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Sample records for reinforced plastic laminates

  1. Laminated anisotropic reinforced plastic plates and shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korolev, V. I.

    1981-01-01

    Basic technical theories and engineering calculation equations for anisotropic plates and shells made of rigid reinforced plastics, mainly laminated fiberglass, are presented and discussed. Solutions are given for many problems of design of structural plates and shells, including curved sections and tanks, as well as two chapters on selection of the optimum materials, are given. Accounting for interlayer shearing and transverse separation, which are new engineering properties, are discussed. Application of the results obtained to thin three ply plates and shells wth a light elastic filler is presented and discussed.

  2. An inelastic constitutive equation of fiber reinforced plastic laminates

    SciTech Connect

    Kanagawa, Y.; Murakami, S.; Mizobe, T.

    1998-01-01

    A constitutive model for describing the time-dependent inelastic deformation of unidirectional and symmetric angle-ply CFRP (carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics) laminates is developed. The kinematic hardening creep law of Malinin and Khadjinsky and the evolution equation of Armstrong and Frederick are extended to describe the creep deformation of initially anisotropic materials. In particular, the evolution equations of the back stresses of the anisotropic material were formulated by introducing a transformed strain tensor, by which the expression of the equivalent strain rate of the anisotropic material has the identical form as that of the isotropic materials. The resulting model is applied to analyze the time-dependent inelastic deformation of symmetric angle-ply laminates. Comparison between the predictions and the experimental observations shows that the present model can describe well the time-dependent inelastic behavior under different loadings.

  3. Development of lightweight reinforced plastic laminates for spacecraft interior applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hertz, J.

    1975-01-01

    Lightweight, Kevlar - reinforced laminating systems that are non-burning, generate little smoke in the space shuttle environment, and are physically equivalent to the fiberglass/polyimide system used in the Apollo program for non-structural cabin panels, racks, etc. Resin systems representing five generic classes were screened as matrices for Kevlar 49 reinforced laminates. Of the systems evaluated, the polyimides were the most promising with the phenolics a close second. Skybond 703 was selected as the most promising resin candidate. With the exception of compression strength, all program goals of physical and mechanical properties were exceeded. Several prototype space shuttle mobility and translation handrail segments were manufactured using Kevlar/epoxy and Kevlar-graphite/epoxy. This application shows significant weight savings over the baseline aluminum configuration used previous. The hybrid Kevlar-graphite/epoxy is more suitable from a processing standpoint.

  4. Failure criterion of glass fabric reinforced plastic laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haga, O.; Hayashi, N.; Kasuya, K.

    1986-01-01

    Failure criteria are derived for several modes of failure (in unaxial tensile or compressive loading, or biaxial combined tensile-compressive loading) in the case of closely woven plain fabric, coarsely-woven plain fabric, or roving glass cloth reinforcements. The shear strength in the interaction formula is replaced by an equation dealing with tensile or compressive strength in the direction making a 45 degree angle with one of the anisotropic axes, for the uniaxial failure criteria. The interaction formula is useful as the failure criterion in combined tension-compression biaxial failure for the case of closely woven plain fabric laminates, but poor agreement is obtained in the case of coarsely woven fabric laminates.

  5. Strength of anisotropic wood and synthetic materials. [plywood, laminated wood plastics, glass fiber reinforced plastics, polymeric film, and natural wood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashkenazi, Y. K.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of using general formulas for determining the strength of different anisotropic materials is considered, and theoretical formulas are applied and confirmed by results of tests on various nonmetallic materials. Data are cited on the strength of wood, plywood, laminated wood plastics, fiber glass-reinforced plastics and directed polymer films.

  6. Methods for evaluating tensile and compressive properties of plastic laminates reinforced with unwoven glass fibers

    Treesearch

    Karl Romstad

    1964-01-01

    Methods of obtaining strength and elastic properties of plastic laminates reinforced with unwoven glass fibers were evaluated using the criteria of the strength values obtained and the failure characteristics observed. Variables investigated were specimen configuration and the manner of supporting and loading the specimens. Results of this investigation indicate that...

  7. Modeling the Non-Linear Response of Fiber-Reinforced Laminates Using a Combined Damage/Plasticity Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuecker, Clara; Davila, Carlos G.; Pettermann, Heinz E.

    2008-01-01

    The present work is concerned with modeling the non-linear response of fiber reinforced polymer laminates. Recent experimental data suggests that the non-linearity is not only caused by matrix cracking but also by matrix plasticity due to shear stresses. To capture the effects of those two mechanisms, a model combining a plasticity formulation with continuum damage has been developed to simulate the non-linear response of laminates under plane stress states. The model is used to compare the predicted behavior of various laminate lay-ups to experimental data from the literature by looking at the degradation of axial modulus and Poisson s ratio of the laminates. The influence of residual curing stresses and in-situ effect on the predicted response is also investigated. It is shown that predictions of the combined damage/plasticity model, in general, correlate well with the experimental data. The test data shows that there are two different mechanisms that can have opposite effects on the degradation of the laminate Poisson s ratio which is captured correctly by the damage/plasticity model. Residual curing stresses are found to have a minor influence on the predicted response for the cases considered here. Some open questions remain regarding the prediction of damage onset.

  8. Retrofit of hollow concrete masonry infilled steel frames using glass fiber reinforced plastic laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakam, Zeyad Hamed-Ramzy

    2000-11-01

    This study focuses on the retrofit of hollow concrete masonry infilled steel frames subjected to in-plane lateral loads using glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) laminates that are epoxy-bonded to the exterior faces of the infill walls. An extensive experimental investigation using one-third scale modeling was conducted and consisted of two phases. In the first phase, 64 assemblages, half of which were retrofitted, were tested under various combined in-plane loading conditions similar to those which different regions of a typical infill wall are subjected to. In the second phase, one bare and four masonry-infilled steel frames representative of a typical single-story, single-bay panel were tested under diagonal loading to study the overall behavior and the infill-frame interaction. The relative infill-to-frame stiffness was varied as a test parameter by using two different steel frame sections. The laminates altered the failure modes of the masonry assemblages and reduced the variability and anisotropic nature of the masonry. For the prisms which failed due to shear and/or mortar joint slip, significant strength increases were observed. For those exhibiting compression failure modes, a marginal increase in strength resulted. Retrofitting the infilled frames resulted in an average increase in initial stiffness of two-fold compared to the unretrofitted infilled frames, and seemed independent of the relative infill-to-frame stiffness. However, the increase in the load-carrying capacity of the retrofitted frames compared to the unretrofitted counterparts was higher for those with the larger relative infill-to-frame stiffness parameter. Unlike the unretrofitted infill walls, the retrofitted panels demonstrated almost identical failure modes that were characterized as "strictly comer crushing" in the vicinity of the loaded comers whereas no signs of distress were evident throughout the remainder of the infill. The laminates also maintained the structural integrity of

  9. Laminates and reinforced metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1980-01-01

    A selective review is presented of the state of the art of metallic laminates and fiber reinforced metals called metallic matrix laminates (MMLs). Design and analysis procedures that are used for, and typical structural components that have been made from MMLs are emphasized. Selected MMLs, constituent materials, typical material properties and fabrication procedures are briefly described, including hybrids and superhybrids. Advantages, disadvantages, and special considerations required during design, analysis, and fabrication of MMLs are examined. Tabular and graphical data are included to illustrate key aspects of MMLs. Appropriate references are cited to provide a selective bibliography of a rapidly expanding and very promising research and development field.

  10. Examination of Blistering of Fiberglass Reinforced Laminates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-26

    laminates produced by non-standard methods would give a different ’signature’ than those made normally. I AGA Vision 688 Inframetrics 210 Spectral Range 2 to...Resolution .2C .40C and .20C Test Observations The observed output from the AGA unit appeared to be superior to I that of the Inframetrics . The resolution...definite using the Inframetrics unit. The fiberglass reinforced plastic panels (FRP) were positioned f vertically, approximately 15 feet from the infrared

  11. Structural-statistical analysis of the strain properties of laminated reinforced plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokshin, V. A.; Gurvich, M. R.; Perov, Yu. Yu.

    1991-11-01

    The structural relations derived here make it possible to analytically predict the main statistical characteristics of the strain properties of an LRP with allowance for the mutual correlation of the random parameters of the structure. Use of the proposed relations is valid for studying combination loading (bending and a plane stress state), as well as when the structure of the composite is unbalanced. We evaluated the scale effect associated with the presence of multiple layers and determined the impact of this effect on the scatter of the strain properties of the LRP for different types of deformation. We also proposed a method of determining the actual statistical characteristics of layers indirectly — on the basis of experimental testing of multilayered unidirectional plastics. One promising prospect is the use of these results to formulate and solve problems involving optimization of the structure of LRP's on the basis of criteria ensuring the composite's reliability and dimensional stability. Finally, the results can also serve as a basis for establishing scientifically substantiated safety factors for stiffness.

  12. Effect of stability of the structural parameters of laminated reinforced plastics on their strength properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurvich, M. R.

    1991-07-01

    As a result of the completed analysis, we estimated the effect of scatter of the strength properties of the layers, instability of the layers' strain properties, and instability of the geometry of the structure on the strength properties of multidirectional LRP's in a plane stress state. It was established that instability of the structural parameters produces two negative tendencies: a reduction in the mean values of LRP strength and an increase in their scatter. From the viewpoint of ensuring the reliability of structures (structural elements) made of such materials, these tendencies reinforce one another and are thus even more dangerous. It follows from this that the production method employed should not only (or not even mainly) solve the problem of increasing the values of the parameters of the materials (and their semifinished structural elements), it should also address the problem of alleviating their instability — improving the "quality of production." The numerical analysis established the limits at which it is necessary to account for instability of structural parameters in engineering calculations: for the strain properties of the layers — a coefficient of variation of the elastic modulus greater than 10%; for the scatter of the angles of orientation of the layers — a standard deviation greater than 5 °. These numerical results and the computer program developed may prove useful in evaluating the actual properties of structural parameters determined in indirect tests of LRP's, as well as in more adequately comparing empirical data with corresponding calculations based on structural theories. The development of such an approach to analyzing the strength properties of multidirectional LRP's in bending also holds promise.

  13. GLASS FIBER REINFORCED PLASTICS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Contents: Fibrous glass fillers Binders used in the glass plastic industry Method of manufacturing glass plastics and glass plastic articles Properties of fiberglass Primary areas for use of glass fibre reinforced plastics

  14. Phsyical and Mechanical Properties of Fiber-Glass Reinforced Plastics (A Collection of Articles),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    REINFORCED PLASTICS , MECHANICAL PROPERTIES), LAMINATED PLASTICS , GLASS TEXTILES, TEST METHODS, SILICONE PLASTICS , POLYESTER PLASTICS , PHENOLIC... PLASTICS , EPOXY RESINS, POLYVINYL CHLORIDE, STYRENE PLASTICS , POLYAMIDE PLASTICS , TENSILE PROPERTIES, COMPRESSIVE PROPERTIES, SHEAR STRESSES, NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING, ULTRANSONIC RADIATION, FIRE RESISTANT MATERIALS, USSR

  15. Improvement of the mode II interface fracture toughness of glass fiber reinforced plastics/aluminum laminates through vapor grown carbon fiber interleaves.

    PubMed

    Ning, Huiming; Li, Yuan; Hu, Ning; Cao, Yanping; Yan, Cheng; Azuma, Takesi; Peng, Xianghe; Wu, Liangke; Li, Jinhua; Li, Leilei

    2014-06-01

    The effects of acid treatment, vapor grown carbon fiber (VGCF) interlayer and the angle, i.e., 0° and 90°, between the rolling stripes of an aluminum (Al) plate and the fiber direction of glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) on the mode II interlaminar mechanical properties of GFRP/Al laminates were investigated. The experimental results of an end notched flexure test demonstrate that the acid treatment and the proper addition of VGCF can effectively improve the critical load and mode II fracture toughness of GFRP/Al laminates. The specimens with acid treatment and 10 g m(-2) VGCF addition possess the highest mode II fracture toughness, i.e., 269% and 385% increases in the 0° and 90° specimens, respectively compared to those corresponding pristine ones. Due to the induced anisotropy by the rolling stripes on the aluminum plate, the 90° specimens possess 15.3%-73.6% higher mode II fracture toughness compared to the 0° specimens. The improvement mechanisms were explored by the observation of crack propagation path and fracture surface with optical, laser scanning and scanning electron microscopies. Moreover, finite element analyses were carried out based on the cohesive zone model to verify the experimental fracture toughness and to predict the interface shear strength between the aluminum plates and GFRP laminates.

  16. Machinability of drilling T700/LT-03A carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite laminates using candle stick drill and multi-facet drill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cheng-Dong; Qiu, Kun-Xian; Chen, Ming; Cai, Xiao-Jiang

    2015-03-01

    Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) composite laminates are widely used in aerospace and aircraft structural components due to their superior properties. However, they are regarded as difficult-to-cut materials because of bad surface quality and low productivity. Drilling is the most common hole making process for CFRP composite laminates and drilling induced delamination damage usually occurs severely at the exit side of drilling holes, which strongly deteriorate holes quality. In this work, the candle stick drill and multi-facet drill are employed to evaluate the machinability of drilling T700/LT-03A CFRP composite laminates in terms of thrust force, delamination, holes diameter and holes surface roughness. S/N ratio is used to characterize the thrust force while an ellipse-shaped delamination model is established to quantitatively analyze the delamination. The best combination of drilling parameters are determined by full consideration of S/N ratios of thrust force and the delamination. The results indicate that candle stick drill will induce the unexpected ellipse-shaped delamination even at its best drilling parameters of spindle speed of 10,000 rpm and feed rate of 0.004 mm/tooth. However, the multi-facet drill cutting at the relative lower feed rate of 0.004 mm/tooth and lower spindle speed of 6000 rpm can effectively prevent the delamination. Comprehensively, holes quality obtained by multi-facet drill is much more superior to those obtained by candle stick drill.

  17. Improvement of the mode II interface fracture toughness of glass fiber reinforced plastics/aluminum laminates through vapor grown carbon fiber interleaves

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Huiming; Li, Yuan; Hu, Ning; Cao, Yanping; Yan, Cheng; Azuma, Takesi; Peng, Xianghe; Wu, Liangke; Li, Jinhua; Li, Leilei

    2014-01-01

    The effects of acid treatment, vapor grown carbon fiber (VGCF) interlayer and the angle, i.e., 0° and 90°, between the rolling stripes of an aluminum (Al) plate and the fiber direction of glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) on the mode II interlaminar mechanical properties of GFRP/Al laminates were investigated. The experimental results of an end notched flexure test demonstrate that the acid treatment and the proper addition of VGCF can effectively improve the critical load and mode II fracture toughness of GFRP/Al laminates. The specimens with acid treatment and 10 g m−2 VGCF addition possess the highest mode II fracture toughness, i.e., 269% and 385% increases in the 0° and 90° specimens, respectively compared to those corresponding pristine ones. Due to the induced anisotropy by the rolling stripes on the aluminum plate, the 90° specimens possess 15.3%–73.6% higher mode II fracture toughness compared to the 0° specimens. The improvement mechanisms were explored by the observation of crack propagation path and fracture surface with optical, laser scanning and scanning electron microscopies. Moreover, finite element analyses were carried out based on the cohesive zone model to verify the experimental fracture toughness and to predict the interface shear strength between the aluminum plates and GFRP laminates. PMID:27877680

  18. Improvement of the mode II interface fracture toughness of glass fiber reinforced plastics/aluminum laminates through vapor grown carbon fiber interleaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Huiming; Li, Yuan; Hu, Ning; Cao, Yanping; Yan, Cheng; Azuma, Takesi; Peng, Xianghe; Wu, Liangke; Li, Jinhua; Li, Leilei

    2014-06-01

    The effects of acid treatment, vapor grown carbon fiber (VGCF) interlayer and the angle, i.e., 0° and 90°, between the rolling stripes of an aluminum (Al) plate and the fiber direction of glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) on the mode II interlaminar mechanical properties of GFRP/Al laminates were investigated. The experimental results of an end notched flexure test demonstrate that the acid treatment and the proper addition of VGCF can effectively improve the critical load and mode II fracture toughness of GFRP/Al laminates. The specimens with acid treatment and 10 g m-2 VGCF addition possess the highest mode II fracture toughness, i.e., 269% and 385% increases in the 0° and 90° specimens, respectively compared to those corresponding pristine ones. Due to the induced anisotropy by the rolling stripes on the aluminum plate, the 90° specimens possess 15.3%-73.6% higher mode II fracture toughness compared to the 0° specimens. The improvement mechanisms were explored by the observation of crack propagation path and fracture surface with optical, laser scanning and scanning electron microscopies. Moreover, finite element analyses were carried out based on the cohesive zone model to verify the experimental fracture toughness and to predict the interface shear strength between the aluminum plates and GFRP laminates.

  19. Recycling of Reinforced Plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, R. D.; Collins, Andrew; Cooper, Duncan; Wingfield-Digby, Mark; Watts-Farmer, Archibald; Laurence, Anna; Patel, Kayur; Stevens, Mark; Watkins, Rhodri

    2014-02-01

    This work has shown is that it is possible to recycle continuous and short fibre reinforced thermosetting resins while keeping almost the whole of the original material, both fibres and matrix, within the recyclate. By splitting, crushing hot or cold, and hot forming, it is possible to create a recyclable material, which we designate a Remat, which can then be used to remanufacture other shapes, examples of plates and tubes being demonstrated. Not only can remanufacturing be done, but it has been shown that over 50 % of the original mechanical properties, such as the E modulus, tensile strength, and interlaminar shear strength, can be retained. Four different forms of composite were investigated, a random mat Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) bathroom component and boat hull, woven glass and carbon fibre cloth impregnated with an epoxy resin, and unidirectional carbon fibre pre-preg. One of the main factors found to affect composite recyclability was the type of resin matrix used in the composite. Thermoset resins tested were shown to have a temperature range around the Glass Transition Temperature (Tg) where they exhibit ductile behaviour, hence aiding reforming of the material. The high-grade carbon fibre prepreg was found to be less easy to recycle than the woven of random fibre laminates. One method of remanufacturing was by heating the Remat to above its glass transition temperature, bending it to shape, and then cooling it. However, unless precautions are taken, the geometric form may revert. This does not happen with the crushed material.

  20. Plastic Laminate Pulsed Power Development

    SciTech Connect

    ALEXANDER,JEFF A.; SHOPE,STEVEN L.; PATE,RONALD C.; RINEHART,LARRY F.; JOJOLA,JOHN M.; RUEBUSH,MITCHELL H.; CROWE,WAYNE; LUNDSTROM,J.; SMITH,T.; ZAGAR,D.; PRESTWICH,K.

    2000-09-01

    The desire to move high-energy Pulsed Power systems from the laboratory to practical field systems requires the development of compact lightweight drivers. This paper concerns an effort to develop such a system based on a plastic laminate strip Blumlein as the final pulseshaping stage for a 600 kV, 50ns, 5-ohm driver. A lifetime and breakdown study conducted with small-area samples identified Kapton sheet impregnated with Propylene Carbonate as the best material combination of those evaluated. The program has successfully demonstrated techniques for folding large area systems into compact geometry's and vacuum impregnating the laminate in the folded systems. The major operational challenges encountered revolve around edge grading and low inductance, low impedance switching. The design iterations and lessons learned are discussed. A multistage prototype testing program has demonstrated 600kV operation on a short 6ns line. Full-scale prototypes are currently undergoing development and testing.

  1. Machining of fiber-reinforced composite laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Myong-Shik

    As fiber-reinforced composite laminates are becoming considerably popular in a wide range of applications, the necessity for machining such materials is increasing rapidly. Due to their microscopical inhomogeneity, anisotropy, and highly abrasive nature, composite laminates exhibit some peculiar types of machining damage. Consequently, the machining of composite laminates requires a different approach from that used for metals and offers a challenge from both an academic and application point of view. In the present work, the drilling of composite laminated plates and the edge trimming of tubular composite laminates were investigated through theoretical analyses and their experimental verification. First, a drilling process model using linear elastic fracture mechanics and classical plate bending theory was developed to predict the critical thrust value responsible for the onset of delamination during the drilling of composite laminates with pre-drilled pilot holes. Experiments using stepped drills, which can utilize the effectiveness of such pilot holes, were conducted on composite laminates. Reasonably good agreement was found between the results of the process model and the tests. Second, the development of a model-based intelligent control strategy for the efficient drilling of composite laminates was explored by experiments and analyses. In this investigation, mathematical models were created to relate the drilling forces to cutting parameters and to identify the different process stages. These models predicted the degree of thrust force regulation to prevent delamination. Third, the edge trimming of thin-walled tubular composite laminates was modeled and analyzed for estimating the critical cutting force at the initiation of longitudinal cracking. A series of full-scale edge trimming tests were conducted on tubular composite specimens to assess the current approach and to obtain basic machining data for various composite laminates. The present study provides

  2. Strength and stiffness of reinforced yellow-poplar glued-laminated beams

    Treesearch

    R. Hernandez; R. C. Moody

    In bridge applications, it is often necessary to minimize the depth of the bridge structure to provide for the required hydraulic opening or reduce the volume of approach fill. For bridges that utilize structural glued-laminated (glulam) timber beams as stringers, reinforcement using thin strips of pultruded E-glass-fiber-reinforced plastic (GFRP) composites may permit...

  3. Reinforced structural plastics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubowitz, H. R.; Kendrick, W. P.; Jones, J. F.; Thorpe, R. S.; Burns, E. A. (Inventor)

    1972-01-01

    Reinforced polyimide structures are described. Reinforcing materials are impregnated with a suspension of polyimide prepolymer and bonded together by heat and pressure to form a cured, hard-reinforced, polyimide structure.

  4. Fracture behavior of laminated discontinuously reinforced aluminum material

    SciTech Connect

    Osman, T.M. |; Lewandowski, J.J.; Lesuer, D.R.; Syn, C.K.; Hunt, W.H. Jr

    1994-05-01

    Laminated metallic composites are being developed for applications which require high specific stiffness and fracture resistance. Recent work with laminated discontinuously reinforced aluminum (DRA) materials has demonstrated the potential for marked improvements in stable crack growth resistance via extrinsic toughening. The purpose of this work is to compare the fracture mechanisms and fracture resistance of laminated DRA materials to unlaminated DRA materials. In particular, the production of extensive stable crack growth and the associated improvement in damage tolerance in DRA laminates is documented.

  5. Fiber reinforced engineering plastics

    Treesearch

    Daniel F. Caulfield; Rodney E. Jacobson; Karl D. Sears; John H. Underwood

    2001-01-01

    Although natural fiber reinforced commodity thermoplastics have a wide range of nonstructural applications in the automotive and decking industries, there have been few reports of cellulosic fiber-reinforced engineering thermoplastics. The commonly held belief has been that the only thermoplastics amenable to natural-fibre reinforcement are limited to low-melting (...

  6. Laminated sheet composites reinforced with modular filament sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reece, O. Y.

    1968-01-01

    Aluminum and magnesium composite sheet laminates reinforced with low density, high strength modular filament sheets are produced by diffusion bonding and explosive bonding. Both processes are accomplished in normal atmosphere and require no special tooling or cleaning other than wire brushing the metal surfaces just prior to laminating.

  7. Dielectric strength of irradiated fiber reinforced plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humer, Karl; Weber, Harald W.; Hastik, Ronald; Hauser, Hans; Gerstenberg, Heiko

    2001-05-01

    The insulation system for the toroidal field model coil of international thermonuclear experimental reactor is a fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) laminate, which consists of a combined Kapton/R-glass-fiber reinforcement tape, vacuum-impregnated with an epoxy DGEBA system. Pure disk-shaped laminates, disk-shaped FRP/stainless-steel sandwiches, and conductor insulation prototypes were irradiated at 5 K in a fission reactor up to a fast neutron fluence of 10 22 m -2 ( E>0.1 MeV) to investigate the radiation induced degradation of the dielectric strength of the insulation system. After warm-up to room temperature, swelling, weight loss, and the breakdown strength were measured at 77 K. The sandwich swells by 4% at a fluence of 5×10 21 m -2 and by 9% at 1×10 22 m -2. The weight loss of the FRP is 2% at 1×10 22 m -2. The dielectric strength remained unchanged over the whole dose range.

  8. The Creep of Laminated Synthetic Resin Plastics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkuhn, H

    1941-01-01

    The long-time loading strength of a number of laminated synthetic resin plastics was ascertained and the effect of molding pressure and resin content determined. The best value was observed with a 30 to 40 percent resin content. The long-time loading strength also increases with increasing molding pressure up to 250 kg/cm(exp 2); a further rise in pressure affords no further substantial improvement. The creep strength is defined as the load which in the hundredth hour of loading produces a rate of elongation of 5 X 10(exp -4) percent per hour. The creep strength values of different materials were determined and tabulated. The effect of humidity during long-term tests is pointed out.

  9. Carbon Fibers in Reinforced Plastics,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-18

    etc. The present high prices of carbon fibers have restrictive effect on the broadeninv of fiber applications. It appears that a condition for...7A-A92 554 FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIV WR1HT-PATTERSON AFB ON F/ 11/9 CARBON FIBERS IN REINFORCED PL S ICS, (U) APR 80 Z GUZEK UNCLASSIFIED FTD-D(RS)RT...177349 CARBON FIBERS IN REINIORCED PLASTICS By: Zbigniew Guzek English pages: 22 Source: Przeglad Elektrotechniczny, Vol. 54, A Hr. 7, 1978, pp. 321

  10. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Glass--Reinforced Plastics,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    REINFORCED PLASTICS , REVIEWS), GLASS TEXTILES, MECHANICAL PROPERTIES, ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES, SILICONE PLASTICS , POLYESTER PLASTICS , PHENOLIC... PLASTICS , EPOXY RESINS, TEST METHODS, NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING, FIRE RESISTANT MATERIALS, POLYVINYL CHLORIDE, USSR

  11. Development of laminated fiber-reinforced nanocomposites for bone regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Weijie

    There have been numerous efforts to develop synthetic and/or natural tissue engineering scaffolds that are suitable for bone regeneration applications to replace autograft and allograft bones. Current biomaterials as a scaffold for bone regeneration are limited by the extent of degradation concurrent with bone formation, mechanical strength, and the extent of osteogenic differentiation of marrow stromal cells migrating from the surrounding tissues. In this project, a novel laminated nanocomposite scaffold is fabricated, consisting of poly (L-lactide ethylene oxide fumarate) (PLEOF) hydrogel reinforced with poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) electrospun nanofibers and hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles. PLEOF is a novel in situ crosslinkable macromer synthesized from biocompatible building units which can be functionalized with bioactive peptides like the cell-adhesive Arg--Gly--Asp (RGD) amino acid sequence. The hydrophilicity and degradation rate of the macromer can be tailored to a particular application by controlling the ratio of PEG to PLA blocks in the macromer and the unsaturated fumarate units can be used for in-situ crosslinking. The PLLA nanofibers were electrospun from high molecular weight PLLA. The laminated nanocomposites were fabricated by dry-hand lay up technique followed by compression molding and thermal crosslinking. The laminated nanocomposites were evaluated with respect to degradation, water uptake, mechanical strength, and the extent of osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal (BMS) cells. Laminates with or without HA nanoparticles showed modulus values much higher than that of trabecular bone (50-100 MPa). The effect of laminated nanocomposites on osteogenic differentiation of BMS cells was determined in terms of cell number, ALPase activity and calcium content. Our results demonstrate that grafting RGD peptide and HA nanoparticles to a PLEOF hydrogel reinforced with PLLA nanofibers synergistically enhance osteogenic differentiation of BMS

  12. Flutter of buckled shape memory alloy reinforced laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Shih-Yao; Shiau, Le-Chung; Lai, Chin-Hsin

    2012-03-01

    The effect of shape memory alloys (SMA) on the linear and nonlinear flutter behaviors of buckled cross-ply and angle-ply laminates was investigated in the frequency and time domains using the finite element method. In particular, this study takes the first move toward examining the effect of varying the SMA fiber spacing. Von Karman large deformation assumptions and quasi-steady aerodynamic theory were employed. The flutter boundary, stability boundary, time history response, and phase plane plots of SMA reinforced cross-ply and angle-ply laminates are presented. The numerical results show that increase in the SMA fiber volume fraction and prestrain may generate more recovery stress, and increase the stiffness of the SMA reinforced laminates. Therefore, the flutter boundary and critical load of the plate may be increased significantly. All five types of panel behavior, namely flat, buckled, limit-cycle, periodic, and chaotic motion, are clearly displayed and successively identified. This study sheds light on improving the flutter boundary efficiently by increasing the SMA fiber volume fraction to reinforce the center of the plate.

  13. Modification of polyester resins during molding of glass-fiber-reinforced plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakushin, V.; Jansons, J.; Bulmanis, V.; Cabulis, U.; Bulmanis, A.

    2013-11-01

    The effect of addition of two new urethane prepolymers on the mechanical properties of unsaturated polyester resins and glass-fiber-reinforced plastics based on them is investigated. The effect of concentration of these additives on the elastic modulus, elongation at break, and flexural strength of hardened orthophthalic resins is evaluated. A significant increase in the strength of the binders and glass-fiber-reinforced plastics (GFRPs) based on them is observed upon adding urethane prepolymers to the resins. The properties of laminated and randomly reinforced glass-fiber plastics with the modified orthophthalic resins are compared with those of similar GFRPs based on popular brands of industrial resins.

  14. Flexural strengthening of Reinforced Concrete (RC) Beams Retrofitted with Corrugated Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) Laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravind, N.; Samanta, Amiya K.; Roy, Dilip Kr. Singha; Thanikal, Joseph V.

    2015-01-01

    Strengthening the structural members of old buildings using advanced materials is a contemporary research in the field of repairs and rehabilitation. Many researchers used plain Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) sheets for strengthening Reinforced Concrete (RC) beams. In this research work, rectangular corrugated GFRP laminates were used for strengthening RC beams to achieve higher flexural strength and load carrying capacity. Type and dimensions of corrugated profile were selected based on preliminary study using ANSYS software. A total of twenty one beams were tested to study the load carrying capacity of control specimens and beams strengthened with plain sheets and corrugated laminates using epoxy resin. This paper presents the experimental and theoretical study on flexural strengthening of Reinforced Concrete (RC) beams using corrugated GFRP laminates and the results are compared. Mathematical models were developed based on the experimental data and then the models were validated.

  15. Polarized light reveals stress in machined laminated plastics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frankowski, J.

    1967-01-01

    Polarized light applied to drilled laminated plastic components exposes to the human eye the locked-in stresses that will result in fractures and delaminations when the soldering procedure takes place. This technique detects stresses early in the production cycle before appreciable man-hours are invested in an item destined for rejection.

  16. A method for observing gas evolution during plastic laminate cure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholls, A. H.

    1969-01-01

    Polyimide, phenolic, and other resins which develop volatiles during laminating or molding cure are studied using optimum cure cycles. The specimen is placed on a platen and sealed in a plastic bag, then heated and observed for gas evolution using a binocular microscope. A cover plate is added to sumulate an autoclave.

  17. Method of Hardening Glass-Reinforced Plastics,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-09

    373 NETHOD OF HARDENING GLASS -REINFORCED PLASTICS (U) 1/i FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIV idRIGHT-PATTERSON NFS ON V F DOLGIKH ET AL 89 FEB 88 FTD-ID(RS)T-M49...FTD-ID(RS)T-0049-88 9 February 1988 MICROFICHE NR: FTD-tES-C-00219 METHOD OF HARDENING GLASS -REINFORCED PLASTICS By: V.F. Dolgikh, S.L. Roginskiy, et...translation were extracted from the best quality copy available. If 1 11i METHOD OF HARDENING GLASS -REINFORCED PLASTICS V. F. Dolgikh, S. L. Roginskiy, E. L

  18. Shear degradation in fiber reinforced laminates due to matrix damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salavatian, Mohammedmahdi

    The objective of this study was to develop and implement a shear modulus degradation model to improve the failure analysis of the fiber reinforced composite structures. Matrix damage, involving transverse and shear cracks, is a common failure mode for composite structures, yet little is known concerning their interaction. To understand the material behavior after matrix failure, the nonlinear response of the composite laminate was studied using pressure vessels made from a [+/-o] bias orientation, which tend to exhibit a matrix dominated failure. The result of this work showed laminate matrix hardening in shear and softening in the transverse direction. A modified Iosipescu coupon was proposed to study the evolution of shear and transverse damage and their mutual effects. The proposed method showed good agreement with tubular results and has advantages of simplified specimen fabrication using standard test fixtures. The proposed method was extended by introducing a novel experimental technique to study the shear degradation model under biaxial loading. Experimental results of the transverse modulus reduction were in good agreement with material degradation models, while the predicted shear modulus reduction was higher than experiment. The discrepancy between available models and observations was due to the presence of a traction between the crack surfaces. Accordingly, a closed form solution was proposed for the shear stress-strain field of a cracked laminate by replacing the cracks with cohesive zones. The constitutive equations of the crack laminate were derived including the effects of internal tractions and transverse stress on the shear modulus. The proposed analytical model was shown to be the most comprehensive model for shear modulus degradation reduction of the fiber reinforced laminates. A numerical implementation of the shear degradation model was done using continuum damage mechanics. Through this work it was shown the common assumption of a linear

  19. REDUCING EMISSIONS IN FIBERGLASS REINFORCED PLASTICS MANUFACTURING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper summarizes results of an evaluation of pollution prevention techniques, so that technical assistance providers can provide better information to fiber-reinforced plastics and composites (FRP/C) facilities about pollution prevention options. It gives background about the...

  20. REDUCING EMISSIONS IN FIBERGLASS REINFORCED PLASTICS MANUFACTURING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper summarizes results of an evaluation of pollution prevention techniques, so that technical assistance providers can provide better information to fiber-reinforced plastics and composites (FRP/C) facilities about pollution prevention options. It gives background about the...

  1. Compression response of thick layer composite laminates with through-the-thickness reinforcement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Gary L.; Smith, Barry T.; Maiden, Janice

    1992-01-01

    Compression and compression-after-impact (CAI) tests were conducted on seven different AS4-3501-6 (0/90) 0.64-cm thick composite laminates. Four of the seven laminates had through-the-thickness (TTT) reinforcement fibers. Two TTT reinforcement methods, stitching and integral weaving, and two reinforcement fibers, Kevlar and carbon, were used. The remaining three laminates were made without TTT reinforcements and were tested to establish a baseline for comparison with the laminates having TTT reinforcement. Six of the seven laminates consisted of nine thick layers whereas the seventh material was composed of 46 thin plies. The use of thick-layer material has the potential for reducing structural part cost because of the reduced part count (layers of material). The compression strengths of the TTT reinforced laminates were approximately one half those of the materials without TTT reinforcements. However, the CAI strengths of the TTT reinforced materials were approximately twice those of materials without TTT reinforcements. The improvement in CAI strength is due to an increase in interlaminar strength produced by the TTT reinforcement. Stitched laminates had slightly higher compression and CAI strengths than the integrally woven laminates.

  2. Laminated plastic microfluidic components for biological and chemical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, P.M.; Matson, D.W.; Bennett, W.D.; Lin, Y.; Hammerstrom, D.J.

    1999-07-01

    Laminated plastic microfluidic components are being developed for biological testing systems and chemical sensors. Applications include a DNA thermal cycler, DNA analytical systems, electrophoretic flow systems, dialysis systems, and metal sensors for ground water. This article describes fabrication processes developed for these plastic microfluidic components, and the fabrication of a chromium metal sensor and a microdialysis device. Most of the components have a stacked architecture. Using this architecture, the fluid flows, or is pumped through, as many as nine laminated functional levels. Functions include pumping, mixing, reaction, detection, reservoirs, separations, and electronics. Polyimide, poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), and polycarbonate materials with thicknesses between 25 and 125 {mu}m are used to construct the components. This makes the components low cost, inert to many biological fluids and chemicals, and disposable. The components are fabricated by excimer laser micromachining the microchannel patterns and microstructures in the various laminates. In some cases, micropumps are integrated into these components to move the fluids. Vias and interconnects are also cut by the laser and integrated with micropumps. The laminates are sealed and bonded by adhesive and thermal processes and are leak tight. The parts withstand pressures as high as 790 kPa. Typical channel widths are 50 to 100 {mu}m, with aspect ratios near 5. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Vacuum Society.}

  3. Interlaminar damage of carbon fiber reinforced polymer composite laminate under continuous wave laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan-Chi; Wu, Chen-Wu; Huang, Yi-Hui; Song, Hong-Wei; Huang, Chen-Guang

    2017-01-01

    The interlaminar damages were investigated on the carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite laminate under laser irradiation. Firstly, the laminated T700/BA9916 composites were exposed to continuous wave laser irradiation. Then, the interface cracking patterns of such composite laminates were examined by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Finally, the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was performed to compute the interface stress of the laminates under laser irradiation. And the effects of the laser parameters on the interlaminar damage were discussed.

  4. High-frequency components made of carbon-fiber reinforced plastics for satellite payloads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saulich, G.

    1981-06-01

    The design and the material characteristics of carbon-fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) are discussed, taking into account characteristic data for various types of fibers and details of material construction. Waveguide filters made of carbon-fiber reinforced plastics are considered. These filters are used in satellite transponders in connection with the high resonator quality required. Attention is given to tubes and plates of CFRF, aspects of metallization, and adhesive bonding. Reflector antennas of CFRP are discussed, taking into account the design of CFRP reflectors, the reflection characteristics of CFRP reflectors, CFRP laminate characteristics, reflector coatings, and selection criteria for the design of CFRP reflectors.

  5. Recognizing defects in carbon-fiber reinforced plastics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuetze, R.; Hillger, W.

    1982-01-01

    The damage tolerance of structures made of carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic is tested under various loads. Test laminate (73/1/1, 24/9/1, 1465 A) specimens of thickness 1.5-3.2 mm with various defects were subjected to static and dynamic loads. Special attention was given to delamination, and ultrasonic C-scans were made on the specimens. It was shown that cracks from even small defects are detected with great accuracy. The same probes were also X rayed; defects that could not be detected under ordinary X rays were bored and studied under vacuum by a contrast technique. The nondestructive ultrasonic and X ray tests were controlled by partially destructive tests, and good agreement was observed.

  6. Fracture and cyclic-fatigue behavior of ductile phase reinforced brittle matrix laminated composites: Effect of laminate orientation and reinforcement layer thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloyer, Donald Ray, Jr.

    The fracture and cyclic fatigue properties of ductile phase reinforced brittle matrix laminated composites have been investigated through the examination of the effect of layer orientation and reinforcement layer thickness on niobium metal reinforced Nbsb3Al intermetallic laminates. Two laminate orientations, the crack arrester and crack divider, were prepared with layer thickness combinations of 50 mum Nb/200 mum Nbsb3Al, 125 mum Nb/500 mum Nbsb3Al, and 250 mum Nb/1000 mum Nbsb3A1. This gave a nominally constant reinforcement volume fraction of 0.2. The fracture and resistance-curve behavior of these laminates has been compared with similarly reinforced in situ particulate and microlaminate composites. The high aspect ratio of the Nb laminates led to improved toughness in the Nbsb3Al matrix by a factor of 10-20. Laminate orientation had a small effect on crack growth resistance, and properties were optimal in the arrester as compared to the divider orientation. In addition, thicker Nb layers yielded improved fracture toughness. The high fracture toughness observed in these laminates resulted from large crack tip shielding zones formed by bridging Nb layers in the crack wake. These zones were of sufficient size that large scale bridging conditions generally dominated. R-curve modeling using weight function methods allowed simple approximations of the bridging traction functions which were then used to make small scale bridging predictions of the steady state toughness for each laminate. Promising fatigue crack growth resistance properties were observed for the Nb/Nbsb3Al laminates evaluated under cyclic loading conditions. The laminates provided significantly better fatigue resistance than both Nbsb3Al and Nb/Nbsb3Al particulate composites. For a given composite layer thickness, the arrester orientation showed improved cyclic crack growth resistance as compared to divider orientation. The enhanced fatigue behavior of these composites resulted from extrinsic

  7. Elastic-plastic analysis of AS4/PEEK composite laminate using a one-parameter plasticity model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, C. T.; Yoon, K. J.

    1992-01-01

    A one-parameter plasticity model was shown to adequately describe the plastic deformation of AS4/PEEK (APC-2) unidirectional thermoplastic composite. This model was verified further for unidirectional and laminated composite panels with and without a hole. The elastic-plastic stress-strain relations of coupon specimens were measured and compared with those predicted by the finite element analysis using the one-parameter plasticity model. The results show that the one-parameter plasticity model is suitable for the analysis of elastic-plastic deformation of AS4/PEEK composite laminates.

  8. Woven glass fabric reinforced laminates based on polyolefin wastes: Thermal, mechanical and dynamic-mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Pietro; Acierno, Domenico; Simeoli, Giorgio; Lopresto, Valentina

    2014-05-01

    Potentialities of polyolefin wastes in place of virgin polypropylene to produce composite laminates have been investigated. Plaques reinforced with a woven glass fabric were prepared by film-stacking technique and systematically analyzed in terms of thermal, mechanical and dynamic-mechanical properties. In case of PP matrices, the use of a typical compatibilizer to improve the adhesion at the interface has been considered. Thermal properties emphasized the chemical nature of plastic wastes. About mechanical properties, static tests showed an increase of flexural parameters for compatibilized systems due to the coupling effect between grafted maleic anhydride and silane groups on the surface of the glass fabric. These effects, maximized for composites based on car bumper wastes, is perfectly reflected in terms of storage modulus and damping ability of products as determined by single-cantilever bending dynamic tests.

  9. Failure mode interaction in fiber reinforced laminated composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhakar, Pavana

    A novel computational modeling framework to predict the compressive strength of fiber reinforced polymer matrix composite (FRPC) laminates has been presented. The model development has been motivated by a set of experimental results on the compression response of two different FRPCs. The model accounts for failure mode interaction between kink-banding and interface fracture (or delamination), which are observed in the experimental results. To reduce the size of the computational model, those interfaces that are most susceptible to delamination are first determined through a free-edge stress analysis. Furthermore, 0-axis layers, which are passive in the failure process are represented through an equivalent homogenized model, but the microstructural features of the on-axis layers (zero plies) are retained in the computational model. The predictions of the model matched well with the experimental observations, and they were found to accurately account for failure mechanism interactions. Therefore, this model has the potential to replace the need to carry out large numbers of tests to obtain the compressive strength allowable for FRPC laminates, the latter allowable being an essential element in the design of lightweight FRPC aerostructures. Furthermore, the thesis presents a new computational model to predict fiber/matrix splitting failure, a failure mode that is frequently observed in in-plane tensile failure of FRPC's. By considering a single lamina, this failure mechanism was seamlessly modeled through the development of a continuum-decohesive nite element (CDFE). The CDFE was motivated by the variational multiscale cohesive method (VMCM) presented earlier by Rudraraju et al. (2010) at the University of Michigan. In the CDFE, the transition from a continuum to a non-continuum is modeled directly (physically) without resorting to enrichment of the shape functions of the element. Thus, the CDFE is a natural merger between cohesive elements and continuum elements. The

  10. Transient thermal-mechanical behavior of cracked glass-cloth-reinforced epoxy laminates at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Shindo, Y.; Ueda, S.

    1997-06-01

    We consider the transient thermal-mechanical response of cracked G-10CR glass-cloth-reinforced epoxy laminates with temperature-dependent properties. The glass-cloth-reinforced epoxy laminates are suddenly cooled on the surfaces. A generalized plane strain finite element model is used to study the influence of warp angle and crack formation on the thermal shock behavior of two-layer woven laminates at low temperatures. Numerical calculations are carried out, and the transient temperature distribution and the thermal-mechanical stresses are shown graphically.

  11. Processing of microencapsulated dyes for the visual inspection of fibre reinforced plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Hopmann, Ch. Kerschbaum, M. Küsters, K.

    2014-05-15

    The evaluation of damages caused during processing, assembly or usage of fibre reinforced plastics is still a challenge. The use of inspection technology like ultrasonic scanning enables a detailed damage analysis but requires high investments and trained staff. Therefore, the visual inspection method is widely used. A drawback of this method is the difficult identification of barely visible damages, which can already be detrimental for the structural integrity. Therefore an approach is undertaken to integrate microencapsulated dyes into the laminates of fibre reinforced plastic parts to highlight damages on the surface. In case of a damage, the microcapsules rupture which leads to a release of the dye and a visible bruise on the part surface. To enable a wide application spectrum for this technology the microcapsules must be processable without rupturing with established manufacturing processes for fibre reinforced plastics. Therefore the incorporation of microcapsules in the filament winding, prepreg autoclave and resin transfer moulding (RTM) process is investigated. The results show that the use of a carrier medium is a feasible way to incorporate the microcapsules into the laminate for all investigated manufacturing processes. Impact testing of these laminates shows a bruise formation on the specimen surface which correlates with the impact energy level. This indicates a microcapsule survival during processing and shows the potential of this technology for damage detection and characterization.

  12. Transverse isotropic modeling of the ballistic response of glass reinforced plastic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.A.

    1997-12-31

    The use of glass reinforced plastic (GRP) composites is gaining significant attention in the DoD community for use in armor applications. These materials typically possess a laminate structure consisting of up to 100 plies, each of which is constructed of a glass woven roving fabric that reinforces a plastic matrix material. Current DoD attention is focused on a high strength, S-2 glass cross-weave (0/90) fabric reinforcing a polyester matrix material that forms each ply of laminate structure consisting anywhere from 20 to 70 plies. The resulting structure displays a material anisotropy that is, to a reasonable approximation, transversely isotropic. When subjected to impact and penetration from a metal fragment projectile, the GRP displays damage and failure in an anisotropic manner due to various mechanisms such as matrix cracking, fiber fracture and pull-out, and fiber-matrix debonding. In this presentation, the author will describe the modeling effort to simulate the ballistic response of the GRP material described above using the transversely isotropic (TI) constitutive model which has been implemented in the shock physics code, CTH. The results of this effort suggest that the model is able to describe the delamination behavior of the material but has some difficulty capturing the in-plane (i.e., transverse) response of the laminate due to its cross-weave fabric reinforcement pattern which causes a departure from transverse isotropy.

  13. Fatique testing of OTEC (ocean thermal energy conversion) cold water pipe glass-reinforced plastic materials. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Sirian, C.R.; Conn, A.F.

    1983-09-01

    Specimens of a GFRP (glass fiber reinforced plastic) composite laminate - a candidate material for use in an OTEC cold water pipe (CWP) - were subjected to cyclic bending while immersed in a synthetic sea water solution. The loss of stiffness, i.e., decrease in bending modulus, for this GFRP was determined as a function of cycles of loading.

  14. Laminate behavior for SiC fiber-reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.; Phillips, Ronald E.

    1990-01-01

    The room temperature mechanical properties of SiC fiber reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride matrix composite laminates (SiC/RBSN) have been measured. The laminates contained approx 30 volume fraction of aligned 142-micron diameter SiC fiber in a porous RBSN matrix. Three types of laminate studied were unidirectional: (1) (0) sub 8, (2) (10) sub 8, and (3) (45) sub 8, and (90) sub 8; cross plied laminates (0 sub 2/90 sub 2); and angle plied laminates: (+45 sub 2/-45 sub 2). Each laminate contained eight fiber plies. Results of the unidirectionally reinforced composites tested at various angles to the reinforcement direction indicate large anisotropy in in-plane properties. In addition, strength properties of these composites along the fiber direction were independent of specimen gage length and were unaffected by notches normal to the fiber direction. Splitting parallel to the fiber at the notch tip appears to be the dominant crack blunting mechanism responsible for notch insensitive behavior of these composites. In-plane properties of the composites can be improved by 2-D laminate construction. Mechanical property results for (0 sub 2/90 sub 2) sub s and (+45/-45 sub 2) sub s laminates showed that their matrix failure strains were similar to that for (0) sub 8 laminates, but their primary elastic moduli, matrix cracking strengths, and ultimate composite strengths were lower. The elastic properties of unidirectional, cross-ply, and angle-ply composites can be predicted from modified constitutive equations and laminate theory. Further improvements in laminate properties may be achieved by reducing the matrix porosity and by optimizing the bond strength between the SiC fiber and RBSN matrix.

  15. Laminate behavior for SiC fiber-reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhatt, R. T.; Phillips, R. E.

    1988-01-01

    The room temperature mechanical properties of SiC fiber reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride matrix composite laminates (SiC/RBSN) have been measured. The laminates contained approx 30 volume fraction of aligned 142-micron diameter SiC fiber in a porous RBSN matrix. Three types of laminate studied were unidirectional: (1) (0) sub 8, (2) (10) sub 8, and (3) (45) sub 8, and (90) sub 8; cross plied laminates (0 sub 2/90 sub 2); and angle plied laminates: (+45 sub 2/-45 sub 2). Each laminate contained eight fiber plies. Results of the unidirectionally reinforced composites tested at various angles to the reinforcement direction indicate large anisotropy in in-plane properties. In addition, strength properties of these composites along the fiber direction were independent of specimen gage length and were unaffected by notches normal to the fiber direction. Splitting parallel to the fiber at the notch tip appears to be the dominant crack blunting mechanism responsible for notch insensitive behavior of these composites. In-plane properties of the composites can be improved by 2-D laminate construction. Mechanical property results for (0 sub 2/90 sub 2)sub s and (+45/-45 sub 2) sub s laminates showed that their matrix failure strains were similar to that for (0) sub 8 laminates, but their primary elastic moduli, matrix cracking strengths, and ultimate composite strengths were lower. The elastic properties of unidirectional, cross-ply, and angle-ply composites can be predicted from modified constitutive equations and laminate theory. Further improvements in laminate properties may be achieved by reducing the matrix porosity and by optimizing the bond strength between the SiC fiber and RBSN matrix.

  16. Buckling of Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Polymer Laminated Composite Materials Subjected to Axial Compression and Shear Loadings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riddick, J. C.; Gates, T. S.; Frankland, S.-J. V.

    2005-01-01

    A multi-scale method to predict the stiffness and stability properties of carbon nanotube-reinforced laminates has been developed. This method is used in the prediction of the buckling behavior of laminated carbon nanotube-polyethylene composites formed by stacking layers of carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer with the nanotube alignment axes of each layer oriented in different directions. Linking of intrinsic, nanoscale-material definitions to finite scale-structural properties is achieved via a hierarchical approach in which the elastic properties of the reinforced layers are predicted by an equivalent continuum modeling technique. Solutions for infinitely long symmetrically laminated nanotube-reinforced laminates with simply-supported or clamped edges subjected to axial compression and shear loadings are presented. The study focuses on the influence of nanotube volume fraction, length, orientation, and functionalization on finite-scale laminate response. Results indicate that for the selected laminate configurations considered in this study, angle-ply laminates composed of aligned, non-functionalized carbon nanotube-reinforced lamina exhibit the greatest buckling resistance with 1% nanotube volume fraction of 450 nm uniformly-distributed carbon nanotubes. In addition, hybrid laminates were considered by varying either the volume fraction or nanotube length through-the-thickness of a quasi-isotropic laminate. The ratio of buckling load-to-nanotube weight percent for the hybrid laminates considered indicate the potential for increasing the buckling efficiency of nanotube-reinforced laminates by optimizing nanotube size and proportion with respect to laminate configuration.

  17. Plasticity of continuous fiber-reinforced metals

    SciTech Connect

    Bystricky, P.; Mortensen, A.; Bjerregaard, H.

    1999-07-01

    Continuous parallel alumina fiber-reinforced metals produced by pressure infiltration are tested in tension/compression along the fiber axis with a goal of measuring the influence exerted by long fibers on the flow stress of their matrix. In this configuration, the equistrain rule of mixtures, modified to take into account stresses due to differential lateral contraction, can be used to back-calculate the matrix flow stress from that of the composite. This method provides the least physically ambiguous measurement of matrix flow stress in the composite; however, experimental uncertainty can be high. This uncertainty is evaluated in detail for the present experiments, in which matrix in situ stress-strain curves are measured for cast 3M NEXTEL 610 and DUPONT FIBER FP reinforced pure and alloyed aluminum- and copper-based matrices of varying propensity for recovery and cross-slip. Within experimental uncertainty, data show no enhanced matrix work-hardening rates such as those that have been measured with tungsten fiber-reinforced copper. It is found that the fibers alter the matrix plastic flow behavior by increasing the flow-stress amplitude of the matrix, and by rendering initial yield in compression more progressive than in initial tension. Essentially, all observed features of matrix/fiber interaction can be rationalized as attributable to dislocation emission in the matrix caused by thermal mismatch strains within the material during composite cooldown from processing temperatures.

  18. Processing and Evaluation of 3D-Reinforced Needled Composite Laminate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    This report documents the fabrication and test of a woven glass /epoxy composite laminate that was reinforced in the through- thickness direction with...the in-plane strength of woven glass materials. Because the processing parameters were arbitrarily chosen, these experiments should be considered as...delamination resistance of composite laminates. The tufting process uses a hollow needle to insert glass or carbon threads comprised of typically

  19. Hygrothermal effects on the mechanical behaviour of graphite fibre-reinforced epoxy laminates beyond initial failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishai, O.; Garg, A.; Nelson, H. G.

    1986-01-01

    The critical load levels and associated cracking beyond which a multidirectional laminate can be considered as structurally failed has been determined by loading graphite fiber-reinforced epoxy laminates to different strain levels up to ultimate failure. Transverse matrix cracking was monitored by acoustic and optical methods. The residual stiffness and strength parallel and perpendicular to the cracks were determined and related to the environmental/loading history. Within the range of experimental conditions studied, it is concluded that the transverse cracking process does not have a crucial effect on the structural performance of multidirectional composite laminates.

  20. Smart damping of laminated fuzzy fiber reinforced composite shells using 1-3 piezoelectric composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundalwal, S. I.; Kumar, R. Suresh; Ray, M. C.

    2013-10-01

    This paper deals with the investigation of active constrained layer damping (ACLD) of smart laminated continuous fuzzy fiber reinforced composite (FFRC) shells. The distinct constructional feature of a novel FFRC is that the uniformly spaced short carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are radially grown on the circumferential surfaces of the continuous carbon fiber reinforcements. The constraining layer of the ACLD treatment is considered to be made of vertically/obliquely reinforced 1-3 piezoelectric composite materials. A finite element (FE) model is developed for the laminated FFRC shells integrated with the two patches of the ACLD treatment to investigate the damping characteristics of the laminated FFRC shells. The effect of variation of the orientation angle of the piezoelectric fibers on the damping characteristics of the laminated FFRC shells has been studied when the piezoelectric fibers are coplanar with either of the two mutually orthogonal vertical planes of the piezoelectric composite layer. It is revealed that radial growth of CNTs on the circumferential surfaces of the carbon fibers enhances the attenuation of the amplitude of vibrations and the natural frequencies of the laminated FFRC shells over those of laminated base composite shells without CNTs.

  1. [Fusion implants of carbon fiber reinforced plastic].

    PubMed

    Früh, H J; Liebetrau, A; Bertagnoli, R

    2002-05-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) are used in the medical field when high mechanical strength, innovative design, and radiolucency (see spinal fusion implants) are needed. During the manufacturing process of the material CFRP carbon fibers are embedded into a resin matrix. This resin material could be thermoset (e.g., epoxy resin EPN/DDS) or thermoplastic (e.g., PEAK). CFRP is biocompatible, radiolucent, and has higher mechanical capabilities compared to other implant materials. This publication demonstrates the manufacturing process of fusion implants made of a thermoset matrix system using a fiber winding process. The material has been used clinically since 1994 for fusion implants of the cervical and lumbar spine. The results of the fusion systems CORNERSTONE-SR C (cervical) and UNION (lumbar) showed no implant-related complications. New implant systems made of this CFRP material are under investigation and are presented.

  2. Reinforced plastics and aerogels by nanocrystalline cellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Alfred C. W.; Lam, Edmond; Chong, Jonathan; Hrapovic, Sabahudin; Luong, John H. T.

    2013-05-01

    Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC), a rigid rod-like nanoscale material, can be produced from cellulosic biomass in powder, liquid, or gel forms by acid and chemical hydrolysis. Owing to its unique and exceptional physicochemical properties, the incorporation of a small amount of NCC into plastic enhances the mechanical strength of the latter by several orders of magnitudes. Carbohydrate-based NCC poses no serious environmental concerns, providing further impetus for the development and applications of this green and renewable biomaterial to fabricate lightweight and biodegradable composites and aerogels. Surface functionalization of NCC remains the main focus of NCC research to tailor its properties for dispersion in hydrophilic or hydrophobic media. It is of uttermost importance to develop tools and protocols for imaging of NCC in a complex matrix and quantify its reinforcement effect.

  3. Allergic contact dermatitis from a nonbisphenol A epoxy in a graphite fiber reinforced epoxy laminate.

    PubMed

    Mathias, C G

    1987-09-01

    An employee of the Composites Division of an aircraft engine manufacturing firm developed dermatitis associated with the handling of a graphite fiber reinforced epoxy laminate (epoxy prepreg). Patch test investigation demonstrated that the responsible causal agent was the nonbisphenol A epoxy binder, 4-glycidyloxy-N, N-diglycidylaniline. A patch test with bisphenol A epoxy from a standard patch test screening series was negative. Subsequent interviews with employees of the Composites Division suggested that a relative lack of awareness of the cutaneous hazards of fiber reinforced epoxy laminates, compared with liquid epoxy resin systems, may be an important risk factor for allergic sensitization to these composite materials.

  4. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STRUCTURAL AND STRENGTH CHARACTERISTICS OF FIBER-GLASS LAMINATES,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    REINFORCED PLASTICS, STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES, LAMINATES, EPOXY RESINS, GLASS TEXTILES, LOADS(FORCES), TENSILE PROPERTIES, COMPRESSIVE PROPERTIES, LIFE EXPECTANCY(SERVICE LIFE), USSR, MECHANICAL PROPERTIES.

  5. Influence of the Geometric Parameters on the Mechanical Behaviour of Fabric Reinforced Composite Laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axinte, Andrei; Taranu, Nicolae; Bejan, Liliana

    2016-10-01

    A polymer fabric reinforced composite is a high performance material, which combines strength of the fibres with the flexibility and ductility of the matrix. For a better drapeability, the tows of fibres are interleaved, resulting the woven fabric, used as reinforcement. The complex geometric shape of the fabric is of paramount importance in establishing the deformability of the textile reinforced composite laminates. In this paper, an approach based on Classical Lamination Theory ( CLT), combined with Finite Element Methods ( FEM), using Failure Analysis and Internal Load Redistribution, is utilised, in order to compare the behaviour of the material under specific loads. The main goal is to analyse the deformability of certain types of textile reinforced composite laminates, using carbon fibre satin as reinforcement and epoxy resin as matrix. This is accomplished by studying the variation of the in-plane strains, given the fluctuation of several geometric parameters, namely the width of the reinforcing tow, the gap between two consecutive tows, the angle of laminae in a multi-layered configuration and the tows fibre volume fraction.

  6. Reinforcement of composite laminate free edges with U-shaped caps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, W. E.; Gossard, T., Jr.; Jones, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    Generalized plane strain finite element analysis is used to predict reduction of interlaminar normal stresses when a U-shaped cap is bonded to the edge of a laminate. Three-dimensional composite material failure criteria are used in a progressive laminate failure analysis to predict failure loads of laminates with different edge cap designs. In an experimental program, symmetric 11-layer graphite-epoxy laminates with a one-layer cap of Kevlar-epoxy cloth are shown to be 130 to 140 percent stronger than uncapped laminates under static tensile and tension-tension fatigue loading. In addition, the coefficient of variation of the static tensile failure load decreases from 24 to 8 percent when edge caps are added. The predicted failure load calculated with the finite element results is 10 percent lower than the actual failure load. For both capped and uncapped laminates, actual failure loads are much lower than those predicted using classical lamination theory stresses and a two-dimensional failure criterion. Possible applications of the free edge reinforcement concept are described, and future research is suggested.

  7. Bond tests of fiberglass-reinforced plastic bars in concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Larralde, J.; Silva-Rodriquez, R.; Burdette, J.; Harris, B. . Civil and Architectural Engineering Dept.)

    1994-07-01

    Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP) bars for concrete reinforcement have been commercially available for several years. The main advantage of such bar relative to the conventional steel reinforcing bars is their resistance to corrosion. The reinforced plastic bars are slightly different from the conventional steel bars both geometrically and mechanically. Thus, research is needed to understand their behavior and to be able to use them in concrete reinforcement with adequate reliability. Bond strength of reinforced plastic bars in concrete is one of the mechanical and behavioral differences with the steel bars. This paper presents the results of pullout and beam tests conducted to determine the bond stress-slip behavior of FRP bars in concrete.

  8. Vibrations of fiber-reinforced laminated deep shells

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, V.; Singh, A.V.

    1996-11-01

    This paper deals with a numerical method for the free vibrational analysis of laminated deep shells. The strain-displacement relations are obtained for a general laminated shell geometry described by orthogonal curvilinear coordinates. Parabolic variation of transverse shear stresses along the thickness and the effects of rotary inertia are included in the formulation. The displacement fields are represented by Bezier patches. The shape and size of these patches are controlled by certain arbitrary points called control points. Owing to the special characteristics of these control points, the treatment of displacements, slopes, curvatures, etc., at a particular edge becomes very simple. Hence, the enforcement of boundary conditions along the edges is straightforward. Ritz-type solution procedure is used for the eigen-analysis of the shell structure. Numerical examples involving laminated spherical, conical, and cylindrical shells are investigated in detail. Such shell geometries usually have planes of symmetry; hence, only one-quarter of the shell is analyzed in this study. Good convergence of the natural frequencies is observed by using eight-order Bezier functions. The results are compared with the existing sources in the literature. The influences of material strength and number of layers on the natural frequencies are also examined.

  9. Passive vibration damping of carbon fiber reinforced plastic with PZT particles and SMA powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jaemin; Lee, Woo Il; Lee, Dasom; Park, Sungho; Moon, Sungnam

    2016-04-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) has been used various industrial fields, because of high strength, light weight, corrosion resistance and other properties. In this study, lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic particles which is one of typical piezoelectric material and shape memory alloy powder dispersed in CFRP laminate in order to improve the vibration damping by dissipating vibration energy quickly. The loss factor (tanδ) is measured in Dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) which is used to measure the viscoelastic behavior of a material to verify the change in vibration damping. The results show that there exists difference on vibration damping ability between CFRP with PZT ceramic particles and CFRP with SMA powder.

  10. Material Properties and Osteogenic Differentiation of Marrow Stromal Cells on Fiber-Reinforced Laminated Hydrogel Nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weijie; Ma, Junyu; Jabbari, Esmaiel

    2009-01-01

    The fibrils in the bone matrix are glued together by ECM proteins to form laminated structures (osteons) to provide elasticity and a supportive substrate for osteogenesis. The objective of this work was to investigate material properties and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal (BMS) cells seeded on osteon-mimetic fiber-reinforced hydrogel/apatite composites. Layers of electrospun poly(L-lactide) (L-PLA) fiber mesh coated with a poly(lactide-co-ethylene oxide fumarate) (PLEOF) hydrogel precursor solution were stacked and pressed together, and crosslinked to produce a laminated fiber-reinforced composite. Hydroxyapatite (HA) nanocrystals were added to the precursor solution to produce an osteoconductive matrix for BMS cells. Acrylamide-terminated RGD peptide (Ac-GRGD) was conjugated to the PLEOF/HA hydrogel phase to promote focal point adhesion of BMS cells. Laminates were characterized with respect to Young’s modulus, degradation kinetics, and osteogenic differentiation of BMS cells. The moduli of the laminates under dry and wet conditions were significantly higher than those of the fiber mesh and PLEOF/HA hydrogel, and within the range of values reported for wet human cancellous bone. At days 14 and 21, ALPase activity of the laminates was significantly higher than those of the fiber mesh and hydrogel. Lamination significantly increased the extent of mineralization of BMS cells and laminates with HA and conjugated with RGD (Lam-RGD-HA) had 2.7-, 3.5-, and 2.8-fold higher calcium content (compared to laminates without HA or RGD) after 7, 14, and 21 days, respectively. The Lam-RGD-HA group had significantly higher expression of osteopontin (OP) and osteocalcin (OC) compared to the hydrogel or laminates without HA or RGD, consistent with the higher ALPase activity and calcium content of Lam-RGD-HA. Laminated osteon-mimetic structures have the potential to provide mechanical strength to the regenerating region as well as supporting the differentiation

  11. Analytical and Numerical Modeling of Delamination Evolution in Fiber Reinforced Laminated Composites Subject to Flexural Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Jiawen

    Delamination is a common failure mode in composite (fiber reinforced and layered) structures subject to low-velocity impacts by foreign objects. To maximize the design capacity, it is important to have reliable tools to predict delamination evolution in laminated composites. The focus of this research is to analyze flexural responses and delamination evolution in laminated composites subject to flexural loading. Analytical solutions were derived from linear elasticity theory and structural mechanics of beam and plate configurations. Formulations and evaluations of the proposed analytical approaches were validated by comparing with results of finite element (FE) simulations in similar settings and published experiment data. Two-dimensional (2D) elasticity theory for laminated panels was extended to analyze elastodynamic responses of pristine panels and quasi-static responses of pre-delaminated panels. A highlight of the approach is exact solutions of displacement and stress fields it provides. Further investigations showed that the 2D elasticity theory is not amenable to a closed-form solution for laminates containing off-axis angle plies due to three-dimensional (3D) states of stress. Closed-form solutions of cohesive zone modeling (CZM) were developed for popular delamination toughness tests of laminated beams. A laminate was modeled as an assembly of two sub-laminates connected by a virtual deformable layer with infinitesimal thickness. Comprehensive parametric studies were performed, offering a deeper understanding of CZM. The studies were further simplified so that closed-form expressions can be obtained, serving as a quick estimation of the flexural responses and the process zone lengths. Analytical CZM solutions were extended analyze quasi-static impact tests of laminated composite plates with arbitrary stacking sequences, aiming to predict critical load, critical interfaces and extent of delamination at that interface. The Rayleigh-Ritz method was used to

  12. Laser cutting plastic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Van Cleave, R.A.

    1980-08-01

    A 1000-watt CO/sub 2/ laser has been demonstrated as a reliable production machine tool for cutting of plastics, high strength reinforced composites, and other nonmetals. More than 40 different plastics have been laser cut, and the results are tabulated. Applications for laser cutting described include fiberglass-reinforced laminates, Kevlar/epoxy composites, fiberglass-reinforced phenolics, nylon/epoxy laminates, ceramics, and disposable tooling made from acrylic.

  13. An analysis of exposure to styrene in the reinforced plastic boat-making industry.

    PubMed

    Crandall, M S; Hartle, R W

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate patterns of occupational exposure to styrene monomer in the boat-building industry, we conducted industrial hygiene surveys in seven fiberglass-reinforced plastic boat-fabrication plants. A total of 397 personal breathing zone air samples were collected on workers in four key job categories: gel coating and hull, deck, and small-parts lamination. We found that exposure to styrene in 234 (59%) of the personal samples exceeded the NIOSH-recommended time-weighted average (TWA) standard of 50 parts per million (ppm), and 96 (24%) of these samples exceeded the OSHA eight-hour TWA permissible exposure limit of 100 ppm. From highest to lowest average exposure potential, the job categories ranked in the following order: hull lamination (range 2-183 ppm, mean 78 ppm), deck lamination (range 12-160 ppm, mean 73 ppm), gel coating (range 5-94 ppm, mean 48 ppm), and small-parts lamination (range 9-130 ppm, mean 45 ppm). The former two categories composed a higher-exposure group, and the latter two tended to form a lower-exposure group. Exposures in these jobs appear to be proportional to resin consumption. Statistical analyses indicated that the parameter that most affects exposure potential is job category. Within a job category, part size, configuration, and surface area are important determinants of exposure. The principal reason for high exposures was the absence of control technologies and, in particular, the absence of adequate ventilation.

  14. Laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepedat, Karin; Wagner, Robert; Lang, Jürgen

    The use of phenolic resin for the impregnation of a carrier material such as paper or fabric based on either organic or inorganic fibers was and still is one of the most important application areas for liquid phenolic resins. Substrates like paper, cotton, or glass fabric impregnated with phenolic resins are used as core layers for decorative and technical laminates and for many other different industrial applications. Nowadays, phenolic resins for decorative laminates used for furniture, flooring, or in the construction and transportation industry have gained significant market share. The Laminates chapter mainly describes the manufacture of decorative laminates especially the impregnation and pressing process with special emphasis to new technological developments and recent trends. Moreover, the different types of laminates are introduced, combined with some brief comments as they relate to the market for decorative surfaces.

  15. Bending analysis of laminated SWCNT Reinforced functionally graded plate Using FEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavan, Shivaji G.; Lal, Achchhe

    2017-01-01

    In this paper presents bending characteristic of multi-layered carbon nanotube reinforced functionally graded composite plates. The finite element implementation of bending analysis of laminated composite plate via well-established higher order shear deformation theory(HSDT). A seven degree of freedom and C0 continuity finite element model using nine noded isoperimetric elements is developed for precise computation of ply-by-ply deflection and stresses of laminated Single Wall Carbon Nanotube Reinforced composite plate subjected to uniform transverse loading. The finite element implementation is carried out through a finite element code developed in MATLAB.The results obtained by present approach are compared with results available in the literatures. The effective material properties of the laminated SWCNTRC plate are used by Mori-Tanaka method.Numerical results have been obtained with different parameters, width-to-thickness ratio(a/h), stress distribution profile along thickness direction,different SWCNTRC-FG plate, boundary condition and various lamination schemes.

  16. Soft, conformable electrical contacts for organic semiconductors: High-resolution plastic circuits by lamination

    PubMed Central

    Loo, Yueh-Lin; Someya, Takao; Baldwin, Kirk W.; Bao, Zhenan; Ho, Peter; Dodabalapur, Ananth; Katz, Howard E.; Rogers, John A.

    2002-01-01

    Soft, conformable electrical contacts provide efficient, noninvasive probes for the transport properties of chemically and mechanically fragile, ultrathin organic semiconducting films. When combined with high-resolution printing and lamination techniques, these soft contacts also form the basis of a powerful technique for fabricating flexible plastic circuits. In this approach, a thin elastomeric film on a plastic substrate supports the electrodes and interconnections; laminating this substrate against another plastic substrate that supports the gate, dielectric and semiconductor levels establishes effective electrical contacts and completes the circuits. In addition to eliminating many of the problems associated with traditional layer-by-layer fabrication strategies, this lamination scheme possesses other attractive features: the transistors and circuit elements are naturally and efficiently encapsulated, and the active organic semiconductor layer is placed near the neutral mechanical plane. We demonstrate the features of soft, laminated contacts by fabricating large arrays of high-performance thin film transistors on plastic substrates by using a wide variety of organic semiconductors. PMID:12145323

  17. Static and dynamic behavior of carbon fiber reinforced aluminum (CARALL) laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhaliwal, Gurpinder Singh

    The main aim of this research work was to investigate the static and dynamic properties of carbon fiber reinforced aluminum laminates cured without using any external adhesive and acid treatment of aluminum layers. A comprehensive study was undertaken to study the effect of adding epoxy resin rich polyester synthetic surface veil cloth layers on the failure modes and flexural and tensile response of these fiber metal laminates (FMLs). The main purpose of adding veil cloth layers was to prevent the occurrence of galvanic corrosion by avoiding direct contact between aluminum and carbon fiber layers. The addition of veil cloth layers leads to the combined failure of all layers in carbon fiber reinforced aluminum laminates at the same time, whereas the carbon fiber/ epoxy layers break before the failure of aluminum layers in samples cured without using veil cloth layers under tensile loading. The delamination was found to be reduced to a great extent in these laminate configurations due to the addition of veil cloth layers. Thermal residual stress developed during the curing of fiber metal laminates were predicted by utilizing analytical equations and finite element modeling. It was found out that the veil cloth layer does not affect much in reducing the thermal residual stress. Low-velocity impact tests were carried out using a drop-weight impact tower by impacting these fiber metal laminates at the center with three different energy levels to address energy absorption characteristics of these composites. Results showed that these laminates give higher forces and smaller displacement with the addition of polyester veil cloth layers due to reduced delaminated area across all interfaces of aluminum and carbon fiber layers, thus increasing slightly the energy absorption capabilities of these laminates. Primary failure modes observed during impact tests in these FMLs were cracks in the non-impacted aluminum layer, carbon fiber (CFRP) layer breakage and delamination b

  18. Numerical simulation of ultrasonic wave propagation in fiber reinforced plastic using image-based modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizokami, Naoya; Nakahata, Kazuyuki; Ogi, Keiji; Yamawaki, Hisashi; Shiwa, Mitsuharu

    2017-02-01

    The use of fiber reinforced plastics (FRPs) as structural components has significantly increased in recent years. FRPs are made of stacks of plies, each of which is reinforced by fibers. When modeling ultrasonic wave propagation in FRPs, it is important to introduce three-dimensional mesoscopic and microscopic structures to account for the anisotropy and heterogeneity caused by fiber orientation and the lay-up of laminates. In this study, a finite element method using an image-based modeling is applied to simulation of ultrasonic wave propagation in a carbon FRP (CFRP). Here, the elastic stiffness of a single ply is determined using a homogenization method, where a CFRP microstructure is incorporated on the basis of a two-scale asymptotic expansion. The wave propagation in a CFRP specimen composed of unidirectionally aligned fibers is calculated, and the simulation results are compared to visualization results obtained for ultrasonic wave propagation using a laser scanning device.

  19. Design and behavior of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Mihilmy, Mahmoud Tharwat

    A comprehensive investigation of the design and behavior of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with externally bonded FRP laminates has been conducted. The study has confirmed the applicability of the strain compatibility method for calculating the increased ultimate moment capacity of the repaired beams. An upper limit to the amount of FRP that can be added to a specific structure was recommended to ensure ductile behavior. Design charts to facilitate calculations of the ultimate moment capacity for reinforced concrete beams strengthened with FRP laminates were developed. The results of a subsequent parametric investigation indicate that strengthening reinforced concrete beams with FRP laminates can enhance their ultimate capacity by as much as three times the original strength, especially for beams with a low steel ratio. It was also determined that, increasing the concrete compressive strength and the FRP modulus of elasticity increases the beam ultimate flexural capacity significantly; however, the repaired beams are less ductile than the pre-repaired concrete beams. During the course of the study, it had been noticed that the current ACI recommended method for calculating deflections for ordinary reinforced concrete beams does not render an accurate estimate for reinforced concrete beams strengthened with FRP laminates. A simplified equation for predicting the deflection of reinforced concrete beams repaired with FRP was developed and verified with comparisons to experimental results. The effectiveness of strengthening an existing bridge with externally bonded FRP laminates was investigated through comprehensive static and dynamic finite element analyses. The results of these analyses correlate well with field load test results. The repaired girders exhibited an average reduction in reinforcing steel stresses of 11 percent and an average reduction in midspan girder deflections of 9 percent. The results of the study also indicated that existing methods for

  20. Esthetic rehabilitation with laminated ceramic veneers reinforced by lithium disilicate.

    PubMed

    Soares, Paulo Vinícius; Spini, Pedro Henrique Rezende; Spini, Pedro Henrique; Carvalho, Valessa Florindo; Souza, Paula Gomes; Gonzaga, Ramon Corrêa de Queiroz; Gonzaga, Ramon Corrêa; Tolentino, Andrea Barros; Machado, Alexandre Coelho

    2014-02-01

    Because of their predictable results and conservation of tooth structure, ceramic veneers are indicated for the esthetic treatment of anterior teeth with anomalous positions or appearance. The objective of this case report is to highlight the steps in dental rehabilitation using ceramic veneers reinforced by lithium disilicate. In this case the patient had diastemas between the mandibular incisors. After preliminary procedures, diagnostic models, waxing, and mock-up were completed, an impression was made with addition silicone, and the veneers were fabricated and cemented with light-cure cement. As a result, the esthetics and function expected by the patient were achieved. The use of ceramic veneers enabled a conservative and esthetically successful rehabilitation treatment.

  1. [Carbon fiber-reinforced plastics as implant materials].

    PubMed

    Bader, R; Steinhauser, E; Rechl, H; Siebels, W; Mittelmeier, W; Gradinger, R

    2003-01-01

    Carbon fiber-reinforced plastics have been used clinically as an implant material for different applications for over 20 years.A review of technical basics of the composite materials (carbon fibers and matrix systems), fields of application,advantages (e.g., postoperative visualization without distortion in computed and magnetic resonance tomography), and disadvantages with use as an implant material is given. The question of the biocompatibility of carbon fiber-reinforced plastics is discussed on the basis of experimental and clinical studies. Selected implant systems made of carbon composite materials for treatments in orthopedic surgery such as joint replacement, tumor surgery, and spinal operations are presented and assessed. Present applications for carbon fiber reinforced plastics are seen in the field of spinal surgery, both as cages for interbody fusion and vertebral body replacement.

  2. Fracture detection in concrete by glass fiber cloth reinforced plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Soon-Gi; Lee, Sung-Riong

    2006-04-01

    Two types of carbon (carbon fiber and carbon powder) and a glass cloth were used as conductive phases and a reinforcing fiber, respectively, in polymer rods. The carbon powder was used for fabricating electrically conductive carbon powder-glass fiber reinforced plastic (CP-GFRP) rods. The carbon fiber tows and the CP-GFRP rods were adhered to mortar specimens using epoxy resin and glass fiber cloth. On bending, the electrical resistance of the carbon fiber tow attached to the mortar specimen increased greatly after crack generation, and that of the CP-GFRP rod increased after the early stages of deflection in the mortar. Therefore, the CP-GFRP rod is superior to the carbon fiber tow in detecting fractures. Also, by reinforcing with a glass fiber cloth reinforced plastic, the strength of the mortar specimens became more than twice as strong as that of the unreinforced mortar.

  3. Determination of tensile and compressive moduli of laminae in unidirectionally reinforced laminate by flexural tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuklinski, Mariusz

    2017-03-01

    The Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is widely used in engineering despite of various simplifications. One of which, that do matters in this article, is neglecting the difference between tensile and compressive moduli. Experimental tests reveal that for fibre reinforced composites tensile moduli are generally greater than compressive ones. This paper presents the results of testing the laminate composed of four unidirectionally glass reinforced laminae separated by layers of glass mat. The specimens were subjected to flexural, tensile and compressive loading in order to calculate corresponding moduli of elasticity. The results were compared using equations of Classical Beam Theory. Knowing the tensile and compressive moduli of glass mat reinforced laminae and performing flexural tests of laminate it is possible to calculate the tensile and compressive moduli of unidirectionally glass reinforced laminae. The experimental data taken into calculations correspond to linear normal strains of 0.0005 and 0.0025. The experimental data are consistent with results of calculations within acceptable margin of tolerance.

  4. Automobile materials competition: energy implications of fiber-reinforced plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings-Saxton, J.

    1981-10-01

    The embodied energy, structural weight, and transportation energy (fuel requirement) characteristics of steel, fiber-reinforced plastics, and aluminum were assessed to determine the overall energy savings of materials substitution in automobiles. In body panels, a 1.0-lb steel component with an associated 0.5 lb in secondary weight is structurally equivalent to a 0.6-lb fiber-reinforced plastic component with 0.3 lb in associated secondary weight or a 0.5-lb aluminum component with 0.25 lb of secondary weight. (Secondary weight refers to the combined weight of the vehicle's support structure, engine, braking system, and drive train, all of which can be reduced in response to a decrease in total vehicle weight.) The life cycle transportation energy requirements of structurally equivalent body panels (including their associated secondary weights) are 174.4 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for steel, 104.6 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for fiber-reinforced plastics, and 87.2 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for aluminum. The embodied energy requirements are 37.2 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for steel, 22.1 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for fiber-reinforced plastics, and 87.1 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for aluminum. These results can be combined to yield total energy requirements of 211.6 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for steel, 126.7 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for fiber-reinforced plastics, and 174.3 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for aluminum. Fiber-reinforced plastics offer the greatest improvements over steel in both embodied and total energy requirements. Aluminum achieves the greatest savings in transportation energy.

  5. Plastic matrix composites with continuous fiber reinforcement

    SciTech Connect

    1991-09-19

    Most plastic resins are not suitable for structural applications. Although many resins are extremely tough, most lack strength, stiffness, and deform under load with time. By mixing strong, stiff, fibrous materials into the plastic matrix, a variety of structural composite materials can be formed. The properties of these composites can be tailored by fiber selection, orientation, and other factors to suit specific applications. The advantages and disadvantages of fiberglass, carbon-graphite, aramid (Kevlar 49), and boron fibers are summarized.

  6. Plasticity Tool for Predicting Shear Nonlinearity of Unidirectional Laminates Under Multiaxial Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, John T.; Bomarito, Geoffrey F.

    2016-01-01

    This study implements a plasticity tool to predict the nonlinear shear behavior of unidirectional composite laminates under multiaxial loadings, with an intent to further develop the tool for use in composite progressive damage analysis. The steps for developing the plasticity tool include establishing a general quadratic yield function, deriving the incremental elasto-plastic stress-strain relations using the yield function with associated flow rule, and integrating the elasto-plastic stress-strain relations with a modified Euler method and a substepping scheme. Micromechanics analyses are performed to obtain normal and shear stress-strain curves that are used in determining the plasticity parameters of the yield function. By analyzing a micromechanics model, a virtual testing approach is used to replace costly experimental tests for obtaining stress-strain responses of composites under various loadings. The predicted elastic moduli and Poisson's ratios are in good agreement with experimental data. The substepping scheme for integrating the elasto-plastic stress-strain relations is suitable for working with displacement-based finite element codes. An illustration problem is solved to show that the plasticity tool can predict the nonlinear shear behavior for a unidirectional laminate subjected to multiaxial loadings.

  7. Carbon-Fiber Reinforced Plastic Passive Composite Damper by Use of Piezoelectric Polymer/Ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimoto, Toshio

    2002-11-01

    In this study, the passive damping of carbon-fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) cantilever beams is examined using (1) interleaving of viscoelastic thermoplastic films, (2) piezoelectric polymer (PVDF) film interlayers and (3) surface-bonded piezoelectric ceramics. Introducing polyethylene-based film interlayers between composite plies resulted in a significant increase in the vibration loss factor. It is also shown that the vibration damping of CFRP laminates can be improved passively by means of PVDF film interlayers and resistively shunted, surface-bonded piezoelectric ceramic, PbZrO3-PbTiO3 (PZT) sheets. This paper also discusses the enhanced vibration damping of CFRP laminates with dispersed PZT particle interlayers. All these damping methods, interleaving of thermoplastic films, interlayers of PVDF films or dispersed PZT particles between composite plies, and resistively shunted, surface-bonded PZT sheets, can be jointly used to improve the damping of CFRP laminates/structures. The use of CFRP beams in combination with several damping concepts discussed here is promising for application in structures where light weight and improved vibration damping are desired.

  8. Evaluation of Thrust force in Drilling Woven roving Glass fibre reinforced Aluminium Sandwich laminates with TiAlN coated drill using Taguchi analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramya Devi, G.; Palanikumar, K.

    2017-05-01

    TiAlN is a high-performance coating which outshines in coarse and hard-to-machine materials like cast iron, aluminium alloys, tool steels, and nickel alloys. This paper presents the prediction and evaluation of thrust force and Torque in drilling of Woven roving Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic and Aluminium sandwich laminate. The Prediction is based on Taguchi method. The experimental results specify that the feed rate and the drill diameter are the most significant factors affecting the thrust force, while the feed rate and spindle speed contribute the most to the surface roughness. In this study, the objective was to establish a correlation between the feed rate, spindle speed and drill diameter with the induced thrust force and Torque in drilling sandwich laminate.

  9. Progressive Fracture of Laminated Fiber-Reinforced Composite Stiffened Plate Under Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gotsis, Pascalis K.; Abdi, Frank; Chamis, Christos C.; Tsouros, Konstantinos

    2007-01-01

    S-Glass/epoxy laminated fiber-reinforced composite stiffened plate structure with laminate configuration (0/90)5 was simulated to investigate damage and fracture progression, under uniform pressure. For comparison reasons a simple plate was examined, in addition with the stiffened plate. An integrated computer code was used for the simulation. The damage initiation began with matrix failure in tension, continuous with damage and/or fracture progression as a result of additional matrix failure and fiber fracture and followed by additional interply delamination. Fracture through the thickness began when the damage accumulation was 90%. After that stage, the cracks propagate rapidly and the structures collapse. The collapse load for the simple plate is 21.57 MPa (3120 psi) and for the stiffened plate 25.24 MPa (3660 psi).

  10. Strength Analysis of Glass-Fiber-Reinforced Plastic during Buckling,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    An algorithm is developed for calculating and analyzing the stress tensor by the experimental function of deflections during the buckling of glass ... fiber -reinforced plastic shells loaded with a hydrostatic load. Malmeyster’s theory of strength is used to qualitatively establish the possible points of shell failure. (Author-PL)

  11. Design and development of a laminated glass-plastic Fresnel lens for point focus photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Matalon, L. A.

    1982-08-01

    The design and development of a laminated glass-plastic Fresnel lens for point focus photovoltaic systems use is described. The objective of this development was to examine the feasibility of producing lenses with a cost effectiveness superior to that of lenses made by casting of acrylic. The procedure used in executing this development, the method used in cost effectiveness evaluation, results obtained and recommendations for further work are presented.

  12. Steady state response of unsymmetrically laminated plates

    SciTech Connect

    Hosokawa, Kenji; Kawashima, Katsuya; Sakata, Toshiyuki

    1995-11-01

    A numerical approach for analyzing the forced vibration problem of a symmetrically laminated FRP (fiber reinforced plastic) composite plate was proposed by the authors. In the present paper, this approach is modified for application to an unsymmetrically laminated FRP composite plate. Numerical calculations are carried out for the clamped antisymmetrically laminated rectangular and elliptical plates which are a kind of unsymmetrically laminated plate. Then,, the effects of the lamina material and the fiber orientation angle on the steady state response are discussed. Furthermore, it is investigated that what structural damping factor is most influenced on the steady state response of an antisymmetrically laminated plate.

  13. Strength and Failure Analysis of Composite Laminate Containing a Circular Hole with Reinforcement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    0.733 -0.885 14 0.1 73718 0.753 1.771 -0.582 a. 15 70528 0.720 -2.633 1 _ 16 49572 0.506 -8.200 17 Plexi - 0.2 55625 0.568 3.009 -1.604 18 glass 54205...Characteristic Length, al, of the Effective Average Stress Model ..... ............. .. 26 5. Strength Reduction Factor of GR/EP Laminate with an Open Hole...Typical Failure Mode of Compression Test. . . 48 15(a). Comparison of Strength Reduction Factor (SRF) of the Open Hole versus Bonded Reinforcement

  14. Reversible dielectric property degradation in moisture-contaminated fiber-reinforced laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Luis A.; García, Carla; Fittipaldi, Mauro; Grace, Landon R.

    2016-03-01

    The potential for recovery of dielectric properties of three water-contaminated fiber-reinforced laminates is investigated using a split-post dielectric resonant technique at X-band (10 GHz). The three material systems investigated are bismaleimide (BMI) reinforced with an eight-harness satin weave quartz fabric, an epoxy resin reinforced with an eight- harness satin weave glass fabric (style 7781), and the same epoxy reinforced with a four-harness woven glass fabric (style 4180). A direct correlation between moisture content, dielectric constant, and loss tangent was observed during moisture absorption by immersion in distilled water at 25 °C for five equivalent samples of each material system. This trend is observed through at least 0.72% water content by weight for all three systems. The absorption of water into the BMI, 7781 epoxy, and 4180 epoxy laminates resulted in a 4.66%, 3.35%, and 4.01% increase in dielectric constant for a 0.679%, 0.608%, and 0.719% increase in water content by weight, respectively. Likewise, a significant increase was noticed in loss tangent for each material. The same water content is responsible for a 228%, 71.4%, and 64.1% increase in loss tangent, respectively. Subsequent to full desorption through drying at elevated temperature, the dielectric constant and loss tangent of each laminate exhibited minimal change from the dry, pre-absorption state. The dielectric constant and loss tangent change after the absorption and desorption cycle, relative to the initial state, was 0.144 % and 2.63% in the BMI, 0.084% and 1.71% in the style 7781 epoxy, and 0.003% and 4.51% in the style 4180 epoxy at near-zero moisture content. The similarity of dielectric constant and loss tangent in samples prior to absorption and after desorption suggests that any chemical or morphological changes induced by the presence of water have not caused irreversible changes in the dielectric properties of the laminates.

  15. Springback Angle of a C/PPS Laminate with a Textile Reinforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padovec, Z.; Růžička, M.

    2013-05-01

    The residual stresses arising in fiber-reinforced laminates during their curing in closed molds lead to changes in the composites after their removal from the molds and cooling. One of these dimensional changes of angle sections is called springback. The article compares the springback angles computed by a model representating the weave geometry (for plain and satin weaves) and by a model with straight fibers with values measured after the manufacturing process. A comparison between the thermoelastic characteristics of composites computed by both the models also presented.

  16. Numerical Analysis of the Edge Effect in a Composite Laminate with Compressed Reinforcement Plies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bystrov, V. M.; Dekret, V. A.; Zelenskii, V. S.

    2015-09-01

    A piecewise-homogeneous material model is used to numerically determine the edge effect length in a composite laminate with reinforcement plies subject to unidirectional longitudinal compression. Consideration is given to mixed boundary conditions (regularity of the material structure and symmetry of the surface load) on the sides of the composite specimen and boundary conditions for stresses on the stress-free sides of the specimen. The dependence of the edge effect length on the ratio of the mechanical characteristics of the composite components is studied

  17. Development of flexible plasmonic plastic sensor using nanograting textured laminating film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Sudha; Mohapatra, Saswat; Moirangthem, Rakesh S.

    2017-02-01

    The work presented in this paper describes the development of a cost-effective, flexible plasmonic plastic sensor using gold-coated nanograting nanoimprinted on a laminating plastic. The fabrication of plasmonic plastic sensor involved the transfer of nanograting pattern from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer stamp to laminating plastic via thermal nanoimprint lithography, and subsequent gold film deposition. Gold-coated nanograting sample acted as a plasmonic chip, which exhibited surface plasmon resonance (SPR) mode in reflectance spectra under the white light illumination. The theoretical calculation was performed to study and analyze the excited SPR mode on the plasmonic chip. Further, the bulk refractive index sensitivity was demonstrated with respect to changing surrounding dielectric medium giving a value about 800  ±  27 nm/RIU (refractive index unit). In addition, the surface binding sensitivity upon adsorption of bovine serum albumin protein on the sensor surface was approximately 4.605 nm/(ng/mm2).We believe that our proposed low-cost plastic based plasmonic sensing device could be a potential candidate for the label-free and high-throughput screening of biological molecules.

  18. Characterization and analysis of carbon fibre-reinforced polymer composite laminates with embedded circular vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Huang, C.-Y.; Trask, R. S.; Bond, I. P.

    2010-01-01

    A study of the influence of embedded circular hollow vascules on structural performance of a fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite laminate is presented. Incorporating such vascules will lead to multi-functional composites by bestowing functions such as self-healing and active thermal management. However, the presence of off-axis vascules leads to localized disruption to the fibre architecture, i.e. resin-rich pockets, which are regarded as internal defects and may cause stress concentrations within the structure. Engineering approaches for creating these simple vascule geometries in conventional FRP laminates are proposed and demonstrated. This study includes development of a manufacturing method for forming vascules, microscopic characterization of their effect on the laminate, finite element (FE) analysis of crack initiation and failure under load, and validation of the FE results via mechanical testing observed using high-speed photography. The failure behaviour predicted by FE modelling is in good agreement with experimental results. The reduction in compressive strength owing to the embedding of circular vascules ranges from 13 to 70 per cent, which correlates with vascule dimension. PMID:20150337

  19. Delamination behavior of carbon fiber/epoxy composite laminates with short fiber reinforcement

    SciTech Connect

    Sohn, M.S.; Hu, X.Z. . Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering)

    1994-06-01

    Delamination in laminated materials is one major mode of damage and failure encountered in application. Fracture mechanics is often used to characterize the interlaminar fracture behavior. The interlaminar fracture energies, G[sub I], G[sub II] and G[sub I/II] are the major concerns to characterize the interlaminar toughness of the composite laminates. Typical mode-I fracture is caused by normal tension, and typical mode-II fracture by shear in the direction of crack extension. The objective of the present study is to compare and discuss the mode-I and mode-II interlaminar fracture energies, G[sub I] and G[sub II] of carbon fiber/epoxy composite laminates with and without the reinforcement of short Kevlar fibers (5--7 mm in length) and to identify the microfracture features of the Kevlar fibers under those two delamination modes through SEM observations. Double cantilever beam (DCB) specimens and end notched flexure (ENF) specimens are used for the mode-I and -II delamination experiments.

  20. Characterization and analysis of carbon fibre-reinforced polymer composite laminates with embedded circular vasculature.

    PubMed

    Huang, C-Y; Trask, R S; Bond, I P

    2010-08-06

    A study of the influence of embedded circular hollow vascules on structural performance of a fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite laminate is presented. Incorporating such vascules will lead to multi-functional composites by bestowing functions such as self-healing and active thermal management. However, the presence of off-axis vascules leads to localized disruption to the fibre architecture, i.e. resin-rich pockets, which are regarded as internal defects and may cause stress concentrations within the structure. Engineering approaches for creating these simple vascule geometries in conventional FRP laminates are proposed and demonstrated. This study includes development of a manufacturing method for forming vascules, microscopic characterization of their effect on the laminate, finite element (FE) analysis of crack initiation and failure under load, and validation of the FE results via mechanical testing observed using high-speed photography. The failure behaviour predicted by FE modelling is in good agreement with experimental results. The reduction in compressive strength owing to the embedding of circular vascules ranges from 13 to 70 per cent, which correlates with vascule dimension.

  1. Application of glass-fiber reinforced plastic (GRP) mud-mats for Daria-A platform

    SciTech Connect

    Bertorelli, D.; Spessa, A.

    1994-12-31

    A review of the experience gained with glass-fiber reinforced plastic (GRP) mud-mat materials used for the Garibaldi-C jacket, in the Adriatic sea, has shown that this solution can result in substantial cost savings. Therefore, Agip has investigated a further use of GRP mud-mats for the Daria-A platform as a means of reducing the lifting weight of the jacket and, moreover, to negate the requirement for additional buoyancy tanks during the free flotation and upending phases. Two possible solutions, the ``pultrusion`` and the ``lamination`` techniques, have been investigated to fabricate sandwich panels for the mud-mats. In this paper these two technologies are discussed with respect to their application to the construction and they are compared on a performance and cost basis.

  2. Ultrasonic inspection of carbon fiber reinforced plastic by means of sample-recognition methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilgram, R.

    1985-01-01

    In the case of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP), it has not yet been possible to detect nonlocal defects and material degradation related to aging with the aid of nondestructive inspection method. An approach for overcoming difficulties regarding such an inspection involves an extension of the ultrasonic inspection procedure on the basis of a use of signal processing and sample recognition methods. The basic concept involved in this approach is related to the realization that the ultrasonic signal contains information regarding the medium which is not utilized in conventional ultrasonic inspection. However, the analytical study of the phyiscal processes involved is very complex. For this reason, an empirical approach is employed to make use of the information which has not been utilized before. This approach uses reference signals which can be obtained with material specimens of different quality. The implementation of these concepts for the supersonic inspection of CFRP laminates is discussed.

  3. Fiber reinforcement of metal matrices against plastic flow

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, D.; Liu, T.

    1999-07-01

    The uniaxial stress-strain behavior and plastic flow in rate-independent plastic flow for transverse loading of continuous fiber-reinforced metal-matrix composites are examined in this paper. Cell models with different packing arrangements are employed to analyze the effects of fiber cross-sectional shapes (square, circular, and diamond) and periodic distributions (square, hexagonal and diagonal packing arrays) as well as transverse loading directions (45, 0, or 90{degree}) on the transverse plastic deformation of metal-matrix composites reinforced with periodically distributed, aligned continuous fibers. Calculations were carried out using increasingly refined meshes to demonstrate numerical convergence. The calculations of the alternations in matrix field quantities in response to controlled changes in the fiber packing array give insights into the effects of fiber clustering on the transverse plastic flow. The results indicated that the overall transverse plastic flow of the composites is sensitive to fiber geometric parameters, such as fiber shape, packing arrangement and volume fraction, and to the transverse loading direction. The stress contours demonstrated that the interference of fibers with flow paths plays an important role in the transverse strengthening mechanism.

  4. Properties of fiber reinforced plastics about static and dynamic loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudinov, Vladimir V.; Korneeva, Natalia V.

    2016-05-01

    A method for investigation of impact toughness of anisotropic polymer composite materials (reinforced plastics) with the help of CM model sample in the configuration of microplastic (micro plastic) and impact pendulum-type testing machine under static and dynamic loadings has been developed. The method is called "Break by Impact" (Impact Break IB). The estimation of impact resistance CFRP by this method showed that an increase in loading velocity ~104 times the largest changes occurs in impact toughness and deformation ability of a material.

  5. Resonance Tests on Glass Reinforced Plastic Composite Panels.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    glass -- fibre woven roving and glass - fibre chopped strand mat. BP Cellobond A2785-CV resin was used to bond the glass fibre layers to the foam. A rib was...foam slabs were filled with putty. The differences between the panels were the number of layers of glass fibre used on each side, the density of the...ORGANISATION AERONAUTICAL RESEARCH LABORATORIES MELBOURNE, VICTORIA Structures Technical Memorandum 329 RESONANCE TESTS O GLASS REINFORCED PLASTIC

  6. High-strength fiber-reinforced plastic reinforcement of wood and wood composite

    SciTech Connect

    Tingley, D.A.; Eng, P.

    1996-12-31

    Research and development underway since 1982 has led to the development of a method of reinforcing wood and wood composite structural products (WWC) using high-strength fiber-reinforced plastic. This method allows the use of less wood fiber and lower grade wood fiber for a given load capacity. The first WWC in which reinforcement has been marketed is glulam beams. Marketed under the trade name FiRP{trademark} Reinforced glulam, the product has gained code approval and is now being used in the construction of buildings and bridges in the United States, Japan and other countries. The high-strength fiber-reinforced plastic (FiRP{trademark} Reinforced panel (RP)) has specific characteristics that are required to provide for proper use in WWC`s. This paper discusses these characteristics and the testing requirements to develop code approved allowable design values for carbon, aramid and fiberglass RP`s for such uses. Specific issues such as in-service characteristics, i.e. long term creep tests and tension-tension fatigue tests, are discussed.

  7. Interlaminar fracture reinforcement under mode-II loading: Post-cure through-thickness reinforcement of graphite epoxy, unidirectional laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Joel B.

    A novel through-thickness reinforcement method proposed by S. Kravchenko et al., has been static tested under mode II loading using end notched flexure (ENF), unidirectional laminate specimens to determine the impact on the apparent critical fracture toughness (GIIc) for the material tested. Both experimental and numerical methods have been employed in an attempt to characterize and model these effects. Testing and analysis were conducted on two different specimen thickness, 2.34 mm and 3.54 mm nominally. ASTM D7905/7905M -- 14 was followed during the experimental portion of the thick specimens. Multiple reinforcing configurations using the proposed technique were experimentally tested including single, double, and quadruple rows of orthogonal, pultruded carbon/epoxy pins located within the crack and ahead of the crack (pristine material) to determine the effect on the apparent critical fracture toughness for each configuration. Both pre-cracked and no pre-cracked specimens were evaluated. The results of this study indicate that specimens pinned in the crack experienced the highest supportable reaction force such that the crack was completely arrested and most of the specimens failed in flexure. Pre-cracked specimens that were pinned in the body exhibited stable crack growth as well as a shadowing phenomenon. Both pins and the crack surface topography due to this phenomenon are attributed to the increased apparent fracture toughness for these specimens. Similar outcomes were observed through numerical simulations for the models simulated in this study.

  8. Plastic Fibre Reinforced Soil Blocks as a Sustainable Building Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, C. K. Subramania; Nambiar, E. K. Kunhanandan; Abraham, Benny Mathews

    2012-10-01

    Solid waste management, especially the huge quantity of waste plastics, is one of the major environmental concerns nowadays. Their employability in block making in the form of fibres, as one of the methods of waste management, can be investigated through a fundamental research. This paper highlights the salient observations from a systematic investigation on the effect of embedded fibre from plastic waste on the performance of stabilised mud blocks. Stabilisation of the soil was done by adding cement, lime and their combination. Plastic fibre in chopped form from carry bags and mineral water bottles were added (0.1% & 0.2% by weight of soil) as reinforcement. The blocks were tested for density, and compressive strength, and observed failure patterns were analysed. Blocks with 0.1% of plastic fibres showed an increase in strength of about 3 to 10%. From the observations of failure pattern it can be concluded that benefits of fibre reinforcement includes both improved ductility in comparison with raw blocks and inhibition of crack propogation after its initial formation.

  9. Static and Dynamic Creep Properties of Laminated Plastic for Various Types of Stress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1947-02-01

    Organicj General Specifications (Methods of Tests) - L-P-4G5, Jan. 2k, 1944. 4. Lazan , B . J .: Some Mechanical Properties of Plastics and Metals...10 • X 3 (I &1 r *A • J ’/, / / 00026 In.perlh. rn 50 40 y 1 y \\f b /t / SA r K m 30 1 a < on r / v / fi //i O 20 -I...o A ^ /&. 4Lte&2&&£& J NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS TECHNICAL NOTE No. 1105 STATIC AND DYNAMIC CREEP PROPERTIES OF LAMINATED

  10. Laser machined plastic laminates. Towards portable diagnostic devices for use in low resource environments

    DOE PAGES

    Harper, Jason C.; Carson, Bryan D.; Bachand, George D.; ...

    2015-07-14

    Despite significant progress in development of bioanalytical devices cost, complexity, access to reagents and lack of infrastructure have prevented use of these technologies in resource-limited regions. To provide a sustainable tool in the global effort to combat infectious diseases the diagnostic device must be low cost, simple to operate and read, robust, and have sensitivity and specificity comparable to laboratory analysis. Thus, in this mini-review we describe recent work using laser machined plastic laminates to produce diagnostic devices that are capable of a wide variety of bioanalytical measurements and show great promise towards future use in low-resource environments.

  11. Laser machined plastic laminates. Towards portable diagnostic devices for use in low resource environments

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, Jason C.; Carson, Bryan D.; Bachand, George D.; Arndt, William D.; Finley, Melissa R.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Edwards, Thayne L.

    2015-07-14

    Despite significant progress in development of bioanalytical devices cost, complexity, access to reagents and lack of infrastructure have prevented use of these technologies in resource-limited regions. To provide a sustainable tool in the global effort to combat infectious diseases the diagnostic device must be low cost, simple to operate and read, robust, and have sensitivity and specificity comparable to laboratory analysis. Thus, in this mini-review we describe recent work using laser machined plastic laminates to produce diagnostic devices that are capable of a wide variety of bioanalytical measurements and show great promise towards future use in low-resource environments.

  12. A Two-Way Shape Change Polymeric Laminate with Fast, Large and Controllable Deformation in Response to Joule Heat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-12

    ABSTRACT In this project a polymeric laminate composite was fabricated from a carbon fiber reinforced plastic ( CFRP ) plate and a polyvinylchloride...PVC). The PVC- CFRP laminate worked as a bimorph actuator. Bending behavior of the PVC- CFRP laminate was tested by fully submerging the laminate in a...water bath and also changing the environmental temperature. It is observed that the PVC- CFRP laminate has a number of advantages compared to other

  13. Application of the Inverse Heat Conduction Analysis to the Evaluation of Defects in Carbonfiber-Reinforced Plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, M.; Nakasumi, S.; Harada, Y.; Suzuki, T.

    2015-01-01

    With increasing use of carbon-fiber-reinforced plastics (CFRPs) as structural materials, usable methods of nondestructive testing (NDT) are necessary for their fabrication. Recently, the infrared thermography has attracted attention as a powerful tool for NDT of CFRPs. In this study, inverse heat conduction analyses are performed to evaluate the width and depth of defects in 0/90 CFRP laminates with polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-and pitch-based carbon fibers. The thermophysical properties of the CFRP laminates are calculated on the basis of the rule of mixtures. Heat conduction analyses are then carried out. The simulation imitates NDT with infrared thermography, in which the back surface of the CFRP specimen with flat-bottom holes is heated, while temperature distributions are obtained on the front surface by using an infrared camera. Heat conduction analyses showed that the temperature distributions on the front surfaces were significantly affected by defects in the CFRP laminate with PAN-based carbon fibers, whereas that of the CFRP laminate with pitch-based carbon ones did not show clear differences in temperature.

  14. Development and characterization of fatigue resistant Aramid reinforced aluminium laminates (ARALL) for fatigue Critical aircraft components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qaiser, M. H.; Umar, S.; Nauman, S.

    2014-06-01

    The structural weight of an aircraft has always been a controlling parameter that governs its fuel efficiency and transport capacity. In pursuit of achieving light-weight aircraft structures, high design stress levels have to be adopted and materials with high specific strength such as Aluminum etc. are to be deployed. However, an extensive spectrum of fatigue load exists at the aircraft wings and other aerodynamic components that may cause initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks and concludes in a catastrophic rupture. Fatigue is therefore the limiting design parameter in such cases and materials with high fatigue resistance are then required. A major improvement in the fatigue behavior was observed by laminating Kevlar fibers with Aluminum using epoxy. ARALL (Aramid Reinforced ALuminum Laminates) is a fatigue resistant hybrid composite that consists of layers of thin high strength aluminum alloy sheets surface bonded with aramid fibers. The intact aramid fibers tie up the fatigue cracks, thus reducing the stress intensity factor at the crack tip as a result of which the fatigue properties of can be enhanced with orders of magnitude as compared to monolithic high strength Aluminum alloy sheets. Significant amount of weight savings can be achieved in fatigue critical components in comparison with the traditional materials used in aircraft.

  15. Acoustic emission evaluation of reinforced concrete bridge beam with graphite composite laminate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Dan E.; Shen, H. Warren; Finlayson, Richard D.

    2001-07-01

    A test was recently conducted on August 1, 2000 at the FHwA Non-Destructive Evaluation Validation Center, sponsored by The New York State DOT, to evaluate a graphite composite laminate as an effective form of retrofit for reinforced concrete bridge beam. One portion of this testing utilized Acoustic Emission Monitoring for Evaluation of the beam under test. Loading was applied to this beam using a two-point loading scheme at FHwA's facility. This load was applied in several incremental loadings until the failure of the graphite composite laminate took place. Each loading culminated by either visual crack location or large audible emissions from the beam. Between tests external cracks were located visually and highlighted and the graphite epoxy was checked for delamination. Acoustic Emission data was collected to locate cracking areas of the structure during the loading cycles. To collect this Acoustic Emission data, FHwA and NYSDOT utilized a Local Area Monitor, an Acoustic Emission instrument developed in a cooperative effort between FHwA and Physical Acoustics Corporation. Eight Acoustic Emission sensors were attached to the structure, with four on each side, in a symmetrical fashion. As testing progressed and culminated with beam failure, Acoustic Emission data was gathered and correlated against time and test load. This paper will discuss the analysis of this test data.

  16. Analysis and Test of Repair Concepts for a Carbon-Rod Reinforced Laminate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Donald J.; Rousseau, Carl Q.

    2000-01-01

    The use of pultruded carbon-epoxy rods for the reinforcement of composite laminates in some structures results in an efficient structural concept. The results of an analytical and experimental investigation of repair concepts of completely severed carbon-epoxy rods is presented. Three repair concepts are considered: (a) bonded repair with outside moldline and inside moldline doublers; (b) bonded repair with fasteners, and (c) bonded repair with outside moldline doubler only. The stiffness of the repairs was matched with the stiffness of the baseline specimen. The failure strains for the bonded repair with fasteners and the bonded repair with an outside moldline doubler exceeded a target design strain set for the repair concepts.

  17. Hypervelocity impact tests on Space Shuttle Orbiter RCC thermal protection material. [Reinforced Carbon-Carbon laminate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humes, D. H.

    1978-01-01

    It is noted that the Shuttle Orbiter will be more subject to meteoroid impact than previous spacecraft, due to its greater surface area and longer cumulative time in space. The Orbiter structural material, RCC, a reinforced carbon-carbon laminate with a diffused silicon carbide coating, is evaluated in terms of its resistance to hypervelocity impact. It was found that the specimens (disks with a mass of 34 g and a thickness of 5.0 mm) were cratered only on the front surface when the impact energy was 3 J or less. At 3 J, a trace of the black carbon interior was exposed. The specimens were completely penetrated when the energy was 34 J or greater.

  18. Failure Progress of 3D Reinforced GFRP Laminate during Static Bending, Evaluated by Means of Acoustic Emission and Vibrations Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Koziol, Mateusz; Figlus, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    The work aimed to assess the failure progress in a glass fiber-reinforced polymer laminate with a 3D-woven and (as a comparison) plain-woven reinforcement, during static bending, using acoustic emission signals. The innovative method of the separation of the signal coming from the fiber fracture and the one coming from the matrix fracture with the use of the acoustic event’s energy as a criterion was applied. The failure progress during static bending was alternatively analyzed by evaluation of the vibration signal. It gave a possibility to validate the results of the acoustic emission. Acoustic emission, as well as vibration signal analysis proved to be good and effective tools for the registration of failure effects in composite laminates. Vibration analysis is more complicated methodologically, yet it is more precise. The failure progress of the 3D laminate is “safer” and more beneficial than that of the plain-woven laminate. It exhibits less rapid load capacity drops and a higher fiber effort contribution at the moment of the main laminate failure. PMID:28793743

  19. Size effects in generalised continuum crystal plasticity for two-phase laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordero, N. M.; Gaubert, A.; Forest, S.; Busso, E. P.; Gallerneau, F.; Kruch, S.

    2010-11-01

    The solutions of a boundary value problem are explored for various classes of generalised crystal plasticity models including Cosserat, strain gradient and micromorphic crystal plasticity. The considered microstructure consists of a two-phase laminate containing a purely elastic and an elasto-plastic phase undergoing single or double slip. The local distributions of plastic slip, lattice rotation and stresses are derived when the microstructure is subjected to simple shear. The arising size effects are characterised by the overall extra back stress component resulting from the action of higher order stresses, a characteristic length lc describing the size-dependent domain of material response, and by the corresponding scaling law ln as a function of microstructural length scale, l. Explicit relations for these quantities are derived and compared for the different models. The conditions at the interface between the elastic and elasto-plastic phases are shown to play a major role in the solution. A range of material parameters is shown to exist for which the Cosserat and micromorphic approaches exhibit the same behaviour. The models display in general significantly different asymptotic regimes for small microstructural length scales. Scaling power laws with the exponent continuously ranging from 0 to -2 are obtained depending on the values of the material parameters. The unusual exponent value -2 is obtained for the strain gradient plasticity model, denoted " curl Hp" in this work. These results provide guidelines for the identification of higher order material parameters of crystal plasticity models from experimental data, such as precipitate size effects in precipitate strengthened alloys.

  20. LABORATORY INVESTIGATION OF PLASTIC-GLASS FIBER REINFORCEMENT FOR REINFORCED AND PRESTRESSED CONCRETE; PRESTRESSED CONCRETE.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The investigation consisted of the evaluation of plastic-glass fiber elements, commonly called fiber glass, as prestressing tendons in concrete...reinforced, prestressed concrete beams with the following parameters held constant: cross- sectional area of prestressing tendons , prestress tension...applied to tendons , and beam dimensions. Several methods for anchoring the fiber-glass tendons were investigated, and a method using expanding cement was

  1. Active control of geometrically nonlinear vibrations of functionally graded laminated composite plates using piezoelectric fiber reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, Satyajit; Ray, M. C.

    2009-08-01

    This paper deals with the geometrically nonlinear dynamic analysis of functionally graded (FG) laminated composite plates integrated with a patch of active constrained layer damping (ACLD) treatment. The constraining layer of the ACLD treatment is considered to be made of the piezoelectric fiber reinforced composite (PFRC) material. Each layer of the substrate FG laminated composite plate is made of fiber-reinforced composite material in which the fibers are longitudinally aligned in the plane parallel to the top or bottom surface of the layer and the layer is assumed to be graded in the thickness direction by way of varying the fiber orientation angle across its thickness according to a power-law. The novelty of the present work is that, unlike the traditional laminated composite plates, the FG laminated composite plates are constructed in such a way that the continuous variation of material properties and stresses across the thickness of the plates is achieved. The constrained viscoelastic layer of the ACLD treatment is modeled using the Golla-Hughes-McTavish (GHM) method. Based on the first-order shear deformation (FSDT) theory, a finite element model has been developed to model the open-loop and closed-loop nonlinear dynamics of the overall FG laminated composite plates. Both symmetric and asymmetric FG laminated composite plates are considered as the substrate plates for presenting the numerical results. The analysis suggests the potential use of the ACLD treatment with its constraining layer made of the PFRC material for active control of geometrically nonlinear forced vibrations of FG laminated composite plates. The effect of piezoelectric fiber orientation in the active constraining PFRC layer on the damping characteristics of the overall FG plates is also investigated.

  2. Bond strength of glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) grouted anchors

    SciTech Connect

    Bellavance, E.; Xu, H.; Benmokrane, B.

    1995-11-01

    This paper describes the results of laboratory and field pull-out tests on cement grouted glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) anchors. As an alternative for grouted steel anchors, GFRP bars have many advantages over steel tendons, and can avoid corrosion and some difficulties in transportation, handling, and installation. Three types of 36 GFRP anchors and 20 steel anchors installed in three types of host media: steel pipe, concrete block, and rock mass were tested in the laboratory as well as in the field. The bond strength, load carrying capacity, load-displacement behavior, and critical bond length of cement grouted GFRP anchors were examined in comparison with conventional steel anchors.

  3. Plastic deformation of alumina reinforced with SiC whiskers

    SciTech Connect

    DeArellano-Lopez, A.R.; Dominguez-Rodriguez, A.; Goretta, K.C.; Routbort, J.L.

    1993-06-01

    Addition of small amounts of stiff reinforcement (SiC whiskers) to a polycrystalline AL{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix partially inhibits grain boundary sliding because of an increase in threshold stress. When the concentration of whiskers is high enough, a pure diffusional mechanism takes over the control of plastic deformation of the composites. For higher whisker loadings, the materials creep properties depend on a microstructural feature different from the nominal grain size. A tentative correlation of this effective microstructural parameter with the spacing between the whiskers was established through a model.

  4. Spectral Analysis of Laser Processing of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarwitz, M.; Onuseit, V.; Weber, R.; Graf, T.

    Spectra of the optical process emissions of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) processing with a continuous wave (cw) thin disk laser are recorded for a basic characterization of the ablation process. The observed line spectra show a characteristic spectral line at a wavelength of 588.95 nm that is found to be atomic sodium (Na I). No spectral lines of atomic or ionized carbon appear in the recorded spectra leading to the conclusion that only a small fraction of C-atoms is ionized.

  5. Skin problems among fiber-glass reinforced plastics factory workers in Japan.

    PubMed

    Minamoto, Keiko; Nagano, Megumi; Inaoka, Tsukasa; Kitano, Takao; Ushijima, Kayo; Fukuda, Yoshiharu; Futatsuka, Makoto

    2002-01-01

    Two surveys, one in winter the other in summer time, examined the skin problems of the entire manual workers (N=148) from 11 small-to-medium sized fiber-glass reinforced plastics (FRP) factories located in Kyushu, Japan. The workers were exposed to unsaturated polyester resin, including styrene and auxiliary agents such as cobalt naphthenate, hardeners such as methyl ethyl ketone peroxides, glass fiber and dust including shortened glass fiber and plastic particles. Eighty-seven workers (58.8%) reported having skin problems (mainly itching or dermatitis) since they started to work in FRP manufacturing and 25 workers had consulted a physician because of their skin problems; one worker was forced to take sick leave because of his severe dermatitis. History of allergic diseases and shorter occupational period (duration of employment) in a FRP factory were associated with greater probability of having a history of work-related skin symptoms. Workers in factories where dust-generating and lamination sites were located in different buildings were significantly less likely to have a history of skin problems than those in factories where the two sites were located in the same building. Of the 67 workers examined in both seasons closed to double the prevalence of dermatitis was found in summer (23.3%) than winter (13.4%).

  6. AN INVESTIGATION OF THE MECHANICS OF FAILURE IN GLASS FIBER REINFORCED PLASTICS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    COMPOSITE MATERIALS, *PLASTICS, FILAMENT WOUND CONSTRUCTION, GLASS TEXTILES, REINFORCING MATERIALS, FRACTURE(MECHANICS), FILAMENTS, GLASS , SURFACE PROPERTIES, EPOXY RESINS, TOUGHNESS, MOISTURE, TENSILE PROPERTIES.

  7. Arrangement for connecting a fiber-reinforced plastic pipe to a stainless steel flange

    DOEpatents

    Allais, Arnaud; Hoffmann, Ernst

    2008-02-05

    Arrangement for connecting a fiber-reinforced plastic pipe (18) to a stainless steel flange (12, 16), in which the end of the fiber-reinforced plastic pipe (18) is accommodated in a ring-shaped groove (12a, 16a) in the flange (12, 16), the groove conforming to the dimensions of the fiber-reinforced plastic pipe (18), where the gap remaining between the end of the fiber-reinforced plastic pipe (18) and the ring-shaped groove (12a, 16a) is filled with a sealant (19).

  8. Fibre-reinforced laminated composite tubes with free ends under uniform internal pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayir, M. B.; Motavalli, M.

    1995-11-01

    The stress and deformation fields in a fibre-reinforced composite tube under uniform internal pressure are discussed in some detail. In the interior region far from the ends classical laminate theory delivers rather poor results and has to be adjusted to include effects due to lateral contraction and to curvature. In the region near the ends boundary conditions (here stress-free ends will be assumed) require more elaborate methods of calculation. The use of finite element methods may prove to be problematic because in some parts of the boundary region very large gradients are expected. The problem is particularly acute in lay-ups with angle-plies where 3D-elements would be needed. In the following study analytical solutions based on asymptotic approximations of the three-dimensional equations of linear elasticity for homogeneous orthotropic materials will be presented. One "small" parameter ɛR characterising thin shell geometry and another "small" parameter ɛG following from homogenised material properties of the shell structure and whose order of magnitude is comparable with ɛR are used to derive asymptotically consistent approximate solutions according to the following pattern: The adjusted laminate theory leads to stress distributions in each ply of the laminated tube which do not satisfy zero stress boundary conditions at the stress-free ends. In terms of asymptotic theory this is a typical problem of singular perturbations and can be solved by considering boundary layers near the free ends where stress and deformation fields satisfy the boundary conditions and match conveniently with stress and deformation distributions calculated with the adjusted laminate theory in the interior zone. To derive boundary layer equations which are easy to handle analytically and still obtain fairly accurate results, we replace the laminated structure by its homogeneous orthotropic equivalent. The boundary layer solutions are then obtained following the main ideas developed

  9. [Osseontegration of trial implants of carbon fiber reinforced plastics].

    PubMed

    Schreiner, U; Schwarz, M; Scheller, G; Schroeder-Boersch, H; Jani, L

    2000-01-01

    To what extent are carbon fibre-reinforced plastics (CFRP) suitable as an osseous integration surface for implants? CFRP test implants having a plexus-structured, rhombus-structured, and plexus-structured, hydroxyapatite surface were implanted in the femura of mini-plgs. Exposure time lasted 12 weeks. The implants were subjected to a macroradiological, a histological-histomorphometrical, and a fluorescence-microscopical evaluation. One half of the uncoated, plexus-structured implants were not osteointegrated, the other half displayed an osteointegration rate of 11.8% in the spongy area and 29.8% in the cortex layer. The HA-coated test implants showed an osteointegration of 29.5% in the spongiosa and 56.8% in the cortex layer. The rhombus-structured test implants had an osteointegration of 29.2% (spongiosa) and 46.2% (cortex layer). Compared to the osteointegration of metallic, especially titanium surfaces the CFRP surfaces tested by us fared worse, especially the uncoated, plexus-structured surfaces. For this reason we view very critically the use of carbon-fibre reinforced plastics together with the surfaces tested by us as osteointegrating surfaces.

  10. Influence of Compression and Shear on the Strength of Composite Laminates with Z-Pinned Reinforcement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Brien, T. Kevin; Krueger, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    The influence of compression and shear loads on the strength of composite laminates with z-pins is evaluated parametrically using a 2D Finite Element Code (FLASH) based on Cosserat couple stress theory. Meshes were generated for three unique combinations of z-pin diameter and density. A laminated plate theory analysis was performed on several layups to determine the bi-axial stresses in the zero degree plies. These stresses, in turn, were used to determine the magnitude of the relative load steps prescribed in the FLASH analyses. Results indicated that increasing pin density was more detrimental to in-plane compression strength than increasing pin diameter. Compression strengths of lamina without z-pins agreed well with a closed form expression derived by Budiansky and Fleck. FLASH results for lamina with z-pins were consistent with the closed form results, and FLASH results without z-pins, if the initial fiber waviness due to z-pin insertion was added to the fiber waviness in the material to yield a total misalignment. Addition of 10% shear to the compression loading significantly reduced the lamina strength compared to pure compression loading. Addition of 50% shear to the compression indicated shear yielding rather than kink band formation as the likely failure mode. Two different stiffener reinforced skin configurations with z-pins, one quaiisotropic and one orthotropic, were also analyzed. Six unique loading cases ranging from pure compression to compression plus 50% shear were analyzed assuming material fiber waviness misalignment angles of 0, 1, and 2 degrees. Compression strength decreased with increased shear loading for both configurations, with the quasi-isotropic configuration yielding lower strengths than the orthotropic configuration.

  11. Influence of Compression and Shear on the Strength of Composite Laminates With Z-Pinned Reinforcement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OBrien, T. Kevin; Krueger, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    The influence of compression and shear loads on the strength of composite laminates with z-pins is evaluated parametrically using a 2D Finite Element Code (FLASH) based on Cosserat couple stress theory. Meshes were generated for three unique combinations of z-pin diameter and density. A laminated plate theory analysis was performed on several layups to determine the bi-axial stresses in the zero degree plies. These stresses, in turn, were used to determine the magnitude of the relative load steps prescribed in the FLASH analyses. Results indicated that increasing pin density was more detrimental to in-plane compression strength than increasing pin diameter. Compression strengths of lamina without z-pins agreed well with a closed form expression derived by Budiansky and Fleck. FLASH results for lamina with z-pins were consistent with the closed form results, and FLASH results without z-pins, if the initial fiber waviness due to z-pin insertion was added to the fiber waviness in the material to yield a total misalignment. Addition of 10% shear to the compression loading significantly reduced the lamina strength compared to pure compression loading. Addition of 50% shear to the compression indicated shear yielding rather than kink band formation as the likely failure mode. Two different stiffener reinforced skin configurations with z-pins, one quasi-isotropic and one orthotropic, were also analyzed. Six unique loading cases ranging from pure compression to compression plus 50% shear were analyzed assuming material fiber waviness misalignment angles of 0, 1, and 2 degrees. Compression strength decreased with increased shear loading for both configurations, with the quasi-isotropic configuration yielding lower strengths than the orthotropic configuration.

  12. Effect of tool wear on quality of carbon fiber reinforced polymer laminate during edge trimming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamedanianpour, Hossein

    Polymer matrix composites, especially carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs) are vastly used in different high technology industries, including aerospace, automotive and wind energy. Normally, when CFRPs are cured to near net shape, finishing operations such as trimming, milling or drilling are used to remove excess materials. The quality of these finishing operations is highly essential at the level of final assembly. The present study aims to study the effect of cutting tool wear on the resulting quality for the trimming process of high performance CFRP laminates, in the aerospace field. In terms of quality parameters, the study focuses on surface roughness and material integrity damages (uncut fibers, fiber pullout, delamination or thermal damage of the matrix), which could jeopardize the mechanical performance of the components. In this study, a 3/8 inch diameter CVD diamond coated carbide tool with six flutes was used to trim 24-ply carbon fiber laminates. Cutting speeds ranging from 200 m/min to 400 m/min and feed rates ranging from 0.3048 mm/rev to 0.4064 mm/rev were used in the experiments. The results obtained using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed increasing defect rates with an increase in tool wear. The worst surface integrity, including matrix cracking, fiber pull-out and empty holes, was also observed for plies oriented at -45° degrees. For the surface finish, it was observed that an increase in tool wear resulted in a decrease in surface roughness. Regarding tool wear, a lower rate was observed at lower feed rates and higher cutting speeds, while a higher tool wear rate was observed at intermediate values of our feed rate and cutting speed ranges.

  13. Influence of Compression and Shear on the Strength of Composite Laminates with Z-Pinned Reinforcement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Brien, T. Kevin; Krueger, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    The influence of compression and shear loads on the strength of composite laminates with z-pins is evaluated parametrically using a 2D Finite Element Code (FLASH). Meshes were generated for three unique combinations of z-pin diameter and density. A laminated plate theory analysis was performed on several layups to determine the bi-axial stresses in the zero degree plies. These stresses, in turn, were used to determine the magnitude of the relative load steps prescribed in the FLASH analyses. Results indicated that increasing pin density was more detrimental to in-plane compression strength than increasing pin diameter. FLASH results for lamina with z-pins were consistent with the closed form results, and FLASH results without z-pins, if the initial fiber waviness due to z-pin insertion was added to the fiber waviness in the material to yield a total misalignment. Addition of 10% shear to the compression loading significantly reduced the lamina strength compared to pure compression loading. Addition of 50% shear to the compression indicated shear yielding rather than kink band formation as the likely failure mode. Two different stiffener reinforced skin configurations with z-pins, one quasi-isotropic and one orthotropic, were also analyzed. Six unique loading cases ranging from pure compression to compression plus 50% shear were analyzed assuming material fiber waviness misalignment angles of 0, 1, and 2 degrees. Compression strength decreased with increased shear loading for both configurations, with the quasi-isotropic configuration yielding lower strengths than the orthotropic configuration.

  14. Influence of laminate sequence and fabric type on the inherent acoustic nonlinearity in carbon fiber reinforced composites.

    PubMed

    Chakrapani, Sunil Kishore; Barnard, Daniel J; Dayal, Vinay

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents the study of influence of laminate sequence and fabric type on the baseline acoustic nonlinearity of fiber-reinforced composites. Nonlinear elastic wave techniques are increasingly becoming popular in detecting damage in composite materials. It was earlier observed by the authors that the non-classical nonlinear response of fiber-reinforced composite is influenced by the fiber orientation [Chakrapani, Barnard, and Dayal, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 137(2), 617-624 (2015)]. The current study expands this effort to investigate the effect of laminate sequence and fabric type on the non-classical nonlinear response. Two hypotheses were developed using the previous results, and the theory of interlaminar stresses to investigate the influence of laminate sequence and fabric type. Each hypothesis was tested by capturing the nonlinear response by performing nonlinear resonance spectroscopy and measuring frequency shifts, loss factors, and higher harmonics. It was observed that the laminate sequence can either increase or decrease the nonlinear response based on the stacking sequence. Similarly, tests were performed to compare unidirectional fabric and woven fabric and it was observed that woven fabric exhibited a lower nonlinear response compared to the unidirectional fabric. Conjectures based on the matrix properties and interlaminar stresses were used in an attempt to explain the observed nonlinear responses for different configurations.

  15. High content reduced graphene oxide reinforced copper with a bioinspired nano-laminated structure and large recoverable deformation ability

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Ding-Bang; Cao, Mu; Guo, Qiang; Tan, Zhanqiu; Fan, Genlian; Li, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Di

    2016-01-01

    By using CuO/graphene-oxide/CuO sandwich-like nanosheets as the building blocks, bulk nacre-inspired copper matrix nano-laminated composite reinforced by molecular-level dispersed and ordered reduced graphene oxide (rGO) with content as high as ∼45 vol% was fabricated via a combined process of assembly, reduction and consolidation. Thanks to nanoconfinement effect, reinforcing effect, as well as architecture effect, the nanocomposite shows increased specific strength and at least one order of magnitude greater recoverable deformation ability as compared with monolithic Cu matrix. PMID:27647264

  16. High content reduced graphene oxide reinforced copper with a bioinspired nano-laminated structure and large recoverable deformation ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Ding-Bang; Cao, Mu; Guo, Qiang; Tan, Zhanqiu; Fan, Genlian; Li, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Di

    2016-09-01

    By using CuO/graphene-oxide/CuO sandwich-like nanosheets as the building blocks, bulk nacre-inspired copper matrix nano-laminated composite reinforced by molecular-level dispersed and ordered reduced graphene oxide (rGO) with content as high as ∼45 vol% was fabricated via a combined process of assembly, reduction and consolidation. Thanks to nanoconfinement effect, reinforcing effect, as well as architecture effect, the nanocomposite shows increased specific strength and at least one order of magnitude greater recoverable deformation ability as compared with monolithic Cu matrix.

  17. Prediction of failure in notched carbon-fibre-reinforced-polymer laminates under multi-axial loading.

    PubMed

    Tan, J L Y; Deshpande, V S; Fleck, N A

    2016-07-13

    A damage-based finite-element model is used to predict the fracture behaviour of centre-notched quasi-isotropic carbon-fibre-reinforced-polymer laminates under multi-axial loading. Damage within each ply is associated with fibre tension, fibre compression, matrix tension and matrix compression. Inter-ply delamination is modelled by cohesive interfaces using a traction-separation law. Failure envelopes for a notch and a circular hole are predicted for in-plane multi-axial loading and are in good agreement with the observed failure envelopes from a parallel experimental study. The ply-by-ply (and inter-ply) damage evolution and the critical mechanisms of ultimate failure also agree with the observed damage evolution. It is demonstrated that accurate predictions of notched compressive strength are obtained upon employing the band broadening stress for microbuckling, highlighting the importance of this damage mode in compression. This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling of the structural integrity of composite materials'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  18. The strong diamagnetic behaviour of unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced polymer laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galehdar, A.; Nicholson, K. J.; Callus, P. J.; Rowe, W. S. T.; John, S.; Wang, C. H.; Ghorbani, K.

    2012-12-01

    Carbon fibers are finite conductors with a weak diamagnetic response in a static magnetic field. When illuminated with a high-frequency alternating electromagnetic wave such that the skin depth is greater than the fiber diameter, carbon-fiber composites are shown to exhibit a strong dynamic diamagnetic response. The magnetic susceptibility (χm) is controlled by the polarization angle (θ), which is the angle between the incident electric field and conductor direction. A closed form solution for this behaviour was derived using Maxwell's equations and an understanding of the induced conductor currents. The equation was verified using simulation and free space "wall" and waveguide measurements on unidirectional IM7/977-3 carbon fiber reinforced polymer laminates. The measured responses ranged from non-magnetic at θ = 90°, χm = 0, up to strongly diamagnetic at θ = 30°, χm = -0.75, over the 8-18 GHz bandwidth. The experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical predictions and computational simulations.

  19. Application of acoustic emission on the characterization of fracture in textile reinforced cement laminates.

    PubMed

    Blom, J; Wastiels, J; Aggelis, D G

    2014-01-01

    This work studies the acoustic emission (AE) behavior of textile reinforced cementitious (TRC) composites under flexural loading. The main objective is to link specific AE parameters to the fracture mechanisms that are successively dominating the failure of this laminated material. At relatively low load, fracture is initiated by matrix cracking while, at the moment of peak load and thereafter, the fiber pull-out stage is reached. Stress modeling of the material under bending reveals that initiation of shear phenomena can also be activated depending on the shape (curvature) of the plate specimens. Preliminary results show that AE waveform parameters like frequency and energy are changing during loading, following the shift of fracturing mechanisms. Additionally, the AE behavior of specimens with different curvature is very indicative of the stress mode confirming the results of modeling. Moreover, AE source location shows the extent of the fracture process zone and its development in relation to the load. It is seen that AE monitoring yields valuable real time information on the fracture of the material and at the same time supplies valuable feedback to the stress modeling.

  20. Application of Acoustic Emission on the Characterization of Fracture in Textile Reinforced Cement Laminates

    PubMed Central

    Blom, J.; Wastiels, J.; Aggelis, D. G.

    2014-01-01

    This work studies the acoustic emission (AE) behavior of textile reinforced cementitious (TRC) composites under flexural loading. The main objective is to link specific AE parameters to the fracture mechanisms that are successively dominating the failure of this laminated material. At relatively low load, fracture is initiated by matrix cracking while, at the moment of peak load and thereafter, the fiber pull-out stage is reached. Stress modeling of the material under bending reveals that initiation of shear phenomena can also be activated depending on the shape (curvature) of the plate specimens. Preliminary results show that AE waveform parameters like frequency and energy are changing during loading, following the shift of fracturing mechanisms. Additionally, the AE behavior of specimens with different curvature is very indicative of the stress mode confirming the results of modeling. Moreover, AE source location shows the extent of the fracture process zone and its development in relation to the load. It is seen that AE monitoring yields valuable real time information on the fracture of the material and at the same time supplies valuable feedback to the stress modeling. PMID:24605050

  1. The High-Frequency Dielectric Properties of Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic and Honeycomb Layers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-29

    The dielectric constant and the dielectric loss angle tangent of glass fibre reinforced plastic are both relatively small; it is a good wave...practical value. This paper introduces the work we have done in this area. The dielectric properties of glass fibre reinforced plastic have a close

  2. Creep and fatigue interactions in glass reinforced plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowther, M. F.

    Design of glass reinforced plastic (GRP) pipework in the cooling water (CW) systems of power stations is based on the guidelines of BS4994. Concerns had been voiced as to the reliability of the BS4994 approach for service situations where static and low frequency cyclic loading are combined. This study set out to clarify the effect of combined loading on GRP. Static and low frequency cyclic tests were conducted in water at 40 C on coupons of glass reinforced polyester resin presaturated with water. For tests incorporating periodic unload cycles at frequencies of 0.03/min to 15/min failure was determined by time at load below a boundary frequency and cycles above it. This frequency lay in the range 0.12 to 1 cycle/min. For service conditions in CW systems spike overloads are thought to be more damaging and periodic unloads less damaging than normal service loading. A load normalisation technique based on the strength-life equal rank assumption was developed which removed much of the scatter found on stress-rupture plots. Microscopy during immersed tests and on failed specimens highlighted differences between statically and cyclically- loaded coupons. Dynamic fatigue failures showed large areas of matrix and interfacial cracking, whilst static failures showed more matrix creep and fibre weakening. Evidence was found of enhancement of fibre stress corrosion in some fatigue regimes. A model was developed of the extension of curved warp rovings in the woven roving reinforcement and showed why warp rovings were found to fail predominantly in the centre of warp-weft crossovers.

  3. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Fiber Reinforced Laminated Composites Subject to Low-Velocity Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorsson, Solver I.

    Foreign object impact on composite materials continues to be an active field due to its importance in the design of load bearing composite aerostructures. The problem has been studied by many through the decades. Extensive experimental studies have been performed to characterize the impact damage and failure mechanisms. Leaders in aerospace industry are pushing for reliable, robust and efficient computational methods for predicting impact response of composite structures. Experimental and numerical investigations on the impact response of fiber reinforced polymer matrix composite (FRPC) laminates are presented. A detailed face-on and edge-on impact experimental study is presented. A novel method for conducting coupon-level edge-on impact experiments is introduced. The research is focused on impact energy levels that are in the vicinity of the barely visible impact damage (BVID) limit of the material system. A detailed post-impact damage study is presented where non-destructive inspection (NDI) methods such as ultrasound scanning and computed tomography (CT) are used. Detailed fractography studies are presented for further investigation of the through-the-thickness damage due to the impact event. Following the impact study, specimens are subjected to compression after impact (CAI) to establish the effect of BVID on the compressive strength after impact (CSAI). A modified combined loading compression (CLC) test method is proposed for compression testing following an edge-on impact. Experimental work on the rate sensitivity of the mode I and mode II inter-laminar fracture toughness is also investigated. An improved wedge-insert fracture (WIF) method for conducting mode I inter-laminar fracture at elevated loading rates is introduced. Based on the experimental results, a computational modeling approach for capturing face-on impact and CAI is developed. The model is then extended to edge-on impact and CAI. Enhanced Schapery Theory (EST) is utilized for modeling the full

  4. Matrix Dominated Failure of Fiber-Reinforced Composite Laminates Under Static and Dynamic Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Joseph Daniel

    Hierarchical material systems provide the unique opportunity to connect material knowledge to solving specific design challenges. Representing the quickest growing class of hierarchical materials in use, fiber-reinforced polymer composites (FRPCs) offer superior strength and stiffness-to-weight ratios, damage tolerance, and decreasing production costs compared to metals and alloys. However, the implementation of FRPCs has historically been fraught with inadequate knowledge of the material failure behavior due to incomplete verification of recent computational constitutive models and improper (or non-existent) experimental validation, which has severely slowed creation and development. Noted by the recent Materials Genome Initiative and the Worldwide Failure Exercise, current state of the art qualification programs endure a 20 year gap between material conceptualization and implementation due to the lack of effective partnership between computational coding (simulation) and experimental characterization. Qualification processes are primarily experiment driven; the anisotropic nature of composites predisposes matrix-dominant properties to be sensitive to strain rate, which necessitates extensive testing. To decrease the qualification time, a framework that practically combines theoretical prediction of material failure with limited experimental validation is required. In this work, the Northwestern Failure Theory (NU Theory) for composite lamina is presented as the theoretical basis from which the failure of unidirectional and multidirectional composite laminates is investigated. From an initial experimental characterization of basic lamina properties, the NU Theory is employed to predict the matrix-dependent failure of composites under any state of biaxial stress from quasi-static to 1000 s-1 strain rates. It was found that the number of experiments required to characterize the strain-rate-dependent failure of a new composite material was reduced by an order of

  5. Occupational dermatoses among fibreglass-reinforced plastics factory workers.

    PubMed

    Minamoto, Keiko; Nagano, Megumi; Inaoka, Tsukasa; Futatsuka, Makoto

    2002-06-01

    Fibreglass-reinforced plastics (FRP) factory workers are at high risk of developing occupational dermatoses because of their exposure to many chemicals used in the manufacture of plastics as well as to glass fibre or dust. Patch tests were carried out on 29 workers involved in FRP manufacturing processes where unsaturated polyester (UP) resin was used, to investigate the causes of their skin problems. Of the 22 workers who reported experiencing skin problems, 16 showed positive results to at least 1 chemical, including 6 cases of multiple sensitivity. 2 showed positive reactions to UP base resin, 6 to cobalt chloride, 5 to benzoyl peroxide (BPO), 4 to methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKPO), 2 to para-tertiary butyl catechol (PTBC), 1 to styrene and 1 to formaldehyde. After taking into account their exposures and reported causes by questionnaires and their patch test results, 7 cases were diagnosed as allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) due to chemicals, 3 as irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) due to chemicals, and 3 as dermatitis due to mechanical irritation (MI) from glass fibre or dust, as well as 9 as ACD and/or MI. 18 of the total of 29 subjects (62.1%), including 2 workers without a history of skin problems, were sensitized to at least 1 chemical. Cobalt, peroxides, PTBC and UP base resin were the common causes of ACD.

  6. Numerical simulating and experimental study on the woven carbon fiber-reinforced composite laminates under low-velocity impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hanyang; Tang, Zhanwen; Pan, Lingying; Zhao, Weidong; Sun, Baogang; Jiang, Wenge

    2016-05-01

    Impact damage has been identified as a critical form of the defects that constantly threatened the reliability of composite structures, such as those used in the aerospace structures and systems. Low energy impacts can introduce barely visible damage and cause the degradation of structural stiffness, furthermore, the flaws caused by low-velocity impact are so dangerous that they can give rise to the further extended delaminations. In order to improve the reliability and load carrying capacity of composite laminates under low-velocity impact, in this paper, the numerical simulatings and experimental studies on the woven fiber-reinforced composite laminates under low-velocity impact with impact energy 16.7J were discussed. The low velocity impact experiment was carried out through drop-weight system as the reason of inertia effect. A numerical progressive damage model was provided, in which the damages of fiber, matrix and interlamina were considered by VUMT subroutine in ABAQUS, to determine the damage modes. The Hashin failure criteria were improved to cover the failure modes of fiber failure in the directions of warp/weft and delaminations. The results of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) were compared with the experimental results of nondestructive examination including the results of ultrasonic C-scan, cross-section stereomicroscope and contact force - time history curves. It is found that the response of laminates under low-velocity impact could be divided into stages with different damage. Before the max-deformation of the laminates occurring, the matrix cracking, fiber breakage and delaminations were simulated during the impactor dropping. During the releasing and rebounding period, matrix cracking and delaminations areas kept increasing in the laminates because of the stress releasing of laminates. Finally, the simulating results showed the good agreements with the results of experiment.

  7. Analysis of exposure to styrene in the reinforced plastic boat-making industry

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, M.S.; Hartle, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate patterns of occupational exposure to styrene monomer in the boat-building industry, the authors conducted industrial hygiene surveys in seven fiberglass-reinforced plastic boat-fabrication plants. A total of 397 personal breathing zone air samples were collected on workers in four key job categories: gel coating and hull, deck, and small-parts lamination. They found that exposure to styrene in 234 (59%) of the personal samples exceeded the NIOSH-recommended time-weighted average (TWA) standard of 50 parts per million (ppm), and 96 (24%) of these samples exceeded the OSHA eight-hour TWA permissible exposure limit of 100 ppm. Exposures in these jobs appear to be proportional to resin consumption. Statistical analyses indicated that the parameter that most affects exposure potential is job category. Within a job category, part size, configuration, and surface area are important determinants of exposure. The principal reason for high exposures was the absence of control technologies and, in particular, the absence of adequate ventilation.

  8. A parallel microfluidic channel fixture fabricated using laser ablated plastic laminates for electrochemical and chemiluminescent biodetection of DNA

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Thayne L.; Harper, Jason C.; Polsky, Ronen; Lopez, DeAnna M.; Wheeler, David R.; Allen, Amy C.; Brozik, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    Herein is described the fabrication and use of a plastic multilayer 3-channel microfluidic fixture. Multilayer devices were produced by laser machining of plastic polymethylmethacrylate and polyethyleneterapthalate laminates by ablation. The fixture consisted of an array of nine individually addressable gold or gold/ITO working electrodes, and a resistive platinum heating element. Laser machining of both the fluidic pathways in the plastic laminates, and the stencil masks used for thermal evaporation to form electrode regions on the plastic laminates, enabled rapid and inexpensive implementation of design changes. Electrochemiluminescence reactions in the fixture were achieved and monitored through ITO electrodes. Electroaddressable aryl diazonium chemistry was employed to selectively pattern gold electrodes for electrochemical multianalyte DNA detection from double stranded DNA (dsDNA) samples. Electrochemical detection of dsDNA was achieved by melting of dsDNA molecules in solution with the integrated heater, allowing detection of DNA sequences specific to breast and colorectal cancers with a non-specific binding control. Following detection, the array surface could be renewed via high temperature (95 °C) stripping using the integrated heating element. This versatile and simple method for prototyping devices shows potential for further development of highly integrated, multi-functional bioanalytical devices. PMID:22276087

  9. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Wwww of... - Compliance Dates for New and Existing Reinforced Plastic Composites Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Reinforced Plastic Composites Facilities 2 Table 2 to Subpart WWWW of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production Pt. 63, Subpt. WWWW, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart WWWW of Part 63—Compliance Dates for New and Existing Reinforced Plastic Composites Facilities As required in...

  10. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Wwww of... - Compliance Dates for New and Existing Reinforced Plastic Composites Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Reinforced Plastic Composites Facilities 2 Table 2 to Subpart WWWW of Part 63 Protection of Environment...: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production Pt. 63, Subpt. WWWW, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart WWWW of Part 63—Compliance Dates for New and Existing Reinforced Plastic Composites Facilities As required in §§ 63.5800 and...

  11. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Wwww of... - Compliance Dates for New and Existing Reinforced Plastic Composites Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Reinforced Plastic Composites Facilities 2 Table 2 to Subpart WWWW of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production Pt. 63, Subpt. WWWW, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart WWWW of Part 63—Compliance Dates for New and Existing Reinforced Plastic Composites Facilities As required in...

  12. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Wwww of... - Compliance Dates for New and Existing Reinforced Plastic Composites Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Reinforced Plastic Composites Facilities 2 Table 2 to Subpart WWWW of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production Pt. 63, Subpt. WWWW, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart WWWW of Part 63—Compliance Dates for New and Existing Reinforced Plastic Composites Facilities As required in...

  13. Numerical Predictions of Damage and Failure in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Laminates Using a Thermodynamically-Based Work Potential Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pineda, Evan Jorge; Waas, Anthony M.

    2013-01-01

    A thermodynamically-based work potential theory for modeling progressive damage and failure in fiber-reinforced laminates is presented. The current, multiple-internal state variable (ISV) formulation, referred to as enhanced Schapery theory (EST), utilizes separate ISVs for modeling the effects of damage and failure. Consistent characteristic lengths are introduced into the formulation to govern the evolution of the failure ISVs. Using the stationarity of the total work potential with respect to each ISV, a set of thermodynamically consistent evolution equations for the ISVs are derived. The theory is implemented into a commercial finite element code. The model is verified against experimental results from two laminated, T800/3900-2 panels containing a central notch and different fiber-orientation stacking sequences. Global load versus displacement, global load versus local strain gage data, and macroscopic failure paths obtained from the models are compared against the experimental results.

  14. Electromagnetic modeling of periodically-structured fiber-reinforced single-layer laminate with multiple fibers missing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.-C.; Li, C.-Y.; Lesselier, D.; Zhong, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Modeling of periodically-structured, fiber-reinforced laminates with fibers missing is investigated, this applying as well to similarly disorganized photonic crystals at optical frequencies. Parallel cylindrical fibers are periodically embedded within a layer sandwiched between two half-spaces. Absent fibers destroy the periodicity. The supercell concept involving an auxiliary periodic structure provides subsidiary solutions, wherein plane-wave illumination can be analyzed with the help of the Floquet theorem, while the field response due to a line source can be calculated from the pertinent plane-wave expansion. Accuracy, computational efficacy and versatility of the above approaches are illustrated by comprehensive numerical simulations with in particular comparisons to results provided by a finite-element code, all-purpose but computationally demanding, this work seen as the first step to the localization of missing fibers in a damaged laminate and imaging thereof.

  15. On the indentation failure of carbon-epoxy cross-ply laminates, and its suppression by elasto-plastic interleaves

    SciTech Connect

    Joergensen, O.; Horsewell, A.

    1997-08-01

    Elastic and elasto-plastic modelling of indentation in CFRP cross-ply laminates has been performed. Detailed knowledge of the field solutions in the volume below the indentor forms the basis for the reported micromechanical interpretation of the observed damage in test specimens. The analysis shows that matrix cracks originate at sites of maximum tensile stress perpendicular to fibers. The predicted stress fields due to indentation show that stress concentrations occur in the interface between alternating plies. It is found that microcracking in this zone is a precursor to the observed failure. This analysis is supported by in-situ scanning electron microscopy during loading by a cylindrical indentor onto the laminate supported on a rigid substrate. The microscopy reveals microdamage in the region of interfacial tensile stress concentrations. The onset of indentation failure in these layered composites suggests that plastic interleaves would delay failure. It is shown numerically that plastic deformation of the interleaves redistributes stresses and thereby weakens the tensile stress concentrations which arise during indentation. Experimentally it is shown that aluminium interleaves affect the formation of indentation failure. In a cross-ply laminate, where alternating ply groups are separated by aluminium sheets, matrix cracking and delamination failures are suppressed by the occurrence of plastic deformation. Since the aluminium is likely to be weakly bonded to the plies, it is seen that weak interlaminar fracture toughness does not necessarily cause delaminations, nor lead to a lower indentation strength. High indentation strength and delamination resistance are complex qualities which, among others, seem to be achieved in laminate geometries which have a minimum of stress concentration at interfaces between ply groups of different orientation.

  16. Separation properties of aluminium-plastic laminates in post-consumer Tetra Pak with mixed organic solvent.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S F; Zhang, L L; Luo, K; Sun, Z X; Mei, X X

    2014-04-01

    The separation properties of the aluminium-plastic laminates in postconsumer Tetra Pak structure were studied in this present work. The organic solvent blend of benzene-ethyl alcohol-water was used as the separation reagent. Then triangle coordinate figure analysis was taken to optimize the volume proportion of various components in the separating agent and separation process. And the separation temperature of aluminium-plastic laminates was determined by the separation time, efficiency, and total mass loss of products. The results show that cost-efficient separations perform best with low usage of solvents at certain temperatures, for certain times, and within a certain range of volume proportions of the three components in the solvent agent. It is also found that similar solubility parameters of solvents and polyethylene adhesives (range 26.06-34.85) are a key factor for the separation of the aluminium-plastic laminates. Such multisolvent processes based on the combined-system concept will be vital to applications in the recycling industry.

  17. Guided wave propagation in porous unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced plastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobmann, Nicolas; Bach, Martin

    2017-02-01

    Networks of piezoelectric transducers mounted on aircraft structures for Acousto Ultrasonics (AU) purposes are designed to be applied during the service life of the aircraft. The approach to integrate these sensor networks already during the manufacture of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) host structures prompts ideas to achieve an additional benefit by their application for cure monitoring, thus extending their use to the manufacturing chain. This benefit could be extended even further if guided waves generated by AU sensor networks could be used for porosity testing extensively applied for CFRP aircraft structures. In light of this, an experimental study was conducted to investigate effects of porosity on the propagation of guided waves in a basic configuration of unidirectional CFRP. Several samples were manufactured at different porosity levels by variation of the processing pressure. Wave fields were acquired using an ultrasonic scanning device. In the present work, phase velocities are chosen as best measurable and quantifiable propagation feature and the approach for the analysis of phase velocities in porosity samples is outlined. First results are presented and discussed regarding the influence of porosity on guided wave phase velocity and basic applicability for porosity testing of aircraft structures.

  18. Plastic deformation mechanisms in SiC-whisker-reinforced alumina

    SciTech Connect

    Arellano-Lopez, A.R. de; Dominguez-Rodriguez, A. )

    1993-06-01

    SiC-whisker-reinforced Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] samples (SiC[sub w]/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]), obtained from three different manufacturers, containing 0-30 vol% SiC have been crept under compression at 1,400 C in flowing argon. Compressive creep tests and microstructural observations have been used to characterize the plastic deformation mechanisms. The presence of whiskers decreased the creep rate by reducing grain-boundary sliding. Damage formation was increased, however, because the whiskers acted as stress concentration sites. For specimens with whisker loadings greater than 15%, the absolute creep rate was not strongly dependent on whisker concentration, and the formation of cavitation damage was negligible below a critical stress that depended on the fabrication procedure of the specimen. This creep regime was characterized by a stress exponent of approximately 1, in which deformation occurred primarily by diffusional flow. For the materials with less SiC, the deformation occurred primarily by grain boundary sliding.

  19. An experiment on the use of disposable plastics as a reinforcement in concrete beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chowdhury, Mostafiz R.

    1992-01-01

    Illustrated here is the concept of reinforced concrete structures by the use of computer simulation and an inexpensive hands-on design experiment. The students in our construction management program use disposable plastic as a reinforcement to demonstrate their understanding of reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete beams. The plastics used for such an experiment vary from plastic bottles to steel reinforced auto tires. This experiment will show the extent to which plastic reinforcement increases the strength of a concrete beam. The procedure of using such throw-away plastics in an experiment to explain the interaction between the reinforcement material and concrete, and a comparison of the test results for using different types of waste plastics are discussed. A computer analysis to simulate the structural response is used to compare the test results and to understand the analytical background of reinforced concrete design. This interaction of using computers to analyze structures and to relate the output results with real experimentation is found to be a very useful method for teaching a math-based analytical subject to our non-engineering students.

  20. Nonlinear Spring Finite Elements for Predicting Mode I-Dominated Delamination Growth in Laminated Structure with Through-Thickness reinforcement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratcliffe, James G.; Krueger, Ronald

    2006-01-01

    One particular concern of polymer matrix composite laminates is the relatively low resistance to delamination cracking, in particular when the dominant type of failure is mode I opening. One method proposed for alleviating this problem involves the insertion pultruded carbon pins through the laminate thickness. The pins, known as z-pins, are inserted into the prepreg laminate using an ultrasonic hammer prior to the curing process, resulting in a field of pins embedded normal to the laminate plane as illustrated in Figure. 1. Pin diameters range between 0.28-mm to 0.5-mm and standard areal densities range from 0.5% to 4%. The z-pins are provided by the manufacturer, Aztex(Registered TradeMark) , in a low-density foam preform, which acts to stabilize orientation of the pins during the insertion process [1-3]. Typical pin materials include boron and carbon fibers embedded in a polymer matrix. A number of methods have been developed for predicting delamination growth in laminates reinforced with z-pins. During a study on the effect of z-pin reinforcement on mode I delamination resistance, finite element analyses of z-pin reinforced double cantilever beam (DCB) specimens were performed by Cartie and Partridge [4]. The z-pin bridging stresses were modeled by applying equivalent forces at the pin locations. Single z-pin pull-out tests were performed to characterize the traction law of the pins under mode I loading conditions. Analytical solutions for delamination growth in z-pin reinforced DCB specimens were independently derived by Robinson and Das [5] and Ratcliffe and O'Brien [6]. In the former case, pin bridging stresses were modeled using a distributed load and in the latter example the bridging stresses were discretely modeled by way of grounded springs. Additionally, Robinson and Das developed a data reduction strategy for calculating mode I fracture toughness, G(sub Ic), from a z-pin reinforced DCB specimen test [5]. In both cases a traction law similar to that

  1. Interaction between pulsed infrared laser and carbon fiber reinforced polymer composite laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan-Chi; Wu, Chen-Wu; Song, Hong-Wei; Huang, Chen-Guang

    2016-10-01

    The Laser drilling processes, in particular the interaction between the pulsed infrared Laser and the target materials were investigated on the CFRP composite laminate. The incremental freezing method was designed to reveal experimentally the temporal patterns of the ablation profiles in the CFRP composite laminates subjected to pulsed Laser irradiation. The temperature characteristics of the specimens were analyzed with Finite Element Method (FEM) and the phase change history studied. The theoretical results match well with the experimental outcome.

  2. Interface Effects on the Quasi-Static and Impact Toughness of Discontinuously Reinforced Aluminum Laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osman, Todd M.; Hassan, Hala A.; Lewandowski, John J.

    2008-08-01

    Trilayer laminates consisting of two layers of aluminum alloy 7093 surrounding one layer of 7093/SiC/15 p were produced via two roll-bonding techniques as well as by adhesive bonding. The effects of systematic changes in interface characteristics ( i.e., weak bond via roll bonding with a thin ductile interlayer material, stronger bond via roll bonding without a thin ductile interlayer, and strongest bond via adhesive bonding with a semibrittle material) on the subsequent laminate toughness was studied. The fracture resistance of the laminates and the constituent materials was examined via instrumented Charpy notched impact testing in the crack-arrester orientation as well as by fracture-toughness testing of bend bars tested in the crack-divider and the crack-arrester orientations. The notched impact resistance of the trilayer crack-arrester laminates was found to be greater than both monolithic 7093/SiC/15 p and 7093 samples of similar global thickness. The laminated structure promoted crack arrest, deflection, and large-scale deformation of the unreinforced layers, producing R-curve behavior. The tendency for interface delamination was predicted and confirmed based on recent mechanics-based analyses. The trilayer laminate structures tested in the crack-divider orientation exhibited a greater R-curve than either of the 7093/SiC/15 p or 7093 samples tested at similar global thickness. Both types of roll-bonded laminates ( i.e., stronger interface and weak interface containing a thin metal interlayer) exhibited a greater enhancement in Charpy impact toughness and mode I fracture toughness than did the adhesively bonded ( i.e., semibrittle interface) laminates. These relative improvements in toughness were rationalized by estimating the contributions to energy absorption by the delamination and crack bridging in these systems and by the effects of the interface type on these processes. These results are generally relevant to the performance of these materials under

  3. COMPARISON OF ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES FOR MEASURING HYDROCARBON EMISSIONS FROM THE MANUFACTURE OF FIBERGLASS-REINFORCED PLASTICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses several projects to measure hydrocarbon emissions associated with the manufacture of fiberglass-reinforced plastics. The main purpose of the projects was to evaluate pollution prevention techniques to reduce emissions by altering raw materials, application equ...

  4. COMPARISON OF ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES FOR MEASURING HYDROCARBON EMISSIONS FROM THE MANUFACTURE OF FIBERGLASS-REINFORCED PLASTICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses several projects to measure hydrocarbon emissions associated with the manufacture of fiberglass-reinforced plastics. The main purpose of the projects was to evaluate pollution prevention techniques to reduce emissions by altering raw materials, application equ...

  5. Increasing the Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Diffusivity of Asbestos-Reinforced Laminates Through Modification of their Polymer Matrix with Carbon Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilova-Tret'yak, S. M.; Evseeva, L. E.; Tanaeva, S. A.

    2014-11-01

    Experimental investigations of the thermophysical properties of traditional and modified asbestos-reinforced laminates depending on the type of their carbon nanofiller have been carried out in the range of temperatures from -150 to 150°C. It has been shown that the largest (nearly twofold) increase in the thermal-conductivity and thermal-diffusivity coefficients of the indicated materials is observed when they are modified with a small-scale fraction of a nanofiller (carbon nanotubes). The specific heats of the modified and traditional asbestos-reinforced laminates turned out to be identical, in practice, within the measurement error.

  6. Durability Characteristics Analysis of Plastic Worm Wheel with Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyamide.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gun-Hee; Lee, Jeong-Won; Seo, Tae-Il

    2013-05-10

    Plastic worm wheel is widely used in the vehicle manufacturing field because it is favorable for weight lightening, vibration and noise reduction, as well as corrosion resistance. However, it is very difficult for general plastics to secure the mechanical properties that are required for vehicle gears. If the plastic resin is reinforced by glass fiber in the fabrication process of plastic worm wheel, it is possible to achieve the mechanical properties of metallic material levels. In this study, the mechanical characteristic analysis of the glass-reinforced plastic worm wheel, according to the contents of glass fiber, is performed by analytic and experimental methods. In the case of the glass fiber-reinforced resin, the orientation and contents of glass fibers can influence the mechanical properties. For the characteristic prediction of plastic worm wheel, computer-aided engineering (CAE) analysis processes such as structural and injection molding analysis were executed with the polyamide resin reinforcement glass fiber (25 wt %, 50 wt %). The injection mold for fabricating the prototype plastic worm wheel was designed and made to reflect the CAE analysis results. Finally, the durability of prototype plastic worm wheel fabricated by the injection molding process was evaluated by the experimental method and the characteristics according to the glass fiber contents.

  7. Durability Characteristics Analysis of Plastic Worm Wheel with Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyamide

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gun-Hee; Lee, Jeong-Won; Seo, Tae-Il

    2013-01-01

    Plastic worm wheel is widely used in the vehicle manufacturing field because it is favorable for weight lightening, vibration and noise reduction, as well as corrosion resistance. However, it is very difficult for general plastics to secure the mechanical properties that are required for vehicle gears. If the plastic resin is reinforced by glass fiber in the fabrication process of plastic worm wheel, it is possible to achieve the mechanical properties of metallic material levels. In this study, the mechanical characteristic analysis of the glass-reinforced plastic worm wheel, according to the contents of glass fiber, is performed by analytic and experimental methods. In the case of the glass fiber-reinforced resin, the orientation and contents of glass fibers can influence the mechanical properties. For the characteristic prediction of plastic worm wheel, computer-aided engineering (CAE) analysis processes such as structural and injection molding analysis were executed with the polyamide resin reinforcement glass fiber (25 wt %, 50 wt %). The injection mold for fabricating the prototype plastic worm wheel was designed and made to reflect the CAE analysis results. Finally, the durability of prototype plastic worm wheel fabricated by the injection molding process was evaluated by the experimental method and the characteristics according to the glass fiber contents. PMID:28809248

  8. Interfibre Failure Characterisation of Unidirectional and Triax Glass Fibre Non-Crimp Fabric Reinforced Epoxy Laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laustsen, S.; Lund, E.; Kühlmeier, L.; Thomsen, O. T.

    2015-02-01

    The in-plane failure envelopes of unidirectional (UD) laminae in a UD and a Triax (0°, ±45°) laminate configuration have been investigated. The two laminate configurations have been characterised by testing off-axis specimens in uniaxial tension and compression at different angles relative to the fibre direction and further by Iosipescu shear tests. Strain gauge and Digital Image Correlation (DIC) measurements were used to measure the deformation states during loading, and to record the stress-strain responses to identify the initiation of failure and investigate the heterogeneity of the material and possible parasitic effects. A novel analysis methodology to determine the so-called `failure initiation strength' based on the second derivative of the stresses with respect to the strains has been adopted. The experimentally determined `failure initiation stresses' were compared with predictions from the commonly applied Maximum Stress, Tsai-Wu, and Puck failure criteria. From this work, a thorough comparison of the UD and Triax failure envelopes has been facilitated. It is shown that failure prediction for the Triax laminate based on the failure envelope derived from UD lamina tests may be too conservative in comparison with fitting a failure criterion directly to the Triax laminate test data. The latter approach implies that the Triax laminate is considered as a single lamina with homogenised properties, which in principle violates the theoretical background of the considered failure criteria, since these are established to predict failure for a UD lamina. However, the simple homogenisation is shown to be a useful design oriented approach for providing a simple estimation of the onset of failure in laminate configurations composed of e.g., multiple layers of Triax. Thus, a reliable and efficient approach is offered for the structural integrity assessment, which takes the non-crimp fabric configurations directly or `as delivered' into account.

  9. Tailoring nanostructured, graded, and particle-reinforced Al laminates by accumulative roll bonding.

    PubMed

    Göken, Mathias; Höppel, Heinz Werner

    2011-06-17

    Accumulative roll bonding (ARB) is a very attractive process for processing large sheets to achieve ultrafine-grained microstructure and high strength. Commercial purity Al and many Al alloys from the 5xxx and the precipitation strengthened 6xxx alloy series have been successfully processed by the ARB process into an ultrafine-grained state and superior ductility have been achieved for some materials like technical purity Al. It has also been shown that the ARB process can be successfully used to produce multi-component materials with tailored properties by reinforcement or grading, respectively. This allows optimizing the properties based on two or more materials/alloys. For example, to achieve high corrosion resistance and good visual surface properties it is interesting to produce a composite of two different Al alloys, where for example a high strength alloy of the 5xxx series is used as the core material and a 6xxx series alloy as the clad material. It has been shown that such a composite achieves more or less the same strength as the core material although 50% of the composite consists of the significant softer clad alloy. Furthermore, it has been found, that the serrated yielding which typically appears in 5xxx series alloys and limits applications as outer skin materials completely disappears. Moreover, the ARB process allows many other attractive ways to design new composites and graded material structures with unique properties by the introduction of particles, fibres and sheets. Strengthening with nanoparticles for example is a very attractive way to improve the properties and accelerate the grain refining used in the severe plastic deformation process. With an addition of only 0.1 vol.-% Al2O3 nanoparticles a significantly accelerated grain refinement has been found which reduces the number of ARB passes necessary to achieve the maximum in strength. The paper provides a short review on recent developments in the field of ARB processing for producing

  10. Numerical Modelling of Glass Fibre Reinforced Laminates Subjected to a Low Velocity Impact

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, J. Y.; Guana, Z. W.; Cantwell, W. J.

    2010-05-21

    This paper presents a series of numerical predictions of the perforation behaviour of glass fibre laminates subjected to quasi-static and low-velocity impact loading. Both shear and tensile failure criteria were used in the finite element models to simulate the post-failure processes via an automatic element removal procedure. The appropriate material properties, obtained through a series of uniaxial tension and bending tests on the composites, were used in the numerical models. Four, eight and sixteen ply glass fibre laminates panels were perforated at quasi-static rates and under low-velocity impact loading. Reasonably good correlation was obtained between the numerical simulations and the experimental results, both in terms of the failure modes and the load-deflection relationships before and during the penetration phase. The predicted impact energies of the GFRP panels were compared with the experimental data and reasonable agreement was observed.

  11. Low pressure process for continuous fiber reinforced polyamic acid resin matrix composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Druyun, Darleen A. (Inventor); Hou, Tan-Hung (Inventor); Kidder, Paul W. (Inventor); Reddy, Rakasi M. (Inventor); Baucom, Robert M. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A low pressure processor was developed for preparing a well-consolidated polyimide composite laminate. Prepreg plies were formed from unidirectional fibers and a polyamic acid resin solution. Molding stops were placed at the sides of a matched metal die mold. The prepreg plies were cut shorter than the length of the mold in the in-plane lateral direction and were stacked between the molding stops to a height which was higher than the molding stops. The plies were then compressed to the height of the stops and heated to allow the volatiles to escape and to start the imidization reaction. After removing the stops from the mold, the heat was increased and 0 - 500 psi was applied to complete the imidization reaction. The heat and pressure were further increased to form a consolidated polyimide composite laminate.

  12. Smart damping of geometrically nonlinear vibrations of laminated composite beams using vertically reinforced 1-3 piezoelectric composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarangi, S. K.; Ray, M. C.

    2010-07-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of active constrained layer damping (ACLD) of geometrically nonlinear transient vibrations of laminated composite beams using vertically reinforced 1-3 piezoelectric composite material as the material of the constraining layer of the ACLD treatment. A nonlinear finite element model has been developed for analyzing the ACLD of laminated symmetric and antisymmetric cross-ply and angle-ply composite beams integrated with such ACLD treatment. The von Kármán-type nonlinear strain-displacement relations and the first-order shear deformation theory are used for deriving this coupled electromechanical nonlinear finite element model. The Golla-Hughes-McTavish (GHM) method has been used to model the constrained viscoelastic layer of the ACLD treatment in the time domain. The backbone curves of such a class of nonlinear systems are plotted to determine the excitation levels for causing geometrical nonlinearity. The numerical results reveal that the ACLD treatment significantly improves the damping characteristics of the cross-ply and antisymmetric angle-ply beams for suppressing the geometrically nonlinear transient vibrations of the beams.

  13. Experimental Study and Numerical Modelling of Low Velocity Impact on Laminated Composite Reinforced with Thin Film Made of Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Moumen, A.; Tarfaoui, M.; Hassoon, O.; Lafdi, K.; Benyahia, H.; Nachtane, M.

    2017-07-01

    In this work, polymer laminated composites based on Epon 862 Epoxy resin, T300 6 k carbon fibers and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were tested with the aim to elucidate the effect of CNTs on impact properties including impact force and capacity to absorb impact energy. The polymer matrix was reinforced by a random distribution of CNTs with fraction ranging from 0.5 to 4.wt%. Composite panels were manufactured by using the infusion process. Taylor impact test was used to obtain the impact response of specimens. Projectile manufactured from a high strength and hardened steel with a diameter of 20 mm and 1.5 kg of mass was launched by a compressed gas gun within the velocity of 3 m/s. Impact force histories and absorbed energy of specimens were recorded. A numerical model was employed to simulate the impact performance. This model has been accomplished by forming a user established subroutine (VUMAT) and executing it in ABAQUS software. Finally, the effect of CNTs amount on dynamic properties of laminated composites was discussed.

  14. Model-Based Fatigue Prognosis of Fiber-Reinforced Laminates Exhibiting Concurrent Damage Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corbetta, M.; Sbarufatti, C.; Saxena, A.; Giglio, M.; Goebel, K.

    2016-01-01

    Prognostics of large composite structures is a topic of increasing interest in the field of structural health monitoring for aerospace, civil, and mechanical systems. Along with recent advancements in real-time structural health data acquisition and processing for damage detection and characterization, model-based stochastic methods for life prediction are showing promising results in the literature. Among various model-based approaches, particle-filtering algorithms are particularly capable in coping with uncertainties associated with the process. These include uncertainties about information on the damage extent and the inherent uncertainties of the damage propagation process. Some efforts have shown successful applications of particle filtering-based frameworks for predicting the matrix crack evolution and structural stiffness degradation caused by repetitive fatigue loads. Effects of other damage modes such as delamination, however, are not incorporated in these works. It is well established that delamination and matrix cracks not only co-exist in most laminate structures during the fatigue degradation process but also affect each other's progression. Furthermore, delamination significantly alters the stress-state in the laminates and accelerates the material degradation leading to catastrophic failure. Therefore, the work presented herein proposes a particle filtering-based framework for predicting a structure's remaining useful life with consideration of multiple co-existing damage-mechanisms. The framework uses an energy-based model from the composite modeling literature. The multiple damage-mode model has been shown to suitably estimate the energy release rate of cross-ply laminates as affected by matrix cracks and delamination modes. The model is also able to estimate the reduction in stiffness of the damaged laminate. This information is then used in the algorithms for life prediction capabilities. First, a brief summary of the energy-based damage model

  15. Tensile Properties of Unsaturated Polyester and Epoxy Resin Reinforced with Recycled Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Plastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okayasu, Mitsuhiro; Kondo, Yuta

    2017-08-01

    To better understand the mechanical properties of recycled carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (rCFRP), CFRP crushed into small pieces was mixed randomly in different proportions (0-30 wt%) with two different resins: unsaturated polyester and epoxy resin. Two different sizes of crushed CFRP were used: 0.1 mm × 0.007 mm (milled CFRP) and 30 mm × 2 mm (chopped CFRP). The tensile strength of rCFRP was found to depend on both the proportion and the size of the CFRP pieces. It increased with increasing proportion of chopped CFRP, but decreased with increasing proportion of milled CFRP. There was no clear dependence of the tensile strength on the resin that was used. A low fracture strain was found for rCFRP samples made with chopped CFRP, in contrast to those made with milled CFRP. The fracture strain was found to increase with increasing content of milled CFRP up to 20 wt%, at which point, coalescence of existing microvoids occurred. However, there was a reduction in fracture strain for rCFRP with 30 wt% of milled CFRP, owing to the formation of defects (blow holes). Overall, the fracture strain was higher for rCFRPs based on epoxy resin than for those based on unsaturated polyester with the same CFRP content, because of the high ductility of the epoxy resin. The different tensile properties reflected different failure characteristics, with the use of chopped CFRP leading to a complicated rough fracture surface and with milled CFRP causing ductile failure through the presence of tiny dimple-like fractures. However, for a high content of milled CFRP (30 wt%), large blow holes were observed, leading to low ductility.

  16. Boron, metal, and aramid fiber reinforced plastics. January 1973-May 1989 (Citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association data base). Report for January 1973-May 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-05-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning properties and applications of boron, metal, and fiber-reinforced plastics. Discussions on improvements of electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties of plastics by boron, metal, and aramid fiber reinforcement are presented. Applications are considered in automotive, aerospace, electronics, marine, sports, and medical industries. (This updated bibliography contains 338 citations, 121 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  17. Predictors of occupational exposure to styrene and styrene‐7,8‐oxide in the reinforced plastics industry

    PubMed Central

    Serdar, B; Tornero‐Velez, R; Echeverria, D; Nylander‐French, L A; Kupper, L L; Rappaport, S M

    2006-01-01

    Objective To identify demographic and work related factors that predict blood levels of styrene and styrene‐7,8‐oxide (SO) in the fibreglass reinforced plastics (FRP) industry. Methods Personal breathing‐zone air samples and whole blood samples were collected repeatedly from 328 reinforced plastics workers in the Unuted States between 1996 and 1999. Styrene and its major metabolite SO were measured in these samples. Multivariable linear regression analyses were applied to the subject‐specific levels to explain the variation in exposure and biomarker levels. Results Exposure levels of styrene were approximately 500‐fold higher than those of SO. Exposure levels of styrene and SO varied greatly among the types of products manufactured, with an 11‐fold range of median air levels among categories for styrene and a 23‐fold range for SO. Even after stratification by job title, median exposures of styrene and SO among laminators varied 14‐ and 31‐fold across product categories. Furthermore, the relative proportions of exposures to styrene and SO varied among product categories. Multivariable regression analyses explained 70% and 63% of the variation in air levels of styrene and SO, respectively, and 72% and 34% of the variation in blood levels of styrene and SO, respectively. Overall, air levels of styrene and SO appear to have decreased substantially in this industry over the last 10–20 years in the US and were greatest among workers with the least seniority. Conclusions As levels of styrene and SO in air and blood varied among product categories in the FRP industry, use of job title as a surrogate for exposure can introduce unpredictable measurement errors and can confound the relation between exposure and health outcomes in epidemiology studies. Also, inverse relations between the intensity of exposure to styrene and SO and years on the job suggest that younger workers with little seniority are typically exposed to higher levels of styrene and SO

  18. Revealing homogeneous plastic deformation in dendrite-reinforced Ti-based metallic glass composites under tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, F. F.; Wei, J. S.; Chan, K. C.; Chen, S. H.; Zhao, R. D.; Zhang, G. A.; Wu, X. F.

    2017-02-01

    The tensile plastic deformation of dendrite-reinforced Ti-based metallic glass composites (MGCs) was investigated. It was found that there is a critical normalized strain-hardening rate (NSHR) that determines the plastic stability of MGCs: if the NSHR is larger than the critical value, the plastic deformation of the MGCs will be stable, i.e. the necking and strain localization can be effectively suppressed, resulting in homogeneous plastic elongation. In addition, dendrite-reinforce MGCs are verified as being intrinsically ductile, and can be used as good coatings for improving the surface properties of pure titanium or titanium alloys. These findings are helpful in designing, producing, and using MGCs with improved performance properties.

  19. Revealing homogeneous plastic deformation in dendrite-reinforced Ti-based metallic glass composites under tension

    PubMed Central

    Wu, F. F.; Wei, J. S.; Chan, K. C.; Chen, S. H.; Zhao, R. D.; Zhang, G. A.; Wu, X. F.

    2017-01-01

    The tensile plastic deformation of dendrite-reinforced Ti-based metallic glass composites (MGCs) was investigated. It was found that there is a critical normalized strain-hardening rate (NSHR) that determines the plastic stability of MGCs: if the NSHR is larger than the critical value, the plastic deformation of the MGCs will be stable, i.e. the necking and strain localization can be effectively suppressed, resulting in homogeneous plastic elongation. In addition, dendrite-reinforce MGCs are verified as being intrinsically ductile, and can be used as good coatings for improving the surface properties of pure titanium or titanium alloys. These findings are helpful in designing, producing, and using MGCs with improved performance properties. PMID:28195216

  20. Nondestructive Evaluation of Fiber Reinforced Composites. A State-of-the-Art Survey. Volume 1. NDE of Graphite Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Composites. Part 1. Radiography and Ultrasonics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    composites (Ref. 1) and by the can be large, and secondary operations can be mini- Army on glass fiber reinforced composites (Ref. 2). This mized. Composites...structural characteristics of ceramic materials, and updates of carbon/carbon com- composites. posites and glass fiber reinforced composites. Because of...the large amount of literature available on graphite While glass fiber reinforced plastic composites fiber reinforced composites, this particular volume

  1. Designing with figer-reinforced plastics (planar random composites)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1982-01-01

    The use of composite mechanics to predict the hygrothermomechanical behavior of planar random composites (PRC) is reviewed and described. These composites are usually made from chopped fiber reinforced resins (thermoplastics or thermosets). The hygrothermomechanical behavior includes mechanical properties, physical properties, thermal properties, fracture toughness, creep and creep rupture. Properties are presented in graphical form with sample calculations to illustrate their use. Concepts such as directional reinforcement and strip hybrids are described. Typical data that can be used for preliminary design for various PRCs are included. Several resins and molding compounds used to make PRCs are described briefly. Pertinent references are cited that cover analysis and design methods, materials, data, fabrication procedures and applications.

  2. Plastic and Failure Analysis of Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigelow, C. A.; Johnson, W. S.

    1985-01-01

    Three-dimensional finite-element computer program called PAFAC (Plastic and Failure Analysis of Composites) developed for elastic/plastic analysis of fiber-reinforced composite materials and structures. PAFAC written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution. Particularly suited for analyzing laminated metal-matrix composites.

  3. Interaction between impact damage and fatigue in fibre reinforced plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beheshty, M. H.

    This study has been designed to investigate the interaction between impact damage and fatigue, which is necessarily a complex one and of current interest to the aerospace industry, and to predict the fatigue response for virgin and impact-damaged materials by using a constant-life model. In order to achieve these goals, measurements have been made of the residual tensile and compressive strengths after low-velocity impacts of 1, 2, 3 and 5 Joules of two modem carbon-fibre composites, viz., HTA/982A and HTA/913, and a glass-fibre laminate, E-Glass/913, all having the common lay-up [(45,02)2]s. The impact damage was assessed by transient thermography, ultrasonic C-scan and optical microscopy. The modes of failure under low-velocity impacts of 1-3J were found to be matrix cracking and mainly delamination. Only a 5J impact energy event caused some fibre fractures in CFRP laminates. Measurement of post-impact mechanical properties has shown that impact damage in the range 1-5J had little effect on the residual tensile strength although the compressive strength was markedly reduced. Replicate stress/life fatigue data were obtained at different stress ratios, R, for sound and impact-damaged materials. Results show that impact energies in the range 1-3J had no effect on the tensile fatigue behaviour at R = +0.l. At R = -1.5 and +10, on the other hand, the stress/life curves are markedly affected. And as the compression component of stress increases the slope of the S/N curve decreases, which indicates less sensitivity to fatigue. The fatigue tests results have been analysed by using a constant-life model previously developed at Bath. A new relationship between constant-life model parameters and material properties has been found. The model has been modified to predict the fatigue response of fibre composite materials in the virgin condition and after damage by low-velocity impact by using only the tensile and compressive strengths of composite in question. Results show

  4. Computational Homogenization of Mechanical Properties for Laminate Composites Reinforced with Thin Film Made of Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Moumen, A.; Tarfaoui, M.; Lafdi, K.

    2017-08-01

    Elastic properties of laminate composites based Carbone Nanotubes (CNTs), used in military applications, were estimated using homogenization techniques and compared to the experimental data. The composite consists of three phases: T300 6k carbon fibers fabric with 5HS (satin) weave, baseline pure Epoxy matrix and CNTs added with 0.5%, 1%, 2% and 4%. Two step homogenization methods based RVE model were employed. The objective of this paper is to determine the elastic properties of structure starting from the knowledge of those of constituents (CNTs, Epoxy and carbon fibers fabric). It is assumed that the composites have a geometric periodicity and the homogenization model can be represented by a representative volume element (RVE). For multi-scale analysis, finite element modeling of unit cell based two step homogenization method is used. The first step gives the properties of thin film made of epoxy and CNTs and the second is used for homogenization of laminate composite. The fabric unit cell is chosen using a set of microscopic observation and then identified by its ability to enclose the characteristic periodic repeat in the fabric weave. The unit cell model of 5-Harness satin weave fabric textile composite is identified for numerical approach and their dimensions are chosen based on some microstructural measurements. Finally, a good comparison was obtained between the predicted elastic properties using numerical homogenization approach and the obtained experimental data with experimental tests.

  5. The transverse mechanical behaviour of glass fibre reinforced plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Garry Michael

    The importance of transverse cracking in composites technology is highlighted by the use of classical lamination theory to predict the sequential damage process in cross-plied laminates. The literature on transverse fibre carposite behaviour is comprehensively reviewed, with particular emphasis on papers which present quantitative theoretical models. No work reviewed has measured the full range of mechanical properties on a single material necessary to allow a complete assessment of all the models of transverse failure. A resin system, based on epoxy/urethane blends, has been identified which allows production of high quality unidirectional composites with a systematic variation in flexibility. A preliminary experimental programme has identified those test specimens which can provide the necessary stress/strain and toughness properties of the range of flexibilised materials and thereby allow a validation of the theoretical models reviewed. In the preliminary experimental programme, transverse cracks are shown to extend with an increasing fracture toughness due to the formation of a 'tied zone' of fracture face bridging 'stringers' behind the crack tip. The influence of this effect on crack stability is discussed. By modelling the balance between fracture and strain energies, the equilibrium state of individual stringers is predicted. Direct observations of equilibrium stringer angles are seen to correspond with these predictions. A quite general model is developed which predicts, with reasonble accuracy, the observed increase of fracture toughness with crack extension and the geometry dependence of this increase. The literature models of stiffness, strength and failure strain are seen to display a dissappointing lack of agreement with the experimental results over the full range of material flexibilities. The influence of matrix Poisson constraint on these properties is discussed. Fracture toughness results indicate that very large critical defects control

  6. Standard Operating Procedure - Manufacture of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic Waveguides and Slotted Waveguide Antennas, Version 1.0

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    aerospace grade carbon fibre reinforced plastic ( CFRP ) prepreg. RELEASE LIMITATION Approved for public release UNCLASSIFIED Report...arrays manufactured from aerospace grade carbon fibre reinforced plastic ( CFRP ) prepreg. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION... CFRP ) prepreg tape and fabric. This report details Version 1.0 of a Standard Operating Procedure for this manufacture. UNCLASSIFIED

  7. Plastic Deformation of Copper-Based Alloy Reinforced with Incoherent Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matvienko, O. V.; Daneiko, O. I.; Kovalevskaya, T. A.

    2017-06-01

    The paper deals with research carried out into plastic deformation of a heavy-wall pipe made of nanoparticle reinforced copper-based alloy. We present an original approach which combines methods of crystal plasticity and deformable solid mechanics, thereby allowing to study the stress-strain state of the heavy-wall pipe strengthened with incoherent nanoparticles using a homogeneous internal pressure. Dependences are constructed for the yielding area and the pressure, the limit of elasto-plastic resistance is obtained for the heavy-wall pipe and its deformation degree is described. It is shown that the particle size has an effect on strength properties of the material.

  8. Mechanical properties and failure mechanisms of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy laminated composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards Thissell, W.; Zurek, Anna K.; Addessio, Frank

    1996-05-01

    The mechanical behavior of quasi-isotropic and unidirectional epoxy-matrix carbon-fiber laminated composites subjected to compressive loading at strain rates of 10-3 and 2000 s-1 are described. Failure in the studied composites was dominated by delamination which proceeded by brittle fracture of the epoxy-matrix. The matrix-fiber bonding in these composites is very strong and prevented the occurrence of significant fiber-pullout. The mode I delamination strain energy release rate of the unidirectional composites was determined using the double cantilever beam and hole in plate compression method. The DCB method indicated a significant R curve effect attributed to fiber bridging while the presently available hole in plate analytical methods show questionable validity for highly anisotropic materials.

  9. Mechanical properties, microscopy, and failure mechanisms of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy laminated composites

    SciTech Connect

    Thissell, W.R.; Zurek, A.K.; Addessio, F.

    1995-12-31

    The mechanical behavior of quasi-isotropic and unidirectional epoxy- matrix carbon-fiber laminated composites subjected to compressive loading at strain rates of 10{sup {minus}3} and 2000 s{sup {minus}1} are described. Failure in the studied composites was dominated by delamination which proceeded by brittle fracture of the epoxy matrix. The matrix-fiber bonding in these composites is very strong and prevented the occurrence of significant fiber-pullout. The mode I delamination strain energy release rate of the unidirectional composites was determined using the double cantilever beam and hole in plate compression methods. The DCB method indicated a significant R curve effect attributed to fiber bridging while the presently available hole in plate analytical methods show questionable validity for highly anisotropic materials.

  10. Mechanical properties and failure mechanisms of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy laminated composites

    SciTech Connect

    Thissell, W.R.; Zurek, A.K.; Addessio, F.

    1995-09-01

    The mechanical behavior of quasi-isotropic and unidirectional epoxy-matrix carbon-fiber laminated composites subjected compressive loading at strain rates of 10{sup {minus}3} and 2000 s{sup {minus}1} are described. Failure in the studied composites was dominated by delamination which proceeded by brittle fracture of the epoxy-matrix. The matrix-fiber bonding in these composites is very strong and prevented the occurrence of significant fiber-pullout. The mode I delamination strain energy release rate of the unidirectional composites was determined using the double cantilever beam and hole in plate compression method. The DCB method indicated a significant R curve effect attributed to fiber bridging while the presently available hole in plate analytical methods show questionable validity for highly anisotropic materials.

  11. A New Generation of Sub Mm Telescopes, Made of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mezger, P.; Baars, J. W. M.; Ulich, B. L.

    1984-01-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) appears to be the material most suited for the construction of submillimeter telescopes (SMT) not only for ground-based use but also for space applications. The accuracy of the CFRP reflectors needs to be improved beyond value of the 17 micron rms envisaged for the 10 m SMT.

  12. Weathering characteristics of wood plastic composites reinforced with extracted or delignified wood flour

    Treesearch

    Yao Chen; Nicole M. Stark; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Jianmin Gao; Yongming Fan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated weathering performance of an HDPE wood plastic composite reinforced with extracted or delignified wood flour (WF). The wood flour was pre-extracted with three different solvents, toluene/ethanol (TE), acetone/water (AW), and hot water (HW), or sodium chlorite/acetic acid. The spectral properties of the composites before and after artificial...

  13. Decay resistance of wood-plastic composites reinforced with extracted or delignified wood flour

    Treesearch

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Yao Chen; Nicole M. Stark; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Yongming Fan; Jianmin Gao

    2014-01-01

    The moisture and decay resistance of wood-plastic composites (WPCs) reinforced with extracted or delignified wood flour (WF) was investigated. Three different extractions were preformed: toluene/ethanol (TE), acetone/water (AW), and hot water (HW). Delignification (DL) was performed using a sodium chlorite/acetic acid solution. All WPCs specimens were made with 50% by...

  14. AN EMPIRICAL MODEL TO PREDICT STYRENE EMISSIONS FROM FIBER-REINFORCED PLASTICS FABRICATION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Styrene is a designated hazardous air pollutant, per the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. It is also a tropospheric ozone precursor. Fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP) fabrication is the primary source of anthropogenic styrene emissions in the United States. This paper describes an em...

  15. Elasto-plastic analysis of interface layers for fiber reinforced metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doghri, I.; Leckie, F. A.

    1991-01-01

    The mismatch in coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) of fiber and matrix in metal matrix composites reinforced with ceramic fibers induces high thermal stresses in the matrix. Elasto-plastic analyses - with different degrees of simplification and modelization - show that an interface layer with a sufficiently high CTE can reduce the tensile hoop stress in the matrix substantially.

  16. PILOT-SCALE EVALUATION OF NEW RESIN APPLICATION EQUIPMENT FOR FIBER- REINFORCED PLASTICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article gives results of a pilot-scale evaluation of new resin application equipment for fiber- reinforced plastics. The study, an evaluation and comparison of styrene emissions, utilized Magnum's FIT(TM) nozzle with conventional spray guns and flow coaters (operated at both ...

  17. A New Generation of Sub Mm Telescopes, Made of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mezger, P.; Baars, J. W. M.; Ulich, B. L.

    1984-01-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) appears to be the material most suited for the construction of submillimeter telescopes (SMT) not only for ground-based use but also for space applications. The accuracy of the CFRP reflectors needs to be improved beyond value of the 17 micron rms envisaged for the 10 m SMT.

  18. PILOT-SCALE EVALUATION OF NEW RESIN APPLICATION EQUIPMENT FOR FIBER- REINFORCED PLASTICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article gives results of a pilot-scale evaluation of new resin application equipment for fiber- reinforced plastics. The study, an evaluation and comparison of styrene emissions, utilized Magnum's FIT(TM) nozzle with conventional spray guns and flow coaters (operated at both ...

  19. Use of glass fiber-reinforced plastic as an absorber in limestone wet flue gas desulfurization.

    PubMed

    Lin, Haibo

    2008-10-01

    The choice of materials for the spraying and oxidation of pipes directly affect the operation in limestone wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD). There is reason to consider using glass fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) instead of expensive high nickel alloy for the spraying and oxidation of pipes.

  20. Prediction of thermal strains in fibre reinforced plastic matrix by discretisation of the temperature exposure history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngoy, E. K.

    2016-07-01

    Prediction of environmental effects on fibre reinforced plastics habitually is made difficult due to the complex variability of the natural service environment. This paper suggests a method to predict thermal strain distribution over the material lifetime by discretisation of the exposure history. Laboratory results show a high correlation between predicted and experimentally measured strain distribution

  1. The influence of test piece preparation on the compressive strength of unidirectional fiber-reinforced plastic

    SciTech Connect

    Haeberle, J.G. ); Matthews, F.L. . Centre for Composite Materials)

    1994-07-01

    During a wide-ranging experimental study of compression testing of unidirectional fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP), covering several materials and test methods, if became apparent that the variability of data could be reduced by adopting a rigorous and consistent approach to all phases of specimen productions. Details are given of the procedures adopted, together with results from an associated parameter study.

  2. AN EMPIRICAL MODEL TO PREDICT STYRENE EMISSIONS FROM FIBER-REINFORCED PLASTICS FABRICATION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Styrene is a designated hazardous air pollutant, per the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. It is also a tropospheric ozone precursor. Fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP) fabrication is the primary source of anthropogenic styrene emissions in the United States. This paper describes an em...

  3. Ply level failure prediction of carbon fibre reinforced laminated composite panels subjected to low velocity drop-weight impact using adaptive meshing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farooq, Umar; Myler, Peter

    2014-09-01

    This work is concerned with physical testing and numerical simulations of flat and round nose drop-weight impact of carbon fibre-reinforced laminate composite panels to predict ply level failure. Majority of the existing studies on impact of composites by spherical nose impactors are experimental, computational models are simplified, and based on classical laminated plate theories where contributions of through-thickness stresses are neglected. Present work considers flat nose impact and contributions from through-thickness stresses and is mainly simulation based. A computational model was developed in ABAQUS™ software using adaptive meshing techniques. Simulation produced (2D model) stresses were numerically integrated using MATALB™ code to predict through-thickness (3D) stresses. Through-the-thickness stresses were then utilised in advanced failure criteria coded in MATLAB™ software to predict ply level failures. Simulation produced results demonstrate that the computational model can efficiently and effectively predict ply-by-ply failure status of relatively thick laminates.

  4. Effect of oil lamination between plasticized starch layers on film properties.

    PubMed

    Basiak, Ewelina; Debeaufort, Frédéric; Lenart, Andrzej

    2016-03-15

    To reduce the hygroscopic character of biodegradable starch-based films, rapeseed oil was incorporated by lamination (starch-oil-starch 3-layers technique). The lipid lamination followed by starch solution casting step induced an emulsion type structure of dried films. Composite films are more opalescent and glossier than fatty free starch films. For all the films, structure is heterogeneous in the cross-section only. Adding fat induced a twice decrease of the tensile strength. Thermal gravimetry analysis did not show differences between films with and without oil. Lipid reduced the moisture absorption particularly at higher RH as well as the surface swelling index, when water droplet contact occurred. Addition of lipids always decreases the contact angle for all liquid tested, except for water. Surface affinity of films for liquids less polar that water increased with rapeseed oil addition. The addition of rapeseed oil significantly reduces water vapour and oxygen permeability.

  5. Delamination Monitoring of Quasi-Isotropic CFRP Laminate Using Electric Potential Change Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Masahito; Todoroki, Akira

    Real-time detection of delamination in carbon fiber reinforce plastic (CFRP) laminates has been requiring to maintain the structural reliability of aircraft. In this paper, electric potential change method (EPCM) was applied to monitor delaminations in quasi-isotropic CFRP laminate. As the coefficient of thermal expansion and mold shrinkage factor of carbon fiber and epoxy matrix is different, residual stress is developed in the laminate during the fabrication process of curing. The local strain variation due to delaminations was measured by EPCM utilizing the piezoresistivity of the laminate itself. Finite element simulation was performed to investigate the applicability of the method.

  6. Scanning tone burst eddy-current thermography (S-TBET) for NDT of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libin, M. N.; Maxfield, B. W.; Balasubramanian, Krishnan

    2014-02-01

    Tone Burst Eddy Current technique uses eddy current to apply transient heating inside a component and uses a conventional IR camera for visualization of the response to the transient heating. This technique has been earliest demonstrated for metallic components made of AL, Steel, Stainless Steel, etc., and for detection of cracks, corrosion and adhesive dis-bonds. Although, not nearly as conducting as metals, the Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) material absorbs measurable electromagnetic radiation in the frequency range above 10 kHz. When the surface temperature is observed on the surface that is being heated (defined as the surface just beneath and slightly to one side of the heating coil), the surface temperature increases with increasing frequency because the internal heating increases with frequency. A 2-D anisotropic transient Eddy current heating and thermal conduction model has been developed that provides a reasonable description of the processes described above. The inherent anisotropy of CFRP laminates is included in this model by calculating the heating due to three superimposed, tightly coupled isotropic layers having a specified ply-layup. The experimental apparatus consists of an induction heating coil and an IR camera with low NETD and high frame rates. The coil is moved over the sample using a stepper motor controlled manipulator. The IR data recording is synchronized with the motion control to provide a movie of the surface temperature over time. Several components were evaluated for detection of impact damage, location of stiffeners, etc. on CFRP components.

  7. Scanning tone burst eddy-current thermography (S-TBET) for NDT of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) components

    SciTech Connect

    Libin, M. N.; Maxfield, B. W.; Balasubramanian, Krishnan

    2014-02-18

    Tone Burst Eddy Current technique uses eddy current to apply transient heating inside a component and uses a conventional IR camera for visualization of the response to the transient heating. This technique has been earliest demonstrated for metallic components made of AL, Steel, Stainless Steel, etc., and for detection of cracks, corrosion and adhesive dis-bonds. Although, not nearly as conducting as metals, the Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) material absorbs measurable electromagnetic radiation in the frequency range above 10 kHz. When the surface temperature is observed on the surface that is being heated (defined as the surface just beneath and slightly to one side of the heating coil), the surface temperature increases with increasing frequency because the internal heating increases with frequency. A 2-D anisotropic transient Eddy current heating and thermal conduction model has been developed that provides a reasonable description of the processes described above. The inherent anisotropy of CFRP laminates is included in this model by calculating the heating due to three superimposed, tightly coupled isotropic layers having a specified ply-layup. The experimental apparatus consists of an induction heating coil and an IR camera with low NETD and high frame rates. The coil is moved over the sample using a stepper motor controlled manipulator. The IR data recording is synchronized with the motion control to provide a movie of the surface temperature over time. Several components were evaluated for detection of impact damage, location of stiffeners, etc. on CFRP components.

  8. EFFECT OF GAMMA RAY IRRADIATION ON INTERLAMINAR SHEAR STRENGTH OF GLASS FIBER REINFORCED PLASTICS AT 77 K

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, A.; Nishijima, S.; Izumi, Y.

    2008-03-03

    It is known that an organic material is damaged by gamma ray irradiation, and the strength after irradiation has dependence on the gamma ray dose. These issues are important not only to make global understanding of electric insulating performance of glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) under irradiation condition but also to develop new insulation materials. This paper presents the dependence of fracture mode and interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) on the material and the gamma ray irradiation effect on the fracture mode and the ILSS. 6 mm radius loading nose and supports were used to prompt ILS fracture for a short beam test. A 2.5 mm thick small specimen machined out of a 13 mm thick G-10CR GFRP plate (sliced specimen) showed lower ILSS and translaminar shear (TLS) fracture, although the same size specimen prepared from a 2.5 mm G-10CR GFRP plate (non-sliced specimen) showed ILS fracture and the higher ILSS. Both type of specimens showed the degradation of ILSS after gamma ray irradiation. The fracture mode of the non-sliced specimen changed from ILS to TLS fracture and no bending fracture was observed. The resistance to shear deformation of glass cloth/epoxy laminate structure would be damaged by the irradiation.

  9. Acoustic Emission Source Location in Unidirectional Carbon-Fibre-Reinforced Plastic Plates Using Virtually Trained Artificial Neural Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Caprino, G.; Lopresto, V.; Leone, C.; Papa, I.

    2010-06-02

    Acoustic emission source location in a unidirectional carbon-fibre-reinforced plastic plate was attempted employing Artificial Neural Network (ANN) technology. The acoustic emission events were produced by a lead break, and the response wave received by piezoelectric sensors, type VS150-M resonant at 150 kHz. The waves were detected by a Vallen AMSY4 eight-channel instrumentation. The time of arrival, determined through the conventional threshold crossing technique, was used to measure the dependence of wave velocity on fibre orientation. A simple empirical formula, relying on classical lamination and suggested by wave propagation theory, was able to accurately model the experimental trend. Based on the formula, virtual training and testing data sets were generated for the case of a plate monitored by three transducers, and adopted to select two potentially effective ANN architectures. For final validation, experimental tests were carried out, positioning the source at predetermined points evenly distributed within the plate area. A very satisfactory correlation was found between the actual source locations and the ANN predictions.

  10. A Nonlinear Three-Dimensional Micromechanics Model for Fiber-Reinforced Laminated Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-01

    P., "An Overview of Self-Consistent Methods for Fiber Reinforced Composites," NASA TM 103713, January 1991. 6. Hashin, Zvi, "The Elastic Moduli of...of a Titanium - Aluminide /Silicon-Carbide Com- posite Using a Unified State Variable Model and the Finite Element Method," Presented at the Winter...Vol 27, 1992. 57. Sherwood, J. A., and Boyle, M. J., "Investigation of the Thermome- chanical Response of a Titanium Aluminide /Silicon Carbide Com

  11. Deformation Behavior during Processing in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogihara, Shinji; Kobayashi, Satoshi

    In this study, we manufacture the device for measuring the friction between the prepreg curing process and subjected to pull-out tests with it The prepreg used in this study is a unidirectional carbon/epoxy, produced by TORAY designation of T700SC/2592.When creating specimens 4-ply prepregs are prepared and laminated. The 2-ply prepregs in the middle are shifted 50mm. In order to measure the friction between the prepreg during the cure process, we simulate the environment in the autoclave in the device, and we experiment in pull-out test. Test environment simulating temperature and pressure. The speed of displacement should be calculated by coefficient of thermal expansions (CTE). By calculation, 0.05mm/min gives the order of magnitude of displacement speed. In this study, 3 pull-out speeds are used: 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1mm/min. The specimen was heated by a couple of heaters, and we controlled the heaters with a temperature controller along the curing conditions of the prepreg. We put pressure using 4 bolts. Two strain gages were put on the bolt. We can understand the load applied to the specimen from the strain of the bolt. Pressure was adjusted the tightness of the bolt according to curing conditions. By using such a device, the pull-out test performed by tensile testing machine while adding temperature and pressure. During the 5 hours, we perform experiments while recording the load and stroke. The shear stress determined from the load and the stroke, and evaluated.

  12. 40 CFR 63.5795 - How do I know if my reinforced plastic composites production facility is a new affected source or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I know if my reinforced plastic... Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production What This Subpart Covers § 63.5795 How do I know if my reinforced plastic composites production facility is a new affected...

  13. 40 CFR 63.5795 - How do I know if my reinforced plastic composites production facility is a new affected source or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I know if my reinforced plastic... Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production What This Subpart Covers § 63.5795 How do I know if my reinforced plastic composites production facility is a new affected...

  14. 40 CFR 63.5795 - How do I know if my reinforced plastic composites production facility is a new affected source or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true How do I know if my reinforced plastic... for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production What This Subpart Covers § 63.5795 How do I know if my reinforced plastic composites production facility is a new affected source or...

  15. 40 CFR 63.5795 - How do I know if my reinforced plastic composites production facility is a new affected source or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How do I know if my reinforced plastic... Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production What This Subpart Covers § 63.5795 How do I know if my reinforced plastic composites production facility is a new affected...

  16. Recyclability assessment of nano-reinforced plastic packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Sánchez, C.; Hortal, M.; Aliaga, C.; Devis, A.; Cloquell-Ballester, V.A.

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • The study compares the recyclability of polymers with and without nanoparticles. • Visual appearance, material quality and mechanical properties are evaluated. • Minor variations in mechanical properties in R-PE and R-PP with nanoparticles. • Slight degradation of R-PET which affect mechanical properties. • Colour deviations in recycled PE, PP and PET in ranges higher that 0.3 units. - Abstract: Packaging is expected to become the leading application for nano-composites by 2020 due to the great advantages on mechanical and active properties achieved with these substances. As novel materials, and although there are some current applications in the market, there is still unknown areas under development. One key issue to be addressed is to know more about the implications of the nano-composite packaging materials once they become waste. The present study evaluates the extrusion process of four nanomaterials (Layered silicate modified nanoclay (Nanoclay1), Calcium Carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}), Silver (Ag) and Zinc Oxide (ZnO) as part of different virgin polymer matrices of polyethylene (PE), Polypropylene (PP) and Polyethyleneterephtalate (PET). Thus, the following film plastic materials: (PE–Nanoclay1, PE–CaCO{sub 3}, PP–Ag, PET–ZnO, PET–Ag, PET–Nanoclay1) have been processed considering different recycling scenarios. Results on recyclability show that for PE and PP, in general terms and except for some minor variations in yellowness index, tensile modulus, tensile strength and tear strength (PE with Nanoclay1, PP with Ag), the introduction of nanomaterial in the recycling streams for plastic films does not affect the final recycled plastic material in terms of mechanical properties and material quality compared to conventional recycled plastic. Regarding PET, results show that the increasing addition of nanomaterial into the recycled PET matrix (especially PET–Ag) could influence important properties of the recycled material, due to a

  17. Recyclability assessment of nano-reinforced plastic packaging.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, C; Hortal, M; Aliaga, C; Devis, A; Cloquell-Ballester, V A

    2014-12-01

    Packaging is expected to become the leading application for nano-composites by 2020 due to the great advantages on mechanical and active properties achieved with these substances. As novel materials, and although there are some current applications in the market, there is still unknown areas under development. One key issue to be addressed is to know more about the implications of the nano-composite packaging materials once they become waste. The present study evaluates the extrusion process of four nanomaterials (Layered silicate modified nanoclay (Nanoclay1), Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3), Silver (Ag) and Zinc Oxide (ZnO) as part of different virgin polymer matrices of polyethylene (PE), Polypropylene (PP) and Polyethyleneterephtalate (PET). Thus, the following film plastic materials: (PE-Nanoclay1, PE-CaCO3, PP-Ag, PET-ZnO, PET-Ag, PET-Nanoclay1) have been processed considering different recycling scenarios. Results on recyclability show that for PE and PP, in general terms and except for some minor variations in yellowness index, tensile modulus, tensile strength and tear strength (PE with Nanoclay1, PP with Ag), the introduction of nanomaterial in the recycling streams for plastic films does not affect the final recycled plastic material in terms of mechanical properties and material quality compared to conventional recycled plastic. Regarding PET, results show that the increasing addition of nanomaterial into the recycled PET matrix (especially PET-Ag) could influence important properties of the recycled material, due to a slight degradation of the polymer, such as increasing pinholes, degradation fumes and elongation at break. Moreover, it should be noted that colour deviations were visible in most of the samples (PE, PP and PET) in levels higher than 0.3 units (limit perceivable by the human eye). The acceptance of these changes in the properties of recycled PE, PP and PET will depend on the specific applications considered (e.g. packaging applications are more

  18. Damage of hybrid composite laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haery, Haleh A.; Kim, Ho Sung

    2013-08-01

    Hybrid laminates consisting of woven glass fabric/epoxy composite plies and woven carbon fabric/epoxy composite plies are studied for fatigue damage and residual strength. A theoretical framework based on the systems approach is proposed as a guide to deal with the complexity involving uncertainties and a large number of variables in the hybrid composite system. A relative damage sensitivity factor expression was developed for quantitative comparisons between non-hybrid and hybrid composites. Hypotheses derived from the theoretical framework were tested and verified. The first hypothesis was that the difference between two different sets of properties produces shear stress in interface between carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CRP) and glass fibre reinforced plastics (GRP), and eventually become a source for CRP/GRP interfacial delamination or longitudinal cracking. The second hypothesis was that inter-fibre bundle delamination occurs more severely to CRP sub-system than GRP sub-system.

  19. Sensitivity of the coefficients of thermal expansion of selected graphite reinforced composite laminates to lamina thermoelastic properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, S. S.; Funk, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    An analytical study of the sensitivity of the laminate coefficient of thermal expansion, CTE, to changes in lamina elastic properties has been made. High modulus graphite/epoxy (P75/934, P100/934, P120/934), graphite/aluminum (P100/Al), and graphite/glass (HMS/Gl) composite materials were considered in quasi-isotropic, low thermal stress, and 'near-zero' thermal expansion laminate configurations. The effects of a positive or negative 10 percent change in lamina properties on laminate CTE is strongly dependent upon both the composite material and the laminate configuration. A 10 percent change in all of the lamina properties had very little effect on the laminate CTE of the HMS/Gl composite laminates investigated. The sensitivity and direction of change in the laminate CTE of Gr/934 depended very strongly on the fiber properties. A 10 percent change in the lamina transverse CTE resulted in changes as large as 0.216 ppm/C in the laminate CTE of a quasi-isotropic Gr/934 laminate. No significant difference was observed in the sensitivity of the laminate CTE of the P100/934 and P120/934 composite materials due to changes in lamina properties. Large changes in laminate CTE can result from measured temperature and radiation effects on lamina properties.

  20. Sensitivity of the coefficients of thermal expansion of selected graphite reinforced composite laminates to lamina thermoelastic properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, S. S.; Funk, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    An analytical study of the sensitivity of the laminate coefficient of thermal expansion, CTE, to changes in lamina elastic properties has been made. High modulus graphite/epoxy (P75/934, P100/934, P120/934), graphite/aluminum (P100/Al), and graphite/glass (HMS/Gl) composite materials were considered in quasi-isotropic, low thermal stress, and 'near-zero' thermal expansion laminate configurations. The effects of a positive or negative 10 percent change in lamina properties on laminate CTE is strongly dependent upon both the composite material and the laminate configuration. A 10 percent change in all of the lamina properties had very little effect on the laminate CTE of the HMS/Gl composite laminates investigated. The sensitivity and direction of change in the laminate CTE of Gr/934 depended very strongly on the fiber properties. A 10 percent change in the lamina transverse CTE resulted in changes as large as 0.216 ppm/C in the laminate CTE of a quasi-isotropic Gr/934 laminate. No significant difference was observed in the sensitivity of the laminate CTE of the P100/934 and P120/934 composite materials due to changes in lamina properties. Large changes in laminate CTE can result from measured temperature and radiation effects on lamina properties.

  1. Computational Implementation of a Thermodynamically Based Work Potential Model For Progressive Microdamage and Transverse Cracking in Fiber-Reinforced Laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pineda, Evan J.; Waas, Anthony M.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Collier, Craig S.

    2012-01-01

    A continuum-level, dual internal state variable, thermodynamically based, work potential model, Schapery Theory, is used capture the effects of two matrix damage mechanisms in a fiber-reinforced laminated composite: microdamage and transverse cracking. Matrix microdamage accrues primarily in the form of shear microcracks between the fibers of the composite. Whereas, larger transverse matrix cracks typically span the thickness of a lamina and run parallel to the fibers. Schapery Theory uses the energy potential required to advance structural changes, associated with the damage mechanisms, to govern damage growth through a set of internal state variables. These state variables are used to quantify the stiffness degradation resulting from damage growth. The transverse and shear stiffness of the lamina are related to the internal state variables through a set of measurable damage functions. Additionally, the damage variables for a given strain state can be calculated from a set of evolution equations. These evolution equations and damage functions are implemented into the finite element method and used to govern the constitutive response of the material points in the model. Additionally, an axial failure criterion is included in the model. The response of a center-notched, buffer strip-stiffened panel subjected to uniaxial tension is investigated and results are compared to experiment.

  2. Buckling analysis for axially compressed flat plates, structural sections, and stiffened plates reinforced with laminated composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viswanathan, A. V.; Soong, T.; Miller, R. E., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    A classical buckling analysis is developed for stiffened, flat plates composed of a series of linked plate and beam elements. Plates are idealized as multilayered orthotropic elements. Structural beads and lips are idealized as beams. The loaded edges of the stiffened plate are simply-supported and the conditions at the unloaded edges can be prescribed arbitrarily. The plate and beam elements are matched along their common junctions for displacement continuity and force equilibrium in an exact manner. Offsets between elements are considered in the analysis. Buckling under uniaxial compressive load for plates, sections, and stiffened plates is investigated. Buckling loads are the lowest of all possible general and local failure modes, and the mode shape is used to determine whether buckling is a local or general instability. Numerical correlations with existing analysis and test data for plates, sections, and stiffened plates including boron-reinforced structures are discussed. In general correlations are reasonably good.

  3. Buckling analysis for structural sections and stiffened plates reinforced with laminated composites.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viswanathan, A. V.; Soong, T.-C.; Miller, R. E., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A classical buckling analysis is developed for stiffened, flat plates composed of a series of linked flat plate and beam elements. Plates are idealized as multilayered orthotropic elements; structural beads and lips are idealized as beams. The loaded edges of the stiffened plate are simply supported and the conditions at the unloaded edges can be prescribed arbitrarily. The plate and beam elements are matched along their common junctions for displacement continuity and force equilibrium in an exact manner. Offsets between elements are considered in the analysis. Buckling under uniaxial compressive load for plates, sections and stiffened plates is investigated. Buckling loads are found as the lowest of all possible general and local failure modes and the mode shape is used to determine whether buckling is a local or general instability. Numerical correlations with existing analysis and test data for plates, sections and stiffened plates including boron-reinforced structures are discussed. In general, correlations are reasonably good.

  4. Bond of fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) rods to concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Zahrani, M.M.; Nanni, A.; Al-Dulaijan, S.U.; Bakis, C.E.

    1996-11-01

    The bond behavior between FRP rods and concrete is one of the most important aspects to predicting the short- and long-term performance of FRP reinforced concrete structures including development and transfer length. In this research, the direct pull-out test was used to study the FRP/concrete bond behavior. This method allows measurement of the loaded- and free-end slip of the FRP rod and placement of a strain probe inside the rod to measure internal strain distribution in both axial and radial directions along the bonded length without affecting the FRP/concrete interface. Knowledge of strain distribution is necessary to study the load transfer mechanism between FRP rod and concrete. The scope of this paper include experimental results obtained with the direct pull-out test using 12.7 mm glass and carbon FRP rods with smooth and axisymmetrical deformed surfaces. The typical results are given as nominal bond and shear stress vs. free- and loaded-end slip. Experimental results obtained from strain probes used during pull-out tests are also presented as nominal bond and shear stress vs. strain. For smooth rods, friction is the main controlling factor. For deformed rods, bond tends to be controlled by strength and mechanical action of the axisymmetrical deformations rather than adhesion and friction. The strength of concrete appears to have no effect on the bond strength and failure mechanism of these particular machined FRP rods when concrete splitting is avoided.

  5. Composite laminate free-edge reinforcement with U-shaped caps. I - Stress analysis. II - Theoretical-experimental correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, W. E.; Gossard, Terry, Jr.; Jones, Robert M.

    1989-01-01

    The present generalized plane-strain FEM analysis for the prediction of interlaminar normal stress reduction when a U-shaped cap is bonded to the edge of a composite laminate gives attention to the highly variable transverse stresses near the free edge, cap length and thickness, and a gap under the cap due to the manufacturing process. The load-transfer mechanism between cap and laminate is found to be strain-compatibility, rather than shear lag. In the second part of this work, the three-dimensional composite material failure criteria are used in a progressive laminate failure analysis to predict failure loads of laminates with different edge-cap designs; symmetric 11-layer graphite-epoxy laminates with a one-layer cap of kevlar-epoxy are shown to carry 130-140 percent greater loading than uncapped laminates, under static tensile and tension-tension fatigue loading.

  6. Effect of Waste Plastic Shreds on Bond Resistance between Concrete and Steel Reinforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osifala, K. B.; Salau, M. A.; Adeniyi, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates the effect of waste plastic shreds on steel-concrete bond. Forty RILEM test specimens with 16mm and 20mm diameter high-yield reinforcing bars were cast and tested. Fifteen specimens with 16mm and 20mm each were cast with the addition of waste plastic shreds at varying percentages of 1%, 1.5% and 2%; another ten RILEM specimens with 16mm and 20mm diameter bars at 0% of waste plastic shreds were cast as reference. Nine 150mm cubes, with three taken from each batch of various percentages of waste plastic shreds, were used to monitor the concrete strength. From the test results and analysis, the compressive strength of concrete was found to reduce with increased percentages of waste plastic shreds, while the waste plastic shreds material was found not to improve the bond resistance between concrete and steel. However, though lower than normal concrete, there was an increase in the bond resistance with increase in the percent of plastic shreds. The bond resistance of 16mm was also found to be higher than that of 20mm in all the specimens tested.

  7. Boron fiber reinforced plastics. (Latest citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the applications, molding processes, properties, design concepts, and market trends of polyester and epoxy resins reinforced with boron fibers. Performance evaluations from nondestructive test results are also included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Boron fiber reinforced plastics. (Latest citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the applications, molding processes, properties, design concepts, and market trends of polyester and epoxy resins reinforced with boron fibers. Performance evaluations from nondestructive test results are also included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Thermo-Mechanical Behaviour of Flax-Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Laminates for Industrial Applications

    PubMed Central

    Pitarresi, Giuseppe; Tumino, Davide; Mancuso, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The present work describes the experimental mechanical characterisation of a natural flax fibre reinforced epoxy polymer composite. A commercial plain woven quasi-unidirectional flax fabric with spun-twisted yarns is employed in particular, as well as unidirectional composite panels manufactured with three techniques: hand-lay-up, vacuum bagging and resin infusion. The stiffness and strength behaviours are investigated under both monotonic and low-cycle fatigue loadings. The analysed material has, in particular, shown a typical bilinear behaviour under pure traction, with a knee yield point occurring at a rather low stress value, after which the material tensile stiffness is significantly reduced. In the present work, such a mechanism is investigated by a phenomenological approach, performing periodical loading/unloading cycles, and repeating tensile tests on previously “yielded” samples to assess the evolution of stiffness behaviour. Infrared thermography is also employed to measure the temperature of specimens during monotonic and cyclic loading. In the first case, the thermal signal is monitored to correlate departures from the thermoelastic behaviour with the onset of energy loss mechanisms. In the case of cyclic loading, the thermoelastic signal and the second harmonic component are both determined in order to investigate the extent of elastic behaviour of the material. PMID:28793643

  10. Mechanical Properties of a Unidirectional Basalt-Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Under a Loading Simulating Operation Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobanov, D. S.; Slovikov, S. V.

    2017-01-01

    The results of experimental investigations of unidirectional composites based on basalt fibers and different marks of epoxy resins are presented. Uniaxial tensile tests were carried out using a specimen fixation technique simulating the operation conditions of structures. The mechanical properties of the basalt-fiber-reinforced plastics (BFRPs) were determined. The diagrams of loading and deformation of BFRP specimens were obtain. The formulations of the composites with the highest mechanical properties were revealed.

  11. Coded excitation for infrared non-destructive testing of carbon fiber reinforced plastics.

    PubMed

    Mulaveesala, Ravibabu; Venkata Ghali, Subbarao

    2011-05-01

    This paper proposes a Barker coded excitation for defect detection using infrared non-destructive testing. Capability of the proposed excitation scheme is highlighted with recently introduced correlation based post processing approach and compared with the existing phase based analysis by taking the signal to noise ratio into consideration. Applicability of the proposed scheme has been experimentally validated on a carbon fiber reinforced plastic specimen containing flat bottom holes located at different depths.

  12. High-voltage leak detection of a parenteral proteinaceous solution product packaged in form-fill-seal plastic laminate bags. Part 2. Method performance as a function of heat seal defects, product-package refrigeration, and package plastic laminate lot.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Mats; Damgaard, Rasmus; Buus, Peter; Mulhall, Brian; Guazzo, Dana Morton

    2013-01-01

    Part 1 of this three-part research series detailed the development and validation of a high-voltage leak detection test (HVLD, also known as an electrical conductivity and capacitance test) for verifying the container-closure integrity of a small-volume laminate plastic bag containing an aqueous solution formulation of the rapid-acting insulin analogue, insulin aspart (NovoRapid®/NovoLog®) by Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsværd, Denmark. Leak detection capability was verified using positive controls each with a single laser-drilled hole in the bag film face. In this Part 2, HVLD leak detection capability was further explored in four separate studies. Study 1 investigated the ability of HVLD to detect weaknesses and/or gaps in the bag heat seal. Study 2 checked the HVLD detection of bag holes in packages stored 4 days at ambient conditions followed by 17 days at refrigeration. Study 3 examined HVLD test results for packages tested when cold. Study 4 compared HVLD test results as a function of bag plastic film lots. The final Part 3 of this series will report the impact of HVLD exposure on product visual appearance and chemical stability. In Part 1 of this three-part series, a leak test method based on electrical conductivity and capacitance, also called high-voltage leak detection (HVLD), was used to find leaks in small plastic bags filled with a solution for injection of the rapid-acting insulin analogue, insulin aspart (NovoRapid®/NovoLog®) by Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsværd, Denmark. In this Part 2, HVLD leak detection capability was further explored in four separate studies. Study 1 investigated the ability of HVLD to detect bag heat seal leaks. Study 2 checked HVLD's ability to detect bag holes after a total of 21 days at ambient plus refrigerated temperatures. Study 3 looked to see if HVLD results changed for packages tested when still cold. Study 4 compared HVLD results for multiple bag plastic film lots. The final Part 3 of this series will report any evidence of

  13. Modeling of Inelastic Behavior of Structures Using Plastic and Metal Laminates.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    One notes from Figure 5 that locating the concentrated reinforcement at y = d/4 appears to provide the best overall representation of the elastoplastic ...modeling into the inelastic range currently exists. The basic criteria to be satisfied when modeling an isotropic metallic structure elastoplastically ...model a mild steel parent material. This composite material was then shown to satisfy the basic criteria needed to elastoplastically model a structure

  14. Damage initiation and propagation in metal laminates

    SciTech Connect

    Riddle, R.A.; Lesuer, D.R.; Syn, C.K.

    1996-07-26

    The metal laminates proposed here for aircraft structures are Al alloy interlayers between Al alloy based metal matrix composite (MMC) plates reinforced with Si carbide particles. Properties to be tailored for jet engine fan containment and wing and auxiliary support structures include the important property fracture toughness. A method was developed for simulating and predicting crack initiation/growth using finite element analysis and fracture mechanics. An important key in predicting the failure is the tie- break slideline with prescribed (chosen based on J Integral calculations) effective plastic strain to failure in elements along the slideline. More development of the method is needed, particularly in its correlation with experimental data from various fracture toughness and strength tests of metal laminates. Results show that delamination at the interface of the ductile interlayer and MMC material can add significantly to the energy required to propagate a crack through a metal laminate. 11 figs, 7 refs.

  15. Enhanced Schapery Theory Software Development for Modeling Failure of Fiber-Reinforced Laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pineda, Evan J.; Waas, Anthony M.

    2013-01-01

    Progressive damage and failure analysis (PDFA) tools are needed to predict the nonlinear response of advanced fiber-reinforced composite structures. Predictive tools should incorporate the underlying physics of the damage and failure mechanisms observed in the composite, and should utilize as few input parameters as possible. The purpose of the Enhanced Schapery Theory (EST) was to create a PDFA tool that operates in conjunction with a commercially available finite element (FE) code (Abaqus). The tool captures the physics of the damage and failure mechanisms that result in the nonlinear behavior of the material, and the failure methodology employed yields numerical results that are relatively insensitive to changes in the FE mesh. The EST code is written in Fortran and compiled into a static library that is linked to Abaqus. A Fortran Abaqus UMAT material subroutine is used to facilitate the communication between Abaqus and EST. A clear distinction between damage and failure is imposed. Damage mechanisms result in pre-peak nonlinearity in the stress strain curve. Four internal state variables (ISVs) are utilized to control the damage and failure degradation. All damage is said to result from matrix microdamage, and a single ISV marks the micro-damage evolution as it is used to degrade the transverse and shear moduli of the lamina using a set of experimentally obtainable matrix microdamage functions. Three separate failure ISVs are used to incorporate failure due to fiber breakage, mode I matrix cracking, and mode II matrix cracking. Failure initiation is determined using a failure criterion, and the evolution of these ISVs is controlled by a set of traction-separation laws. The traction separation laws are postulated such that the area under the curves is equal to the fracture toughness of the material associated with the corresponding failure mechanism. A characteristic finite element length is used to transform the traction-separation laws into stress-strain laws

  16. Advanced in situ multi-scale characterization of hardness of carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongxin; Masuda, Hideki; Kitazawa, Hideaki; Onishi, Keiko; Kawai, Masamichi; Fujita, Daisuke

    2016-10-01

    In situ multi-scale characterization of hardness of carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) is demonstrated by a traditional hardness tester, instrumented indentation tester and atomic-force-microscope (AFM)-based nanoindentation. In particular, due to the large residual indentation and nonuniform distribution of the microscale carbon fibers, the Vickers hardness could not be calculated by the traditional hardness tester. In addition, the clear residual microindentation could not be formed on the CFRP by instrumented indentation tester because of the large tip half angle of the Berkovich indenter. Therefore, an efficient technique for characterizing the true nanoscale hardness of CFRP was proposed and evaluated. The local hardness of the carbon fibers or plastic matrix on the nanoscale did not vary with nanoindentation location. The Vickers hardnesses of the carbon fiber and plastic matrix determined by AFM-based nanoindentation were 340 ± 30 and 40 ± 2 kgf/mm2, respectively.

  17. Reinforcement learning, spike-time-dependent plasticity, and the BCM rule.

    PubMed

    Baras, Dorit; Meir, Ron

    2007-08-01

    Learning agents, whether natural or artificial, must update their internal parameters in order to improve their behavior over time. In reinforcement learning, this plasticity is influenced by an environmental signal, termed a reward, that directs the changes in appropriate directions. We apply a recently introduced policy learning algorithm from machine learning to networks of spiking neurons and derive a spike-time-dependent plasticity rule that ensures convergence to a local optimum of the expected average reward. The approach is applicable to a broad class of neuronal models, including the Hodgkin-Huxley model. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the derived rule in several toy problems. Finally, through statistical analysis, we show that the synaptic plasticity rule established is closely related to the widely used BCM rule, for which good biological evidence exists.

  18. Post-failure Analysis and Fractography of In-plane Tension-Tested Tufted Carbon Fabric-Reinforced Epoxy Composite Laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masa, Suresh Kumar; Mallya, Ambresha Basappa; Dhanapal, Karuppanan; Ramachandra, Ranganath Vemulapad; Kishore

    2015-04-01

    Tufted and plain unidirectional carbon fabric-reinforced epoxy composite laminates were fabricated by vacuum-enhanced resin infusion technology and subjected to in-plane tensile tests with a view to study the changes in mechanical properties and failure responses. Owing to the presence of tufts in the laminates, both the tensile strength and modulus decrease by ~38 and ~20%, respectively, vis- à- vis the values recorded for plain composites. The fracture features point to the fact that though both the composites fail in brittle manner, they, however, exhibit differing fiber pull out lengths. Further, it was noticed that for the tufted ones, crack originates in the vicinity of tuft thread, spreads through the composite in a brittle manner, and results in a display of shorter fiber pull out lengths. These observations and other results are discussed in this paper.

  19. Bond variability of glass-fiber-reinforcing-plastic reinforcement in concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Hanus, J.P.

    1998-12-01

    This report summarizes an experimental program that investigated the bond variability of glass-fiber-reinforced-polymer (GFRP) reinforcement in concrete. The variables in the study were manufacturer (Marshall Industries Composites, Incorporated M1 and Corrosion Proof Products/Hughes Brothers M2), bar size (Number 5 and 6), cover (2 and 3 bar diameters), and embedment length (10 through 47 inch). Tensile tests were also performed on the GFRP rebar for comparison to bond tests that exhibited bar failure. Eighty-four inverted half-beam bond specimens were tested while monitoring load, loaded-end slip, free-end slip, cracking, and acoustic emissions on the embedded bar and concrete. Three to six replicate tests were conducted for each set of variables. The results of each test within a series were examined to investigate the relative variability with respect to the failure types. The M1 rebar was observed to rely primarily on mechanical interlock to develop bond strength. This conclusion was based on investigations of the rebar surface condition, bar deformation geometry, slip curves, AE results, crack patterns and forensic investigations. Additionally, the ultimate loads for the bond tests with the Ml rebar were affected by changes in embedment lengths but did not vary for tests with 2 and 3d(b) cover. Overall, the M1 rebar had coefficients of variation (COV) of 14.3 and 8.9% for bond tests that exhibited bar failure and tensile test bar failures, respectively. The bond tests that failed in concrete splitting had COVs from 5.2 to 5.9%.

  20. Methods for an investigation of the effect of material components on the mechanical characteristics of glass-fiber-reinforced plastics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willax, H. O.

    1980-01-01

    The materials used in the production of glass reinforced plastics are discussed. Specific emphasis is given to matrix polyester materials, the reinforcing glass materials, and aspects of specimen preparation. Various methods of investigation are described, giving attention to optical impregnation and wetting measurements and the gravimetric determination of the angle of contact. Deformation measurements and approaches utilizing a piezoelectric device are also considered.

  1. Somatic and Reinforcement-Based Plasticity in the Initial Stages of Human Motor Learning.

    PubMed

    Sidarta, Ananda; Vahdat, Shahabeddin; Bernardi, Nicolò F; Ostry, David J

    2016-11-16

    As one learns to dance or play tennis, the desired somatosensory state is typically unknown. Trial and error is important as motor behavior is shaped by successful and unsuccessful movements. As an experimental model, we designed a task in which human participants make reaching movements to a hidden target and receive positive reinforcement when successful. We identified somatic and reinforcement-based sources of plasticity on the basis of changes in functional connectivity using resting-state fMRI before and after learning. The neuroimaging data revealed reinforcement-related changes in both motor and somatosensory brain areas in which a strengthening of connectivity was related to the amount of positive reinforcement during learning. Areas of prefrontal cortex were similarly altered in relation to reinforcement, with connectivity between sensorimotor areas of putamen and the reward-related ventromedial prefrontal cortex strengthened in relation to the amount of successful feedback received. In other analyses, we assessed connectivity related to changes in movement direction between trials, a type of variability that presumably reflects exploratory strategies during learning. We found that connectivity in a network linking motor and somatosensory cortices increased with trial-to-trial changes in direction. Connectivity varied as well with the change in movement direction following incorrect movements. Here the changes were observed in a somatic memory and decision making network involving ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and second somatosensory cortex. Our results point to the idea that the initial stages of motor learning are not wholly motor but rather involve plasticity in somatic and prefrontal networks related both to reward and exploration.

  2. Shear Strength at 75 F to 500 F of Fourteen Adhesives Used to Bond a Glass-fabric-reinforced Phenolic Resin Laminate to Steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John R

    1956-01-01

    Fourteen adhesives used to bond a glass-fabric-reinforced phenolic resin laminate to steel were tested in order to determine their shear strengths at temperatures from 75 F to 500 F. Fabrication methods were varied to evaluate the effect of placing cloth between the facing surfaces to maintain a uniform bond-line thickness. One glass-fabric supported phenolic adhesive was found to have a shear strength of 3,400 psi at 300 F and over 1,000 psi at 500 F. Strength and fabrication data are tabulated for all adhesives tested.

  3. Application of fiber-reinforced plastic rods as prestressing tendons in concrete structures. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mattock, A.H.; Babaei, K.

    1989-08-01

    The study is concerned with the possibility of utilizing fiber-reinforced plastic rods as prestressing tendons, in place of traditional steel tendons, in elements of prestressed-concrete bridges exposed to corrosive environments. A survey was made of available information on the behavior characteristics of fiber-reinforced plastic tension elements and, in particular, those of glass-fiber-reinforced (GFR) tension elements. Also, an analytical study was made of the flexural behavior of concrete elements prestressed by GFR tendons. Based on the analytical study and on the survey of available information, an assessment is made of the impact on the design of prestressed-concrete members if GFR tendons are used. Some preliminary design recommendations are made, together with proposals for research needed before GFR prestressing tendons should be used in practice. Four GFR tendons with Con-Tech Systems anchorages were tested, the primary variable being the embedded length of the GFR rods in the anchorages. All the tendons failed by the rods pulling out of the anchorages. For embedded lengths of 15.2 in or greater, the failure loads were 90% of the advertised tendon strength of 220 ksi, or about 100% of the guaranteed tensile strength of 197 ksi (60 kN/rod).

  4. Weathering Characteristics of Wood Plastic Composites Reinforced with Extracted or Delignified Wood Flour.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yao; Stark, Nicole M; Tshabalala, Mandla A; Gao, Jianmin; Fan, Yongming

    2016-07-23

    This study investigated weathering performance of an HDPE wood plastic composite reinforced with extracted or delignified wood flour (WF). The wood flour was pre-extracted with three different solvents, toluene/ethanol (TE), acetone/water (AW), and hot water (HW), or sodium chlorite/acetic acid. The spectral properties of the composites before and after artificial weathering under accelerated conditions were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, the surface color parameters were analyzed using colorimetry, and the mechanical properties were determined by a flexural test. Weathering of WPC resulted in a surface lightening and a decrease in wood index (wood/HDPE) and flexural strength. WPCs that were reinforced with delignified wood flour showed higher ΔL(*) and ΔE(*) values, together with lower MOE and MOR retention ratios upon weathering when compared to those with non-extracted control and extracted WF.

  5. Weathering Characteristics of Wood Plastic Composites Reinforced with Extracted or Delignified Wood Flour

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yao; Stark, Nicole M.; Tshabalala, Mandla A.; Gao, Jianmin; Fan, Yongming

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated weathering performance of an HDPE wood plastic composite reinforced with extracted or delignified wood flour (WF). The wood flour was pre-extracted with three different solvents, toluene/ethanol (TE), acetone/water (AW), and hot water (HW), or sodium chlorite/acetic acid. The spectral properties of the composites before and after artificial weathering under accelerated conditions were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, the surface color parameters were analyzed using colorimetry, and the mechanical properties were determined by a flexural test. Weathering of WPC resulted in a surface lightening and a decrease in wood index (wood/HDPE) and flexural strength. WPCs that were reinforced with delignified wood flour showed higher ΔL* and ΔE* values, together with lower MOE and MOR retention ratios upon weathering when compared to those with non-extracted control and extracted WF. PMID:28773732

  6. Renewable agricultural fibers as reinforcing fillers in plastics: Mechanical properties of kenaf fiber-polypropylene composites

    SciTech Connect

    Sanadi, A.R.; Caulfield, D.F.; Jacobson, R.E.; Rowell, R.M. |

    1995-05-01

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) is a fast growing annual growth plant that is harvested for its bast fibers. These fibers have excellent specific properties and have potential to be outstanding reinforcing fillers in plastics. In these experiments, the fibers and polypropylene (PP) were blended in a thermokinetic mixer and then injection molded, with the fiber weight fractions varying to 60%. A maleated polypropylene was used to improve the interaction and adhesion between the nonpolar matrix and the polar lignocellulosic fibers. The specific tensile and flexural moduli of a 50% by weight (39% by volume) of kenaf-PP composite compare favorably with a 40% by weight of glass fiber-PP injection-molded composite. These results suggest that kenaf fibers are a viable alternative to inorganic/mineral-based reinforcing fibers as long as the right processing conditions are used and they are used in applications where the higher water absorption is not critical.

  7. Renewable agricultural fibers as reinforcing fillers in plastics: Mechanical properties of Kenaf fiber-polpyropylene composites

    SciTech Connect

    Sanadi, A.R.; Caulfield, D.F.; Jacobson, R.E.

    1995-12-01

    Kenaf (Hibiscus Cannabinus) is a fast growing annual growth plant that is harvested for its bast fibers. These fibers have excellent specific properties and have potential to be outstanding reinforcing fillers in plastics. In our experiments, the fibers and polypropylene (PP) were blended in a thermokinetic mixer and then injection molded, with the fiber weight fractions varying to 60%. A maleated polypropylene was used to improve the interaction and adhesion between the non-polar matrix and the polar lignocellulosic fibers. The specific tensile and flexural moduli of a 50 % by volume (39 % by volume) of kenaf-PP composites compares favorably with a 40 % by weight of glass fiber-PP injection molded composites, These results suggest that kenaf fibers are a viable alternative to inorganic/mineral based reinforcing fibers as long as the right processing conditions are used and for applications where the higher water absorption is not critical.

  8. Evolution of the health of concrete structures by electrically conductive GFRP (glass fiber reinforced plastic) composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Soon-Gi

    2002-02-01

    The function and performance of self-diagnostic composites embedded in concrete blocks and piles were investigated by bending tests and electrical resistance measurement. Carbon powder (CP) and carbon fiber (CF) were introduced into glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) composites to provide electrical conductivity. The CPGFRP composite displays generally good performance in various bending tests of concrete block and piles compared to the CFGFRP composite. The electrical resistance of the CPGFRP composite increases remarkably at small strains in response to microcrack formation at about 200 μm strain, and can be used to detect smaller deformations before crack formation. The CPGFRP composite shows continuous change in resistance up to a large strain level just before the final fracture for concrete structures reinforced by steel bars. It is concluded that self-diagnostic composites can be used to predict damage and fracture in concrete blocks and piles.

  9. Quantitative Damage Detection and Sparse Sensor Array Optimization of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Resin Composite Laminates for Wind Turbine Blade Structural Health Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Yang, Zhibo; Chen, Xuefeng

    2014-01-01

    The active structural health monitoring (SHM) approach for the complex composite laminate structures of wind turbine blades (WTBs), addresses the important and complicated problem of signal noise. After illustrating the wind energy industry's development perspectives and its crucial requirement for SHM, an improved redundant second generation wavelet transform (IRSGWT) pre-processing algorithm based on neighboring coefficients is introduced for feeble signal denoising. The method can avoid the drawbacks of conventional wavelet methods that lose information in transforms and the shortcomings of redundant second generation wavelet (RSGWT) denoising that can lead to error propagation. For large scale WTB composites, how to minimize the number of sensors while ensuring accuracy is also a key issue. A sparse sensor array optimization of composites for WTB applications is proposed that can reduce the number of transducers that must be used. Compared to a full sixteen transducer array, the optimized eight transducer configuration displays better accuracy in identifying the correct position of simulated damage (mass of load) on composite laminates with anisotropic characteristics than a non-optimized array. It can help to guarantee more flexible and qualified monitoring of the areas that more frequently suffer damage. The proposed methods are verified experimentally on specimens of carbon fiber reinforced resin composite laminates. PMID:24763210

  10. Quantitative damage detection and sparse sensor array optimization of carbon fiber reinforced resin composite laminates for wind turbine blade structural health monitoring.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Yang, Zhibo; Chen, Xuefeng

    2014-04-23

    The active structural health monitoring (SHM) approach for the complex composite laminate structures of wind turbine blades (WTBs), addresses the important and complicated problem of signal noise. After illustrating the wind energy industry's development perspectives and its crucial requirement for SHM, an improved redundant second generation wavelet transform (IRSGWT) pre-processing algorithm based on neighboring coefficients is introduced for feeble signal denoising. The method can avoid the drawbacks of conventional wavelet methods that lose information in transforms and the shortcomings of redundant second generation wavelet (RSGWT) denoising that can lead to error propagation. For large scale WTB composites, how to minimize the number of sensors while ensuring accuracy is also a key issue. A sparse sensor array optimization of composites for WTB applications is proposed that can reduce the number of transducers that must be used. Compared to a full sixteen transducer array, the optimized eight transducer configuration displays better accuracy in identifying the correct position of simulated damage (mass of load) on composite laminates with anisotropic characteristics than a non-optimized array. It can help to guarantee more flexible and qualified monitoring of the areas that more frequently suffer damage. The proposed methods are verified experimentally on specimens of carbon fiber reinforced resin composite laminates.

  11. An Electrical Resistance Change Method for Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic Inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, X.; Todoroki, A.; Mei, G.; Ren, Z.; Kwan, C.

    2007-03-01

    Carbon fibers are intrinsically conductive. They form an equivalent impedance network inside a carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite material. This paper presents a method of using the resistance value change to detect, localize and size the damage or defect initiated inside the CFRP. Impact delamination and fatigue cracks are successfully monitored with this approach. This low cost, easy-to-implement technology could benefit aerospace and automotive industries for in-situ structural health monitoring of graphite-epoxy based components and subsystems.

  12. Anomalous enhancement of drilling rate in carbon fiber reinforced plastic using azimuthally polarized CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, Masamori; Araya, Naohiro; Kurokawa, Yuki; Uno, Kazuyuki

    2016-09-01

    We developed an azimuthally polarized pulse-periodic CO2 laser for high-performance drilling applications. We discovered an anomalous enhancement in the drilling rate with the azimuthally polarized beam compared to that with radially or randomly polarized beams. We drilled 0.45 mm-thick carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) using a focusing lens with a focal length of 50 mm and a numerical aperture (NA) of 0.09. The conditions other than polarization states were identical for all the experiments. The azimuthally polarized beam exhibited a drilling rate more than 10 times greater on average than those of the other two polarizations.

  13. Determination of mechanical properties of some glass fiber reinforced plastics suitable to Wind Turbine Blade construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigmann, R.; Savin, A.; Goanta, V.; Barsanescu, P. D.; Leitoiu, B.; Iftimie, N.; Stanciu, M. D.; Curtu, I.

    2016-08-01

    The control of wind turbine's components is very rigorous, while the tower and gearbox have more possibility for revision and repairing, the rotor blades, once they are deteriorated, the defects can rapidly propagate, producing failure, and the damages can affect large regions around the wind turbine. This paper presents the test results, performed on glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) suitable to construction of wind turbine blades (WTB). The Young modulus, shear modulus, Poisson's ratio, ultimate stress have been determined using tensile and shear tests. Using Dynamical Mechanical Analysis (DMA), the activation energy for transitions that appear in polyester matrix as well as the complex elastic modulus can be determined, function of temperature.

  14. Study for Development of Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic Earth-Covered Ammunition Storage Magazines.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    Div., ASCE, New York, N.Y. F. "Frp-An Introduction to Fiberglas-Reinforced Plastics Composites" Publication No. 1-PL-6305A by Owens - Corning Fiberglas...34Hand Lay-up Spray-up Guide" 1979; Publication No. 5-PL- 9342 Owens - Corning Fiberglas Corp. Toledo, OH.; Unclassified. 5. "Specifications for...Manual F]PdA-TS-79-203, U.S. Govt. Printing Office Stock No. 023-000-00495-0. B. "Hand Lay-up Spray-up Guide" 1979; Publication No. 5-PL-9342 Owens

  15. Simplified analyses of a fiber-reinforced plastic joint for filament-wound pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Estrada, H.; Parsons, I.D.

    1999-08-01

    A simplified analysis procedure is described for a fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) stub-flanged joint which addresses some of the problems with current FRP joints. The joint consists of a tapered hub that is filament-wound with the pipe. A separate stub is used to connect the two halves of the joint. This system avoids material discontinuities at the flange-pipe intersection and pull-back of the flange. The joint is modeled following the Taylor Forge approach used in metallic joint analysis. The analytical model is verified using finite element analysis; the results are in excellent agreement.

  16. DMAP as an effective catalyst to accelerate the solubilization of waste fiber-reinforced plastics.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Akio; Yamada, Kazuo; Kuratani, Tomohiro; Oishi, Yusuke; Watanabe, Takeru; Yoshida, Takayuki; Tomonaga, Fumiaki

    2008-01-01

    Waste fiber-reinforced plastics (FRPs), which are formidable composite plastics for chemical treatment, can be efficiently depolymerized by treatment with supercritical methanol in the presence of catalytic amounts of 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine (DMAP), which is a well-known catalyst for the formation of esters and amides. This novel depolymerization reaction also provides ready separation of the depolymerized products into three components: methanol-soluble oil, CHCl3-soluble solid, and an inorganic residue. Thus, almost complete decomposition of FRP as well as useful separation of the decomposed products was achieved with the present method, and the latter were ready for chemical recycling. Investigation of the reaction profile revealed that the reaction rate increased as the amount of DMAP increased. Unfortunately, DMAP employed in the reaction could not be recovered because of its decomposition catalyzed by dimethyl phthalate, a depolymerized product from waste FRP, under the reaction conditions employed.

  17. Processing and characterization of polyols plasticized-starch reinforced with microcrystalline cellulose.

    PubMed

    Rico, M; Rodríguez-Llamazares, S; Barral, L; Bouza, R; Montero, B

    2016-09-20

    Biocomposites suitable for short-life applications such as food packaging were prepared by melt processing and investigated. Biocomposites studied are wheat starch plasticized with two different molecular weight polyols (glycerol and sorbitol) and reinforced with various amounts of microcrystalline cellulose. The effect of the plasticizer type and the filler amount on the processing properties, the crystallization behavior and morphology developed for the materials, and the influence on thermal stability, dynamic mechanical properties and water absorption behavior were investigated. Addition of microcrystalline cellulose led to composites with good filler-matrix adhesion where the stiffness and resistance to humidity absorption were improved. The use of sorbitol as a plasticizer of starch also improved the stiffness and water uptake behavior of the material as well as its thermal stability. Biodegradable starch-based materials with a wide variety of properties can be tailored by varying the polyol plasticizer type and/or by adding microcrystalline cellulose filler. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Numerical Implementation of a Multiple-ISV Thermodynamically-Based Work Potential Theory for Modeling Progressive Damage and Failure in Fiber-Reinforced Laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pineda, Evan J.; Waas, Anthony M.

    2011-01-01

    A thermodynamically-based work potential theory for modeling progressive damage and failure in fiber-reinforced laminates is presented. The current, multiple-internal state variable (ISV) formulation, enhanced Schapery theory (EST), utilizes separate ISVs for modeling the effects of damage and failure. Damage is considered to be the effect of any structural changes in a material that manifest as pre-peak non-linearity in the stress versus strain response. Conversely, failure is taken to be the effect of the evolution of any mechanisms that results in post-peak strain softening. It is assumed that matrix microdamage is the dominant damage mechanism in continuous fiber-reinforced polymer matrix laminates, and its evolution is controlled with a single ISV. Three additional ISVs are introduced to account for failure due to mode I transverse cracking, mode II transverse cracking, and mode I axial failure. Typically, failure evolution (i.e., post-peak strain softening) results in pathologically mesh dependent solutions within a finite element method (FEM) setting. Therefore, consistent character element lengths are introduced into the formulation of the evolution of the three failure ISVs. Using the stationarity of the total work potential with respect to each ISV, a set of thermodynamically consistent evolution equations for the ISVs is derived. The theory is implemented into commercial FEM software. Objectivity of total energy dissipated during the failure process, with regards to refinements in the FEM mesh, is demonstrated. The model is also verified against experimental results from two laminated, T800/3900-2 panels containing a central notch and different fiber-orientation stacking sequences. Global load versus displacement, global load versus local strain gage data, and macroscopic failure paths obtained from the models are compared to the experiments.

  19. A Thermodynamically-Based Mesh Objective Work Potential Theory for Predicting Intralaminar Progressive Damage and Failure in Fiber-Reinforced Laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pineda, Evan J.; Waas, Anthony M.

    2012-01-01

    A thermodynamically-based work potential theory for modeling progressive damage and failure in fiber-reinforced laminates is presented. The current, multiple-internal state variable (ISV) formulation, enhanced Schapery theory (EST), utilizes separate ISVs for modeling the effects of damage and failure. Damage is considered to be the effect of any structural changes in a material that manifest as pre-peak non-linearity in the stress versus strain response. Conversely, failure is taken to be the effect of the evolution of any mechanisms that results in post-peak strain softening. It is assumed that matrix microdamage is the dominant damage mechanism in continuous fiber-reinforced polymer matrix laminates, and its evolution is controlled with a single ISV. Three additional ISVs are introduced to account for failure due to mode I transverse cracking, mode II transverse cracking, and mode I axial failure. Typically, failure evolution (i.e., post-peak strain softening) results in pathologically mesh dependent solutions within a finite element method (FEM) setting. Therefore, consistent character element lengths are introduced into the formulation of the evolution of the three failure ISVs. Using the stationarity of the total work potential with respect to each ISV, a set of thermodynamically consistent evolution equations for the ISVs is derived. The theory is implemented into commercial FEM software. Objectivity of total energy dissipated during the failure process, with regards to refinements in the FEM mesh, is demonstrated. The model is also verified against experimental results from two laminated, T800/3900-2 panels containing a central notch and different fiber-orientation stacking sequences. Global load versus displacement, global load versus local strain gage data, and macroscopic failure paths obtained from the models are compared to the experiments.

  20. Impact toughness of cellulose-fiber reinforced polypropylene : influence of microstructure in laminates and injection molded composites

    Treesearch

    Craig Clemons; Daniel Caulfield; A. Jeffrey Giacomin

    2003-01-01

    Unlike their glass reinforced counterparts, microstructure and dynamic fracture behavior of natural fiber-reinforced thermoplastics have hardly been investigated. Here, we characterize the microstructure of cellulose fiber-reinforced polypropylene and determined its effect on impact toughness. Fiber lengths were reduced by one-half when compounded in a high-intensity...

  1. [Tribological properties of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic. Experimental and clinical results].

    PubMed

    Früh, H J; Ascherl, R; Hipp, E

    1997-02-01

    Wear of the articulating components (especially PE-UHMW) of total hip endoprostheses is the most important technical factor limiting the functional lifetime. To minimize wear debris, ceramic heads, according to ISO 6474 (Al2O3), have been used, from 1969 paired with Al2O3 and since 1975 paired with PE-UHMW. Al2O3 balls articulating with cups made from CFRP have been in clinical use since 1988. Laboratory experiments and in-vivo testing showed minimized wear debris and mild biological response to wear products using CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced plastic) instead of PE-UHMW as the cup material. The articulating surfaces of retrieved ceramic heads (Al2O3-Biolox) and cementless CFRP cups (carbon fiber reinforced plastic, Caproman) were compared using sphericity measurement techniques, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and roughness measurements (including advanced roughness parameters Rvk or Rpk according to ISO 4287). Altogether, the first results of the clinical study showed that the combination Al2O3-ball/CFRP-cup came up to the expected lower wear rates compared with the conventional combinations. The wear rates are comparable with the combination Al2O3/Al2O3 without the material-related problems of ceramic components in all ceramic combinations.

  2. Tensile strength of fiber reinforced plastics at 77K irradiated by various radiation sources

    SciTech Connect

    Humer, K.; Weber, H.W.; Tschegg, E.K.; Egusa, S.; Birtcher, R.C.; Gerstenberg, H.

    1993-08-01

    The influence of radiation damage on the mechanical properties of fiber reinforced plastics (FRPs), which are considered as candidate materials for the insulation of superconducting magnets for nuclear fusion reactors, has been investigated. Different types of FRPs (epoxies, bismaleimides; two- and three-dimensional reinforcement structures with E-, S-, or T-glass fibers) has been included in the test program. Three aspects of our present results will be discussed in detail. The first is related to an assessment of the tensile strength and its radiation dependence under the influence of strongly varying radiation conditions. The second aspect refers to low temperature ({approx}5 K) reactor irradiation of selected materials. In this case, identical sets of tensile test samples were transferred into the tensile testing machine, one without warming-up to room temperature and the other after an annealing cycle to room temperature. Finally, a comparison between the radiation response of different materials is made. It turns out that the three-dimensionally reinforced bismaleimide shows the smallest degradation of its tensile properties under all irradiation conditions.

  3. Transverse crack initiation under combined thermal and mechanical loading of Fibre Metal Laminates and Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Camp, W.; Dhallé, M. M. J.; Warnet, L.; Wessel, W. A. J.; Vos, G. S.; Akkerman, R.; ter Brake, H. J. M.

    2017-02-01

    The paper describes a temperature-dependent extension of the classical laminate theory (CLT) that may be used to predict the mechanical behaviour of Fibre Metal Laminates (FML) at cryogenic conditions, including crack initiation. FML are considered as a possible alternative class of structural materials for the transport and storage of liquified gasses such as LNG. Combining different constituents in a laminate opens up the possibility to enhance its functionality, e.g. offering lower specific weight and increased damage tolerance. To explore this possibility, a test programme is underway at the University of Twente to study transverse crack initiation in different material combinations under combined thermal and mechanical loading. Specifically, the samples are tested in a three-point bending experiment at temperatures ranging from 77 to 293 K. These tests will serve as a validation of the model presented in this paper which, by incorporating temperature-dependent mechanical properties and differential thermal expansion, will allow to select optimal material combinations and laminate layouts. By combining the temperature-dependent mechanical properties and the differential thermal contraction explicitly, the model allows for a more accurate estimate of the resulting thermal stresses which can then be compared to the strength of the constituent materials.

  4. MWCNTs-Reinforced Epoxidized Linseed Oil Plasticized Polylactic Acid Nanocomposite and Its Electroactive Shape Memory Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Javed; Alam, Manawwer; Raja, Mohan; Abduljaleel, Zainularifeen; Dass, Lawrence Arockiasamy

    2014-01-01

    A novel electroactive shape memory polymer nanocomposite of epoxidized linseed oil plasticized polylactic acid and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was prepared by a combination of solution blending, solvent cast technique, and hydraulic hot press moulding. In this study, polylactic acid (PLA) was first plasticized by epoxidized linseed oil (ELO) in order to overcome the major limitations of PLA, such as high brittleness, low toughness, and low tensile elongation. Then, MWCNTs were incorporated into the ELO plasticized PLA matrix at three different loadings (2, 3 and 5 wt. %), with the aim of making the resulting nanocomposites electrically conductive. The addition of ELO decreased glass transition temperature, and increased the elongation and thermal degradability of PLA, as shown in the results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), tensile test, and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to observe surface morphology, topography, and the dispersion of MWCNTs in the nanocomposite. Finally, the electroactive-shape memory effect (electroactive-SME) in the resulting nanocomposite was investigated by a fold-deploy “U”-shape bending test. As per the results, the addition of both ELO and MWCNTs to PLA matrix seemed to enhance its overall properties with a great deal of potential in improved shape memory. The 3 wt. % MWCNTs-reinforced nanocomposite system, which showed 95% shape recovery within 45 s at 40 DC voltage, is expected to be used as a preferential polymeric nanocomposite material in various actuators, sensors and deployable devices. PMID:25365179

  5. MWCNTs-reinforced epoxidized linseed oil plasticized polylactic acid nanocomposite and its electroactive shape memory behaviour.

    PubMed

    Alam, Javed; Alam, Manawwer; Raja, Mohan; Abduljaleel, Zainularifeen; Dass, Lawrence Arockiasamy

    2014-10-31

    A novel electroactive shape memory polymer nanocomposite of epoxidized linseed oil plasticized polylactic acid and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was prepared by a combination of solution blending, solvent cast technique, and hydraulic hot press moulding. In this study, polylactic acid (PLA) was first plasticized by epoxidized linseed oil (ELO) in order to overcome the major limitations of PLA, such as high brittleness, low toughness, and low tensile elongation. Then, MWCNTs were incorporated into the ELO plasticized PLA matrix at three different loadings (2, 3 and 5 wt. %), with the aim of making the resulting nanocomposites electrically conductive. The addition of ELO decreased glass transition temperature, and increased the elongation and thermal degradability of PLA, as shown in the results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), tensile test, and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to observe surface morphology, topography, and the dispersion of MWCNTs in the nanocomposite. Finally, the electroactive-shape memory effect (electroactive-SME) in the resulting nanocomposite was investigated by a fold-deploy "U"-shape bending test. As per the results, the addition of both ELO and MWCNTs to PLA matrix seemed to enhance its overall properties with a great deal of potential in improved shape memory. The 3 wt. % MWCNTs-reinforced nanocomposite system, which showed 95% shape recovery within 45 s at 40 DC voltage, is expected to be used as a preferential polymeric nanocomposite material in various actuators, sensors and deployable devices.

  6. A New Framework for Cortico-Striatal Plasticity: Behavioural Theory Meets In Vitro Data at the Reinforcement-Action Interface

    PubMed Central

    Gurney, Kevin N.

    2015-01-01

    Operant learning requires that reinforcement signals interact with action representations at a suitable neural interface. Much evidence suggests that this occurs when phasic dopamine, acting as a reinforcement prediction error, gates plasticity at cortico-striatal synapses, and thereby changes the future likelihood of selecting the action(s) coded by striatal neurons. But this hypothesis faces serious challenges. First, cortico-striatal plasticity is inexplicably complex, depending on spike timing, dopamine level, and dopamine receptor type. Second, there is a credit assignment problem—action selection signals occur long before the consequent dopamine reinforcement signal. Third, the two types of striatal output neuron have apparently opposite effects on action selection. Whether these factors rule out the interface hypothesis and how they interact to produce reinforcement learning is unknown. We present a computational framework that addresses these challenges. We first predict the expected activity changes over an operant task for both types of action-coding striatal neuron, and show they co-operate to promote action selection in learning and compete to promote action suppression in extinction. Separately, we derive a complete model of dopamine and spike-timing dependent cortico-striatal plasticity from in vitro data. We then show this model produces the predicted activity changes necessary for learning and extinction in an operant task, a remarkable convergence of a bottom-up data-driven plasticity model with the top-down behavioural requirements of learning theory. Moreover, we show the complex dependencies of cortico-striatal plasticity are not only sufficient but necessary for learning and extinction. Validating the model, we show it can account for behavioural data describing extinction, renewal, and reacquisition, and replicate in vitro experimental data on cortico-striatal plasticity. By bridging the levels between the single synapse and behaviour, our

  7. A new framework for cortico-striatal plasticity: behavioural theory meets in vitro data at the reinforcement-action interface.

    PubMed

    Gurney, Kevin N; Humphries, Mark D; Redgrave, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Operant learning requires that reinforcement signals interact with action representations at a suitable neural interface. Much evidence suggests that this occurs when phasic dopamine, acting as a reinforcement prediction error, gates plasticity at cortico-striatal synapses, and thereby changes the future likelihood of selecting the action(s) coded by striatal neurons. But this hypothesis faces serious challenges. First, cortico-striatal plasticity is inexplicably complex, depending on spike timing, dopamine level, and dopamine receptor type. Second, there is a credit assignment problem-action selection signals occur long before the consequent dopamine reinforcement signal. Third, the two types of striatal output neuron have apparently opposite effects on action selection. Whether these factors rule out the interface hypothesis and how they interact to produce reinforcement learning is unknown. We present a computational framework that addresses these challenges. We first predict the expected activity changes over an operant task for both types of action-coding striatal neuron, and show they co-operate to promote action selection in learning and compete to promote action suppression in extinction. Separately, we derive a complete model of dopamine and spike-timing dependent cortico-striatal plasticity from in vitro data. We then show this model produces the predicted activity changes necessary for learning and extinction in an operant task, a remarkable convergence of a bottom-up data-driven plasticity model with the top-down behavioural requirements of learning theory. Moreover, we show the complex dependencies of cortico-striatal plasticity are not only sufficient but necessary for learning and extinction. Validating the model, we show it can account for behavioural data describing extinction, renewal, and reacquisition, and replicate in vitro experimental data on cortico-striatal plasticity. By bridging the levels between the single synapse and behaviour, our

  8. Cure Cycle Design Methodology for Fabricating Reactive Resin Matrix Fiber Reinforced Composites: A Protocol for Producing Void-free Quality Laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Tan-Hung

    2014-01-01

    For the fabrication of resin matrix fiber reinforced composite laminates, a workable cure cycle (i.e., temperature and pressure profiles as a function of processing time) is needed and is critical for achieving void-free laminate consolidation. Design of such a cure cycle is not trivial, especially when dealing with reactive matrix resins. An empirical "trial and error" approach has been used as common practice in the composite industry. Such an approach is not only costly, but also ineffective at establishing the optimal processing conditions for a specific resin/fiber composite system. In this report, a rational "processing science" based approach is established, and a universal cure cycle design protocol is proposed. Following this protocol, a workable and optimal cure cycle can be readily and rationally designed for most reactive resin systems in a cost effective way. This design protocol has been validated through experimental studies of several reactive polyimide composites for a wide spectrum of usage that has been documented in the previous publications.

  9. [Experimental study on carbon fiber reinforced plastic plate--analysis of stabilizing force required for plate].

    PubMed

    Iizuka, H

    1990-11-01

    Plates currently in use for the management of bone fracture made of metal present with various problems. We manufactured carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) plates from Pyrofil T/530 puriplegs overlaid at cross angles of +/- 10 degrees, +/- 20 degrees, and +/- 30 degrees for trial and carried out an experimental study on rabbit tibiofibular bones using 316L stainless steel plates of comparable shape and size as controls. The results indicate the influence of CFRP plate upon cortical bone was milder than that of stainless steel plate, with an adequate stabilizing force for the repair of fractured rabbit tibiofibular bones. CFRP has the advantages over metals of being virtually free from corrosion and fatigue, reasonably radiolucent and able to meet a wide range of mechanical requirements. This would make CFRP plate quite promising as a new devices of treating fracture of bones.

  10. Oxygen-assisted multipass cutting of carbon fiber reinforced plastics with ultra-short laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Kononenko, T. V.; Komlenok, M. S.; Konov, V. I.; Freitag, C.; Onuseit, V.; Weber, R.; Graf, T.

    2014-03-14

    Deep multipass cutting of bidirectional and unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) with picosecond laser pulses was investigated in different static atmospheres as well as with the assistance of an oxygen or nitrogen gas flow. The ablation rate was determined as a function of the kerf depth and the resulting heat affected zone was measured. An assisting oxygen gas flow is found to significantly increase the cutting productivity, but only in deep kerfs where the diminished evaporative ablation due to the reduced laser fluence reaching the bottom of the kerf does not dominate the contribution of reactive etching anymore. Oxygen-supported cutting was shown to also solve the problem that occurs when cutting the CFRP parallel to the fiber orientation where a strong deformation and widening of the kerf, which temporarily slows down the process speed, is revealed to be typical for processing in standard air atmospheres.

  11. Durability of Starch Based Biodegradable Plastics Reinforced with Manila Hemp Fibers.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Shinji

    2011-02-25

    The biodegradability of Manila hemp fiber reinforced biodegradable plastics was studied for 240 days in a natural soil and 30 days in a compost soil. After biodegradability tests, weights were measured and both tensile strength tests and microscopic observation were performed to evaluate the biodegradation behavior of the composites. The results indicate that the tensile strength of the composites displays a sharp decrease for up to five days, followed by a gradual decrease. The weight loss and the reduction in tensile strength of biodegradable composite materials in the compost soil are both significantly greater than those buried in natural soil. The biodegradability of these composites is enhanced along the lower portion because this area is more easily attacked by microorganisms.

  12. Erosion and water hammer testing of glass reinforced plastic pipework for topside seawater systems

    SciTech Connect

    Boothby, P.J.

    1994-12-31

    Resistance to internal erosion, and tolerance to water hammer are two aspects of performance that need to be quantified to permit the cost effective use of glass reinforced plastics for offshore topside seawater piping. Testing has therefore been conducted at the British Gas Research and Technology sub-sea test facility, using purpose designed test rigs, to generate data on these topics. The erosion tests comprised 50mm nominal internal diameter GRP pipework loops, exposed to a range of seawater flow velocities from 3 to 23 m/s. Water hammer testing involved 150mm nominal internal diameter GRP pipe spools containing a variety of adhesively bonded joints, and subjected to multiple cycles involving surge pressures of up to 3 times the recommended design pressure. This paper presents the results obtained and discusses the practical implications of the findings.

  13. Investigation of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics Machining Using 355 nm Picosecond Pulsed Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jun; Zhu, Dezhi

    2017-08-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) has been widely used in the aircraft industry and automobile industry owing to its superior properties. In this paper, a Nd:YVO4 picosecond pulsed system emitting at 355 nm has been used for CFRP machining experiments to determine optimum milling conditions. Milling parameters including laser power, milling speed and hatch distance were optimized by using box-behnken design of response surface methodology (RSM). Material removal rate was influenced by laser beam overlap ratio which affects mechanical denudation. The results in heat affected zones (HAZ) and milling quality were discussed through the machined surface observed with scanning electron microscope. A re-focusing technique based on the experiment with different focal planes was proposed and milling mechanism was also analyzed in details.

  14. Pollution control of wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) environments with fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP) equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, D.H.

    1994-12-31

    Due to its corrosion resistance to wet FGD environments, high nickel alloy clad/wallpaper steel was the structural material of choice for Phase 1 wet FGD systems. Electric companies were willing to pay a premium for high nickel alloy clad/wallpaper steel because they believed it would last the life of the plant with minimal maintenance. An excellent material for wet FGD service at approximately half the cost of high nickel clad/wallpaper steel, is fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP) based on epoxy vinyl ester resin. With case histories dating back to 1972, FRP has become the material of choice for non-structural applications such as lime slurry piping and demister assemblies. It is the purpose of this paper to show that FRP has been successful in structural FGD applications and should be considered by engineers who are interested in lower cost FGD systems that show potential for plant life service.

  15. Effect of High Velocity Ballistic Impact on Pretensioned Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhar KAMARUDIN, Kamarul; HAMID, Iskandar ABDUL

    2017-01-01

    This work describes an experimental investigation of the pretensioned thin plates made of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) struck by hemispherical and blunt projectiles at various impact velocities. The experiments were done using a gas gun with combination of pretension equipment positioned at the end of gun barrel near the nozzle. Measurements of the initial and residual velocities were taken, and the ballistic limit velocity were calculated for each procedures. The pretension target results in reduction of ballistic limit compared to non-pretension target for both flat and hemispherical projectiles. Target impacted by hemispherical projectile experience split at earlier impact velocity compared to target by flat projectile. C-Scan images analysis technique was used to show target impact damaged by hemispherical and flat projectiles. The damage area was shown biggest at ballistic limit velocity and target splitting occurred most for pretention plate.

  16. Mechanical properties depending on fiber orientation in injection molded short-fiber-reinforced plastic parts

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, S.T.; Kwon, T.H.

    1996-12-31

    In injection molding of short-fiber-reinforced plastics, the fiber orientation during a mold filling process is determined by the flow field, while it is in turn affected by the orientation state of fibers. The Dinh and Armstrong`s orientation-dependent constitutive equation for fiber suspension was thus incorporated into the coupled analysis of mold filling flow and fiber orientation including the additional stresses due to the existence of fibers. The mold filling simulation was then performed by solving a new pressure equation and the energy equation via a finite element/finite difference method as well as evolution equations for the second-order orientation tensor via the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. With the fiber orientation known, predictions of the anisotropic mechanical properties of the composites are obtained by using the Halpin-Tsai equations for unidirectional composites and taking an orientation average.

  17. Durability of Starch Based Biodegradable Plastics Reinforced with Manila Hemp Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Ochi, Shinji

    2011-01-01

    The biodegradability of Manila hemp fiber reinforced biodegradable plastics was studied for 240 days in a natural soil and 30 days in a compost soil. After biodegradability tests, weights were measured and both tensile strength tests and microscopic observation were performed to evaluate the biodegradation behavior of the composites. The results indicate that the tensile strength of the composites displays a sharp decrease for up to five days, followed by a gradual decrease. The weight loss and the reduction in tensile strength of biodegradable composite materials in the compost soil are both significantly greater than those buried in natural soil. The biodegradability of these composites is enhanced along the lower portion because this area is more easily attacked by microorganisms. PMID:28880000

  18. The importance of material structure in the laser cutting of glass fiber reinforced plastic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Caprino, G. . Dipt. di Ingegneria dei Materiali e della Produzione); Tagliaferri, V. . Istituto di Ingegneria Meccanica); Covelli, L. )

    1995-01-01

    A previously proposed micromechanical formula, aiming to predict the vaporization energy Q[sub v] of composite materials as a function of fiber and matrix properties and fiber volume ratio, was assessed. The experimental data, obtained on glass fiber reinforced plastic panels with different fiber contents cut by a medium power CO[sub 2] cw laser, were treated according to a procedure previously suggested, in order to evaluate Q[sub v]. An excellent agreement was found between experimental and theoretical Q[sub v] values. Theory was then used to predict the response to laser cutting of a composite material with a fiber content varying along the thickness. The theoretical predictions indicated that, in this case, the interpretation of the experimental results may be misleading, bringing to errors in the evaluation of the material thermal properties, or in the prediction of the kerf depth. Some experimental data were obtained, confirming the theoretical findings.

  19. Linear and Non-linear Analysis of Fibre Reinforced Plastic Bridge Deck due to Vehicle Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Chaitali; Mandal, Bibekananda

    2015-06-01

    The present work deals with linear and nonlinear static analysis of fibre reinforced plastics composite bridge deck structures using the finite element method. The nonlinear static analysis has been carried out considering geometric nonlinearity. The analysis of bridge deck has been carried out under vehicle load as specified by IRC Class B wheel load classification. The formulation has been carried out using the finite element software package ANSYS 14.0 and the SHELL281 element is used to model the bridge deck. The bridge deck has also been modeled as a plate stiffened with closely spaced hollow box sections and a computer code is developed based on this formulation. The results obtained from the present formulation are compared with those available in the published literature. A parametric study on the stiffened bridge deck has also been carried out with varying dimensions of the stiffeners under vehicle loads.

  20. Laser Cutting of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics - Investigation of Hazardous Process Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Juergen; Hustedt, Michael; Staehr, Richard; Kaierle, Stefan; Jaeschke, Peter; Suttmann, Oliver; Overmeyer, Ludger

    Carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) show high potential for use in lightweight applications not only in aircraft design, but also in the automotive or wind energy industry. However, processing of CFRP is complex and expensive due to their outstanding mechanical properties. One possibility to manufacture CFRP structures flexibly at acceptable process speeds is high-power laser cutting. Though showing various advantages such as contactless energy transfer, this process is connected to potentially hazardous emission of respirable dust and organic gases. Moreover, the emitted particles may be fibrous, thus requiring particular attention. Here, a systematic analysis of the hazardous substances emitted during laser cutting of CFRP with thermoplastic and thermosetting matrix is presented. The objective is to evaluate emission rates for the total particulate and gaseous fractions as well as for different organic key components. Furthermore, the influence of the laser process conditions shall be assessed, and first proposals to handle the emissions adequately are made.

  1. Oxygen-assisted multipass cutting of carbon fiber reinforced plastics with ultra-short laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kononenko, T. V.; Freitag, C.; Komlenok, M. S.; Onuseit, V.; Weber, R.; Graf, T.; Konov, V. I.

    2014-03-01

    Deep multipass cutting of bidirectional and unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) with picosecond laser pulses was investigated in different static atmospheres as well as with the assistance of an oxygen or nitrogen gas flow. The ablation rate was determined as a function of the kerf depth and the resulting heat affected zone was measured. An assisting oxygen gas flow is found to significantly increase the cutting productivity, but only in deep kerfs where the diminished evaporative ablation due to the reduced laser fluence reaching the bottom of the kerf does not dominate the contribution of reactive etching anymore. Oxygen-supported cutting was shown to also solve the problem that occurs when cutting the CFRP parallel to the fiber orientation where a strong deformation and widening of the kerf, which temporarily slows down the process speed, is revealed to be typical for processing in standard air atmospheres.

  2. Use of pultruded reinforced plastics in energy generation and energy related applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R.

    Applications of pultrusion-formed fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP) in the wind, oil, and coal derived energy industries are reviewed. FRP is noted to be a viable alternative to wood, aluminum, and steel for reasons of availability, price, and weight. Attention is given to the development of FRP wind turbine blades for the DOE 8 kW low cost, high reliability wind turbine program. The blades feature a NACA 23112 profile with a 15 in. chord on the system which was tested at Rocky Flats, CO. Fabricating the blades involved a plus and minus 45 deg roving orientation, a heavy fiber-glass nose piece to assure blade strength, and a separately manufactured foam core. Additional uses for FRP products have been found in the structural members of coal stack scrubbers using a vinyl ester resin in a fire retardant formulation, and as low cost, light weight sucker rods for deep well oil drilling.

  3. Advanced Grounding Methods in the Presence of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leininger, M.; Thurecht, F.; Pfeiffer, E.; Ruddle, A.

    2012-05-01

    Lightweight satellite structures are usually of sandwich type where the core is formed of a honeycomb-like structure made of aluminium foil. The outer facesheets are made of aluminium and serve as a ground reference plane. Carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP), however, is a composite material having an electrical conductivity that is about 2000 times lower than the conductivity of aluminium. Since such a material is not suitable to carry electrical current of high value a network of metal sheets (grounding rails) connects all equipment mounted on the satellite structure. This paper describes an evaluation whether the classical grounding rail system can be replaced by a network of round wires while the high-frequency portion of the current is flowing along the CFRP sheet.

  4. Temperature Dependence of Sound Velocity in High-Strength Fiber-Reinforced Plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Ryuji; Yoneyama, Keiichi; Ogasawara, Futoshi; Ueno, Masashi; Okuda, Yuichi; Yamanaka, Atsuhiko

    2003-08-01

    Longitudinal sound velocity in unidirectional hybrid composites or high-strength fiber-reinforced plastics (FRPs) was measured along the fiber axis over a wide temperature range (from 77 K to 420 K). We investigated two kinds of high-strength crystalline polymer fibers, polyethylene (Dyneema) and polybenzobisoxazole (Zylon), which are known to have negative thermal expansion coefficients and high thermal conductivities along the fiber axis. Both FRPs had very high sound velocities of about 9000 m/s at low temperatures and their temperature dependences were very strong. Sound velocity monotonically decreased with increasing temperature. The temperature dependence of sound velocity was much stronger in Dyneema-FRP than in Zylon-FRP.

  5. Cutting and drilling of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) by 70W short pulse nanosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeschke, Peter; Stolberg, Klaus; Bastick, Stefan; Ziolkowski, Ewa; Roehner, Markus; Suttmann, Oliver; Overmeyer, Ludger

    2014-02-01

    Continuous carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) are recognized as having a significant lightweight construction potential for a wide variety of industrial applications. However, a today`s barrier for a comprehensive dissemination of CFRP structures is the lack of economic, quick and reliable manufacture processes, e.g. the cutting and drilling steps. In this paper, the capability of using pulsed disk lasers in CFRP machining is discussed. In CFRP processing with NIR lasers, carbon fibers show excellent optical absorption and heat dissipation, contrary to the plastics matrix. Therefore heat dissipation away from the laser focus into the material is driven by heat conduction of the fibres. The matrix is heated indirectly by heat transfer from the fibres. To cut CFRP, it is required to reach the melting temperature for thermoplastic matrix materials or the disintegration temperature for thermoset systems as well as the sublimation temperature of the reinforcing fibers simultaneously. One solution for this problem is to use short pulse nanosecond lasers. We have investigated CFRP cutting and drilling with such a laser (max. 7 mJ @ 10 kHz, 30 ns). This laser offers the opportunity of wide range parameter tuning for systematic process optimization. By applying drilling and cutting operations based on galvanometer scanning techniques in multi-cycle mode, excellent surface and edge characteristics in terms of delamination-free and intact fiber-matrix interface were achieved. The results indicate that nanosecond disk laser machining could consequently be a suitable tool for the automotive and aircraft industry for cutting and drilling steps.

  6. Microscopic Progressive Damage Simulation and Scale-Span Analysis of Cross-Ply Laminate Based on the Elastic-Plastic Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Geng; Guan, Zhidong; Li, Zengshan; Du, Shanyi

    2015-02-01

    Computational mechanics has been carried out to study the microscopic failure mechanisms of cross-ply laminate. A microscopic model of fiber regular distribution near the [90/0]8S laminate interlaminar zone is established, with two dominant damage mechanisms-matrix plastic deformation and interfacial debonding included in the simulation by the extended Drucker-Prager model and cohesive zone model respectively. The simulation results clearly reveal the damage process of the composites and the interactions of different damage mechanisms. It can be concluded that the damage of the [90/0]8S RVE under tension initiates in 90° ply, and then intralaminar damage cracks spread to interlaminar cohesive region, which causes delamination between adjacent plies. Meanwhile in 0° ply, matrix plastic deformation and interface debonding occurs near the zone of interlaminar delamination expansion. While the damage of the [90/0]8S RVE under compression initiates in 0° ply with fiber microbuckling and interfacial debonding, then the intralaminar degradations in 0° ply expand to interlaminar cohesive region, which produces a wide range of interlaminar delamination.

  7. Integration of active fiber composite (AFC) sensors/actuators into glass/epoxy laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnykowycz, Mark M.; Kornmann, Xavier; Huber, Christian; Brunner, Andreas J.; Barbezat, Michel

    2005-05-01

    In the current study Active Fiber Composites (AFC) utilizing Lead-Zirconate-Titanate (PZT) fibers with Kapton screen printed interdigitated electrodes (IDE) were integrated into orthotropic glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) laminates to investigate integration issues associated with smart structures and host laminate integrity. To aid in this goal surrogate or "Dummy" AFC (DAFC) were designed using a GFRP core and Kapton outer layers to match the longitudinal mechanical and interface properties of the AFC. These DAFC were used in place of real AFC to expedite test specimen manufacture and evaluation. This allowed efficient investigation of the impact of an integrated AFC-like inclusion on laminate mechanical integrity. Two integration techniques, cutout and simple insertion were investigated using DAFC, with little difference seen between the integrity of laminates prepared using these two methods. Using this testing scheme the influence of device placement in relation to position extending away from the laminate symmetric axis was found to have an effect on laminate integrity in tensile loading. As the DAFC were placed far from the laminate symmetry axis, the ultimate tensile strength and strain of the laminates decreased in a linear manner while the Young's modulus of the laminates remained constant. Similar trends were observed with integrated AFC specimens. The performance of integrated AFC was characterized using monotonic cyclic tensile loading with increasing strain levels. A transition region was observed between strains of 0.05%-0.50%, with a dramatic decrease in AFC sensitivity from a maximum to minimum value.

  8. Integration and reliability of active fiber composite (AFC) sensors/actuators in carbon/epoxy laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnykowycz, Mark M.; Belloli, Alberto; Ermanni, Paolo; Barbezat, Michel

    2006-03-01

    In the current study Active Fiber Composites (AFC) utilizing Lead-Zirconate-Titanate (PZT) fibers with Kapton (R) screen printed interdigitated electrodes (IDE) were integrated into carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) laminates to investigate integration issues associated with smart structures and host laminate integrity. To aid in this goal surrogate or "dummy" AFC (DAFC) using a composite core and Kapton (R) outer layers (to match the longitudinal mechanical and interface properties of the AFC) were employed. These DAFC were used in place of real AFC to expedite test specimen manufacture and evaluation. This allowed efficient investigation of the impact of an integrated AFC-like inclusion on laminate mechanical integrity. Laminates with integrated AFC were additionally tested with signal monitoring to assess AFC health during the test. Investigation into laminate failure was accomplished via a finite element model of the system which was created in ANSYS to investigate failure in the composite plies. Tsai-Wu failure criterion was calculated to investigate laminate failure characteristics. Integration of AFC into CFRP laminates degraded laminate strength by 13.3% using insertion integration and 7.8% using the interlacing integration technique. The finite element model showed that interlacing integration enabled distribution of critical forces over the entire laminate while insertion integration led to critical forces concentrating over the integration region.

  9. FRP MODEL - VERSION 1.0 FOR ESTIMATING STYRENE EMISSIONS FROM FIBER-REINFORCED PLASTICS FABRICATION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This software estimates styrene emissions from the manufacture of fiber-reinforced plastics/composite (FRP/C) products. In using the model, the user first chooses the appropriate process: gel coating, resin sprayup, hand layup, etc. Choosing a process will cause the 'baseline' in...

  10. Spectroscopic study of terahertz reflection and transmission properties of carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jin; Shi, Changcheng; Ma, Yuting; Han, Xiaohui; Li, Wei; Chang, Tianying; Wei, Dongshan; Du, Chunlei; Cui, Hong-Liang

    2015-05-01

    Carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) composites are widely used in aerospace and concrete structure reinforcement due to their high strength and light weight. Terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy is an attractive tool for defect inspection in CFRP composites. In order to improve THz nondestructive testing of CFRP composites, we have carried out systematic investigations of THz reflection and transmission properties of CFRP. Unidirectional CFRP composites with different thicknesses are measured with polarization directions 0 deg to 90 deg with respect to the fiber direction, in both reflection and transmission modes. As shown in the experiments, CFRP composites are electrically conducting and therefore exhibit a high THz reflectivity. In addition, CFRP composites have polarization-dependent reflectivity and transmissivity for THz radiation. The reflected THz power in the case of parallel polarization is nearly 1.8 times higher than for perpendicular polarization. At the same time, in the transmission of THz wave, a CFRP acts as a Fabry-Pérot cavity resulting from multiple internal reflections from the CFRP-air interfaces. Moreover, from the measured data, we extract the refractive index and absorption coefficient of CFRP composites in the THz frequency range.

  11. Circular Functions Based Comprehensive Analysis of Plastic Creep Deformations in the Fiber Reinforced Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monfared, Vahid

    2016-12-01

    Analytically based model is presented for behavioral analysis of the plastic deformations in the reinforced materials using the circular (trigonometric) functions. The analytical method is proposed to predict creep behavior of the fibrous composites based on basic and constitutive equations under a tensile axial stress. New insight of the work is to predict some important behaviors of the creeping matrix. In the present model, the prediction of the behaviors is simpler than the available methods. Principal creep strain rate behaviors are very noteworthy for designing the fibrous composites in the creeping composites. Analysis of the mentioned parameter behavior in the reinforced materials is necessary to analyze failure, fracture, and fatigue studies in the creep of the short fiber composites. Shuttles, spaceships, turbine blades and discs, and nozzle guide vanes are commonly subjected to the creep effects. Also, predicting the creep behavior is significant to design the optoelectronic and photonic advanced composites with optical fibers. As a result, the uniform behavior with constant gradient is seen in the principal creep strain rate behavior, and also creep rupture may happen at the fiber end. Finally, good agreements are found through comparing the obtained analytical and FEM results.

  12. Biocomposites of plasticized starch reinforced with cellulose crystallites from cottonseed linter.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yongshang; Weng, Lihui; Cao, Xiaodong

    2005-11-04

    Environmentally friendly starch biocomposites were successfully developed using a colloidal suspension of cottonseed linter cellulose crystallite as a filler to reinforce glycerol plasticized starch (PS). The cellulose crystallites, having lengths of 350 +/- 70 nm and diameters of 40 +/- 8 nm on average, were prepared from cottonseed linters by acid hydrolysis. The dependence of morphology and properties of the PS-based biocomposites on cellulose crystallites content in the range from 0 to 30 wt.-% was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning thermal analysis, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis, and measurements of mechanical properties and water absorption. The results indicate that the strong interactions between fillers and between the filler and PS matrix play a key role in reinforcing the resulting composites. The PS/cellulose crystallite composites, conditioned at 50% relative humidity, undergo an increase in both tensile strength and Young's modulus from 2.5 MPa for PS film to 7.8 MPa and from 36 MPa for PS film to 301 MPa. Further, incorporating cottonseed linter cellulose crystallites into PS matrix leads to an improvement in water resistance for the resulting biocomposites. The mechanical behaviors of the starch-based biocomposites as a function of cellulose crystallites content.

  13. Prediction of cutting forces in machining of unidirectional glass fiber reinforced plastics composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Surinder Kumar; Gupta, Meenu; Satsangi, P. S.

    2013-06-01

    Machining of plastic materials has become increasingly important in any engineering industry subsequently the prediction of cutting forces. Forces quality has greater influence on components, which are coming in contact with each other. So it becomes necessary to measure and study machined forces and its behavior. In this research work, experimental investigations are conducted to determine the effects of cutting conditions and tool geometry on the cutting forces in the turning of the unidirectional glass fiber reinforced plastics (UD-GFRP) composites. In this experimental study, carbide tool (K10) having different tool nose radius and tool rake angle is used. Experiments are conducted based on the established Taguchi's technique L18 orthogonal array on a lathe machine. It is found that the depth of cut is the cutting parameter, which has greater influence on cutting forces. The effect of the tool nose radius and tool rake angles on the cutting forces are also considerably significant. Based on statistical analysis, multiple regression model for cutting forces is derived with satisfactory coefficient ( R 2). This model proved to be highly preferment for predicting cutting forces.

  14. Exposure to styrene and chronic health effects: mortality and incidence of solid cancers in the Danish reinforced plastics industry.

    PubMed Central

    Kolstad, H A; Juel, K; Olsen, J; Lynge, E

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To study the occurrence of non-malignant diseases and solid cancers in workers exposed to styrene in the Danish reinforced plastics industry. METHODS--All 36,610 workers of 386 reinforced plastics companies and 14,293 workers not exposed to styrene from similar industries were followed up from 1970 to 1990. This industry is characterised by simple exposure conditions, exposure to high concentrations of styrene, and a high proportion of small companies, and the exposure assessment was based on experts' classification on a company level. The mortality from non-malignant causes and the incidence of solid cancers were compared with the national rates. Poisson models were used for internal comparisons. RESULTS--A total of 3031 deaths and 1134 newly diagnosed cases of solid cancer were reported in the workers in the reinforced plastics industry. In companies where 50% or more of the workers produced reinforced plastics an increased mortality rate ratio (MRR) for degenerative disorders of the nervous system (multiple sclerosis, parkinsonism, and motor neurone disease; MRR 1.8, 16 cases, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.9-3.8) and an increased incidence rate ratio (IRR) for pancreatic cancer (IRR 2.2, 17 cases, 95% CI 1.1-4.5) was found. For both disease categories increased occurrence was also found among long term workers, workers of the 1960s (the period with the highest exposure to styrene), and workers with a latent period of more than 10 years after the start of employment. No other non-malignant diseases or solid cancers showed these patterns. CONCLUSION--The findings have to be interpreted with caution, due to the company based exposure assessment, but the possible association between exposures in the reinforced plastics industry, mainly styrene, and degenerative disorders of the nervous system and pancreatic cancer, deserves attention. PMID:7795754

  15. Determining Fiber Orientation in Graphite-Reinforced Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, J. G.; Ledbetter, Frank E., III; Clemon, J. M.; Penn, B. G.; White, W. T.

    1985-01-01

    Orientation of fibers in graphite-fiber-reinforced plastics easily determined with new method. Materials scientists thus ensure that fibers, usually not visible after graphite/plastic composite has been cured, properly oriented in test specimens and test results accurately represent the characteristics of composite. Method based on fact that continuous graphite fibers embeded in cured polymer matrix actually parallel conductors. Thus, resistance measured across laminate is at minimum when probes of ohmmeter connected to opposite ends of fibers.

  16. Suppression of interlaminar damage in carbon/epoxy laminates by use of interleaf layers

    SciTech Connect

    Tanimoto, Toshio . Dept. of Materials Science Ceramic Technology)

    1994-10-15

    Carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) have been widely used as a structural material. In general, fiber orientation angle of each lamina in these laminates is variously chosen in order to taylor a material which meets the particular requirement for the material properties in arbitrary direction of laminate. Quasi-isotropic lamination, in which the laminate consisted of laminae with fiber orientation of 0[degree], +45[degree], [minus]45[degree] and 90[degree] to loading axis, is most commonly employed in the actual application. However, quasi-isotropic carbon/epoxy laminates are known to develop the interlaminar stress concentrations near the free edge region. These laminates have a strong tendency to delaminate near the edges when subjected to axial in-plane loading. Such a free edge delamination under loading in the plane of the laminate is a unique problem to laminated composites. This paper summarizes the author's investigation which was performed to reduce the free edge interlaminar stresses in the laminate by incorporating interleaf films between plies and thus to improve the mechanical properties of these materials. In their previous work, the authors have shown that these laminates exhibit a high vibration damping capability. Loss factor values for these CFRP/interleaf laminates which were measured in cantilever beam tests, are 5 to 50 times as large as that for conventional CFRP. In this paper, discussion will be provided on the mechanical properties of the interleaved quasi-isotropic carbon/epoxy laminate, [0/[+-]45/90][sub s], with a special emphasis on the optimum design of interply locations to incorporate the interleaf films for the particular requirement such as static strength, elastic modulus, fatigue resistance and so on.

  17. An experimental study of permeability within an out-of-autoclave vacuum-bag-only CFRP laminate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Landon F.

    The out-of-autoclave vacuum-bag-only (OOA-VBO) manufacturing process is a process that eliminates an autoclave when manufacturing aerospace quality carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). OOA-VBO pre-impregnated resin tow systems rely on air channel networks that guide unwanted voids out of the laminate. The air path networks can be characterized by measuring the permeability of a pre-cured laminate. Permeability results were successfully obtained for a laminate with a compaction similar to that found in a typical vacuum bagging setup. A study was done to find the relationship between compaction of the laminate and permeability. Permeability was measured as the laminate cured, using a constant temperature ramp rate. An experimental nodal analysis was performed to find the permeability at the midpoint of the in-plane direction.

  18. Color stability of laboratory glass-fiber-reinforced plastics for esthetic orthodontic wires

    PubMed Central

    Inami, Toshihiro; Minami, Naomi; Yamaguchi, Masaru; Kasai, Kazutaka

    2015-01-01

    Objective In our previous study, glass-fiber-reinforced plastics (GFRPs) made from polycarbonate and glass fibers were prepared for esthetic orthodontic wires using pultrusion. These laboratory GFRP wires are more transparent than the commercially available nickel-titanium wire; however, an investigation of the color stability of GFRP during orthodontic treatment is needed. Accordingly, in the present study, the color stability of GFRP was assessed using colorimetry. Methods Preparation of GFRP esthetic round wires (diameter: 0.45 mm [0.018 inch]) using pultrusion was described previously. Here, to investigate how the diameter of fiber reinforcement affects color stability, GFRPs were prepared by incorporating either 13-µm (GFRP-13) or 7-µm glass (GFRP-7) fibers. The color changes of GFRPs after 24 h, and following 1, 2, and 4 weeks of coffee immersion at 37℃, were measured by colorimetry. We evaluated the color stability of GFRPs by two evaluating units: the color difference (ΔE*) and National Bureau of Standards (NBS). Results After immersion, both GFRPs showed almost no visible color change. According to the colorimetry measurements, the ΔE* values of GFRP-13 and GFRP-7 were 0.73-1.16, and 0.62-1.10, respectively. In accordance with NBS units, both GFRPs showed "slight" color changes. As a result, there were no significant differences in the ΔE* values or NBS units for GFRP-13 or GFRP-7. Moreover, for both GFRPs, no significant differences were observed in any of the immersion periods. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the GFRPs will maintain high color stability during orthodontic treatment, and are an attractive prospect as esthetic orthodontic wires. PMID:26023541

  19. Occupational exposure to styrene in the fibreglass reinforced plastic industry: comparison between two different manufacturing processes.

    PubMed

    Tranfo, Giovanna; Gherardi, Monica; Paci, E; Gatto, Mariapia; Gordiani, A; Caporossi, Lidia; Capanna, Silvia; Sisto, Renata; Papaleo, B; Fiumalbi, Carla; Garofani, Patrizia

    2012-01-01

    Styrene is used in manufacturing fiberglass reinforced plastics: and occupational exposure was related to neurotoxicology and genotoxicity. The sum of the metabolites mandelic and phenylglyoxylic acids is the ACGIH biomarker for occupational exposure with a BEI of 400 mg/g of creatinine in end shift urine corresponding to a airborne styrene concentration of 85 mg/m3. There are two main molding processes, open and closed, the last more effective at controlling worker's styrene exposure. To compare the open molding process to the compression of fiber reinforced resin foils, a kind of closed molding, monitoring the styrene exposure of workers in two production sites (A and B). Environmental Monitoring was carried out by Radiello samplers and Biological Monitoring by means of the determination of MA and PGA with HPLC/MS/MS in 10 workers at Site A and 14 at Site B. The median values for styrene exposure resulted 31.1 mg/m3 for Site A and 24.4 mg/m for Site B, while the medians for the sum of the two metabolites in the end shift urine were 86.7 e 33.8 mg/g creatinine respectively. There is a significant linear correlation between personal styrene exposure and the excretion of styrene metabolites (R = 0.74). As expected the exposure markers of the workers of the two production sites resulted higher in the open process. The analytical results of both environmental and biological monitoring were all below the occupational exposure limits, confirming the efficacy of the protective devices.

  20. Nondestructive evaluation of residual stress in short-fiber reinforced plastics by x-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Keisuke; Tokoro, Syouhei; Akiniwa, Yoshiaki; Egami, Noboru

    2014-06-01

    The X-ray diffraction method is used to measure the residual stress in injection-molded plates of short-fiber reinforced plastics (SFRP) made of crystalline thermoplastics, polyphenylene sulphide (PPS), reinforced by carbon fibers with 30 mass%. Based on the orientation of carbon fibers, injection molded plates can be modeled as three-layered lamella where the core layer is sandwiched by skin layers. The stress in the matrix in the skin layer was measured using Cr-Kα radiation with the sin2Ψ method. Since the X-ray penetration depth is shallow, the state of stresses measured by X-rays in FRP can be assumed to be plane stress. The X-ray measurement of stress in carbon fibers was not possible because of high texture. A new method was proposed to evaluate the macrostress in SFRP from the measurement of the matrix stress. According to micromechanics analysis of SFRP, the matrix stresses in the fiber direction, σ1m, and perpendicular to the fiber direction, σ2m, and shear stress τ12m can be expressed as the functions of the applied (macro-) stresses, σ1A, σ2A , τ12A as follows: σ1m = α11σ1A +α12σ2A, σ2m = α21σ1A + α22σ2A, τ12m = α66τ12A, where α11 ,α12, α21, α22, α66 are stress-partitioning coefficients. Using skin-layer strips cut parallel, perpendicular and 45° to the molding direction, the stress in the matrix was measured under the uniaxial applied stress and the stress-partitioning coefficients of the above equations were determined. Once these relations are established, the macrostress in SFRP can be determined from the measurements of the matrix stresses by X-rays.

  1. The mechanical behavior of an alumina carbon/epoxy laminate

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, D.; Leckie, F.A.; Lemaitre, J.

    1995-12-01

    An experimental study has been made of a laminate consisting of monolithic thin alumina plates alternating with unidirectional carbon/epoxy (C/E) prepreg tapes. The main advantages of this system over the traditional means of reinforcing ceramics, are the avoidance of large flaws due to processing, which occur in fiber reinforced brittle matrix composites, and the nearly isotropic behavior under biaxial loading. In addition, the multiple fracture mechanism occurring in the system gives rise to pseudo ductile behavior and enhanced strain energy dissipation.The mechanical behavior of the laminate is explored. The effects of the number of layers, volume fraction and transverse properties are also investigated. The loss of stiffness with increase of the applied strain is estimated using a simple shear lag theory, which includes the plastic behavior of the interface.

  2. Improved compression molding technology for continuous fiber reinforced composite laminates. Part 2: AS-4/Polyimidesulfone prepreg system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baucom, Robert M.; Hou, Tan-Hung; Kidder, Paul W.; Reddy, Rakasi M.

    1991-01-01

    AS-4/polyimidesulfone (PISO2) composite prepreg was utilized for the improved compression molding technology investigation. This improved technique employed molding stops which advantageously facilitate the escape of volatile by-products during the B-stage curing step, and effectively minimize the neutralization of the consolidating pressure by intimate interply fiber-fiber contact within the laminate in the subsequent molding cycle. Without the modifying the resin matrix properties, composite panels with both unidirectional and angled plies with outstanding C-scans and mechanical properties were successfully molded using moderate molding conditions, i.e., 660 F and 500 psi, using this technique. The size of the panels molded were up to 6.00 x 6.00 x 0.07 in. A consolidation theory was proposed for the understanding and advancement of the processing science. Processing parameters such as vacuum, pressure cycle design, prepreg quality, etc. were explored.

  3. 15-F₂t isoprostane as biomarker of oxidative stress induced by tobacco smoke and occupational exposure to formaldehyde in workers of plastic laminates.

    PubMed

    Romanazzi, Valeria; Pirro, Valentina; Bellisario, Valeria; Mengozzi, Giulio; Peluso, Marco; Pazzi, Marco; Bugiani, Massimiliano; Verlato, Giuseppe; Bono, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is a suspected human carcinogen capable of inducing oxidative stress through different metabolic ways. FA may originate from tobacco smoke, several environmental sources, as well as occupational sources, like furnishing industries specialized in the production of pressed-wood and laminate products. Our aim was to investigate the role of tobacco smoke and occupational exposure to air-FA in the induction of oxidative stress status by comparing FA-exposed with non-exposed subjects who smoked or did not. Enrollment of 105 subjects was made in an industry of plastic laminates, including both workers directly exposed to FA and non-exposed office personnel, as control group. 15-F(2t) isoprostane (15-F(2t) IsoP), detected by ELISA technique and urinary cotinine, detected by GC-MS, were used for evaluating oxidative stress and tobacco smoke exposure, respectively. Air-FA levels were detected by GC-MS. FA concentrations were significantly higher in subjects occupationally exposed than the controls. Smoking habits and air-FA exposures independently induce the formation of 15-F(2t) IsoP and increase the oxidative stress level. Our findings show, for the first time, that 15-F(2t) IsoP presents a dependency from both the smoking habit and air-FA exposures, and consequently, that these breathable pollutants could be considered as two important independent risk factors in increasing the oxidative stress in human beings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Specimen Design for Sustained Load Testing of Parallel-Laid Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    prepared by molding on a sheet of woven glass fabric and stripping this off just before bonding, to leave a roughened surface. The test specimens are 1/2 inch wide strips cut from the laminates. (Author, modified-PL)

  5. Thermally stable laminating resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. J.; Vaughan, R. W.; Burns, E. A.

    1972-01-01

    Improved thermally stable laminating resins were developed based on the addition-type pyrolytic polymerization. Detailed monomer and polymer synthesis and characterization studies identified formulations which facilitate press molding processing and autoclave fabrication of glass and graphite fiber reinforced composites. A specific resin formulation, termed P10P was utilized to prepare a Courtaulds HMS reinforced simulated airfoil demonstration part by an autoclave molding process.

  6. Electro-bending characterization of adaptive 3D fiber reinforced plastics based on shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashir, Moniruddoza; Hahn, Lars; Kluge, Axel; Nocke, Andreas; Cherif, Chokri

    2016-03-01

    The industrial importance of fiber reinforced plastics (FRPs) is growing steadily in recent years, which are mostly used in different niche products, has been growing steadily in recent years. The integration of sensors and actuators in FRP is potentially valuable for creating innovative applications and therefore the market acceptance of adaptive FRP is increasing. In particular, in the field of highly stressed FRP, structural integrated systems for continuous component parts monitoring play an important role. This presented work focuses on the electro-mechanical characterization of adaptive three-dimensional (3D)FRP with integrated textile-based actuators. Here, the friction spun hybrid yarn, consisting of shape memory alloy (SMA) in wire form as core, serves as an actuator. Because of the shape memory effect, the SMA-hybrid yarn returns to its original shape upon heating that also causes the deformation of adaptive 3D FRP. In order to investigate the influences of the deformation behavior of the adaptive 3D FRP, investigations in this research are varied according to the structural parameters such as radius of curvature of the adaptive 3D FRP, fabric types and number of layers of the fabric in the composite. Results show that reproducible deformations can be realized with adaptive 3D FRP and that structural parameters have a significant impact on the deformation capability.

  7. Optics of carbon fiber-reinforced plastics - A theoretical and an experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohmann, Ansgar; ElMaklizi, Ahmed; Foschum, Florian; Voit, Florian; Bergmann, Florian; Simon, Emanuel; Reitzle, Dominik; Kienle, Alwin

    2016-09-01

    Laser processing of carbon fiber-reinforced plastics (CFRP) as well as their design optimization are strongly emerging fields. As the optics of CFRP is still rather unknown, the optical behavior of CFRP was investigated in this study. Different simulation models were implemented to simulate reflectance from CFRP samples as well as distribution and absorption of light within these samples. The methods include an analytical solution of Maxwell's equations and Monte Carlo solutions of the radiative transfer theory. We show that strong inaccurracies occur, if light propagation in CFRP is modeled using the radiative transfer theory. Therefore, the solution of Maxwell's equations is the method of choice for calculation of light propagation in CFRP. Furthermore, measurements of the reflectance of light from CFRP were performed and compared to the simulations for investigation of the optical behavior. Information on the refractive index of carbon fibers was obtained via goniometric measurements. The amount of reflected light was determined as 6.05±0.38% for light polarized parallel to the fiber direction, while it was 3.65±0.41% for light polarized perpendicular to the fiber direction in case of laser-processed CFRP.

  8. Changes induced by exposure of the human lung to glass fiber-reinforced plastic.

    PubMed

    Abbate, Carmelo; Giorgianni, Concetto; Brecciaroli, Renato; Giacobbe, Giovanni; Costa, Chiara; Cavallari, Vittorio; Albiero, Francesca; Catania, Stefania; Tringali, Maria Antonietta; Martino, Lucia Barbaro; Abbate, Simona

    2006-11-01

    The inhalation of glass dusts mixed in resin, generally known as glass fiber-reinforced plastic (GRP), represents a little-studied occupational hazard. The few studies performed have highlighted nonspecific lung disorders in animals and in humans. In the present study we evaluated the alteration of the respiratory system and the pathogenic mechanisms causing the changes in a group of working men employed in different GRP processing operations and exposed to production dusts. The study was conducted on a sample of 29 male subjects whose mean age was 37 years and mean length of service 11 years. All of the subjects were submitted to a clinical check-up, basic tests, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL); microscopic studies and biochemical analysis were performed on the BAL fluid. Tests of respiratory function showed a large number of obstructive syndromes; scanning electron microscopy highlighted qualitative and quantitative alterations of the alveolar macrophages; and transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of electron-dense cytoplasmatic inclusions indicating intense and active phlogosis (external inflammation). Biochemical analyses highlighted an increase in protein content associated with alterations of the lung oxidant/antioxidant homeostasis. Inhalation of GRP, independent of environmental concentration, causes alterations of the cellular and humoral components of pulmonary interstitium; these alterations are identified microscopically as acute alveolitis.

  9. Scanning induction thermography (SIT) for imaging damages in carbon-fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, K. Renil; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan

    2015-03-01

    Scanning Induction Thermography (SIT) combines both Eddy Current Technique (ECT) and Thermographic Non-Destructive Techniques (TNDT) [1],[2]. This NDT technique has been earlier demonstrated for metallic components for the detection of cracks, corrosion, etc.[3]-[9] Even though Carbon-Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) has a relatively less electrical conductivity compared to metals, it was observed that sufficient heat could be generated using induction heating that can be used for nondestructive evaluation using the Induction Thermography technique. Also, measurable temperatures could be achieved using relatively less currents, when compared to metals. In Scanning Induction Thermography (SIT) technique, the induction coil moves over the sample at optimal speeds and the temperature developed in the sample due to Joule heating effects is captured as a function of time and distance using an IR camera in the form of video images. A new algorithm is also presented for the analysis of the video images for improved analysis of the data obtained. Several CFRP components were evaluated for detection of impact damage and delaminations using the SIT technique.

  10. The electrostatic properties of Fiber-Reinforced-Plastics double wall underground storage gasoline tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yipeng; Liu, Quanzhen; Meng, He; Sun, Lifu; Zhang, Yunpeng

    2013-03-01

    At present Fiber Reinforced Plastics (FRP) double wall underground storage gasoline tanks are wildly used. An FRP product with a resistance of more than 1011 Ω is a static non-conductor, so it is difficult for the static electricity in the FRP product to decay into the earth. In this paper an experimental system was built to simulate an automobile gasoline filling station. Some electrostatic parameters of the gasoline, including volume charge density, were tested when gasoline was unloaded into a FRP double wall underground storage tank. Measurements were taken to make sure the volume charge density in the oil-outlet was similar to the volume charge density in the tank. In most cases the volume charge density of the gasoline was more than 22.7 μC m-3, which is likely to cause electrostatic discharge in FRP double wall underground storage gasoline tanks. On the other hand, it would be hard to ignite the vapor by electrostatic discharge since the vapor pressure in the tanks is over the explosion limit. But when the tank is repaired or re-used, the operators must pay attention to the static electricity and some measurements should be taken to avoid electrostatic accident. Besides the relaxation time of charge in the FRP double wall gasoline storage tanks should be longer.

  11. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Warm-Sprayed Titanium Coating on Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Plastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, Amirthan; Takuma, Okada; Yamada, Motohiro; Fukumoto, Masahiro

    2016-04-01

    Polymer materials are increasingly dominating various engineering fields. Recently, polymer-based composite materials' surface performances—in particular, surface in relative motion—have been improved markedly by thermal spray coating. Despite this recent progress, the deposition of high-strength materials—producing a coating thickness of the order of more than 500 μm—remains highly challenging. In the present work, a highly dense and thick titanium coating was successfully deposited onto the carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) substrate using a newly developed high-pressure warm spray (WS) system. The coating properties, such as hardness (300 ± 20 HV) and adhesion strength (8.1 ± 0.5 MPa), were evaluated and correlated with the microstructures of the coating. In addition, a wipe-test and in situ particle velocity and temperature measurement were performed to validate the particle deposition behavior as a function of the nitrogen flow rate in the WS system. It was found that the microstructures, deposition efficiency, and mechanical properties of the coatings were highly sensitive to nitrogen flow rates. The coating porosity increased with increasing nitrogen flow rates; however, the highest density was observed for nitrogen flow rate of 1000 standard liters per minute (SLM) samples due to the high fraction of semi-molten particles in the spray stream.

  12. Changes Induced by Exposure of the Human Lung to Glass Fiber–Reinforced Plastic

    PubMed Central

    Abbate, Carmelo; Giorgianni, Concetto; Brecciaroli, Renato; Giacobbe, Giovanni; Costa, Chiara; Cavallari, Vittorio; Albiero, Francesca; Catania, Stefania; Tringali, Maria Antonietta; Martino, Lucia Barbaro; Abbate, Simona

    2006-01-01

    The inhalation of glass dusts mixed in resin, generally known as glass fiber–reinforced plastic (GRP), represents a little-studied occupational hazard. The few studies performed have highlighted nonspecific lung disorders in animals and in humans. In the present study we evaluated the alteration of the respiratory system and the pathogenic mechanisms causing the changes in a group of working men employed in different GRP processing operations and exposed to production dusts. The study was conducted on a sample of 29 male subjects whose mean age was 37 years and mean length of service 11 years. All of the subjects were submitted to a clinical check-up, basic tests, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL); microscopic studies and biochemical analysis were performed on the BAL fluid. Tests of respiratory function showed a large number of obstructive syndromes; scanning electron microscopy highlighted qualitative and quantitative alterations of the alveolar macrophages; and transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of electron-dense cytoplasmatic inclusions indicating intense and active phlogosis (external inflammation). Biochemical analyses highlighted an increase in protein content associated with alterations of the lung oxidant/antioxidant homeostasis. Inhalation of GRP, independent of environmental concentration, causes alterations of the cellular and humoral components of pulmonary interstitium; these alterations are identified microscopically as acute alveolitis. PMID:17107859

  13. Mortality patterns among workers exposed to styrene in the reinforced plastic boatbuilding industry: an update.

    PubMed

    Ruder, Avima M; Ward, Elizabeth M; Dong, Maxia; Okun, Andrea H; Davis-King, Karen

    2004-02-01

    Mortality was updated through 1998 for 5,204 workers exposed to styrene between 1959 and 1978 at two reinforced plastic boatbuilding plants. The a priori hypothesis: leukemia and lymphoma excesses would be found. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) used Washington State and U.S. rates. Overall, 860 deaths occurred (SMR 1.09, CI 1.02-1.17), with excess mortality for esophageal cancer (n = 12, SMR 2.30, CI 1.19-4.02), prostate cancer (n = 24, SMR 1.71, CI 1.09-2.54), and accidents (n = 99, SMR 1.26, CI 1.02-1.53). Among 2,062 highly exposed workers, urinary tract cancer (n = 6, SMR 3.44, CI 1.26-7.50) and respiratory disease (n = 12, SMR 2.54, CI 1.31-4.44) rates were elevated. Urinary tract cancer SMR increased with duration of employment. We found no excess leukemia or lymphoma mortality. Unanticipated excess urinary tract cancer and respiratory disease mortality, possibly associated with styrene exposure, are difficult to interpret and could be chance findings.

  14. Glass fiber reinforced plastics within the fringe and flexure tracker of LINC-NIRVANA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smajic, Semir; Eckart, A.; Horrobin, M.; Lindhorst, B.; Pott, J.-U.; Rauch, C.; Rost, S.; Straubmeier, C.; Tremou, E.; Wank, I.; Zuther, J.

    2012-07-01

    The Fringe and Flexure Tracking System (FFTS) is meant to monitor and correct atmospheric piston varia­ tion and instrumental vibrations and flexure during near-infrared interferometric image acquisition of LING­ NIRVANA. In close work with the adaptive optics system the FFTS enables homothetic imaging for the Large Binocular Telescope. One of the main problems we had to face is the connection between the cryogenic upper part of the instrument, e.g. detector head, and the lower ambient temperature part. In this ambient temperature part the moving stages are situated that move the detector head in the given field of view (FOV). We show how we solved this problem using the versatile material glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP's) and report in what way this material can be worked. We discuss in detail the exquisite characteristics of this material which we use to combine the cryogenic and ambient environments to a fully working system. The main characteristics that we focus on are the low temperature conduction and the tensile strength of the GFRP's. The low temperature conduction is needed to allow for a low heat-exchange between the cryogenic and ambient part whereas the tensile strength is needed to support heavy structures like the baffle motor and to allow for a minimum of flexure for the detector head. Additionally, we discuss the way we attached the GFRP to the remaining parts of the FFTS using a two component encapsulant.

  15. Numerical simulation of combustion effects during laser processing of carbon fiber reinforced plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkubo, Tomomasa; Tsukamoto, Masahiro; Sato, Yuji

    2016-03-01

    We applied the finite difference method to a numerical simulation of material removal in the laser ablation of a carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP). Although a few theoretical and numerical studies of heat-affected zone (HAZ) formation have been reported, there has been no report describing heat generation due to oxidization of the materials. It is important to consider combustion effects when discussing the generation of a HAZ in order to improve the quality of CFRP cutting by laser. To develop a new calculation model that includes the effects of the combustion of each element of the CFRP, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) were performed for CFRP in air. We succeeded in qualitatively simulating the generation of a HAZ, including the effects of combustion, using data obtained by TGA and DTA. Therefore, not only thermal conductivity, but also combustion effects, should be considered when discussing how a HAZ is generated and in order to improve the cutting quality of CFRPs in laser processing.

  16. Defect Detection on Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastics (cfrp) with Laser Generated Lamb Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Focke, O.; Huke, P.; Hildebrandt, A.

    2011-06-01

    Standard ultrasound methods using a phased-array or a single transducer are commonly used for non-destructive evaluation (NDE) during manufacturing of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) parts and certificated testing schemes were developed for individual parts and geometries. However, most testing methods need direct contact, matching gels and remain therefore time consuming. Laser-Ultrasonics is advantageous due to the contactless measurement technology and high accessibility even on complex parts. Despite the non-destructive testing with body waves, we show that the NDE can be expanded using two-dimensional surface (Lamb) waves for detection of delaminations close to the surface or small deteriorations caused by e.g. impacts. Lamb waves have been excited with a single transducer and with a short-pulse Laser with additionally producing A0-and S0-Lamb waves. The waves were detected with a shearography setup that allows for measuring two-dimensionally the displacement of a surface. Short integration times of the camera were realized using a pulsed ruby laser for illumination. As a consequence to the anisotropy the propagation in different directions exhibits individual characteristics like amplitude, damping and velocity. This has motivated to build up models for the propagation of Lamb waves and to compare them with experimental results.

  17. Heat accumulation effects in short-pulse multi-pass cutting of carbon fiber reinforced plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kononenko, T. V.; Freitag, C.; Komlenok, M. S.; Onuseit, V.; Weber, R.; Graf, T.; Konov, V. I.

    2015-09-01

    The formation of a matrix evaporation zone (MEZ) in carbon fiber reinforced plastics during multi-pass laser cutting with picosecond laser pulses is studied for a wide range of pulse frequencies (fp = 10-800 kHz) and feed rates (vf = 0.002-10 m/s). Three regimes of the formation of the MEZ are found and related with different heat accumulation effects: (i) small MEZ (<2 μm) with negligible heat accumulation, (ii) moderate-size MEZ (up to a few hundred microns) determined by heat accumulation between pulses, and (iii) large MEZ (up to a few millimeters) caused by heat accumulation between scans. The dependence of the size of the MEZ on the number of scans and the scan frequency was studied to distinguish the two heat accumulation effects (between pulses and between scans), which occur on different time-scales. A diagram to illustrate the boundaries between the three regimes of the formation of the MEZ as a function of feed rate and pulse frequency is proposed as a promising base for further studies and as a useful tool to optimize the processing parameters in practice.

  18. A composite-appropriate integration method of thick functional components in fibre-reinforced plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippatos, A.; Höhne, R.; Kliem, M.; Gude, M.

    2016-03-01

    The use of integrated structural health monitoring systems for critical composite parts, such as wind turbine blades, fuselage and wing parts, is an promising approach to guarantee a safe and efficient operational lifetime of such components. Therefore, the integration of thick functional components like sensors, actuators and electronic components is often necessary. An optimal integration of such components should be ensured without material imperfections in the composite structure, i.e. voids and resin rich areas, and failure of the functional components. In this paper, first investigations were undertaken for a basic understanding of the mechanical performance of a fibre reinforced plastic component with integrated functional elements. The influence of different materials and treatment methods for the encapsulation of electronic components was experimentally investigated under static and dynamic loading tests. By means of a parametric finite element model, the effects of an encapsulation and various parameters such as the shape and orientation of the electronic components were examined. Several encapsulation variants were investigated in order to minimise the chance of failure initiations. Based both on experimental and numerical results, a preferred composite integration concept was selected for an electronic board and some first recommendations for an optimal integration were derived.

  19. Laser cutting of carbon fiber reinforced thermo-plastics (CFRTP) by single-mode fiber laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niino, Hiroyuki; Kawaguchi, Yoshizo; Sato, Tadatake; Narazaki, Aiko; Kurosaki, Ryozo; Muramatsu, Mayu; Harada, Yoshihisa; Anzai, Kenji; Aoyama, Mitsuaki; Matsushita, Masafumi; Furukawa, Koichi; Nishino, Michiteru; Fujisaki, Akira; Miyato, Taizo; Kayahara, Takashi

    2014-03-01

    We report on the laser cutting of carbon fiber reinforced thermo-plastics (CFRTP) with a cw IR fiber laser (single-mode fiber laser, average power: 350 W). CFRTP is a high strength composite material with a lightweight, and is increasingly being used various applications. A well-defined cutting of CFRTP which were free of debris and thermal-damages around the grooves, were performed by the laser irradiation with a fast beam galvanometer scanning on a multiple-scanpass method.

  20. Mechanics of metal matrix laminates

    SciTech Connect

    Teply, J.L.

    1996-12-31

    The mechanics of fracture and fatigue crack propagation of ARALL Laminates and Discontinuously Reinforced SiC Aluminum (DRA) laminates is studied. In t these two, supposedly different, material systems the fracture and fatigue performance is closely related to their capability to delaminate. The delamination shape, length, rate of growth, effect on fatigue and fracture toughness are analyzed in both lamination systems. The similarities between these two lamination systems fatigue and fracture failure modes are determined and summarized. Design for compression is also mentioned.

  1. Production of Starch Based Bioplastic from Cassava Peel Reinforced with Microcrystalline Celllulose Avicel PH101 Using Sorbitol as Plasticizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maulida; Siagian, M.; Tarigan, P.

    2016-04-01

    The production of starch based bioplastics from cassava peel reeinforced with microcrystalline cellulose using sorbitol as plasticizer were investigated. Physical properties of bioplastics were determined by density, water uptake, tensile strength and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Bioplastics were prepared from cassava peel starch plasticized using sorbitol with variation of 20; 25; 30% (wt/v of sorbitol to starch) reinforced with microcrystalline celllulose (MCC) Avicel PH101 fillers with range of 0 to 6% (wt/wt of MCC to starch). The results showed improvement in tensile strength with higher MCC content up to 9, 12 mpa compared to non-reinforced bioplastics. This could be mainly attributed to the strong hydrogen bonds between MCC and starch. On the contrary, the addition of MCC decreased the elongation at break, density and water uptake. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy showed the functional groups of bioplastics, which the majority of O-H groups were found at the bioplastics with reinforcing filler MCC that represented substantial hydrogen bonds. The highest tensile strength value was obtained for bioplastic with MCC content 6% and sorbitol content 20%. With good adhesion between MCC and starch the production of bioplastics could be widely used as a substitute for conventional plastics with more benefits to the environment.

  2. [The influence of microbiological factors on the mass of plastics laminates used for packaging of lactic acid cheese].

    PubMed

    Steinka, Izabela

    2007-01-01

    The study aimed at assessing changes of physical properties of package lactic acid cheese and the PA/PE and Cryovac laminates after storage of this products. The fluctuation of water in the product and swelling of packaging caused changes in their mass. The changes in the packaging mass could also result from the interactions between micro-organisms present in product. It was found that staphylococci, enterococci and Escherichia coli were the micro-organisms that had contributed to changes of packaging mass to a highest degree. Changes were described with the help of response surface models.

  3. Impact resistance of metal skin-carbon fiber reinforced polymer laminate structures for the production of lightweight vehicles body frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quagliato, Luca; Dongwook, Kim; Changsoon, Jang; Naksoo, Kim; Seokmoo, Hong

    2017-05-01

    The research presented in this paper deals, in the first part, with the material characterization of an innovative class of material, made of steel skin and sheet molding compound core, the last one realized with vinyl-ester resin and chopped carbon fibers. Utilizing the results of the material characterization, the case of an automotive B-pillar is taken into account in order to test and prove the reliability of the utilization of this innovative typology of material, instead of the standard steel. The steel skin - SMC hybrid laminate structures are realized by means of stamping process under warm forming condition, in order to favorite the curing of the SMC layers. The result presented along the paper will show that the steel skin - SMC material not only have better specific resistance that those of both standard and high strength steel but also better crashworthiness properties, in comparison to the considered steel. Based on the results of the numerical simulations, a useful way thought which to estimate the crash worthiness property is proposed in this paper and the results will show how the B-pillar realized with steel skin - SMC has a higher impact resistance, in comparison the steel one with the same weight and reduced thickness.

  4. Plasticization and Reinforcement in a Boron Cage Compound Polyurethane Nanocomposite: A Dielectric Study

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, Dan; Liu, J.; Zhang, X.; Eastwood, E.; Bowler, N.

    2012-09-21

    In order to control and modify the physical properties of nanocomposite systems, it is essential to understand the nano-filler/polymer structure-property relationships. Boron cage compounds (BCCs) are a class of icosahedral, closed cage molecules that are of interest due to their high boron content and inherent neutron absorbing/shielding properties, and because of their ability to act as molecular nano-particles. When the BCC n-hexylcarborane is blended with a polybutadiene (PBD)/polyurethane (PU) segmented copolymer (EN8) an increase in the glass transition (Tg) temperature of the PBD phase (reinforcement) and a decrease in the Tg temperatures of the PU phases (plasticization) are observed. These observations were investigated by examining the dielectric relaxation properties of copolymer samples with and without added n-hexylcarborane (0wt% and 5wt% n-hexylcarborane) using broadband dielectric spectroscopy in the frequency range from 0.01 to 1 MHz and temperature range from -140 to 130 °C. Parametric fitting techniques aided in the identification of two α relaxation processes associated with the glass transitions of the soft PBD phase and the hard urethane phases, and a secondary β relaxation process due to the localized motions of side groups. The conductivities at low frequencies were also identified and modeled. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) did not indicate the presence of a crystalline component within the copolymer samples, so interfacial polarization (Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars) relaxation is not possible. A relaxation map (Arrhenius diagram) associated with these processes has been developed from the experimental data to elucidate the role of n-hexylcarborane in the molecular dynamics of the system. Values of fitting parameters, calculated Tg values, and a fragility index are also given for comparison. Reduced localized motion of the soft PBD phase, as well as reinforcement of the hard urethane phases is observed upon the introduction of n

  5. Reliable liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for investigation of primary aromatic amines migration from food packaging and during industrial curing of multilayer plastic laminates.

    PubMed

    Lambertini, Francesca; Di Lallo, Valentina; Catellani, Dante; Mattarozzi, Monica; Careri, Maria; Suman, Michele

    2014-09-01

    Primary aromatic amines (PAAs) can migrate from packaging into food from different sources such as polyurethanic adhesives used for the manufacture of multilayer films, which may contain residual aromatic isocyanates, or recycled paperboard, because of the presence of azo dyes in the printed paper massively used in the recycling process. In the present work, a reliable analytical method, exploiting a conventional high-performance liquid chromatography-(selected ion monitoring)-mass spectrometry system, for PAAs compliance assessment in food contact materials was developed as an effective alternative to the current standard spectrophotometric one, moving in this way from the screening to the accurate and selective quantitation perspective for the analysis of PAAs both in aqueous and acidic food simulants. The main validation parameters were verified achieving very satisfactory results in terms of linearity range, limit of detection (ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 µg kg(-1)) and quantitation (ranging from 0.1 to 3.6 µg kg(-1)), repeatability and accuracy. Suitability of the method was demonstrated for a wide range of commercial samples, chosen among different producers of the most common used food packaging plastic and paperboard categories and then analyzed to assess the risk related to PAAs migration. Finally, the method was also successfully exploited to monitor the evolution of potential PAAs migration during the industrial curing process of multilayer plastic laminates, prior to their release for delivery to the food industry end user. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Biomonitoring for Exposure Assessment to Styrene in the Fibreglass Reinforced Plastic Industry: Determinants and Interferents.

    PubMed

    Bonanni, Rossana Claudia; Gatto, Maria Pia; Paci, Enrico; Gordiani, Andrea; Gherardi, Monica; Tranfo, Giovanna

    2015-10-01

    Fifty-eight workers exposed to styrene were monitored in four fibreglass reinforced plastic industries of Central Italy. The aim of the study was to explore the factors that can influence the levels of styrene exposure biomarkers of the workers and the aspects that might interfere with the exposure assessment measures, such as the co-exposure to acetone. Personal monitoring of professional exposure to airborne styrene and acetone was carried out by Radiello samplers and GC/MS analysis. Biological monitoring was performed by the determination of urinary metabolites, mandelic (MA), and phenylglyoxylic (PGA) acids with HPLC/MS/MS and unmetabolized styrene in saliva and venous blood by HS/GC/MS. The median values of the four sites ranged between 24.1 to 94.0mg m(-3) and 7.3 to 331.1mg g(-1) creatinine for airborne styrene and MA + PGA, respectively. A good linear correlation was found between styrene in air and its urinary metabolites (r = 0.854). The median value for airborne styrene was found to exceed the (Threshold Limit Value - Time Weighted Average) of 85 mg m(-3) in one site for all the workers and in two if only moulders are considered. The multiple linear regression model showed that the determinants of urinary MA + PGA excretion were the type of process, workers' tasks, level of acetone co-exposure, and the use of respiratory protection devices. Data show that the simultaneous exposure to acetone modify the styrene metabolism with a reduction in the levels of (MA + PGA) excreted. A significant linear log-correlation was found between salivary levels of styrene and blood concentration (r = 0.746) sampled at the same t x time.

  7. Trends in Occupational Exposure to Styrene in the European Glass Fibre-Reinforced Plastics Industry

    PubMed Central

    Van Rooij, J. G. M.; Kasper, A.; Triebig, G.; Werner, P.; Kromhout, H.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: This study presents temporal trends of styrene exposure for workers in the European glass fibre-reinforced plastics (GRP) industry during the period 1966–2002. Methods: Data of personal styrene exposure measurements were retrieved from reports, databases and peer-reviewed papers. Only sources with descriptive statistics of personal measurements were accepted. The styrene exposure data cover personal air samples and biological monitoring data, that is, urinary styrene metabolites (mandelic acid and/or phenylglyoxylic acid) and styrene in blood. Means of series of measurements were categorized by year, country, production process, job and sampling strategy. Linear mixed models were used to identify temporal trends and factors affecting exposure levels. Results: Personal exposure measurements were available from 60 reports providing data on 24145 1–8-h time-weighted average shift personal air samples. Available data of biological exposure indicators included measurements of mandelic acid in post-shift urine (6361 urine samples being analysed). Trend analyses of the available styrene exposure data showed that the average styrene concentration in the breathing zone of open-mould workers in the European GRP industry has decreased on average by 5.3% per year during the period 1966–1990 and by only 0.4% annually in the period after 1990. The highest exposures were measured in Southern Europe and the lowest exposures in Northern Europe with Central Europe in between. Biological indicators of styrene (mandelic acid in post-shift urine) showed a somewhat steeper decline (8.9%), most likely because urine samples were collected in companies that showed a stronger decrease of styrene exposure in air than GRP companies where no biological measurements were carried out. PMID:18550625

  8. Trends in occupational exposure to styrene in the European glass fibre-reinforced plastics industry.

    PubMed

    Van Rooij, J G M; Kasper, A; Triebig, G; Werner, P; Jongeneelen, F J; Kromhout, H

    2008-07-01

    This study presents temporal trends of styrene exposure for workers in the European glass fibre-reinforced plastics (GRP) industry during the period 1966-2002. Data of personal styrene exposure measurements were retrieved from reports, databases and peer-reviewed papers. Only sources with descriptive statistics of personal measurements were accepted. The styrene exposure data cover personal air samples and biological monitoring data, that is, urinary styrene metabolites (mandelic acid and/or phenylglyoxylic acid) and styrene in blood. Means of series of measurements were categorized by year, country, production process, job and sampling strategy. Linear mixed models were used to identify temporal trends and factors affecting exposure levels. Personal exposure measurements were available from 60 reports providing data on 24145 1-8-h time-weighted average shift personal air samples. Available data of biological exposure indicators included measurements of mandelic acid in post-shift urine (6361 urine samples being analysed). Trend analyses of the available styrene exposure data showed that the average styrene concentration in the breathing zone of open-mould workers in the European GRP industry has decreased on average by 5.3% per year during the period 1966-1990 and by only 0.4% annually in the period after 1990. The highest exposures were measured in Southern Europe and the lowest exposures in Northern Europe with Central Europe in between. Biological indicators of styrene (mandelic acid in post-shift urine) showed a somewhat steeper decline (8.9%), most likely because urine samples were collected in companies that showed a stronger decrease of styrene exposure in air than GRP companies where no biological measurements were carried out.

  9. The prediction of long term viscoelastic properties of fiber reinforced plastics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinson, H. F.; Dillard, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    A method for the experimental and analytical accelerated characterization of long term viscoelastic properties is presented. The time-temperature-stress superposition principle (TTSSP) is shown to serve as the basis for determining long term compliance data from short term creep test results. Nonlinear viscoelastic theories are discussed to provide the framework for the mathematically modeling of such a process. A time dependent Tsai-Hill-Zhurkov failure theory is used to determine long term failure properties from short term data. Compliance and failure data are incorporated in an incremental lamination theory to make long term laminate predictions. Comparisons are made between theory and experiment.

  10. The prediction of long term viscoelastic properties of fiber reinforced plastics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinson, H. F.; Dillard, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    A method for the experimental and analytical accelerated characterization of long term viscoelastic properties is presented. The time-temperature-stress superposition principle (TTSSP) is shown to serve as the basis for determining long term compliance data from short term creep test results. Nonlinear viscoelastic theories are discussed to provide the framework for the mathematically modeling of such a process. A time dependent Tsai-Hill-Zhurkov failure theory is used to determine long term failure properties from short term data. Compliance and failure data are incorporated in an incremental lamination theory to make long term laminate predictions. Comparisons are made between theory and experiment.

  11. A cohort mortality study and a case-control study of workers potentially exposed to styrene in the reinforced plastics and composites industry.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, O

    1990-01-01

    The cohort consisted of 15,908 men and women who worked for at least six months between 1948 and 1977 in 30 participating manufacturing plants in the reinforced plastics and composites industry. These workers were occupationally exposed to the working environment in the industry, which included exposure to styrene. Cause specific mortality analyses were performed based on the standardised mortality ratio (SMR) with the United States population as a comparison. No significant excess of cause specific mortality was found for the total cohort. Mortality from cancer was slightly less than expected (SMR = 88.1). For cancer of the respiratory system, a small non-significant excess was detected (SMR = 116.1). For lymphatic and haematopoietic cancer, a non-significant deficit was found (SMR = 73.3). The observed mortality from leukaemia was similar to that expected (five observed v 4.76 expected deaths). The plants with hot processes (injection moulding, centrifugal casting, compression moulding, continuous lamination, and pultrusion) experienced a significantly increased SMR (177.9) for respiratory cancer, which was more than twice that (78.3) for those with cold processes (resin mixing, lay up and spray up, bag moulding, and filament winding). As potential exposure to styrene from hot processes is considerably less than that from the cold processes, this finding could not be attributed to occupational exposures. A subsequent nested case-control study consisting of 40 cases of deaths from respiratory cancer was conducted. Further information on detailed work history, occupational exposures, and smoking history was collected. The case-control study did not show any significant association between respiratory cancer and direct exposure to styrene (contained in polyester resins), duration of exposure to styrene, the type of process (hot or cold), or whether a resin was used. A statistically significant association (relative risk = 7.33) was found between cigarette smoking

  12. Finite Element Modeling of Fragment Penetration of Thin Structural Composite Laminates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    his direction and assistance provided during the program. The following are registered trade names: Kevlar-29, 3M Co., Scotchply, Owens Corning Fiberglass...grains, are used. Composite laminates such as Owens Corning Fiberglass (R) panels, 3M Scotchply 1002 (R) panels and Kevlar-29 (R) reinforced plastic...results [2]: 1. Owens Corning Fiberglass (OCF) Structural Panels. Woven S-2 glass and a typical resin type, contert, sizing, and cure cycle at 220

  13. Dynamic response of concrete beams externally reinforced with carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) subjected to impulsive loads

    SciTech Connect

    Jerome, D.M.; Ross, C.A.

    1996-12-31

    A series of 54 laboratory scale concrete beams 3 x 3 x 30 in. in size were impulsively loaded to failure in a drop weight impact machine. The beams had no internal reinforcement, but instead were externally reinforced on the bottom or tension side of the beams with 1, 2, and 3 ply AS4C/1919 graphite epoxy panels. In addition, several of the beams were also reinforced on the sides with 3 ply CFRP. The beams were simply supported in a drop weight machine and subjected to impact loads with amplitudes up to 10 kips, and durations less than 1 ms, at beam midspan. Measurements made during the loading event included beam total load, midspan displacement, as well as midspan strain at 3 locations in the beam`s cross-section. A high speed framing camera was also used to record the beam`s displacement-time behavior as well as to gain insight into the failure mechanisms. Beam midspan accelerations were determined by double differentiation of the displacement versus time data, and in turn, the beam`s inertial loads were calculated using the beam`s equivalent mass. Beam dynamic bending loads versus time were determined from the difference between the total load versus time and the inertial load versus time data. Bending loads versus displacements were also determined along with fracture energies. Failure to correct the loads for inertia will result in incorrect conclusions being drawn from the data, especially for bending resistance of brittle concrete test specimens. A comparison with quasistatic bending (fracture) energy data showed that the dynamic failure energy absorbed by the beams was always less than the static fracture energy, due to the brittle nature of concrete when impulsively loaded.

  14. Analysis, design and development of a carbon fibre reinforced plastic knee-ankle-foot orthosis prototype for myopathic patients.

    PubMed

    Granata, C; De Lollis, A; Campo, G; Piancastelli, L; Merlini, L

    1990-01-01

    A traditional knee-ankle-foot orthosis (KAFO) for myopathic patients has been studied for the assessment of loads and fatigue resistance. Starting from this basis a thermoplastic matrix carbon fibre reinforced plastic composite (CFRP) KAFO has been developed in order to reduce the weight. A finite-element simulation programme for deformation analysis was used to compare the behaviour of conventional and CFRP orthosis. There were no breakages either of the prototype or of its parts. The CFRP orthosis allows a weight reduction of more than 40 per cent.

  15. Investigation and modeling of the elastic-plastic fracture behavior of continuous woven fabric-reinforced ceramic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Kahl, W.K.

    1997-03-01

    The paper describes a study which attempted to extrapolate meaningful elastic-plastic fracture toughness data from flexure tests of a chemical vapor-infiltrated SiC/Nicalon fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composite. Fibers in the fabricated composites were pre-coated with pyrolytic carbon to varying thicknesses. In the tests, crack length was not measured and the study employed an estimate procedure, previously used successfully for ductile metals, to derive J-R curve information. Results are presented in normalized load vs. normalized displacements and comparative J{sub Ic} behavior as a function of fiber precoating thickness.

  16. The sequential addition and migration method to generate representative volume elements for the homogenization of short fiber reinforced plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Matti

    2017-02-01

    We present an algorithm for generating volume elements of short fiber reinforced plastic microstructures for prescribed fourth order fiber orientation tensor, fiber aspect ratio and solid volume fraction. The algorithm inserts fibers randomly into an existing microstructure, and removes the resulting overlap systematically based on a gradient descent method. In contrast to existing methods, large fiber aspect ratios (up to 150) and large volume fractions (60 vol% for isotropic orientation and aspect ratio of 33) can be reached. We study the effective linear elastic properties of the resulting microstructures, depending on fiber orientation, volume fraction as well as aspect ratio, and examine the size of a corresponding representative volume element.

  17. A study examining the effects of water-miscible cutting fluids for end milling process of carbon fiber reinforced plastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anan, Ruito; Matsuoka, Hironori; Ono, Hajime; Ryu, Takahiro; Nakae, Takashi; Shuto, Schuichi; Watanabe, Suguru; Sato, Yuta

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the improvements to the tool life and finished surface roughness by using water-miscible cutting fluids in carbon fiber reinforced plastics end milling. In cutting tests, it was found that the use of emulsion type, soluble type, and solution type cutting fluids improved tool life compared with the case of dry cutting. Specifically, significant differences in tool life were observed at a high cutting speed of 171 m/min. In addition, the finished surface exhibited a low level of roughness when the solution type cutting fluid was used, regardless of the cutting speed.

  18. Laser drilling of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) by picosecond laser pulses: comparative study of different drilling tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, T.; Stolze, M.; L'huillier, J.

    2014-03-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) as a lightweight material with superior properties is increasingly being used in industrial manufacturing. Using ultrashort laser pulses can improve the quality in cutting or drilling applications, but at high power levels it is more complicated to maintain the accuracy and precision in CFRP drilling. According to the application requirements for the extent of the heat affected zone, the geometric precision and the productivity different drilling tools can be used. Therefore we report on the application of three different beam delivery systems to drilling processes of CFRP: Galvanometer scanner, trepanning head and diffractive optical elements.

  19. Thermal conductivity of graphene laminate.

    PubMed

    Malekpour, H; Chang, K-H; Chen, J-C; Lu, C-Y; Nika, D L; Novoselov, K S; Balandin, A A

    2014-09-10

    We have investigated thermal conductivity of graphene laminate films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate substrates. Two types of graphene laminate were studied, as deposited and compressed, in order to determine the physical parameters affecting the heat conduction the most. The measurements were performed using the optothermal Raman technique and a set of suspended samples with the graphene laminate thickness from 9 to 44 μm. The thermal conductivity of graphene laminate was found to be in the range from 40 to 90 W/mK at room temperature. It was found unexpectedly that the average size and the alignment of graphene flakes are more important parameters defining the heat conduction than the mass density of the graphene laminate. The thermal conductivity scales up linearly with the average graphene flake size in both uncompressed and compressed laminates. The compressed laminates have higher thermal conductivity for the same average flake size owing to better flake alignment. Coating plastic materials with thin graphene laminate films that have up to 600× higher thermal conductivity than plastics may have important practical implications.

  20. Optimization-Based Monitoring of Laminated CFRP Composites using Electrical Resistance Changes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-09

    ABSTRACT Impact load like a tool drop easily causes a delamination crack in a laminated Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer ( CFRP ). The delamination crack...Reinforced Polymer ( CFRP ). The delamination crack causes deterioration of structural reliability of a laminated CFRP . Monitoring of delamination is...Monitoring, Optimization Introduction Laminated Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer ( CFRP ) has been increasingly applied to the aerospace primary

  1. Invertebrate lamins

    SciTech Connect

    Melcer, Shai; Gruenbaum, Yosef . E-mail: gru@vms.huji.ac.il; Krohne, Georg . E-mail: krohne@biozentrum.uni-wuerzburg.de

    2007-06-10

    Lamins are the main component of the nuclear lamina and considered to be the ancestors of all intermediate filament proteins. They are localized mainly at the nuclear periphery where they form protein complexes with integral proteins of the nuclear inner membrane, transcriptional regulators, histones and chromatin modifiers. Studying lamins in invertebrate species has unique advantages including the smaller number of lamin genes in the invertebrate genomes and powerful genetic analyses in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. These simpler nuclear lamina systems allow direct analyses of their structure and functions. Here we give an overview of recent advances in the field of invertebrate nuclear lamins with special emphasis on their evolution, assembly and functions.

  2. Glycophorin A somatic cell mutation frequencies in Finnish reinforced plastics workers exposed to styrene.

    PubMed

    Bigbee, W L; Grant, S G; Langlois, R G; Jensen, R H; Anttila, A; Pfäffli, P; Pekari, K; Norppa, H

    1996-10-01

    We have used the glycophorin A (GPA) in vivo somatic cell mutation assay to assess the genotoxic potential of styrene exposure in 47 reinforced plastics workers occupationally exposed to styrene and 47 unexposed controls matched for age, gender, and active smoking status. GPA variant erythrocyte frequencies (Vf), reflecting GPA allele loss (phi/N) and allele loss and duplication (N/N) somatic mutations arising in vivo in the erythroid progenitor cells of individuals of GPA M/N heterozygous genotype, were flow cytometrically determined in peripheral blood samples from these subjects. Measurements of styrene exposure of the workers at the time of blood sampling showed a mean 8-h time-weighted average (TWA8-h) styrene concentration of 155 mg/m3 (37 ppm) in the breathing zone. Mean urinary concentrations of the styrene metabolites mandelic acid (MA) and mandelic acid plus phenyl glyoxylic acid (MA+PGA) were 4.4 mmol/liter (after workshift) and 2.1 mmol/liter (next morning), respectively. Multivariate analysis of covariance on log-transformed GPA Vf data with models allowing adjustment for age, gender, smoking status, and styrene exposure showed that N/N Vf were nearly significantly increased among all of the exposed workers (adjusted geometric mean, 6.3 per million versus 5.0 in the controls; P = 0.058) and were statistically significantly elevated (adjusted geometric mean, 6.8 versus 5.0 in the controls; P = 0.036) among workers classified into a high-exposure group according to personal TWA8-h concentration of styrene in the breathing zone of > or = 85 mg/m3 (20 ppm; Finnish threshold limit value). Women in this high exposure group showed especially elevated N/N Vf (adjusted geometric mean 8.5 versus 5.3 in control women; P = 0.020); this elevation was also significant if urinary MA+PGA of > or = 1.2 mmol/liter was used as the basis of classification (adjusted geometric mean, 8.3; P = 0.030). The occupational exposure could not be shown to influence phi/N Vf

  3. Comparison between viscous elastic plastic behaviour of the composites reinforced with plain glass fabric and chopped strand mat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanciu, M. D.; Harapu, A.; Teodorescu Drăghicescu, H.; Curtu, I.; Savin, A.

    2016-08-01

    Composite structures are used mainly two types of reinforcement materials: woven glass fabric and the chopped strand mat, each contributing either to increase the resistance of the composite whole or in isotropic distribution of stresses. This paper presents a comparison of the visco-elastic characteristics of composites reinforced with glass fabric and the chopped strand mat and the breaking mode of the two types of the composite. The first type of samples contain three layers of chopped strand mat known as MAT with density of 450g/m2 and 225g/m2) and the second type is composed of four layers of woven glass fabric type RT500 (density of 500g/m2). Both specimens were cut in accordance with EN ISO 527-2 SR. Characteristic curve of the two types of specimens highlights visco-elastic-plastic behavior which largely depends on the type of reinforcement used as the matrix resin is the same in both cases (orthophthalic polyester resin). Breaking mode of those types of specimens were observed and analyzed by electronic microscope.

  4. A stable numerical solution method in-plane loading of nonlinear viscoelastic laminated orthotropic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gramoll, K. C.; Dillard, D. A.; Brinson, H. F.

    1989-01-01

    In response to the tremendous growth in the development of advanced materials, such as fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) composite materials, a new numerical method is developed to analyze and predict the time-dependent properties of these materials. Basic concepts in viscoelasticity, laminated composites, and previous viscoelastic numerical methods are presented. A stable numerical method, called the nonlinear differential equation method (NDEM), is developed to calculate the in-plane stresses and strains over any time period for a general laminate constructed from nonlinear viscoelastic orthotropic plies. The method is implemented in an in-plane stress analysis computer program, called VCAP, to demonstrate its usefulness and to verify its accuracy. A number of actual experimental test results performed on Kevlar/epoxy composite laminates are compared to predictions calculated from the numerical method.

  5. Fracture Analysis of Competing Failure Modes of Aluminum-CFRP Joints Using Three-Layer Titanium Laminates as Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woizeschke, P.; Vollertsen, F.

    2015-09-01

    The structural properties of lightweight constructions can be adapted to specific local requirements using multi-material designs. Aluminum alloys and carbon fiber-reinforced plastics (CFRP) are materials of great interest requiring suitable joining techniques in order to transfer the advantages of combining the materials to structural benefits. Thus, the research group "Schwarz-Silber" investigates novel concepts to enable frontal aluminum-CFRP joints using transition structures. In the foil concept titanium foils are used as transition elements. Specimens have been produced using three-layer titanium laminates. In tensile tests, three failure locations have been observed: (1) Al-Ti seam, (2) Ti-CFRP hybrid laminate, and (3) CFRP laminate. In this paper, the fracture mechanisms of these failure modes are investigated by analyzing metallographic micrographs and fracture surfaces as well as by correlating load-displacement curves to video imaging of tensile tests. The results show that the cracking of the CFRP layers can be traced back to an assembly error. The laminate character of the titanium part tends to reduce the Al-Ti seam strength. However, two sub-joint tests demonstrate that the Al-Ti seam can endure loads up to 9.5 kN. The ductile failure behavior of the Ti-CFRP hybrid laminates is caused by plastic deformations of the titanium laminate liners.

  6. Toughness Enhancement in Roll-Bonded Al6061-15 vol.% SiC Laminates via Controlled Interfacial Delamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monazzah, A. Hosseini; Bagheri, R.; Reihani, S. M. Seyed

    2013-11-01

    Researchers have examined different approaches to improve damage tolerance of discontinuously reinforced aluminum (DRA). In this study, three-layer DRA laminates containing two exterior layers of Al6061-15 vol.% SiCp and an interlayer of Al1050 were fabricated by hot roll bonding. Interfacial adhesion between the layers was controlled by means of rolling stain. The results of shear test revealed that, the bonding strength of laminates was influenced by number of rolling passes. Considering this effect, the role of interfacial bonding on the toughness of laminates was studied under three-point bending in the crack divider orientation. The quasi-static toughness of the laminates was greater than that of the monolithic DRA. Plastic deformation of the ductile interlayer and interfacial delamination were found as the major sources of energy absorption in this fracture process. It was shown that interfacial adhesion in these laminate does not alter the initiation energy in quasi-static test. Propagation energy under same loading condition, however, illustrated significant sensitivity to the interfacial bonding. The results of the current study reveal that improving the interfacial adhesion by means of rolling strain eliminates the ease of plastic deformation of the ductile interlayer and thus reduces the contribution of this mechanism in quasi-static toughness of the laminate.

  7. Investigation of the Reliability of Bridge Elements Reinforced with Basalt Plastic Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koval', T. I.

    2017-09-01

    The poorly studied problem on the reliability and durability of basalt-fiber-reinforced concrete bridge elements is considered. A method of laboratory research into the work of specimens of the concrete under a manyfold cyclic dynamic load is proposed. The first results of such experiments are presented.

  8. Properties of wood-plastic composites (WPCs) reinforced with extracted and delignified wood flour

    Treesearch

    Yao Chen; Nicole M. Stark; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Jianmin Gao; Yongming Fan

    2014-01-01

    The water sorption and mechanical properties of wood-plastic composites (WPCs) made of extracted and delignified wood flour (WF) has been investigated. WF was prepared by extraction with the solvent systems toluene/ethanol (TE), acetone/water (AW), and hot water (HW), and its delignification was conducted by means of sodium chlorite/acetic acid (AA) solution. A 2 4...

  9. Moisture Performance of wood-plastic composites reinforced with extracted and delignified wood flour

    Treesearch

    Yao Chen; Nicole M. Stark; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Jianmin Gao; Yongming Fan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of using extracted and delignified wood flour on water sorption properties of wood–plastic composites. Wood flour (WF) extraction was performed with three solvent systems: toluene/ethanol (TE), acetone/water (AW), and hot water (HW); delignification was conducted using sodium chlorite/acetic acid solution. A 24 full-factorial...

  10. Corrosive effect of carbon-fibre reinforced plastic on stainless-steel screws during implantation into man.

    PubMed

    Tayton, K

    1983-01-01

    The corrosion of stainless-steel screws used to fix carbon-fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) plates to human fractures was compared with the corrosion on similar screws used to fix stainless-steel AO plates. Corrosive changes were noted in both sets of screws with similar frequency and severity; however, the stainless-steel plates were 'in situ' almost twice as long as the CFRP ones, showing that the corrosive changes occurred more rapidly on screws in contact with CFRP. Nevertheless, over the implantation time necessary for bone healing, corrosion was very mild and there is no clinical contra-indication to the use of stainless-steel and CFRP together in this particular application.

  11. The influence of porosity on ultrasound attenuation in carbon fiber reinforced plastic composites using the laser-ultrasound spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabutov, A. A.; Podymova, N. B.; Belyaev, I. O.

    2013-11-01

    Wideband acoustic spectroscopy with a laser ultrasound source for quantitative analysis of the effect of porosity on the attenuation coefficient of longitudinal acoustic waves in carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite materials was experimentally implemented. The samples under study had different bulk-porosity levels (up to 10%), which were determined using X-ray computer tomography. A resonance ultrasound attenuation peak associated with the one-dimensional periodicity of the layered composite structure was observed for all samples. The absolute value of the resonance-peak maximum and its width depend on the local concentration of microscopic isolated pores and extended delaminations in the sample structure. The obtained empirical relationships between these parameters of the frequency dependence of the ultrasound attenuation coefficient and the type of inhomogeneities and their volume concentration can be used for rapid evaluation of the structural quality of CFRP composites.

  12. Characterization and Effects of Fiber Pull-Outs in Hole Quality of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics Composite.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh Ashrafi, Sina; Miller, Peter W; Wandro, Kevin M; Kim, Dave

    2016-10-13

    Hole quality plays a crucial role in the production of close-tolerance holes utilized in aircraft assembly. Through drilling experiments of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic composites (CFRP), this study investigates the impact of varying drilling feed and speed conditions on fiber pull-out geometries and resulting hole quality parameters. For this study, hole quality parameters include hole size variance, hole roundness, and surface roughness. Fiber pull-out geometries are quantified by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the mechanically-sectioned CFRP-machined holes, to measure pull-out length and depth. Fiber pull-out geometries and the hole quality parameter results are dependent on the drilling feed and spindle speed condition, which determines the forces and undeformed chip thickness during the process. Fiber pull-out geometries influence surface roughness parameters from a surface profilometer, while their effect on other hole quality parameters obtained from a coordinate measuring machine is minimal.

  13. Characterization and Effects of Fiber Pull-Outs in Hole Quality of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics Composite

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh Ashrafi, Sina; Miller, Peter W.; Wandro, Kevin M.; Kim, Dave

    2016-01-01

    Hole quality plays a crucial role in the production of close-tolerance holes utilized in aircraft assembly. Through drilling experiments of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic composites (CFRP), this study investigates the impact of varying drilling feed and speed conditions on fiber pull-out geometries and resulting hole quality parameters. For this study, hole quality parameters include hole size variance, hole roundness, and surface roughness. Fiber pull-out geometries are quantified by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the mechanically-sectioned CFRP-machined holes, to measure pull-out length and depth. Fiber pull-out geometries and the hole quality parameter results are dependent on the drilling feed and spindle speed condition, which determines the forces and undeformed chip thickness during the process. Fiber pull-out geometries influence surface roughness parameters from a surface profilometer, while their effect on other hole quality parameters obtained from a coordinate measuring machine is minimal. PMID:28773950

  14. Testing of containers made of glass-fiber reinforced plastic with the aid of acoustic emission analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolitz, K.; Brockmann, W.; Fischer, T.

    1979-01-01

    Acoustic emission analysis as a quasi-nondestructive test method makes it possible to differentiate clearly, in judging the total behavior of fiber-reinforced plastic composites, between critical failure modes (in the case of unidirectional composites fiber fractures) and non-critical failure modes (delamination processes or matrix fractures). A particular advantage is that, for varying pressure demands on the composites, the emitted acoustic pulses can be analyzed with regard to their amplitude distribution. In addition, definite indications as to how the damages occurred can be obtained from the time curves of the emitted acoustic pulses as well as from the particular frequency spectrum. Distinct analogies can be drawn between the various analytical methods with respect to whether the failure modes can be classified as critical or non-critical.

  15. An updated cohort mortality study of workers exposed to styrene in the reinforced plastics and composites industry.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, O; Trent, L S; Whorton, M D

    1994-01-01

    Mortality data have been updated for a further 12 years for a cohort of workers in the reinforced plastics and composites industry with exposures to styrene monomer and other chemicals. The cohort consisted of 15,826 male and female employees who were exposed to styrene for at least six months between 1948 and 1977 at 30 participating manufacturing plants in the United States. A total of 1628 deaths were reported during the extended observation period, 1948-89. Mortality from several causes showed significant increases--namely, all causes, all cancers, oesophageal cancer, lung cancer, cancer of the cervix uteri, cancer of other female genital organs, hypertensive heart disease, certain non-malignant respiratory diseases, motor vehicle accidents, and homicides. When, however, mortality data were examined in terms of duration of employment, durations of styrene exposure, and cumulative styrene exposure no upward trend was detected in any of these causes of death. Most of the increases in mortality were among workers who were employed for only six months to a year or who had very low cumulative exposure (< 10 ppm-years). Therefore, the increased mortality was not likely to be related to exposure to styrene. Several explanations for the increased mortality are offered, including low socioeconomic class, smoking, and lifestyle factors characteristic of short term workers. There was no increased mortality from lymphatic and haematopoietic cancers overall or from any specific haematological malignancies. In particular, no increase in mortality from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease, multiple myeloma, or leukaemia was found. Furthermore, detailed exposure-response analyses did not show any relation between exposure to styrene and any of these haematological malignancies. The lack of an exposure-response relation further supports the conclusion that workers in the reinforced plastics industry in this study did not experience any increased risk of lymphatic and

  16. Antenna Patterns from Single Slots in Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic Waveguides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    was similar to that of copper antennas, with approximately 3 dB reduction in gain. Measured behaviour correlated well with the predictions made using...reinforce thin aircraft skins, or blade stiffeners in sandwich panels, serve the dual purpose of acting both as structural stiffeners and as waveguides...dB lower. This reduction was attributed to the complex impedance of the CFRP and poor impedance match between the CFRP waveguide and metallic

  17. Quality Assessment of Glass Reinforced Plastic Ship Hulls in Naval Applications. Course XIII-A.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Matrix Composite Materials’, Material Science Corporation , NADC Report #76228-30, January, 1978. 41. Griffith, *The Phenomena...Materials," Material Sciences Corporation , PA., August, 1979. 100 44. Shivakumar, K.N. and Whitcomb, J.D., ’Buckling of a Sublaminate in a Quasi...Dimeo nspectionim ure .e,:t.- INSPECION REUIREMETS FR CMPSIE ATRLe Prssr Oretto ueIseto a iaeIseto .............. emertue ecrd Gorn~ibii Cot r t Pr

  18. Dimensional stability of wood-plastic composites reinforced with potassium methyl siliconate modified fiber and sawdust made from beetle-killed trees

    Treesearch

    Cheng Piao; Zhiyong Cai; Nicole M. Stark; Charles J. Montezun

    2014-01-01

    Wood fromtwovarieties of beetle-killed trees was used to fabricate wood–plastic composites. Loblolly pine and lodgepole pine beetle-killed trees were defibrated mechanically and thermomechanically, respectively, into fiber. Fiber and sawdust produced from the trees were modified with potassium methyl siliconate (PMS) and injection-molded into fiber/sawdust reinforced...

  19. 40 CFR 63.5795 - How do I know if my reinforced plastic composites production facility is a new affected source or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... composites production facility is a new affected source or an existing affected source? 63.5795 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emissions Standards....5795 How do I know if my reinforced plastic composites production facility is a new affected source or...

  20. Influence of drill helical direction on exit damage development in drilling carbon fiber reinforced plastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Y.; Jia, Z. Y.; Wang, F. J.; Fu, R.; Guo, H. B.; Cheng, D.; Zhang, B. Y.

    2017-06-01

    Drilling is inevitable for CFRP components’ assembling process in the aviation industry. The exit damage frequently occurs and affects the load carrying capacity of components. Consequently, it is of great urgency to enhance drilling exit quality on CFRP components. The article aims to guide the reasonable choice of drill helical direction and effectively reduce exit damage. Exit observation experiments are carried out with left-hand helical, right-hand helical and straight one-shot drill drilling T800S CFRP laminates separately. The development rules of exit damage and delamination factor curves are obtained. Combined with loading conditions and fracture modes of push-out burrs, and thrust force curves, the influence of drill helical direction on exit damage development is derived. It is found that the main fracture modes for left-hand helical, right-hand helical, and straight one-shot drill are mode I, extrusive fracture, mode III respectively. Among them, mode III has the least effect on exit damage development. Meanwhile, the changing rate of thrust force is relative slow for right-hand helical and straight one-shot drill in the thrust force increasing phase of stage II, which is disadvantaged for exit damage development. Therefore, straight one-shot drill’s exit quality is the best.

  1. Improvement of fatigue life and prevention of internal crack initiation of chopped carbon fiber reinforced plastics modified with micro glass fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujitani, Ryohei; Okubo, Kazuya; Fujii, Toru

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to improve fatigue properties of chopped carbon fiber reinforced plastics fabricated by SMC (Sheet Molding Compound) method and to clarify the mechanism for improvement. To enhance the properties, micro glass fibers with 500nm in diameter were added directly into vinyl ester resin with 0.3wt% contents. The chopped carbon fiber reinforced plastics were fabricated and cured at room temperature for 1hour under 1MPa and then at 60degree-C for 3hours. After curing, the fabricated plate was cut into the dimension of specimen. Tensile and bending strength and fatigue life of chopped carbon fiber reinforced plastics were investigated by tensile and three point bending test and cyclic tension-tension test, respectively. The behavior of strain concentration around the tips of carbon fiber were discussed with model specimen on the observations with DIC (Digital Image Correlation) method and polarizing microscope under tensile loading, in which one chopped carbon fiber was embedded into the matrix. In conclusion, when toughened vinyl ester resin modified with micro glass fibers was used as matrix, tensile and bending strength and fatigue life of chopped carbon fiber reinforced plastics were increased 56.6%, 49.8% and 14 to 23 times compared with those of unmodified specimens. It should be explained that static and dynamic properties of chopped carbon fiber reinforced plastics were improved by that crack initiation and propagation were prevented according to the prevention of the locally increasing of strain around the tip of carbon fiber, when vinyl ester resin modified with micro glass fibers was used as matrix.

  2. Recycled and virgin plastics in fiber reinforced concrete. Final report, October 1994--August 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Tawfiq, K.S.

    1998-08-30

    The primary objectives of this study is to conduct a laboratory investigation to evaluate the intrinsic stress that can cause cracking of concrete mixed recommended by the Florida Department of Transportation with the addition of monofilament and fibrillated polypropylene and monofilament polyolefin fibers, subjected to highly cyclic loading. In addition, the flexural behavior of concrete reinforced with recycled post-consumer in-house made fibers will be study and Finite Element Methods (FEM) following laboratory work would be used to establish comparable numerical models for the flexural test and pavement overlays.

  3. Damage Detection of Laminated CFRP Structures using Electric Pulse Wave Transmission

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-05

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT For laminated CFRP structures, it is quite difficult to detect internal damage such as delamination, matrix cracks, and...unclassified Abstract. Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer ( CFRP ) laminates are applied to many aerospace structures. For these laminated CFRP ...Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer ( CFRP ) has been increasingly applied to the aerospace primary structures because of its high specific strength and

  4. Evaluation of shear-compressive strength properties for laminated GFRP composites in electromagnet system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jun Hee; Kim, Hak Kun; Kim, Sam Yeon

    2014-07-01

    Laminated fiber-reinforced composites can be applied to an insulating structure of a nuclear fusion device. It is necessary to investigate the interlaminar fracture characteristics of the laminated composites for the assurance of design and structural integrity. The three methods used to prepare the glass fiber reinforced plastic composites tested in this study were vacuum pressure impregnation, high pressure laminate (HPL), and prepreg laminate. We discuss the design criteria for safe application of composites and the shear-compressive test methods for evaluating mechanical properties of the material. Shear-compressive tests could be performed successfully using series-type test jigs that were inclined 0°, 30°, 45°, 60°, and 75° to the normal axis. Shear strength depends strongly on the applied compressive stress. The design range of allowable shear stress was extended by use of the appropriate composite fabrication method. HPL had the largest design range, and the allowable interlaminar shear stress was 0.254 times the compressive stress.

  5. THERMAL STABILITY OF GLASS PLASTICS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    COMPOSITE MATERIALS, THERMAL STABILITY), (* GLASS TEXTILES, THERMAL STABILITY), (*LAMINATED PLASTICS , THERMAL STABILITY), HEATING, COOLING, MECHANICAL PROPERTIES, FATIGUE(MECHANICS), FLEXURAL STRENGTH, THERMAL STRESSES, USSR

  6. Statistical aspects of the failure of organic-fiber-reinforced plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazhenov, S. L.; Kuperman, A. M.; Puchkov, L. V.; Zelenskii, É. S.; Berlin, Al. Al.; Kharchenko, E. F.; Kul'kov, A. A.

    1985-11-01

    Dispersion of the strength of filaments and of the Weibull coefficient β leads to a drop in strength of a strand compared with the strength of the components when the adhesion by gluing together does not amount to 2-5%. The drop in strength is determined by the dispersion of strength which depends on the length of the tested specimens. Gluing together of the fibers in filaments changes the nature of the load diagrams σ-ɛ of a filament when its length exceeds δ0. A consequence is that the mechanism of rupture of the strand changes, and this leads to an additional drop of its strength. When specimens are 500 mm long, the drop in strength of the strand compared with the mean strength of the filaments amounts to 10%. Because of the dispersion of the Weibull coefficient β, the strength of filaments does not correspond exactly to the strength of the microplastic obtained from these filaments. When there is dispersion of the strength of the filaments, failure of the plastic proceeds by failure of the microplastics as a whole. Gluing together of fibers has a double effect on the strength of the material: increased degree of gluing together of the fibers reduces the "noneffective length" from δ0 to 0.4-0.5 mm, and this leads to an increase of approximately 50% of the strength of the microplastic; increased gluing together leads to a change in the mechanism of failure of the strand and of the organic-fiber-plastic made from it if there is dispersion of the strength of the component filaments, and this reduces the strength of the material in accordance with (3) (by 12-14% in our case). The longitudinal instability of the properties of the filament leads to an additional drop in strength of the material by 4.5%.

  7. Detection of delamination in composite laminates using small-diameter FBG sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Shin-ichi; Okabe, Yoji; Takeda, Nobuo

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents delamination monitoring techniques in composite laminates using small-diameter fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors that was developed for embedding in the laminates without inducing any structural defects. First, this FBG sensor was embedded in carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) cross-ply laminates. The reflection spectra from the FBG sensor were measured at various delamination sizes through a static four-point bending test. From experimental results, the spectrum was found to have two peaks due to the initiation of the delamination. The intensity ratio of these two peaks changed as the delamination size increased. In order to confirm the deformation of the measured spectra, the spectra were calculated theoretically. The calculated result reproduced the change in the measured spectrum very well. Thus, we proposed the intensity ratio of the two peaks as an effective indicator for evaluation of the delamination size. Secondly, detection of the edge delamination in quasi-isotropic CFRP laminates was conducted using the FBG sensor. The reflection spectra were measured at various delamination sizes through fatigue test. The form of the spectrum changed sensitively by growth of the edge delamination. Hence the small-diameter FBG sensor could also be applied to detect the edge delamination in quasi-isotropic composite laminates under cyclic loading.

  8. Feasibility on fiber orientation detection on unidirectional CFRP composite laminates using nondestructive evaluation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, In-Young; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Cha, Cheon-Seok; Lee, Kil-Sung; Hsu, David K.; Im, Kwang-Hee

    2007-07-01

    In particular, CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced plastics) composite materials have found wide applicability because of their inherent design flexibility and improved material properties. CFRP composites were manufactured from uni-direction prepreg sheet in this paper. It is important to assess fiber orientation, material properties and part defect in order to ensure product quality and structural integrity of CFRP because strength and stiffness of composites depend on fiber orientation. It is desirable to perform nondestructive evaluation which is very beneficial. An new method for nondestructively determining the fiber orientation in a composite laminate is presented. A one-sided pitch-catch setup was used in the detection and evaluation of flaws and material anomalies in the unidirectional CFRP composite laminates. Two Rayleigh wave transducers were joined head-to-head and used in the pitch-catch mode on the surface of the composites. The pitch-catch signal was found to be more sensitive than normal incidence backwall echo of longitudinal wave to subtle flaw conditions in the composite. Especially, ultrasonic waves were extensively characterized in the CFRP composite laminates both normal to fiber and along to fiber with using a one-sided direction of Rayleigh wave transducers. Also, one-sided ultrasonic measurement was made with using a Rayleigh wave transducers and a conventional scanner was used in an immersion tank for extracting fiber orientation information from the ultrasonic reflection in the unidirectional laminate. Therefore, it is thought that the proposed method is useful to evaluate integrity of CFRP laminates.

  9. Acute laminitis.

    PubMed

    Baxter, G M

    1994-12-01

    Laminitis is an inflammation of the sensitive laminae along the dorsal aspect of the digit and is considered to be a secondary complication of several predisposing or primary factors. Affected horses are usually very lame, have increased digital pulses, are painful to hoof testers along the toe of the foot, and have evidence of downward rotation or distal displacement of the distal phalanx present on radiographs. Treatments for acute laminitis include anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-endotoxin therapy, vasodilators, antithrombotic therapy, corrective trimming and shoeing, and surgical procedures. Treatment regimens are very controversial and the true efficacy of these treatments is unknown. The quality of laminae damage that occurs with laminitis, however, probably has greater influence on the success of treatment and outcome of the horse than the treatment regimen itself.

  10. Smart Natural Fiber Reinforced Plastic (NFRP) Composites Based On Recycled Polypropylene in The Presence Kaolin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suharty, N. S.; Ismail, H.; Diharjo, K.; Handayani, D. S.; Lestari, W. A.

    2017-07-01

    Composites contain double filler material which act as reinforcement and flame retardants of recycled polypropylene (rPP)/kaolin(Kao)/palm oil empty bunch fiber (PEBF) have been succesfully prepared. The composites were synthesized through reactively solution method, using coupling agent PP-g-AA and compatibilizer DVB. The effect of double filler [Kao/PEBF] were investigated flexural strength (FS), inflammability, and morphology. Mechanical testing result in accordance to ASTM D790, the FS of rPP/DVB/PP-g-AA/Kao+ZB/PEBF composite was 48% higher than that of rPP matrix. Moreover, flexural modulus (FM) was significantly improved by 56% as compared to that of rPP matrix. The scanning electron images (SEM) shown good dispersion of [Ka/PEBF] and good filler-matrix interaction. The inflammability testing result which is tested using ASTM D635, showed that the flame resistance of rPP/DVB/PP-g-AA/Kao+ZB/PEBF composite was improve by increasing of time to ignition (TTI) about 857% and burning rate (BR) decreasing to 66% compared to the raw material rPP matrix. In the same time, the addition of 20% (w/w) PEBF as a second filler to form rPP/DVB/PP-g-AA/Kao+ZB/PEBF composites (F5) is able to increase: the FS by 17.5%, the FM by 19%, the TTI by 7.6% and the BR by 3.7% compared to the composite without PEBF (F2).

  11. Control technology for fiber reinforced plastics industry at AMF Hatteras Yachts, New Bern Division, New Bern, North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, W. F.

    1984-05-01

    Area and breathing zone samples were analyzed for styrene (100425) at AMF Hatteras Yachts (SIC-3079), New Bern, North Carolina, in September, 1983. Control technology at the facility was inspected. Breathing zone styrene concentrations were 8 to 74 parts per million (ppm), the highest concentrations occurring in the lamination and gel coating departments. Area samples ranged from 1 to 20ppm. The OSHA standard is 100ppm. The hull lamination and assembly areas were ventilated by air make up units and exhaust blowers. Air exhausted through the lamination booths in the small parts work area was considerably less than the supply air from the make up units. The air flow in two of the three lamination booths was considered inadequate. Respirators were available if needed. Industrial hygiene sampling at the facility was supervised by the industrial hygienist.

  12. Effect of anisotropy on fatigue properties of notched CFRP laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Ri-Ichi; Yamanaka, Keisi; Inaba, Tatsuichi; Takaichi, Hiroshi; Shibayama, Muneaki

    1993-04-01

    The effect of anisotropy on fatigue properties of notched carbon fiber reinforced plastic laminates has been studied. The off-axis angle of carbon fiber was varied from 0 to 45 deg. The ultimate tensile strength and the tensile elastic modulus drastically decreased when the off-axis angle of carbon fiber increased to 30 deg. When the-off axis angle of carbon fiber increased over 30 deg, these values approached approximately constant values. The maximum tensile strain also increased and saturated to a constant value when the off-axis angle of the carbon fiber increased. The fatigue strength of notched CFRP laminates showed a similar dependence of ultimate tensile strength on the off-axis angle. The decrease of fatigue strength results from the fatigue damage in relation to the off-axis angle. The fatigue damage process was analyzed in terms of AE measurement and fractography. These results indicate that the fatigue damage process of CFRP laminates was significantly affected by the off-axis angle of carbon fiber.

  13. Plasma vitrification and re-use of non-combustible fiber reinforced plastic, gill net and waste glass.

    PubMed

    Chu, J P; Chen, Y T; Mahalingam, T; Tzeng, C C; Cheng, T W

    2006-12-01

    Fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) composite material has widespread use in general tank, special chemical tank and body of yacht, etc. The purpose of this study is directed towards the volume reduction of non-combustible FRP by thermal plasma and recycling of vitrified slag with specific procedures. In this study, we have employed three main wastes such as, FRP, gill net and waste glass. The thermal molten process was applied to treat vitrified slag at high temperatures whereas in the post-heat treatment vitrified slags were mixed with specific additive and ground into powder form and then heat treated at high temperatures. With a two-stage heat treatment, the treated sample was generated into four crystalline phases, cristobalite, albite, anorthite and wollastonite. Fine and relatively high dense structures with desirable properties were obtained for samples treated by the two-stage heating treatment. Good physical and mechanical properties were achieved after heat treatment, and this study reveals that our results could be comparable with the commercial products.

  14. Feasibility study of ultrasonic elliptical vibration-assisted reaming of carbon fiber reinforced plastics/titanium alloy stacks.

    PubMed

    Geng, Daxi; Zhang, Deyuan; Li, Zhe; Liu, Dapeng

    2017-03-01

    The production of high quality bolt holes, especially on the carbon fiber reinforced plastics/titanium alloy (CFRP/Ti) stacks, is essential to the manufacturing process in order to facilitate part assembly and improve the component mechanical integrity in aerospace industry. Reaming is widely used as a mandatory operation for bolt holes to meet the strict industry requirements. In this paper, the ultrasonic elliptical vibration-assisted reaming (UEVR) which is considered as a new method for finish machining of CFRP/Ti stacked holes is studied. The paper outlines an analysis of tool performance and hole quality in UEVR compared with that in conventional reaming (CR). Experimental results show that the quality of holes was significantly improved in UEVR. This is substantiated by monitoring cutting force, hole geometric precision and surface finish. The average thrust forces and torque in UEVR were decreased over 30% and 60% respectively. It is found that, during first 45 holes, better diameter tolerance (IT7 vs. IT8), smaller diameter difference of CFRP and Ti holes (around 3μm vs. 12μm), better geometrical errors were achieved in UEVR as compared to CR. As for surface finish, both of the average roughness and hole surface topography in UEVR were obviously improved.

  15. Infrared thermography inspection of glass reinforced plastic (GRP) wind turbine blades and the concept of an automated scanning device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdelidis, Nicolas P.; Ibarra-Castanedo, C.; Maldague, X. P. V.

    2013-05-01

    Infrared thermography techniques have been used for many years in the non-destructive testing and evaluation (NDT and E) of materials and structures. The main advantage of thermography over classical NDT techniques resides in the possibility of inspecting large areas in a fast and safe manner without needing to have access to both sides of the component. Nonetheless infrared thermography is limited to the detection of relatively shallow defects (a few millimetres under the surface), since it is affected by 3D heat diffusion. However, the most common types of anomalies found on composites, such as GRP wind turbine blades are delaminations, disbonds, water ingress, node failure and core crushing, and can be effectively detected and sometimes quantified using active thermographic techniques. This research work presents the use of infrared thermography on glass reinforced plastic (GRP) wind turbine blades assessment. Finally, the development of an autonomous, novel and lightweight multi-axis scanning system, as a concept, deploying in situ thermography NDT is also presented, with the intention of developing maximisation of the blade area coverage in a single run, at a known sensitivity, with the utilisation of the minimum number of system degrees of freedom and the maximum repeatability, as well as positional accuracy possible.

  16. Surface discharge related properties of fiberglass reinforced plastic insulator for use in neutral beam injector of JT-60U

    SciTech Connect

    Yamano, Y.; Takahashi, M.; Kobayashi, S.; Hanada, M.; Ikeda, Y.

    2008-02-15

    Neutral beam injection (NBI) used for JT-60U is required to generate negative ions of 500 keV energies. To produce such high-energy ions, three-stage electrostatic accelerators consisting of three insulator rings made of fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) are applied. The surface discharges along FRP insulators are one of the most serious problems in the development of NBI. To increase the hold-off voltage against surface flashover events, it is necessary to investigate the FRP insulator properties related to surface discharges in vacuum. This paper describes surface flashover characteristics for FRP and alumina samples under vacuum condition. The results show that the fold-off voltages for FRP samples are inferior to those of alumina ceramics. In addition, measurement results of surface resistivity and volume resistivity under vacuum and atmospheric conditions, secondary electron emission characteristics, and cathodoluminescence under some keV electron beam irradiation are also reported. These are important parameters to analyze surface discharge of insulators in vacuum.

  17. Clinical application of carbon fibre reinforced plastic leg orthosis for polio survivors and its advantages and disadvantages.

    PubMed

    Hachisuka, K; Makino, K; Wada, F; Saeki, S; Yoshimoto, N; Arai, M

    2006-08-01

    A prospective study was carried out on the clinical application and features of a carbon fibre reinforced plastic leg orthosis (carbon orthosis) for polio survivors. The subjects comprised 9 polio survivors, and 11 carbon knee-ankle-foot orthoses (KAFOs) were prescribed, fabricated, and checked out at the authors' post-polio clinic. Walking was classified based on the functional ambulatory category, and the features of walking with a carbon orthosis were self-evaluated by using a visual analogue scale. The period from modelling a cast to completion was 55 +/- 25 days; the weight of a carbon KAFO was 27.8% lighter than that of the ordinary KAFO; the standard carbon KAFO was 50% more expensive than the ordinary KAFO. The carbon KAFO remained undamaged for at least 2 years. It improved the scores in the functional ambulation categories, but there was no difference between walking with an ordinary and with a carbon KAFO. The self-evaluation of walking with a carbon KAFO revealed that the subjects using a carbon KAFO were satisfied with their carbon KAFO. The carbon KAFO is lightweight, durable, slim and smart, and is positively indicated for polio survivors.

  18. Surface discharge related properties of fiberglass reinforced plastic insulator for use in neutral beam injector of JT-60U.

    PubMed

    Yamano, Y; Takahashi, M; Kobayashi, S; Hanada, M; Ikeda, Y

    2008-02-01

    Neutral beam injection (NBI) used for JT-60U is required to generate negative ions of 500 keV energies. To produce such high-energy ions, three-stage electrostatic accelerators consisting of three insulator rings made of fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) are applied. The surface discharges along FRP insulators are one of the most serious problems in the development of NBI. To increase the hold-off voltage against surface flashover events, it is necessary to investigate the FRP insulator properties related to surface discharges in vacuum. This paper describes surface flashover characteristics for FRP and alumina samples under vacuum condition. The results show that the fold-off voltages for FRP samples are inferior to those of alumina ceramics. In addition, measurement results of surface resistivity and volume resistivity under vacuum and atmospheric conditions, secondary electron emission characteristics, and cathodoluminescence under some keV electron beam irradiation are also reported. These are important parameters to analyze surface discharge of insulators in vacuum.

  19. Irradiation Effect of 14 MeV Neutron on Interlaminar Shear Strength of Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, A.; Hishinuma, Y.; Seo, K.; Tanaka, T.; Muroga, T.; Nishijima, S.; Katagiri, K.; Takeuchi, T.; Shindo, Y.; Ochiai, K.; Nishitani, T.; Okuno, K.

    2006-03-31

    Design activity of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor clarifies intense neutron streaming from ports for neutral beam injectors. Energy spectrum of the streaming is very wide and 14 MeV neutron and gamma ray are the typical radiations. Large amount of glass fiber reinforced plastics will be used in a superconducting magnet system as an electric insulation material and a support structure, for such organic material is easy to manufacture, and light and cheap. In this report, effects of 14 MeV neutron and gamma ray irradiation on interlaminar shear strength and fracture mode are investigated using G-10CR small specimen of which configuration was proposed as a standard for evaluation of the interlaminar shear strength. A short beam test under three point bending was conducted at room temperature and 77 K. Neutron fluence of 3.91 x 1019 n/m2 was irradiated and the specimens did not show clear degradation of the strength. On the other hand, gamma ray irradiation of 1 MGy made the specimen weaker and 10 MGy caused delamination. Most of the specimens showed both of interlaminar cracking and bending fracture, but some specimens were fractured with irregular shear occurred on the planes connecting loading point and supporting points.

  20. Researches on the ultrasonic scattering attenuation of carbon fibre reinforced plastics with 2D real morphology void model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, S. S.; Jin, S. J.; Luo, Z. B.; Chen, J.; Lin, L.

    2017-07-01

    In order to investigate the ultrasonic propagation in carbon fibre reinforced plastics with complex void morphology, the effective mathematical model needs to be established. The current models are oversimplified on void morphology, leading to the significant inconsistency of theoretical calculation with experimental results. In view of the problem, a real morphology void model (RMVM) was established with the idea of image-based modeling. The void morphology was extracted by digital image processing technology, and the material properties were assigned subsequently. As a result of the complex and random void morphology in RMVMs, a non-unique corresponding relationship was verified between porosity P and ultrasonic attenuation coefficient α. In the scatterplot of simulation, about 66 percent of points were plotted within the ±10% error band of fitting line, while almost all the data located at the ±20% error zone. The simulation results showed good consistency with experiments, and it proved the validity of RMVM. The investigation provides a novel model to explore the ultrasonic scattering mechanism for the composite materials containing random voids.

  1. Development of a lightweight portable optical measurement system for the print-through phenomenon of fiber-reinforced plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiou, Fang-Jung; Lai, Yao-Zih; Tsai, Min-Long

    2011-12-01

    Due to the volumetric shrinkage of the resin and the induced residual stress during the curing process, the reflection on the gel-coating layer surface will be imperfect if twists and wrinkles exist on the gel-coating surface. This phenomenon is denoted as print-through phenomenon (PTP). Currently, the detection of PTP for most of the yacht industry using the composite materials is performed mainly by visual inspection, and its quality is needed to be quantified to determine their grades. Therefore, there is a need to develop a lightweight portable optical measurement system that can be applied quickly to inspect different levels of PTP for the fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP) of the yacht body. The measurement system was developed based on the scattering principle of a reflected laser fringe projected on to the workpiece surface. Two indexes, namely the profile peak-valley height and wave-height of the Fast-Fourier Transform based on the centerline of the extracted image profile, were proposed to quantify the PTP of a test specimen. The mean line width of the extracted image was applied to evaluate the surface roughness of the test specimen, based on the scattering theorem. A set of software programmed with Borland C++ Builder language was developed to calculate the proposed indexes and the mean line width. The developed measurement system has been taken to some yacht factories to do the on-site measurements. The measurement results were, in general, consistent with the surface conditions of the polished surfaces.

  2. Photoresist laminate

    DOEpatents

    Andrade, A.D.; Galbraith, L.K.

    1979-10-01

    The disclosure relates to a laminated negative dry-film photoresist for the production of thick, as well as thin, patterns with vertical sidewalls. Uniform depthwise exposure in a photoresist layer is effected by the use of an ultraviolet filtering top layer.

  3. Identification of the elastic and damping characteristics of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic based on a study of damping flexural vibrations of test specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paimushin, V. N.; Firsov, V. A.; Gyunal, I.; Shishkin, V. M.

    2016-07-01

    A theoretical and experimental method for determining the elastic and damping characteristics of materials is proposed based on analysis of vibrograms of damping flexural vibrations of test specimens with different structures. It is shown that during tension-compression and shear of a carbon fiber-reinforced plastic made of Porcher 3692 carbon fabric and EDT-69NM polymer binder, its dynamic elastic modulus decreases considerably with increasing frequency of deformation in the range of 0-120 Hz. The amplitude dependences of the logarithmic vibration decrements of the carbon fiber-reinforced plastic are determined by minimizing the discrepancy between the experimental and calculated internal-damping parameters of the test specimens in tension-compression and shear.

  4. Toxicology and occupational hazards of new materials and processes in metal surface treatment, powder metallurgy, technical ceramics, and fiber-reinforced plastics.

    PubMed

    Midtgård, U; Jelnes, J E

    1991-12-01

    Many new materials and processes are about to find their way from the research laboratory into industry. The present paper describes some of these processes and provides an overview of possible occupational hazards and a list of chemicals used or produced in the processes. The technological areas that are considered are metal surface treatment (ion implantation, physical and chemical vapor deposition, plasma spraying), powder metallurgy, advanced technical ceramics, and fiber-reinforced plastics.

  5. Laminated Fresnel lenses

    SciTech Connect

    Jebens, R.W.

    1980-04-01

    A fabrication method for making plastic-on-glass laminated Fresnel lenses is discussed. These Fresnel lenses are for application in an RCA solar photovoltaic concentrator array now in the prototype stage of development. This laminated Fresnel lens fabrication method consists of making a Dow Corning J RTV silastic rubber mold of a master lens array. This mold is used to vacuum cast only the lens facets onto a low-iron tempered-glass substrate with an epoxy resin such as Hysol 0S 1000, a bisphenol-A resin with a flexibilizer that is anhydride cured. Cast acrylic Fresnel lens arrays commercialy available have potential cleaning and abrasion problems, have very large thermal expansion, and have dimensional uncertainties in their manufacture. The laminated lens is dimensionally stable with low thermal expansion, has good cleaning characteristics, and is very inexpensive in materials cost. The measured transmission of such a lens on low-iron glass is 80.4% compared with 85.1% for a cast acrylic lens, and the optical quality is good enough for application in the 100X to 200X concentration range. An approach to making large lens arrays (3 by 6 ft) on a commercial scale is explored.

  6. Estimation of durability of GFRP laminates under stress-corrosive environments using acoustic emission

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Yoshimichi; Ramakrishna, S.; Hamada, Hiroyuki

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this investigation was to estimate the creep life of glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) materials subjected to stress-corrosive environments using acoustic emission (AE). The laminates were fabricated using combinations of rigid bisphenolic polyester resin (LP-1), flexible vinylester resin (R806), random fiber mat and woven cloth. The creep tests were conducted in 5% nitric acid environment. The rigid matrix composites displayed higher AE count rate than the flexible matrix composites. For given creep testing conditions, the woven cloth reinforced specimens displayed higher number of AE counts than the random mat reinforced specimens. The creep life decreased with increasing creep stress, whereas the AE count rate increased with increasing creep stress. A linear relationship was found between the creep life and the AE count rate.

  7. Identification and Modelling of the In-Plane Reinforcement Orientation Variations in a CFRP Laminate Produced by Manual Lay-Up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davila, Yves; Crouzeix, Laurent; Douchin, Bernard; Collombet, Francis; Grunevald, Yves-Henri

    2017-08-01

    Reinforcement angle orientation has a significant effect on the mechanical properties of composite materials. This work presents a methodology to introduce variable reinforcement angles into finite element (FE) models of composite structures. The study of reinforcement orientation variations uses meta-models to identify and control a continuous variation across the composite ply. First, the reinforcement angle is measured through image analysis techniques of the composite plies during the lay-up phase. Image analysis results show that variations in the mean ply orientations are between -0.5 and 0.5° with standard deviations ranging between 0.34 and 0.41°. An automatic post-treatment of the images determines the global and local angle variations yielding good agreements visually and numerically between the analysed images and the identified parameters. A composite plate analysed at the end of the cooling phase is presented as a case of study. Here, the variation in residual strains induced by the variability in the reinforcement orientation are up to 28% of the strain field of the homogeneous FE model. The proposed methodology has shown its capabilities to introduce material and geometrical variability into FE analysis of layered composite structures.

  8. Fatigue damage development of various CFRP-laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte, K.; Baron, CH.

    1988-01-01

    The chronic strength and fatigue behavior of a woven carbon-fiber reinforced laminate in a balanced eight-shaft satin weave style was compared to nonwoven laminates with an equivalent cross-ply layup. Half the fibers were arranged in the direction of the load and the other half perpendicular to it. Two types of nonwoven laminates consisting of continuous fibers and aligned discontinuous fibers, both produced from carbon fiber prepregs, were studied. The cross-ply laminate with continuous fiber showed the best characteristics with regard to both static strength and fatigue. The similarities and differences in damage mechanisms in the laminates are described.

  9. Fatigue damage development of various CFRP-laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte, K.; Baron, CH.

    1988-01-01

    The chronic strength and fatigue behavior of a woven carbon-fiber reinforced laminate in a balanced eight-shaft satin weave style was compared to nonwoven laminates with an equivalent cross-ply layup. Half the fibers were arranged in the direction of the load and the other half perpendicular to it. Two types of nonwoven laminates consisting of continuous fibers and aligned discontinuous fibers, both produced from carbon fiber prepregs, were studied. The cross-ply laminate with continuous fiber showed the best characteristics with regard to both static strength and fatigue. The similarities and differences in damage mechanisms in the laminates are described.

  10. a Region of Interest Computed Tomography Technique for Inspection of CFRP Laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, S.; Amos, M.; Cooper, I.; Withers, P.

    2011-06-01

    Region of Interest (ROI) Computed Tomography (CT) is a radiographic inspection technique that inspects only part of a sample. However, ROI images normally suffer from reconstruction artefacts that can affect the inspection by obscuring defects. This paper describes the development of two data completion methods which minimise the reconstruction artefacts, allowing the technique to be applied without compromising defect detection. The techniques were developed for specific application to inspection of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) laminate panels. The results presented include both fan-beam and cone-beam system geometries.

  11. Comparative Studies on the Mechanical Properties of Nonwoven- and Woven-Flax-Fiber-Reinforced Poly(Butylene Adipate-Co-Terephthalate)-Based Composite Laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phongam, N.; Dangtungee, R.; Siengchin, S.

    2015-03-01

    Textile biocomposites made from woven- and nonwoven-flax-fiber-reinforced poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) were prepared by compression molding using the film stacking method, and their tensile strength and stiffness, flexural strength and modulus, and impact strength were determined experimentally. The PBAT-based composites were subjected to water absorption tests. The mechanical properties of pure PBAT and the textile composites were compared, and the influence of flax weave styles on the properties were evaluated. The biocomposite reinforced with 4 × 4-plain weave fibers showed the highest strength and stiffness compared with those of the other textile biocomposites and pure PBAT.

  12. Investigation of mechanical properties of aluminium reinforced glass fibre polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, G. B. Veeresh; Pramod, R.

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents the recent work about reinforcing E-glass into Aluminium foil to attain high strength to weight ratio. Aluminium is corrosion resistant, light in weight and ductile, also when alloyed through other metals deliver the greater strengths as desirable for high-tech applications. The density of pure Aluminium is 2.7 g cm3. Electrical grade glass formally known as E-glass, is by far the most used fiber in reinforced plastic composites. It is a high strength material with light weight compared to steel and corrosive resistant. The matrix and reinforcement is bonded with a resin, named Araldite Ly556, which has density at 25 °C, 1.15-1.20 g cm3. Thus gives a good binding structure. In the present work, Aluminium, E-Glass and Epoxy are combined to fabricate a laminate by Hand-Lay process. Hand-lay is the oldest and simplest method used for producing reinforced plastic laminates. The fabricated metal matrix composites are tested for their mechanical properties. The metal laminate is found to render high strength, hardness, flexural strength and increased wear resistance. Further theoretical simulations was carried out to validate the experimental results.

  13. Explicit dynamic analysis of elasto-plastic laminated composite shells: implementation of non-iterative stress update schemes for the HOFFMAN yield criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, C. G.; Owen, D. R. J.; Perić, D.

    1995-08-01

    The dynamic analysis of composite shell structures is carried out by an explicit finite element code employing 4-node one-point quadrature elements. The anisotropic Hoffman yield criterion is adopted to model the laminates. The formulation for stress update using a backward Euler scheme is presented in the plane stress subspace. Several numerical examples are presented. The issue of implementing single-iteration schemes for stress update is also investigated.

  14. Laminate article

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Robert K.; Paranthaman, Mariappan; Chirayil, Thomas G.; Lee, Dominic F.; Goyal, Amit; Feenstra, Roeland

    2002-01-01

    A laminate article comprises a substrate and a biaxially textured (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer over the substrate, wherein 0laminate article can include a layer of YBCO over the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer. A layer of CeO.sub.2 between the YBCO layer and the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer can also be include. Further included can be a layer of YSZ between the CeO.sub.2 layer and the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer. The substrate can be a biaxially textured metal, such as nickel. A method of forming the laminate article is also disclosed.

  15. Risk of cancer in workers exposed to styrene at eight British companies making glass-reinforced plastics.

    PubMed

    Coggon, David; Ntani, Georgia; Harris, E Clare; Palmer, Keith T

    2015-03-01

    To provide further information on the risks of lymphohaematopoietic (LH) and other cancers associated with styrene. We extended follow-up to December 2012 for 7970 workers at eight companies in England which used styrene in the manufacture of glass-reinforced plastics. Mortality was compared with that for England and Wales by the person-years method, and summarised by SMRs with 95% CIs. A supplementary nested case-control analysis compared styrene exposures, lagged by 5 years, in 122 incident or fatal cases of LH cancer and 1138 matched controls. A total of 3121 cohort members had died (2022 since the last follow-up). No elevation of mortality was observed for LH cancer, either in the full cohort (62 deaths, SMR 0.90, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.15), or in those with more than background exposure to styrene (38 deaths, SMR 0.82, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.14). Nor did the case-control analysis suggest any association with LH cancer. In comparison with background exposure, the OR for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukaemia in workers with high exposure (estimated 8-h time-weighted average of 40-100 ppm) for ≥1 year was 0.54 (95% CI 0.23 to 1.27). Mortality from lung cancer was significantly elevated, and risk increased progressively across exposure categories, with an SMR of 1.44 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.86) in workers highly exposed for ≥1 year. We found no evidence that styrene causes LH cancer. An association with lung cancer is not consistently supported by other studies. It may have been confounded by smoking, but would be worth checking further. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. RISK OF CANCER IN WORKERS EXPOSED TO STYRENE AT EIGHT BRITISH COMPANIES MAKING GLASS-REINFORCED PLASTICS

    PubMed Central

    Coggon, David; Ntani, Georgia; Harris, E Clare; Palmer, Keith T

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To provide further information on the risks of lympho-haematopoietic (LH) and other cancers associated with styrene Methods We extended follow-up to December 2012 for 7,970 workers at eight companies in England which used styrene in the manufacture of glass-reinforced plastics. Mortality was compared with that for England and Wales by the person-years method, and summarised by standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A supplementary nested case-control analysis compared styrene exposures, lagged by five years, in 122 incident or fatal cases of LH cancer and 1,138 matched controls. Results A total of 3,121 cohort members had died (2,022 since the last follow-up). No elevation of mortality was observed for LH cancer, either in the full cohort (62 deaths, SMR 0.90, 95%CI 0.69-1.15), or in those with more than background exposure to styrene (38 deaths, SMR 0.82, 95%CI 0.58-1.14). Nor did the case-control analysis suggest any association with LH cancer. In comparison with background exposure, the odds ratio for non-Hodgkin lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukaemia in workers with high exposure (estimated eight-hour time-weighted average of 40-100 ppm) for ≥ I year was 0.54 (95%CI 0.23-1.27). Mortality from lung cancer was significantly elevated, and risk increased progressively across exposure categories, with an SMR of 1.44 (95%CI 1.10-1.86) in workers highly exposed for ≥1 year. Conclusions We found no evidence that styrene causes LH cancer. An association with lung cancer is not consistently supported by other studies. It may have been confounded by smoking, but would be worth checking further. PMID:25358742

  17. Comparative effects of pyrolytic products of fiber reinforced plastic and wood shavings on the respiratory variables in mice.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pravin; Deb, Utsab; Gautam, Anshoo; Vijayaraghavan, R; Ratna, Debdatta; Chakraborty, B C

    2010-08-01

    Comparative inhalation toxicity studies of pyrolytic products (smoke) from synthetic polymer, fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) and teak wood shavings were carried out in male Swiss albino mice. The breathing pattern and the respiratory variables were monitored using a computer program that recognizes the modifications of the respiratory pattern. Exposure to the smoke from both the polymers caused a concentration dependent decrease in normal breathing and an increase in sensory irritation measure. The acute lethal concentration 50 values for a 15 min static inhalation exposure to the smoke from FRP and teak wood shavings were found to be > 200.00 and 62.99 g/m(3), respectively. Hence the inhalation toxicity of smoke from FRP sample on a mass basis is approximately one-third that of the smoke from teak wood. The concentration of smoke causing 50% respiratory depression of the exposed animals were found to be 6.877 and 0.106 g/m(3) for FRP and teak wood samples, respectively. Thus the sensory irritancy of the smoke from FRP sample is approximately 65 times lesser than the smoke from teak wood. The higher sensory irritancy potential of wood smoke as compared to FRP smoke may be caused by a greater number of submicron particles (size range of 2 micron and less) and greater percentage of gases present in wood smoke as compared to FRP smoke. Thus in case of accidental fires, synthetic polymers like FRP may be a safer choice for structural parts and interiors than the natural wood.

  18. Contour scanning of textile preforms using a light-section sensor for the automated manufacturing of fibre-reinforced plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, R.; Niggemann, C.; Mersmann, C.

    2008-04-01

    Fibre-reinforced plastics (FRP) are particularly suitable for components where light-weight structures with advanced mechanical properties are required, e.g. for aerospace parts. Nevertheless, many manufacturing processes for FRP include manual production steps without an integrated quality control. A vital step in the process chain is the lay-up of the textile preform, as it greatly affects the geometry and the mechanical performance of the final part. In order to automate the FRP production, an inline machine vision system is needed for a closed-loop control of the preform lay-up. This work describes the development of a novel laser light-section sensor for optical inspection of textile preforms and its integration and validation in a machine vision prototype. The proposed method aims at the determination of the contour position of each textile layer through edge scanning. The scanning route is automatically derived by using texture analysis algorithms in a preliminary step. As sensor output a distinct stage profile is computed from the acquired greyscale image. The contour position is determined with sub-pixel accuracy using a novel algorithm based on a non-linear least-square fitting to a sigmoid function. The whole contour position is generated through data fusion of the measured edge points. The proposed method provides robust process automation for the FRP production improving the process quality and reducing the scrap quota. Hence, the range of economically feasible FRP products can be increased and new market segments with cost sensitive products can be addressed.

  19. Evaluation of the efficiency of respiratory protective equipment based on the biological monitoring of styrene in fibreglass reinforced plastics industries.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Shoji; Nishide, Tadashi; Horike, Tokushi; Kishimoto, Takumi; Kira, Shohei

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the efficiency of respiratory protective equipment in a fibreglass reinforced plastic factory by comparing results of environmental and biological monitoring of exposure to styrene. Five factories including 39 workers were investigated. Three types of respiratory protective equipment were tested: one was a half-mask air-purifying respirator equipped with a cartridge for organic solvents, another was a disposable gauze respirator impregnated with charcoal filter, and the third was a dust-proof respirator. The frequency of cartridge exchange of a half-mask respirator was twice a day only at one factory, and that was less than once a month at other factories. The site concentrations exceeded 20 ppm at 10 of the 82 sampling points (12.2%), and 22 of the 39 workers' (56.4%) personal exposure exceeded 20 ppm which is the current occupational exposure limit recommended by the Japan Society for Occupational Health. The efficiency of disposable gauze respirators and dust-proof respirators was low or rather zero. The average efficiency of half-mask respirators in which cartridges were exchanged twice a day and once a month was 83.6% and 46.6%, respectively. There was a significant disparity in the efficiency of the respirator depending on the frequency of cartridge exchange (p<0.05). Overall this study showed that even though a half-mask respirator is used and its cartridge is exchanged every half a day, workers exposed to a styrene concentration at or over 122 ppm are expected to inhale more than 20 ppm of styrene.

  20. Numerical Simulation for Predicting Fatigue Damage Progress in Notched CFRP Laminates by Using Cohesive Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okabe, Tomonaga; Yashiro, Shigeki

    This study proposes the cohesive zone model (CZM) for predicting fatigue damage growth in notched carbon-fiber-reinforced composite plastic (CFRP) cross-ply laminates. In this model, damage growth in the fracture process of cohesive elements due to cyclic loading is represented by the conventional damage mechanics model. We preliminarily investigated whether this model can appropriately express fatigue damage growth for a circular crack embedded in isotropic solid material. This investigation demonstrated that this model could reproduce the results with the well-established fracture mechanics model plus the Paris' law by tuning adjustable parameters. We then numerically investigated the damage process in notched CFRP cross-ply laminates under tensile cyclic loading and compared the predicted damage patterns with those in experiments reported by Spearing et al. (Compos. Sci. Technol. 1992). The predicted damage patterns agreed with the experiment results, which exhibited the extension of multiple types of damage (e.g., splits, transverse cracks and delaminations) near the notches.

  1. Mode in Composite Laminates Due to Misalignment in Air-Coupled Transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chennamsetti, R.; Hood, A.; Khan, I.; Joshi, M.

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents systematic experiments carried out to study the variation in amplitude of the fundamental symmetric Lamb mode (So) due to misalignments in air-coupled transducers. In this work three misalignments—linear, orientation and synchronized orientation were intentionally introduced in the air-coupled transducers, and experiments were carried out on two glass fiber reinforced plastic laminates of different ply stacking. A-scans were captured positioning the air-coupled probes in several configurations over the laminates. In each misalignment case, variation in amplitude of So mode with respect to misalignment variable was plotted. Curves were fitted in those misalignment cases where there was sufficient experimental data. Interestingly, it was observed that Gaussian curves accurately characterize the variation in amplitude with respect to the misalignment variable.

  2. Composite Laminate With Coefficient of Thermal Expansion Matching D263 Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, David; Rodini, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    The International X-ray Observatory project seeks to make an X-ray telescope assembly with 14,000 flexible glass segments. The glass used is commercially available SCHOTT D263 glass. Thermal expansion causes the mirror to distort out of alignment. A housing material is needed that has a matching coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) so that when temperatures change in the X-ray mirror assembly, the glass and housing pieces expand equally, thus reducing or eliminating distortion. Desirable characteristics of this material include a high stiffness/weight ratio, and low density. Some metal alloys show promise in matching the CTE of D263 glass, but their density is high compared to aluminum, and their stiffness/weight ratio is not favorable. A laminate made from carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) should provide more favorable characteristics, but there has not been any made with the CTE matching D263 Glass. It is common to create CFRP laminates of various CTEs by stacking layers of prepreg material at various angles. However, the CTE of D263 glass is 6.3 ppm/ C at 20 C, which is quite high, and actually unachievable solely with carbon fiber and resin. A composite laminate has been developed that has a coefficient of thermal expansion identical to that of SCHOTT D263 glass. The laminate is made of a combination of T300 carbon fiber, Eglass, and RS3C resin. The laminate has 50% uni-T300 plies and 50% uni-E-glass plies, with each fiber-layer type laid up in a quasi-isotropic laminate for a total of 16 plies. The fiber volume (percent of fiber compared to the resin) controls the CTE to a great extent. Tests have confirmed that a fiber volume around 48% gives a CTE of 6.3 ppm/ C. This is a fairly simple composite laminate, following well established industry procedures. The unique feature of this laminate is a somewhat unusual combination of carbon fiber with E-glass (fiberglass). The advantage is that the resulting CTE comes out to 6.3 ppm/ C at 20 C, which matches D

  3. The performance of integrated active fiber composites in carbon fiber laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnykowycz, M.; Brunner, A. J.

    2011-07-01

    Piezoelectric elements integrated into fiber-reinforced polymer-matrix laminates can provide various functions in the resulting adaptive or smart composite. Active fiber composites (AFC) composed of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) fibers can be used as a component in a smart material system, and can be easily integrated into woven composites. However, the impact of integration on the device and its functionality has not been fully investigated. The current work focuses on the integration and performance of AFC integrated into carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) laminates, focusing on the strain sensor performance of the AFC-CFRP laminate under tensile loading conditions. AFC were integrated into cross-ply CFRP laminates using simple insertion and interlacing of the CFRP plies, with the AFC always placed in the 90° ply cutout area. Test specimens were strained to different strain levels and then cycled with a 0.01% strain amplitude, and the resulting signal from the AFC was monitored. Acoustic emission monitoring was performed during tensile testing to provide insight to the failure characteristics of the PZT fibers. The results were compared to those from past studies on AFC integration; the strain signal of AFC integrated into CFRP was much lower than that for AFC integrated into woven glass fiber laminates. However, the profiles of the degradations of the AFC signal resulting from the strain were nearly identical, showing that the PZT fibers fragmented in a similar manner for a given global strain. The sensor performance recovered upon unloading, which is attributed to the closure of cracks between PZT fiber fragments.

  4. POLYESTER GLASS PLASTICS FOR SHIPBUILDING,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    POLYESTER PLASTICS , SHIP HULLS), (*SHIP HULLS, POLYESTER PLASTICS ), GLASS TEXTILES, REINFORCING MATERIALS, SHIP STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS, COMPOSITE MATERIALS, PROCESSING, CHEMISTRY, HANDBOOKS, BINDERS, USSR

  5. Methods for Preparing Nanoparticle-Containing Thermoplastic Composite Laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruber, Mark B. (Inventor); Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor); Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    High quality thermoplastic composites and composite laminates containing nanoparticles and/or nanofibers, and methods of producing such composites and laminates are disclosed. The composites comprise a thermoplastic polymer and a plurality of nanoparticles, and may include a fibrous structural reinforcement. The composite laminates are formed from a plurality of nanoparticle-containing composite layers and may be fused to one another via an automated process.

  6. Aluminium/lithium alloy-CFRP hybrid laminate: Fabrication and properties

    SciTech Connect

    Freischmidt, G.; Coutts, R.S.P.; Janardhana, M.N.

    1993-12-31

    Hybrid composite laminates of aluminum and aluminum/lithium alloy sheeting with unidirectional carbon fiber/epoxy plies have been fabricated to produce sheet materials of high strength, low density and reduced fatigue crack growth rate. In an arrangement of one layer of unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) and 2 sheets of 2090-T3 aluminum alloy was used to give a material with a density of 2.20g/cm{sup 3}. Tensile test results gave an ultimate strength of 803MPa, a modulus of 75.7GPa and a 2% offset yield strength of 497MPa. Preliminary fatigue crack growth rate determinations on single edge notch (SEN) specimens show a marked reduction compared to monolithic 2090-T3. Other hybrid laminates using 2024-T3 alloy have also been made and tested. These laminates show reduced tensile properties, however, they appear to have lower fatigue crack growth rates than when using 2090T3 in hybrid form. The fabrication of hybrid laminates included the use of unsupported adhesive film to bond the precured unidirectional carbon fiber composite plies to the aluminum sheeting. This has left a distinct interphase region between the alloy and CFRP which is thought to improve properties through an effective load transfer.

  7. Comparison of experimental and analytical results for free vibration of laminated composite plates

    SciTech Connect

    Maryuama, Koichi; Narita, Yoshihiro; Ichinomiya, Osamu

    1995-11-01

    Fibrous composite materials are being increasingly employed in high performance structures, including pressured vessel and piping applications. These materials are usually used in the form of laminated flat or curved plates, and the understanding of natural frequencies and the corresponding mode shapes is essential to a reliable structural design. Although many references have been published on analytical study of laminated composite plates, a limited number of experimental studies have appeared for dealing with vibration characteristics of the plates. This paper presents both experimental and analytical results for the problems. In the experiment, the holographic interferometry is used to measure the resonant frequencies and corresponding mode shapes of six-layered CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced plastic) composite plates. The material constants of a lamina are calculated from fiber and matrix material constants by using some different composite rules. With the calculated constants, the natural frequencies of the laminated CFRP plates are theoretically determined by the Ritz method. From the comparison of two sets of the results, the effect of choosing different composite rules is discussed in the vibration study of laminated composite plates.

  8. One-Sided Measurement Approach on Ultrasonic Beam Path Analysis in CFRP Composite Laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, K. H.; Hsu, D. K.; Kim, H. J.; Song, S. J.; Dayal, V.; Barnard, D.; Park, J. W.; Lee, K. S.; Yang, Y. J.; Yang, I. Y.

    2008-02-01

    Composite materials are attractive for a wide range of applications because of high performance engineering structures. In particular, the importance of carbon-fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) has been generally recognized in both space and civil aircraft industries; so, CFRP composite laminates are widely used. It is very important to detect defects in composite laminates because they cause the mechanical properties (stiffness, strength) of the laminate to be reduced. As well known for ultrasonic technique for evaluating the defect of CFRP composite laminates, a pitch-catch technique was found to be more practical than normal incidence backwall echo of longitudinal wave to arbitrary flaws in the composite, including fiber orientation, low level porosity, ply waviness, and cracks. The measurement depth using Rayleigh probes can be increased by increasing the separation distance of the transmitting and receiving probes. Also, with the aid of the automatic scanner, the one-sided pitch-catch probe was used to produce C-scan images for mapping out the images with beam profiles. Especially pitch-catch beam path was nondestructively characterized for the specimens when measuring a peak-to-peak amplitude and time-of-flight in order to build the beam profile modeling in the unidirectional CFRP composite laminates. Also, the pitch-catch simulation was performed to predict the beam profile trend of wave propagation in the unidirectional CF/Epoxy composite laminates. Therefore, it is found that the experimentally Rayleigh wave variation of pitch-catch ultrasonic signal was consistent with simulated results and one-side ultrasonic measurement might be very useful to detect the defects in CFRP composites.

  9. PAFAC- PLASTIC AND FAILURE ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigelow, C. A.

    1994-01-01

    The increasing number of applications of fiber-reinforced composites in industry demands a detailed understanding of their material properties and behavior. A three-dimensional finite-element computer program called PAFAC (Plastic and Failure Analysis of Composites) has been developed for the elastic-plastic analysis of fiber-reinforced composite materials and structures. The evaluation of stresses and deformations at edges, cut-outs, and joints is essential in understanding the strength and failure for metal-matrix composites since the onset of plastic yielding starts very early in the loading process as compared to the composite's ultimate strength. Such comprehensive analysis can only be achieved by a finite-element program like PAFAC. PAFAC is particularly suited for the analysis of laminated metal-matrix composites. It can model the elastic-plastic behavior of the matrix phase while the fibers remain elastic. Since the PAFAC program uses a three-dimensional element, the program can also model the individual layers of the laminate to account for thickness effects. In PAFAC, the composite is modeled as a continuum reinforced by cylindrical fibers of vanishingly small diameter which occupy a finite volume fraction of the composite. In this way, the essential axial constraint of the phases is retained. Furthermore, the local stress and strain fields are uniform. The PAFAC finite-element solution is obtained using the displacement method. Solution of the nonlinear equilibrium equations is obtained with a Newton-Raphson iteration technique. The elastic-plastic behavior of composites consisting of aligned, continuous elastic filaments and an elastic-plastic matrix is described in terms of the constituent properties, their volume fractions, and mutual constraints between phases indicated by the geometry of the microstructure. The program uses an iterative procedure to determine the overall response of the laminate, then from the overall response determines the stress

  10. PAFAC- PLASTIC AND FAILURE ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigelow, C. A.

    1994-01-01

    The increasing number of applications of fiber-reinforced composites in industry demands a detailed understanding of their material properties and behavior. A three-dimensional finite-element computer program called PAFAC (Plastic and Failure Analysis of Composites) has been developed for the elastic-plastic analysis of fiber-reinforced composite materials and structures. The evaluation of stresses and deformations at edges, cut-outs, and joints is essential in understanding the strength and failure for metal-matrix composites since the onset of plastic yielding starts very early in the loading process as compared to the composite's ultimate strength. Such comprehensive analysis can only be achieved by a finite-element program like PAFAC. PAFAC is particularly suited for the analysis of laminated metal-matrix composites. It can model the elastic-plastic behavior of the matrix phase while the fibers remain elastic. Since the PAFAC program uses a three-dimensional element, the program can also model the individual layers of the laminate to account for thickness effects. In PAFAC, the composite is modeled as a continuum reinforced by cylindrical fibers of vanishingly small diameter which occupy a finite volume fraction of the composite. In this way, the essential axial constraint of the phases is retained. Furthermore, the local stress and strain fields are uniform. The PAFAC finite-element solution is obtained using the displacement method. Solution of the nonlinear equilibrium equations is obtained with a Newton-Raphson iteration technique. The elastic-plastic behavior of composites consisting of aligned, continuous elastic filaments and an elastic-plastic matrix is described in terms of the constituent properties, their volume fractions, and mutual constraints between phases indicated by the geometry of the microstructure. The program uses an iterative procedure to determine the overall response of the laminate, then from the overall response determines the stress

  11. Mechanical performance of cellulose nanofibril film-wood flake laminate

    Treesearch

    Jen-Chieh Liu; Robert J. Moon; Alan Rudie; Jeffrey P. Youngblood

    2014-01-01

    Homogeneous and transparent CNF films, fabricated from the (2,2,6,6- tetramethylpiperidin-1-yl) oxyl (TEMPO)-modified CNF suspension, were laminated onto wood flakes (WF) based on phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin and the reinforcement potential of the material has been investigated. The focus was on the influence of CNF film lamination, relative humidity (RH), heat...

  12. Depolymerization of unsaturated polyesters and waste fiber-reinforced plastics by using ionic liquids: the use of microwaves to accelerate the reaction rate.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Akio; Yamamoto, Shigehiro; Yamada, Kazuo

    2011-05-23

    Waste fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP) and unsaturated polyesters were readily depolymerized by subjecting them to a treatment with ionic liquids under heating conditions. The use of microwaves for heating effectively progressed depolymerization, whereas the conventional heating method was ineffective for this purpose. We isolated the monomeric material, phthalic anhydride, by direct distillation from the reaction pot under reduced pressure with yields of more than 90%. We recovered the glass fibers in a pure form and achieved the effective removal of polystyrene, the linker unit of FRP. Ionic liquids were useful for several iterations of the reaction, and purification of the used ionic liquids was also possible. Thus, we developed a new use of ionic liquids for chemical recycling of waste plastics. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Determination of the technical constants of laminates in oblique directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidouse, F.

    1979-01-01

    An off-axis tensile test theory based on Hooke's Law is applied to glass fiber reinforced laminates. A corrective parameter dependent on the characteristics of the strain gauge used is introduced by testing machines set up for isotropic materials. Theoretical results for a variety of strain gauges are compared with those obtained by a finite element method and with experimental results obtained on laminates reinforced with glass.

  14. Hybrid composite laminate structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Lark, R. F. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An invention which relates to laminate structures and specifically to essentially anisotropic fiber composite laminates is described. Metal foils are selectively disposed within the laminate to produce increased resistance to high velocity impact, fracture, surface erosion, and other stresses within the laminate.

  15. Farriery for chronic laminitis.

    PubMed

    O'Grady, Stephen E

    2010-08-01

    Laminitis is considered chronic once the distal phalanx has displaced within the hoof capsule. Chronic laminitis generally occurs as a direct sequel to acute laminitis. Clinical evaluation of chronic laminitis is best performed with a thorough clinical examination and radiography. The mainstay of hoof care is therapeutic farriery. In this article, the goals and principles of hoof care, the appropriate trim and various shoes that form the bulk of farriery for chronic laminitis, and surgical treatments are discussed.

  16. Free edge effects in laminated composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herakovich, C. T.

    1989-01-01

    The fundamental mechanics of free-edge effects in laminated fiber-reinforced composites is examined, reviewing the results of recent experimental and analytical investigations. The derivation of the governing equations for the basic problem is outlined, including the equilibrium and mismatch conditions and the elasticity formulation, and experimental data on axial displacement and shear strain in angle-ply laminates are summarized. Numerical predictions of free-edge deformation and interlaminar and through-thickness stress distributions are presented for cross-ply, angle-ply, and quasi-isotropic laminates, and the mechanisms of edge damage and failure in angle-ply laminates are briefly characterized. Extensive diagrams, drawings, graphs, and photographs are provided.

  17. Visualization studies of Lamb wave propagation and interactions with anomalies in composite laminates using air-coupled ultrasonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasanka Durvasula, V. S.; Madhavan, Vivek; Padiyar M, Janardhan; Giridharan, N. V.; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan

    2014-02-01

    An experimental method to visualize the propagation of ultrasonic Lamb waves in composite plates with delaminations, using air coupled ultrasonic transducers, is described here. Using this method experiments are done, on glass fiber reinforced plastic(GFRP) laminates, to study the Lamb wave interactions with delamination type defects. The S0 and A0 modes are chosen for experiments at an excitation frequency of 200 kHz. Defect dimensions are calculated from the visualization images and compared with actual values. A method for detecting depth of defects using deviation of wave-fronts, at the defect contours, is presented.

  18. 78 FR 19209 - Laminated Woven Sacks From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ...; laminated by any method either to an exterior ply of plastic film such as biaxially-oriented polypropylene...; with or without special closing features; not exceeding one kilogram in weight. Laminated woven...

  19. Short and long term behaviour of externally bonded fibre reinforced polymer laminates with bio-based resins for flexural strengthening of concrete beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSwiggan, Ciaran

    The use of bio-based resins in composites for construction is emerging as a way to reduce of embodied energy produced by a structural system. In this study, two types of bio-based resins were explored: an epoxidized pine oil resin blend (EP) and a furfuryl alcohol resin (FA) derived from corn cobs and sugar cane. Nine large-scale reinforced concrete beams strengthened using externally bonded carbon and glass fibre reinforced bio-based polymer (CFRP and GFRP) sheets were tested. The EP resin resulted in a comparable bond strength to conventional epoxy (E) when used in wet layup, with a 7% higher strength for CFRP. The FA resin, on the other hand, resulted in a very weak bond, likely due to concrete alkalinity affecting curing. However, when FA resin was used to produce prefabricated cured CFRP plates which were then bonded to concrete using conventional epoxy paste, it showed an excellent bond strength. The beams achieved an increase in peak load ranging from 18-54% and a 9-46% increase in yielding load, depending on the number of FRP layers and type of fibres and resin. Additionally, 137 concrete prisms with a mid-span half-depth saw cut were used to test CFRP bond durability, and 195 CFRP coupons were used to examine tensile strength durability. Specimens were conditioned in a 3.5% saline solution at 23, 40 or 50°C, for up to 240 days. Reductions in bond strength did not exceed 15%. Bond failure of EP was adhesive with traces of cement paste on CFRP, whereas that of FA was cohesive with a thicker layer of concrete on CFRP, suggesting that the bond between FA and epoxy paste is excellent. EP tension coupons had similar strength and modulus to E resin, whereas FA coupons had a 9% lower strength and 14% higher modulus. After 240 days of exposure, maximum reductions in tensile strength were 8, 19 and 10% for EP, FA and E resins, respectively. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was also performed to assess the significance of the reductions observed. High degrees of

  20. Impact damage resistance of thin stitched carbon/epoxy laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francesconi, L.; Aymerich, F.

    2015-07-01

    The study examines the influence of through-thickness stitching on the damage response of thin cross-ply carbon/epoxy laminates subjected to low-velocity impacts. Instrumented impact tests were carried out on unstitched and polyethylene stitched laminates and the resulting damage was assessed in detail by X-radiography analyses. The results of the observations carried out during the experimental analyses are illustrated and discussed to identify the mechanical role played by through-thickness reinforcement and to highlight the influence of the laminate layup on the impact resistance of stitched laminates.

  1. Interlaminate Deformation in Thermoplastic Composite Laminates: Experimental-Numerical Correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, M.; Tong, J.; Wang, S.; Fang, Y.

    2010-06-01

    The interlaminar deformation behaviors of thermoplastic AS4/PEEK composite laminates subjected to static tensile loading are investigated by means of microscopic moiré interferometry with high spatial resolution. The fully threedimensional orthotropic elastic-plastic analysis of interlaminar deformation for the thermoplastic laminates is developed in this paper, and used to simulate the stress-strain curves of tensile experiment for its angle-ply laminates. Under uniaxial tensile loading, the 3D orthotropic elastic-plastic FE analysis and microscopic moiré interferometry of interlaminar deformations are carried out for the [±25]S4 laminates. The quantitative local-filed experimental results of interlaminar shear strain and displacements at freeedge surface of the laminate are compared with corresponding numerical results of the orthotropic elastic-plastic FE model. It is indicated that the numerical tensile stressstrain curves of angle-ply laminates computed with 3D orthotropic elastic-plastic model are agree with experimental results. The numerical interlaminar displacement U and shear strain γxz are also consistent with the experimental results obtained by moiré interferometry. It is expected the elastic-plastic interlaminar stresses and deformations analysis for the optimal design and application of AS4/PEEK laminates and its structures.

  2. Quasi-plane-hypothesis of strain coordination for RC beams seismically strengthened with externally-bonded or near-surface mounted fiber reinforced plastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhenhua; Zeng, Xiantao; Liu, Hanlong; Zhou, Fengjun

    2013-03-01

    The application of fiber reinforced plastic (FRP), including carbon FRP and glass FRP, for structural repair and strengthening has grown due to their numerous advantages over conventional materials such as externally bonded reinforcement (EBR) and near-surface mounted (NSM) strengthening techniques. This paper summarizes the results from 21 reinforced concrete beams strengthened with different methods, including externally-bonded and near-surface mounted FRP, to study the strain coordination of the FRP and steel rebar of the RC beam. Since there is relative slipping between the RC beam and the FRP, the strain of the FRP and steel rebar of the RC beam satisfy the quasi-plane-hypothesis; that is, the strain of the longitudinal fiber that parallels the neutral axis of the plated beam within the scope of the effective height ( h 0) of the cross section is in direct proportion to the distance from the fiber to the neutral axis. The strain of the FRP and steel rebar satisfies the equation: ɛ FRP= βɛ steel, and the value of β is equal to 1.1-1.3 according to the test results.

  3. An improved compression molding technology for continuous fiber reinforced composite laminate. Part 1: AS-4/LaRC-TPI 1500 (HFG) Prepreg system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Tan-Hung; Kidder, Paul W.; Reddy, Rakasi M.

    1991-01-01

    Poor processability of fiber reinforced high performance polyimide thermoplastic resin composites is a well recognized issue which, in many cases, prohibits the fabrication of composite parts with satisfactorily consolidated quality. Without modifying the resin matrix chemistry, improved compression modeling procedures were proposed and investigated with the AS-4/LaRC-TPI 1500 High Flow Grade (HFG) prepreg system. Composite panels with excellent C-scans can be consistently molded by this method under 700 F and a consolidation pressure as low as 100 psi. A mechanism for the consolidation of the composite under this improved molding technique is discussed. This mechanism reveals that a certain degree of matrix shear and tow filament slippage and nesting between plies occur during consolidation, which leads to a reduction of the consolidating pressure necessary to offset the otherwise intimate inter fiber-fiber contact and consequently achieves a better consolidation quality. Outstanding short beam shear strength and flexural strength were obtained from the molded panels. A prolonged consolidation step under low pressure, i.e., 100 psi at 700 F for 75 minutes, was found to significantly enhance the composite mechanical properties.

  4. The mechanical behavior of GLARE laminates for aircraft structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Guocai; Yang, J.-M.

    2005-01-01

    GLARE (glass-reinforced aluminum laminate) is a new class of fiber metal laminates for advanced aerospace structural applications. It consists of thin aluminum sheets bonded together with unidirectional or biaxially reinforced adhesive prepreg of high-strength glass fibers. GLARE laminates offer a unique combination of properties such as outstanding fatigue resistance, high specific static properties, excellent impact resistance, good residual and blunt notch strength, flame resistance and corrosion properties, and ease of manufacture and repair. GLARE laminates can be tailored to suit a wide variety of applications by varying the fiber/resin system, the alloy type and thickness, stacking sequence, fiber orientation, surface pretreatment technique, etc. This article presents a comprehensive overview of the mechanical properties of various GLARE laminates under different loading conditions.

  5. Elastic-plastic finite element analyses of an unidirectional, 9 vol percent tungsten fiber reinforced copper matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanfeliz, Jose G.

    1993-01-01

    Micromechanical modeling via elastic-plastic finite element analyses were performed to investigate the effects that the residual stresses and the degree of matrix work hardening (i.e., cold-worked, annealed) have upon the behavior of a 9 vol percent, unidirectional W/Cu composite, undergoing tensile loading. The inclusion of the residual stress-containing state as well as the simulated matrix material conditions proved to be significant since the Cu matrix material exhibited plastic deformation, which affected the subsequent tensile response of the composite system. The stresses generated during cooldown to room temperature from the manufacturing temperature were more of a factor on the annealed-matrix composite, since they induced the softened matrix to plastically flow. This event limited the total load-carrying capacity of this matrix-dominated, ductile-ductile type material system. Plastic deformation of the hardened-matrix composite during the thermal cooldown stage was not considerable, therefore, the composite was able to sustain a higher stress before showing any appreciable matrix plasticity. The predicted room temperature, stress-strain response, and deformation stages under both material conditions represented upper and lower bounds characteristic of the composite's tensile behavior. The initial deformation stage for the hardened material condition showed negligible matrix plastic deformation while for the annealed state, its initial deformation stage showed extensive matrix plasticity. Both material conditions exhibited a final deformation stage where the fiber and matrix were straining plastically. The predicted stress-strain results were compared to the experimental, room temperature, tensile stress-strain curve generated from this particular composite system. The analyses indicated that the actual thermal-mechanical state of the composite's Cu matrix, represented by the experimental data, followed the annealed material condition.

  6. Elastic-plastic stress concentrations around crack-like notches in continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.; Bigelow, C. A.

    1987-01-01

    Continuous fiber silicon-carbide/aluminum composite laminates with slits were tested statically to failure. Five different layups were examined: (0) sub 8, (0 sub 2/ + or - 45) sub s, (0/90) sub 2s), (0/ + or - 45/90 sub s), and (+ or - 45) sub 2s. Either a 9.5 or a 19 mm slit was machined in the center of each specimen. The strain distribution ahead of the slit tip was found experimentally with a series of strain gages bonded ahead of the slit tip. A three-dimensional finite element program (PAFAC) was used to predict the strain distribution ahead of the slit tip for several layups. For all layups, except the (0) sub 8, the yielding of the metal matrix caused the fiber stress concentration factor to increase with increasing load. This is contrary to the behavior seen in homogeneous materials where yielding causes the stress concentration to drop. For the (0) sub 8 laminate, yielding of the matrix caused a decrease in the fiber stress concentration. The finite element analysis predicted these trends correctly.

  7. Elastic-plastic stress concentrations around crack-like notches in continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.; Bigelow, C. A.

    1989-01-01

    Continuous fiber silicon-carbide/aluminum composite laminates with slits were tested statically to failure. Five different layups were examined: (0) sub 8, (0 sub 2/ + or - 45) sub s, (0/90) sub 2s), (0/ + or - 45/90 sub s), and (+ or - 45) sub 2s. Either a 9.5 or a 19 mm slit was machined in the center of each specimen. The strain distribution ahead of the slit tip was found experimentally with a series of strain gages bonded ahead of the slit tip. A three-dimensional finite element program (PAFAC) was used to predict the strain distribution ahead of the slit tip for several layups. For all layups, except the (0) sub 8, the yielding of the metal matrix caused the fiber stress concentration factor to increase with increasing load. This is contrary to the behavior seen in homogeneous materials where yielding causes the stress concentration to drop. For the (0) sub 8 laminate, yielding of the matrix caused a decrease in the fiber stress concentration. The finite element analysis predicted these trends correctly.

  8. Elastic-plastic stress concentrations around crack-like notches in continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.; Bigelow, C. A.

    1989-01-01

    Continuous fiber silicon-carbide/aluminum composite laminates with slits were tested statically to failure. Five different layups were examined: (0) sub 8, (0 sub 2/ + or - 45) sub s, (0/90) sub 2s), (0/ + or - 45/90 sub s), and (+ or - 45) sub 2s. Either a 9.5 or a 19 mm slit was machined in the center of each specimen. The strain distribution ahead of the slit tip was found experimentally with a series of strain gages bonded ahead of the slit tip. A three-dimensional finite element program (PAFAC) was used to predict the strain distribution ahead of the slit tip for several layups. For all layups, except the (0) sub 8, the yielding of the metal matrix caused the fiber stress concentration factor to increase with increasing load. This is contrary to the behavior seen in homogeneous materials where yielding causes the stress concentration to drop. For the (0) sub 8 laminate, yielding of the matrix caused a decrease in the fiber stress concentration. The finite element analysis predicted these trends correctly.

  9. Utilization of fiber optic Bragg grating sensors in concrete columns confined with glass-fiber-reinforced plastic (GFRP) laminate under uniaxial compression test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Peter K. C.; Lau, Alan K.; Jin, Wei; Zhou, Limin

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we report of experimental studies on strain monitoring by using fiber Bragg grating sensors in concrete structures. The strain variation of the specimen under different loading conditions were monitored by the Fiber- optic Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. The FBG sensors have been pre-installed in the structure by embedding either inside the concrete specimen or at the interface between the concrete and the composites. The strain reading from the fiber grating sensor compares favorably with that obtained from the conventional strain gauge in uni-axial compression testing. The test result generally indicated that the concrete structures can be strengthened significantly by wrapping with glassfiber composites. The sensor embedded at the notch tip provides a very good indication of the health condition of the strengthened structure, especially in high stress concentration area. The strain sensitivity by using FBG sensor is 67 (mu) (epsilon) .

  10. A study on the effect of halloysite nanoparticle addition on the strength of glass fiber reinforced plastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yun-Hae; Park, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Jin-Woo; Moon, Kyung-Man

    2015-03-01

    Halloysite nanotube, which has been used in the polymer, has been spotlighted as a useful functional materials in the improvement of mechanical properties. In the current study, we established the optimal nanoparticle dispersion and analyzed the mechanical characteristics and the behavior of composites reinforced by HNTs have been synthesized by dispersing HNTs to the unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) and their mechanical characteristics, especially the tensile strength, interlaminar shear strength have been analyzed. Additionally, the reinforcement effect and its variation according to the amount of HNTs was also studied.

  11. The structural response of unsymmetrically laminated composite cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, T. A.; Hyer, M. W.

    1989-01-01

    The responses of an unsymmetrically laminated fiber-reinforced composite cylinder to an axial compressive load, a torsional load, and the temperature change associated with cooling from the processing temperature to the service temperature are investigated. These problems are considered axisymmetric and the response is studied in the context of linear elastic material behavior and geometrically linear kinematics. Four different laminates are studied: a general unsymmetric laminate; two unsymmetric but more conventional laminates; and a conventional quasi-isotropic symmetric laminate. The responses based on closed-form solutions for different boundary conditions are computed and studied in detail. Particular emphasis is directed at understanding the influence of elastic couplings in the laminates. The influence of coupling decreased from a large effect in the general unsymmetric laminate, to practically no effect in the quasi-isotropic laminate. For example, the torsional loading of the general unsymmetric laminate resulted in a radial displacement. The temperature change also caused a significant radial displacement to occur near the ends of the cylinder. On the other hand, the more conventional unsymmetric laminate and the quasi-isotropic cylinder did not deform radially when subjected to a torsional load. From the results obtained, it is clear the degree of elastic coupling can be controlled and indeed designed into a cylinder, the degree and character of the coupling being dictated by the application.

  12. Modification of carbon fabrics by radio-frequency capacitive discharge at low pressure to regulate mechanical properties of carbon fiber reinforced plastics based on it

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garifullin, A. R.; Krasina, I. V.; Skidchenko, E. A.; Shaekhov, M. F.; Tikhonova, N. V.

    2017-01-01

    To increase the values of mechanical properties of carbon fiber (CF) composite materials used in sports equipment production the method of radio-frequency capacitive (RFC) low-pressure plasma treatment in air was proposed. Previously it was found that this type of modification allows to effectively regulate the surface properties of fibers of different nature. This treatment method differs from the traditional ones by efficiency and environmental friendliness as it does not require the use of aggressive, environmentally hazardous chemicals. In this paper it was established that RFC low-pressure air plasma treatment of carbon fabrics enhances the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP). As a result of experimental studies of CF by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy method it was proved that after radio-frequency capacitive plasma treatment at low pressure in air the oxygen-containing functional groups is grafted on the surface. These groups improve adhesion at the interface “matrix-fiber”.

  13. Simulator trials to determine the wear of the combination aluminium oxide ceramic-carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) used as an insert in a hip socket.

    PubMed

    Scheller, G; Schwarz, M; Früh, H J; Jani, L

    1999-01-01

    Hip simulator trials were conducted to determine the initial wear between alumina femoral heads and carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP, CAPROMAN) insert in a titanium socket. A force of 2500 N and a frequency of 0.857 H were applied. Using surface and sphericity measurement techniques, the amount of wear was determined. After 500,000 cycles, the centre of the head had moved by 10 microm into the insert, and the average radius increased by 2 microm. After 1 million cycles, the additional changes were less than 1 microm. Based on an examination of retrieved implants (wear rate: 6.1 microm/year) and based on the simulator results, the combination alumina-CFRP inserts could be approved for total hip replacement.

  14. Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) plates versus stainless steel dynamic compression plates in the treatment of fractures of the tibiae in dogs.

    PubMed

    Skirving, A P; Day, R; Macdonald, W; McLaren, R

    1987-11-01

    In a series of 14 dogs, fractures of both tibiae were caused by a "bone-breaker" designed in the authors' department and observed to produce a consistent and realistic canine fracture. One tibia was plated with a carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) plate and the other with a dynamic compression (DC) plate. Roentgenographic examination demonstrated healing of the CFRP-plated tibiae with abundant callus, and almost total remodeling of the fracture callus between ten and 20 weeks. Biomechanical testing by three-point bending revealed little difference between the strength of union of the fractures at 12-16 weeks. At 20 weeks, although the numbers were too small for statistical confirmation, the CFRP-plated tibiae were consistently stronger than the DC-plated tibiae.

  15. Energy Saving Glass Lamination via Selective Radio-Frequency Heating

    SciTech Connect

    Shulman, Holly S.; Allan, Shawn M.

    2009-11-11

    This Inventions and Innovations program supported the technical and commercial research and development needed to elevate Ceralink's energy saving process for flat glass lamination from bench scale to a self-supporting technology with significant potential for growth. Radio-frequency heating was any un-explored option for laminating glass prior to this program. With significant commercial success through time and energy savings in the wood, paper, and plastics industries, RF heating was found to have significant promise for the energy intensive glass lamination industry. A major technical goal of the program was to demonstrate RF lamination across a wide range of laminate sizes and materials. This was successfully accomplished, dispelling many skeptics' concerns about the abilities of the technology. Ceralink laminated panels up to 2 ft x 3 ft, with four sets processed simultaneously, in a 3 minute cycle. All major categories of interlayer materials were found to work with RF lamination. In addition to laminating glass, other materials including photovoltaic silicon solar cells, light emitting diodes, metallized glass, plastics (acrylic and polycarbonate), and ceramics (alumina) were found compatible with the RF process. This opens up a wide range of commercial opportunities beyond the initially targeted automotive industry. The dramatic energy savings reported for RF lamination at the bench scale were found to be maintained through the scale up of the process. Even at 2 ft x 3 ft panel sizes, energy savings are estimated to be at least 90% compared to autoclaving or vacuum lamination. With targeted promotion through conference presentations, press releases and internet presence, RF lamination has gained significant attention, drawing large audiences at American Ceramic Society meetings. The commercialization success of the project includes the establishment of a revenue-generating business model for providing process development and demonstrations for potential RF

  16. Micromechanical Modeling of Impact Damage Mechanisms in Unidirectional Composite Laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qinghua; Wang, Zhenqing

    2016-12-01

    Composite laminates are susceptible to the transverse impact loads resulting in significant damage such as matrix cracking, fiber breakage and delamination. In this paper, a micromechanical model is developed to predict the impact damage of composite laminates based on microstructure and various failure models of laminates. The fiber and matrix are represented by the isotropic and elastic-plastic solid, and their impact failure behaviors are modeled based on shear damage model. The delaminaton failure is modeling by the interface element controlled by cohesive damage model. Impact damage mechanisms of laminate are analyzed by using the micromechanical model proposed. In addition, the effects of impact energy and laminated type on impact damage behavior of laminates are investigated. Due to the damage of the surrounding matrix near the impact point caused by the fiber deformation, the surface damage area of laminate is larger than the area of ​​impact projectile. The shape of the damage area is roughly rectangle or elliptical with the major axis extending parallel to the fiber direction in the surface layer of laminate. The alternating laminated type with two fiber directions is more propitious to improve the impact resistance of laminates.

  17. Identification of impact force acting on composite laminated plates using the radiated sound measured with microphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atobe, Satoshi; Nonami, Shunsuke; Hu, Ning; Fukunaga, Hisao

    2017-09-01

    Foreign object impact events are serious threats to composite laminates because impact damage leads to significant degradation of the mechanical properties of the structure. Identification of the location and force history of the impact that was applied to the structure can provide useful information for assessing the structural integrity. This study proposes a method for identifying impact forces acting on CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced plastic) laminated plates on the basis of the sound radiated from the impacted structure. Identification of the impact location and force history is performed using the sound pressure measured with microphones. To devise a method for identifying the impact location from the difference in the arrival times of the sound wave detected with the microphones, the propagation path of the sound wave from the impacted point to the sensor is examined. For the identification of the force history, an experimentally constructed transfer matrix is employed to relate the force history to the corresponding sound pressure. To verify the validity of the proposed method, impact tests are conducted by using a CFRP cross-ply laminate as the specimen, and an impulse hammer as the impactor. The experimental results confirm the validity of the present method for identifying the impact location from the arrival time of the sound wave detected with the microphones. Moreover, the results of force history identification show the feasibility of identifying the force history accurately from the measured sound pressure using the experimental transfer matrix.

  18. Guided Wave and Damage Detection in Composite Laminates Using Different Fiber Optic Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fucai; Murayama, Hideaki; Kageyama, Kazuro; Shirai, Takehiro

    2009-01-01

    Guided wave detection using different fiber optic sensors and their applications in damage detection for composite laminates were systematically investigated and compared in this paper. Two types of fiber optic sensors, namely fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) and Doppler effect-based fiber optic (FOD) sensors, were addressed and guided wave detection systems were constructed for both types. Guided waves generated by a piezoelectric transducer were propagated through a quasi-isotropic carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) laminate and acquired by these fiber optic sensors. Characteristics of these fiber optic sensors in ultrasonic guided wave detection were systematically compared. Results demonstrated that both the FBG and FOD sensors can be applied in guided wave and damage detection for the CFRP laminates. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of guided wave signal captured by an FOD sensor is relatively high in comparison with that of the FBG sensor because of their different physical principles in ultrasonic detection. Further, the FOD sensor is sensitive to the damage-induced fundamental shear horizontal (SH0) guided wave that, however, cannot be detected by using the FBG sensor, because the FOD sensor is omnidirectional in ultrasound detection and, in contrast, the FBG sensor is severely direction dependent. PMID:22412347

  19. Guided wave and damage detection in composite laminates using different fiber optic sensors.

    PubMed

    Li, Fucai; Murayama, Hideaki; Kageyama, Kazuro; Shirai, Takehiro

    2009-01-01

    Guided wave detection using different fiber optic sensors and their applications in damage detection for composite laminates were systematically investigated and compared in this paper. Two types of fiber optic sensors, namely fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) and Doppler effect-based fiber optic (FOD) sensors, were addressed and guided wave detection systems were constructed for both types. Guided waves generated by a piezoelectric transducer were propagated through a quasi-isotropic carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) laminate and acquired by these fiber optic sensors. Characteristics of these fiber optic sensors in ultrasonic guided wave detection were systematically compared. Results demonstrated that both the FBG and FOD sensors can be applied in guided wave and damage detection for the CFRP laminates. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of guided wave signal captured by an FOD sensor is relatively high in comparison with that of the FBG sensor because of their different physical principles in ultrasonic detection. Further, the FOD sensor is sensitive to the damage-induced fundamental shear horizontal (SH(0)) guided wave that, however, cannot be detected by using the FBG sensor, because the FOD sensor is omnidirectional in ultrasound detection and, in contrast, the FBG sensor is severely direction dependent.

  20. A laser scanning vibrometer for the monitoring of stiffness and density defects in fibre-reinforced plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cianciafara, P.; Visco, A. M.; Torrisi, L.

    2010-10-01

    Laser scanning vibrometry (LSV) is a non-contact technique for precise measurements of elastic wave parameters. In particular, the measurements of the wave velocity and dissipation deliver information on a material's stiffness and imperfections. In this paper, LSV was applied to monitor the stiffness and density of defects in composite laminate specimens cured at various exposures to microwave radiation. The specimens were supported by nylon wires and excited by a loudspeaker. Its driving frequency was swept and the frequency response of the specimens was measured by a laser vibrometer. The frequency shift of the fundamental flexural mode due to stiffness variation was measured as a function of the microwave exposure. To evaluate the dissipation factor, which is related to the density of defects, a short pulse was used for acoustic excitation. The temporal decay of the vibrations (reverberation) was measured by LSV and interpolated with an exponential function. The results obtained enable monitoring of the deterioration of the composite properties with the increase in the microwave exposure.

  1. Glass fiber reinforced concrete for terrestrial photovoltaic arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxwell, H.

    1979-01-01

    The use of glass-fiber-reinforced concrete (GRC) as a low-cost structural substrate for terrestrial solar cell arrays is discussed. The properties and fabrication of glass-reinforced concrete structures are considered, and a preliminary design for a laminated solar cell assembly built on a GRC substrate is presented. A total cost for such a photovoltaic module, composed of a Korad acrylic plastic film front cover, an aluminum foil back cover, an ethylene/vinyl acetate pottant/adhesive and a cotton fabric electrical isolator in addition to the GRC substrate, of $9.42/sq m is projected, which is less than the $11.00/sq m cost goal set by the Department of Energy. Preliminary evaluations are concluded to have shown the design capabilities and cost effectiveness of GRC; however, its potential for automated mass production has yet to be evaluated.

  2. Glass fiber reinforced concrete for terrestrial photovoltaic arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxwell, H.

    1979-01-01

    The use of glass-fiber-reinforced concrete (GRC) as a low-cost structural substrate for terrestrial solar cell arrays is discussed. The properties and fabrication of glass-reinforced concrete structures are considered, and a preliminary design for a laminated solar cell assembly built on a GRC substrate is presented. A total cost for such a photovoltaic module, composed of a Korad acrylic plastic film front cover, an aluminum foil back cover, an ethylene/vinyl acetate pottant/adhesive and a cotton fabric electrical isolator in addition to the GRC substrate, of $9.42/sq m is projected, which is less than the $11.00/sq m cost goal set by the Department of Energy. Preliminary evaluations are concluded to have shown the design capabilities and cost effectiveness of GRC; however, its potential for automated mass production has yet to be evaluated.

  3. Laminate analogy for composites enhanced concrete structures

    SciTech Connect

    Chamis, C.C.; Gotsis, P.K.

    1997-10-01

    A new and effective method is described to design composites to repair damage or enhance the overload strength of concrete infrastructures. The method is based on laminate analogy which is derivable from composite mechanics and available in computer codes. It is used to simulate structural sections made from reinforced concrete which are typical in infrastructures as well as select reinforced concrete structures. The structural sections are represented by a number of layers through the thickness where different layers are used for the concrete, for the reinforcing steel in concrete, and for the composite. The reinforced concrete structures are represented with finite elements where the element stiffness parameters are from the structural sections which are represented by the laminate analogy. The load carrying capability of the structure is determined by progressive structural fracture. Results show up to 40 percent improvements for damage and for overload enhancement with relatively small laminate thickness for the structural sections and up to three times for the composite enhanced select structures (arch and dome).

  4. Lamination cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Rippel, Wally E.; Kobayashi, Daryl M.

    2005-10-11

    An electric motor, transformer or inductor having a lamination cooling system including a stack of laminations, each defining a plurality of apertures at least partially coincident with apertures of adjacent laminations. The apertures define a plurality of cooling-fluid passageways through the lamination stack, and gaps between the adjacent laminations are sealed to prevent a liquid cooling fluid in the passageways from escaping between the laminations. The gaps are sealed by injecting a heat-cured sealant into the passageways, expelling excess sealant, and heat-curing the lamination stack. The apertures of each lamination can be coincident with the same-sized apertures of adjacent laminations to form straight passageways, or they can vary in size, shape and/or position to form non-axial passageways, angled passageways, bidirectional passageways, and manifold sections of passageways that connect a plurality of different passageway sections. Manifold members adjoin opposite ends of the lamination stack, and each is configured with one or more cavities to act as a manifold to adjacent passageway ends. Complex manifold arrangements can create bidirectional flow in a variety of patterns.

  5. CYCLIC-LOADING TESTS OF TWO GLASSREINFORCED PLASTIC CYLINDERS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    SUBMARINE HULLS, *LAMINATED PLASTICS , COMPOSITE MATERIALS, GLASS TEXTILES, PRESSURE VESSELS, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE, FATIGUE(MECHANICS), MODEL TESTS, LOADS(FORCES), RINGS, TAPES, CREEP, SHELLS(STRUCTURAL FORMS).

  6. Crack Detection in Fibre Reinforced Plastic Structures Using Embedded Fibre Bragg Grating Sensors: Theory, Model Development and Experimental Validation

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, G. F.; Mikkelsen, L. P.; McGugan, M.

    2015-01-01

    In a fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) structure designed using the emerging damage tolerance and structural health monitoring philosophy, sensors and models that describe crack propagation will enable a structure to operate despite the presence of damage by fully exploiting the material’s mechanical properties. When applying this concept to different structures, sensor systems and damage types, a combination of damage mechanics, monitoring technology, and modelling is required. The primary objective of this article is to demonstrate such a combination. This article is divided in three main topics: the damage mechanism (delamination of FRP), the structural health monitoring technology (fibre Bragg gratings to detect delamination), and the finite element method model of the structure that incorporates these concepts into a final and integrated damage-monitoring concept. A novel method for assessing a crack growth/damage event in fibre-reinforced polymer or structural adhesive-bonded structures using embedded fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensors is presented by combining conventional measured parameters, such as wavelength shift, with parameters associated with measurement errors, typically ignored by the end-user. Conjointly, a novel model for sensor output prediction (virtual sensor) was developed using this FBG sensor crack monitoring concept and implemented in a finite element method code. The monitoring method was demonstrated and validated using glass fibre double cantilever beam specimens instrumented with an array of FBG sensors embedded in the material and tested using an experimental fracture procedure. The digital image correlation technique was used to validate the model prediction by correlating the specific sensor response caused by the crack with the developed model. PMID:26513653

  7. Crack Detection in Fibre Reinforced Plastic Structures Using Embedded Fibre Bragg Grating Sensors: Theory, Model Development and Experimental Validation.

    PubMed

    Pereira, G F; Mikkelsen, L P; McGugan, M

    2015-01-01

    In a fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) structure designed using the emerging damage tolerance and structural health monitoring philosophy, sensors and models that describe crack propagation will enable a structure to operate despite the presence of damage by fully exploiting the material's mechanical properties. When applying this concept to different structures, sensor systems and damage types, a combination of damage mechanics, monitoring technology, and modelling is required. The primary objective of this article is to demonstrate such a combination. This article is divided in three main topics: the damage mechanism (delamination of FRP), the structural health monitoring technology (fibre Bragg gratings to detect delamination), and the finite element method model of the structure that incorporates these concepts into a final and integrated damage-monitoring concept. A novel method for assessing a crack growth/damage event in fibre-reinforced polymer or structural adhesive-bonded structures using embedded fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensors is presented by combining conventional measured parameters, such as wavelength shift, with parameters associated with measurement errors, typically ignored by the end-user. Conjointly, a novel model for sensor output prediction (virtual sensor) was developed using this FBG sensor crack monitoring concept and implemented in a finite element method code. The monitoring method was demonstrated and validated using glass fibre double cantilever beam specimens instrumented with an array of FBG sensors embedded in the material and tested using an experimental fracture procedure. The digital image correlation technique was used to validate the model prediction by correlating the specific sensor response caused by the crack with the developed model.

  8. Design of composite laminates by a Monte Carlo method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Chin; Springer, George S.

    1993-01-01

    A Monte Carlo procedure was developed for optimizing symmetric fiber reinforced composite laminates such that the weight is minimum and the Tsai-Wu strength failure criterion is satisfied in each ply. The laminate may consist of several materials including an idealized core, and may be subjected to several sets of combined in-plane and bending loads. The procedure yields the number of plies, the fiber orientation, and the material of each ply and the material and thickness of the core. A user friendly computer code was written for performing the numerical calculations. Laminates optimized by the code were compared to laminates resulting from existing optimization methods. These comparisons showed that the present Monte Carlo procedure is a useful and efficient tool for the design of composite laminates.

  9. Time Domain Reflectometry for Damage Detection of Laminated CFRP plate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-18

    Final Report PROJECT ID: AOARD-10-4112 Title: Time Domain Reflectometry for damage detection of laminated CFRP plate Researcher: Professor Akira...From July/2010 To July/2011 Abstract Recently, high toughness Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer ( CFRP ) laminates are used to primary structures. The...tough CFRP yields small fiber breakages when delamination crack is made in many cases. This requires a detection system of fiber breakages at low cost for

  10. Review on antibacterial biocomposites of structural laminated veneer lumber

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zi-xiang; Lei, Qiong; He, Rui-lin; Zhang, Zhong-feng; Chowdhury, Ahmed Jalal Khan

    2015-01-01

    In this review, the characteristics and applications of structural laminated veneer lumber made from planted forest wood is introduced, and its preparation is explained, including various tree species and slab qualities, treatments for multiple effects and reinforced composites. The relevant factors in the bonding technology and pressing processes as well as the mechanical properties, research direction and application prospects of structural laminated veneer lumber made from planted forest wood are discussed. PMID:26858559

  11. Preliminary evaluation of hybrid titanium composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. L.; Progar, D. J.; Johnson, W. S.; St.clair, T. L.

    1994-01-01

    In this study, the mechanical response of hybrid titanium composite laminates (HTCL) was evaluated at room and elevated temperatures. Also, the use of an elastic-plastic laminate analysis program for predicting the tensile response from constituent properties was verified. The improvement in mechanical properties achieved by the laminates was assessed by comparing the results of static strength and constant amplitude fatigue tests to those for monolithic titanium sheet. Two HTCL were fabricated with different fiber volume fractions, resin layer thicknesses, and resins. One panel was thicker and was more poorly bonded in comparison to other. Consequently, the former had a lower tensile strength, while fewer cracks grew in this panel and at a slower rate. Both panels showed an improvement in fatigue life of almost two orders of magnitude. The model predictions were also in good agreement with the experimental results for both HTCL panels.

  12. Laminitis in the horse.

    PubMed

    Hood, D M

    1999-08-01

    This article serves as an introduction to this issue on laminitis. As such, it contains the general perspectives and terminology that will be used in all subsequent articles. This article separates the clinical problem of laminitis into developmental, acute, subacute, and chronic phases and defines the criteria, duration, clinical goals, and implications of these phases. The basis for the significance of laminitis to the horse industry and the horseman is reviewed. Lastly, the organization of this issue is described.

  13. Thermal buckling of thick antisymmetric angle-ply laminates

    SciTech Connect

    Tauchert, T.R.

    1987-01-01

    The buckling behavior of moderately thick antisymmetric angle-ply laminates that are simply supported and subject to a uniform temperature rise is analyzed. Transverse shear deformation is accounted for by employing the thermoelastic version of the Reissner-Mindlin theory. Results for the classical thin-plate theory are obtained as a special case. Numerical results are presented for fiber-reinforced laminates and show the effects of ply orientation, number of layers, plate thickness, and aspect ratio on the critical buckling temperature. Finally, an optimization procedure is proposed for the design of laminates having maximum resistance to thermal buckling. 17 references.

  14. Improved PMR Polyimides For Heat-Stable Laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, R. D.; Malarik, D. C.; Papadapoulos, D. S.; Waters, John F.

    1994-01-01

    Second-generation PMR-type polyimides (PMR-II polyimides) of enhanced thermo-oxidative stability prepared by substitution of para-aminostyrene (PAS) end caps for nadic-ester (NE) end caps used in prior PMR-II polyimides. Laminates unidirectionally reinforced with graphite fibers and made with PAS-capped resins exhibited thermo-oxidative stabilities significantly greater than those of similar laminates made with NE-capped PMR-II resins. One new laminate exhibited high retention of weight and strength after 1,000 h of exposure to air at 371 degrees C.

  15. Nuclear lamins and neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Young, Stephen G; Jung, Hea-Jin; Lee, John M; Fong, Loren G

    2014-08-01

    Much of the work on nuclear lamins during the past 15 years has focused on mutations in LMNA (the gene for prelamin A and lamin C) that cause particular muscular dystrophy, cardiomyopathy, partial lipodystrophy, and progeroid syndromes. These disorders, often called "laminopathies," mainly affect mesenchymal tissues (e.g., striated muscle, bone, and fibrous tissue). Recently, however, a series of papers have identified important roles for nuclear lamins in the central nervous system. Studies of knockout mice uncovered a key role for B-type lamins (lamins B1 and B2) in neuronal migration in the developing brain. Also, duplications of LMNB1 (the gene for lamin B1) have been shown to cause autosome-dominant leukodystrophy. Finally, recent studies have uncovered a peculiar pattern of nuclear lamin expression in the brain. Lamin C transcripts are present at high levels in the brain, but prelamin A expression levels are very low-due to regulation of prelamin A transcripts by microRNA 9. This form of prelamin A regulation likely explains why "prelamin A diseases" such as Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome spare the central nervous system. In this review, we summarize recent progress in elucidating links between nuclear lamins and neurobiology.

  16. Influence of terahertz waves on the fiber direction of CFRP composite laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Kwang-Hee; Hsu, David K.; Chiou, Chien-Ping; Barnard, Daniel J.; Yang, In-Young; Park, Je-Woong

    2013-01-01

    The importance of Carbon-fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) are widely utilized due to more high performance in engineering structures. It was well known that a nondestructive technique would be very beneficial. A new terahertz radiation has been recognized for their importance in technological applications. Recently, T-ray (terahertz ray) advances of technology and instrumentation has provided a probing field on the electromagnetic spectrum. The THz-TDS can be considered as a useful tool using general non-conducting materials; however it is quite limited to conducting materials. In order to solve various material properties, the index of refraction (n) and the absorption coefficient (α) are derived in reflective and transmission configuration using the terahertz time domain spectroscopy. However, the T-ray is limited in order to penetrate a conducting material to some degree. Here, the T-ray would not go through easily the CFRP composite laminates since carbon fibers are electrically conducting while the epoxy matrix is not. So, investigation of terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz TDS) was made and reflection and transmission configurations were studied for a 48-ply thermoplastic PPS (poly-phenylene sulfide)-based CFRP solid laminate. It is found that the electrical conductivity of CFRP composites depends on the direction of unidirectional fibers. Also, the T-ray could penetrate a CFRP composite laminate a few ply based on the E-filed (Electrical field) of carbon fibers. The terahertz scanning images were made at the angles ranged from 0° to 180° with respect to the nominal fiber axis. So, the images were mapped out based on the electrical field (E-field) direction in the CFRP solid laminates. Also, using two-dimensional spatial Fourier transform, interface C-scan images were transformed into quantitatively angular distribution plots to show the fiber orientation information therein and to predict the orientation of the ply.

  17. Damage evaluation of fiber reinforced plastic-confined circular concrete-filled steel tubular columns under cyclic loading using the acoustic emission technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dongsheng; Du, Fangzhu; Ou, Jinping

    2017-03-01

    Glass-fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP)-confined circular concrete-filled steel tubular (CCFT) columns comprise of concrete, steel, and GFRP and show complex failure mechanics under cyclic loading. This paper investigated the failure mechanism and damage evolution of GFRP-CCFT columns by performing uniaxial cyclic loading tests that were monitored using the acoustic emission (AE) technique. Characteristic AE parameters were obtained during the damage evolution of GFRP-CCFT columns. Based on the relationship between the loading curve and these parameters, the damage evolution of GFRP-CCFT columns was classified into three stages that represented different damage degrees. Damage evolution and failure mode were investigated by analyzing the b-value and the ratio of rise time to waveform amplitude and average frequency. The damage severity of GFRP-CCFT columns were quantitatively estimated according to the modified index of damage and NDIS-2421 damage assessment criteria corresponding to each loading step. The proposed method can explain the damage evolution and failure mechanism for GFRP-CCFT columns and provide critical warning information for composite structures.

  18. Central nervous defects in two children of mothers exposed to chemicals in the reinforced plastics industry. Chance or a causal relation?

    PubMed

    Holmberg, P C

    1977-12-01

    With the use of a specially designed questionnaire, with the emphasis on occupational exposure to chemical agents at work, a case-referent study was started on 1 June 1976. The series comprised mothers of all children with central nervous defects notified to the Finnish Register of Congenital Malformations and their matched-pair referents. Information was gained by personal interview. By 1 March 1977 information had been gathered from 43 cases and their referents. Two case mothers had been employed in the reinforced plastics industry and had been exposed at work to a combination of styrene, polyester resin, organic peroxides, and acetone. When the number of fertile women in this industry is considered (some 250), along with the low rate of anencephaly and hydrochephalus in the general population--diagnoses made of the children of these case mothers (0.5/1,000 live births in Finland)--this occupational group is strongly overrepresented in the material. The paper is a more-detailed report regarding the two cases. Moreover a third case is mentioned in which the pregnant mother, a juvenile diabetic, had been exposed at home to styrene, polyester resin, and organic peroxides.

  19. [Survey of carbon fiber reinforced plastic orthoses and occupational and medical problems based on a questionnaire administered to companies involved in the manufacture of prosthetics and orthotics].

    PubMed

    Kaneshiro, Yuko; Furuta, Nami; Makino, Kenichiro; Wada, Futoshi; Hachisuka, Kenji

    2011-09-01

    We surveyed carbon fiber reinforced plastic orthoses (carbon orthoses) and their associated occupational and medical problems based on a questionnaire sent to 310 companies which were members of the Japan Orthotics and Prosthetics Association. Of all the companies, 232 responded: 77 of the 232 companies dealt with ready-made carbon orthoses, 52 dealt with fabricated custom-made orthoses, and 155 did not dealt with carbon orthoses. Although the total number of custom-made carbon ortheses in Japan was 829/ 5 years, there was a difference by region, and one company fabricated only 12 (per 5 years) custom-made carbon orthoses on average. The advantages of the carbon orthosis were the fact that it was "light weight", "well-fitted", had a "good appearance", and "excellent durability", while the disadvantages were that it was "expensive", "high cost of production", of "black color", and required a "longer time for completion", and "higher fabrication techniques". From the standpoint of industrial medicine, "scattering of fine fragments of carbon fibers", "itching on the skin" and "health hazards" were indicated in companies that manufacture the orthosis. In order to make the carbon orthosis more popular, it is necessary to develop a new carbon material that is easier to fabricate at a lower cost, to improve the fabrication technique, and to resolve the occupational and medical problems.

  20. Deformation measurement of carbon fiber reinforced plastics using phase-shifting scanning electron microscope Moiré method after Fourier transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qinghua; Ri, Shien; Tsuda, Hiroshi; Kishimoto, Satoshi; Tanaka, Yoshihisa; Kagawa, Yutaka

    2015-07-01

    The deformation distributions of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) under a three-point bending load were nondestructively investigated using the phase shifting scanning electron microscope (SEM) moiré method. The complex fast Fourier transform (FFT) and the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) were used to filter the useless moiré fringes in the case of bidirectional moiré fringes. The SEM moiré fringes under different magnifications and the deformation results measured by the direct, complex FFT- and the DFT- phase shifting moiré methods as well as the moiré fringe centering method were compared and analyzed. Experiments demonstrate that the deformation measurement is a bit influenced by the useless moiré fringes in the phase shifting moiré methods and complex FFT processing works better for nondense moiré fringes. The relative strain changes gradually and the specimen grating pitch increases gradually from top to bottom along the loading direction, suggesting that the real compressive strain is greater in the upper side. The micro/nano-scale deformation distribution characteristic is helpful for better understanding of the mechanical properties of the CFRP specimen.

  1. Non-contact characterization of hybrid aluminium/carbon-fibre-reinforced plastic sheets using multi-frequency eddy-current sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, W.; Li, X.; Withers, P. J.; Peyton, A. J.

    2010-10-01

    The characterization of hybrid aluminium/carbon-fibre-reinforced plastic (CFRP) sheets using multi-frequency eddy-current sensors is presented in this paper. Both air-cored circular sensors and highly directional ferrite-cored sensors are designed for bulk conductivity measurements and directionality characterization. An analytical model describing the interaction of the circular sensors with the hybrid planar structure is developed. Finite element (FE) models that take into account the anisotropicity of CFRP have also been proposed. Both models are in good agreement with experimental results. The features of the sensor output signals are analysed and explained. It is proved that an anisotropic model (tensor expression for conductivity) is appropriate for the CFRP materials under investigation. A formula to link the bulk conductivity with the conductivity tensor is proposed and verified. Lift-off effects are also discussed. It is believed that this is amongst the first published reports of using eddy-current techniques for characterizing the hybrid aluminium/CFRP material.

  2. The effect of geometry on the properties of a dense alumina-carbon/epoxy laminate

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, D.; Lemaitre, J.; Leckie, F.A.

    1995-09-01

    This is a study of the effects of geometry on the properties of a laminate made of dense, thin alumina plates alternating with carbon/epoxy (C/E) prepreg. An advantage of this system is the elimination of the large flaws occurring in fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites which are responsible for the low stresses at first matrix cracking. Previous studies have been restricted to small specimens of simple geometry. In this study attention has been directed to the influences of size, the introduction of notches and a geometry in which a large specimen is formed from a mosaic of small elements. The loss of stiffness with increase of the applied strain is compared to the predictions of a simple one-dimensional, elastic-plastic shear lag theory. Although this model does not account for the branching phenomena observed in experiment, there is good agreement with experiment, suggesting that branching has only a second order influence on mechanical properties.

  3. The thermo-optical behavior of turbid composite laminates under highly energetic laser irradiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allheily, Vadim; Merlat, Lionel; Lacroix, Fabrice; Eichhorn, Alfred; L'Hostis, Gildas

    2017-01-01

    From their prior emergence in the military domain but also nowadays in the civilian area, unmanned air vehicles constitute a growing threat to the todays civilization. In this respect, novel laser weapons are considered to eradicate this menace and the vulnerability of typical aeronautic materials under 1.07μm-wavelength irradiations is also investigated. In this paper, Kubelka-Munk optical parameters of laminated glass fiber-reinforced plastic composites are first assessed to build up a basic analytical interaction model involving internal refraction and reflection as well as the scattering effect due to the presence of glass fibers. Moreover, a thermo-gravimetric analysis is carried out and the kinetic parameters of the decomposition reaction extracted from this test with the Friedman method are verified trough a comparison with experimental measurements.

  4. The Behavior of Translucent Composite Laminates under Highly Energetic Laser Irradiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allheily, Vadim; Merlat, Lionel; Lacroix, Fabrice; Eichhorn, Alfred; L'Hostis, Gildas

    With the emergence of composite materials in the last decades, the interaction between light and diffusive materials has become a challenging topic in many key manufacturing areas (laser welding, laser surface treatment, engraving, etc.). In this paper, the behavior of laminated glass fiber-reinforced plastic composites (GFRP) under 1.07 μm-wavelength irradiations is investigated. Optical parameters are first assessed to build up a basic analytical interaction model involving internal refraction and reflection. The scattering effect due to the presence of oriented glass fibers is also a topic of interest. A thermodynamic analysis is then carried out from the induced volume heat source until the degradation temperature of the material is reached out. The study finally results in a one-dimensional model describing the optical and thermo-dynamical behavior of GFRP under high-power laser irradiations up to ignition of the chemical degradation phenomena.

  5. Photovoltaic-Panel Laminator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keenan, R.

    1985-01-01

    Two-piece unit heats and presses protective layers to form laminate. Rubber diaphragm between upper and lower vacuum chambers alternates between neutral position and one that presses against solar-cell array, supplying distributed force necessary to press layers of laminate together. Encapsulation helps to protect cells from environment and to ensure long panel life while allowing efficient generation of electricity from Sunlight.

  6. Photovoltaic-Panel Laminator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keenan, R.

    1985-01-01

    Two-piece unit heats and presses protective layers to form laminate. Rubber diaphragm between upper and lower vacuum chambers alternates between neutral position and one that presses against solar-cell array, supplying distributed force necessary to press layers of laminate together. Encapsulation helps to protect cells from environment and to ensure long panel life while allowing efficient generation of electricity from Sunlight.

  7. Experimental and Analytical Evaluation of the Notched Tensile Fracture of CFRP Woven Laminates at 77 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, S.; Shindo, Y.

    2004-06-01

    The cryogenic fracture behavior of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) woven laminates was studied. Experiments and a finite element analysis were conducted on single edge notched CFRP woven laminates subjected to in-plane loading. Damage processes were identified by acoustic emission measurement and digital microscopy.

  8. REPORT OF INVESTIGATION OF OUTDOOR WEATHER AGING OF PLASTICS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    LAMINATES, *PLASTICS, *TRANSPARENT PANELS, ACRYLIC RESINS, AGING(PHYSIOLOGY), PROPYL RADICALS , CELLULOSE ACETATES, CLIMATE, DEGRADATION, DIELECTRICS...FAILURE(MECHANICS), LIGHT TRANSMISSION, MECHANICAL PROPERTIES, PHENOLIC PLASTICS, PHOTOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS, SURFACE PROPERTIES, VINYL RADICALS .

  9. Recycling disposable cups into paper plastic composites.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jonathan; Vandeperre, Luc; Dvorak, Rob; Kosior, Ed; Tarverdi, Karnik; Cheeseman, Christopher

    2014-11-01

    The majority of disposable cups are made from paper plastic laminates (PPL) which consist of high quality cellulose fibre with a thin internal polyethylene coating. There are limited recycling options for PPLs and this has contributed to disposable cups becoming a high profile, problematic waste. In this work disposable cups have been shredded to form PPL flakes and these have been used to reinforce polypropylene to form novel paper plastic composites (PPCs). The PPL flakes and polypropylene were mixed, extruded, pelletised and injection moulded at low temperatures to prevent degradation of the cellulose fibres. The level of PPL flake addition and the use of a maleated polyolefin coupling agent to enhance interfacial adhesion have been investigated. Samples have been characterised using tensile testing, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and thermogravimetric analysis. Use of a coupling agent allows composites containing 40 wt.% of PPL flakes to increase tensile strength of PP by 50% to 30 MPa. The Young modulus also increases from 1 to 2.5 GPa and the work to fracture increases by a factor of 5. The work demonstrates that PPL disposable cups have potential to be beneficially reused as reinforcement in novel polypropylene composites.

  10. Honeycomb-laminate composite structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilwee, W. J., Jr.; Parker, J. A. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A honeycomb-laminate composite structure was comprised of: (1) a cellular core of a polyquinoxaline foam in a honeycomb structure, and (2) a layer of a noncombustible fibrous material impregnated with a polyimide resin laminated on the cellular core. A process for producing the honeycomb-laminate composite structure and articles containing the honeycomb-laminate composite structure is described.

  11. Method of laminating structural members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heier, W. C. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A laminate is obtained by providing a lightweight core material, such as a honeycombed plastic or metal, within the cavity defined by an annular mold cavity frame. Face sheets, which are to be bonded to the core material, are provided on opposite sides of the frame and extend over the frame, thus sealing the core material in the cavity. An adhesive is provided between the core material and the face sheets and the combined thickness of the core material and adhesive is a close fit within the opposed face sheets. A gas tight seal, such as an O-ring gasket, is provided between the frame and the face sheet members to form a gas tight cavity between the face sheet members and the frame. External heat and pressure are used to bond the face sheets to the core material. Gas pressure is introduced into the sealed cavity to minimize out-gasing of the adhesive.

  12. INFLUENCE OF REINFORCEMENT ANISOTROPY ON THE STRESS DISTRIBUTION IN TENSION AND SHEAR OF A FUSION MAGNET INSULATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Humer, K.; Prokopec, R.; Weber, H. W.; Raff, S.

    2008-03-03

    A glass fiber reinforced plastic laminate, which consists of half-overlapped wrapped Kapton/R-glass-fiber reinforcing tapes vacuum-pressure impregnated in a cyanate ester/epoxy blend, is proposed as the insulation system for the ITER Toroidal Field coils. In order to assess its mechanical performance under the actual operating conditions, cryogenic (77 K) tensile and interlaminar shear tests were done after irradiation to the ITER design fluence of 1x10{sup 22} m{sup -2} (E>0.1 MeV). The data were then used for a Finite Element Method (FEM) stress analysis. We find that the mechanical strength and the fracture behavior as well as the stress distribution and the failure criteria are strongly influenced by the winding direction and the wrapping technique of the reinforcing tapes.

  13. Influence of Reinforcement Anisotropy on the Stress Distribution in Tension and Shear of a Fusion Magnet Insulation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humer, K.; Raff, S.; Prokopec, R.; Weber, H. W.

    2008-03-01

    A glass fiber reinforced plastic laminate, which consists of half-overlapped wrapped Kapton/R-glass-fiber reinforcing tapes vacuum-pressure impregnated in a cyanate ester/epoxy blend, is proposed as the insulation system for the ITER Toroidal Field coils. In order to assess its mechanical performance under the actual operating conditions, cryogenic (77 K) tensile and interlaminar shear tests were done after irradiation to the ITER design fluence of 1×1022 m-2 (E>0.1 MeV). The data were then used for a Finite Element Method (FEM) stress analysis. We find that the mechanical strength and the fracture behavior as well as the stress distribution and the failure criteria are strongly influenced by the winding direction and the wrapping technique of the reinforcing tapes.

  14. Bioinspired Transparent Laminated Composite Film for Flexible Green Optoelectronics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Daewon; Lim, Young-Woo; Im, Hyeon-Gyun; Jeong, Seonju; Ji, Sangyoon; Kim, Yong Ho; Choi, Gwang-Mun; Park, Jang-Ung; Lee, Jung-Yong; Jin, Jungho; Bae, Byeong-Soo

    2017-07-19

    Herein, we report a new version of a bioinspired chitin nanofiber (ChNF) transparent laminated composite film (HCLaminate) made of siloxane hybrid materials (hybrimers) reinforced with ChNFs, which mimics the nanofiber-matrix structure of hierarchical biocomposites. Our HCLaminate is produced via vacuum bag compressing and subsequent UV-curing of the matrix resin-impregnated ChNF transparent paper (ChNF paper). It is worthwhile to note that this new type of ChNF-based transparent substrate film retains the strengths of the original ChNF paper and compensates for ChNF paper's drawbacks as a flexible transparent substrate. As a result, compared with high-performance synthetic plastic films, such as poly(ethylene terephthalate), poly(ether sulfone), poly(ethylene naphthalate), and polyimide, our HCLaminate is characterized to exhibit extremely smooth surface topography, outstanding optical clarity, high elastic modulus, high dimensional stability, etc. To prove our HCLaminate as a substrate film, we use it to fabricate flexible perovskite solar cells and a touch-screen panel. As far as we know, this work is the first to demonstrate flexible optoelectronics, such as flexible perovskite solar cells and a touch-screen panel, actually fabricated on a composite film made of ChNF. Given its desirable macroscopic properties, we envision our HCLaminate being utilized as a transparent substrate film for flexible green optoelectronics.

  15. 40 CFR 426.70 - Applicability; description of the automotive glass laminating subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... from the processes which laminate a plastic sheet between two layers of glass, and which prepare the... automotive glass laminating subcategory. 426.70 Section 426.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE...

  16. Design and Ballistic Performance of Hybrid Composite Laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćwik, Tomasz K.; Iannucci, Lorenzo; Curtis, Paul; Pope, Dan

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents an initial design assessment of a series of novel, cost-effective, and hybrid composite materials for applications involving high velocity impacts. The proposed hybrid panels were designed in order to investigate various physical phenomenon occurring during high velocity impact on compliant laminates from a previous study on Dyneema® and Spectra®. In the first, screening phase of the study twenty different hybrid composite laminates were impacted with 20 mm Fragment Simulating Projectiles at 1 km/s striking velocity. The best performing concepts were put forward to phase II with other hybrid concepts involving shear thickening fluids, commonly used in low velocity impacts. The results indicated that it is possible to design hybrid laminates of similar ballistic performance as the reference Dyneema® laminate, but with lower material costs. The optimal hybrid concept involves a fibre reinforced Polypropylene front and a Dyneema® backing.

  17. Design and Ballistic Performance of Hybrid Composite Laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćwik, Tomasz K.; Iannucci, Lorenzo; Curtis, Paul; Pope, Dan

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents an initial design assessment of a series of novel, cost-effective, and hybrid composite materials for applications involving high velocity impacts. The proposed hybrid panels were designed in order to investigate various physical phenomenon occurring during high velocity impact on compliant laminates from a previous study on Dyneema® and Spectra®. In the first, screening phase of the study twenty different hybrid composite laminates were impacted with 20 mm Fragment Simulating Projectiles at 1 km/s striking velocity. The best performing concepts were put forward to phase II with other hybrid concepts involving shear thickening fluids, commonly used in low velocity impacts. The results indicated that it is possible to design hybrid laminates of similar ballistic performance as the reference Dyneema® laminate, but with lower material costs. The optimal hybrid concept involves a fibre reinforced Polypropylene front and a Dyneema® backing.

  18. Flexible thermal laminate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawn, F. S.; Sauers, D. G.

    1977-01-01

    Lightweight flexible laminate of interwoven conducting and insulating yarns, designed to provide localized controlled heating for propellant tanks on space vehicles, is useful for nonspace applications where weight, bulk, and flexibility are critical concerns.

  19. Historical perspectives on laminitis.

    PubMed

    Wagner, I P; Heymering, H

    1999-08-01

    This article attempts to provide a historical perspective regarding equine laminitis. It is designed to cover, as completely as possible, the historical record of, and the research advances made, in regards to acute and chronic laminitis. With respect to the historical record, the names given to this disease, the postulated etiologies, and the various treatment protocols are discussed. This article demonstrates the historical longevity of this disease and establishes a background for the current understanding of the disease's pathologic mechanisms and treatments.

  20. Repair of white oak glued-laminated beams

    Treesearch

    Lawrence A. Soltis; Robert J. Ross

    1999-01-01

    Connections between steel side plates and white oak glued-laminated beams subjected to tension perpendicular-to-grain stresses were tested to failure. The beams were then repaired with five different configurations using two sizes of lag screws, with and without steel reinforcing plates. The repaired beams were re-tested to failure. Results indicate that in all...

  1. Feasibility study on the development of tough, moisture-resistant laminating resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, R. A.; Harrison, E. S.

    1979-01-01

    The potential of cyanate resins as replacement for epoxy resins in composites with graphite fiber reinforcement was investigated in an effort to provide improved moisture resistance and toughness in laminating systems at a projected cost, handleability, and processing requirements equivalent to 400 K (260 F) curing epoxies. Monomer synthesis, formulation, blending, resin preparation, catalysis studies, prepreg preparation, laminate fabrication, and testing are discussed. A graphite fiber reinforced laminate was developed with 95 percent retention of the original 363 K (180 F) flexural strength and 70 percent retention of the 363 K (180 F) short beam shear strength after 500 hour exposure to 95 + 7 relative humidity at 324 K (120 F).

  2. Residual strength assessment of low velocity impact damage of graphite-epoxy laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lal, K. M.

    1983-01-01

    This report contains the study of Low Velocity Transverse Impact Damage of graphite-epoxy T300/5208 composite laminates. The specimen, 100 mm diameter clamped plates, were impact damaged by a cantilever-type instrumented 1-inch diameter steel ball. Study was limited to impact velocity 6 m/sec. Rectangular strips, 50 mm x 125 mm, were cut from the impact-damage specimens so that the impact damage zone was in the center of the strips. These strips were tested in tension to obtain their residual strength. An energy dissipation model was developed to predict the residual strength from fracture mechanics concepts. Net energy absorbed I(a) was evaluated from coefficient of restitution concepts based on shear dominated theory of fiber-reinforced materials, with the modification that during loading and unloading the shear deformation are respectively elastic-plastic and elastic. Delamination energy I(d) was predicted by assuming that the stiffness of the laminate dropped due to debonding. Fiber-breakage energy, assumed to be equal to the difference of I(a) and I(d), was used to determine the residual strength. Predictions were compared with test results.

  3. Mechanical response of composite materials with through-the-thickness reinforcement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Gary L.; Dickinson, Larry C.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to identify the key geometrical parameters and quantify their influence on the mechanical response of through-the-thickness (TTT) reinforced composite materials. Composite laminates with TTT reinforcement fibers were fabricated using different TTT reinforcement materials and reinforcement methods and laminates were also fabricated of similar construction but without TTT reinforcement fibers. Coupon specimens were machined from these laminates and were destructively tested. TTT reinforcement yarns enhance damage tolerance and improve interlaminar strength. Thick-layer composites with TTT reinforcement yarns have equal or superior mechanical properties to thin-layer composites without TTT reinforcement yarns. A significant potential exists for fabrication cost reduction by using thick-layer composites with TTT reinforcement yarns. Removal of the surface loop of the TTT reinforcement improves compression strength. Stitching provides somewhat higher mechanical properties than integral weaving.

  4. Lamination cooling system formation method

    DOEpatents

    Rippel, Wally E [Altadena, CA; Kobayashi, Daryl M [Monrovia, CA

    2012-06-19

    An electric motor, transformer or inductor having a cooling system. A stack of laminations have apertures at least partially coincident with apertures of adjacent laminations. The apertures define straight or angled cooling-fluid passageways through the lamination stack. Gaps between the adjacent laminations are sealed by injecting a heat-cured sealant into the passageways, expelling excess sealant, and heat-curing the lamination stack. Manifold members adjoin opposite ends of the lamination stack, and each is configured with one or more cavities to act as a manifold to adjacent passageway ends. Complex manifold arrangements can create bidirectional flow in a variety of patterns.

  5. Lamination cooling system formation method

    DOEpatents

    Rippel, Wally E [Altadena, CA; Kobayashi, Daryl M [Monrovia, CA

    2009-05-12

    An electric motor, transformer or inductor having a cooling system. A stack of laminations have apertures at least partially coincident with apertures of adjacent laminations. The apertures define straight or angled cooling-fluid passageways through the lamination stack. Gaps between the adjacent laminations are sealed by injecting a heat-cured sealant into the passageways, expelling excess sealant, and heat-curing the lamination stack. Manifold members adjoin opposite ends of the lamination stack, and each is configured with one or more cavities to act as a manifold to adjacent passageway ends. Complex manifold arrangements can create bidirectional flow in a variety of patterns.

  6. Tensile strength and its scatter of unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced composites

    SciTech Connect

    Hamada, H.; Oya, N.; Yamashita, K.; Maekawa, Z.I.

    1995-12-31

    0 (along the fiber direction) and 90 degree (transverse to the fiber direction) tension tests of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) using a great number of specimens were conducted. Tensile properties and their scatter were evaluated by means of the data base. Materials used in this study were seven kinds of carbon fibers and three kinds of epoxy resins. Reinforcing fiber and matrix resin properties strongly affected on 0 and 90 degree properties of CFRP respectively. In 0 degree tension tests, fracture mode of specimen vaned in each material, and a relationship between the scatter of strength and the fracture mode existed. From the results of 9 degree tension tests, some differences of interfacial properties between each laminate were` also detected. According to some considerations on fracture mechanism in 0 degree tension test, it was deduced that the fracture mode depended on the balance of fiber, matrix and interface properties.

  7. Fracture mechanics in fiber reinforced composite materials, taking as examples B/A1 and CRFP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, P. W. M.

    1982-01-01

    The validity of linear elastic fracture mechanics and other fracture criteria was investigated with laminates of boron fiber reinforced aluminum (R/A1) and of carbon fiber reinforced epoxide (CFRP). Cracks are assessed by fracture strength Kc or Kmax (critical or maximum value of the stress intensity factor). The Whitney and Nuismer point stress criterion and average stress criterion often show that Kmax of fiber composite materials increases with increasing crack length; however, for R/A1 and CFRP the curve showing fracture strength as a function of crack length is only applicable in a small domain. For R/A1, the reason is clearly the extension of the plastic zone (or the damage zone n the case of CFRP) which cannot be described with a stress intensity factor.

  8. Interlaminar interaction in paper thermoplastic laminate composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prambauer, M.; Paulik, C.; Burgstaller, C.

    2016-07-01

    Bio-based composites are a research topic since several decades, which aims for sustainable and durable materials. In the scope of this research, many different sources for biobased reinforcements have been investigated. Typical issues associated with the use of such are property variations due to cultivation area and climate, besides the influences of the type, pretreatment and fibre geometry. Another issue can be the availability of such natural fibres. Due to these reasons, we started using paper sheets as reinforcements in laminate composites with thermoplastic materials. In preliminary studies with polypropylene composites, we found good mechanical properties, even higher than could be expected by estimating the composite properties from the constituents by applying simple rule of mixtures type models. We suspect, besides some effect of paper compaction, interlaminar effects to be the reason for this. Therefore, the aim of this work is to investigate the effects of the interfacial interaction on the different paper laminate properties due to different matrix polymers. For this work, we used polypropylene, polyamide 6 and 12 as well as polystyrene. Composites were produced via compression moulding and samples for mechanical testing and density evaluation were cut from the moulded plates. The results from mechanical tests show, that there is a reinforcing effect, regardless of matrix polymer used. Simple rule of mixtures evaluations show, that the different matrices exhibit different degrees of interaction, based on their chemical structure. In addition, also influences due to processing were found.

  9. Self reinforcing polymer composites

    SciTech Connect

    Kenig, S.

    1993-12-31

    In the advent of liquid crystalline polymers (LCPs), self reinforcing polymer composites comprising a polymer matrix and an LCP reinforcement, have become a reality. The so called self reinforcement is due to the LCPs orientability characteristics resulting from their rigid molecular backbone and anisotropy structure in the fluid state. Orientation development takes place during melt processing of the LCP composite blends where shear as well as elongational flows occur prior to consolidation to the solid state. By proper flow control anisotropy develops and in-situ composites are obtained. Polymer composites comprising self-reinforcement by LCPs during processing induced flow, were analyzed and studied with respect to their orientation development and resultant mechanical properties. The analysis commenced with the hydrodynamics of immiscible fluids in shear and elongational flows. Based on the analysis, orientation and morphology development in capillary extrusion was studied, using a variety of thermoplastic polymer matrices like amorphous and crystalline polyamides, polycarbonate and polyester in conjunction of a naphthalene based thermotropic LCP. Based on the flow-morphology relationship the amorphous polyamide/LCP composite was further investigated as it exhibited enhanced properties. Laminated composites based on LCP/amorphous polyamide were developed composed of unidirectional extruded and drawn sheets that were subsequently compression molded. Unidirectional, +45/{minus}45 and quasi-isotropic laminates were prepared and analyzed as to their microstructure and mechanical properties.

  10. Speckle interferometric damage investigation of fibre-reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertwig, Manfred; Flemming, Torsten; Floureux, Thierry; Aebischer, Hubert A.

    1996-06-01

    With the aid of the recently reported technique of adding up phase images modulo 2π that correspond to stepwise applied load increments, the fringe density that can be achieved in electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) has been substantially improved. This technique also allows the measurement of much larger deformations than were hitherto possible with ESPI. The analytical power of the method is demonstrated in the measurement of high local displacement gradients in carbon fibre-reinforced plastics (CFRPs). In-plane and out-of-plane displacement field measurements, performed with one single optical instrument, are compared with finite-element models. This paper reports how the technique is used to detect and quantify damage in fatigued CFRP laminates via its effect on the surface displacement field. Moreover, the measured displacement fields are used to validate a finite-element damage model. The correctness of the delamination measurement is verified with the aid of ultrasonic C-scan reference results.

  11. Theory of fiber reinforced materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashin, Z.

    1972-01-01

    A unified and rational treatment of the theory of fiber reinforced composite materials is presented. Fundamental geometric and elasticity considerations are throughly covered, and detailed derivations of the effective elastic moduli for these materials are presented. Biaxially reinforced materials which take the form of laminates are then discussed. Based on the fundamentals presented in the first portion of this volume, the theory of fiber-reinforced composite materials is extended to include viscoelastic and thermoelastic properties. Thermal and electrical conduction, electrostatics and magnetostatics behavior of these materials are discussed. Finally, a brief statement of the very difficult subject of physical strength is included.

  12. The effect of acute swim stress and training in the water maze on hippocampal synaptic activity as well as plasticity in the dentate gyrus of freely moving rats: revisiting swim-induced LTP reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Tabassum, Heena; Frey, Julietta U

    2013-12-01

    Hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) is a cellular model of learning and memory. An early form of LTP (E-LTP) can be reinforced into its late form (L-LTP) by various behavioral interactions within a specific time window ("behavioral LTP-reinforcement"). Depending on the type and procedure used, various studies have shown that stress differentially affects synaptic plasticity. Under low stress, such as novelty detection or mild foot shocks, E-LTP can be transformed into L-LTP in the rat dentate gyrus (DG). A reinforcing effect of a 2-min swim, however, has only been shown in (Korz and Frey (2003) J Neurosci 23:7281-7287; Korz and Frey (2005) J Neurosci 25:7393-7400; Ahmed et al. (2006) J Neurosci 26:3951-3958; Sajikumar et al., (2007) J Physiol 584.2:389-400) so far. We have reinvestigated these studies using the same as well as an improved recording technique which allowed the recording of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSP) and the population spike amplitude (PSA) at their places of generation in freely moving rats. We show that acute swim stress led to a long-term depression (LTD) in baseline values of PSA and partially fEPSP. In contrast to earlier studies a LTP-reinforcement by swimming could never be reproduced. Our results indicate that 2-min swim stress influenced synaptic potentials as well as E-LTP negatively.

  13. Application of a novel optical fiber sensor to detection of acoustic emissions by various damages in CFRP laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qi; Yu, Fengming; Okabe, Yoji; Kobayashi, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    In this research, we applied a novel optical fiber sensor, phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating balanced sensor with high sensitivity and broad bandwidth, to acoustic emission (AE) detection in carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRPs). AE signals generated in the tensile testing of angle-ply and cross-ply CFRP laminates were both detected by the novel optical fiber sensor and traditional PZT sensors. The cumulative hits detected by both sensors coincided after applying simple data processing to eliminate the noise, and clearly exhibited Kaiser effect and Felicity effect. Typical AE signals detected by both sensors were discussed and were tried to relate to micro CFRP damages observed via microscope. These results demonstrate that this novel optical fiber sensor can reliably detect AE signals from various damages. It has the potential to be used in practical AE detection, as an alternative to the piezoelectric PZT sensor.

  14. Laminate armor and related methods

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Henry S; Lillo, Thomas M; Zagula, Thomas M

    2013-02-26

    Laminate armor and methods of manufacturing laminate armor. Specifically, laminate armor plates comprising a commercially pure titanium layer and a titanium alloy layer bonded to the commercially pure titanium outer layer are disclosed, wherein an average thickness of the titanium alloy inner layer is about four times an average thickness of the commercially pure titanium outer layer. In use, the titanium alloy layer is positioned facing an area to be protected. Additionally, roll-bonding methods for manufacturing laminate armor plates are disclosed.

  15. Modelling of the impact response of fibre-reinforced composites

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.L.; Harding, J.; Ruiz, C.

    1990-01-01

    The work carried out over the course of a three year period in three different areas is summarized. Experimental techniques for determining the impact mechanical properties of fiber reinforced epoxy laminates are studied. The experimental results obtained from the tensile, compressive and interlaminar shear properties of woven reinforced carbon/epoxy, glass/epoxy, Kevlar/epoxy and hybrid carbon-glass/epoxy laminates are analyzed. Attempts at modeling the experimentally observed behavior are described.

  16. A phenomenological intra-laminar plasticity model for FRP composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yinhua; Hou, Chi; Wang, Wenzhi; Zhao, Meiying; Wan, Xiaopeng

    2015-07-01

    The nonlinearity of fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites have significant effects on the analysis of composite structures. This article proposes a phenomenological intralaminar plasticity model to represent the nonlinearity of FRP composite materials. Based on the model presented by Ladeveze et al., the plastic potential and hardening functions are improved to give a more rational description of phenomenological nonlinearity behavior. A four-parameter hardening model is built to capture important features of the hardening curve and consequently gives the good matching of the experiments. Within the frame of plasticity theory, the detailed constitutive model, the numerical algorithm and the derivation of the tangent stiffness matrix are presented in this study to improve model robustness. This phenomenological model achieved excellent agreement between the experimental and simulation results in element scale respectively for glass fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP) and carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP). Moreover, the model is capable of simulating the nonlinear phenomenon of laminates, and good agreement is achieved in nearly all cases.

  17. Boron, graphite, glass, metal and aramid fiber reinforced plastics. January, 1973-May, 1981 (Citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association Data Base). Report for January 1973-May 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    The citations cover information about advanced reinforced composites such as boron, graphite, glass, metal, and aramid. Topics include applications, fabrication processes, proerties, nondestructive testing, and economics of composite materials. (Contains 90 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  18. Transparent polymeric laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.; Fohlen, G. M.; Sawko, P. M.

    1973-01-01

    Laminate prepared from epoxy-boroxine and phenolphthalein polycarbonate has high mechanical strength at elevated temperature and is resistant to impact, fire, and high-energy thermal radiation. Polycarbonate is prepared by reaction of phenolphthalein with phosgene in presence of amine catalyst and immiscible organic solvent phase.

  19. Numerical Investigation of the Ballistic Performance of Metal-Intermetallic Laminate Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yang; Zhu, Shifan; Guo, Chunhuan; Vecchio, Kenneth S.; Jiang, Fengchun

    2015-08-01

    Metal-intermetallic laminate composites (MIL) based on the Ti-aluminide system are a new class of lightweight structural materials that can be used as either appliqué or structural armor. The explicit 2D finite element code LS-DYNA was employed to investigate the ballistic performance and failure mechanism of MIL composite plate subjected to impact loading. For comparison's sake, the penetration simulation was also conducted for a monolithic intermetallic Al3Ti sample under the same conditions. Damage tolerant abilities of the two targets were evaluated based on the analysis of the projectile tail velocity, crack density and absorbed material energy. The simulation results indicated that when cracks initiated in the Al3Ti matrix propagated to the interface between the matrix and reinforcement, their directions changed due to the bridging effect of the reinforcement Ti, which enabled the MIL composite to consume more energy as a result of the increase of the crack path lengths created by the crack deflection and bifurcation. Additionally, some other energy-absorbing mechanisms, such as deflection of cracks, plastic deformation of the ductile Ti also play important roles in enhancing the energy-absorbing capacity of the MIL composites.

  20. Three dimensional inelastic finite element analysis of laminated composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, O. H., Jr.; Kamat, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    Formulations of the inelastic response of laminated composites to thermal and mechanical loading are used as the basis for development of the computer NALCOM (Nonlinear Analysis of Laminated Composites) computer program which uses a fully three dimensional isoparametric finite element with 24 nodes and 72 degrees of freedom. An incremental solution is performed with nonlinearities introduced as pseudoloads computed for initial strains. Equilibrium iteration may be performed at every step. Elastic and elastic-plastic response of boron/epoxy and graphite/epoxy graphite/epoxy and problems of curing 0/90 sub s Gr/Ep laminates with and without circular holes are analyzed. Mechanical loading of + or - 45sub s Gr/Ep laminates is modeled and symmetry conditions which exist in angle-ply laminates are discussed. Results are compared to experiments and other analytical models when possible. All models are seen to agree reasonably well with experimetnal results for off-axis tensile coupons. The laminate analyses show the three dimensional effects which are present near holes and free corners.