterns for management reporting.

  2. Invited Article: Threats to physician autonomy in a performance-based reimbursement system.

    PubMed

    Larriviere, Daniel G; Bernat, James L

    2008-06-10

    Physician autonomy is currently threatened by the external application of pay for performance standards and required conformity to practice guidelines. This phenomenon is being driven by concerns over the economic viability of increasing per capita health care expenditures without a concomitant rise in favorable health outcomes and by the unjustified marked variations among physicians' practice patterns. Proponents contend that altering the reimbursement system to encourage physicians to make choices based upon the best available evidence would be one way to ensure better outcomes per health care dollar spent. Although physician autonomy is most easily justified when decisions are made by appealing to the best available evidence, incentivizing decision-making risks sacrificing physician autonomy to political and social forces if the limitations of evidence-based medicine are not respected. Any reimbursement system designed to encourage physicians to utilize the best available evidence by providing financial incentives must recognize physicians who try to play to the numbers as well as physicians who refuse to follow the best available evidence if doing so would conflict with good medicine or patient preferences. By designing, promulgating, and updating evidence-based clinical practice guidelines, medical specialty societies can limit threats to physician autonomy while improving medical practice.

  3. CPT coding and reimbursement issues in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Zalla, James A

    2005-09-01

    In the past 6 years, significant changes have been made in Current Procedural Terminology codes, descriptors, and guidelines affecting dermatologists. These changes involved excision, repair, measuring excised diameter, measuring flap defects, skin biopsy and Mohs surgery guidelines, KOH examination, and fungus cultures. New codes were introduced for photodynamic therapy, laser treatment, and whole-body photography. Reimbursement issues affecting dermatologists are also discussed, including inappropriate bundling of separate services, failure to recognize modifiers, and unfair multiple procedure reduction. The successes of the American Academy of Dermatology Association advocacy efforts with insurance carriers are summarized, with an update on the current status of these issues. Physician responsibilities, documentation requirements, and expectations are also outlined.

  4. [Cost control techniques in Hungarian medicine reimbursement].

    PubMed

    Inotai, András; Bodrogi, József

    2007-01-01

    Health care, and especially reimbursement of medicaments has limited financial resources. The gap between the medically possible and economically acceptable is becoming wider. To keep the costs at a low level, cost controll techniques should be used. The severity of current Hungarian economic situation gives extra actuality of this question. This paper gives a short review of cost control techniques adopted in Hungary during the last approximately 20 years, analyses the present financial situation of health care by focusing on pharmaceutical market, and displays the possible alternative solutions.

  5. The Challenge of Conditional Reimbursement: Stopping Reimbursement Can Be More Difficult Than Not Starting in the First Place!

    PubMed

    van de Wetering, E J; van Exel, Job; Brouwer, Werner B F

    2017-01-01

    Conditional reimbursement of new health technologies is increasingly considered as a useful policy instrument. It allows gathering more robust evidence regarding effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of new technologies without delaying market access. Nevertheless, the literature suggests that ending reimbursement and provision of a technology when it proves not to be effective or cost-effective in practice may be difficult. To investigate how policymakers and the general public in the Netherlands value removing a previously reimbursed treatment from the basic benefits package relative to not including a new treatment. To investigate this issue, we used discrete-choice experiments. Mixed multinomial logit models were used to analyze the data. Compensating variation values and changes in probability of acceptance were calculated for withdrawal of reimbursement. The results show that, ceteris paribus, both the general public (n = 1169) and policymakers (n = 90) prefer a treatment that is presently reimbursed over one that is presently not yet reimbursed. Apparently, ending reimbursement is more difficult than not starting reimbursement in the first place, both for policymakers and for the public. Loss aversion is one of the possible explanations for this result. Policymakers in health care need to be aware of this effect before engaging in conditional reimbursement schemes. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Home Nutrition Support: Ethics and Reimbursement.

    PubMed

    Martin, Karen; McGinnis, Carol

    2016-06-01

    Ethical dilemmas challenge providers on both sides of the hospital and clinic doors. In addition to establishing the nutrition care plan and guiding the client into the home setting with safe and effective parenteral or enteral nutrition therapy, procuring home nutrition support involves meeting documentation requirements and verifying that clients meet reimbursement criteria for home therapy based on third-party payer criteria. Providers have entered a realm for which training has been scarce and they face moral and ethical dilemmas involving serving as patient advocates, possibly stretching the truth to fit the clinical documentation to criteria vs maintaining professional integrity. Nutrition research and evidence-based practice have outpaced modifications to policies including Medicare's national and local coverage determinations, the bulk of which have not seen revisions in 32 years. This review elucidates clinical dilemmas and urges a political call to action to advocate for changes in current, outdated requirements for reimbursement. Given the current healthcare environment and trend toward expedited hospital stays, patients may be better served (and nourished) with revised guidelines. © 2016 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  7. 45 CFR 703.9 - Reimbursement of members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reimbursement of members. 703.9 Section 703.9 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS OPERATIONS AND FUNCTIONS OF STATE ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 703.9 Reimbursement of members. (a) Advisory...

  8. 45 CFR 703.9 - Reimbursement of members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reimbursement of members. 703.9 Section 703.9 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS OPERATIONS AND FUNCTIONS OF STATE ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 703.9 Reimbursement of members. (a) Advisory...

  9. 45 CFR 703.9 - Reimbursement of members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reimbursement of members. 703.9 Section 703.9 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS OPERATIONS AND FUNCTIONS OF STATE ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 703.9 Reimbursement of members. (a) Advisory...

  10. 75 FR 3197 - Summer Food Service Program; 2010 Reimbursement Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Summer Food Service Program; 2010 Reimbursement Rates AGENCY: Food and... to the reimbursement rates for meals served in the Summer Food Service Program for Children. These... SFSP Section, Policy and Program Development Branch, Child Nutrition Division, Food and Nutrition...

  11. 78 FR 7750 - Summer Food Service Program; 2013 Reimbursement Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Summer Food Service Program; 2013 Reimbursement Rates AGENCY: Food and... to the reimbursement rates for meals served in the Summer Food Service Program for Children. These..., Section Head, Policy and Program Development Branch, Child Nutrition Division, Food and Nutrition Service...

  12. 76 FR 5328 - Summer Food Service Program; 2011 Reimbursement Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Summer Food Service Program; 2011 Reimbursement Rates AGENCY: Food and... to the reimbursement rates for meals served in the Summer Food Service Program for Children. These... SFSP Section, Policy and Program Development Branch, Child Nutrition Division, Food and Nutrition...

  13. 7 CFR 210.7 - Reimbursement for school food authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reimbursement for school food authorities. 210.7 Section 210.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION... Process for States and School Food Authorities § 210.7 Reimbursement for school food authorities. (a...

  14. 77 FR 5228 - Summer Food Service Program; 2012 Reimbursement Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Summer Food Service Program; 2012 Reimbursement Rates AGENCY: Food and... to the reimbursement rates for meals served in the Summer Food Service Program for Children. These..., Head, CACFP and SFSP Section, Policy and Program Development Branch, Child Nutrition Division, Food and...

  15. 38 CFR 17.114 - Submittal of claim for reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Submittal of claim for reimbursement. 17.114 Section 17.114 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Reimbursement for Loss by Natural Disaster of Personal Effects of Hospitalized Or Nursing Home...

  16. 38 CFR 17.114 - Submittal of claim for reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Submittal of claim for reimbursement. 17.114 Section 17.114 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Reimbursement for Loss by Natural Disaster of Personal Effects of Hospitalized Or Nursing Home...

  17. 5 CFR 537.109 - Employee reimbursements to the Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... 537.109 Section 537.109 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REPAYMENT OF STUDENT LOANS § 537.109 Employee reimbursements to the Government. (a) An employee is indebted to the Federal Government and must reimburse the paying agency for the amount of any student loan...

  18. 7 CFR 210.7 - Reimbursement for school food authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reimbursement for school food authorities. 210.7 Section 210.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION... Process for States and School Food Authorities § 210.7 Reimbursement for school food authorities....

  19. 23 CFR 710.203 - Funding and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Funding and reimbursement. 710.203 Section 710.203 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT RIGHT-OF-WAY AND REAL ESTATE Program Administration § 710.203 Funding and reimbursement. (a) General conditions...

  20. 48 CFR 2052.215-77 - Travel approvals and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Travel approvals and....215-77 Travel approvals and reimbursement. As prescribed at 2015.209-70(d), the contracting officer shall insert the following clause in cost reimbursement solicitations and contracts which require travel...

  1. An Evaluation of the Marine Corps IDT Travel Reimbursement Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    not authorized to deny IDT travel reimbursement requests • Program is not appli- cable to the IMAe program a. Source: IDT travel reimbursement...flying-operational. d. POC stands for personally owned conveyance. e. IMA stands for Individual Mobilization Augmentee. IMAs are Selected Reserve...Instructor IDT Inactive Duty Training IMA Individual Mobilization Augmentee JFTR Joint Federal Travel Regulations MARADMIN Marine Administrative Message

  2. 20 CFR 416.1498 - What travel expenses are reimbursable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What travel expenses are reimbursable. 416.1498 Section 416.1498 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME... Determinations and Decisions Payment of Certain Travel Expenses § 416.1498 What travel expenses are reimbursable...

  3. 20 CFR 416.1498 - What travel expenses are reimbursable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What travel expenses are reimbursable. 416.1498 Section 416.1498 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME... Determinations and Decisions Payment of Certain Travel Expenses § 416.1498 What travel expenses are reimbursable...

  4. 25 CFR 117.16 - Reimbursement to surplus funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Reimbursement to surplus funds. 117.16 Section 117.16 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES DEPOSIT AND EXPENDITURE... COMPETENCY § 117.16 Reimbursement to surplus funds. When expenditures have been made from surplus funds upon...

  5. 25 CFR 117.16 - Reimbursement to surplus funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reimbursement to surplus funds. 117.16 Section 117.16 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES DEPOSIT AND EXPENDITURE... COMPETENCY § 117.16 Reimbursement to surplus funds. When expenditures have been made from surplus funds upon...

  6. 25 CFR 117.16 - Reimbursement to surplus funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reimbursement to surplus funds. 117.16 Section 117.16 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES DEPOSIT AND EXPENDITURE... COMPETENCY § 117.16 Reimbursement to surplus funds. When expenditures have been made from surplus funds upon...

  7. 25 CFR 117.16 - Reimbursement to surplus funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reimbursement to surplus funds. 117.16 Section 117.16 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES DEPOSIT AND EXPENDITURE... COMPETENCY § 117.16 Reimbursement to surplus funds. When expenditures have been made from surplus funds upon...

  8. 25 CFR 117.16 - Reimbursement to surplus funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reimbursement to surplus funds. 117.16 Section 117.16 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES DEPOSIT AND EXPENDITURE... COMPETENCY § 117.16 Reimbursement to surplus funds. When expenditures have been made from surplus funds upon...

  9. 47 CFR 54.407 - Reimbursement for offering Lifeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Low-Income Consumers § 54.407 Reimbursement for... eligible telecommunications carrier, based on the number of qualifying low-income consumers it serves... carrier may receive universal service support reimbursement for each qualifying low-income consumer...

  10. 14 CFR § 1214.803 - Reimbursement policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reimbursement policy. § 1214.803 Section § 1214.803 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement...) Standard flight price. During this phase, customers covered by subpart 1214.1 or subpart 1214.2...

  11. 34 CFR 674.13 - Reimbursement to the Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reimbursement to the Fund. 674.13 Section 674.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM General Provisions § 674.13 Reimbursement...

  12. 34 CFR 674.13 - Reimbursement to the Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reimbursement to the Fund. 674.13 Section 674.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM General Provisions § 674.13 Reimbursement...

  13. 20 CFR 61.102 - Disposition of reimbursement requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disposition of reimbursement requests. 61.102 Section 61.102 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Carriers § 61.102 Disposition of reimbursement requests. (a) If the Office finds that insufficient or...

  14. Obtaining reimbursement in France and Italy for new diabetes products.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Elmar; Schnell, Gerald; Sonsalla, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturers launching next-generation or innovative medical devices in Europe face a very heterogeneous reimbursement landscape, with each country having its own pathways, timing, requirements and success factors. We selected 2 markets for a deeper look into the reimbursement landscape: France, representing a country with central decision making with defined processes, and Italy, which delegates reimbursement decisions to the regional level, resulting in a less transparent approach to reimbursement. Based on our experience in working on various new product launches and analyzing recent reimbursement decisions, we found that payers in both countries do not reward improved next-generation products with incremental reimbursement. Looking at innovations, we observe that manufacturers face a challenging and lengthy process to obtain reimbursement. In addition, requirements and key success factors differ by country: In France, comparative clinical evidence and budget impact very much drive reimbursement decisions in terms of pricing and restrictions, whereas in Italy, regional key opinion leader (KOL) support and additional local observational data are key.

  15. 10 CFR 765.10 - Eligibility for reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM... uranium or thorium processing site that has incurred costs of remedial action for the site that are... reimbursement of costs of remedial action incurred by a licensee, the Department shall make a determination...

  16. 48 CFR 2052.215-77 - Travel approvals and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Travel approvals and....215-77 Travel approvals and reimbursement. As prescribed at 2015.209-70(d), the contracting officer shall insert the following clause in cost reimbursement solicitations and contracts which require travel...

  17. 20 CFR 405.901 - Reimbursement of certain travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reimbursement of certain travel expenses. 405... FOR ADJUDICATING INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Payment of Certain Travel Expenses § 405.901 Reimbursement of certain travel expenses. When you file a disability claim, you may incur certain travel expenses...

  18. 20 CFR 405.901 - Reimbursement of certain travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reimbursement of certain travel expenses. 405... FOR ADJUDICATING INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Payment of Certain Travel Expenses § 405.901 Reimbursement of certain travel expenses. When you file a disability claim, you may incur certain travel expenses...

  19. 45 CFR 149.315 - Reimbursement conditioned upon available funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reimbursement conditioned upon available funds. 149.315 Section 149.315 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE EARLY RETIREE REINSURANCE PROGRAM Reimbursement...

  20. 20 CFR 405.901 - Reimbursement of certain travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reimbursement of certain travel expenses. 405... FOR ADJUDICATING INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Payment of Certain Travel Expenses § 405.901 Reimbursement of certain travel expenses. When you file a disability claim, you may incur certain travel...

  1. 20 CFR 405.901 - Reimbursement of certain travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reimbursement of certain travel expenses. 405... FOR ADJUDICATING INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Payment of Certain Travel Expenses § 405.901 Reimbursement of certain travel expenses. When you file a disability claim, you may incur certain travel...

  2. 20 CFR 405.901 - Reimbursement of certain travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reimbursement of certain travel expenses. 405... FOR ADJUDICATING INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Payment of Certain Travel Expenses § 405.901 Reimbursement of certain travel expenses. When you file a disability claim, you may incur certain travel...

  3. 49 CFR 22.27 - Eligible reimbursements to participating lenders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligible reimbursements to participating lenders. 22.27 Section 22.27 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation SHORT-TERM LENDING PROGRAM (STLP) Participating Lenders § 22.27 Eligible reimbursements to participating lenders...

  4. 10 CFR 765.21 - Procedures for processing reimbursement claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Procedures for processing reimbursement claims. 765.21 Section 765.21 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM... uranium or thorium processing site licensees for approved costs of remedial action will be...

  5. 10 CFR 765.10 - Eligibility for reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligibility for reimbursement. 765.10 Section 765.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM... uranium or thorium processing site that has incurred costs of remedial action for the site that...

  6. 48 CFR 46.305 - Cost-reimbursement service contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost-reimbursement service contracts. 46.305 Section 46.305 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 46.305 Cost-reimbursement service contracts. The...

  7. 48 CFR 46.303 - Cost-reimbursement supply contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost-reimbursement supply contracts. 46.303 Section 46.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 46.303 Cost-reimbursement supply contracts. The...

  8. 40 CFR 791.20 - Initiation of reimbursement proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Initiation of reimbursement proceeding. 791.20 Section 791.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) DATA REIMBURSEMENT Hearing Procedures § 791.20 Initiation of...

  9. Obtaining Reimbursement in France and Italy for New Diabetes Products

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Elmar; Sonsalla, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturers launching next-generation or innovative medical devices in Europe face a very heterogeneous reimbursement landscape, with each country having its own pathways, timing, requirements and success factors. We selected 2 markets for a deeper look into the reimbursement landscape: France, representing a country with central decision making with defined processes, and Italy, which delegates reimbursement decisions to the regional level, resulting in a less transparent approach to reimbursement. Based on our experience in working on various new product launches and analyzing recent reimbursement decisions, we found that payers in both countries do not reward improved next-generation products with incremental reimbursement. Looking at innovations, we observe that manufacturers face a challenging and lengthy process to obtain reimbursement. In addition, requirements and key success factors differ by country: In France, comparative clinical evidence and budget impact very much drive reimbursement decisions in terms of pricing and restrictions, whereas in Italy, regional key opinion leader (KOL) support and additional local observational data are key. PMID:25550411

  10. 23 CFR 645.117 - Cost development and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cost development and reimbursement. 645.117 Section 645... OPERATIONS UTILITIES Utility Relocations, Adjustments, and Reimbursement § 645.117 Cost development and... developed periodically and supported annually by a maintained data base of relocation expenses. Development...

  11. 23 CFR 645.117 - Cost development and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cost development and reimbursement. 645.117 Section 645... OPERATIONS UTILITIES Utility Relocations, Adjustments, and Reimbursement § 645.117 Cost development and... developed periodically and supported annually by a maintained data base of relocation expenses. Development...

  12. 23 CFR 645.117 - Cost development and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cost development and reimbursement. 645.117 Section 645... OPERATIONS UTILITIES Utility Relocations, Adjustments, and Reimbursement § 645.117 Cost development and... developed periodically and supported annually by a maintained data base of relocation expenses. Development...

  13. 23 CFR 645.117 - Cost development and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cost development and reimbursement. 645.117 Section 645... OPERATIONS UTILITIES Utility Relocations, Adjustments, and Reimbursement § 645.117 Cost development and... developed periodically and supported annually by a maintained data base of relocation expenses. Development...

  14. 23 CFR 645.117 - Cost development and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cost development and reimbursement. 645.117 Section 645... OPERATIONS UTILITIES Utility Relocations, Adjustments, and Reimbursement § 645.117 Cost development and... developed periodically and supported annually by a maintained data base of relocation expenses. Development...

  15. 44 CFR 206.8 - Reimbursement of other Federal agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... reimbursement with specific details on personnel services, travel, and all other expenses by object class as specified in OMB Circular A-12 and by any other subobject class used in the agency's accounting system.... Requests for reimbursement of costs incurred under more than one mission assignment may not be combined...

  16. 48 CFR 2052.215-77 - Travel approvals and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Travel approvals and....215-77 Travel approvals and reimbursement. As prescribed at 2015.209-70(d), the contracting officer shall insert the following clause in cost reimbursement solicitations and contracts which require travel...

  17. 48 CFR 2052.215-77 - Travel approvals and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Travel approvals and....215-77 Travel approvals and reimbursement. As prescribed at 2015.209-70(d), the contracting officer shall insert the following clause in cost reimbursement solicitations and contracts which require travel...

  18. 48 CFR 2052.215-77 - Travel approvals and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Travel approvals and....215-77 Travel approvals and reimbursement. As prescribed at 2015.209-70(d), the contracting officer shall insert the following clause in cost reimbursement solicitations and contracts which require travel...

  19. 45 CFR 149.300 - General reimbursement rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General reimbursement rules. 149.300 Section 149.300 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE EARLY RETIREE REINSURANCE PROGRAM Reimbursement Methods § 149.300 General...

  20. Incentives to promote family planning

    PubMed Central

    Heil, Sarah H.; Gaalema, Diann E.; Herrmann, Evan S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Over the past 60 years, population control has become an increasingly urgent issue worldwide as a growing population strains already limited resources. The use of financial incentives to promote family planning is an innovative approach that has potential to make a contribution to efforts to better manage population growth. This report reviews eight studies that examined the effect of incentives on family planning. Method Published studies that tested the impact of incentives to promote some aspect of family planning and included an appropriate control or comparison condition were reviewed. Results Incentives have been used to promote attendance at contraceptive education sessions, adoption and continuation of contraceptive methods, sterilization, and to limit family size. All but one of the eight studies reviewed reported positive outcomes, but weaknesses in study design and execution limit the strength of the conclusions that can be drawn. Conclusion Review of this literature suggests that family planning behaviors, like other behaviors, are sensitive to incentives. Given the tremendous need for efficacious interventions in global efforts to manage population growth, further research on this topic using more rigorous experimental methods is warranted. PMID:22743293

  1. Incentives to promote family planning.

    PubMed

    Heil, Sarah H; Gaalema, Diann E; Herrmann, Evan S

    2012-11-01

    Over the past 60 years, population control has become an increasingly urgent issue worldwide as a growing population strains already limited resources. The use of financial incentives to promote family planning is an innovative approach that has potential to make a contribution to efforts to better manage population growth. This report reviews eight studies that examined the effect of incentives on family planning. Published studies that tested the impact of incentives to promote some aspect of family planning and included an appropriate control or comparison condition were reviewed. Incentives have been used to promote attendance at contraceptive education sessions, adoption and continuation of contraceptive methods, sterilization, and to limit family size. All but one of the eight studies reviewed reported positive outcomes, but weaknesses in study design and execution limit the strength of the conclusions that can be drawn. Review of this literature suggests that family planning behaviors, like other behaviors, are sensitive to incentives. Given the tremendous need for efficacious interventions in global efforts to manage population growth, further research on this topic using more rigorous experimental methods is warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 7 CFR 1486.405 - How are Recipients reimbursed for project expenditures?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS EMERGING MARKETS PROGRAM Contributions and Reimbursements § 1486.405 How are Recipients reimbursed for project...

  3. Optimal incentives for collective intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Helbing, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    Collective intelligence is the ability of a group to perform more effectively than any individual alone. Diversity among group members is a key condition for the emergence of collective intelligence, but maintaining diversity is challenging in the face of social pressure to imitate one’s peers. Through an evolutionary game-theoretic model of collective prediction, we investigate the role that incentives may play in maintaining useful diversity. We show that market-based incentive systems produce herding effects, reduce information available to the group, and restrain collective intelligence. Therefore, we propose an incentive scheme that rewards accurate minority predictions and show that this produces optimal diversity and collective predictive accuracy. We conclude that real world systems should reward those who have shown accuracy when the majority opinion has been in error. PMID:28461491

  4. Aligning incentives in supply chains.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, V G; Raman, Ananth

    2004-11-01

    Most companies don't worry about the behavior of their supply chain partners. Instead, they expect the supply chain to work efficiently without interference, as if guided by Adam Smith's famed invisible hand. In their study of more than 50 supply networks, V.G. Narayanan and Ananth Raman found that companies often looked out for their own interests and ignored those of their network partners. Consequently, supply chains performed poorly. Those results aren't shocking when you consider that supply chains extend across several functions and many companies, each with its own priorities and goals. Yet all those functions and firms must pull in the same direction for a chain to deliver goods and services to consumers quickly and cost-effectively. According to the authors, a supply chain works well only if the risks, costs, and rewards of doing business are distributed fairly across the network. In fact, misaligned incentives are often the cause of excess inventory, stock-outs, incorrect forecasts, inadequate sales efforts, and even poor customer service. The fates of all supply chain partners are interlinked: If the firms work together to serve consumers, they will all win. However, they can do that only if incentives are aligned. Companies must acknowledge that the problem of incentive misalignment exists and then determine its root cause and align or redesign incentives. They can improve alignment by, for instance, adopting revenue-sharing contracts, using technology to track previously hidden information, or working with intermediaries to build trust among network partners. It's also important to periodically reassess incentives, because even top-performing networks find that changes in technology or business conditions alter the alignment of incentives.

  5. Economic Growth Challenge/Innovation Incentive: Implementing the Incentive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Economic Growth Challenge / Innovation Incentive, as proposed by the Governor's Commission on Higher Education and the Economy, is a new line item involving reallocation of current higher education funding plus matching levels of performance funding to achieve a major restructuring and refocusing of Ohio's portfolio of doctoral research programs.…

  6. Direct reimbursement. The future for organized dentistry.

    PubMed

    Paul, D P

    2001-10-01

    Direct reimbursement, or DR, has been a popular topic in organized dentistry for much of the last decade, and the concept is beginning to be more widely known. This article explores the underpinnings of and future for DR. TYPES OF LITERATURE REVIEWED: This article is based on an online review of the dental, medical and business literature. The author explores the advantages of DR for patients, employers and dentists. He also presents purported disadvantages of DR, and refutes them. Organized dentistry's marketing efforts and the importance of third-party administrators also are examined. During the next several years, DR has the potential to become the vehicle of choice for financing much of the dental care provided in the United States. Dentists need to become more aware of what DR is and what it can offer the public. They then will be better able to promote DR, which is a significantly better payment system for dental care than any other available today.

  7. Pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement reforms in Greece.

    PubMed

    Yfantopoulos, John

    2008-02-01

    Pharmaceutical price regulation in Greece is centralized. The National Drug Organization (EOF) is the main regulatory authority functioning under the auspices of the Ministry of Health and Social Solidarity. In 2004, total pharmaceutical expenditure in Greece reached the level of 2.9 billion euro, of which 77.9% were public expenditure and the remaining 22.1% private. According to Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) data the total per-capita expenditure on pharmaceutical care in Greece is among the lowest in Europe, representing 58% of the EU-12 average. In 1998, Greece introduced a reimbursement list, and the lowest reference pricing system among the 15 European Union member states with the purpose of controlling the growth of pharmaceutical expenditure. The measures proved to be ineffective since pharmaceutical expenditure, after a short-term reduction, continued to increase at similar rates to those before the introduction of price control mechanisms. The average annual increase of pharmaceutical expenditure in Greece over the period 1998-2003 was 7.9%, which is among the highest in the OECD countries (average 6.1%). New pharmaceutical legislation, no. 3457, was enacted on May 8th 2006, aiming at greater access to medicines, improvements to citizens' quality of life, effective and efficient utilization of health resources, transparency in public management, protecting public health, and maintaining long-term financial viability of the insurance system. The innovative aspect of the new legislation is the abolition of the positive list and the establishment of a rebate system granting the National Insurance Funds a rebate rate paid by the pharmaceutical companies. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First to assess the effectiveness of the positive list introduced in 1988 in Greece, using simple econometric models. Second to present the recent pharmaceutical reforms aimed at the introduction of a rebate system and establishing

  8. Reimbursement rates and policies for primary molar pit-and-fissure sealants across state Medicaid programs.

    PubMed

    Chi, Donald L; Singh, Jennifer

    2013-11-01

    Little is known about Medicaid policies regarding reimbursement for placement of sealants on primary molars. The authors identified Medicaid programs that reimbursed dentists for placing primary molar sealants and hypothesized that these programs had higher reimbursement rates than did state programs that did not reimburse for primary molar sealants. The authors obtained Medicaid reimbursement data from online fee schedules and determined whether each state Medicaid program reimbursed for primary molar sealants (no or yes). The outcome measure was the reimbursement rate for permanent tooth sealants (calculated in 2012 U.S. dollars). The authors compared mean reimbursement rates by using the t test (α = .05). Seventeen Medicaid programs reimbursed dentists for placing primary molar sealants (34 percent), and the mean reimbursement rate was $27.57 (range, $16.00 [Maine] to $49.68 [Alaska]). All 50 programs reimbursed dentists for placement of sealants on permanent teeth. The mean reimbursement for permanent tooth sealants was significantly higher in programs that reimbursed for primary molar sealants than in programs that did not ($28.51 and $23.67, respectively; P = .03). Most state Medicaid programs do not reimburse dentists for placing sealants on primary molars, but programs that do so have significantly higher reimbursement rates. Medicaid reimbursement rates are related to dentists' participation in Medicaid and children's dental care use. Reimbursement for placement of sealants on primary molars is a proxy for Medicaid program generosity.

  9. Utility Incentives for Combined Heat and Power

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report describes the results of EPA's research and analysis into utility incentives for CHP. It provides information about utility-initiated policies, programs, and incentives for CHP systems, and includes case studies and tools and resources.

  10. Federal Incentives for Wind Power (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-05-01

    This fact sheet describes the federal incentives available as of April 2013 that encourage increased development and deployment of wind energy technologies, including research grants, tax incentives, and loan programs.

  11. 43 CFR 3103.4 - Production incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Production incentives. 3103.4 Section 3103.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Production incentives....

  12. 43 CFR 3103.4 - Production incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Production incentives. 3103.4 Section 3103.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Production incentives. ...

  13. 43 CFR 3103.4 - Production incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Production incentives. 3103.4 Section 3103.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Production incentives. ...

  14. 43 CFR 3103.4 - Production incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Production incentives. 3103.4 Section 3103.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Production incentives. ...

  15. Legal Mapping Analysis of State Telehealth Reimbursement Policies.

    PubMed

    Trout, Kate E; Rampa, Sankeerth; Wilson, Fernando A; Stimpson, Jim P

    2017-04-21

    There exists rapid growth and inconsistency in the telehealth policy environment, which makes it difficult to quantitatively evaluate the impact of telehealth reimbursement and other policies without the availability of a legal mapping database. We describe the creation of a legal mapping database of state-level policies related to telehealth reimbursement of healthcare services. Trends and characteristics of these policies are presented. Information provided by the Center for Connected Health Policy was used to identify statewide laws and regulations regarding telehealth reimbursement. Other information was retrieved by using: (1) LexisNexis database, (2) Westlaw database, and (3) retrieval from legislative Web sites, historical documents, and contacting state officials. We examined policies for live video, store-and-forward, and remote patient monitoring (RPM). In the United States, there are 24 states with policies regarding reimbursement for live video transmission. Fourteen states have store-and-forward policies, and six states have RPM-related policies. Mississippi is the only state that requires reimbursement for all three types of telehealth transmission modes. Most states (47 states) have Medicaid policies regarding live video transmission, followed by 37 states for store-and-forward and 20 states for RPM. Only 13 states require that live video will be reimbursed "consistent with" or at the "same rate" as in-person services in their Medicaid program. There are no widely accepted telehealth reimbursement policies across states. They contain diverse restrictions and requirements that present complexities in policy evaluation and in determining policy effectiveness across states.

  16. State Incentive Funding: Leveraging Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    This newsletter summarizes the debate on the use of state-level initiatives as levers to effect fundamental changes in higher education. It provides several perspectives on the use of incentive/enhancement programs to achieve state higher education goals. The concept of budgetary leverage is outlined, and the growth in enhancement programs…

  17. Motivating employees: an incentive program.

    PubMed

    Barczewski, R W; Michelson, L D

    1991-01-01

    Motivating employees is a challenging and critical task for all managers--no matter what the field. Robert Barczewski, M.B.A., and Linda Michelson describe how a successful incentive program at the Washington University School of Medicine was developed.

  18. Open Enrollment and Fiscal Incentives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadows, George R.

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the potential role of selected fiscal incentives in attempting to achieve greater racial and socioeconomic integration through open enrollment programs. Three premises underlie this paper: first, that past experience with district wide unrestricted (color-blind) open enrollment plans indicate that this…

  19. To Duncan, Incentives a Priority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alyson

    2009-01-01

    U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan says he is eager to use a proposed $15 billion federal incentive-grant fund in part to reward states, districts, and even nonprofit organizations that have set high standards for the students they serve. "With this fund, we really have a chance to drive dramatic changes, to take to scale what works, invest…

  20. Motivating communities through economic incentives.

    PubMed

    Viravaidya, M; Weeden, D

    1986-12-01

    Thailand's pilot Community-based Incentives Program in the northeast illustrates the high level of contraceptive prevalence that can be achieved when entire communities profit from economic incentives. This particular community incentives program began in 1983 with funding from the Special Projects Fund of the Population Crisis Committee under the auspices of Thailand's largest nongovernmental organization, the Population and Community Development Association (PDA). PDA, with its long and impressive record as a grassroots family planning service network, had almost a decade of experience in creating demand for family planning by offering income generating incentives to individuals. Through the community incentives program, PDA used the grant from abroad to establish loan funds of about $2000 in each of 6 villages. The loan funds grew in size as the overall contraceptive prevalence rate in the villages increased. Loans between $80 and $200 were made available to villagers for income-generating activities, mostly to buy fertilizer, rent tractors, or hire workers for planting and harvesting the local crops. Elected villagers administered the funds and reviewed loan applications with assistance from PDA. By the end of 2 years, loans totaling $72,000 had been granted in the 6 villages, and 75% of all village households had received at least 1 loan. Repayment was nearly 100% on schedule with no defaults. The 6 loan funds are still operating in 1986 but without outside assistance. Contraceptive practice increased from 46% to 75% of all married women aged 15-44 in the 6 villages between 1983-85. In a comparative study of 3 villages in which no loan fund operated, contraceptive prevalence increased from 51% to only 57%. In the Thai experience, the private PDA appears to have several advantages over the central government in implementing a community incentives approach: because PDA works closely with community members, it is able to determine community needs, involve the

  1. The Effect of Incentives and Meta-incentives on the Evolution of Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Isamu; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Toriumi, Fujio; Sasaki, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    Although positive incentives for cooperators and/or negative incentives for free-riders in social dilemmas play an important role in maintaining cooperation, there is still the outstanding issue of who should pay the cost of incentives. The second-order free-rider problem, in which players who do not provide the incentives dominate in a game, is a well-known academic challenge. In order to meet this challenge, we devise and analyze a meta-incentive game that integrates positive incentives (rewards) and negative incentives (punishments) with second-order incentives, which are incentives for other players’ incentives. The critical assumption of our model is that players who tend to provide incentives to other players for their cooperative or non-cooperative behavior also tend to provide incentives to their incentive behaviors. In this paper, we solve the replicator dynamics for a simple version of the game and analytically categorize the game types into four groups. We find that the second-order free-rider problem is completely resolved without any third-order or higher (meta) incentive under the assumption. To do so, a second-order costly incentive, which is given individually (peer-to-peer) after playing donation games, is needed. The paper concludes that (1) second-order incentives for first-order reward are necessary for cooperative regimes, (2) a system without first-order rewards cannot maintain a cooperative regime, (3) a system with first-order rewards and no incentives for rewards is the worst because it never reaches cooperation, and (4) a system with rewards for incentives is more likely to be a cooperative regime than a system with punishments for incentives when the cost-effect ratio of incentives is sufficiently large. This solution is general and strong in the sense that the game does not need any centralized institution or proactive system for incentives. PMID:25974684

  2. The Effect of Incentives and Meta-incentives on the Evolution of Cooperation.

    PubMed

    Okada, Isamu; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Toriumi, Fujio; Sasaki, Tatsuya

    2015-05-01

    Although positive incentives for cooperators and/or negative incentives for free-riders in social dilemmas play an important role in maintaining cooperation, there is still the outstanding issue of who should pay the cost of incentives. The second-order free-rider problem, in which players who do not provide the incentives dominate in a game, is a well-known academic challenge. In order to meet this challenge, we devise and analyze a meta-incentive game that integrates positive incentives (rewards) and negative incentives (punishments) with second-order incentives, which are incentives for other players' incentives. The critical assumption of our model is that players who tend to provide incentives to other players for their cooperative or non-cooperative behavior also tend to provide incentives to their incentive behaviors. In this paper, we solve the replicator dynamics for a simple version of the game and analytically categorize the game types into four groups. We find that the second-order free-rider problem is completely resolved without any third-order or higher (meta) incentive under the assumption. To do so, a second-order costly incentive, which is given individually (peer-to-peer) after playing donation games, is needed. The paper concludes that (1) second-order incentives for first-order reward are necessary for cooperative regimes, (2) a system without first-order rewards cannot maintain a cooperative regime, (3) a system with first-order rewards and no incentives for rewards is the worst because it never reaches cooperation, and (4) a system with rewards for incentives is more likely to be a cooperative regime than a system with punishments for incentives when the cost-effect ratio of incentives is sufficiently large. This solution is general and strong in the sense that the game does not need any centralized institution or proactive system for incentives.

  3. An overview of Medicare reimbursement regulations for advanced practice nurses.

    PubMed

    Frakes, Michael A; Evans, Tracylain

    2006-01-01

    The federal government spends nearly 15% of the budget on Medicare services annually, and advanced practice nurses are eligible for reimbursement from that pool. The regulations governing reimbursement are complex because of the social, political, and financial pressures involved in their development. Although economic viability and due diligence considerations make it incumbent on advanced practice nurses to understand the rules, the profession, as a whole, has knowledge deficits in this area. The essentials of regulatory development and structure are reviewed and considerations for optimizing reimbursement are described.

  4. 20 CFR 638.519 - Incentives system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Incentives system. 638.519 Section 638.519... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.519 Incentives system. The center operator shall establish and maintain its own incentives system for students in accordance with procedures...

  5. 20 CFR 638.519 - Incentives system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Incentives system. 638.519 Section 638.519... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.519 Incentives system. The center operator shall establish and maintain its own incentives system for students in accordance with procedures...

  6. 21 CFR 868.5690 - Incentive spirometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Incentive spirometer. 868.5690 Section 868.5690...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5690 Incentive spirometer. (a) Identification. An incentive spirometer is a device that indicates a patient's breathing volume or flow and...

  7. 21 CFR 868.5690 - Incentive spirometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Incentive spirometer. 868.5690 Section 868.5690...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5690 Incentive spirometer. (a) Identification. An incentive spirometer is a device that indicates a patient's breathing volume or flow and...

  8. 21 CFR 868.5690 - Incentive spirometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Incentive spirometer. 868.5690 Section 868.5690...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5690 Incentive spirometer. (a) Identification. An incentive spirometer is a device that indicates a patient's breathing volume or flow and...

  9. 21 CFR 868.5690 - Incentive spirometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Incentive spirometer. 868.5690 Section 868.5690...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5690 Incentive spirometer. (a) Identification. An incentive spirometer is a device that indicates a patient's breathing volume or flow and...

  10. 20 CFR 638.519 - Incentives system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Incentives system. 638.519 Section 638.519... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.519 Incentives system. The center operator shall establish and maintain its own incentives system for students in accordance with procedures...

  11. Field Experiments of Family Planning Incentives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Everett M.

    A review of four quasi-experiments on family planning incentives in three Asian nations is presented, and a multi-national comparative field experiment on family planning incentives is proposed. Experiments include: (1) The Ernakulam vasectomy campaigns, (2) Indian Tea Estates retirement bond incentive program, (3) Taiwan educational bond…

  12. 7 CFR 3560.656 - Incentives offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Incentives offers. 3560.656 Section 3560.656... AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Housing Preservation § 3560.656 Incentives offers. (a....653(d), incentives to agree to the restrictive-use period in § 3560.662 if the following conditions...

  13. 24 CFR 901.130 - Incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Incentives. 901.130 Section 901.130... HOUSING MANAGEMENT ASSESSMENT PROGRAM § 901.130 Incentives. (a) A PHA that is designated high performer or... the applicable incentives unless it has been designated an overall high performer. (c) High-performing...

  14. Scaling Relative Incentive Value in Consummatory Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papini, Mauricio R.; Pellegrini, Santiago

    2006-01-01

    Surprising downshifts from more preferred (training incentive) to less preferred incentives (test incentive) are usually accompanied by emotional activation and suppression of conditioned behavior in rats. Two experiments were designed to determine whether consummatory behavior is similarly affected by downshifts of equal proportions. Within…

  15. [What do we know about economic incentives?].

    PubMed

    Bech, Mickael

    2008-11-17

    New incentive and regulatory mechanisms have been implemented in the health care sector. This article presents five basic statements about the effects of economic incentives. The five statements can be used to assess how incentive and regulatory mechanisms will influence behaviour.

  16. 28 CFR 544.72 - Incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incentives. 544.72 Section 544.72 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Literacy Program § 544.72 Incentives. The Warden shall establish a system of incentives to encourage an...

  17. 28 CFR 544.72 - Incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Incentives. 544.72 Section 544.72 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Literacy Program § 544.72 Incentives. The Warden shall establish a system of incentives to encourage an...

  18. Designing Incentive Systems for Schools. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Performance Incentives, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In "Designing Incentive Systems for Schools"--a paper presented at the National Center on Performance Incentives research to policy conference in February--Derek Neal, professor of economics at the University of Chicago, discusses three challenges endemic to public schools that impact the design of incentive pay systems: (1) Defining the…

  19. 30 CFR 580.60 - Which of my costs will be reimbursed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Which of my costs will be reimbursed? 580.60... PROSPECTING FOR MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Data Requirements Reimbursement § 580.60 Which of my costs will be reimbursed? (a) We will reimburse you or a third party for...

  20. 30 CFR 580.60 - Which of my costs will be reimbursed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Which of my costs will be reimbursed? 580.60... PROSPECTING FOR MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Data Requirements Reimbursement § 580.60 Which of my costs will be reimbursed? (a) We will reimburse you or a third party for...

  1. 30 CFR 580.60 - Which of my costs will be reimbursed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Which of my costs will be reimbursed? 580.60... PROSPECTING FOR MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Data Requirements Reimbursement § 580.60 Which of my costs will be reimbursed? (a) We will reimburse you or a third party for...

  2. 30 CFR 280.61 - Which of my costs will not be reimbursed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Which of my costs will not be reimbursed? 280... PROSPECTING FOR MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Data Requirements Reimbursement § 280.61 Which of my costs will not be reimbursed? (a) When you request reimbursement, you must...

  3. 31 CFR 256.41 - When is reimbursement due for CDA and No FEAR payments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... No FEAR payments? 256.41 Section 256.41 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... When is reimbursement due for CDA and No FEAR payments? Reimbursement for a CDA or No FEAR payment... Management (OPM) regulations, No FEAR reimbursements or payment reimbursement plans must be made within...

  4. 31 CFR 256.41 - When is reimbursement due for CDA and No FEAR payments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... No FEAR payments? 256.41 Section 256.41 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... When is reimbursement due for CDA and No FEAR payments? Reimbursement for a CDA or No FEAR payment... Management (OPM) regulations, No FEAR reimbursements or payment reimbursement plans must be made within...

  5. 31 CFR 256.41 - When is reimbursement due for CDA and No FEAR payments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... No FEAR payments? 256.41 Section 256.41 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... When is reimbursement due for CDA and No FEAR payments? Reimbursement for a CDA or No FEAR payment... Management (OPM) regulations, No FEAR reimbursements or payment reimbursement plans must be made within...

  6. 31 CFR 256.41 - When is reimbursement due for CDA and No FEAR payments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... No FEAR payments? 256.41 Section 256.41 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... When is reimbursement due for CDA and No FEAR payments? Reimbursement for a CDA or No FEAR payment... Management (OPM) regulations, No FEAR reimbursements or payment reimbursement plans must be made within...

  7. Employee incentives in the healthcare industry.

    PubMed

    McKinnies, Richard C; Collins, Sandra K; Collins, Kevin S

    2008-01-01

    *Employee incentives are an important part of a radiology department's ability to attract and maintain employees. For incentive programs to be successful, radiology managers must diligently look for the incentives that motivate each particular employee. *The types of incentives being used frequently in the field of healthcare vary between technical, managerial, and executive positions. The process of identifying the right employee incentive for each group of individuals may be challenging, but if the result is a more productive and satisfied group of employees, the process is worth the effort.

  8. Economic aspect of health care systems. Advantage and disadvantage incentives in different systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, G J; Feldman, S R

    2000-04-01

    European health care delivery systems illustrate the effect of economic incentives on health care delivery. Each country faces the issue of trying to balance the desire for economic efficiency with comprehensive, quality medical care. Without careful use of economic incentives achievable with central control, one gets to pick only two of the three desired goods--high quality, low cost, and comprehensive coverage. In the United States, payment approaches for health care have been undergoing tremendous changes since the early 1980s. These changes have escalated during the 1990s. The basic approach for reimbursing hospital care has been completely restructured by many payers for care, and payment approaches for physicians and long-term care providers also are being restructured. Financing approaches vary from provider to provider and payer to payer, and financing approaches will continue to evolve over time. In the traditional fee-for-service reimbursement system, the incentive to physicians is to do more because more services lead to more revenue. The use of incentives to influence health care practitioners' behavior is common. Incentives are generally financial in nature and expose health care providers to some risk or reward for certain patterns of behavior. Some common incentives used in managed care include capitation payment, in which a physician is paid a fixed fee, regardless of the number of services administered; bonus distribution; and withhold accounts, through which a practitioner stands to gain or lose some amount of money for overuse or underuse of medical resources against budget. In many countries, a strengthening of the position of primary care providers can be observed: Finland, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and now the United States. General practitioners are assumed to function as a gatekeeper to second-line care, such as specialist care, prescription drugs, and hospital care. A further step is to

  9. 7 CFR 1206.35 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions National Mango Promotion Board § 1206.35 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Board shall...

  10. 7 CFR 1206.35 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions National Mango Promotion Board § 1206.35 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Board shall...

  11. 7 CFR 1206.35 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions National Mango Promotion Board § 1206.35 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Board shall...

  12. 7 CFR 1206.35 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions National Mango Promotion Board § 1206.35 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Board shall...

  13. 7 CFR 1206.35 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions National Mango Promotion Board § 1206.35 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Board shall...

  14. 7 CFR 210.7 - Reimbursement for school food authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 210.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NATIONAL SCHOOL LUNCH PROGRAM Reimbursement... acceptable point of service alternatives and instructions for proper implementation. School food...

  15. 7 CFR 1218.46 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order U.s. Highbush Blueberry Council § 1218.46 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Council,...

  16. 7 CFR 1218.46 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order U.s. Highbush Blueberry Council § 1218.46 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Council,...

  17. 7 CFR 1218.46 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order U.s. Highbush Blueberry Council § 1218.46 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Council,...

  18. 7 CFR 1218.46 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order U.s. Highbush Blueberry Council § 1218.46 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Council,...

  19. 7 CFR 1218.46 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order U.s. Highbush Blueberry Council § 1218.46 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Council,...

  20. 7 CFR 1214.45 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order Christmas Tree Promotion Board § 1214.45 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Board...

  1. 7 CFR 1214.45 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order Christmas Tree Promotion Board § 1214.45 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Board...

  2. 7 CFR 1214.45 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order Christmas Tree Promotion Board § 1214.45 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Board...

  3. 7 CFR 1209.37 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Mushroom Council § 1209.37 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Council shall serve...

  4. 7 CFR 1209.37 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Mushroom Council § 1209.37 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Council shall serve...

  5. 7 CFR 1209.37 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Mushroom Council § 1209.37 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Council shall serve...

  6. 40 CFR 310.5 - Am I eligible for reimbursement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS REIMBURSEMENT TO LOCAL GOVERNMENTS FOR EMERGENCY RESPONSE TO... you are the governing body of a county, parish, municipality, city, town, township,...

  7. 40 CFR 310.5 - Am I eligible for reimbursement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS REIMBURSEMENT TO LOCAL GOVERNMENTS FOR EMERGENCY RESPONSE TO... you are the governing body of a county, parish, municipality, city, town, township,...

  8. 40 CFR 310.5 - Am I eligible for reimbursement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS REIMBURSEMENT TO LOCAL GOVERNMENTS FOR EMERGENCY RESPONSE TO... you are the governing body of a county, parish, municipality, city, town, township,...

  9. 40 CFR 310.5 - Am I eligible for reimbursement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS REIMBURSEMENT TO LOCAL GOVERNMENTS FOR EMERGENCY RESPONSE TO... you are the governing body of a county, parish, municipality, city, town, township,...

  10. 40 CFR 310.5 - Am I eligible for reimbursement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS REIMBURSEMENT TO LOCAL GOVERNMENTS FOR EMERGENCY RESPONSE TO... you are the governing body of a county, parish, municipality, city, town, township,...

  11. 22 CFR 202.3 - Freight reimbursement limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... VOLUNTARY NON-PROFIT RELIEF AGENCIES § 202.3 Freight reimbursement limitations. Economic utilization of AID... carrier either in accordance with its applicable tariff for delivery to the discharge port or...

  12. 22 CFR 202.3 - Freight reimbursement limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... VOLUNTARY NON-PROFIT RELIEF AGENCIES § 202.3 Freight reimbursement limitations. Economic utilization of AID... carrier either in accordance with its applicable tariff for delivery to the discharge port or...

  13. 14 CFR 331.7 - What losses will be reimbursed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROVIDERS IN THE WASHINGTON, DC AREA General Provisions § 331.7 What losses will be reimbursed? (a) You may... attributable to the Federal government's closure of the five Washington-area airports, are in conformity with...

  14. Reimbursement for Continuous Glucose Monitoring: A European View

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Lutz; Franc, Sylvia; Phillip, Moshe; Battelino, Tadej; Ampudia-Blasco, Francisco Javier; Bolinder, Jan; Diem, Peter; Pickup, John; Hans DeVries, J.

    2012-01-01

    Different systems for continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) are available on the European market. There is no unlimited reimbursement for CGM use in any European country, but in some countries, reimbursement exists for certain clinical indications. The aim of this commentary is to describe the different reimbursement situations across Europe for this innovative but costly technology, as a prelude to establishing more uniform use. From the perspective of many scientists and clinicians, a number of randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the efficacy of real-time CGM versus self-monitoring of blood glucose, at least for hemoglobin A1c reduction. Nevertheless, according to many health care professionals and potential CGM users, national health services and health insurance organizations are reluctant to reimburse CGM. Imminent technological and manufacturing developments are expected to reduce the day-to-day costs of CGM. PMID:23294797

  15. 10 CFR 765.21 - Procedures for processing reimbursement claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND THORIUM PROCESSING SITES Procedures for Submitting and Processing Reimbursement Claims § 765.21... uranium or thorium processing site licensees for approved costs of remedial action will be...

  16. 10 CFR 765.21 - Procedures for processing reimbursement claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND THORIUM PROCESSING SITES Procedures for Submitting and Processing Reimbursement Claims § 765.21... uranium or thorium processing site licensees for approved costs of remedial action will be...

  17. 10 CFR 765.21 - Procedures for processing reimbursement claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND THORIUM PROCESSING SITES Procedures for Submitting and Processing Reimbursement Claims § 765.21... uranium or thorium processing site licensees for approved costs of remedial action will be...

  18. 7 CFR 1209.37 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Mushroom Council § 1209.37 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Council shall...

  19. 7 CFR 1209.37 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Mushroom Council § 1209.37 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Council shall...

  20. 7 CFR 1215.28 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Popcorn Board § 1215.28 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Board shall serve without...

  1. 7 CFR 1215.28 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Popcorn Board § 1215.28 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Board shall serve without...

  2. 7 CFR 1215.28 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Popcorn Board § 1215.28 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Board shall serve without...

  3. 7 CFR 1215.28 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Popcorn Board § 1215.28 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Board shall serve without...

  4. 7 CFR 1215.28 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Popcorn Board § 1215.28 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Board shall serve without...

  5. How attention changes in response to incentives

    PubMed Central

    Sawaki, Risa; Luck, Steven J.; Raymond, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    Although the performance of simple cognitive tasks can be enhanced if an incentive is provided, the mechanisms enabling such motivational control are not known. The present study sought to uncover how mechanisms of attention and readiness are altered by reward-associated incentive stimuli. We measured EEG/ERP activity as human adults viewed a high- or low-incentive cue, experienced a short preparation interval, and then performed a simple visual search task to gain the predicted reward. Search performance was faster with high versus low incentives, and this was accompanied by distinct incentive-related EEG/ERP patterns at each phase of the task (incentive, preparation, and search). First, and most surprisingly, attention to high but not low incentive cues was actively suppressed, as indexed by a PD component in response to the incentive display. During the subsequent preparation interval, neural oscillations in the alpha frequency range were reduced following high-incentive cues, indicating heightened visual readiness. Finally, attentional orienting to the target in the search array was deployed with relatively little effort on high-incentive trials, as indexed by a reduced N2pc component. These results reveal the chain of events by which the brain’s executive control mechanisms respond to incentives by altering the operation of multiple processing systems to produce optimal performance. PMID:26151604

  6. Getting the incentives right for children.

    PubMed

    Glied, S

    1998-10-01

    One way to improve the functioning of the American child healthcare system is through the design of incentives. Objective: to examine what we know and need to know about designing incentives to encourage the production of high-quality care both for healthy children and for children with serious illnesses. For healthy children, incentives should encourage the provision of preventive services, including services that encourage healthy behavior. For children with serious illnesses, incentives should reduce risk selection, promote collaborative systems of care, and ensure access to appropriate specialty services. Research findings needed for incentive design includes information on the actual working of existing incentive mechanisms as well as information about risk adjustment, mixed payment system, carve-outs, and other mechanisms to reduce risk selection; options for defining service scope that encourage collaboration; and information about the ways in which quality measurement interacts with payment incentives.

  7. Timing of Clinical Billing Reimbursement for a Local Health Department

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives A major responsibility of a local health department (LHD) is to assure public health service availability throughout its jurisdiction. Many LHDs face expanded service needs and declining budgets, making billing for services an increasingly important strategy for sustaining public health service provision. Yet, little practice-based data exist to guide practitioners on what to expect financially, especially regarding timing of reimbursement receipt. This study provides results from one LHD on the lag from service delivery to reimbursement receipt. Methods Reimbursement records for all transactions at Maricopa County Department of Public Health immunization clinics from January 2013 through June 2014 were compiled and analyzed to determine the duration between service and reimbursement. Outcomes included daily and cumulative revenues received. Time to reimbursement for Medicaid and private payers was also compared. Results Reimbursement for immunization services was received a median of 68 days after service. Payments were sometimes taken back by payers through credit transactions that occurred a median of 333 days from service. No differences in time to reimbursement between Medicaid and private payers were found. Conclusions Billing represents an important financial opportunity for LHDs to continue to sustainably assure population health. Yet, the lag from service provision to reimbursement may complicate budgeting, especially in initial years of new billing activities. Special consideration may be necessary to establish flexibility in the budget-setting processes for services with clinical billing revenues, because funds for services delivered in one budget period may not be received in the same period. LHDs may also benefit from exploring strategies used by other delivery organizations to streamline billing processes. PMID:26957663

  8. Summary of DSN (Deep Space Network) reimbursable launch support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanelli, N. A.; Wyatt, M. E.

    1988-01-01

    The Deep Space Network is providing ground support to space agencies of foreign governments as well as to NASA and other agencies of the Federal government which are involved in space activities. DSN funding for support of missions other than NASA are on either a cooperative or a reimbursable basis. Cooperative funding and support are accomplished in the same manner as NASA sponsored missions. Reimbursable launch funding and support methods are described.

  9. Linear programming models for cost reimbursement.

    PubMed Central

    Diehr, G; Tamura, H

    1989-01-01

    Tamura, Lauer, and Sanborn (1985) reported a multiple regression approach to the problem of determining a cost reimbursement (rate-setting) formula for facilities providing long-term care (nursing homes). In this article we propose an alternative approach to this problem, using an absolute-error criterion instead of the least-squares criterion used in regression, with a variety of side constraints incorporated in the derivation of the formula. The mathematical tool for implementation of this approach is linear programming (LP). The article begins with a discussion of the desirable characteristics of a rate-setting formula. The development of a formula with these properties can be easily achieved, in terms of modeling as well as computation, using LP. Specifically, LP provides an efficient computational algorithm to minimize absolute error deviation, thus protecting rates from the effects of unusual observations in the data base. LP also offers modeling flexibility to impose a variety of policy controls. These features are not readily available if a least-squares criterion is used. Examples based on actual data are used to illustrate alternative LP models for rate setting. PMID:2759871

  10. CMS Changes in Reimbursement for HAIs

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Patricia W.; Glied, Sherry A.; McNair, Peter D.; Matthes, Nikolas; Cohen, Bevin; Landers, Timothy F.; Larson, Elaine L.

    2010-01-01

    Background The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) promulgated regulations commencing October 1, 2008, which deny payment for selected conditions occurring during the hospital stay and are not present on admission. Three of the 10 hospital-acquired conditions covered by the new CMS policy involve healthcare-associated infections, which are a common, expensive, and often preventable cause of inpatient morbidity and mortality. Objective To outline a research agenda on the impact of CMS’s payment policy on the healthcare system and the prevention of healthcare-associated infections. Methods An invitational daylong conference was convened in April 2009. Including the planning committee and speakers there were 41 conference participants who were national experts and senior researchers. Results Building upon a behavioral model and organizational theory and management research a conceptual framework was applied to organize the wide range of issues that arose. A broad array of research topics was identified. Thirty-two research agenda items were organized in the areas of incentives, environmental factors, organizational factors, clinical outcomes, staff outcomes, and financial outcomes. Methodological challenges are also discussed. Conclusions This policy is a first significant step to move output-based inpatient funding to outcome-based funding, and this agenda is applicable to all hospital-acquired conditions. Studies beginning soon will have the best hope of capturing data for the years preceding the policy change, a key element in nonexperimental research. The CMS payment policy offers an excellent opportunity to understand and influence the use of financial incentives for improving patient safety. PMID:20351584

  11. The effects of a fixed-fee reimbursement system introduced by the Federal Government on laboratory testing in the United States.

    PubMed

    Takemura, Y; Beck, J R

    1999-01-01

    Rapid growth of health care expenditures during the 1970s in the United States led to implementation of a prospective payment system (PPS) based on diagnosis-related groups (DRG) for Medicare inpatient reimbursement in 1983. With the introduction of DRG/PPS, hospitals encouraged earlier discharges and discouraged admission of patients who may require expensive services. Patient care has moved into more outpatient and non-hospital settings which have been less regulated and paid on a cost-reimbursement basis. The change of reimbursement system has converted hospital laboratories from "profit center" under the fee-for-service reimbursement practice to possible "cost center" at least for inpatient laboratory services with the advent of DRG/PPS. Hospitals have reduced laboratory operating expenses by constraining laboratory growth and development. Laboratory testing in non-hospital settings such as physicians' office laboratories, which were exempt from license and quality control by governmental regulations, has increased exponentially since implementation of DRG/PPS. To improve the quality of laboratory testing in such unregulated laboratories, the federal government has promulgated the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA '88), requiring on-site survey and license under CLIA '88 for all laboratories in the United States regardless of the size, complexity, or location of laboratory. Implementation of DRG/PPS resulted in a temporary success in reducing Medicare Part A budget growth, but had only a small impact to slow the actual growth of total national health care expenditures or laboratory-related expenditures. Nevertheless, the change of reimbursement practice has created a large incentive to reduce unnecessary resource utilization, and cost-effective laboratory testing has become an essential concept during the DRG/PPS era.

  12. Economics of periodontal care: market trends, competitive forces and incentives.

    PubMed

    Flemmig, Thomas F; Beikler, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    The adoption of new technologies for the treatment of periodontitis and the replacement of teeth has changed the delivery of periodontal care. The objective of this review was to conduct an economic analysis of a mature periodontal service market with a well-developed workforce, including general dentists, dental hygienists and periodontists. Publicly available information about the delivery of periodontal care in the USA was used. A strong trend toward increased utilization of nonsurgical therapy and decreased utilization of surgical periodontal therapy was observed. Although periodontal surgery remained the domain of periodontists, general dentists had taken over most of the nonsurgical periodontal care. The decline in surgical periodontal therapy was associated with an increased utilization of implant-supported prosthesis. Approximately equal numbers of implants were surgically placed by periodontists, oral and maxillofacial surgeons, and general dentists. Porter's framework of the forces driving industry competition was used to analyze the role of patients, dental insurances, general dentists, competitors, entrants, substitutes and suppliers in the periodontal service market. Estimates of out-of-pocket payments of self-pay and insured patients, reimbursement by dental insurances and providers' earnings for various periodontal procedures and alternative treatments were calculated. Economic incentives for providers may explain some of the observed shifts in the periodontal service market. Given the inherent uncertainty about treatment outcomes in dentistry, which makes clinical judgment critical, providers may yield to economic incentives without jeopardizing their ethical standards and professional norms. Although the economic analysis pertains to the USA, some considerations may also apply to other periodontal service markets.

  13. Who pays? How reimbursement impacts the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Downey, Lavonne; Zun, Leslie S; Burke, Trena; Jefferson, Tangula

    2014-01-01

    Nationwide from 1996 to 2004, the overall proportion of Emergency Department (ED) reimbursement ratios for outpatient ED visits decreased from 57% to 42%. The continued falling of ED reimbursement ratios, which is the share of ED charges that are ultimately paid, is an indicator of the financial pressures facing the ED. Once the healthcare reforms are put in place what will the impact be on reimbursement rates of overburdened and underfunded emergency departments. The purpose of this study is to examine if there is a declining disparity in payment rates for ED care based on payment sources in a safety net ED provider. Findings of this study could indicate how the healthcare reforms might impact these types of ED reimbursement ratios in the upcoming years. This was a retrospective study that examined randomly selected charts of all ED visits charts from May 2002 to May 2008 at a level one adult and pediatric emergency trauma center with 45,000 annual visits. This study was IRB approved. A regression model was used to predict if there was a relationship between amount received and types of insurance payers within the ED. A significant relationship was found between types of insurance (payers) as the independent variable, and the dependent variables of charges (p = .00), payments (p = .00), amount of adjustments (p= .00), and balance remaining after 90 days (p = .00). Who pays for the ED services does impact the ED's bottom line. The privately funded patients will provide an ED with a higher reimbursement ratio per year as compared to those patients who are publicly or self pay. This explains why EDs that provide care for 40% or more publicly or self pay patients have seen a decline in reimbursement ratios. Healthcare reform has the potential to change and possibly improve safety net ED rate of reimbursement depending on how private, public and self pay patients pay for ED services.

  14. Pharmaceutical policies: effects of financial incentives for prescribers.

    PubMed

    Rashidian, Arash; Omidvari, Amir-Houshang; Vali, Yasaman; Sturm, Heidrun; Oxman, Andrew D

    2015-08-04

    The proportion of total healthcare expenditures spent on drugs has continued to grow in countries of all income categories. Policy-makers are under pressure to control pharmaceutical expenditures without adversely affecting quality of care. Financial incentives seeking to influence prescribers' behaviour include budgetary arrangements at primary care and hospital settings (pharmaceutical budget caps or targets), financial rewards for target behaviours or outcomes (pay for performance interventions) and reduced benefit margin for prescribers based on medicine sales and prescriptions (pharmaceutical reimbursement rate reduction policies). This is the first update of the original version of this review. To determine the effects of pharmaceutical policies using financial incentives to influence prescribers' practices on drug use, healthcare utilisation, health outcomes and costs (expenditures). We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (searched 29/01/2015); MEDLINE, Ovid SP (searched 29/01/2015); EMBASE, Ovid SP (searched 29/01/2015); International Network for Rational Use of Drugs (INRUD) Bibliography (searched 29/01/2015); National Health Service (NHS) Economic Evaluation Database (searched 29/01/2015); EconLit - ProQuest (searched 02/02/2015); and Science Citation Index and Social Sciences Citation Index, Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Knowledge (citation search for included studies searched 10/02/2015). We screened the reference lists of relevant reports and contacted study authors and organisations to identify additional studies. We included policies that intend to affect prescribing by means of financial incentives for prescribers. Included in this category are pharmaceutical budget caps or targets, pay for performance and drug reimbursement rate reductions and other financial policies, if they were specifically targeted at prescribing or drug utilisation. Policies in this review were defined as laws, rules

  15. Water Conservation and Economic Incentives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2016-12-01

    Water has played a vital role in the progress of human civilization throughout history. Both agriculture based economics as well as industry based economics totally rely upon water for survival and prosperity. Water could be a limiting factor in dictating day-to-day human activities and as such one should learn to live within the limits of available natural resources. Most of the water on this earth is either salty or undrinkable. Only one percent of world's water is available for all the needs of human civilization. This includes human personal household needs, community activities, agriculture, industry, plant and animal life sustenance. The supply of usable fresh water is finite and the per capita consumption of fresh water needs to be reduced in particularly in some selected regions of this world. The United States consumes about 450 billion gallons of water every day. The U.S. daily average of water pumped by public water supply systems is 185 gallons per person. The biggest water gobbler in a household is the lawn. Typically, at least 50% of water consumed by households is used outdoors. Even inside a house, bathroom facilities claim nearly 75% of the water used. Here is a short list of economic Incentives that may help water conservation. (1) Providing rebates, refunds or other economic incentives to those consumers that are willing to change to modern technological methods. Examples include, but not limited to energy efficient washing machines, low-flush toilets and improved shower head designs. (2) Communities should provide economic incentives to limit the type and size of landscaping. (3) Need, necessity and nature of outdoor water use could be restricted whenever possible. (4) Sprinkler ban may be deemed appropriate in extreme cases. (5) Set up hotlines that can help penalize those that ignore water conservation guidelines. (6) Incorporating water conservation monitors. References: http://www.nrdc.org/water/http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wr/ws/wtrcnsv.htmlhttp://www.sscwd.org/tips.html

  16. Incentives can boost productivity, revenues.

    PubMed

    2008-10-01

    Monitoring documentation procedures closely, and providing a financial incentive for your physicians to improve their documentation practices, literally can save your hospital hundreds of thousands of dollars. Here are some keys to establishing such a program: Have coders review charts, determine what the doctor should have documented, and how much money was "left on the table." Provide this data to your physicians on a monthly basis, and show them how they compare to the rest of the department. Set up a compensation structure in which the doctors receive not only a base hourly rate, but a percentage of what is collected.

  17. Nurse Staffing Levels and Medicaid Reimbursement Rates in Nursing Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Charlene; Swan, James H; Carrillo, Helen

    2007-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between nursing staffing levels in U.S. nursing homes and state Medicaid reimbursement rates. Data Sources Facility staffing, characteristics, and case-mix data were from the federal On-Line Survey Certification and Reporting (OSCAR) system and other data were from public sources. Study Design Ordinary least squares and two-stage least squares regression analyses were used to separately examine the relationship between registered nurse (RN) and total nursing hours in all U.S. nursing homes in 2002, with two endogenous variables: Medicaid reimbursement rates and resident case mix. Principal Findings RN hours and total nursing hours were endogenous with Medicaid reimbursement rates and resident case mix. As expected, Medicaid nursing home reimbursement rates were positively related to both RN and total nursing hours. Resident case mix was a positive predictor of RN hours and a negative predictor of total nursing hours. Higher state minimum RN staffing standards was a positive predictor of RN and total nursing hours while for-profit facilities and the percent of Medicaid residents were negative predictors. Conclusions To increase staffing levels, average Medicaid reimbursement rates would need to be substantially increased while higher state minimum RN staffing standards is a stronger positive predictor of RN and total nursing hours. PMID:17489906

  18. Personalized Medicine’s Bottleneck: Diagnostic Test Evidence and Reimbursement

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Joshua P.; Felix, Abigail E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Personalized medicine is gradually emerging as a transformative field. Thus far, seven co-developed drug-diagnostic combinations have been approved and several dozen post-hoc drug-diagnostic combinations (diagnostic approved after the drug). However, barriers remain, particularly with respect to reimbursement. Purpose, methods: This study analyzes barriers facing uptake of drug-diagnostic combinations. We examine Medicare reimbursement in the U.S. of 10 drug-diagnostic combinations on the basis of a formulary review and a survey. Findings: We found that payers reimburse all 10 drugs, but with variable and relatively high patient co-insurance, as well as imposition of formulary restrictions. Payer reimbursement of companion diagnostics is limited and highly variable. In addition, we found that the body of evidence on the clinical- and cost-effectiveness of therapeutics is thin and even less robust for diagnostics. Conclusions, discussion: The high cost of personalized therapeutics and dearth of evidence concerning the comparative clinical effectiveness of drug-diagnostic combinations appear to contribute to high patient cost sharing, imposition of formulary restrictions, and limited and variable reimbursement of companion diagnostics. Our findings point to the need to increase the evidence base supportive of establishing linkage between diagnostic testing and positive health outcomes. PMID:25563222

  19. Insurance reimbursement in a university-based pediatric weight management clinic.

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Joan; Gantz, Starr; Lowry, Jill; Dai, Hongying; Bada, Henrietta

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare third-party payor reimbursement for patients evaluated in a university-based pediatric weight management clinic in central Kentucky. STUDY DESIGN: Demographic and reimbursement data were reviewed for 120 patients evaluated January to December 2004. Statistical analysis included Kruskal-Wallis test and Friedman's test. RESULTS: Overall, median reimbursement was 60%. For new appointments, contracted (56%) and capitated (60%) reimbursements were higher than Medicaid (55%). For established appointments, Medicaid reimbursement (100%) was higher than contracted (37%) and capitated (58%). CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that reimbursement is influenced by regional factors and is improving in central Kentucky. PMID:17913114

  20. The failure of financial incentive? The seemingly inexorable rise of cesarean section.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chin-Shyan; Liu, Tsai-Ching; Chen, Bradley; Lin, Chung-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Two policy interventions in Taiwan aiming to slow the growth of cesarean delivery utilization were respectively implemented in 2005 and 2006. The first policy provided financial incentives to encourage vaginal delivery by setting a global fee for obstetric services and in essence increasing the reimbursement for vaginal delivery up to the same level of cesarean section. The second policy aimed to reduce the demand for elective cesarean procedure by employing a copayment when cesarean section is not medically indicated. This paper examines the impact of financial incentives of both the supply and the demand side on the use of utilization of cesarean section using data from the 2003-2008 National Health Insurance Research Database. We found that while the overall trend of cesarean utilization did not seem to respond to the interventions, the policies did have significant impact on its elective use. Financial incentives for the providers do matter, and policy interventions, such as a fee change, are still important strategies to consider in reducing the over-utilization of cesarean section.

  1. Aligning incentives in orthopaedics: opportunities and challenges -- the Case Medical Center experience.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Randall E; Zenty, Thomas F; Adelman, Harlin G

    2009-10-01

    For 30 years, the orthopaedic faculty at Case Western Reserve University worked as an independent private corporation within University Hospitals Case Medical Center (Hospital). However, by 2002, it became progressively obvious to our orthopaedic practice that we needed to modify our business model to better manage the healthcare regulatory changes and decreased reimbursement if we were to continue to attract and retain the best and brightest orthopaedic surgeons to our practice. In 2002, our surgeons created a new entity wholly owned by the parent corporation at the Hospital. As part of this transaction, the parties negotiated a balanced employment model designed to fully integrate the orthopaedic surgeons into the integrated delivery system that included the Hospital. This new faculty practice plan adopted a RVU-based compensation model for the physicians, with components that created incentives both for clinical practice and for academic and administrative service contributions. Over the past 5 years, aligning incentives with the Hospital has substantially increased the clinical productivity of the surgeons and has also benefited the Hospital and our patients. Furthermore, aligned incentives between surgeons and hospitals could be of substantial financial benefit to both, as Medicare moves forward with its bundled project initiative.

  2. Issues in drug pricing, reimbursement, and access in China with references to other Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yingyao; Schweitzer, Stuart O

    2008-03-01

    Pharmaceutical policies have become paramount in China and other countries of the Asia-Pacific region because of rapidly rising expenditures on drugs. The problems are especially acute in China because expenditures on drugs are typically so large. This article intends to review effects of the policy of drug expenditure containment with primary reference to China, and it proposes some measures to deal with rising pharmaceutical expenditures. This article overviews the issues of pharmaceutical pricing, reimbursement, and access in China, and there are a number of policies or measures to control pharmaceutical expenditures. Nevertheless, the effect of those policies of containing drug expenditure is ambiguous so far, and some policies have negative impacts to the manufacturers, providers, and patients. Some underlying reasons are identified. First, the policy's focus on health-care costs is, to some extent, neglected. Second, the governance of the health sector, including pharmaceutical sector, needs to be improved by both the government and the market. This article proposes some suggestions to change policies in drug pricing, reimbursement, and access, and make policies more responsive to the main problem of rising health-care expenditures rather than that of pharmaceutical expenditures alone. The policy suggestions include those of setting the reasonable price for pharmaceuticals, instituting reasonable incentives for all health decision-makers to encourage efficient use of pharmaceuticals and other health resources, and making pharmaceutical markets more efficient, either in the demand or the supply side.

  3. 5 CFR 575.309 - Payment of retention incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment of retention incentives. 575.309... RECRUITMENT, RELOCATION, AND RETENTION INCENTIVES; SUPERVISORY DIFFERENTIALS; AND EXTENDED ASSIGNMENT INCENTIVES Retention Incentives § 575.309 Payment of retention incentives. (a) An authorized agency official...

  4. 5 CFR 575.109 - Payment of recruitment incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment of recruitment incentives. 575... RECRUITMENT, RELOCATION, AND RETENTION INCENTIVES; SUPERVISORY DIFFERENTIALS; AND EXTENDED ASSIGNMENT INCENTIVES Recruitment Incentives § 575.109 Payment of recruitment incentives. (a) An authorized agency...

  5. 5 CFR 575.209 - Payment of relocation incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment of relocation incentives. 575.209... RECRUITMENT, RELOCATION, AND RETENTION INCENTIVES; SUPERVISORY DIFFERENTIALS; AND EXTENDED ASSIGNMENT INCENTIVES Relocation Incentives § 575.209 Payment of relocation incentives. (a) An authorized agency...

  6. Is what's good for the patient good for the hospital? Aligning incentives and the business case for nursing.

    PubMed

    Needleman, Jack

    2008-05-01

    This article examines the social and business case for quality related to nursing and the need to restructure incentives to align the interests of the hospital and payers with the interests of the patients. Increasing the proportion of nurses who are registered nurses is associated with net cost savings. Increasing both nursing hours and the proportion of nurses who are registered nurses would result in improved quality and fewer deaths (creating a social case for improved staffing) but would be associated with small cost increases. Cost offsets associated with reduced turnover because of higher staffing would reduce the net cost increase but not result in savings. Under current reimbursement systems, hospitals that increase nurse staffing to improve patient outcomes will likely lose money as a result. Current proposals for pay for performance would create limited incentives for improving hospital nursing care.

  7. Overconfidence, Incentives and Digit Ratio.

    PubMed

    Neyse, Levent; Bosworth, Steven; Ring, Patrick; Schmidt, Ulrich

    2016-04-04

    This paper contributes to a better understanding of the biological underpinnings of overconfidence by analyzing performance predictions in the Cognitive Reflection Test with and without monetary incentives. In line with the existing literature we find that the participants are too optimistic about their performance on average; incentives lead to higher performance; and males score higher than females on this particular task. The novelty of this paper is an analysis of the relation between participants' performance prediction accuracy and their second to fourth digit ratio. It has been reported that the digit ratio is a negatively correlated bio-marker of prenatal testosterone exposure. In the un-incentivized treatment, we find that males with low digit ratios, on average, are significantly more overconfident about their performance. In the incentivized treatment, however, we observe that males with low digit ratios, on average, are less overconfident about their performance. These effects are not observed in females. We discuss how these findings fit into the literature on testosterone and decision making and how they might help to explain seemingly opposing evidence.

  8. Overconfidence, Incentives and Digit Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Neyse, Levent; Bosworth, Steven; Ring, Patrick; Schmidt, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    This paper contributes to a better understanding of the biological underpinnings of overconfidence by analyzing performance predictions in the Cognitive Reflection Test with and without monetary incentives. In line with the existing literature we find that the participants are too optimistic about their performance on average; incentives lead to higher performance; and males score higher than females on this particular task. The novelty of this paper is an analysis of the relation between participants’ performance prediction accuracy and their second to fourth digit ratio. It has been reported that the digit ratio is a negatively correlated bio-marker of prenatal testosterone exposure. In the un-incentivized treatment, we find that males with low digit ratios, on average, are significantly more overconfident about their performance. In the incentivized treatment, however, we observe that males with low digit ratios, on average, are less overconfident about their performance. These effects are not observed in females. We discuss how these findings fit into the literature on testosterone and decision making and how they might help to explain seemingly opposing evidence. PMID:27039893

  9. Future Research and Policy Directions in Physician Reimbursement

    PubMed Central

    McMenamin, Peter

    1981-01-01

    Payments to physicians absorb the second largest share of the health care dollar in the United States. In 1979, the share was 19 percent of the total, or $40.6 billion (Gibson, 1980). The Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) alone spent $8.6 billion for physician services, representing approximately 16 percent of all public funds disbursed under HCFA programs. This paper presents an overview of various issues concerning physician reimbursement. Several major areas have been identified (access, cost, quality, and improving or refining the Office of Research, Demonstrations, and Statistics' [ORDS] research techniques for analyzing topics concerning physician reimbursement). Each area is introduced with a brief discussion of some of the problems associated with the physician reimbursement systems relating to that area. Selected results are then presented from the previous research in each area, along with descriptions of continuing studies currently underway. Each section concludes with a discussion of potential future directions for new research or data development. PMID:10309465

  10. Reimbursement versus effort in medical physics practice in radiation oncology.

    PubMed

    Herman, Michael G; Mills, Michael D; Gillin, Michael T

    2003-01-01

    The changes in health care reimbursement have the potential to affect the availability of quality medical physicist service in patient care. A survey was conducted by the AAPM Professional Council and the ACMP to collect cost information for special medical physics consultation, CPT4-77370 and continuing medical physics, CPT4-77336. The data collected from the survey was compared to current reimbursement schemes for a number of special procedures. Under varying reimbursement schemes, the costs of the medical physics services provided cannot be recaptured by the institution. It remains important for medical physicists to assess our utilization of resources and allocation to each of the services we provide and to understand the implications of policy changes at the federal and local levels.

  11. Medicare program; end-stage renal disease program; prospective reimbursement for dialysis services and approval of special purpose renal dialysis facilities--HCFA. Final rule.

    PubMed

    1983-05-11

    These regulations change the reimbursement system by which Medicare pays for outpatient maintenance dialysis and related physician and laboratory services. These changes establish a prospective method of payment for maintenance dialysis, whether furnished at home or in a hospital-based or independent dialysis facility, and revise other aspects of the reimbursement system to encourage home dialysis and provide incentives for economy and efficiency in furnishing these services. These amendments implement section 2145 of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981. We expect that these changes will improve our administration of the end-stage renal disease program and enable us to control the rapidly growing costs of furnishing dialysis. The controls on quality of care that have been in effect since the beginning of the program will continue to apply. These regulations will also ensure access to care by providing for adequate reimbursement to isolated, essential facilities, where patients have no alternative sources of dialysis care. These regulations also provide for time-limited approval for Medicare participation of special purpose renal dialysis facilities. As a general rule we have not approved facilities such as transient or mobile units set up for emergency purposes or to serve vacationing dialysis patients in State parks and children's camps. This change in regulations will remove this limitation.

  12. Understanding Value-based Reimbursement Models and Trends in Orthopaedic Health Policy: An Introduction to the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act (MACRA) of 2015.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Khaled J; Shaffer, William O

    2016-11-01

    In 2015, the US Congress passed legislation entitled the Medicare Access and CHIP [Children's Health Insurance Program] Reauthorization Act (MACRA), which led to the formation of two reimbursement paradigms: the merit-based incentive payment system (MIPS) and alternative payment models (APMs). The MACRA effectively repealed the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) sustainable growth rate (SGR) formula while combining several CMS quality-reporting programs. As such, MACRA represents an unparalleled acceleration toward reimbursement models that recognize value rather than volume. The first pathway, MIPS, consolidates several Medicare quality-reporting programs into one composite score that will be derived by four performance categories, including quality (30%), resource utilization (30%), meaningful use (25%), and clinical practice improvement activities (15%). The APM pathway includes the following programs: Medicare accountable care organizations as part of the Medicare Shared Savings Program, Bundled Payments for Care Improvement, and Comprehensive Primary Care initiative. Existing APMs have yet to be determined as eligible. We provide a contextual framework of the healthcare legislation that has led to the formation of current health policy and offer recommendations regarding SGR how orthopaedic surgeons may best steer through such reimbursement models.

  13. Certified nurse-midwives' knowledge of reimbursement issues.

    PubMed

    Ament, L

    2000-01-01

    A recent survey examined the impact of reimbursement policies and admitting privileges on the ability of certified nurse-midwives (CNMs) to practice and maintain an income. Many CNMs reported deficits in their knowledge about reimbursement issues. The responses to the survey indicated that service directors either do not view this information as important to their leadership role, have delegated their authority to someone else, or do not have authority over this information. Education program directors may need to examine their curricular content to determine if students are being provided adequate information to better value and understand this data.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF INCENTIVE VALUES IN CHILDHOOD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WITRYOL, SAM L.; AND OTHERS

    THE USE OF REWARDS AS INCENTIVES TO INFLUENCE BEHAVIOR WAS STUDIED AND AN EVALUATION WAS MADE OF THE INCENTIVE VALUE OF EACH OF THE REWARDS. PORTABLE VERSIONS OF THE WISCONSIN GENERAL TEST APPARATUS WERE USED TO TEST 120 CHILDREN FROM GRADES 1, 3, AND 5. FOR A DISCRIMINATION LEARNING TEST EACH CHILD WAS PRESENTED 5 STIMULI THAT WERE SELECTED FROM…

  15. Scaling Relative Incentive Value in Anticipatory Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrini, Santiago; Papini, Mauricio R.

    2007-01-01

    Papini and Pellegrini (Papini, M. R., & Pellegrini, S. "Scaling relative incentive value in consummatory behavior." "Learning and Motivation", in press) observed that, within limits, the level of consummatory responding of rats exposed to incentive downshifts in the concentration of sucrose solutions was similar when the ratio of test/training…

  16. 7 CFR 3560.656 - Incentives offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Incentives offers. 3560.656 Section 3560.656 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Housing Preservation § 3560.656 Incentives offers....

  17. 75 FR 76079 - Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision... collection. Title of Proposal: Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance. OMB Number: 1550-0129. Form Number: N/A... principles and the guidance are consistent with the Principles for Sound Compensation Practices adopted...

  18. 75 FR 22679 - Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision... collection. Title of Proposal: Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance. OMB Number: 1550-0NEW. Form Number: N/A... principles and the guidance are consistent with the Principles for Sound Compensation Practices adopted...

  19. 75 FR 53023 - Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision... collection. Title of Proposal: Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance. OMB Number: 1550-0129. Form Number: N/A... principles and the guidance are consistent with the Principles for Sound Compensation Practices adopted...

  20. Confidence Test Scoring and Incentive Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rippey, Robert M.

    The effects of incentive conditions on the results of a confidence test were investigated. Two hundred thirty high school subjects were administered a very difficult confidence scored test under two conditions: 1) that the test would count heavily on their grades (incentive condition) and 2) that the test was for research purposes and would not be…

  1. 28 CFR 544.43 - Incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Incentives. 544.43 Section 544.43 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Mandatory English-as-a-Second Language Program (ESL) § 544.43 Incentives. The Warden or designee...

  2. 28 CFR 544.43 - Incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Incentives. 544.43 Section 544.43 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Mandatory English-as-a-Second Language Program (ESL) § 544.43 Incentives. The Warden or designee...

  3. 28 CFR 544.43 - Incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Incentives. 544.43 Section 544.43 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Mandatory English-as-a-Second Language Program (ESL) § 544.43 Incentives. The Warden or designee...

  4. 12 CFR 708a.311 - Voting incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Voting incentives. 708a.311 Section 708a.311 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS BANK... raffle, every reference to such incentive made by the credit union in a written communication to...

  5. 12 CFR 708a.12 - Voting incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voting incentives. 708a.12 Section 708a.12 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS CONVERSION OF... reference to such incentive made by the credit union in a written communication to its members must...

  6. Benefits & Incentives for Students Entering Supported Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Thomas H.; Moore, Stephen C.

    1992-01-01

    This article describes available benefits and work incentives affecting supported employment placement for students with severe disabilities, including payment for necessary supports (state programs and the Department of Labor), protection of benefits (Social Security programs), and incentives to employers (the Targeted Job Tax Credits program and…

  7. 21 CFR 868.5690 - Incentive spirometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Incentive spirometer. 868.5690 Section 868.5690 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... provides an incentive to the patient to improve his or her ventilation. (b) Classification. Class...

  8. Incentive theory: IV. Magnitude of reward

    PubMed Central

    Killeen, Peter R.

    1985-01-01

    Incentive theory is successfully applied to data from experiments in which the amount of food reward is varied. This is accomplished by assuming that incentive value is a negatively accelerated function of reward duration. The interaction of the magnitude of a reward with its delay is confirmed, and the causes and implications of this interaction are discussed. PMID:16812421

  9. Estimating Acceptability of Financial Health Incentives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigsby, Elisabeth; Seitz, Holli H.; Halpern, Scott D.; Volpp, Kevin; Cappella, Joseph N.

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that financial incentives can influence health behavior change, but research on the public acceptability of these programs and factors that predict public support have been limited. A representative sample of U.S. adults (N = 526) were randomly assigned to receive an incentive program description in which the…

  10. Building on Student Achievement through Incentive Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Saneik

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine if incentive programs like Renaissance impact high school students and faculty. Incentives can go a long way for students in schools. At Lehigh Senior High School (LSHS), for example, students were introduced to the Renaissance Program this school year, by receiving goodies. Coupons at Dairy Queen,…

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF INCENTIVE VALUES IN CHILDHOOD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WITRYOL, SAM L.; AND OTHERS

    THE USE OF REWARDS AS INCENTIVES TO INFLUENCE BEHAVIOR WAS STUDIED AND AN EVALUATION WAS MADE OF THE INCENTIVE VALUE OF EACH OF THE REWARDS. PORTABLE VERSIONS OF THE WISCONSIN GENERAL TEST APPARATUS WERE USED TO TEST 120 CHILDREN FROM GRADES 1, 3, AND 5. FOR A DISCRIMINATION LEARNING TEST EACH CHILD WAS PRESENTED 5 STIMULI THAT WERE SELECTED FROM…

  12. 28 CFR 544.43 - Incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incentives. 544.43 Section 544.43 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Mandatory English-as-a-Second Language Program (ESL) § 544.43 Incentives. The Warden or designee...

  13. 28 CFR 544.43 - Incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Incentives. 544.43 Section 544.43 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Mandatory English-as-a-Second Language Program (ESL) § 544.43 Incentives. The Warden or designee...

  14. 4 CFR 4.4 - Incentive awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Incentive awards. 4.4 Section 4.4 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE AND UTILIZATION § 4.4 Incentive awards. The provisions of chapter 45 of title 5, United States Code and Office of Personnel Management implementing...

  15. Commitment Contracts and Team Incentives

    PubMed Central

    White, Justin S.; Dow, William H.; Rungruanghiranya, Suthat

    2013-01-01

    Background Treatment for tobacco dependence is not available in many low-resource settings, especially in developing countries. Purpose To test the impact of a novel mix of monetary and social incentives on smoking abstinence in rural communities of Thailand. Design An RCT of commitment contracts and team incentives for rural smokers to quit smoking. Smokers were not blinded to treatment status, although the assessor of the biochemical urine test was. Setting/participants All adult smokers living in the study area were eligible to participate; 215 adult smokers from 42 villages in Nakhon Nayok province, Thailand participated. Fourteen smokers who lacked teammates were dropped. Intervention 201 smokers were assigned to a two-person team, and then randomly assigned by team (in a 2:1 ratio) with computer-generated random numbers to receive smoking-cessation counseling (control group) or counseling plus offer of a commitment contract, team incentives, and text message reminders for smoking cessation at 3 months (intervention group). Main outcome measures The primary outcome was biochemically-verified 7-day abstinence at 6 months, assessed on an intention-to-treat basis. Secondary outcomes include biochemically-verified abstinence at 3 months, self-reported abstinence at 14 months, and the incremental cost per quitter of the intervention, nicotine gum, and varenicline in Thailand. Data were collected in 2010–2011 and analyzed in 2012. Results The trial enrolled 215 (10.5%) of 2055 smokers. The abstinence rate was 46.2% (61/132) in the intervention group and 14.5% (10/69) in the control group (adjusted OR 7.5 [3.0–18.6]) at 3 months; 44.3% (58/131) and 18.8% (13/69) at the primary end point of 6 months (adjusted OR 4.2 [1.8–9.7]); and 42.0% (55/131) and 24.6% (17/69) at 14 months (adjusted OR 2.2 [1.0–4.8]). The purchasing-power–parity-adjusted incremental cost per quitter from the intervention is $281 (95% CI=$187, $562), less than for nicotine gum ($1780 [95

  16. Reimbursement To Local Governments For Emergency Response To Hazardous Substance Releases Regulation Overview

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The purpose of the Local Governments Reimbursement (LGR) program is to provide funds, in the form of reimbursements for expenses, to local, county, and tribal governments that respond to a hazardous substance release in their jurisdiction.

  17. 47 CFR 27.1166 - Reimbursement under the Cost-Sharing Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... interference from MSS space-to-Earth downlink operations, but may elect to do so, in which case the MSS... reimbursement in part 27. MSS reimbursement rights and cost-sharing obligations for space-to-Earth downlink...

  18. 47 CFR 27.1166 - Reimbursement under the Cost-Sharing Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... due to interference from MSS space-to-Earth downlink operations, but may elect to do so, in which case... governing reimbursement in part 27. MSS reimbursement rights and cost-sharing obligations for space-to-Earth...

  19. 47 CFR 27.1166 - Reimbursement under the Cost-Sharing Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... due to interference from MSS space-to-Earth downlink operations, but may elect to do so, in which case... governing reimbursement in part 27. MSS reimbursement rights and cost-sharing obligations for space-to-Earth...

  20. 78 FR 36035 - Proposed Information Collection Activity: [Beneficiary Travel Mileage Reimbursement Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection Activity: [Beneficiary Travel Mileage Reimbursement Application... expense in traveling to healthcare. DATES: Written comments and recommendations on the proposed collection... to ``OMB Control No. 2900--NEW (Beneficiary Travel Mileage Reimbursement Application Form)'' in any...

  1. 47 CFR 27.1021 - Reimbursement obligation of licensees at 1915-1920 MHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1915-1920 MHz and 1995-2000 MHz Reimbursement Obligation of Licensees at 1915-1920 Mhz and 1995-2000 Mhz § 27.1021 Reimbursement obligation of...

  2. The Impact of Lottery Incentives on Student Survey Response Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Stephen R.; Whitcomb, Michael E.

    2003-01-01

    A controlled experiment tested the effects of lottery incentives using a prospective college applicant Web survey, with emails sent to more than 9,000 high school students. Found minimal effect of postpaid incentives for increasing levels of incentive. (EV)

  3. The Impact of Lottery Incentives on Student Survey Response Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Stephen R.; Whitcomb, Michael E.

    2003-01-01

    A controlled experiment tested the effects of lottery incentives using a prospective college applicant Web survey, with emails sent to more than 9,000 high school students. Found minimal effect of postpaid incentives for increasing levels of incentive. (EV)

  4. Incentive spirometer for bedside studies.

    PubMed

    Scheinhorn, D J; Warner, W; Ellis, E

    1982-06-01

    We evaluated an incentive spirometer (IS) for monitoring changes in lung function in hospitalized patients. Accuracy and reproducibility of IS measurements of known volumes were adequate (r = 0.87). Flow dependency was demonstrated but was not significant in the clinically useful range. Reproducibility of IS measurements in five normal subjects was good, with a small training effect uncovered. In 15 patients with asthma and chronic obstructive lung disease, change in IS values closely correlated with spirometrically measured changes in volume and flows (best correlation: IS versus FEV1/FVC%, r = 0.98) and in peak flow. The performance of the IS as tested and its availability in most hospitals outweigh its limitations. We advocate its use as an adjunct in monitoring progress of hospitalized patients with obstructive lung disease.

  5. Incentive contracts for development projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finley, David T.; Smith, Byron; DeGroff, B.

    2012-09-01

    Finding a contract vehicle that balances the concerns of the customer and the contractor in a development project can be difficult. The customer wants a low price and an early delivery, with as few surprises as possible as the project progresses. The contractor wants sufficient cost and schedule to cover risk. Both want to clearly define what each party will provide. Many program offices do not want to award cost plus contracts because their funding sources will not allow it, their boards do not want an open ended commitment, and they feel like they lose financial control of the project. A fixed price incentive contract, with a mutually agreed upon target cost, provides the owner with visibility into the project and input into the execution of the project, encourages both parties to save costs, and stimulates a collaborative atmosphere by aligning the respective interests of customers and contractors.

  6. 42 CFR 88.16 - Reimbursement for medically necessary treatment, outpatient prescription pharmaceuticals...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES WORLD TRADE CENTER HEALTH PROGRAM § 88.16 Reimbursement... Center of Excellence or by a member of the nationwide provider network will be reimbursed according to... Administrator will reimburse a Clinical Center of Excellence or a member of the nationwide provider network for...

  7. 42 CFR 88.16 - Reimbursement for medically necessary treatment, outpatient prescription pharmaceuticals...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES WORLD TRADE CENTER HEALTH PROGRAM § 88.16 Reimbursement... Center of Excellence or by a member of the nationwide provider network will be reimbursed according to... Administrator will reimburse a Clinical Center of Excellence or a member of the nationwide provider network for...

  8. 42 CFR 88.16 - Reimbursement for medically necessary treatment, outpatient prescription pharmaceuticals...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES WORLD TRADE CENTER HEALTH PROGRAM § 88.16 Reimbursement... Center of Excellence or by a member of the nationwide provider network will be reimbursed according to... Administrator will reimburse a Clinical Center of Excellence or a member of the nationwide provider network for...

  9. 30 CFR 250.196 - Reimbursements for reproduction and processing costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reimbursements for reproduction and processing... Reporting Requirements § 250.196 Reimbursements for reproduction and processing costs. (a) MMS will... retains the information. (c) When you request reimbursement, you must identify reproduction and...

  10. 30 CFR 250.196 - Reimbursements for reproduction and processing costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reimbursements for reproduction and processing... SHELF General Information and Reporting Requirements § 250.196 Reimbursements for reproduction and... reproduction and processing costs separately from acquisition costs. (d) MMS will not reimburse you for...

  11. 30 CFR 580.61 - Which of my costs will not be reimbursed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Which of my costs will not be reimbursed? 580... OFFSHORE PROSPECTING FOR MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Data Requirements Reimbursement § 580.61 Which of my costs will not be reimbursed? (a) When you request...

  12. 30 CFR 580.61 - Which of my costs will not be reimbursed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Which of my costs will not be reimbursed? 580... OFFSHORE PROSPECTING FOR MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Data Requirements Reimbursement § 580.61 Which of my costs will not be reimbursed? (a) When you request...

  13. 30 CFR 580.61 - Which of my costs will not be reimbursed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Which of my costs will not be reimbursed? 580... OFFSHORE PROSPECTING FOR MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Data Requirements Reimbursement § 580.61 Which of my costs will not be reimbursed? (a) When you request...

  14. 48 CFR 252.228-7000 - Reimbursement for war-hazard losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reimbursement for war... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.228-7000 Reimbursement for war-hazard losses. As prescribed in 228.370(a), use the following clause: Reimbursement for War-Hazard Losses (DEC 1991) (a) Costs...

  15. Florida's Model of Nursing Home Medicaid Reimbursement for Disaster-Related Expenses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Kali S.; Hyer, Kathryn; Brown, Lisa M.; Polivka-West, LuMarie; Branch, Laurence G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study describes Florida's model of Medicaid nursing home (NH) reimbursement to compensate NHs for disaster-related expenses incurred as a result of 8 hurricanes within a 2-year period. This Florida model can serve as a demonstration for a national model for disaster-related reimbursement. Design and Methods: Florida reimburses NHs…

  16. 76 FR 30696 - Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium Processing Sites

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    .... Funds for reimbursement will be provided from the Uranium Enrichment Decontamination and Decommissioning... Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium Processing Sites AGENCY: Department of... eligible active uranium and thorium processing site licensees for reimbursement under Title X of the Energy...

  17. 42 CFR 489.34 - Allowable charges: Hospitals participating in State reimbursement control systems or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... reimbursement control systems or demonstration projects. 489.34 Section 489.34 Public Health CENTERS FOR... participating in State reimbursement control systems or demonstration projects. A hospital receiving payment for a covered hospital stay under either a State reimbursement control system approved under 1886(c)...

  18. 42 CFR 489.34 - Allowable charges: Hospitals participating in State reimbursement control systems or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... reimbursement control systems or demonstration projects. 489.34 Section 489.34 Public Health CENTERS FOR... participating in State reimbursement control systems or demonstration projects. A hospital receiving payment for a covered hospital stay under either a State reimbursement control system approved under 1886(c)...

  19. 12 CFR 303.248 - Truth in Lending Act-Relief from reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Truth in Lending Act-Relief from reimbursement... PRACTICE FILING PROCEDURES Other Filings § 303.248 Truth in Lending Act—Relief from reimbursement. (a) Scope. This section applies to requests for relief from reimbursement pursuant to the Truth in...

  20. 42 CFR 405.515 - Reimbursement for clinical laboratory services billed by physicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reimbursement for clinical laboratory services... Criteria for Determining Reasonable Charges § 405.515 Reimbursement for clinical laboratory services billed... limitation on reimbursement for markups on clinical laboratory services billed by physicians. If a physician...

  1. 42 CFR 405.515 - Reimbursement for clinical laboratory services billed by physicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reimbursement for clinical laboratory services... Criteria for Determining Reasonable Charges § 405.515 Reimbursement for clinical laboratory services billed... limitation on reimbursement for markups on clinical laboratory services billed by physicians. If a physician...

  2. Florida's Model of Nursing Home Medicaid Reimbursement for Disaster-Related Expenses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Kali S.; Hyer, Kathryn; Brown, Lisa M.; Polivka-West, LuMarie; Branch, Laurence G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study describes Florida's model of Medicaid nursing home (NH) reimbursement to compensate NHs for disaster-related expenses incurred as a result of 8 hurricanes within a 2-year period. This Florida model can serve as a demonstration for a national model for disaster-related reimbursement. Design and Methods: Florida reimburses NHs…

  3. 7 CFR 1486.403 - What expenditures may CCC reimburse under the program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETS PROGRAM Contributions and Reimbursements § 1486.403 What expenditures may CCC reimburse under the... authorized for reimbursement, but may be counted as a cost-share contribution to the project. (4) Travel... budget, excluding indirect costs. Market development cooperators, state regional trade groups,...

  4. 7 CFR 1486.405 - How are Recipients reimbursed for project expenditures?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How are Recipients reimbursed for project expenditures? 1486.405 Section 1486.405 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Contributions and Reimbursements § 1486.405 How are Recipients reimbursed for project expenditures? (a) After...

  5. 7 CFR 1486.405 - How are Recipients reimbursed for project expenditures?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false How are Recipients reimbursed for project expenditures? 1486.405 Section 1486.405 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Contributions and Reimbursements § 1486.405 How are Recipients reimbursed for project expenditures? (a) After...

  6. 7 CFR 1486.405 - How are Recipients reimbursed for project expenditures?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false How are Recipients reimbursed for project expenditures? 1486.405 Section 1486.405 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Contributions and Reimbursements § 1486.405 How are Recipients reimbursed for project expenditures? (a) After...

  7. 45 CFR 2551.46 - What cost reimbursements are provided to Senior Companions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What cost reimbursements are provided to Senior...) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SENIOR COMPANION PROGRAM Senior Companion Eligibility, Status, and Cost Reimbursements § 2551.46 What cost reimbursements are provided to Senior Companions? Cost...

  8. 48 CFR 252.228-7000 - Reimbursement for war-hazard losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reimbursement for war... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.228-7000 Reimbursement for war-hazard losses. As prescribed in 228.370(a), use the following clause: Reimbursement for War-Hazard Losses (DEC 1991) (a) Costs...

  9. 48 CFR 252.228-7000 - Reimbursement for war-hazard losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reimbursement for war... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.228-7000 Reimbursement for war-hazard losses. As prescribed in 228.370(a), use the following clause: Reimbursement for War-Hazard Losses (DEC 1991) (a) Costs...

  10. 48 CFR 252.228-7000 - Reimbursement for war-hazard losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reimbursement for war... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.228-7000 Reimbursement for war-hazard losses. As prescribed in 228.370(a), use the following clause: Reimbursement for War-Hazard Losses (DEC 1991) (a) Costs...

  11. 48 CFR 252.228-7000 - Reimbursement for war-hazard losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reimbursement for war... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.228-7000 Reimbursement for war-hazard losses. As prescribed in 228.370(a), use the following clause: Reimbursement for War-Hazard Losses (DEC 1991) (a) Costs...

  12. 44 CFR 208.39 - Reimbursement for personnel costs incurred during Activation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... incurred during Activation. (a) Compensation. DHS will reimburse the Sponsoring Agency for costs incurred... benefits to System Members. (b) Public Safety Exemption not applicable. DHS will reimburse Sponsoring... other words, DHS will reimburse Sponsoring Agencies on an overtime basis for any hours worked by Non...

  13. 44 CFR 208.39 - Reimbursement for personnel costs incurred during Activation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... incurred during Activation. (a) Compensation. DHS will reimburse the Sponsoring Agency for costs incurred... benefits to System Members. (b) Public Safety Exemption not applicable. DHS will reimburse Sponsoring... other words, DHS will reimburse Sponsoring Agencies on an overtime basis for any hours worked by Non...

  14. 45 CFR 2551.46 - What cost reimbursements are provided to Senior Companions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What cost reimbursements are provided to Senior..., and Cost Reimbursements § 2551.46 What cost reimbursements are provided to Senior Companions? Cost... cost to themselves. The stipend is paid for the time Senior Companions spend with their assigned...

  15. 48 CFR 32.110 - Payment of subcontractors under cost-reimbursement prime contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... under cost-reimbursement prime contracts. 32.110 Section 32.110 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Purchase Financing 32.110 Payment of subcontractors under cost-reimbursement prime contracts. If the contractor makes financing payments to a subcontractor under a cost-reimbursement prime contract, the...

  16. 48 CFR 32.110 - Payment of subcontractors under cost-reimbursement prime contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... under cost-reimbursement prime contracts. 32.110 Section 32.110 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Purchase Financing 32.110 Payment of subcontractors under cost-reimbursement prime contracts. If the contractor makes financing payments to a subcontractor under a cost-reimbursement prime contract, the...

  17. 47 CFR 27.1031 - Reimbursement obligation of licensees at 1995-2000 MHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reimbursement obligation of licensees at 1995...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1915-1920 MHz and 1995-2000 MHz Reimbursement Obligation of Licensees at 1915-1920 Mhz and 1995-2000 Mhz § 27.1031 Reimbursement obligation of...

  18. 48 CFR 52.249-6 - Termination (Cost-Reimbursement).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination (Cost-Reimbursement). 52.249-6 Section 52.249-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... complete termination inventory schedules no later than 120 days from the effective date of...

  19. 76 FR 19909 - International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... of Justice Programs 28 CFR Part 94 RIN 1121-AA78 International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement... Victims of Crime (OVC) is promulgating this interim-final rule for its International Terrorism Victim... as an incident of international terrorism. DATES: Effective date: This interim-final rule...

  20. 13 CFR 115.35 - Claims for reimbursement of Losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) of this section, including the disposal at fair market value of any collateral held by or available... fair market value. (3) SBA may request additional information prior to reimbursing the Surety for its... and any additional information submitted are subject to review and audit by SBA, including but...

  1. 3 CFR - Providing Stability and Security for Medicare Reimbursements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Stability and Security for Medicare Reimbursements Memorandum for the Secretary of Health and Human Services... contractors to immediately implement the legislative update to the physician fee schedule conversion factor... contractors to automatically reprocess, to the extent feasible, any claims reflecting the 21.3 percent fee...

  2. 77 FR 37421 - Reimbursement Rates for Calendar Year 2012 Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Reimbursement Rates for Calendar Year 2012 Correction AGENCY... care provided by Indian Health Service facilities for Calendar Year 2012 for Medicare and Medicaid...

  3. 77 FR 33470 - Reimbursement Rates for Calendar Year 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Reimbursement Rates for Calendar Year 2012 AGENCY: Indian Health... IHS facilities for Calendar Year 2012 for Medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries and beneficiaries of... Physician/Practitioner Services) Calendar Year 2012 Lower 48 States: $2,169 Alaska: $2,350 Outpatient per...

  4. 75 FR 34147 - Reimbursement Rates for Calendar Year 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Reimbursement Rates for Calendar Year 2010 AGENCY: Indian Health... IHS facilities for Calendar Year 2010 for Medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries and beneficiaries of... Tribe or Tribal organization. Calendar Year 2010 Inpatient Hospital Per Diem Rate (Excludes Physician...

  5. 20 CFR 362.12 - Computation of amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the cost of repair is the amount payable. (b) Depreciation in value of an item of personal property is... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computation of amount of reimbursement. 362.12 Section 362.12 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND...

  6. 7 CFR 3015.84 - Request for advance or reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Request for advance or reimbursement. 3015.84 Section 3015.84 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Financial...

  7. Employee Medical Reimbursement Plans in the Age of ERISA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosewater, Robert D.

    1976-01-01

    The employee medical reimbursement plan offers a new dimension in fringe benefits. This article discusses the purposes of such plans to determine who should adopt them, to guide draftsmen in their preparation, and to aid administrators and fiduciaries in their management. (LBH)

  8. 34 CFR 682.709 - Reimbursements, refunds, and offsets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reimbursements, refunds, and offsets. 682.709 Section 682.709 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) FEDERAL FAMILY EDUCATION LOAN (FFEL)...

  9. 41 CFR 101-39.207 - Reimbursement for services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 101-39.207 Reimbursement for services. (a) GSA Regional Administrators will issue, as appropriate, regional bulletins announcing the GSA vehicle rental rates applicable to their respective regions. (b) The... billed for accidents and incidents as described in § 101-39.406. Agencies may also be charged...

  10. Medicaid: Medicaid: provider reimbursement--2005. End of Year Issue Brief.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Pat

    2005-12-31

    Since Title XIX of the Social Security Act was enacted in 1965, state Medicaid programs have operated under tight budget constraints. States have recognized that reimbursement rates, whether traditional fee-for-service rates or capitation rates for managed care providers, must be sufficient in order to ensure that Medicaid programs have enough providers to deliver care. However, states have often looked to save money by lowering payments to providers who deliver health care services to Medicaid beneficiaries. This cost crunch has resulted in provider payment rates that are often substantially below market rates. State legislatures, program administrators and providers have sought to find the proper balance between adequate levels of reimbursement and cost control measures. However, dissatisfaction with low reimbursement levels has caused some providers to cease participating in the Medicaid program. This has had a detrimental affect on Medicaid recipients' access to health services. States have become aware of the problem and have tried to revise their rates to find the elusive balance between adequate reimbursement and fiscal control.

  11. 44 CFR 208.42 - Reimbursement for other administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reimbursement for other administrative costs. 208.42 Section 208.42 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE NATIONAL URBAN SEARCH AND RESCUE RESPONSE...

  12. 44 CFR 208.36 - Reimbursement for Alert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reimbursement for Alert. 208.36 Section 208.36 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE NATIONAL URBAN SEARCH AND RESCUE RESPONSE SYSTEM Response...

  13. 44 CFR 208.35 - Reimbursement for Advisory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reimbursement for Advisory. 208.35 Section 208.35 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE NATIONAL URBAN SEARCH AND RESCUE RESPONSE SYSTEM Response...

  14. 44 CFR 208.42 - Reimbursement for other administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reimbursement for other administrative costs. 208.42 Section 208.42 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE NATIONAL URBAN SEARCH AND RESCUE RESPONSE...

  15. 44 CFR 208.44 - Reimbursement for other costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Reimbursement for other costs. 208.44 Section 208.44 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE NATIONAL URBAN SEARCH AND RESCUE RESPONSE SYSTEM Response...

  16. 44 CFR 208.35 - Reimbursement for Advisory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reimbursement for Advisory. 208.35 Section 208.35 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE NATIONAL URBAN SEARCH AND RESCUE RESPONSE SYSTEM Response...

  17. 44 CFR 208.36 - Reimbursement for Alert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reimbursement for Alert. 208.36 Section 208.36 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE NATIONAL URBAN SEARCH AND RESCUE RESPONSE SYSTEM Response...

  18. 44 CFR 208.35 - Reimbursement for Advisory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reimbursement for Advisory. 208.35 Section 208.35 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE NATIONAL URBAN SEARCH AND RESCUE RESPONSE SYSTEM Response...

  19. 44 CFR 208.42 - Reimbursement for other administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Reimbursement for other administrative costs. 208.42 Section 208.42 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE NATIONAL URBAN SEARCH AND RESCUE RESPONSE...

  20. 44 CFR 208.42 - Reimbursement for other administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reimbursement for other administrative costs. 208.42 Section 208.42 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE NATIONAL URBAN SEARCH AND RESCUE RESPONSE...

  1. 44 CFR 208.35 - Reimbursement for Advisory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reimbursement for Advisory. 208.35 Section 208.35 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE NATIONAL URBAN SEARCH AND RESCUE RESPONSE SYSTEM Response...

  2. 44 CFR 208.36 - Reimbursement for Alert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Reimbursement for Alert. 208.36 Section 208.36 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE NATIONAL URBAN SEARCH AND RESCUE RESPONSE SYSTEM Response...

  3. 44 CFR 208.42 - Reimbursement for other administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reimbursement for other administrative costs. 208.42 Section 208.42 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE NATIONAL URBAN SEARCH AND RESCUE RESPONSE...

  4. 44 CFR 208.44 - Reimbursement for other costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reimbursement for other costs. 208.44 Section 208.44 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE NATIONAL URBAN SEARCH AND RESCUE RESPONSE SYSTEM Response...

  5. 44 CFR 208.44 - Reimbursement for other costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reimbursement for other costs. 208.44 Section 208.44 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE NATIONAL URBAN SEARCH AND RESCUE RESPONSE SYSTEM Response...

  6. 44 CFR 208.36 - Reimbursement for Alert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reimbursement for Alert. 208.36 Section 208.36 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE NATIONAL URBAN SEARCH AND RESCUE RESPONSE SYSTEM Response...

  7. 10 CFR 140.22 - Commission guarantee and reimbursement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... required to have and maintain financial protection for each nuclear reactor as determined in § 140.11(a)(4... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commission guarantee and reimbursement agreements. 140.22 Section 140.22 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS...

  8. 10 CFR 140.22 - Commission guarantee and reimbursement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... required to have and maintain financial protection for each nuclear reactor as determined in § 140.11(a)(4... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commission guarantee and reimbursement agreements. 140.22 Section 140.22 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS...

  9. 10 CFR 140.22 - Commission guarantee and reimbursement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... required to have and maintain financial protection for each nuclear reactor as determined in § 140.11(a)(4... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Commission guarantee and reimbursement agreements. 140.22 Section 140.22 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS...

  10. 7 CFR 3015.84 - Request for advance or reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Request for advance or reimbursement. 3015.84 Section 3015.84 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Financial Reporting...

  11. Special Education Tuition Reimbursement Claims: An Empirical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Thomas A.; Zirkel, Perry A.

    2001-01-01

    Using published court and hearing officer decisions regarding special education tuition reimbursement, this study found that the annual average number of such clams has increased over time, that there has been a significant difference in case outcomes between the administrative and judicial forums, but that differences in case outcomes did not…

  12. Employee Medical Reimbursement Plans in the Age of ERISA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosewater, Robert D.

    1976-01-01

    The employee medical reimbursement plan offers a new dimension in fringe benefits. This article discusses the purposes of such plans to determine who should adopt them, to guide draftsmen in their preparation, and to aid administrators and fiduciaries in their management. (LBH)

  13. 7 CFR 1484.56 - How are Cooperators reimbursed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How are Cooperators reimbursed? 1484.56 Section 1484.56 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS PROGRAMS TO HELP DEVELOP FOREIGN MARKETS FOR...

  14. 41 CFR 101-28.202-4 - Reimbursement for services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Reimbursement for services. 101-28.202-4 Section 101-28.202-4 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 28-STORAGE AND...

  15. 10 CFR 140.22 - Commission guarantee and reimbursement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... required to have and maintain financial protection for each nuclear reactor as determined in § 140.11(a)(4... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commission guarantee and reimbursement agreements. 140.22 Section 140.22 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS...

  16. 10 CFR 140.22 - Commission guarantee and reimbursement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... required to have and maintain financial protection for each nuclear reactor as determined in § 140.11(a)(4... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commission guarantee and reimbursement agreements. 140.22 Section 140.22 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS...

  17. 50 CFR 86.71 - How will I be reimbursed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How will I be reimbursed? 86.71 Section 86.71 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM BOATING INFRASTRUCTURE GRANT...

  18. 76 FR 37201 - Reimbursement Offsets for Medical Care or Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... Care or Services; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 122 / Friday, June 24, 2011 / Rules... Offsets for Medical Care or Services AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY... reimbursement of medical care and services delivered to veterans for nonservice-connected conditions. This...

  19. 24 CFR 203.402a - Reimbursement for uncollected interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reimbursement for uncollected interest. 203.402a Section 203.402a Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  20. 24 CFR 203.402a - Reimbursement for uncollected interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reimbursement for uncollected interest. 203.402a Section 203.402a Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...